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Sample records for genital por virus

  1. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  2. Idiopathic genital ulcers in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Clark, R A; Watts, D H; Till, M; Arrastia, C; Schuman, P; Cohn, S E; Young, M; Bessen, L; Greenblatt, R; Vogler, M; Swindells, S; Boyer, P

    1996-12-01

    A national survey of investigators caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was undertaken to describe the clinical presentation of idiopathic genital ulcer disease. Patients with negative syphilis and herpes simplex testing and/or negative genital ulcer biopsy were included in this study. Study participants (n = 29) were generally severely immunocompromised (median CD4 cell count was 50/mm3, and 68% had an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining opportunistic process). Thirty-seven percent had coexistent oral ulcers and 19% had their genital ulcer progress to fistula formation (four rectovaginal and one vaginal-perineal). There was generally a favorable response to topical, systemic, and intralesional steroid treatment. This study suggests that idiopathic or probable aphthous genital ulcers in women have similar clinical characteristics to aphthous oroesophageal ulcers. Although infrequent, these genital ulcers can cause severe morbidity. Further research is warranted to better define the pathophysiology and optimal management.

  3. Genital ulcers associated with Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerdan, Kimberly; Aronson, Iris; Hernandez, Claudia; Fishman, Patricia M; Groth, John V

    2013-06-01

    Genital ulcerations are a rare clinical finding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We present the case of a 16-year-old adolescent girl who reported the onset of diarrhea, headaches, dysuria, and vaginal discharge along with vulvar ulcerations with edema. Laboratory studies revealed a high-quantitative EBV IgG and early antigen as well as a positive IgM antibody for EBV. Although the association between EBV and genital ulcerations is rare, physicians should be aware of this clinical presentation to exclude other infectious entities, to be reassured to accept negative testing, and to quell patient distress or concerns of abuse.

  4. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

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    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus-associated genital ulcers: an under-recognized disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Cheryl J; Alió, Alessandra B; Cunningham, Bari B; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2007-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is the best-known syndrome associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Although a variety of cutaneous and mucosal manifestations are recognized in infectious mononucleosis, genital ulcers have only rarely been described. We describe an otherwise healthy 14-year-old girl in whom painful genital ulcers developed during an episode of serologically-confirmed primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Clinical, serologic, and histopathologic evaluation failed to disclose evidence of any other etiologic explanation for her lesions. The patient remains well, without recurrence. To date, only 13 instances of genital ulceration in females attributable to Epstein-Barr virus infection have been reported.

  6. Case report: symptomatic oral herpes simplex virus type 2 and asymptomatic genital shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Laura; Wald, Anna

    2006-05-01

    A 42-year-old bisexual man with a history of recurrent oral herpes and no history of genital herpes was noted to have antibody to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) only. During a symptomatic oral recurrence, HSV-2 was found in a perioral lesion as well as in the genital area.

  7. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male foreskin: synergism in HIV-1 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessamine, P G; Plummer, F A; Ndinya Achola, J O; Wainberg, M A; Wamola, I; D'Costa, L J; Cameron, D W; Simonsen, J N; Plourde, P; Ronald, A R

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in Nairobi and elsewhere in Africa, have shown that men infected with HIV-1 more commonly have a history of genital ulcer disease compared to uninfected men. In one study, HIV infected men were three times as likely to have a recent history of genital ulcers. In a prospective study of seronegative men, those presenting with chancroid had a five-fold risk of seroconversion during follow-up compared to men presenting with urethritis. Uncircumcised men had an increased risk of seroconversion which was independent of their risk of genital ulcer disease. Over 95% of attributable risk in men with STD was either genital ulceration or the presence of a foreskin. Genital ulcers are a major risk factor for HIV infection among prostitutes. The increased risk is about 10-fold among prostitutes with ulcers compared to a cohort who did not. We hypothesize from these studies that genital ulcers are the major portals of entry for HIV infection and also increased shedding of virus infected cells into the vaginal secretions. HIV seropositive prostitutes are more susceptible to chancroid with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of genital ulcers as compared to HIV negative women. The use of condoms by their clients prevents both genital ulcer disease and HIV acquisition among prostitutes. Chancroid is more difficult to treat in HIV infected men with one-third of patients failing single dose treatment regimens as compared to less than five percent of men without HIV infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Trauma de genitália externa masculina causada por maquinaria

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    Marcelo Cabral Lamy de Miranda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso de trauma de genitália externa masculina causado por maquinaria tipo roçadeira com bom resultado final. O paciente J.R.A., 26 anos, trabalhador rural, apresentou evento traumático à tração de suas vestes causada por maquinaria, gerando trauma escrotal e testicular direito grau V, trauma escrotal esquerdo grau V, trauma testicular esquerdo grau II, trauma de pênis grau III, com ausência de lesão uretral. O tratamento consistiu em avaliação inicial por cirurgião geral, com posterior avaliação e conduta operatória urológica através de limpeza e desbridamento dos tecidos desvitalizados, ligadura do cordão espermático do lado direito, com introdução em subcutâneo na raiz da coxa esquerda do testículo ipsilateral preservado. Após seis meses realizou-se reconstrução da genitália pela cirurgia plástica através de técnica de colocação de retalho da coxa direita juntamente com músculo grácil. O paciente recebeu alta hospitalar no décimo dia pós-operatório, com melhora visual da estética do órgão, assim como melhora funcional, apresentando episódios de ereção durante a internação. Teve como seqüela reprodutiva azoospermia. Concluímos que em casos de trauma severo com várias lesões associadas em genitália externa masculina, deve-se optar por tratamento cirúrgico com boas perspectivas de retorno de sua função fisiológica. Descritores: genitália masculina, pênis, testículos, ferimentos e lesões, acidentes de trabalho.

  10. Therapeutic Vaccine for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Infection: Findings From a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Wald, Anna; Warren, Terri; Fife, Kenneth; Tyring, Stephen; Lee, Patricia; Van Wagoner, Nick; Magaret, Amalia; Flechtner, Jessica B; Tasker, Sybil; Chan, Jason; Morris, Amy; Hetherington, Seth

    2017-03-15

    Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes recurrent lesions and frequent viral shedding. GEN-003 is a candidate therapeutic vaccine containing HSV-2 gD2∆TMR and ICP4.2, and Matrix-M2 adjuvant. Persons with genital herpes were randomized into 3 dose cohorts to receive 3 intramuscular doses 21 days apart of 10 µg, 30 µg, or 100 µg of GEN-003, antigens without adjuvant, or placebo. Participants obtained genital swab specimens twice daily for HSV-2 detection and monitored genital lesions for 28-day periods at baseline and at intervals after the last dose. One hundred and thirty-four persons received all 3 doses. Reactogenicity was associated with adjuvant but not with antigen dose or dose number. No serious adverse events were attributed to GEN-003. Compared with baseline, genital HSV-2 shedding rates immediately after dosing were reduced with GEN-003 (from 13.4% to 6.4% for 30 μg [P < .001] and from 15.0% to 10.3% for 100 µg [P < .001]). Lesion rates were also significantly (P < .01) reduced immediately following immunization with 30 µg or 100 µg of GEN-003. GEN-003 elicited increases in antigen binding, virus neutralizing antibody, and T-cell responses. GEN-003 had an acceptable safety profile and stimulated humoral and cellular immune responses. GEN-003 at doses of 30 µg and 100 µg reduced genital HSV shedding and lesion rates. NCT01667341 (funded by Genocea).

  11. Condom use prevents genital ulcers in women working as prostitutes. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Ronald, A R; Simonsen, J N; Braddick, M; Bosire, M; Kimata, J; Kamala, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Waiyaki, P G

    1991-01-01

    Control of genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a proposed intervention to slow the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should focus on groups of high-frequency transmitters, such as prostitutes and their clientele. This study illustrates the interaction between the prevalence of chancroid, use of barrier prophylaxis against STDs, and HIV infection in a population of female prostitutes in Nairobi. Four hundred and twenty three women were evaluated. Despite the increased use of condoms, the prevalence of genital ulcers remained constant between 1986-87 and 1987-88. Genital ulcer disease was simultaneously associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.7, P less than .01) whereas it was independently and inversely associated with more consistent condom use (P less than .01). The authors conclude that genital ulcer disease can be controlled in these populations but concurrent HIV infection increases the difficulty of this intervention.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion in women with genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, P J; Pepin, J; Agoki, E; Ronald, A R; Ombette, J; Tyndall, M; Cheang, M; Ndinya-Achola, J O; D'Costa, L J; Plummer, F A

    1994-08-01

    Genital ulcers are implicated as a risk factor enhancing susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. A prospective study to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with acquisition of HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers was done. HIV-1-seronegative women with genital ulcers attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi were followed to HIV-1 seroconversion over a 6-month period. Of 81 women, 10 seroconverted to HIV-1. The crude 6-month incidence of HIV-1 infection was 12%. Risk factors associated with seroconversion included cervical ectopy (rate ratio [RR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-15.6) and pelvic inflammatory disease (RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-20.4). Thus, cervical ectopy and pelvic inflammatory disease may increase susceptibility to HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers.

  13. Abordaje de lesiones por pénfigo ampolloso en prolapso genital

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    Olga Barredo González

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades bullosas o ampollares comprenden un grupo heterogéneo de cuadros cuya lesión elemental común es la ampolla. Los pénfigos y los penfigoides pertenecen al grupo de las enfermedades bullosas de origen autoinmunitario. El prolapso genital es el descenso o desplazamiento de los órganos pélvicos, a través de la vagina y en dirección a la vulva, que se produce como consecuencia del fallo de sus elementos de suspensión y sustentación así como la inervación y musculatura del sistema urinario e intestinal. En este caso presentamos nuestra experiencia en el manejo y tratamiento tópico de lesiones por pénfigo ampolloso en prolapso visceropélvico total que dificultaban la cirugía.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and female lower genital tract malignancy.

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    Kuhn, L; Sun, X W; Wright, T C

    1999-02-01

    The risk of lower genital tract neoplasia is increased in women infected with HIV. This has been best demonstrated in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but has also been observed in vulvar and perianal intraepithelial lesions in some studies. Alterations in the prevalence and natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the lower genital tract appear to account for much of the increase. HIV-infected women are approximately four times more likely to be infected with human papillomavirus (including infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types) than are HIV-uninfected women, and these infections are more likely to be persistent. Human papilomavirus-associated lesions may be more difficult to treat in HIV-infected women. These data highlight the need to develop effective cervical cancer prevention programs for HIV-infected women.

  15. Infecciones respiratorias por virus emergentes

    OpenAIRE

    García García , Mª Luz

    2008-01-01

    El trabajo motivo de esta Tesis fue diseñado para aportar información acerca de la circulación en España de los virus respiratorios emergentes, rinovirus, metapneumovirus y bocavirus así como de su comportamiento clínico-epidemiológico. Con la finalidad de mejorar el diagnóstico de las infecciones respiratorias graves en el niño hemos planteado un trabajo clínico y de laboratorio, que amplíe el conocimiento de la etiología, las manifestaciones clínicas y epidemiológicas de los virus respir...

  16. Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from genital ulcers in Nairobi prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, J K; Coombs, R; Plummer, F; Holmes, K K; Nikora, B; Cameron, W; Ngugi, E; Ndinya Achola, J O; Corey, L

    1989-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have implicated genital/anorectal ulcer disease as an important cofactor for acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during sexual intercourse. To better understand the mechanism for the association between genital ulcers and HIV, exudates from 62 genital ulcers of 56 HIV-seropositive prostitutes in Nairobi (Kenya) were cultured for HIV. Twenty-six ulcer cultures could not be evaluated for the presence of HIV because of bacterial or fungal contamination. HIV was isolated from 4 (11%) of the 36 remaining uncontaminated ulcer cultures (2 introital, 1 vaginal, and 1 cervical) from 4 separate women. HIV was isolated from the cervical os from only 2 of the 4 women. HIV p24 antigen was detected in exudate from 1 of the 4 culture-positive ulcers and 0 of 32 culture-negative ulcers. Genital ulcers in seropositive patients should be regarded as potential sources of HIV, which could be important in transmission of HIV during intercourse. Public health measures aimed at controlling sexually transmitted genital ulcer diseases should be an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs.

  17. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  18. Genital ulcers associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection (ulcus vulvae acutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárdy, Miklós; Wollenberg, Andreas; Niedermeier, Andrea; Flaig, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may rarely be associated with genital ulcers (ulcus vulvae acutum), a very painful manifestation. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. We describe here a case of an adolescent virgin with multiple, deep genital ulcers associated with acute infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis was supported by the clinical symptoms, atypical lymphocytosis, elevated circulating levels of liver enzymes, positive EBV serology, and the detection of EBV in a swab sample and a biopsy specimen by PCR. The virus could not be detected by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization. After a short course of methylprednisolone as a supportive treatment, the ulcers healed within one month. No relapse occurred during the 2-year follow-up. Available data relating to the aetiopathogenesis of this condition are reviewed, and we speculate that it may have been caused by percutaneous autoinoculation through cervicovaginal fluid.

  19. REPARACIÓN DEL PISO PÉLVICO EN PROLAPSO GENITAL COMPLETO POR VÍA LAPAROSCÓPICA

    OpenAIRE

    Quilaqueo B.,Marco

    2005-01-01

    Se presenta la experiencia inicial de 7 pacientes que fueron intervenidas por vía laparoscópica, portadoras de prolapso genital moderado y severo, en quienes se logró una reparación del piso pélvico utilizando una malla de polipropilen. En las 7 pacientes se logró un buen resultado anatómico y sin complicaciones quirúrgicas. Se corrigieron los defectos del compartimiento anterior y posterior. Es una técnica factible de realizar por vía laparoscópica y que corresponde fielmente a la vía alta a...

  20. Etiology of genital ulcers and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in 10 US cities. The Genital Ulcer Disease Surveillance Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Trees, D; Levine, W C; Lewis, J S; Litchfield, B; Pettus, K S; Morse, S A; St Louis, M E; Weiss, J B; Schwebke, J; Dickes, J; Kee, R; Reynolds, J; Hutcheson, D; Green, D; Dyer, I; Richwald, G A; Novotny, J; Weisfuse, I; Goldberg, M; O'Donnell, J A; Knaup, R

    1998-12-01

    To determine the etiology of genital ulcers and to assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in ulcer patients in 10 US cities, ulcer and serum specimens were collected from approximately 50 ulcer patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in each city. Ulcer specimens were tested using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay to detect Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV); sera were tested for antibody to HIV. H. ducreyi was detected in ulcer specimens from patients in Memphis (20% of specimens) and Chicago (12%). T. pallidum was detected in ulcer specimens from every city except Los Angeles (median, 9% of specimens; range, 0%-46%). HSV was detected in >/=50% of specimens from all cities except Memphis (42%). HIV seroprevalence in ulcer patients was 6% (range by city, 0%-18%). These data suggest that chancroid is prevalent in some US cities and that persons with genital ulcers should be a focus of HIV prevention activities.

  1. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection—an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy. PMID:24885431

  2. El estado del arte en las infecciones producidas por el virus del papiloma humano

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Reina; Nubia Muñoz; Gloria Inés Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    La infección anogenital por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) es la infección de transmisión sexual más frecuente en todo el mundo. En los humanos se han identificado alrededor de 100 genotipos de los cuales unos 40 infectan la región ano-genital. Los 15 genotipos de alto riesgo, son causa necesaria del cáncer cervical y han sido implicados como agentes carcinogénicos de la vulva, vagina, pene, ano y región orofaríngea. Los VPH de bajo riesgo producen las verrugas genitales (condilomas) y la...

  3. Pathogenic microbial flora of genital ulcers in Sheffield with particular reference to herpes simplex virus and Haemophilus ducreyi.

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    Kinghorn, G R; Hafiz, S; McEntegart, M G

    1982-12-01

    The pathogenic microbial flora of genital ulcers in 161 (80 men and 81 women) unselected patients was studied prospectively. In only one case was Treponema pallidum responsible whereas herpes simplex virus was considered to be the cause of 130 (80.8%) genital ulcers. H ducreyi was isolated from 46 (28.6%) patients, most commonly as a secondary pathogen in herpetic lesions. Two or more pathogens were isolated from the ulcers in 67 (41.6%) patients, and in 21 (13%) patients no pathogens were isolated. Our results indicate an urgent need for antiviral treatment to reduce the local reservoir of genital herpes, challenge traditional concepts about the prevalence of H ducreyi in Britain, and call for a reappraisal of its role in the causation of genital ulcers.

  4. Genital ulcers: etiology, clinical diagnosis, and associated human immunodeficiency virus infection in Kingston, Jamaica.

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    Behets, F M; Brathwaite, A R; Hylton-Kong, T; Chen, C Y; Hoffman, I; Weiss, J B; Morse, S A; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S; Figueroa, J P

    1999-05-01

    Individuals presenting consecutively with genital ulcers in Kingston, Jamaica, underwent serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, chlamydial infection, and syphilis. Ulcer material was analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) analysis. DNA from herpes simplex virus (HSV), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Treponema pallidum was detected in 158 (52.0%), 72 (23.7%), and 31 (10.2%) of 304 ulcer specimens. Of the 304 subjects, 67 (22%) were HIV-seropositive and 64 (21%) were T. pallidum-seroreactive. Granuloma inguinale was clinically diagnosed in nine (13.4%) of 67 ulcers negative by M-PCR analysis and in 12 (5.1%) of 237 ulcers positive by M-PCR analysis (P = .03). Lymphogranuloma venereum was clinically diagnosed in eight patients. Compared with M-PCR analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, and chancroid were 67.7%, 53.8%, and 75% and 91.2%, 83.6%, and 75.4%, respectively. Reactive syphilis serology was 74% sensitive and 85% specific compared with M-PCR analysis. Reported contact with a prostitute in the preceding 3 months was associated with chancroid (P = .009), reactive syphilis serology (P = .011), and HIV infection (P = .007). The relatively poor accuracy of clinical and locally available laboratory diagnoses pleads for syndromic management of genital ulcers in Jamaica. Prevention efforts should be intensified.

  5. Genital ulcers as initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection: two new cases and a review of the literature.

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    Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Brevig, Trine; Aas, Torkild; Skar, Anne Grete; Slevolden, Ellen Margrethe; Moi, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Genital ulceration is an uncommon manifestation of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We present here two cases of genital ulcers probably caused by EBV. The first case is a 12-year-old girl with a genital ulcer appearing before specific EBV serology could identify a primary infection. However, serology was positive 13 days after the ulcer appeared. Polymerase chain reaction for EBV was positive in the biopsy from the ulcer as well. The second case is an 18-year-old female in whom the specific EBV serology was positive 8 days after appearance of the ulcer. The ulcers in both cases healed after 21 days. We reviewed the literature and a total of 26 cases of EBV-associated genital ulcers in females are now published. Median age of the 26 cases is 14.5 years of whom only 6 reports previous sexual contact. Mean healing time for the ulcers is 18 days. Our two cases correspond well with clinical reports of 24 EBV-associated genital ulcers in the literature.

  6. Quantitation of Genital Herpes Virus DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction and ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Peihua(程培华)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To detect and quantitate genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in specimens from 100 patients clinically diagnosed with genital herpes.Methods: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used with a standard curve of DNA copies of HSV as quantitative contrast.Results: Ninety-three cases were confirmed HSV positive and 7 cases were found to be negative. There were 58 cases of HSV-2 (62.4%) and 35 cases of HSV-1 (37.6%) among the 93 positive cases. The number of DNA plasmids ranged from 115 to 1.1×105 per 250μL among the 93 positive samples (mean =7.1×104/250μL). The number of HSV DNA plasmids ranged from 136 to 1.1×105 copies per 250μL (mean =7.6×104) among those with HSV-2, and 115 to 9.4×104 per 250μL (mean =6.3×104) among those with HSV-1. Meanwhile 10μL of extracted and dissolved DNA randomly taken from 8 each of HSV-2 and HSV-1 samples were tested. The number of HSV-2 DNA plasmids ranged from 35 copies to 2.7×104 (Mean =1.8×104) and the number of HSV-1 DNA ranged from 29 to 2.5×104 (Mean = 1.6×104). In the 7 negative cases, the quantity of HSV plasmids was zero.Conclusion: The sensitivity of ELISA quantitation (93%) is equal to that of Southern blot. The sensitivity of PCR for diagnosis is 91%, and 88% for PCR typing.

  7. An investigation of genital ulcers in Jackson, Mississippi, with use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay: high prevalence of chancroid and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Weiss, J B; Webb, R M; Levine, W C; Lewis, J S; Orle, K A; Totten, P A; Overbaugh, J; Morse, S A; Currier, M M; Fishbein, M; St Louis, M E

    1998-10-01

    In 1994, an apparent outbreak of atypical genital ulcers was noted by clinicians at the sexually transmitted disease clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Of 143 patients with ulcers tested with a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, 56 (39%) were positive for Haemophilus ducreyi, 44 (31%) for herpes simplex virus, and 27 (19%) for Treponema pallidum; 12 (8%) were positive for > 1 organism. Of 136 patients tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by serology, 14 (10%) were HIV-seropositive, compared with none of 200 patients without ulcers (P genital ulcers and HIV infection in this population highlights the urgency of preventing genital ulcers in the southern United States.

  8. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  9. Genital and extra-genital screening for gonorrhoea using the BD Probetec ET system with an in-house PCR method targeting the porA pseudogene as confirmatory test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Sissel; Larsen, Helle Kiellberg; Sand, Carsten;

    2012-01-01

    for Chlamydia trachomatis testing were also examined for GC on the BD Viper™ platform using the BD Probetec ET system. In order to avoid false-positive results all GC BD reactive samples were re-tested using a PCR method with the porA pseudogene as target. Using this method we screened 170% more samples for GC...... than in the previous year, in the same population, and diagnosed more than twice as many GC-positive episodes. The BD system can be used successfully to screen extra-genital as well as genital specimen types for GC in a low-prevalence area if it is combined with a validated confirmatory PCR test....

  10. Human Herpes Virus Type 2 (HSV2), Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the Male Genital Tract and Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Courtot Anne Marie; Pallier Coralie; Testart Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of infection of the human male genital tract by human herpes virus type 2 (HSV2) or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is well established and their sexual transmission has been the object of many studies. Moreover, medically assisted procreation, which helps in numerous fertility problems, raises the question of new viral risks linked to the application of these new technologies. In this review, we shall consider current knowledge in terms of the presence of HSV2 and HCMV in the different parts of the genital tract of immunocompetent or immunodepressed men. We shall also consider the possibility of viral transmission by the sexual act or by the various techniques used in medically assisted procreation. We shall describe studies in human beings and in animals.

  11. Herpes simplex virus type 2, genital ulcers and HIV-1 disease progression in postpartum women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison C Roxby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 has been associated with increased HIV-1 RNA levels and immune activation, two predictors of HIV-1 progression. The impact of HSV-2 on clinical outcomes among HIV-1 infected pregnant women is unclear. METHODS: HIV-1 infected pregnant women in Nairobi were enrolled antenatally and HSV-2 serology was obtained. HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count were serially measured for 12-24 months postpartum. Survival analysis using endpoints of death, opportunistic infection (OI, and CD4<200 cells µL, and linear mixed models estimating rate of change of HIV-1 RNA and CD4, were used to determine associations between HSV-2 serostatus and HIV-1 progression. RESULTS: Among 296 women, 254 (86% were HSV-2-seropositive. Only 30 (10% women had prior or current genital ulcer disease (GUD; median baseline CD4 count was 422 cells µL. Adjusting for baseline CD4, women with GUD were significantly more likely to have incident OIs (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.33-5.85, and there was a trend for association between HSV-2-seropositivity and incident OIs (aHR 3.83, 95% CI: 0.93-15.83. Rate of change in CD4 count and HIV-1 RNA did not differ by HSV-2 status or GUD, despite a trend toward higher baseline HIV-1 RNA in HSV-2-seropositive women (4.73 log10 copies/ml vs. 4.47 log10 copies/ml, P = 0.07. CONCLUSIONS: HSV-2 was highly prevalent and pregnant HIV-1 infected women with GUD were significantly more likely to have incident OIs than women without GUD, suggesting that clinically evident HSV-2 is a more important predictor of HIV-1 disease progression than asymptomatic HSV-2.

  12. El estado del arte en las infecciones producidas por el virus del papiloma humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Reina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La infección anogenital por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH es la infección de transmisión sexual más frecuente en todo el mundo. En los humanos se han identificado alrededor de 100 genotipos de los cuales unos 40 infectan la región ano-genital. Los 15 genotipos de alto riesgo, son causa necesaria del cáncer cervical y han sido implicados como agentes carcinogénicos de la vulva, vagina, pene, ano y región orofaríngea. Los VPH de bajo riesgo producen las verrugas genitales (condilomas y la papilomatosis respiratoria recurrente en hombres y mujeres. Se calcula que unas 300 millones de mujeres en el mundo portan la infección por VPH. El advenimiento de las vacunas profilácticas contra el VPH representa una estrategia prometedora en la prevención de las enfermedades relacionadas con este virus.

  13. Condilomatosis genital y embarazo asociada a corioamnionitis y parto prematuro Genital condylomatosis and pregnancy associated with chorioamnionitis and premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martínez Montero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los condilomas genitales están producidos por el virus del papiloma humano. En muchas ocasiones se asocian a otras infecciones genitales (hongos, tricomonas y vaginosis. El embarazo favorece la aparición de condilomas en la región anogenital. A propósito de un caso de condilomatosis genital asociada a corioamnionitis y que desencadenó un parto prematuro realizamos una revisión de la literatura.Genital condylomas are produced by the human papilloma virus. On many occasions they are associated with other genital infections (fungi, trichomonas and vaginosis. Pregnancy favours the appearance of condylomas in the anogenital region. On the occasion of a case of genital condylomatosis associated with chorioamnionitis that resulted in a premature delivery, we carry out a review the literature.

  14. Susceptibility of herpes simplex virus isolated from genital herpes lesions to ASP2151, a novel helicase-primase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Weinberg, Adriana; Chono, Koji; Takakura, Shoji; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    ASP2151 (amenamevir) is a helicase-primase inhibitor against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus. To evaluate the anti-HSV activity of ASP2151, susceptibility testing was performed on viruses isolated from patients participating in a placebo- and valacyclovir-controlled proof-of-concept phase II study for recurrent genital herpes. A total of 156 HSV strains were isolated prior to the dosing of patients, and no preexisting variants with less susceptibility to ASP2151 or acyclovir (ACV) were detected. ASP2151 inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication with mean 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) of 0.043 and 0.069 μM, whereas ACV exhibited mean EC(50)s of 2.1 and 3.2 μM, respectively. Notably, the susceptibilities of HSV isolates to ASP2151 and ACV were not altered after dosing with the antiviral agents. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ASP2151 inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates more potently than ACV, and HSV resistant to this novel helicase-primase inhibitor as well as ACV may not easily emerge in short-term treatment for recurrent genital herpes patients.

  15. Genital ulcers associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, P D; Diallo, M O; Ettiègne-Traoré, V; Yeboué, K M; Gnaoré, E; Lorougnon, F; Kalé, K; Van Dyck, E; Brettegaard, K; Hoyi, Y M

    1995-11-01

    A cross-sectional study among female sex workers in Abidjan was conducted to study the association between sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HIV-related immunosuppression. Among 1209 women tested for HIV, 962 (80%) were seropositive. HIV infection was independently associated with a longer duration of sex work, a lower price for intercourse, being an immigrant, and having a positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (P vaginalis (27% vs. 17%), and syphilis (27% vs. 17%) were more frequent (P 28%, 14%-28%, and < 14% CD4 cells, respectively (P < .001). This study suggests that genital ulcers are an opportunistic disease in female sex workers in Abidjan.

  16. Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in tissue culture fluid and in genital secretions by the spermicide benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainberg, M A; Spira, B; Bleau, G; Thomas, R

    1990-01-01

    We have shown that the spermicidal agent benzalkonium chloride can exert a direct inhibitory effect on the viral reverse transcriptase activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) when utilized at concentrations of 0.05% and higher. Exposure of HIV-1 to this disinfectant at concentrations of more than 0.05% was able to completely destroy viral infectivity, as assessed on susceptible target cells. We have further shown that HIV-1, which is present in both seminal and genital secretions, can be inactivated in such fluids by direct exposure to benzalkonium chloride. PMID:1688873

  17. Infección por virus West Nile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Sanbonmatsu Gámez, Sara; Ángel Jiménez Clavero, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    ... por virus West Nile Mercedes Pérez Ruiz a, *, Sara Sanbonmatsu Gámez a y Miguel Ángel Jiménez Clavero b a Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Gr...

  18. Comparison of Washing and Swabbing Procedures for Collecting Genital Fluids To Assess Cervicovaginal Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Ozouaki, Francis; Legoff, Jérôme; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Onas, Isabelle Ndombi; Avoune, Evelyne; Bélec, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Asymptomatic genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) DNA was evidenced by real-time PCR in 25 (13.2%) of 188 cervicovaginal lavage samples and in only 13 (6.9%) paired cervicovaginal samples from 188 HSV-2-seropositive, nonpregnant childbearing-aged human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative women living in Gabon. These observations demonstrate that cervicovaginal washing is more suitable than endocervicovaginal swabbing for detecting and quantifying HSV-2 DNA by PCR in female genital secretions. PMID:12791898

  19. Health-related quality of life in Indian patients with three viral sexually transmitted infections: herpes simplex virus-2, genital human papilloma virus and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Rama; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Mehta, Manju; Gupta, Somesh

    2011-04-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been studied in Indian patients with viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs): herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and genital human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. Furthermore, there is no reported study that compares HRQOL among these two viral STIs and HIV. All consenting adults with any of the three viral infections attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. HRQOL was evaluated using the WHOQOL-BREF instrument, which evaluates QOL under physical, psychological, social and environmental domains. Data concerning demographic and socioeconomic status were collected. There were 65 (27.3%), 60 (25.2%) and 53 (22.3%) patients with HIV, HSV-2 and HPV, respectively, and 25 (10.5%) patients with mixed infections. The WHOQOL-BREF scores of patients in different STI groups were significantly lower than those of controls. The total HRQOL scores (mean±SD) were 280.1±83.56 (among controls), 196.9±72.41 (genital HPV), 141.0±50.50 (HSV-2), 101.0±75.25 (HIV) and 103.4±47.23(mixed infection groups). Mean HRQOL scores were lowest in the physical and psychological domains. HRQOL scores were least in HIV and mixed infections groups, while patients with genital HPV infection had significantly better HRQOL scores compared to other patient groups. Higher education and socioeconomic status had a positive influence on HRQOL. Viral STIs were associated with a significant reduction in HRQOL scores. Among patient groups, the greatest impact on HRQOL was seen in those with HIV and mixed infections and the least impact seen in those with genital HPV infection. Comprehensive care including counselling services need to be implemented in STI clinics.

  20. Simultaneous PCR detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orle, K A; Gates, C A; Martin, D H; Body, B A; Weiss, J B

    1996-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay with colorimetric detection was devised for the simultaneous amplification of DNA targets from Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. By using target-specific oligonucleotides in a microwell format, 298 genital ulcer swab specimens collected in New Orleans during three intervals from 1992 through 1994 were evaluated. The results of the M-PCR assay were compared with the results of dark-field microscopy and H. ducreyi culture on two different culture media. HSV culture results were available for 99 specimens collected during the third interval. Confirmatory PCR assays targeting different gene sequences for each of the three organisms were used to validate the M-PCR results. Specimens were resolved as positive for the determination of sensitivity if the reference diagnostic test was positive or if the results of both the M-PCR and the confirmatory PCR were positive. The resolved sensitivities of M-PCR for HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum were 100, 98.4, and 91%, respectively. The resolved sensitivities of HSV culture, H. ducreyi culture, and dark-field microscopy were 71.8, 74.2, and 81%, respectively. These results indicate that the M-PCR assay is more sensitive than standard diagnostic tests for the detection of HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum from genital ulcers.

  1. Herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Dhankani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA and singular value decomposition (SVD to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density.

  2. Genital Warts and Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia: Natural History and Effects of Treatment and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, L. Stewart; Xie, Xianhong; Darragh, Teresa; Minkoff, Howard; Levine, Alexandra M.; Watts, D. Heather; Wright, Rodney L.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the natural history of genital warts and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods A cohort of 2,791 HIV infected and 953 uninfected women followed for up to 13 years had genital examinations at 6-month intervals, with biopsy for lesions suspicious for VIN. Results The prevalence of warts was 4.4% (5.3% for HIV seropositive women and 1.9% for seronegative women, P warts was 33% (95% C.I. 30, 36%) in HIV seropositive and 9% (95% C.I. 6, 12%) in seronegative women (P warts. Among 501 HIV seropositive and 43 seronegative women, warts regressed in 410 (82%) seropositive and 41 (95%) seronegative women (P = 0.02), most in the first year after diagnosis. In multivariable analysis, regression was negatively associated with HIV status and lower CD4 count as well as older age. Incident VIN of any grade occurred more frequently among HIV seropositive than seronegative women: 0.42 (0.33 – 0.53) vs 0.07 (0.02 – 0.18)/100 person-years (P warts and VIN are more common among HIV seropositive than seronegative women, wart regression is common even in women with HIV, and cancers are infrequent. PMID:21934446

  3. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Marie R. Roger; Anstead, Gregory M.

    2017-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minim...

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Status Differentially Associated With Genital and Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Hu, Yifei; Carlucci, James G; Yin, Lu; Li, Xiangwei; Giuliano, Anna R; Li, Dongliang; Gao, Lei; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H

    2017-06-28

    Little is known about human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and genotypes when considering both anatomic site and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status among men who have sex with men (MSM) in low- and middle-income countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. HIV serostatus was determined, and genital and anal HPV genotyping were performed from respective swabs. Of 1155 MSM, 817 (70.7%) had testing for genital (611; 52.9%) and/or anal (671; 58.1%) HPV. Preference for insertive anal sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-4.75) and syphilis (aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.01-2.23) were associated with genital HPV. Inconsistent condom use during receptive anal sex (aOR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.17-2.84), and HIV seropositivity (aOR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.91-4.42) were associated with anal HPV. Among 465 (40.3%) MSM with specimens from both anatomic sites, anal HPV (68%) was more common than genital HPV (37.8%). Prevalence of anal HPV was higher among HIV-infected than uninfected MSM (P anal site of HIV-infected MSM (P Anal HPV was more common than genital HPV, and HIV seropositivity was associated with oncogenic HPV types at the anal site.

  5. Enfermedad por el virus Ébola medidas de bioseguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattia Bucknor Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus Ébola representa el patógeno prototipo de fiebre hemorrágica viral, causando una enfermedad severa de alta tasa de mortalidad. Esta alta mortalidad, combinada con la ausencia de vacunación y de un tratamiento específico, hace que el virus Ébola sea un patógeno importante para la salud pública. La fiebre hemorrágica de Ébola se cree es una zoonosis con persistencia del virus en especies de reservorios encontrados en áreas endémicas. A pesar de todos los esfuerzos realizados en cada brote para identificar los reservorios naturales no se conocen los huéspedes potenciales ni los artrópodos vectores. El manejo de los casos está basado en el aislamiento de los pacientes y en el uso de barreras de aislamiento, tales como ropa e implementos de protección como respiradores. Debido a su rápida propagación la OMS declaró que la enfermedad por el virus Ébola representa una emergencia de salud pública más allá de las fronteras y exhortó a la comunidad internacional a tomar las acciones necesarias para detener la epidemia.

  6. Anti-gp120 minibody gene transfer to female genital epithelial cells protects against HIV-1 virus challenge in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ussama M Abdel-Motal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cervico-vaginal epithelial cells of the female lower genital tract provide the initial defense system against HIV-1 infection, the protection is sometimes incomplete. Thus, enhancing anti-HIV-1 humoral immunity at the mucosal cell surface by local expression of anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAb that block HIV-1 entry would provide an important new intervention that could slow the spread of HIV/AIDS. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study tested the hypothesis that adeno-associated virus (AAV-BnAb gene transfer to cervico-vaginal epithelial cells will lead to protection against HIV-1. Accordingly, a recombinant AAV vector that encodes human b12 anti-HIV gp120 BnAb as a single-chain variable fragment Fc fusion (scFvFc, or "minibody" was constructed. The secreted b12 minibody was shown to be biologically functional in binding to virus envelope protein, neutralizing HIV-1 and importantly, blocking transfer and infectivity of HIV-1(bal in an organotypic human vaginal epithelial cell (VEC model. Furthermore, cervico-vaginal epithelial stem cells were found to be efficiently transduced by the optimal AAV serotype mediated expression of GFP. CONCLUSION: This study provides the foundation for a novel microbicide strategy to protect against sexual transmission of HIV-1 by AAV transfer of broadly neutralizing antibody genes to cervico-vaginal epithelial stem cells that could replenish b12 BnAb secreting cells through multiple menstrual cycles.

  7. A live-attenuated HSV-2 ICP0 virus elicits 10 to 100 times greater protection against genital herpes than a glycoprotein D subunit vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P Halford

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein D (gD-2 is the entry receptor of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2, and is the immunogen in the pharmaceutical industry's lead HSV-2 vaccine candidate. Efforts to prevent genital herpes using gD-2 subunit vaccines have been ongoing for 20 years at a cost in excess of $100 million. To date, gD-2 vaccines have yielded equivocal protection in clinical trials. Therefore, using a small animal model, we sought to determine if a live-attenuated HSV-2 ICP0⁻ virus would elicit better protection against genital herpes than a gD-2 subunit vaccine. Mice immunized with gD-2 and a potent adjuvant (alum+monophosphoryl lipid A produced high titers of gD-2 antibody. While gD-2-immunized mice possessed significant resistance to HSV-2, only 3 of 45 gD-2-immunized mice survived an overwhelming challenge of the vagina or eyes with wild-type HSV-2 (MS strain. In contrast, 114 of 115 mice immunized with a live HSV-2 ICP0⁻ virus, 0ΔNLS, survived the same HSV-2 MS challenges. Likewise, 0ΔNLS-immunized mice shed an average 125-fold less HSV-2 MS challenge virus per vagina relative to gD-2-immunized mice. In vivo imaging demonstrated that a luciferase-expressing HSV-2 challenge virus failed to establish a detectable infection in 0ΔNLS-immunized mice, whereas the same virus readily infected naïve and gD-2-immunized mice. Collectively, these results suggest that a HSV-2 vaccine might be more likely to prevent genital herpes if it contained a live-attenuated HSV-2 virus rather than a single HSV-2 protein.

  8. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Marie R; Anstead, Gregory M

    2017-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement. Based on the previous activity of leflunomide, which has both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections, leflunomide 20 mg orally twice daily was started. The patient received 23 days of foscarnet, 14 days of topical imiquimod, and 11 days of leflunomide with approximately 80% reduction in the size of the perineal lesion. After nine months on leflunomide there was complete regression of the large perineal lesion and only two small ulcerations remained on the scrotum. Pseudotumoral herpes lesions in HIV patients represent an immune reconstitution event and are poorly responsive to the usual anti-herpes agents. This report demonstrates the successful use of leflunomide in the treatment of an HIV patient with pseudotumoral herpes. Thalidomide has also been used with some success.

  9. Chronic ulcerating genital herpes simplex virus infection: A diagnosis mislead by HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Parajuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of chronic herpes simplex in a 27 year old lady presenting with a history of persistent verrucous ulcer in the natal cleft of nine months duration. The patient was diagnosed and treated initially as a case of Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis (TVC based on the chronicity of the ulcer, negative HIV serological tests and histopathological findings. The diagnosis had to be revised as the lesion was increasing in size and the patient was not responding to treatment even after completing antituberculous treatment for six months. Repeat histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry showed DNA of herpes simplex. Based on this finding a repeat HIV serology was sent which was positive. The ulcer healed after a course of acyclovir. The case is being reported to highlight the importance of considering chronic herpes simplex infection in a case of chronic genital ulcer. In addition this case reminds us the nature of HIV infection to mislead the diagnosis by altering the natural course of the disease process.

  10. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie R. Roger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement. Based on the previous activity of leflunomide, which has both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections, leflunomide 20 mg orally twice daily was started. The patient received 23 days of foscarnet, 14 days of topical imiquimod, and 11 days of leflunomide with approximately 80% reduction in the size of the perineal lesion. After nine months on leflunomide there was complete regression of the large perineal lesion and only two small ulcerations remained on the scrotum. Pseudotumoral herpes lesions in HIV patients represent an immune reconstitution event and are poorly responsive to the usual anti-herpes agents. This report demonstrates the successful use of leflunomide in the treatment of an HIV patient with pseudotumoral herpes. Thalidomide has also been used with some success.

  11. Immunization with a dominant-negative recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV type 1 protects against HSV-2 genital disease in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brans Richard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CJ9-gD is a novel dominant-negative recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 that is completely replication-defective, cannot establish detectable latent infection in vivo, and expresses high levels of the major HSV-1 antigen glycoprotein D immediately following infection. In the present study, CJ9-gD was evaluated as a vaccine against HSV-2 genital infection in guinea pigs. Results Animals immunized with CJ9-gD developed at least 700-fold higher titers of HSV-2-specific neutralization antibodies than mock-immunized controls. After challenge with wild-type HSV-2, all 10 control guinea pigs developed multiple genital lesions with an average of 21 lesions per animal. In contrast, only 2 minor lesions were found in 2 of 8 CJ9-gD-immunized animals, representing a 40-fold reduction on the incidence of primary genital lesions in immunized animals (p Conclusions Collectively, we demonstrate that vaccination with the HSV-1 recombinant CJ9-gD elicits strong and protective immune responses against primary and recurrent HSV-2 genital disease and significantly reduces the extent of latent infection.

  12. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van de Perre Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492 among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273 among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2% experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population.

  13. Detection of Treponema pallidum, Herpes Simplex Virus, and Haemophilus ducreyi from Genital Ulcers by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周华; 傅笑冰; 熊礼宽; 杨帆; 洪福昌; 曾序春; 董时富

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of multiplex PCR in the detection of Treponema pallidum, Herpes simplex virus (HSV), and Haemophilus ducreyi. Method: Three standard strains were used to set up a multiplex PCR (MPCR) for detecting syphilis, herpes genitalis, and chancroid simultaneously. Samples from 122 patients with genital ulcer disease(GUD) were subjected to MPCR and the results were compared with these of dark-fidd microscopy and TP serology, HSV anligen ELISA,and H. ducreyi culture, Result: In the 122 patients with GUD, MPCR identified 34 casesof T.pallidum infection, 40 cases of HSV infection, and 2 cases of mixed infection of T.pallidum and herpes. No positive results of H. ducreyi were found. The sensitivity of MPCR to T. pallidum and herpes was 100% and 93.3%, respectivdy. The sensitivities of dark-field microscopy and TP serology, HSV antigen ELISA, and H. ducreyi culture was 35.3%, 50% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: MPCR showed a relatively higher sensitivity for T.pallidum as compared with the routine techniques. Although its sensitivity for HSV was not as good as that of antigen ELISA, it also yielde da high detection rate. MPCR can detect more than one pathogen. It is simple, quick, sensitive, and suitable for clinical use or epidemiological investigation.

  14. Nonspecific genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Recent intervention of nonspecific genital ulcers has added refreshing dimensions to genital ulcer disease. It was considered pertinent to dwell on diverse clinical presentation and diagnostic strategies. It seems to possess spectrum. It includes infective causes, Epstein Bar Virus, tuberculosis, Leishmaniasis, HIV/AIDS related ulcers and amoebiasis. Noninfective causes are immunobullous disorders, aphthosis, Behcet's disease (BD), inflammatory bowel disease, lichen planus and lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, drug reactions, premalignant and malignant conditions, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa. The diagnostic features and treatment option of each disorder are succinctly outlined for ready reference.

  15. Genital injuries in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these.

  16. High-risk human papilloma virus infection decreases the frequency of dendritic Langerhans' cells in the human female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Mendez-Cruz, Rene; Ojeda-Ortiz, Jorge; Muñoz-Molina, Rebeca; Balderas-Carrillo, Oscar; de la Luz Diaz-Soberanes, Maria; Lebecque, Serge; Saeland, Sem; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Ullrich, Stephen E; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are often arranged in planar layers in tissues with high antigenic exposure, such as skin and mucosae. Providing an en face view, this arrangement optimizes in situ analysis regarding morphology (even of individual dendrites), topographic distribution (regular/clustered) and quantification. The few reports on human genital DC usually utilize single markers and conventional sections, restricting immunolabelling only to cell parts sectioned by the cut. To better assess DC in situ, we labelled epithelial sheets, prepared from fresh cervix biopsies, with antibodies to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-CII, CD1a and Langerin, revealing (with each of these markers) a dense DC network in a planar-like, regular distribution. Using the hybrid capture system to detect the high-risk mucotropic human papilloma virus (HPV) group, 16 positive and five negative women were studied and the results were compared between these groups. DC frequency per area was substantially reduced (to ≈ 50% for the three markers) in samples from all HPV-infected patients compared with samples from controls. Unlike HPV– samples, Langerin+ DC in HPV+ cervix exhibited a highly accentuated dendritic appearance. We believe this to be the first study using these three DC-restricted markers (Langerin, CD1a and MHC-CII) in cervical epithelial sheets from high-risk HPV+ donors and also the first study to demonstrate the morphological and quantitative changes triggered by high-risk HPV infection. Cervical DC reduction in early, premalignant high-risk HPV infection might represent viral subversion strategies interfering with efficient antigen handling by the immune system's peripheral sentinels, the DC, perhaps hampering appropriate recruitment and subsequent development of effector (cytotoxic) T cells. PMID:16423058

  17. Identification of neural circuits involved in female genital responses in the rat: A dual virus and anterograde tracing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, L.; Murphy, A Z

    2010-01-01

    The spinal and peripheral innervation of the clitoris and vagina are fairly well understood. However, little is known regarding supraspinal control of these pelvic structures. The multisynaptic tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) was used to map the brain neurons that innervate the clitoris and vagina. In order to delineate forebrain input onto PRV labeled cells, the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO), ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) or the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) 10 days prior to viral injections. These brain regions have been intimately linked to various aspects of female reproductive behavior. Four days after viral injections, into the vagina and clitoris PRV labeled cells were observed in the paraventricular nucleus, Barrington’s nucleus, the A5 region, and the nucleus paragigantocellularis. At 5 days post-viral administration, additional PRV labeled cells were observed within the preoptic region, VMN, PAG and lateral hypothalamus. Anterograde labeling from the MPO terminated among PRV positive cells primarily within the dorsal paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), ventrolateral VMN (VMNvl), caudal PAG and nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi). Anterograde labeling from the VMN terminated among PRV positive cells in the MPO and lateral/ventrolateral PAG. Anterograde labeling from the PAG terminated among PRV positive cells in the PVN, ventral hypothalamus and nPGi. Transynaptically labeled cells in the lateral hypothalamus, Barrington's nucleus and ventromedial medulla received innervation from all three sources. These studies, together, identify several CNS sites participating in the neural control of female sexual responses. They also provide the first data demonstrating a link between the MPO, VMNvl and PAG and CNS regions innervating the clitoris and vagina, providing support that these areas play a major role in female genital responses. PMID:16914428

  18. Inmunodetección por peroxidasa de células de ganglio sensorial infectadas por virus de rabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. Castellanos

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de establecer una técnica de inmunocitoquimica por avidina-peroxidasa biotinilada para la detección de células infectadas in vitro por el virus rábico, se usaron cultivos de ganglio de la raíz dorsal de ratón. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados del proceso de estandarización de la inmunoperoxidasa, en la que también se usa el conjugado antirrábico producido en el lnstituto Nacional de Salud. Las diluciones de anticuerpo, que normalmente se usan en la inmunofluorescencia, muestran un excesivo ruido de fondo en la inmunoperoxidasa. Se discuten las posibles razones de este artefacto y se presenta un protocolo para la detección por inmunoperoxidasa de células de ganglio sensorial infectadas in vitro por virus de rabia.

  19. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent HSV-2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clarice L; Banasik, Brianne N; Gorder, Summer R; Xia, Jingya; Auclair, Sarah; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-12-01

    Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Although the murine model of HSV-2 infection is useful for understanding immunity following immunization, it is limited by the lack of spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency. Genital infection of guinea pigs with HSV-2 accurately models the disease of humans including the spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency and provides a unique opportunity to examine virus-host interactions during latency. Although the guinea pig represents an accurate model of many human infections, relatively few reagents are available to study the immunological response to infection. To analyze the cell-mediated immune response of guinea pigs at extended periods of time after establishment of HSV-2 latency, we have modified flow-cytometry based proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays to detect and quantify HSV-specific cell-mediated responses during latent infection of guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that a combination of proliferation and ELISPOT assays can be used to quantify and characterize effecter function of virus-specific immune memory responses during HSV-latency.

  20. Herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein H interacts with integrin αvβ3 to facilitate viral entry and calcium signaling in human genital tract epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B; González, Pablo A; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Jacobs, William R; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine. These

  1. Clinical and virologic response to episodic acyclovir for genital ulcers among HIV-1 seronegative, herpes simplex virus type 2 seropositive African women: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeten, Jared M; Reid, Stewart E; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Hughes, James P; Wang, Richard S; Wilcox, Ellen; Limbada, Mohammed; Akpomiemie, Godspower; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized trial among African women with recurrent genital herpes, episodic acyclovir therapy resulted in modestly greater likelihood of lesion healing (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48, P = 0.098; mean, 5.1 vs. 6.0 days) and cessation of herpes simplex virus shedding (HR = 1.88, P = 0.008; mean, 3.0 vs. 5.0 days) compared with placebo, similar to results of studies in high-income countries (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00808405).

  2. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

  3. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus with genital human papillomavirus infection in men: the HPV in men study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Papenfuss, Mary R; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G; Giuliano, Anna R

    2013-06-01

    Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serostatus are associated with genital HPV prevalence, an early event in HPV-related pathogenesis. Genital exfoliated cells, first-void urine, and blood from 3971 men recruited in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil were tested for HPV, CT, and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus with 4 HPV outcomes (any, oncogenic, nononcogenic only, and multiple infections). A total of 64 (1.6%) men were CT positive, and 811 (20.4%) men were HSV-2 seropositive. After adjustment for potential confounders, CT was associated with any HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.24), oncogenic HPV (aOR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.53-6.28), and multiple HPV (aOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.69-6.95) prevalence. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus was associated with any HPV (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), nononcogenic HPV only (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.08-1.75), and multiple HPV (aOR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06-1.68) prevalence. In analyses stratified by sexual behavior, CT infection was significantly associated with HPV detection among men reporting 2 or more recent sexual partners, whereas HSV-2 serostatus was significantly associated with HPV detection in men reporting 0 to 5 lifetime sexual partners. In this population, CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus were associated with prevalent genital HPV infection. Future prospective studies should investigate whether these infections influence HPV acquisition and/or persistence.

  4. [Genital ulcers--what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Raya, Bahaa; Bamberger, Ellen; Srugo, Isaac

    2013-08-01

    The most common infectious causes of genital ulcers are herpes simplex virus and syphilis. However, mixed infections can occur and genital ulcer may increase the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus. Although the history and physical examination can narrow the differential diagnosis, there is a need for initial routine laboratory testing for the most common pathogens that includes: for syphilis: serologic screening and dark field examination of the lesion; for herpes simplex virus: serology, vial culture and/or polymerase chain reaction. Human immunodeficiency testing is mandatory. Recently, some clinical laboratories adapted the reverse screening algorithm for syphilis (initial treponemal test, and, if positive, followed by non-treponemal test) that may potentially lead to overtreatment. Early and prompt therapy may decrease the risk of transmission of the infectious agent to others. This article reviews the infectious pathogens causing genital ulcers, their unique clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Patologia cardiovascular en pacientes con infeccion por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela-Rodriguez, German

    2012-01-01

    La infeccion por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) estuvo asociada a un incremento de la morbimortalidad, dado que inducia un estado de inmunosupresion severa, la cual facilitaba la aparicion de infecciones oportunistas...

  6. A cloudy bag and genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesker, J; van Elsacker-Niele, A M; Blanken, R; Halma, C

    2006-05-01

    A 30-year-old patient treated with CCPD presented with genital ulcers and a culture-negative peritonitis. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was cultured from the effluent and the genital lesions. Primary HSV-2 infection was diagnosed by serology. This is the first documented case of PD peritonitis caused by HSV-2. We speculate that cases of culture-negative PD peritonitis may be due to recurrences of genital herpes.

  7. Primary human epithelial cell culture system for studying interactions between female upper genital tract and sexually transmitted viruses, HSV-2 and HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushic, Charu; Nazli, Aisha; Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K

    2011-10-01

    Evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies indicates that women are disproportionately susceptible to sexually transmitted viral infections. To understand the underlying biological basis for this increased susceptibility, more studies are needed to examine the acute events in the female reproductive tract following exposure to viruses during sexual transmission. The epithelial lining of the female reproductive tract is the primary barrier that sexually transmitted viruses, such as HIV-1 and HSV-2 need to infect or traverse, in order to initiate and establish productive infection. We have established an ex-vivo primary culture system to grow genital epithelial cells from upper reproductive tract tissues of women. Using these cultures, we have extensively examined the interactions between epithelial cells of the female genital tract and HSV-2 and HIV-1. In this review, we describe in detail the experimental protocol to grow these cultures, monitor their differentiation and inoculate with HSV-2 and HIV-1. Prospective use of these cultures to re-create the microenvironment in the reproductive tract is discussed.

  8. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ... Date reviewed: February 2016 previous 1 • ... Boyfriend Has an STD Before We Have Sex? Telling Your Partner You Have an STD Contact ...

  9. Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital warts are a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh-colored bumps. ... or many of these bumps. In women, the warts usually occur in or around the vagina, on ...

  10. Genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... warts URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000886.htm Genital warts To use the sharing ... They may be found on the penis , vulva , urethra, vagina , cervix , and around ... in the cervix , or to cervical cancer . These are called high-risk types of HPV. ...

  11. Enfermedad por el virus Ébola medidas de bioseguridad

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    El virus Ébola representa el patógeno prototipo de fiebre hemorrágica viral, causando una enfermedad severa de alta tasa de mortalidad. Esta alta mortalidad, combinada con la ausencia de vacunación y de un tratamiento específico, hace que el virus Ébola sea un patógeno importante para la salud pública. La fiebre hemorrágica de Ébola se cree es una zoonosis con persistencia del virus en especies de reservorios encontrados en áreas endémicas. A pesar de todos los esfuerzos realizados en cada br...

  12. Genital ulcers: their diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, S L

    1987-08-01

    THIS ARTICLE OFFERS SOME BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THREE MAJOR CAUSES OF GENITAL ULCERS: syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and chancroid. The author also discusses differential diagnoses and suggests an approach to treatment.

  13. Primary Genital Herpes Diseases in İnfancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gümüş Pekacar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic primary genital herpes infection is very rare in early childhood. Herpes simplex virus 1 type is the infectious agent in 20-50% percent of primery infections. Sexual abuse should be considered when genital herpes is seen in a person before sexual active age. It is mild and self limiting unless the patient is immune compramised. In this paper we discussed a 17 months old patient with genital herpes and approach to genital herpes in children.

  14. Infección aguda por el VHC Acute hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martínez Echeverría

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La infección aguda por el virus C de la hepatitis produce un cuadro clínico y bioquímico no específico e indistinguible de los causados por otros virus hepatotropos. El diagnóstico específico de la hepatitis aguda por virus C se basa en la detección en sangre del RNA-VHC mediante una técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa cuyo resultado será positivo a partir de 1-2 semanas tras el contacto inicial con el virus. Los anticuerpos frente al VHC se detectan más tardíamente (a las 7-8 semanas por término medio no siendo útiles, como determinación aislada, para distinguir infección aguda de infección crónica o aclaramiento del virus (espontáneo o tras tratamiento. El 55-85% de los pacientes con infección aguda por el VHC no aclaran el virus y desarrollan una infección crónica con riesgo de evolución a cirrosis y de desarrollo de hepatocarcinoma. Por ello, la tendencia actual es tratar con interferón a todos aquellos pacientes en los que el RNA-VHC se mantenga positivo más allá de 3-4 meses tras el diagnóstico de la infección aguda.Acute hepatitis C virus infection produces clinical and biochemical features that is non-specific and indistinguishable from those caused by other hepatotropic viruses. The specific diagnosis of acute hepatitis C virus infection is based on the detection of serum RNA-HCV through a technique of PCR whose result will be positive after 1-2 weeks of the initial contact with the virus. The anti-bodies against HCV are detected later (after 7-8 weeks on average, and are not useful, as an isolated determination, in distinguishing acute infection from chronic infection or in clearing the virus (spontaneous or following treatment. Fifty-five to eighty-five percent of patients with acute HCV infection do not clear the virus and develop a chronic infection with risk of evolution to cirrhosis and of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. For this reason, the present tendency is to treat with interferon

  15. A test for the relative potency of herpes simplex virus vaccines based upon the female guinea-pig model of HSV 2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillpotts, R J; Welch, M J; Ridgeway, P H; Walkland, A C; Melling, J

    1988-04-01

    An ELISA for total herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 antigen content and a test of immunogenicity based upon the female guinea-pig model of HSV 2 genital infection were applied to two samples from batches of HSV 1 subunit ('Skinner') vaccine. The ELISA was reproducible within an approximately threefold limit of error and batches 1 and 2 were indistinguishable in antigen content. The effects of vaccination in the guinea-pig model were assessed by a statistical analysis of scores derived from the principal clinical signs, vaginal oedema and lesions on the external genitalia. The statistical power of the guinea-pig assay was such that reductions in the severity of illness approaching 40% would be significant (P less than 0.05) on 90% of occasions. The ability to make quantitative estimates of immunogenicity will prove useful in the quality control of HSV vaccine batches which are destined for clinical trials in man.

  16. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Herpes Print A A A What's in this article? Symptoms Contagiousness Treatment Prevention Getting Help Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually ...

  17. Infección crónica por el VHB Chronic Hepatitis B Virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero, C.; M. Herráiz

    2004-01-01

    Existen muchos factores implicados en la patogénesis de la infección crónica por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB), como por ejemplo características del virus, la ingesta de etanol, la coinfección con otros virus (VHC, VIH, VHD), e intervenciones terapéuticas como el uso de fármacos citotóxicos o inmunosupresores, o agentes antivirales específicos. Las características clínicas, patológicas y serológicas de la hepatitis crónica por VHB, además, son muy heterogéneas. Se puede reconocer la infecc...

  18. Miocarditis fulminante en una infección por virus dengue 1 en neiva, huila colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Doris Martha; Vega, Martha Rocío; Panqueva, César; Rodríguez, Jairo Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de un niño de cinco años previamente sano quien fallece como consecuencia de un cuadro clínico compatible con miocarditis de curso fulminante asociada a fiebre dengue hemorrágica. Se demostró la presencia de virus dengue 1 en el tejido hepático mediante RT-PCR, por lo que se convierte en el primer caso reportado de miocarditis fulminante durante el curso de la infección por virus dengue en Neiva, Colombia.

  19. Manifestaciones mucocutáneas atípicas por fiebre por el virus del chikungunya en neonatos y lactantes de Cúcuta, Los Patios y Villa del Rosario, Norte de Santander, Colombia, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Muñoz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se han observado manifestaciones clínicas atípicas en recién nacidos y lactantes con fiebre por el virus del chikungunya. Objetivo. Describir los casos de fiebre causada por el virus del chikungunya en recién nacidos y lactantes con lesiones mucocutáneas atípicas. Materiales y métodos. Se revisaron las historias clínicas y los resultados de laboratorio y de patología en tres hospitales regionales de los casos de recién nacidos y lactantes diagnosticados con el virus del chikungunya que presentaban lesiones mucocutáneas atípicas; se hizo una búsqueda activa comunitaria en los barrios de residencia de los pacientes. Resultados. De 18 casos sospechosos de chikungunya en recién nacidos y lactantes, 11 pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado presentaron manifestaciones mucocutáneas atípicas. Seis de los 11 casos confirmados eran niños menores de cinco meses de edad. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre, eritema, irritabilidad y diarrea. Tres de los pacientes estaban infectados con dengue y chikungunya. Las úlceras se presentaron en cuero cabelludo, abdomen, región genital y perianal. En la búsqueda activa comunitaria se encontraron altas tasas de ataque de la enfermedad. Conclusiones. Se presenta un informe de las manifestaciones mucocutáneas en recién nacidos y lactantes diagnosticados con fiebre por el virus del chikungunya en Colombia. El rápido desarrollo de las úlceras se debe, probablemente, a la reacción inmunitaria al virus. Es necesario priorizar la atención de las mujeres embarazadas que presenten síntomas una semana antes del parto y hacerle seguimiento a los recién nacidos, para hacer el diagnóstico temprano del chikungunya y evitar complicaciones.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Infections Among Newly Diagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Adults Entering Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care in Windhoek, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomand, Gaston; Schlefer, Madeleine; Gutreuter, Steve; Tobias, Sarah; Patel, Roopal; DeLuca, Nickolas; Hood, Julia; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Chen, Cheng; Muadinohamba, Alexinah; Lowrance, David W.; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and treating genital infections, including sexually transmitted infections (STI), among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals may benefit both public and individual health. We assessed prevalence of genital infections and their correlates among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals enrolling in HIV care services in Namibia. Methods Newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults entering HIV care at 2 health facilities in Windhoek, Namibia, were recruited from December 2012 to March 2014. Participants provided behavioral and clinical data including CD4+ T lymphocyte counts. Genital and blood specimens were tested for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomoniasis, Mycoplasma genitalium, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Results Among 599 adults, 56% were women and 15% reported consistent use of condoms in the past 6 months. The most common infections were bacterial vaginosis (37.2%), trichomoniasis (34.6%) and Chlamydia (14.6%) in women and M. genitalium (11.4%) in men. Correlates for trichomoniasis included being female (adjusted relative risk, [aRR], 7.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.07–12.65), higher education (aRR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38–0.89), and lower CD4 cell count (aRR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.08–2.40). Being female (aRR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.27–4.50), nonmarried (aRR, 2.30; (95% CI, 1.28–4.14), and having condomless sex (aRR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.06–7.00) were independently associated with chlamydial infection. Across all infections, female (aRR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.79–2.98), nonmarried participants (aRR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06–1.59), had higher risk to present with any STI, whereas pregnant women (aRR, 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31) were at increased risk of any STI or reproductive tract infection. PMID:27893600

  1. Infección genital por Chlamydia trachomatis y otros microorganismos en dos grupos de mujeres en Cartagena Frequency of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis and other microorganisms in two groups of women in Cartagena, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Pulido; Armando Flecha; Ivonne Correa; Gregorio Young; Delfina Urbina

    1992-01-01

    Las enfermedades asociadas a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y la vaginosis bacteriana son de importancia en la población sexual mente activa, por lo que amerita estudiarlas. Con la finalidad de conocer su frecuencia en Cartagena se estudiaron, entre 1988 y 1990, 431 mujeres que acudieron a la consulta ginecológica del Hospital Universitario de Cartagena o al Centro Venereológico de la misma ciudad (167 pacientes en el primero y 264 en el segundo); su edad promedio era 28 años. Utiliza...

  2. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Sauerbrei Institute of Virology and Antiviral Therapy, German Consulting Laboratory for Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. Keywords: herpes simplex virus, epidemiology, infection, antiviral therapy, laboratory diagnosis, prevention

  3. Infección crónica por el VHB Chronic Hepatitis B Virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carretero

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen muchos factores implicados en la patogénesis de la infección crónica por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB, como por ejemplo características del virus, la ingesta de etanol, la coinfección con otros virus (VHC, VIH, VHD, e intervenciones terapéuticas como el uso de fármacos citotóxicos o inmunosupresores, o agentes antivirales específicos. Las características clínicas, patológicas y serológicas de la hepatitis crónica por VHB, además, son muy heterogéneas. Se puede reconocer la infección crónica por VHB ante la persistencia del antígeno Australia (HBsAg durante más de seis meses. La presencia de HBeAg se suele asociar a la replicación viral activa y puede ser medida por la cantidad de DNA-VHB presente en el suero o bien por la expresión hepática de HBcAg. El daño hepático que se produce en la hepatitis crónica por VHB no es tanto por el efecto del virus sobre los hepatocitos sino por la reacción inmune que éste provoca en el huésped. Por ello puede verse cierta correlación inversamente proporcional entre la intensidad de la replicación viral y el grado de inflamación hepática. La presencia de hepatitis crónica activa en la biopsia inicial no se ha asociado al desarrollo de cirrosis así como tampoco el diagnóstico histológico de hepatitis crónica persistente puede asegurar que se vaya a desarrollar cirrosis en un futuro.Many factors are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B virus infection (HBV, such as, for example, characteristics of the virus, ethanol intake, coinfection with other viruses (HCV, HIV, HDV, and therapeutic interventions such as the use of cytotoxic drugs or immunosuppressors, or specific antiviral agents. The clinical, pathological and serological characteristics of chronic hepatitis B virus infection are besides very heterogeneous. Chronic HBV infection can be recognised facing persistence of the Australia antigen (HBsAg for more than six months. The presence of HBeAg is

  4. Genital herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... JT and Corey L. Herpes simplex virus. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, ...

  5. Diagnosis and management of genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roett, Michelle A; Mayor, Mejebi T; Uduhiri, Kelechi A

    2012-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, including sexual trauma, psoriasis, Behçet syndrome, and fixed drug eruptions, can also lead to genital ulcers. Although initial treatment of genital ulcers is generally based on clinical presentation, the following tests should be considered in all patients: serologic tests for syphilis and darkfield microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody testing for Treponema pallidum, culture or polymerase chain reaction test for herpes simplex virus, and culture for Haemophilus ducreyi in settings with a high prevalence of chancroid. No pathogen is identified in up to 25 percent of patients with genital ulcers. The first episode of herpes simplex virus infection is usually treated with seven to 10 days of oral acyclovir (five days for recurrent episodes). Famciclovir and valacyclovir are alternative therapies. One dose of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is recommended to treat genital ulcers caused by primary syphilis. Treatment options for chancroid include a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone or oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin. Lymphogranuloma venereum and donovanosis are treated with 21 days of oral doxycycline. Treatment of noninfectious causes of genital ulcers varies by etiology, and ranges from topical wound care for ulcers caused by sexual trauma to consideration of subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a for ulcers caused by Behçet syndrome.

  6. Enrichment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactive mucosal T cells in the human female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Dong, L; Jin, L; Stevens, C E; Magaret, A S; Johnston, C; Wald, A; Zhu, J; Corey, L; Koelle, D M

    2017-01-04

    Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantify HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T-cell responses to HSV-2. Compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7-/CD45RA-) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency. Co-expression of CD103, another marker of tissue residency, was highest on cervix-derived CD8+ T cells. Functional HSV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in cervical samples and a median of 17% co-expressed CD103. HSV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells co-expressed IL-2 and were significantly enriched in the cervix compared with blood. This first direct ex vivo documentation of local enrichment of HSV-2-reactive T cells in the human female genital mucosa is consistent with the presence of antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells. Ex vivo analysis of these T cells may uncover tissue-specific mechanisms of local control of HSV-2 to assist the development of vaccine strategies that target protective T cells to sites of HSV-2 infection.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 4 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2016.118.

  7. Manifestaciones psiquiátricas desencadenadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Anselmo Ramos Valverde

    2014-01-01

    La alta morbilidad de perturbaciones mentales y del comportamiento, desencadenada por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), asombra a colaboradores cubanos en la ciudad de Maputo, capital de Mozambique. Solo apelando a los conocimientos actuales de la Psicoendocrinoneuroinmunologia, que describe la vinculación basada en la teoría de la complejidad de este suprasistema, que comparte receptores y mediadores químicos, se puede disipar el asombro y llegar a comprender la esencia científi...

  8. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Warts (HPV) A A ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  9. Infección aguda por el VHB Acute infection by Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alegre

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El espectro clínico de la infección aguda por el virus de la hepatitis B es muy amplio, con cuadros que van desde una hepatitis anictérica y subclínica a una hepatitis ictérica aguda grave e incluso, en algunos casos, a una hepatitis fulminante. El diagnóstico depende en gran medida del grado de sospecha clínica de la hepatitis, estableciéndose el origen etiológico por el virus B mediante el estudio de marcadores serológicos y/o DNA en sangre. Aunque en la mayor parte de los casos la evolución de la hepatitis aguda por virus B es favorable, con resolución espontánea de la clínica en 4-8 semanas, no es infrecuente en ciertos casos, sobre todo en la infancia, la progresión a hepatitis crónica. No existe ningún tratamiento específico para la infección aguda por virus B que reduzca su gravedad o prevenga su evolución a hepatitis crónica. Se recomienda, no obstante, el reposo relativo, y la administración de una dieta hipercalórica. En las hepatitis agudas graves debe indicarse ingreso hospitalario; en casos de hepatitis fulminante ingreso en UCI para monitorización intensiva y valoración de trasplante hepático si no se produce mejoría espontánea. En el presente artículo se revisa, de forma breve y esquemática, la clínica, el diagnóstico, el pronóstico y el tratamiento de la infección aguda por el virus de la hepatitis B.The clinical spectrum of acute hepatitis B virus infection is very broad, with clinical manifestations that range from anicteric and sub-clinical hepatitis to severe acute icteric hepatitis and even, in some cases, to fulminant hepatitis. Diagnosis depends to a large extent on the degree of clinical suspicion of hepatitis, establishing the aetiological origin of the B virus through the study of serological markers and/or DNA in the blood. Although in the majority of cases there is a favourable evolution of acute hepatitis B virus infection, with spontaneous resolution of the clinical manifestations

  10. Síndrome cardio pulmonar por hanta virus. Reporte de un caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Abudinén A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las “hantavirosis” son enfermedades infecciosas zoonóticas producidas por diferentes virus del género Hantavirus, la transmisión biológica está mediada por roedores y comprende principalmente dos cuadros clínicos: fiebre hemorrágica con síndrome renal, y síndrome Cardio-pulmonar por Hantavirus, siendo este último más frencuente en Latinoamérica y que puede llevar a la muerte en tan solo 72hrs de iniciado el cuadro clínico.Se presenta paciente de 32 años con antecedentes de haber acampado 15 días antes en una zona rural, consulta por un cuadro de síndrome Cardio-pulmonar por Hantavirus de 4 días de evolución con hipoxemia y manejo con ventilación mecánica no invasiva en Unidad de Cuidados Intermedios del Hospital Regional de Rancagua, Chile; de evolución positiva y con alta hospitalaria a los 4 días, siendo favorable su evolución por la sospecha diagnostica y tratamiento precoz y certero.

  11. SÍNDROME CARDIO PULMONAR POR HANTA VIRUS. REPORTE DE UN CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Abudinén A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las "hantavirosis" son enfermedades infecciosas zoonóticas producidas por diferentes virus del género Hantavirus, la transmisión biológica está mediada por roedores y comprende principalmente dos cuadros clínicos: fiebre hemorrágica con síndrome renal, y síndrome Cardio-pulmonar por Hantavirus, siendo este último más frencuente en Latinoamérica y que puede llevar a la muerte en tan solo 72hrs de iniciado el cuadro clínico. Se presenta paciente de 32 años con antecedentes de haber acampado 15 días antes en una zona rural, consulta por un cuadro de síndrome Cardio-pulmonar por Hantavirus de 4 días de evolución con hipoxemia y manejo con ventilación mecánica no invasiva en Unidad de Cuidados Intermedios del Hospital Regional de Rancagua, Chile; de evolución positiva y con alta hospitalaria a los 4 días, siendo favorable su evolución por la sospecha diagnostica y tratamiento precoz y certero.

  12. Infección genital por Chlamydia trachomatis y otros microorganismos en dos grupos de mujeres en Cartagena Frequency of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis and other microorganisms in two groups of women in Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pulido

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades asociadas a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y la vaginosis bacteriana son de importancia en la población sexual mente activa, por lo que amerita estudiarlas. Con la finalidad de conocer su frecuencia en Cartagena se estudiaron, entre 1988 y 1990, 431 mujeres que acudieron a la consulta ginecológica del Hospital Universitario de Cartagena o al Centro Venereológico de la misma ciudad (167 pacientes en el primero y 264 en el segundo; su edad promedio era 28 años. Utilizando el inmunoensayo enzimático en fase sólida (ELISA se buscó la C. trachomatis y se hallaron frecuencias de infección de 5.4 y 17.4% en el primero y el segundo grupos, respectivamente; tal diferencia fue significativa (p < 0.005. Mediante exámenes directos y cultivos se demostraron las siguientes frecuencias de infección en las pacientes de consulta ginecológica y en las del Centro Venereológico, en su orden: Gardenerella vaginalis en 33.5% y 39%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae en 0.6 y 2.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis en 5.4 y 4.5%, Candida spp. en 13.2 y 10.2%. No hubo entre estas tasas diferencias significativas. Se observó relación entre la positividad para C. trachomatis y las entidades usualmente asociadas con ella: en las pacientes del Centro Venereológico la frecuencia de cervicitis fue 39% en las infectadas por C. trachomatis y 11.5% en las no Infectadas (p < 0.01; en las de la consulta ginecológica hubo Enfermedad Pélvica inflamatoria en 4 de las 9 Infectadas (44.4% y en sólo 11 de las 158 no infectadas (7% (Prueba de Fisher p = 0.004. El uso de anticonceptivos orales tuvo asociación significativa (p < 0.01 con la infección por Chlamydia en las pacientes del Centro Venereológico pero no en las de la consulta ginecológica; en efecto: 28.8% de las mujeres del Centro que utilizaban estos anticonceptivos y ninguna de las que no recurran a ellos resultaron positivas para esta bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis fue la bacteria más frecuentemente

  13. Caracterización de la neoplasia intraepitelial cervical inducida por el virus del papiloma humano en pacientes seropositivas a virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Bravo, Tomás Carlos

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Hemos pretendido caracterizar el comportamiento y la respuesta al tratamiento antirretroviral de las lesiones cervicales producidas por el virus del papiloma humano (HPV) en las pacientes infectadas también por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia adquirida (VIH). Se trata de de un estudio observacional y prospectivo, en el que la selección de la muestra procede del Servicio de enfermedades infecciosas del Complejo Hospitalario de Salamanca. Las pacientes fueron remitidas para control gin...

  14. Anticuerpos frente a virus West nile y otros virus transmitidos por artropodos en la poblacion del Delta del Ebro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano Alvaro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: El virus West Nile (VWN es un Flavivirus que se transmite al hombre a través de distintas especies de mosquitos y produce brotes y casos esporádicos de enfermedad en distintas regiones del Viejo Mundo, incluída la Cuenca Mediterránea. Las zonas húmedas europeas que acogen aves migratorias procedentes de África constituyen áreas de alto riesgo para esta infección, así como para otras infecciones víricas transmitidas por artrópodos. MÉTODOS: Con objeto de investigar la prevalencia de la infección por el VWN y otros virus de transmisión similar en la población humana del Delta del Ebro, se estudiaron 1037 muestras de suero, obtenidas en 10 localidades de la zona, para presencia de anticuerpos frente a VWN y otros 12 virus transmitidos por artrópodos (3 Alfavirus, 8 Flaviviridae y 1 Bunyaviridae mediante titulación por inhibición de la hemaglutinación (IHA. En algunos casos se estudió la presencia de IgM específica por IHA tras fraccionar el suero por centrifugación en gradientes de sacarosa. RESULTADOS: En total, se encontró reactividad significativa frente a alguno de los virus probados en 130 casos (12.5%; 4.1% frente a Alfavirus, 8.0% frente a Flaviviridae y 0.4% frente a Bunyaviridae. El análisis de los títulos de anticuerpos reveló porcentajes significativos de muestras con títulos elevados frente a antígenos de VWN y otros. La distribución de la seroprevalencia fue muy desigual, concentrándose fundamentalmente en 3 localidades del interior del Delta (Ampolla, San Jaime y Montells, donde la prevalencia de anticuerpos frente a Flaviviridae llegó a alcanzar el 30% y se observaron niveles residuales de IgM frente a VWN en algunos sueros. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados y los obtenidos previamente en otras regiones de la Península Ibérica sugieren que el VWN circula en la población humana de las zonas de riesgo y produce brotes epidémicos periódicos. Habida cuenta del alto porcentaje de

  15. Infección por virus del papiloma humano (VPH) y actuales estrategias de prevención

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez López, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Se explica cómo se desarrolla la infección por el virus del papiloma humano y cuáles son los factores que influyen en su aparición y desarrollo. También se plantean las actuales estrategias de prevención frente a este virus

  16. Infección por virus del papiloma humano (VPH) y actuales estrategias de prevención

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez López, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Se explica cómo se desarrolla la infección por el virus del papiloma humano y cuáles son los factores que influyen en su aparición y desarrollo. También se plantean las actuales estrategias de prevención frente a este virus

  17. Inmunopatogenia y fisiopatología de la hepatitis por virus B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Quesada-Mora

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Virus B, familia Hepadnaviridae, no citopático directo. La lesión hepatocelular es por la respuesta inmunológica a los antígenos virales. Respuesta inmune muy agresiva da hepatitis fulminante. En los crónicos hay débil respuesta de los linfocitos T citotóxicos CD 8, predominante la respuesta humoral de sustancias Th-2 (IL4,5,10. Factores que afectan la evolución: a. mutación del virus; b co-infección con otros virus; c estado inmune del paciente. Fases de la evolución a cronicidad: a fase inmunotolerante: mucho virus y Ag positivo, seroconversiόn dura años, seroconversiόn de e es de 15% en 20 años; b fase de aclaramiento inmune: seroconversiόn de e de 10 20% por año; c estado de portador inactivo: mayoría de pacientes crónicos, son Ag negativos, anti e positivos; d hepatitis crónica e negativos: ADN alto con elevación de ALT, la mayoría son mutaciones core y pre core no produciendo antígeno. e resolución de infección crónica, 0.5-2% aclaran el antígeno de superficie, pero podrían hacer carcinoma hepatocelular en el futuro, siendo anti-HBs positivos.

  18. Disfunción tiroidea en adultos infectados por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Abelleira; Graciela A De Cross; Fabián Pitoia

    2014-01-01

    Los pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV) tienen una mayor prevalencia de disfunción tiroidea cuando se los compara con la población general. Las manifestaciones más frecuentemente observadas son: el síndrome del eutiroideo enfermo, la enfermedad de Graves y el hipotiroidismo subclínico. La relación entre el uso de la terapia antirretroviral y el incremento en la prevalencia de alteraciones tiroideas fue demostrada en varias series de pacientes. La enfermedad ...

  19. Histopatología de cirrosis y hepatocarcinoma por Virus B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Ramírez-Corrales

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Cirrosis por virus B: Se puede detectar en biopsia el antígeno de superficie con tinción de orceína (hepatocitos esmerilados y por inmunohistoquímica (antígeno de superficie y anticore. Estadios de evolución: a temprano o incipiente: nódulos no definidos, mucha fibrosis y alteración arquitectural; b establecido: nódulos rodeados completamente de bandas fibroticas. estadio histológico: a activo: necrosis e inflamación importante, colestasis; b Inactivo: poca necrosis o inflamación, hepatocarcinoma: (tipos: trabecular, células claras, adenoide, sólido, escirroso. La immunohistoquimica ayuda a definir el tipo usando los antígenos hepatocelulares, antígeno carcinoembriónico, citoqueratinas, cromogranina y sinaptofisina.

  20. Infección crónica por el VHC Chronic Hepatitis C virus infection

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    M. Iñarrairaegui

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tras la infección aguda por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC, un porcentaje importante de pacientes no aclara el virus y desarrollan una hepatitis crónica C. Los síntomas, cuando existen, suelen ser inespecíficos. Aproximadamente un tercio de los pacientes presentan además manifestaciones extrahepáticas de la infección, debidas fundamentalmente al linfotropismo del virus C. De éstas destacan, por su clara asociación con el VHC, la crioglobulinemia mixta y la producción de autoanticuerpos (autoAc. Otras enfermedades como el linfoma no Hodgkin (LNH o la tiroiditis autoinmune no tienen una asociación claramente establecida. Aunque la mayoría de los pacientes con hepatitis crónica C tienen niveles ligeros o moderadamente elevados y fluctuantes de transaminasas, hasta un tercio de los infectados pueden presentar niveles persistentemente normales de transaminasas. El diagnóstico de la infección crónica por el VHC se basa en pruebas serológicas, que detectan la presencia de anticuerpos frente al VHC, y en pruebas virológicas que detectan RNA del VHC, que confirman la existencia de infección activa. Por último, un aspecto importante en la infección crónica por el VHC, tras el diagnóstico, es establecer el estadio de fibrosis y el grado de inflamación, ya que ambas características son muy importantes para predecir la evolución natural y la necesidad de tratamiento. Hoy en día esta información sólo puede obtenerse mediante biopsia hepática, que está indicada en pacientes con infección crónica por el VHC y transaminasas elevadas. Su indicación en pacientes con transaminasas normales permanece todavía controvertida.Following acute hepatitis C virus infection (HCV, a significant percentage of patients do not clear the virus and develop a chronic hepatitis C. The symptoms, when they exist, are usually unspecific. Besides, approximately one third of the patients present extrahepatic manifestations of the infection, basically

  1. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding.

  2. BROTE DE GASTROENTERITIS POR VIRUS NORWALK EN UNA RESIDENCIA DE ANCIANOS DE GRANADA

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    Diego Almagro Nievas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available vírico son actualmente uno de los problemas de salud que más están afectando a las personas residentes en instituciones de la tercera edad. El objetivo del estudio es investigar las causas del origen y transmisión de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda por virus Norwal- Like. Método: En una residencia de ancianos con 141 residentes y 71 trabajadores expuestos, se investigó la relación entre un brote de gastroenteritis aguda y distintas variables: características personales, de lugar, fecha de inicio de los síntomas, clínica de la enfermedad y factores causales (alimentos y agua de consumo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, tabla de contingencia y test de hipótesis 2, diseño de casos y controles con el calculo de Odds Ratio cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresión logística. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables de características personales y de lugar. La tasa de ataque en los residentes fue del 30,1% y en trabajadores fue del 21,12%. En el calculo de la Odds Ratio ajustada sólo tuvo valores de relación causal la mousse de nata (Odds Ratio ajustada=4,66; IC-95% 1,15- 18,91; p=0,031. Se remitieron 10 muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis, no detectándose ninguna bacteria patógena, pero si se aisló en 3 de ellas virus Norwal-Like. Conclusiones: El hallazgo de la mousse de nata como posible responsable del brote supone una primicia en la presencia de virus Norwalk, pero este resultado está sujeto a limitaciones, como el posible sesgo de clasificación por no recuerdo de consumo de alimentos. Aún así, supone un elemento a tener en cuenta en el control de gastroenteritis agudas por virus.

  3. Brote de gastroenteritis por virus Norwalk en una residencia de ancianos de Granada

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    Almagro Nievas Diego

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Los brotes de gastroenteritis aguda de origen vírico son actualmente uno de los problemas de salud que más están afectando a las personas residentes en instituciones de la tercera edad. El objetivo del estudio es investigar las causas del origen y transmisión de un brote de gastroenteritis aguda por virus Norwal-Like. Método: En una residencia de ancianos con 141 residentes y 71 trabajadores expuestos, se investigó la relación entre un brote de gastroenteritis aguda y distintas variables: características personales, de lugar, fecha de inicio de los síntomas, clínica de la enfermedad y factores causales (alimentos y agua de consumo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, tabla de contingencia y test de hipótesis 2, diseño de casos y controles con el calculo de Odds Ratio cruda y posteriormente ajustada (IC al 95% utilizando regresión logística. Resultados: No se observaron diferencias significativas en las variables de características personales y de lugar. La tasa de ataque en los residentes fue del 30,1% y en trabajadores fue del 21,12%. En el calculo de la Odds Ratio ajustada sólo tuvo valores de relación causal la mousse de nata (Odds Ratio ajustada=4,66; IC-95% 1,15-18,91; p=0,031. Se remitieron 10 muestras de heces de enfermos para su análisis, no detectándose ninguna bacteria patógena, pero si se aisló en 3 de ellas virus Norwal-Like. Conclusiones: El hallazgo de la mousse de nata como posible responsable del brote supone una primicia en la presencia de virus Norwalk, pero este resultado está sujeto a limitaciones, como el posible sesgo de clasificación por no recuerdo de consumo de alimentos. Aún así, supone un elemento a tener en cuenta en el control de gastroenteritis agudas por virus.

  4. Manifestaciones oftalmológicas por virus de Epstein-Barr

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    Adrianne MayulySuñetÁlvarez

    Full Text Available Se trata de un paciente masculino de 26 años que acude por disminución brusca de la visión del ojo derecho. Seingresó como una uveítis posterior dada por exudación extensa en área macular del ojo derecho, acompañada de edema del disco óptico, vasculitis aledaña a la lesión y hemorragias dispersas en llama en el polo posterior. La etiología era controversial y, el tratamiento más apropiado era debatible, por lo que se le realizaron estudios como retinografías seriadas, angiografías fluoresceínicas y reacción en cadena de polimerasa a una muestra del humor acuoso, que confirmó la etiología viral; lo que resultó en una agudeza visual final de 0,1. Posterior a 6 meses del cuadro inicial, el paciente presentó queratitis intraestromal en forma numular -que recurre ante episodios de stress-, para desaparecer luego de terapia tópica con antiinflamatorios no esteroideos y esteroideos.La baja incidencia de casos reportados con uveítis posterior por virus de Epstein Barr resulta de un pobre conocimiento de la presentación de la enfermedad, por tanto un retraso en la instauración del tratamiento. En estos casos la prueba de oro es la reacción de cadena de polimerasa.

  5. Efectos sobre la salud de la contaminación de agua y alimentos por virus emergentes humanos

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    Sílvia Bofill-Mas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de tecnologías moleculares aplicadas a estudios ambientales ha permitido constatar que incluso en países altamente industrializados existe una alta prevalencia de virus en el medio ambiente, lo que causa un importante impacto en la salud pública e importantes pérdidas económicas, principalmente a través de la transmisión de virus por agua y alimentos. Concentraciones significativas de virus son detectadas en las aguas vertidas al ambiente y en los biosólidos generados en plantas de tratamiento de agua residual. En este trabajo se describen las características generales de la contaminaci ón ambiental por virus, principalmente por virus emergentes, analizándose con mayor profundidad los virus de la hepatitis E (VHE y los poliomavirus humanos como los virus contaminantes ambientales de más reciente identificación en países industrializados. Se ha demostrado que existe una elevada prevalencia de los poliomavirus humanos, BK y JC, en agua residual en todos los paí- ses estudiados, lo que implica la potencial transmisión de los virus y de genes potencialmente cancerígenos por vía oral. Estudios recientes demuestran que el patrón epidemiológico de la infección por VHE en países industrializados es complejo y que una gran diversidad de cepas del VHE infecta simultáneamente a la población. El control de la contaminación viral del medio ambiente requiere la estandarización de técnicas moleculares y el desarrollo de un programa de vigilancia que permita valorar parámetros víricos y reducir la diseminación de las enfermedades establecidas y de las infecciones víricas emergentes.

  6. Genital herpes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider's instructions for treatment and follow-up.

  7. Effects of genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 on the efficacy of male circumcision for HIV prevention: Analyses from the Rakai trials.

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    Ronald H Gray

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Randomized trials show that male circumcision (MC reduces the incidence of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infections, and symptomatic genital ulcer disease (GUD. We assessed the role of GUD and HSV-2 in the protection against HIV afforded by MC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV-uninfected men were randomized to immediate (n = 2,756 or delayed MC (n = 2,775 in two randomized trials in Rakai, Uganda. GUD symptoms, HSV-2 status, and HIV acquisition were determined at enrollment and at 6, 12, and 24 mo of follow up. Ulcer etiology was assessed by PCR. We estimated the prevalence and prevalence risk ratios (PRRs of GUD in circumcised versus uncircumcised men and assessed the effects of HSV-2 serostatus as a risk-modifying factor for GUD. We estimated the proportion of the effect of MC on HIV acquisition that was mediated by symptomatic GUD, and by HSV-2 infection. Circumcision significantly reduced symptomatic GUD in HSV-2-seronegative men (PRR = 0.51, 95% [confidence interval] CI 0.43-0.74, HSV-2-seropositive men (PRR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.69, and in HSV-2 seroconverters (PRR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.30-0.79. The proportion of acute ulcers due to HSV-2 detected by PCR was 48.0% in circumcised men and 39.3% in uncircumcised men (chi(2p = 0.62. Circumcision reduced the risk of HIV acquisition in HSV-2 seronegative men (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.81, and potentially in HSV-2 seroconverters (IRR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.19-1.57; not significant, but not in men with prevalent HSV-2 at enrollment (IRR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.49-1.60. The proportion of reduced HIV acquisition in circumcised men mediated by reductions in symptomatic GUD was 11.2% (95% CI 5.0-38.0, and the proportion mediated by reduced HSV-2 incidence was 8.6% (95% CI -1.2 to 77.1. CONCLUSIONS: Circumcision reduced GUD irrespective of HSV-2 status, but this reduction played only a modest role in the protective effect of circumcision on HIV acquisition.

  8. Exantema hemorrágico por virus dengue inducido por ácido acetil-salicílico Haemorrhagic exanthema due to dengue virus induced by acetylsalicylic acid

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    L. Valerio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El dengue, enfermedad infecciosa vírica propia de los climas tropicales, se considera una patología reemergente que ha dado lugar a graves epidemias en la última década. En la expansión del virus y de su mosquito vector se barajan factores relacionados con la alteración humana del medio, con la rapidez en el tránsito de mercancias y personas y debidos al cambio climático. Como reflejo de ello, se asiste a un aumento de casos importados que, al ser una enfermedad con periodo de incubación corto (7-10 días, afecta especialmente a turistas procedentes de áreas endémicas. El reconocimiento de los antecedentes personales de viajes, de los síntomas-guía de la enfermedad y de las potenciales complicaciones (dengue hemorrágico deben ser incluidos en una anamnesis para el estudio de fiebre de origen desconocido o de exantema febril. Se presenta el caso de una paciente cuya clínica de dengue clásico se agravó por el autotratamiento con ácido acetil-salicílico.Dengue fever, a viral infectious disease characteristic of tropical climates, is considered to be a re-emergent pathology responsible for several serious outbreaks in the last decade. Some factors have been involved in the spread of the virus and its vectorial mosquito carrier: human alteration of the ecosystems, improvement and speed in the transit of goods and people and climate changes. As a reflection of this, an increase in imported cases is probable, especially in tourists coming from endemic areas, considering its short period of incubation (7-10 days. The recognition of personal antecedents of journeys, the main symptoms of the disease and the potential presence of complications (haemorrhagic dengue should be included in the examination of fever of unknown origin or feverish exanthema. The case of a patient is presented whose clinical picture of classic dengue fever was worsened by self-treatment with acetylsalicylic acid.

  9. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A A A What's in this ... Active Teens en español Verrugas genitales G enital warts are warts that are on or near a ...

  10. THALIDOMIDE: A THERAPEUTIC BOON IN THE MANAGEMENT OF RECURRENT GENITAL APHTHOUS ULCERATION IN AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED INDIVIDUAL

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    Madhubabu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genital lesions are common in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive patients. Aetiology of the genital lesions are mainly due to Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and non-specific genital ulcers. They usually respond to the antiviral and antibacterial agents. We are presenting a young unmarried HIV positive and Hepatitis-B positive patient who presented with non-healing genital ulcer lesions while on antiretroviral therapy and showed variable response and challenges to treatment with antivirals, steroids, antibacterials and change of ART and finally dramatic response with Thalidomide therapy which is rarely described in the literature.

  11. INFECCIÓN POR VIRUS DEL PAPILOMA HUMANO Y CÁNCER DE CUELLO UTERINO

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    Jairo Reynales Londoño

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    Introducción. Se revisó la situación actual de la infección por Virus del Papiloma Humano y su relación con el Cáncer de Cuello Uterino.

    Métodos. La metodología se basó en la revisión sistemática de artículos originales que analizaron aspectos relacionados con esta infección viral y el cáncer de cérvix, las pruebas de tamizaje, las acciones que se adelantan y la vacuna contra el virus del papiloma humano.

    Resultados. Factores como falta de voluntad política para aunar esfuerzos, barreras de acceso generadas a las usuarias, falta de adecuación de los servicios, la estructura y organización del Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud, pueden explicar la poca reducción en mortalidad por esta malignidad, a pesar de existir políticas públicas y reglamentación en Colombia. Desde la reforma de 1993, el control de las enfermedades de interés en salud pública ha sido insuficiente.

    Discusión. La alta morbimortalidad impone urgentemente a los diferentes actores del sector sanitario la implementación de precisas medidas preventivas y terapéuticas ya conocidas para controlar el cáncer de cérvix, así como la evaluación de nuevas intervenciones.

    Palabras clave: Virus del Papiloma Humano (VPH, Cáncer de Cuello Uterino (CCU, cáncer de cérvix, tamizaje cervical, vacunas VPH.

    HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS INFECTION AND CERVICAL UTERINE CANCER

    ABSTRACT

    Introduction. A literature review of current aspects of Papilloma Virus Infection and its relationship with Uterine Cervical Cancer was undertaken. Methods. The systematic review concerned original papers analyzing aspects related to this viral infection and cervical uterine cancer, screening tests, actions taken and human papilloma virus vaccines. Results. Little attention is paid to cervical cancer by health officials; there are access

  12. Detección molecular del virus de la leucosis bovina: un estudio por conglomerados en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Meza-Barreto; Danny Wilson Sanjuanelo-Corredor; Manuel Isaac Gallego-Marín

    2016-01-01

    La leucosis bovina enzoótica (LBE) es ocasionada por un virus de la familia Retroviridae, el virus de la leucosis bovina (VLB), que afecta bovinos de cualquier edad, sexo y raza y genera importantes pérdidas económicas. En Colombia, los pocos estudios moleculares se concentran en ganado de leche; por ello, el presente trabajo se dirigió a detectar el VLB mediante una prueba molecular de PCR en animales destinados a diferentes tipos de explotación ganadera y de diferentes regiones del país, co...

  13. Evolución de los embarazos de mujeres infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa-Damián Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Identificar las complicaciones médicas de las embarazadas infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y asintomáticas, y determinar el riesgo que el virus representa para el desarrollo de las mismas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se comparó la evolución del embarazo y el resultado perinatal de 44 embarazadas seropositivas al VIH, asintomáticas y que presentaron más de 200 linfocitos CD4/mm³, con embarazadas control no infectadas; las pacientes se parearon por edad y nivel soc...

  14. Efectos sobre la salud de la contaminación de agua y alimentos por virus emergentes humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Bofill-Mas; Pilar Clemente-Casares; Néstor Albiñana-Giménez; Carlos Maluquer de Motes Porta; Ayalkibet Hundesa Gonfa; Rosina Girones Llop

    2005-01-01

    El desarrollo de tecnologías moleculares aplicadas a estudios ambientales ha permitido constatar que incluso en países altamente industrializados existe una alta prevalencia de virus en el medio ambiente, lo que causa un importante impacto en la salud pública e importantes pérdidas económicas, principalmente a través de la transmisión de virus por agua y alimentos. Concentraciones significativas de virus son detectadas en las aguas vertidas al ambiente y en los biosólidos...

  15. Efectos sobre la salud de la contaminación de agua y alimentos por virus emergentes humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Bofill-Mas; Pilar Clemente-Casares; Néstor Albiñana-Giménez; Carlos Maluquer de Motes Porta; Ayalkibet Hundesa Gonfa; Rosina Girones Llop

    2005-01-01

    El desarrollo de tecnologías moleculares aplicadas a estudios ambientales ha permitido constatar que incluso en países altamente industrializados existe una alta prevalencia de virus en el medio ambiente, lo que causa un importante impacto en la salud pública e importantes pérdidas económicas, principalmente a través de la transmisión de virus por agua y alimentos. Concentraciones significativas de virus son detectadas en las aguas vertidas al ambiente y en los biosólidos...

  16. Neuropatía por virus BK post trasplante renal diagnostico y seguimiento por PCR en tiempo real BK virus nephropathy after renal transplantation: Diagnosis and prognosis by real time PCR

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    Marcela Echavarria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La nefropatía producida por el virus BK puede llevar a la pérdida del trasplante renal. El diagnóstico etiológico es importante debido a que la clínica no permite diferenciar entre nefropatía por virus BK y rechazo agudo, en donde los tratamientos de estas dos entidades son diametralmente opuestos. El desarrollo reciente de métodos moleculares muy sensibles y específicos como PCR y PCR en tiempo real para virus BK permiten un diagnóstico de certeza en forma rápida y cuantificar la carga viral presente. El diagnóstico de nefropatía por virus BK se realiza por inmunohistoquímica en una biopsia renal, pero dada la naturaleza multifocal de las lesiones, la sensibilidad no siempre es del 100%. Los nuevos métodos de PCR para detectar virus BK en sangre y orina contribuyen al diagnóstico de nefropatía de una manera más normatizada y menos invasiva. Más aún, la cuantificación del virus BK en sangre por PCR en tiempo real, ha demostrado ser útil en el diagnóstico y monitoreo de esta enfermedad. En este trabajo se presenta el caso de una paciente transplantada renal con nefropatía por virus BK y el desarrollo de un método de PCR en tiempo real para la detección de virus BK en sangre y orina. Esta nueva metodología confirmó el diagnóstico de nefropatía por virus BK lo que permitió un cambio en el esquema de inmunosupresión y la instauración de un tratamiento que pudo ser monitorizado utilizando la carga viral.BK virus nephropathy may lead to kidney transplant failure. BK infection and acute rejection are clinically undistinguishable, therefore diagnosis of these entities is critical to establish the correct treatment. The new molecular methods using PCR and real time PCR have significantly contributed to the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of BK virus. Furthermore, viral load determination in plasma has significantly been associated with BK virus nephropathy. Definite diagnosis of nephropathy requires renal biopsy, although

  17. Disfunción tiroidea en adultos infectados por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana

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    Erika Abelleira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV tienen una mayor prevalencia de disfunción tiroidea cuando se los compara con la población general. Las manifestaciones más frecuentemente observadas son: el síndrome del eutiroideo enfermo, la enfermedad de Graves y el hipotiroidismo subclínico. La relación entre el uso de la terapia antirretroviral y el incremento en la prevalencia de alteraciones tiroideas fue demostrada en varias series de pacientes. La enfermedad de Graves se reconoce claramente como una consecuencia del síndrome de restitución inmune. Además, existen estudios que sugieren una relación entre hipotiroidismo y el uso de inhibidores nucleósidos de la transcriptasa reversa, en particular estavudina y el inhibidor no nucleósido de la transcriptasa reversa efavirenz. Nuevos estudios podrán aportar evidencia adicional sobre la necesidad de evaluaciones rutinarias de la función tiroidea en pacientes infectados por HIV.

  18. Neutropenia crónica e infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

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    Ronald A Noguera-Valverde

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino con neutropenia crónica e infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, con una revisión de los posibles mecanismos patogénicos. Las alteraciones hematológicas como anemia, trombocitopenia y leucopenia se presentan asociadas con frecuencia a la infección aguda por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. Al establecer la terapia antirretroviral y disminuir la actividad del virus, estas alteraciones tienden a mejorar. Sin embargo, algunos fármacos antirretrovirales, como la zidovudina, poseen toxicidad medular y pueden producir o empeorar las alteraciones hematológicas en estos pacientes, lo cual lleva a cambios en los esquemas de tratamiento. Los citotóxicos y antimetabolitos empleados en el tratamiento de neoplasias asociadas tienen conocida actividad depresora sobre la médula ósea. Algunos antimicrobianos utilizados en la profilaxis de infecciones poseen también toxicidad hematológica conocida, como el trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol, por lo que deben ser utilizados con precaución en pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. Por otro lado, se plantean mecanismos alternativos que causan neutropenia en estos pacientes, como la formación de anticuerpos antineutrófilos, daño primario del progenitor granulocítico, por desbalance en la producción de neutrófilos, por anticuerpos contra la glicoproteína gp120 de la cápside viral del VIH, y deficiencias vitamínicas. En el caso del paciente neutropénico febril, en quien se sospecha infección bacteriana grave, se pueden utilizar los factores estimulantes de las colonias de granulocitos para aumentar los conteos absolutos de neutrófilos y mejorar la recuperación clínica.

  19. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations.

  20. Infecciones concurrentes por dos serotipos del virus dengue durante un brote en el noroeste de Perú, 2008 Concurrent infections by two dengue virus serotypes during an outbreak in northwestern Peru, 2008

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    Enrique Mamani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir la existencia de infecciones concurrentes por diferentes serotipos del virus dengue (DENV en un brote ocurrido en el noroeste de Perú durante el 2008. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó 73 muestras séricas de pacientes con dengue en un brote en el noroeste de Perú entre mayo y junio de 2008. Para la serotipificación del DENV se utilizó técnicas de biología molecular; así, primero se realizó la extracción del ARN con el kit QIAamp viral RNA Mini, luego se realizó la transcripción inversa y amplificación de los fragmentos de ADNc viral mediante las técnicas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa (RT-PCR multiplex y de RT-Anidada PCR (RT-Nested PCR, y finalmente de realizó el secuenciamiento genético de los fragmentos de ADNc viral utilizando el kit Big Dye Terminator v.3,1. Resultados. Los 73 casos de dengue presentaron infecciones por diferentes serotipos: 34 (46,6% por DENV-3, 29 (39,7% por DENV-1, 4 (5,5% por DENV-4 y 6 casos (8,2% por DENV-1 y DENV-3. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes fueron fiebre y cefalea (100%, mialgia (94,5%, dolor ocular (83,6%, artralgia (78,1%, escalofríos (63,0%, nauseas/vómitos (38,4%, prueba de lazo positiva (30,1% y erupción cutánea (20,5%. Los pacientes con infecciones concurrentes presentaron cuadros leves, excepto una paciente que presentó prueba de lazo positivo y sangrado genital. Conclusión. Es el primer reporte de pacientes peruanos con infecciones concurrentes por dos serotipos del DENV sin formas graves de la enfermedad.Objetives. To establish the existence of concurrent infections by different dengue virus (DENV serotypes in an outbreak in the Northwestern in Peru during 2008. Material and methods. 73 serum samples from patients with dengue were analyzed during an outbreak that occurred in Northwestern in Peru between May and June 2008. Molecular biology techniques were used to serotype the DENV, thus, firstly the viral RNA

    1. Validity of genito-urinary discharges, genital ulcers and genital rashes as indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Eziyi Iche Kalu

      2015-06-01

      Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the validity of vaginal discharges, urethral discharges, genital rashes, and painful genital ulcers as indicators of early detection of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection among pregnant women in Benin metropolis. Methods: Participants were antenatal clinic attendees of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital, Benin. Baseline sociodemographic, obstetric and HSV-2 serological data were collected. The HSV-2-seronegative returned for a repeat HSV-2 antibody assay before delivery date. Data on incidence of genital rashes, abnormal vaginal discharges, painful genital ulcers and urethral discharges were collected. Results: The sensitivities of abnormal vaginal discharges, genital rashes, urethral discharges and painful genital ulcers were 82.3%, 70.6%, 41.2% and 28.6% respectively; while their positive-predictive values were 53.8%, 60.0%, 58.3% and 66.7% respective. All the symptoms had >95% specificities and 95% negative-predictive values for seroincident HSV-2 infection. Conclusions: Abnormal vaginal discharge, genital rashes, urethral discharges and genital ulcers are valid indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection and could be useful in formulation of screening tools in resource-limited settings.

    2. Carcinoma hepatocelular y linfoma folicular en paciente cirrótico por virus de la hepatitis C

      OpenAIRE

      García, L.; Boschero, F.; Río, V. del; Balbín, E.; Espeche, W.

      2016-01-01

      El virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) tiene demostrado poder oncogénico. Su asociación con Carcinoma Hepatocelular (CHC) en pacientes con cirrosis hepática es bien conocida como también con el Linfoma no Hodgkin indolente. Es poco frecuente que estas tres entidades se presenten simultáneamente. El objetivo de este reporte es describir la presentación clínica, la metodología diagnóstica y la evolución de un paciente que presentó concomitantemente infección crónica por virus C, cirrosis, hepatocarci...

    3. CONFIRMACIÓN POR LABORATORIO DE UN CASO FULMINANTE DE NEUMONÍA POR VIRUS DE VARICELA ZOSTER EN UNA MUJER ADULTA Laboratory confirmation of fulminant varicella zoster virus pneumonia in an adult woman

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      Claudia Martínez Uzeta

      2007-07-01

      Full Text Available Antecedentes . La varicela es una enfermedad relativamente benigna en la infancia, pero en los adultos se presenta con gran severidad y con complicaciones que pueden ser fatales. Normalmente, el diagnóstico se hace solamente por los signos clínicos de la enfermedad. Objetivos . Realizar un diagnóstico confirmatorio de varicela sobre el informe presuntivo de patología. Material y métodos . A una paciente fallecida en prisión, se le realizó la necropsia e histopatología en el Instituto de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses de Bogotá. A partir de las muestras de tejidos archivadas en parafina, se hizo extracción de DNA y amplificación del genoma del virus de varicela zoster, el cual fue confirmado por secuenciación. Una muestra archivada de suero se procesó por ELISA para la detección de anticuerpos específicos para el virus. Resultados . Por ELISA se encontró IgM pero no IgG específica para el virus de varicela zoster. En la prueba de PCR se amplificó un fragmento de 297 pb correspondiente a una región del genoma del virus de varicela zoster, que fue confirmado por secuenciación. Conclusiones . Las muestras de tejidos almacenadas fueron útiles para la realización de pruebas confirmatorias de laboratorio.Background . Primary varicella infection is a benign disease during childhood, but infection in adults causes serious complications and high mortality rate. Normally, diagnosis is made only by their clinical signs. Objetive . To make a confirmatory diagnostic about putative patologist one of varicella , using serological and molecular tests carried out on filed samples. Material and methods . DNA was extracted form archival samples using paraffin-embedded tissue specimens and varicella zoster virus genome was detected by PCR and sequencing confirmed. In addition, an archival serum sample was processed by ELISA. Results . ELISA of serum detects IgM but not IgG specific antibodies to varicella zoster virus. Primer specific PCR

    4. Historia natural de la infección por el VHC Natural history of hepatitis C virus infection

      OpenAIRE

      2004-01-01

      El curso generalmente indolente, lento y prolongado de la infección por el virus de la hepatitis C ha limitado la realización de estudios que valoren su historia natural. Dichos estudios han tenido como objetivo la probabilidad de muerte por enfermedad hepática, cirrosis hepática (compensada o descompensada) y/o hepatocarcinoma, o el desarrollo de una fibrosis hepática importante (substrato anatomopatológico indispensable para el desarrollo de las complicaciones de la cirrosis hepática). A pe...

    5. Infección de la mucosa oral por Coxsackie virus: enfermedad de boca-mano-pie

      OpenAIRE

      Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Concha Cusihuallpa, Hiroshi; Guevara Canales, Janet Ofelia

      2015-01-01

      La enfermedad de manos, pies y boca es una infección enteroviral producida por el Coxsackie virus, generalmente serotipo A16, que afecta principalmente a niños, caracterizada por la aparición de vesículas en las zonas palmoplantares y en la mucosa oral. Se reporta el caso de una paciente mujer de 25 años de edad que presentaba erupciones vesiculares típicas en la piel y en boca, úlceras dolorosas en lengua, mucosa de carrillo y labio superior. Se discute el diagnóstico diferencial y se enfati...

    6. Patogénesis molecular en la infección experimental por virus Coxsackie B3

      OpenAIRE

      Jaquenod de Giusti, Carolina

      2013-01-01

      Objetivo general Estudiar los mecanismos patogénicos moleculares en tipos celulares claves en la infección experimental por CVB3. Objetivos específicos e hipótesis de trabajo 1. Estudiar la expresión de los receptores celulares y su correlación con la susceptibilidad a la infección por virus Coxsackie B (CVB) en células cardíacas murinas y humanas y en ratones de distintas cepas Acorde a trabajos previos (Kandolf et al. 1985; Gomez et al. 1993), los ...

    7. DISFUNCIÓN VENTRICULAR IZQUIERDA EN PACIENTES CON INFECCIÓN POR VIRUS DE INMUNODEFICIENCIA HUMANA / Left ventricular dysfunction in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

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      Angélica M. Reyes Pérez

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available Resumen: La infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana es una de las principales causas de cardiopatía adquirida, especialmente de disfunción ventricular izquierda sintomática. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica para profundizar en los diversos elementos clínicos, fisiopatológicos y diagnósticos que caracterizan a estos pacientes. La patogénesis de la disfunción del ventrículo izquierdo se relaciona con diversos agentes causales como: la infección miocárdica por el propio virus, las infecciones oportunistas o por otros virus, mecanismos autoinmunes, deficiencias nutricionales, sobreexpresión de citocinas y toxicidad inducida por fármacos. La disfunción sistólica sintomática es una manifestación tardía de afectación cardíaca mientras que una proporción importante de pacientes presentan alteraciones clínicamente silentes. La disfunción diastólica cursa con una alteración precoz de la relajación miocárdica y de la dinámica de llenado del ventrículo izquierdo. La ecocardiografía es útil para el diagnóstico. El tratamiento antirretroviral actual incrementa la supervivencia de pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, lo cual presumiblemente producirá un aumento en la prevalencia de complicaciones cardíacas. Se requiere de nuevos estudios prospectivos observacionales que determinen la susceptibilidad de desarrollar enfermedad cardíaca sintomática en los pacientes infectados por este virus. / Abstract: Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus is a major cause of acquired heart disease, especially symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. A literature review was conducted to deepen the understanding of the various clinical, pathophysiological and diagnostic aspects that characterize these patients. The pathogenesis of left ventricular dysfunction is related to various causative agents such as: myocardial infection by the virus itself, opportunistic infections or by other

    8. Genital soft tissue tumors.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

      2015-07-01

      Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

    9. Genital/Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC)

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... experience genital itching, burning, and sometimes a "cottage cheese-like" vaginal discharge. Men with genital candidiasis may ... number of Candida organisms are present. A fungal culture may not always be useful because Candida species ...

    10. Comportamiento de la diarrea causada por virus y bacterias en regiones cercanas a la zona ecuatorial

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      María Fernanda Gutiérrez

      2005-12-01

      Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA es un problema de salud a nivel mundial que afecta a la población infantil de distintas regiones. Casi todos los estudios epidemiológicos se han hecho en países con estaciones y poco se informa su comportamiento en países sin estaciones, donde la EDA es endémica con picos epidémicos. Objetivos: Contribuir a conocer la conducta de EDA en Colombia y determinar si su comportamiento es diferente en niños menores de cinco años en dos regiones distintas entre sí en geografía y clima. Materiales y métodos: Se hizo un estudio descriptivo en dos localidades colombianas. Una en la costa atlántica y otra en el centro del país. La muestra se obtuvo en menores de cinco años que consultaron por diarrea a centros asistenciales de cada región. Los microorganismos bacterianos se identificaron mediante pruebas bioquímicas y los virus con técnicas inmunoenzimáticas. En el análisis estadístico se siguieron un ensayo bivariado y pruebas Z de normalidad para verificar si el clima modifica el comportamiento de EDA y si se presenta de manera distinta en las dos regiones. Resultados: En ambas zonas (Cartagena, Bolívar y Facatativa, Cundinamarca predominó la diarrea viral, frente a la EDA bacteriana. También en ambas el rotavirus fue prevalente. Fue mucho más baja la presencia de astrovirus y adenovirus. No hubo datos con significación estadística para demostrar que las condiciones ambientales y las propias de los niños, alteran el comportamiento de la EDA, pero sí se observó que la EDA por rotavirus se comporta de manera diferente al analizar en forma comparativa las dos regiones del estudio.

    11. Comportamiento de la diarrea causada por virus y bacterias en regiones cercanas a la zona ecuatorial.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      María Fernanda Gutiérrez

      2009-11-01

      Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA es un problema de salud a nivel mundial que afecta a la población infantil de distintas regiones. Casi todos los estudios epidemiológicos se han hecho en países con estaciones y poco se informa su comportamiento en países sin estaciones, donde la EDA es endémica con picos epidémicos. OBJETIVOS: Contribuir a conocer la conducta de EDA en Colombia y determinar si su comportamiento es diferente en niños menores de cinco años en dos regiones distintas entre sí en geografía y clima. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se hizo un estudio descriptivo en dos localidades colombianas. Una en la costa atlántica y otra en el centro del país. La muestra se obtuvo en menores de cinco años que consultaron por diarrea a centros asistenciales de cada región. Los microorganismos bacterianos se identificaron mediante pruebas bioquímicas y los virus con técnicas inmunoenzimáticas. En el análisis estadístico se siguieron un ensayo bivariado y pruebas Z de normalidad para verificar si el clima modifica el comportamiento de EDA y si se presenta de manera distinta en las dos regiones. RESULTADOS: En ambas zonas (Cartagena, Bolívar y Facatativa, Cundinamarca predominó la diarrea viral, frente a la EDA bacteriana. También en ambas el rotavirus fue prevalente. Fue mucho más baja la presencia de astrovirus y adenovirus. No hubo datos con significación estadística para demostrar que las condiciones ambientales y las propias de los niños, alteran el comportamiento de la EDA, pero sí se observó que la EDA por rotavirus se comporta de manera diferente al analizar en forma comparativa las dos regiones del estudio.

    12. Detección molecular del virus de la leucosis bovina: un estudio por conglomerados en Colombia

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      Giovanna Meza-Barreto

      2016-11-01

      Full Text Available La leucosis bovina enzoótica (LBE es ocasionada por un virus de la familia Retroviridae, el virus de la leucosis bovina (VLB, que afecta bovinos de cualquier edad, sexo y raza y genera importantes pérdidas económicas. En Colombia, los pocos estudios moleculares se concentran en ganado de leche; por ello, el presente trabajo se dirigió a detectar el VLB mediante una prueba molecular de PCR en animales destinados a diferentes tipos de explotación ganadera y de diferentes regiones del país, con el propósito de evaluar la relación entre la presencia del VLB en los animales, la ubicación geográfica y el tipo de explotación bovina. De un total de 230 animales, organizados por conglomerados según la región de origen, el 22.6 % se detectó con el VLB; de estos la región Centro presentó el mayor número de animales infectados (50.7 %. En cuanto al tipo de producción, el ganado de leche fue el más susceptible a ser infectado por el VLB (50.7 %. Los resultados indican que existe una significativa relación entre la presencia molecular del virus, la ubicación geográfica de los animales y el tipo de explotación bovina, datos importantes para la planeación de programas de prevención y control de la LBE por los organismos gubernamentales de salud animal.

    13. Parálisis facial bilateral secundaria a infección por virus de Epstein-Barr Bilateral facial palsy due to Epstein-Barr virus infection

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M.E. Erro

      2010-04-01

      Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo es describir dos pacientes jóvenes con parálisis facial periférica bilateral. Ambos presentaron inicialmente afectación en un lado de la cara, seguida pocos días después de afectación contralateral junto con sintomatología compatible con infección aguda por el virus de Epstein-Barr, que se confirmó con la serología. Uno de los pacientes experimentó mejoría completa mientras que en el otro la recuperación fue lenta y quedaron secuelas permanentes. La lesión bilateral del nervio facial es una complicación infrecuente de la infección por el virus de Epstein-Barr cuya evolución no siempre es favorable. Se discute su mecanismo patogénico.Two young patients with bilateral facial palsy are described. They initially presented unilateral facial palsy, followed by contralateral facial nerve involvement a few days later, together with clinical and serologic evidence of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection. The outcome was favourable in one patient but severe sequels persisted in the second. These two cases show that this infrequent complication of Epstein-Barr virus infection may not always have a good outcome. The pathogenic mechanism of bilateral facial palsy is discussed.

    14. Síndrome de hiperinfección por Strongyloides stercoralis en una paciente con infección por el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH): Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

      OpenAIRE

      Vildósola, Hernán; Del Carpio, Daniel; Rodriguez, Diana

      2015-01-01

      Reportamos el caso de una paciente de 21 años, con la asociación síndrome de interinfección por Strongyloides stercoralis e infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) que constituye el décimo quinto publicado en la literatura. Se revisan las hipótesis por las cuales esta asociación es infrecuente, así como las alternativas terapéuticas.

    15. Diagnóstico virológico y molecular de virus transmitidos por roedores. Hantavirus y arenavirus

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      Silvana Levis

      2010-04-01

      Full Text Available Los hantavirus (familia Bunyaviridae y arenavirus (familia Arenaviridae son virus de roedores; cada uno de ellos parece estar estrictamente asociado con una especie de roedor en la que causa una infección persistente y asintomática. En las Américas tienen como reservorios primarios a roedores de la sub-familia Sigmodontinae, y son causantes de síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH y fiebres hemorrágicas, respectivamente (1,2. El número de estos virus identificados en los últimos años ha aumentado significativamente; actualmente, el género Hantavirus está compuesto por más de 28 tipos diferentes, mientras que al menos 23 arenavirus conforman el género Arenavirus. Entre los hantavirus asociados con SPH se destacan el virus Sin Nombre en Norteamérica, y los virus Andes, Laguna Negra, Caño Delgadito, Araraquara y Juquitiba, en el cono sur de América, entre otros (2. Los arenavirus asociados a fiebres hemorrágicas reconocidos en Sud América al presente son: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Sabiá (Brasil, y Machupo y Chapare (Bolivia (3.

    16. Detection of human papilloma virus in 249 cases of patients with genital warts%249例生殖器疣患者人乳头瘤病毒检测分析

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      李蕾; 邹先彪

      2016-01-01

      Objective To investigate the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes from outpatients with genital wart in Beijing.Method Flow cytometry HPV genotyping technique were used to detect and identify HPV genotypes from individual lesions. Result Among 249 cases of genital warts, 232 (93.17%) were DNA HPV positive. The positive rate of HPV single type was 63.86%, the positive rate of multiple type of HPV was 36.14%. The infection rate of low-risk HPV was 55.4%, in which HPV6 and HPV11 were the most popular genotypes. HPV16, HPV58, HPV18 were the most prevalent high-risk genotypes.Conclusion The peak of HPV infection concentrates in sexually active population younger than 40 years old. HPV6, HPV11 and HPV16 are the predominant genotypes for genital wart in Beijing.%目的:调查生殖器疣患者人乳头瘤病毒(human papilloma virus,HPV)感染特点,为HPV感染的预防和诊治提供理论依据。方法采用流式荧光HPV基因分型技术检测249例生殖器疣患者皮损组织中HPV的型别。结果249例生殖器疣患者中,232例(93.17%)HPV DNA阳性。单一型感染率为63.86%,复合型感染率为36.14%。低危型HPV阳性率为55.4%,其中以HPV6、HPV11最多;高危型中以HPV16最多,其次为HPV58、HPV18型。结论本地区生殖器HPV感染集中于40岁以下性活跃期的人群。以单一型感染为主,最常见HPV6、HPV11和HPV16型感染。

    17. Determining oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with genital warts.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cokluk, Erdem; Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Balahoroglu, Ragip; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Huyut, Zubeyir

      2015-09-01

      Warts are abnormal skin growths caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infections within the skin of patients. Genital warts usually appear in the perianal and perigenital regions. Asymptomatic warts may be activated after years and may damage natural immunity. The inflammation that occurs during this process may lead to an imbalance between the prooxidant and the antioxidant systems. The aim of this study was to investigate erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, serum paraoxonase enzyme levels, and oxidative stress levels in patients with genital warts. In total, 32 patients with genital warts and 35 healthy subjects were included in this study. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum catalase activity, and paraoxonase enzyme, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum MDA levels, and catalase activity were significantly higher in patients with genital warts than in controls (P 0.05). Serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in patients with genital warts than in controls (P 0.05). Our data suggest that oxidative stress is increased in genital warts. Increased oxidative stress levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital warts, and prolonged HPV infection due to chronic inflammation could also affect oxidative stress.

    18. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

      2016-01-01

      The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

    19. Healing of Genital Injuries

      Science.gov (United States)

      Berkowitz, Carol D.

      2011-01-01

      Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

    20. Female genital mutilation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

      1993-08-21

      Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

    1. Genital lesions following bestiality

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mittal A

      2000-01-01

      Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

    2. Exantema hemorrágico por virus dengue inducido por ácido acetil-salicílico Haemorrhagic exanthema due to dengue virus induced by acetylsalicylic acid

      OpenAIRE

      Valerio, L.; X. de Balanzó; Jiménez, O.; M. L. Pedro-Botet

      2006-01-01

      El dengue, enfermedad infecciosa vírica propia de los climas tropicales, se considera una patología reemergente que ha dado lugar a graves epidemias en la última década. En la expansión del virus y de su mosquito vector se barajan factores relacionados con la alteración humana del medio, con la rapidez en el tránsito de mercancias y personas y debidos al cambio climático. Como reflejo de ello, se asiste a un aumento de casos importados que, al ser una enfermedad con periodo de incubación cort...

    3. Manifestaciones psiquiátricas desencadenadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Roberto Anselmo Ramos Valverde

      2014-11-01

      Full Text Available La alta morbilidad de perturbaciones mentales y del comportamiento, desencadenada por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH, asombra a colaboradores cubanos en la ciudad de Maputo, capital de Mozambique. Solo apelando a los conocimientos actuales de la Psicoendocrinoneuroinmunologia, que describe la vinculación basada en la teoría de la complejidad de este suprasistema, que comparte receptores y mediadores químicos, se puede disipar el asombro y llegar a comprender la esencia científica de este problema de salud. El VIH es un virus que posee un elevado trofismo por el Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC, infesta a los macrófagos, a las células multinucleadas, derivadas de ellos, y a las neuroglias; no se tiene claro si invade las neuronas, pero los productos tóxicos, derivados de su penetración al SNC y los mecanismos inflamatorios desencadenados, provocan la muerte de las mismas. La glicoproteína GP120, encontrada en la envoltura viral, ha sido la principal responsable de la activación de las citoquinas, sustancias encargadas de desencadenar las cascadas inflamatorias que destruyen la mielina, generando el complejo demencial asociado al VIH-SIDA, descrito en la década del 80. La deficiencia en la neurotransmisión serotoninérgica y el aumento de la activación del receptor de glutamato N-metil-d-aspartato NMDA, propician la depresión y su mantención en el tiempo, posee efectos neurotóxicos y neurodegenerativos demenciantes. Otros síndromes psiquiátricos pueden aparecer y se desconoce su mecanismo de producción, sin embargo, el denominador común de todos es la inmunosupresión y su compleja interacción con factores constitucionales, genéticos, psicológicos y sociales. De esta manera la acción viral directa, las enfermedades asociadas infecciosas y de otra naturaleza, la repercusión psicológica y la estigmatización social, pueden generar la aparición de trastornos psiquiátricos en individuos previamente sanos o

    4. Miocarditis fulminante y enfermedad diarreica aguda por Coxsackie virus B6 Fulminant myocarditis and acute gastroenteritis due to Coxsackie virus B6

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Germán Málaga

      2011-03-01

      Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente joven que presentó choque cardiogénico por virus Coxsakie B6. La paciente acudió a una clínica particular con un cuadro clínico compatible con gastroenterocolitis aguda a la que después de una hora de estar recibiendo hidratación y manejo del cuadro diagnosticado, se agregó hipotensión que llegó al estado de choque, hipoxemia severa y compromiso pulmonar bilateral intersticial por lo que ingresó a Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, donde recibió manejo de soporte. Debido al cuadro clínico y elevación de enzimas cardiacas se sospechó de compromiso cardiaco, la ecocardiografía evidenció cambios sugerentes de miocarditis. La evolución fue favorable y se le pudo dar de alta después de una semana. El diagnóstico etiológico del cuadro se hizo en el seguimiento, presentando serología con elevación de títulos para virus Coxsakie B6.We present the case of a young woman who suffered cardiogenic due to by Coxsackie virus B6. The patient attended a private clinic with an acute gastroenteritis and after one hour of receiving hydratation,she developed hypotension and shock, severe hypoxemia and bilateral lung infiltrate. The patient entered the Intensive Care Unit, where she received hemodynamic support. Due to the clinical picture and cardiac enzymes increase, a cardiac failure was suspected and the echocardiographic findings suggested "myocarditis". The evolution was successful and Coxsackie B6 virus infection diagnosis was made during the follow up by increase of the levels of antibodies for virus Coxsackie B6.

    5. Caracterización de virus patógenos de leguminosas transmitidos por pulgones

      OpenAIRE

      Ortiz Cortés, Vilma Jannette

      2003-01-01

      La reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) ha incrementado su uso en el diagnóstico molecular de virus de plantas, principalmente es una herramienta de gran utilidad para la detección de virus confinados al floema, como es el caso de los miembros de la familia Luteoviridae. En esta tesis se ha confirmado mediante la RT- PCR, la presencia del virus del enrollado de la hoja de la judía, Bean leaf roff virus (BLRV) en España, se ha puesto a punto un procedimiento en la extracción de ácidos nuc...

    6. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009

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      Horacio López

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada. El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina. Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se señala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica. Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina.

    7. Neutropenia crónica e infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana Chronic neutropenia and human immunodeficiency virus infection

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      Ronald A Noguera-Valverde

      2008-09-01

      Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino con neutropenia crónica e infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, con una revisión de los posibles mecanismos patogénicos. Las alteraciones hematológicas como anemia, trombocitopenia y leucopenia se presentan asociadas con frecuencia a la infección aguda por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. Al establecer la terapia antirretroviral y disminuir la actividad del virus, estas alteraciones tienden a mejorar. Sin embargo, algunos fármacos antirretrovirales, como la zidovudina, poseen toxicidad medular y pueden producir o empeorar las alteraciones hematológicas en estos pacientes, lo cual lleva a cambios en los esquemas de tratamiento. Los citotóxicos y antimetabolitos empleados en el tratamiento de neoplasias asociadas tienen conocida actividad depresora sobre la médula ósea. Algunos antimicrobianos utilizados en la profilaxis de infecciones poseen también toxicidad hematológica conocida, como el trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol, por lo que deben ser utilizados con precaución en pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. Por otro lado, se plantean mecanismos alternativos que causan neutropenia en estos pacientes, como la formación de anticuerpos antineutrófilos, daño primario del progenitor granulocítico, por desbalance en la producción de neutrófilos, por anticuerpos contra la glicoproteína gp120 de la cápside viral del VIH, y deficiencias vitamínicas. En el caso del paciente neutropénico febril, en quien se sospecha infección bacteriana grave, se pueden utilizar los factores estimulantes de las colonias de granulocitos para aumentar los conteos absolutos de neutrófilos y mejorar la recuperación clínica.A case of a male with chronic neutropenia and human immunodeficiency virus infection is presented along, with a review of possible pathogenic mechanisms. Hematological abnormalities as anemia, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia are frequently

    8. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus Andes en Chile CARDIOPULMONARY SYNDROME DUE TO ANDES VIRUS IN CHILE

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      CONSTANZA CASTILLO H.

      2002-01-01

      Full Text Available Desde 1993 han ocurrido 204 casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en Chile. Los brotes epidémicos comenzaron en el sur y avanzan hacia el norte del país. Los más afectados son varones jóvenes, obreros agrícolas o forestales. En Chile, el SCPH es causado por el virus Andes, cuyo reservorio es el Oligorizomys longicaudatus (ratón de cola larga, que se distribuye desde la III Región al sur. El cuadro clínico es similar al descrito en EE.UU., caracterizado por una fase prodrómica que simula un estado gripal o cuadro gastrointestinal febril y que agrava por la aparición de edema pulmonar agudo e inestabilidad hemodinámica (fase cardiopulmonar. Sin embargo, cursa con mayores alteraciones hemorragí-paras y compromiso renal. La mortalidad inicial fue sobre 50% y actualmente es de alrededor del 33,3%. La presente revisión incluye: historia de la enfermedad, reservorio, modos de transmisión, patogenia, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamiento y medidas de prevenciónSince 1993, 204 cases of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in Chile. Epidemic began in the south and moved thereafter to the northern regions. The disease affected predominantly young males, who worked in agricultural labours or as timber workers. The HCPS in Chile is caused by the Andes virus. The reservoir is the wild rat Oligoryzomis longicaudatus distributed from the III to the XII Region. The clinical features are similar to those described for Sin Nombre Virus. The disease has a prodromal stage characterised by fever, muscular pain, with or without gastrointestinal manifestations, followed by the rapid onset of respiratory insufficiency and haemodynamic unstability. Andes virus courses more often with haemorrhagic disorders and overt renal failure, than Sin Nombre Virus. The initial mortality was over 50% and declined to 33,3% in the last year. History of hantavirus-diseases, reservoir, and mode of contagion, pathogenesis, clinical

    9. Baja prevalencia de la infección por el virus de la hepatitis C en una población de reclusos, Maracaibo, Venezuela

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      Francisca Monsalve

      2009-12-01

      Conclusiones. La prevalencia de la infección por el virus de la hepatitis C en esta población fue baja, lo que evidencia la baja circulación del virus en el reclusorio. El principal factor de riesgo para la adquisición de la infección, al parecer, es el uso de drogas intravenosas.

    10. Deteccion del virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo por captura hibrida II segun hallazgos citologicos en mujeres tratadas por lesiones escamosas intraepiteliales de cuello uterino, periodo 2006/2010

      OpenAIRE

      Pamela Mongelos; Malvina Paez; Isabel Rodriguez-Riveros; Graciela Gimenez; Amalia Castro; Laura Mendoza

      2013-01-01

      OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia del virus de papiloma humano de alto riesgo oncogénico (HR-HPV) por captura híbrida II (r) (CH II(r)) según hallazgos citológicos en mujeres tratadas por lesiones escamosas intraepiteliales (SIL) de cuello uterino. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo de corte transverso de una serie de casos, en donde se incluyeron 122 mujeres tratadas, 79 (65%) por SIL de bajo grado (LSIL) y 43 (35%) por SIL de alto grado (HSIL) que concurrier...

    11. Manejo de la coinfección por virus de la hepatitis B y VIH en el Perú

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      Vivian Levy

      2007-10-01

      Full Text Available En el Perú, los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH deben ser incorporados a los grupos de riesgo para la infección por virus de hepatitis B (HBV, los cuales también incluye a personas provenientes de áreas endémicas de HBV, trabajadores de atención en salud y trabajadores/as sexuales, que potencialmente puedan estar infectadas por el VIH. Debido a que en estos grupos comparten riesgos para la transmisión sexual, la coinfección con HBV y VIH, es común particularmente en HSH y en heterosexuales de alto riesgo. Se debe tener mucho cuidado en el tratamiento para la infección crónica por el HBV en pacientes que tienen, además, coinfección con el VIH. Los principales objetivos del tratamiento de la infección con HBV son suprimir la replicación del virus, mejorar las funciones hepáticas y minimizar la emergencia de resistencia medicamentosa al HBV y al VIH. En el presente artículo se revisa la epidemiología del HBV en el Perú, la historia natural de la coinfección con HBV-VIH y se describe las opciones actuales de tratamiento en el contexto peruano.

    12. Excreção e transmissão do vírus da diarréia viral bovina por bezerros persistentemente infectados Shedding and transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus by persistently infected calves

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      Sandra Arenhart

      2009-09-01

      /48 (16,6% foram soropositivos para anticorpos no dia 10, 26/48 (54,1% no dia 40 e 37/48 (77% haviam soroconvertido no dia 100, quando encerrou-se o monitoramento. Estes resultados demonstram que a viremia e excreção viral contínua em altos títulos por animais PI assegura a transmissão rápida do BVDV a animais mantidos em contato, sendo a transmissão notadamente mais rápida em condições intensivas e de alta densidade animal.Persistently infected (PI calves born to cows infected with non-cytopathic bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV represent the main reservoir of the virus in nature. We herein report an investigation on the patterns of virus shedding and transmission by five PI calves produced experimentally through inoculation of pregnant cows with Brazilian BVDV isolates. Five calves that survived intrauterine infection were born healthy, lacking neutralizing antibodies to BVDV and harboring virus in the blood. After weaning - and following the disappearance of colostral antibodies - PI calves were monitored for virus in serum and body secretions (ocular, oral, nasal and genital at weekly intervals for up to 150 days. For each animal, the virus titers in serum showed minor variations throughout the collections (with one exception that presented an increase late in infection, yet the titers varied widely among animals (from 10² to 10(6TCID50/mL. Virus shedding in secretions was detected steadily during all the observation period with minor titer variations for each particular animal. The highest titers were generally detected in nasal and ocular secretions (titers 10(4 to 10(6TCID50mL whereas genital and oral secretions usually contained low amount of virus (10² to 10³TCID50mL. To evaluate the kinetics of virus transmission by these animals, one PI was introduced on a group of 10 seronegative calves maintained with a high animal density simulating the conditions of an intensive management. All 10 contact calves seroconverted to BVDV by day 30. Another PI calf

    13. Genital herpes: Heisenberg revisited

      OpenAIRE

      Goldmeier, D

      1998-01-01

      In the confirmation of recurrences of genital herpes, patient defined disease reactivation and virological data hold the scientific high ground. The influence of the psyche on recurrence rates and perception of recurrences has been largely neglected and marginalised up to the present, possibly because research work in that area has been and continues to be of poor calibre. However, neglected psychological variables may render otherwise relevant clinical trials uninterpretable. Psycholog...

    14. Infección de neovagina en Síndrome de Rokitansky por virus del papiloma humano Neovaginal infection for human papiloma virus in Rokitansky Syndrome

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      A.A. Núñez Serrano

      2007-03-01

      Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente con Síndrome de Rokitansky que, seis años después de la reconstrucción de una neovagina mediante un injerto de piel parcial, presentó una infección vaginal por el virus del papiloma humano. Tras el tratamiento adecuado, la paciente curó, desapareciendo las lesiones locales hasta el momento actual.We are presenting the case of a patient with Rokitansky Syndrome who had a vaginal infection six years after the reconstruction of a neovagina with splint-thickness skin graft. The infection was caused by the human papilloma virus. After the appropriate treatment, the patient healed and the lesions disappeared completely.

    15. Infección de neovagina en Síndrome de Rokitansky por virus del papiloma humano Neovaginal infection for human papiloma virus in Rokitansky Syndrome

      OpenAIRE

      A.A. Núñez Serrano; L.C. Tejerizo López; García Martínez, L.; E. Elena Sorando; J.L. Arranz López; A. de Juan Huelves

      2007-01-01

      Presentamos el caso de una paciente con Síndrome de Rokitansky que, seis años después de la reconstrucción de una neovagina mediante un injerto de piel parcial, presentó una infección vaginal por el virus del papiloma humano. Tras el tratamiento adecuado, la paciente curó, desapareciendo las lesiones locales hasta el momento actual.We are presenting the case of a patient with Rokitansky Syndrome who had a vaginal infection six years after the reconstruction of a neovagina with splint-thicknes...

    16. Genitals and ethnicity: the politics of genital modifications.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

      2010-05-01

      The discrepancy in societal attitudes toward female genital cosmetic surgery for European women and female genital cutting in primarily African girl children and women raises the following fundamental question. How can it be that extensive genital modifications, including reduction of labial and clitoral tissue, are considered acceptable and perfectly legal in many European countries, while those same societies have legislation making female genital cutting illegal, and the World Health Organization bans even the "pricking" of the female genitals? At present, tensions are obvious as regards the modification of female genitalia, and current legislation and medical practice show inconsistencies in relation to women of different ethnic backgrounds. As regards the right to health, it is questionable both whether genital cosmetic surgery is always free of complications and whether female genital cutting always leads to them. Activists, national policymakers and other stakeholders, including cosmetic genital surgeons, need to be aware of these inconsistencies and find ways to resolve them and adopt non-discriminatory policies. This is not necessarily an issue of either permitting or banning all forms of genital cutting, but about identifying a consistent and coherent stance in which key social values - including protection of children, bodily integrity, bodily autonomy, and equality before the law - are upheld. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    17. Patología cardiovascular en pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana

      OpenAIRE

      Germán Valenzuela-Rodríguez

      2012-01-01

      La infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) estuvo asociada a un incremento de la morbimortalidad, dado que inducía un estado de inmunosupresión severa, la cual facilitaba la aparición de infecciones oportunistas. Sin embargo, posterior a la aparición y al uso de la terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA), los pacientes infectados han experimentado una disminución de mortalidad asociada a infecciones, un incremento de la sobrevida y un incremento de enfermedades card...

    18. Aspectos psicosociales en torno a las personas afectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en Costa Rica

      OpenAIRE

      Mata, Leonardo

      1989-01-01

      Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1989 Este trabajo describe aspectos psicosociales que resaltan de la interacción entre los proveedores de atencion en salud (el personal de salud) y las personas afectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia human (HIV). La discusión se basa en las experiencias del autor obtenidas mediante el seguimiento de una falange de casi 1000 hombres homosexuales o bisexuales en Costa Rica, así como de la intera...

    19. Síndrome de Ramsay Hunt y meningitis linfocitaria por virus varicela zoster en una paciente anciana

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      Pablo Ruiz Sada

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available Presentamos un caso de una paciente anciana con un síndrome de Ramsay Hunt (SRH (herpes zóster ótico con afectación de múltiples pares craneales (VII, VIII y V que presentó simultáneamente una meningitis linfocitaria por virus varicela zóster, que evolucionó favorablemente con esteroides y aciclovir. Se revisan las principales características del SRH, haciendo énfasis en la rareza de la coexistencia simultánea de afectación de múltiples pares craneales y meningitis linfocitaria en una paciente inmunocompetente.

    20. Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections

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      Andreas Stein

      1994-01-01

      Full Text Available Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.

    1. Human papillomavirus virus (HPV) genotype- and age-specific analyses of external genital lesions among men in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Messina, Jane A; Stoler, Mark H; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A; O'Keefe, Michael T; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

      2015-04-01

      Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009-2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9-19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

    2. Aspectos biopsicológicos de la infección por virus inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH)

      OpenAIRE

      Aparicio Ágreda, María Lourdes; Cuevas Jiménez, Carlos Pablo

      2006-01-01

      El objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer una comprensión global de la infección por VIH. Si bien es un proceso inicialmente asintomático, el avance de la infección produce consecuencias a nivel de funcionamiento, en gran medida por las implicaciones psicológicas que conlleva. Por ello, se destaca la necesidad de una comprensión que abarque la evaluación e intervención psicológica de la persona con VIH y sus cuidadores como medio de mejorar la calidad de vida de todos ellos. ...

    3. Diagnóstico de virus por inmunodeficiencia humana a partir de una meningoencefalitis por Criptococcus. Presentación de un caso

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      María Odeymi Urdanivia Cruz

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available La criptococosis, infección micótica, poseía mundialmente una presentación esporádica, pero en las dos últimas décadas se viene produciendo un aumento de la incidencia como infección oportunista relacionada con el sida, hasta considerarla como la meningitis fúngica más frecuente en estos pacientes. Es una micosis profunda, de curso subagudo o crónico, considerada como oportunista. Por tales razones se presenta el caso de un paciente de color de piel negra, de 32 años de edad, con antecedentes de asma bronquial, fumador desde hacía 21 años, alcohólico desde hacía 17 años e hipertenso (tres años de evolución, sin llevar tratamiento regularmente. Comenzó cuatro días antes del ingreso con cefalea, toma de la conciencia con relajación de esfínteres. Acudió a Cuerpo de Guardia del Hospital Gustavo Aldereguía Lima, donde se constató rigidez de nuca, cifras de presión de 200/120 mm Hg. Se redujeron estas cifras y el cuadro clínico del paciente mejoró. En el interrogatorio se recogieron antecedentes de un estilo de vida desorganizado, sin pareja estable; al examen físico se observó candidiasis oral y herpes simple en labio inferior. Se realizó un test rápido para virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, que resultó positivo. Se indicó ingreso y se realizaron estudios microbiológicos del líquido cefalorraquídeo con tinción de tinta china que mostraron células levaduriformes capsuladas, signos de meningoencefalitis por Criptococcus.

    4. Immunogenicity and efficacy of intramuscular replication-defective and subunit vaccines against herpes simplex virus type 2 in the mouse genital model.

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      Simon Delagrave

      Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is a sexually transmitted virus that is highly prevalent worldwide, causing a range of symptoms that result in significant healthcare costs and human suffering. ACAM529 is a replication-defective vaccine candidate prepared by growing the previously described dl5-29 on a cell line appropriate for GMP manufacturing. This vaccine, when administered subcutaneously, was previously shown to protect mice from a lethal vaginal HSV-2 challenge and to afford better protection than adjuvanted glycoprotein D (gD in guinea pigs. Here we show that ACAM529 given via the intramuscular route affords significantly greater immunogenicity and protection in comparison with subcutaneous administration in the mouse vaginal HSV-2 challenge model. Further, we describe a side-by-side comparison of intramuscular ACAM529 with a gD vaccine across a range of challenge virus doses. While differences in protection against death are not significant, ACAM529 protects significantly better against mucosal infection, reducing peak challenge virus shedding at the highest challenge dose by over 500-fold versus 5-fold for gD. Over 27% (11/40 of ACAM529-immunized animals were protected from viral shedding while 2.5% (1/40 were protected by the gD vaccine. Similarly, 35% (7/20 of mice vaccinated with ACAM529 were protected from infection of their dorsal root ganglia while none of the gD-vaccinated mice were protected. These results indicate that measuring infection of the vaginal mucosa and of dorsal root ganglia over a range of challenge doses is more sensitive than evaluating survival at a single challenge dose as a means of directly comparing vaccine efficacy in the mouse vaginal challenge model. The data also support further investigation of ACAM529 for prophylaxis in human subjects.

    5. Determinación mediante inmunohistoquímica de infección por virus de la fiebre amarilla y virus de la hepatitis b

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      Cecilia Morón C

      2003-03-01

      Full Text Available La inmunohistoquímica (IHQ constituye una herramienta para definir la etiología en el síndrome icterohemorrágico. Objetivo: Identificar mediante IHQ la presencia en hígado del antígeno de superficie de la hepatitis B y del virus de la fiebre amarilla. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron muestras de tejido hepático procedentes de 55 fallecidos por síndrome icterohemorrágico, remitidos entre enero de 2000 y diciembre de 2001 al Instituto Nacional de Salud, (Lima, Perú. Resultados: La prueba se realizó únicamente en 46 muestras, 33% (15/46 fueron diagnosticados por histopatología como fiebre amarilla, de ellos, 9 casos fueron positivos por IHQ para fiebre amarilla, siendo 2 de ellos también positivos para HBsAg. Histológicamente, se reportaron 6 casos como hepatitis con necrosis submasiva o masiva, que por IHQ fueron sólo 2 casos positivos para fiebre amarilla. En 39% (18/46 no se llegó al diagnóstico etiológico de la hepatitis, y finalmente hubo 2 casos con diagnóstico histopatológico de ádenocarcinoma hepático y sólo se obtuvo positividad por IHQ para HBsAg en uno. Conclusión: La IHQ es una alternativa para la confirmación diagnóstica de hepatitis B y fiebre amarilla.

    6. Infección respiratoria en niños por el virus sincicial respiratorio

      OpenAIRE

      Salas chaves, Pilar

      2014-01-01

      Las infecciones respiratorias son las enfermedades más comunes en la infancia. Entre estas infecciones la bronquiolitis aguda se considera como el cuadro respiratorio más importante en niños menores de seis meses siendo el virus sinci un virus ARN con dos subtipos A y B los cuales están presentes en la mayoría de los brotes. El VSR presenta un patrón predictivo de enfermedad dentro de la comunidad. En Costa Rica es el r de la mayoría de internamientos en niños con enfermedad respiratoria y su...

    7. Intersexual stages. Ambiguous genitals.

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      Salvador G. Carrillo Soriano

      2005-12-01

      Full Text Available It is considered that every newborn that presents a confused aspect of external genitalia, that does not permit to define his phenotypic sex, has Ambiguous Genitals. It includes real cases of intersex abnormalities, or those with severe hypospadia and bilateral chryptorchidism. In spite of the large advances in genetic, hormonal regulation and molecular biology studies in intersex abnormalities, today continues being motive of confussion when a doctor found a newborn with ambiguous genitalia. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Intersex and ambiguos genitalia, approved by consensus in the 4th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Las Tunas, Cuba, March, 2005.

    8. Genital herpes: Heisenberg revisited

      Science.gov (United States)

      Goldmeier, D.

      1998-01-01

      In the confirmation of recurrences of genital herpes, patient defined disease reactivation and virological data hold the scientific high ground. The influence of the psyche on recurrence rates and perception of recurrences has been largely neglected and marginalised up to the present, possibly because research work in that area has been and continues to be of poor calibre. However, neglected psychological variables may render otherwise relevant clinical trials uninterpretable. Psychological aspects of counselling before testing for serum herpes simplex type 2 antibodies are also discussed. 




 PMID:9849561

    9. Eritema multiforme ampollar extenso asociado a infección por virus herpes simplex Extended Bullous Erythema Multiforme Associated To Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

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      A Elgueta-Noy

      2009-12-01

      Full Text Available El Eritema Multiforme (EM es una reacción cutánea aguda generalmente benigna y autolimitada, asociada a la infección por Virus Herpes Simplex (HSV. Se caracteriza por lesiones polimorfas y tipo diana en extremidades y mucosas. Presentamos un paciente de 22 años con pápulas, vesículas y ampollas, que evoluciona con un 90% de la superficie corporal comprometida en tres semanas. Se realizó una reacción de polimerasa en cadena para HSV, resultando positiva en una costra. La biopsia de piel y la tinción de inmunohistoquímica positiva para linfocitos T CD4, fueron compatibles con EM ampollar asociado a HSV. Destacamos la importancia de la correlación clínico patológica, apoyada por el estudio virológico, en el diagnóstico de este caso de presentación atípica. Los hallazgos de laboratorio confirmaron lo descrito en la literatura respecto de la patogenia del EM asociado a HSV.Erythema Multiforme (EM is a generally benign and self-limited acute cutaneous reaction, associated with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV infection. It is characterized by polymorphic "target" lesions in extremities and mucosal tissues. We report a 22-year old patient with papules, vesicles and blisters, which evolved to cover 90% of the body in three weeks. We performed a PCR study for HSV, which was positive in a crust. A skin biopsy and positive immunohistochemical stain for LT CD4+ were compatible with bullous EM associated with HSV. We underline the importance of pathological clinical correlation, reinforced by a virological study, in the diagnosis of this case with atypical symptoms. The laboratory findings confirmed literature descriptions with respect to the pathogenicity of EM associated with HSV.

    10. Evolución de los embarazos de mujeres infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

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      Figueroa-Damián Ricardo

      1999-01-01

      Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar las complicaciones médicas de las embarazadas infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH y asintomáticas, y determinar el riesgo que el virus representa para el desarrollo de las mismas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se comparó la evolución del embarazo y el resultado perinatal de 44 embarazadas seropositivas al VIH, asintomáticas y que presentaron más de 200 linfocitos CD4/mm³, con embarazadas control no infectadas; las pacientes se parearon por edad y nivel socioeconómico. RESULTADOS: En 42 (95.4% pacientes la vía de contagio fue sexual; 35 (79.5% tenían menos de un año de saber que estaban infectadas y 15 (34% recibieron tratamiento antiviral durante la gestación. Las mujeres infectadas por el VIH presentaron un riesgo mayor de complicaciones infecciosas (RR3.1, IC95% 1.9-52, cervicovaginitis (RR2.2, IC95% 1- 48 y enfermedades de transmisión sexual (RR18, IC95% 2.3-137. El promedio de peso y talla de los recién nacidos y el número de complicaciones neonatales fueron similares entre los grupos comparados. El análisis estratificado mostró que la ausencia de tratamiento antirretroviral y el antecedente de tres o más parejas sexuales incrementaron el riesgo de complicaciones infecciosas. CONCLUSIONES: Las embarazadas seropositivas al VIH y asintomáticas no tuvieron un riesgo mayor de complicaciones médicas del embarazo, con excepción de problemas infecciosos.

    11. Rabdomiolisis y miocarditis asociados con infección por el virus dengue

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      Oscar G. Pamo Reyna

      2008-07-01

      Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente que reside en el distrito de Mazamari, provincia de Satipo (selva central del Perú, con un cuadro clínico de dengue, confirmado por serología, donde las mialgias fueron una de las manifestaciones importantes y que desarrolló rabdomiolisis, CPK 6931 μ/L (VN 0-190 μ/L y miocarditis a juzgar por las elevaciones de CPK-MB y troponina I. El tratamiento sintomαtico y una adecuada hidrataciσn permitieron la recuperación de la paciente sin complicaciones mayores.

    12. Infección por virus BK en paciente pediátrico trasplantado renal BK virus infection in a pediatric renal transplant recipient

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      R. Bonaventura

      2005-09-01

      Full Text Available El poliomavirus humano BK causa infección primaria asintomática en la niñez, estableciendo latencia principalmente en el tracto urinario. En individuos con alteración en la inmunidad celular se puede producir su reactivación desencadenando patología a nivel renal. Por estas razones es particularmente importante en la población pediátrica trasplantada renal, en la que puede producir la infección primaria cuando el paciente está inmunosuprimido. En nuestro trabajo se realizó el seguimiento de un paciente de 5 años trasplantado renal en octubre de 2003 que 45 días post-trasplante sufrió un deterioro del órgano injertado. Desde la fecha del trasplante hasta junio de 2004 se produjeron 3 episodios de alteración en la función renal, durante los cuales se analizaron muestras de sangre, orina, biopsia renal y líquido de linfocele. Para el diagnóstico difererencial entre rechazo agudo versus causa infecciosa se emplearon técnicas de detección para los virus BK, CMV y ADV, además del estudio citológico del tejido renal. Los resultados obtenidos junto con la clínica del paciente indican un probable caso de infección por BK. La importancia de realizar el diagnóstico diferencial entre rechazo agudo y la infección por BK radica en que la conducta en cuanto a la terapia inmunosupresora es opuesta en cada caso.BK Human Polyomavirus causes an asymptomatic primary infection in children, then establishing latency mainly in the urinary tract. Viral reactivation can lead to renal pathology in individuals with impaired cellular immune response. This is particularly important in pediatric transplant recipients, who can suffer a primary infection when immunosupressed. We followed up the case of a 5 years old patient who received a renal transplant in October 2003, and presented damaged graft 45 days after the intervention. The patient suffered 3 episodes of renal function failure between October 2003 and June 2004. Blood, urine, renal biopsy

    13. Detección de papiloma virus humano y genes supresores tumorales P16 y P53 en carcinomas de región genital extena

      OpenAIRE

      Godínez Martínez, José Manuel

      2008-01-01

      La implicación del papiloma virus humano (HPV) en carcinomas de cérvix está totalmente demostrada, pero esta infección se puede producir en otras regiones anatómicas con similares consecuencias patológicas. El estudio presenta la detección de HPV en carcinomas de pene y vulva mediante PCR, analizando la sensibilidad de diferentes sistemas, primers GP5+/6* y MY09/11. También se lleva a cabo la detección inmunohistoquímica de proteínas celulares como posibles marcadores diagnóstico de infección...

    14. Evolución de los embarazos de mujeres infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana Pregnancy outcome in HIV-infected women

      OpenAIRE

      Ricardo Figueroa-Damián

      1999-01-01

      OBJETIVO: Identificar las complicaciones médicas de las embarazadas infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y asintomáticas, y determinar el riesgo que el virus representa para el desarrollo de las mismas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se comparó la evolución del embarazo y el resultado perinatal de 44 embarazadas seropositivas al VIH, asintomáticas y que presentaron más de 200 linfocitos CD4/mm³, con embarazadas control no infectadas; las pacientes se parearon por edad y nivel soc...

    15. Epidemiología de la infección por el virus de la hepatitis B en dos poblaciones del departamento del Magdalena

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      Fernando De La Hoz

      1991-12-01

      Full Text Available Durante 1989 se llevó a cabo una encuesta de seroprevalencia de infección por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB en dos poblaciones del departamento del Magdalena (costa norte de Colombia: Cerro Azul y Varela, las cuales presentaban historia reciente de casos de hepatitis fulminante (HF causada por co y sobre infección del virus de la hepatitis Delta (VHD en portadores del antígeno de superficie del VHB (HBsAg. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, en la población con mayor número de casos fulminantes, Cerro Azul,la infección por VHB empieza desde la infancia temprana, probablemente por transmisión horizontal y alrededor de los 15 años, ya la mitad de la población ha sido infectada por VHB. En ella los principales factores asociados con la infección fueron: la carencia de un sistema de disposición de excretas, el hacinamiento y el antecedente de algún familiar muerto por Hepatitis. En la segunda población, Varela, menos afectada por la hepatitis fulminante, la infección por VHB ocurre a edades mas tardías: desde los 15 años en adelante, y alrededor de los 30 años, la mitad de la población ha sido infectada por este virus. En ella los factores que hallamos asociados a la infección por VHB son; el sexo masculino, la carencia de un sistema de eliminación de excretas, el antecedente de transfusión sanguínea y la aplicación de medicamentos parenterales ambulatorios.

    16. [Impact of female genital mutilation on the millennium goals].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ruiz, Ismael Jiménez; Martínez, María Pilar Almansa; Bravo, María Del Mar Pastor

      2015-01-01

      To relate the Female Genital Mutilation as a negative factor for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Data collection was through review literature review between in the years 2014 and 2015 in the databases Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, SCIELO, Tesis Doctorales TESEO and in the webs of WOK, UNICEF, UNAF and WHO using the descriptors: female circumcision, millennium development goals, rights of women. Articles published between years 2010 y 2015, were included and finally 24 articles were selected. The Female Genital Mutilation is based on gender discrimination, and reinforces and encourages the circle of poverty. This practice causes physical complications that may affect the infant mortality and morbidity, complications in pregnancy and childbirth and there is a relationship between the practice and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The fight against Female Genital Mutilation contributes to the achievement of five of the eight Millennium Goals.

    17. Mucosal immunity in the female genital tract, HIV/AIDS.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa

      2014-01-01

      Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

    18. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

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      Juliana Reis Machado

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

    19. Management of oral and genital herpes in the emergency department.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mell, Howard K

      2008-05-01

      The epidemiology of oral and genital herpes has dramatically changed over the past decade. Herpes simplex virus-1, traditionally associated with oral herpes, is now implicated in an increasing percentage of genital herpes cases. The possibility of "autoinoculation" (or self-infection) of anatomic sites other than that of the primary infection has been recognized. New methods of suppression therapy are being examined. These changes have led to a revision in the recommendations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This review discusses herpes infections of the oral and genital mucosa and the suggested approach to the infected patient who presents in the emergency department. Specific attention is given to the CDC's 2006 guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    20. Identificação do papilomavírus humano por biologia molecular em mulheres assintomáticas Genital human papillomavirus infection identification by molecular biology among asymptomatic women

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      Bernadete Nonnenmacher

      2002-02-01

      Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação entre fatores epidemiológicos e infecção genital pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal com 975 mulheres atendidas em um serviço público de rastreamento para o câncer cervical, em Porto Alegre, Brasil. As mulheres foram consideradas infectadas pelo HPV quando apresentaram o teste de DNA positivo para esse vírus, tanto pelo método de captura híbrida II (CH II como pelo método de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. Mulheres infectadas pelo HPV foram comparadas com mulheres não infectadas oriundas da mesma população. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 975 mulheres. A prevalência observada de HPV (pela combinação dos métodos de DNA foi de 27%. Quando a análise de cada método de DNA foi feito isoladamente, a prevalência de HPV-DNA foi de 15% para a CH II e de 16% para PCR. Regressão logística múltipla incondicional foi utilizada na identificação dos fatores associados à infecção pelo HPV. Foi encontrada associação positiva com as seguintes variáveis: anos de escolaridade (11 anos: OR=2,05; IC95%=1,31; 3,20; referência: até oito anos de escolaridade; ser casada (OR=1,69; IC95%=0,78; 2,00; referência: ser solteira; parceiros sexuais ao longo da vida (dois parceiros: OR=1,67; IC95%=1,01; 2,77; quatro ou mais: OR=2,18; IC95%=1,15; 4,13; referência: um parceiro; idade da primeira relação sexual (15-16 anos: OR=4,05; IC95%=0,89; 18,29; referência: > ou = 22 anos. CONCLUSÕES: Vários fatores parecem estar associados à presença de infecção genital pelo HPV, especialmente aqueles referentes ao comportamento sexual (idade da primeira relação sexual, número de parceiros sexuais ao longo da vida e estado marital e aqueles relacionados à situação socioeconômica (escolaridade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether epidemiological factors may be associated to genital human papillomavirus (HPV infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among

    1. Parálisis facial bilateral secundaria a infección por virus de Epstein-Barr Bilateral facial palsy due to Epstein-Barr virus infection

      OpenAIRE

      M.E. Erro; J. Urriza; L. Gila; E. Orbara; Gurtubay, I. G.

      2010-01-01

      Nuestro objetivo es describir dos pacientes jóvenes con parálisis facial periférica bilateral. Ambos presentaron inicialmente afectación en un lado de la cara, seguida pocos días después de afectación contralateral junto con sintomatología compatible con infección aguda por el virus de Epstein-Barr, que se confirmó con la serología. Uno de los pacientes experimentó mejoría completa mientras que en el otro la recuperación fue lenta y quedaron secuelas permanentes. La lesión bilateral del nervi...

    2. LA HIPERQUERATOSIS CITOLOGICA COMO PARAMETRO INDIRECTO DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIRUS DEL PAPILOMA HUMANO.

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      Victoria Martín Gómez

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Introducción. La hiperqueratosis es una lesión epitelial que histológicamente se caracteriza, por presentar un aumento del grosor de la capa epitelial superficial cornificada, con ausencia de núcleos. Entre las causas que favorecen la aparición de hiperqueratosis, se puede resaltar la reacción del epitelio a los estímulos locales, mecánicos, químicos o infecciosos, siendo más relevante en estos casos el virus del papiloma humano. Objetivo: Conocer la relación que existe entre la presencia de hiperqueratosis en los estudios citológicos de cribado y la posible relación con la infección del virus del Papiloma Humano. Material y métodos: Se han estudiado un total de 2372 extendidos citológicos realizados durante un año en el Servicio de Obstetricia y Ginecología del Hospital Clínico de Salamanca. La edad de las pacientes estaba comprendida entre los 16 y 65 años. La toma citológica realizada mediante la técnica de triple toma se depositaba en medio líquido. Se descartaron las citologías que presentaban alteraciones citológicas, y se valoraron 1125 estudios citológicos considerados como negativos. De estos, 316 presentaron hiperqueratosis. A las pacientes que presentaban hiperqueratosis se les realizó estudio colposcópico y determinación de VPH por PCR. Resultados: En el 27% de las hiperqueratosis, la PCR de VPH fue negativa, el resto, positiva. Se ha podido determinar un VPP del 72% y un VPN del 39%. La sensibilidad fue del 46% y la Especificidad del 81%.

    3. Acute genital ulcers.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

      2014-01-28

      Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

    4. Condiloma Acuminado (Verruga Genital

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      Wendy Andrea Marquina Cabero

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available Paciente femenina de 18 años, internada en el Hospital Materno Infantil German Urquidi con embarazo de 39 semanas, trabajo de parto, condilomatosis genital. Inicio de vida sexual a sus 16 años.Al examen físico: útero grávido, embarazo de 39 semanas, genitales con lesiones vegetantes de 15x10 cm en intravaginal cubierta con secreción grisácea, sésil que sangra fácilmente; el examen de tacto vaginal no selogra realizar. Se realizan cesárea y biopsia con solicitud de histopatología de dicha lesión.

    5. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV

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      García Davalos Mario Augusto

      2010-03-01

      Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

    6. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Catherine Pardey R

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

    7. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir in patient initiated treatment of recurrent genital herpes: A randomised, double blind clinical trial

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      N.J. Bodsworth; R.J. Crooks; S. Borelli; G. Vejlsgaard; J. Paavonen; A.M. Worm; N. Uexkull; J. Esmann; A. Strand; A.J. Ingamells; A. Gibb (A.); S.E. Barton (Simon); C. Beylot (C.); J. Bingham (J.); G. Bojs (G.); D. Cheetham (D.); E. Curless (E.); B. Czarnetzki (B.); S. Davies (S.); A. Eichmann (A.); B. Goh; D. Goldmeir (D.); G. Gross; U.F. Haustein; G. Kinghorn (G.); J. Lauharanta; C. Law; G. Luzzi (G.); A. McMillan (A.); J. Meaden (J.); U. Montemagno (U.); P. Morel; M. Negosanti; J.E. Nielsen (Jorgen); A. Nilsen; E-K. Ong; J.P. Ortonne; R. Patel; J. Patten; D. Petzold; T. Rufli; S. Saari; M. Shahmanesh; A. Simpanen (A.); J. Soltz-Szots; J.P. Stahl; E. Stolz (Ernst); I. Thelin; N. von Uexkull; A. Wikstrom; P. Woolley

      1997-01-01

      textabstractObjective: To compare the efficacy and safety of twice daily valaciclovir with five times daily aciclovir in the treatment of an episode of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in immunocompetent individuals. Methods: 739 patients with a history of recurrent genital HSV

    8. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

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      Clare Tanton

      Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. CONCLUSIONS: RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

    9. Palivizumab outcomes registry data from Spain: Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study Group.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

      2003-02-01

      Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory illness in children Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study group in Spain conducted two pivotal epidemiologic studies establishing that serious RSV illness among premature infants was responsible for high rehospitalization rates (approximately 13%). RSV lower respiratory tract illness also correlated with prolonged hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions. In Europe recent availability of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to RSV, is a major therapeutic advancement directed against prevention of lower respiratory tract infection secondary to this viral pathogen. To ensure proper and optimal usage of palivizumab, the IRIS group, in conjunction with the Spanish Neonatology Group, developed prophylaxis guidelines for neonates. Palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended in premature infants < or =28 weeks gestation or those affected with chronic lung disease. Additionally, palivizumab is recommended for infants with a gestational age of 29 to 32 weeks, without evidence of chronic lung disease and who are <6 months old at the onset of the RSV season. It was thought that slightly older premature infants (33 to 35 weeks gestational age) should be assessed on an individual basis to determine whether prophylaxis is warranted. The IRIS Study Group is currently determining the effectiveness of these recommendations by measuring the incidence of RSV-related hospital admissions in infants born at < or =32 weeks gestational age who are receiving palivizumab prophylaxis.

    10. Genital ulcers, other sexually transmitted diseases, and the sexual transmission of HIV.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Piot, P; Laga, M

      1989-03-11

      There is increasing evidence that genital ulceration, including syphilis, chancroid, and herpes simplex type 2, increases susceptibility to HIV infection. It may be that the HIV penetrates more easily through ulcerated membranes or that the lymphocytes associated with the inflammatory response present target cells for HIV infection. There is also evidence that HIV-infected women with genital ulcers are themselves more infective due to shedding of the virus in the genital tract. Nonulcerative sexually-transmitted diseases have also been associated as cofactors of HIV infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases should be strengthened and should focus on eliminating chancroid, which is easily treated with antibiotics. Patients with genital ulcer disease should receive counseling, so that they will know that untreated genital ulcers increase the risk of HIV infection.

    11. Neumonía por virus parainfluenza 3 en paciente inmunocomprometido PARAINFLUENZA 3 PNEUMONIA IN AN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENT

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      MARÍA CRISTINA AJENJO H

      2004-01-01

      Full Text Available Un paciente de 45 años bajo tratamiento corticoidal por una probable sarcoidosis y una pancitopenia moderada ingresa por una neumonía que no responde a antibióticos ni a tratamiento antimicótico indicado a raíz del aislamiento de Aspergillus fumigatus en expectoración. Desarrolla una insuficiencia respiratoria progresiva e hipotensión y una inmunofluorescencia para virus parainfluenza 3 resulta positiva. Fallece al séptimo día y la necropsia muestra una neumonía necrotizante, daño alveolar difuso y abundantes partículas viralesA 45 years old patient under corticosteroid treatment for a probable sarcoidosis and a moderate pancytopenia, presents a pneumonia which did not respond to antibiotics nor to antifungal treatment indicated after isolation of aspergillus fumigatus in sputum. He progressively develops respiratory insufficiency and arterial hypotension. Immunofluorescense for parainfluenza 3 is positive. He dies after seven days and the necropsy shows a necrotizing pneumonia, diffuse alveolar damage and abundant viral particles

    12. Patología cardiovascular en pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana

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      Germán Valenzuela-Rodríguez

      2012-10-01

      Full Text Available La infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH estuvo asociada a un incremento de la morbimortalidad, dado que inducía un estado de inmunosupresión severa, la cual facilitaba la aparición de infecciones oportunistas. Sin embargo, posterior a la aparición y al uso de la terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA, los pacientes infectados han experimentado una disminución de mortalidad asociada a infecciones, un incremento de la sobrevida y un incremento de enfermedades cardiovasculares. La etiología de estas enfermedades podría estar relacionada con la infección por sí misma, con condiciones proaterogénicas asociadas al empleo de determinados grupos de fármacos antirretrovirales, o con otros eventos adversos que estos serían capaces de inducir individualmente o al combinarse con otros medicamentos. Considerando que la mayoría de condiciones asociadas al compromiso cardiovascular en pacientes con VIH tiene inicio agudo, presentamos esta minuciosa revisión para reconocerlas en las salas de emergencia, eligiendo el tratamiento oportuno y excluyendo los tratamientos inapropiados.

    13. Prevalencia de Helicobacter pylori en un grupo de pacientes pediátricos infectados por el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana

      OpenAIRE

      Julio Luarca Gil; Fabio Parada; Oscar Osorio; Julio Linares; Franco Pezzarossi; Ana Orantes; Guido Andretta; Lashly Méndez; Fernando Gutiérrez; Luis Fernández; Wendoly Munguia

      2015-01-01

      Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo transversal y no experimental sobre la prevalencia de Helicobacter pylori en pacientes pediátricos infectados por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), internados en el Hospicio San José, Santa Lucía Milpas Altas, Sacatepéquez, Guatemala, durante los meses de noviembre 2012 a enero 2013. La población completa fue conformada por 40 pacientes pediátricos de ambos sexos, entre los 3 y 12 años de edad, que padecen infección por VIH. Para el d...

    14. Epidemiología de la infección cervical por virus Papiloma humano en Ushuaia: Argentina Cervical infection epidemiology of human papillomavirus in Ushuaia: Argentina

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      C. C. Sijvarger

      2006-03-01

      Full Text Available El virus Papiloma humano (HPV es un factor necesario para el desarrollo del cáncer cervical. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer la epidemiología de dicha infección en Ushuaia, Provincia de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Se realizó un estudio de caso-control de 132 cepillados endocervicales. La detección y tipificación del genoma viral fue realizada por la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, con posterior análisis de polimorfismos de fragmentos de restricción o hibridación. La prevalencia general de la infección fue 41%, correspondiendo 26% a los controles y 71% a los casos. El grupo etario con mayor prevalencia de HPV fue el de 14 a 24 años. Los tipos virales más frecuentes en la población infectada fueron HPV16 (23%, HPV18 (11% y HPV33/35 (8% cada uno, resultando infectados con tipos virales de alto riesgo el 30% de las muestras, 16% de los controles y 60% de los casos. El trabajo aporta los primeros datos sobre los tipos virales predominantes en Ushuaia. Los resultados demostraron una prevalencia menor que en regiones con alta incidencia de cáncer cervical, siendo el HPV16 el más frecuente. La información obtenida permitiría estimar la efectividad de las vacunas en vías de aprobación, en la población estudiada.Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV is decisive in the causation of cervical cancer. In order to evaluate the epidemiology of HPV infection in Ushuaia, Province of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 132 endocervical cytobrushes from preneoplastic and neoplastic cases and controls were studied. Detection and typing of the viral genome was performed by polymerase chain reaction, combined with a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay or hybridization. The overall prevalence of HPV infection was 41% in the population examined, with a frequency of 26% in the controls and 71% in the cases under study. The 14-24 age group showed the highest HPV prevalence. The most common viral types in the infected

    15. Tamizaje por hepatocarcinoma y estrategia de seguimiento en portadores del virus de hepatitis B

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Javier Cabas-Sánchez

      2008-11-01

      Full Text Available La utilización del ultrasonido abdominal y la alfafetoproteína juntas se consideran las pruebas de tamizaje aceptadas como más útiles en él seguimiento de los portadores crónicos del virus B. Se debe separar los pacientes de alto riesgo (sexo masculino, cirróticos, historia familiar de hepatocarcinoma, mayores de 45 años y los de bajo riesgo para determinar el tiempo de seguimiento, siendo cada 3 meses para los primeros y de cada 6 meses para los segundos. Cuando se detecte alguna imagen anormal, el uso de tomografía de 3 fases y resonancia magnética complementan la definición de las imágenes para definir una conducta terapéutica.

    16. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

    17. Multiplicações celulares e tumores induzidos por virus: o cancer como infecção

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      F. Rocha Lagôa

      1953-12-01

      Full Text Available Após terem sido apreciadas, à luz de fatos experimentais, as principais causas determinantes das multiplicações celulares normais e aquelas responsabilidades pelas multiplicações anormais, encontradas nos tumores blastomatosos, foram analisados os tumores animais que reconhecidamente são causados por virus tais como: o sarcoma e o epitelioma das galinhas; o papiloma e o mixoma dos coelhos; os carcinomas de ratos e rãs, e finalmente, o papiloma oral e o linfo-sarcoma venéreo dos cães. Em seguida, foram focalizadas as várias propriedades em comum existentes entre os vírus indutores dêsses tumores como: capacidade de determinar multiplicações anormais nos tecidos atacados; elevada especificidade para as espécies sensíveis; existência de diminuição do poder infeccioso à medida que aumenta a capacidade de estimular a formação de tumores e, as afinidades existentes entre êles e os gens, principalmente àquelas referentes à sensibilidade aos raios X. Finalmente, foi aventada a hipótese da possível existência de elementos patogênicos ainda não identificados, situados entre os virus citocinéticos conhecidos e os gens, com poder infeccioso mínimo, exigindo por isso, condições de susceptibilidade ainda não totalmente conhecidas e controladas, possuidores de elevado poder de induzir multiplicações anormais nos tecidos atacados e possìvelmente responsáveis pelos tumores neoplásicos humanos.After being analysed, upon experimental facts, the principal determinant causes of the normal cellular multiplication, and of the abnormal, found in the tumors, were studied the animal tumors caused by viruses like chicken sarcoma and epithelioma, rabbit, papiloma and infectious myxomatosis, rat and frog carcinoma and also oral papiloma and venereal lympho-sarcoma of dog. After words there was focused the various common properties existing between the induction viruses of such tumors like that of abnormal cellular multiplication in

    18. Frecuencia de infección por virus sincitial respiratorio y virus influenza y su relación con características clínico-radiológicas y sociodemográficas asociadas

      OpenAIRE

      Diaz Martínez, Ines; Gaviria Diaz, Alicia

      2015-01-01

      Tesis (Magíster en Microbiología Clínica).-- Universidad de San Buenaventura, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Programa de Bacteriología, 2014 La presente investigación está enmarcada en un diseño de cohortes retrospectivas, pareadas por edad, en el cual se estimará la asociación de algunas condiciones clínicas, radiológicas y sociodemográficas con las infecciones por virus Influenza y virus Sincitial Respiratorio en pacientes menores de 15 años, atendidos en la Fundación Hospita...

    19. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

      1995-07-01

      Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

    20. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

      1985-01-01

      A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed.......A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

    1. La infección por el virus del papiloma humano, un posible marcador biológico de comportamiento sexual en estudiantes universitarios Human papillomavirus infection is a possible biological marker of sexual behavior among university students

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Miguel A Sánchez-Alemán

      2002-09-01

      Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH en estudiantes universitarios y utilizar dicha frecuencia como un marcador biológico para evaluar el comportamiento sexual. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal, en estudiantes de la Universidad Autónoma del estado de Morelos, México, durante el periodo 2000-2001. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se colectaron muestras genitales para detectar ADN de los VPH oncogénicos. Los datos se analizaron utilizando pruebas de Ji cuadrada y razones de momios. Resultados. La prevalencia global del VPH en 194 estudiantes fue de 14.4%. Las mujeres con dos o más parejas sexuales durante el último año presentaron mayor riesgo de infección por el VPH (RM 6.0 IC 1.7-21.1, al igual que las que utilizaron anticonceptivos hormonales y espermicidas en su última relación sexual (RM 3.0 IC 1.0-8.7. Los hombres que consumieron cocaína tuvieron más riesgo de infección por el VPH (RM 7.6 IC 1.3-45.1. Conclusiones. La prevalencia del VPH es relativamente alta. La utilización del VPH como un marcador biológico de comportamientos sexuales en mujeres es pertinente; en hombres, es necesario ampliar la muestra.Objective. To estimate the prevalence of Human papillomavirus (HPV among university students and to use it as a biological marker to assess sexual behavior. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out between 2000 and 2001 among 194 students at Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Mexico. A data collection instrument was applied and genital samples were taken to detect oncogenic HPV DNA. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and odds ratios. Results. Overall HPV prevalence was 14.4%. Women who had had two or more sexual partners during the previous year showed a greater risk of HPV infection (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.7-21.1, as did women who had used oral contraceptives and spermicides at their latest intercourse (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1

    2. MIOCARDITIS FULMINANTE EN UNA INFECCIÓN POR VIRUS DENGUE 1 EN NEIVA, HUILA COLOMBIA Fatal myocarditis during a viral dengue 1 infection in Neiva, Huila Colombia

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      Doris Martha Salgado

      2008-06-01

      Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un niño de cinco años previamente sano quien fallece como consecuencia de un cuadro clínico compatible con miocarditis de curso fulminante asociada a fiebre dengue hemorrágica. Se demostró la presencia de virus dengue 1 en el tejido hepático mediante RT-PCR, por lo que se convierte en el primer caso reportado de miocarditis fulminante durante el curso de la infección por virus dengue en Neiva, Colombia.A five year old boy previously healthy dies as a consequence of a dengue hemorrhagic fever-associated fulminant myocarditis. DEN 1 was showed in the liver tissue by RT-PCR. To our knowledge this is the first case of fulminant myocarditis during the course of dengue virus infection in Neiva, Colombia.

    3. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C

      2015-01-01

      Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

    4. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Agnes Usoro BSN

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

    5. Transplante hepático en pacientes con cirrosis por VHB y VHC Liver transplantation in patients with cirrhosis secondary to Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus injections

      OpenAIRE

      Lucena, J.F. (Juan F.); J. I. Herrero

      2004-01-01

      La cirrosis hepática asociada al virus C constituye la principal indicación de trasplante hepático en Europa y EEUU, representando en adultos hasta el 50% de las indicaciones, mientras que la cirrosis asociada al virus B representa alrededor del 10%. Las indicaciones de trasplante en los pacientes con infección por virus B y C son la hepatitis fulminante, la cirrosis descompensada y la aparición de hepatocarcinoma. Las dos infecciones pueden recidivar tras el trasplante. La evolución de la re...

    6. Warts (non-genital)

      Science.gov (United States)

      2009-01-01

      Introduction Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), of which there are over 100 types, which probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of natural immunity within months or years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for warts (non-genital)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic, review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intralesional bleomycin; cimetidine; contact immunotherapy; cryotherapy; duct tape occlusion; formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde; homeopathy; photodynamic treatment; pulsed dye laser; surgical procedures; topical salicylic acid; and zinc sulphate. PMID:21726478

    7. Diferenciação de estirpes de Potato virus Y (PVY por RT-PCR RT-PCR For differentiation of Potato virus Y strains in potato

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      Leonardo N. Fonseca

      2005-12-01

      Full Text Available O Potato virus Y (PVY tornou-se o maior problema nas áreas de produção de batata semente do Brasil. Somente as estirpes comum (PVYº e necrótica (PVY N eram detectadas infectando batata no Brasil. Esta situação mudou drasticamente a partir de 1997 quando um surto epidêmico de uma variante da estirpe necrótica de PVY causando arcos e anéis necróticos na superfície do tubérculo (PVY NTN foi observado no país. Este estudo visou avaliar e validar uma metodologia de diferenciação de estirpes que causam necrose em tubérculos, proposta por Weilguny e Singh (1998. Vinte e oito isolados de PVY originários de tubérculos infectados de batata, provenientes de quatro estados brasileiros, foram analisados em sua reação em plantas de fumo, por Elisa, utilizando anti-soro policlonal e pelo método 3-primer RT-PCR. Quatro isolados induziram clareamento de nervuras e manchas peroladas em folhas de Nicotiana tabacum conforme esperado para a estirpe comum. Os 24 isolados restantes induziram necrose de nervuras neste hospedeiro portanto, classificados como da estirpe necrótica. Todos os 28 isolados de PVY reagiram positivamente contra o anti-soro policlonal de PVY por Elisa. Três métodos de extração de RNA foram testados, sendo que o método de hidrocloreto de guanidina mostrou-se o mais eficiente e de menor custo. Dos 28 isolados submetidos ao RT-PCR, um isolado de Santa Catarina e três do Rio Grande do Sul foram diferenciados como PVYº, confirmando os resultados do teste biológico. Um isolado de PVY N foi detectado no Estado de Santa Catarina e quatro no Rio Grande do Sul. O PVY NTN foi detectado em Minas Gerais (seis isolados, Santa Catarina (três isolados e São Paulo (dez isolados. Estes resultados confirmam a presença dessa variante necrótica, PVY NTN, nas principais regiões produtoras de batata do Brasil.The Potato virus Y (PVY has become the major virus problem in seed potato growing areas of Brazil. Only necrotic and ordinary

    8. Brote de Fiebre Hemorrágica por el virus del Ébola en Uganda Hemorrhagic Fever outbreak due to Ebola virus in Uganda

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      MªC. Aríñez Fernández

      2012-03-01

      Full Text Available En Uganda se está llevando a cabo la Misión de la Unión Europea (EUTM Somalia, en la que participan efectivos de las Fuerzas Armadas españolas. En mayo de 2011 el Ministerio de Sanidad de Uganda notificó un brote de fiebre hemorrágica por el virus del bola a 70 km de distancia de Kampala. El caso índice y único caso confirmado, fue una niña de 12 años que falleció. La investigación epidemiológica se llevó a cabo por un equipo internacional que incluyó personal del Ministerio de Sanidad de Uganda y de la OMS. Tras mantener la vigilancia del brote durante un tiempo igual a dos veces el periodo de incubación y no confirmar otros casos, fue declarado finalizado el brote el 17 de junio de 2011. Se distribuyó información sobre el brote y recomendaciones de actuación tanto a profesionales de la salud como a la población general.The European Mission (EUTM Somalia is being conducted in Uganda. Military personnel of the Spanish Armed Forces participate in that mission. On 13 May 2011, The Ministry of Health of Uganda notified a case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in a district 70 kilometers far from Kampala. The index case and only confirmed case, was a 12-year-old girl who finally died. Epidemiologic surveillance was conducted by an international team including representatives of the Ugandan Ministry of Health and WHO. The Ministry of Health of Uganda declared the end of the outbreak on the 17 June 2011, since the epidemiological investigations, including twofold the incubation period surveillance, did not confirm new cases. Guidelines to control the outbreak and information on the disease were distributed to health professionals and general population.

    9. Características sociodemográficas de mujeres peruanas con virus papiloma humano detectado por PCR-RFLP

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yasser Sullcahuaman-Allende

      2015-09-01

      Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar las características sociodemográficas del virus de pacientes con papiloma humano (VPH referidas al Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN durante los años 2012-2014, se realizó la detección del VPH en células cervicales por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. En 465 muestras cervicales se detectaron 151 (32,5% casos de VPH positivas. Los genotipos más frecuentes fueron VPH-16 (23,8% y VPH-6 (11,9%. La presencia de VPH fue mayor en mujeres de 17 a 29 años (OR 2,64, IC 95%:1,14-6,13 y solteras (OR 2,31, IC 95%: 1,37-3,91, la presencia de genotipos de VPH de alto riesgo fue mayor en solteras (OR 2,19, IC 95%: 1,04-4,62. En conclusión, mujeres jóvenes y solteras presentaron mayor frecuencia de casos VPH-positivos a quienes se debe enfatizar la participación en programas de tamizaje con métodos moleculares y citológicos combinados, a fin de detectar oportunamente el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de cuello uterino

    10. Características sociodemográficas de mujeres peruanas con virus papiloma humano detectado por PCR-RFLP

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yasser Sullcahuaman-Allende

      Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar las características sociodemográficas del virus de pacientes con papiloma humano (VPH referidas al Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN durante los años 2012-2014, se realizó la detección del VPH en células cervicales por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. En 465 muestras cervicales se detectaron 151 (32,5% casos de VPH positivas. Los genotipos más frecuentes fueron VPH-16 (23,8% y VPH-6 (11,9%. La presencia de VPH fue mayor en mujeres de 17 a 29 años (OR 2,64, IC 95%:1,14-6,13 y solteras (OR 2,31, IC 95%: 1,37-3,91, la presencia de genotipos de VPH de alto riesgo fue mayor en solteras (OR 2,19, IC 95%: 1,04-4,62. En conclusión, mujeres jóvenes y solteras presentaron mayor frecuencia de casos VPH-positivos a quienes se debe enfatizar la participación en programas de tamizaje con métodos moleculares y citológicos combinados, a fin de detectar oportunamente el riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de cuello uterino

    11. Transmisión experimental del virus de la encefalitis equina venezolana, subgrupo ID, por psorophora confinnis a ratones

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      Alberto Morales

      1983-06-01

      Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento con el objeto de investigar la capacidad del mosquito Psorophora confinnis para transmitir por picadura a ratones blanco-suizos de 21 días una cepa de virus de encefalitis equina venezolana, subgrupo ID. Cuando los mosquitos se alimentaron sobre hamster con altas viremias (7.5, 6.5 y 6.3 dex en 0.1 ml. de suero, los porcentajes de infección de los mosquitos y los de transmisión fueron altos. Sin embargo, cuando los mosquitos se alimentaron sobre Proechimys hendei con viremias bajas (1,4 y 2.6 dex en 0.1 ml. de suero el porcentaje de infección de los mosquitos fue muy bajo y no hubo transmisión. Cuando la viremia en el Proechimys fue de 4.4 dex en 0.1 ml. de suero, el porcentaje de infección de los mosquitos aumentó y hubo transmisión baja (9%. Los resultados sugieren que Psorophora confinnis es un mosquito que tiene un alto umbral de infección para EEV subgrupo ID.

    12. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

      2012-12-01

      The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

    13. Developmental disorders of the female genital tract

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... genitals: Developmental problems may lead to a swollen clitoris or fused labia (when the folds of tissue ... genital area or a single rectal opening Swollen clitoris The belly area may be swollen or a ...

    14. Seguimiento de la infección por el virus de maedivisna en una explotación de ganado ovino

      OpenAIRE

      Perdigones, Nieves

      2005-01-01

      La enfermedad de Maedi-Visna está producida por el retrovirus homónimo (MVV), muy similar en todas sus características al que produce la artritis-encefalitis-caprina (CAEV). Ambas enfermedades son de distribución mundial y se caracterizan por cuadros clínicos parecidos, afectando a distintos sistemas, aunque algunos se pre-sentan con más frecuencia en ovejas y otros en cabras. Una de las observaciones más habituales es la presencia de virus en mamas, y aunque puede cursar sin alteraciones clí...

    15. Recomendaciones para el uso de la terapia antirretroviral en infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en Costa Rica

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antonio Solano-Chinchilla

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available El siguiente documento recolecta información actualizada para el abordaje de la persona con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humano, adaptado a la realidad nacional. Se considera que la terapia antirretroviral debe iniciarse lo antes posible en personas con conteo linfocitario menor de 350 linfocitos T CD4+/mm³, previa valoración clínica y asegurando seguimiento estricto por parte de un equipo interdisciplinario. La carga viral será el parámetro que se utilizará para el seguimiento y, como meta, se proyecta alcanzar indetectabilidad a los 6 meses de tratamiento.

    16. Transmisión vertical en una población de gestantes infectada por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

      OpenAIRE

      Payá Panadés, Antonio

      2004-01-01

      Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Introducción: Según estimaciones de la OMS en Diciembre del 2002, existían en el mundo un total de 42 millones de personas infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. En nuestro país, las cifras no son menos halagüeñas, habiéndose producido un incremento de la prevalencia de la infección en gestantes del 54% desde el año 1995 al 1998, estabilizándose hasta la actualidad en una prevalencia del 1,4 por mil en e...

    17. Newer trends in the management of genital herpes

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nath Amiya

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Management of genital herpes is complex. Apart from using the standard antivirals, an ideal management protocol also needs to address various aspects of the disease, including the psychological morbidity. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir are recommended for routine use. Long-term suppressive therapy is effective in reducing the number of recurrences and the risk of transmission to others. Severe or disseminated disease may require intravenous therapy. Resistant cases are managed with foscarnet or cidofovir. Genital herpes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals usually needs a longer duration of antiviral therapy along with continuation of highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART. Genital herpes in late pregnancy increases the risk of neonatal herpes. Antiviral therapy and/or cesarean delivery are indicated depending on the clinical circumstance. Acyclovir appears to be safe in pregnancy. But, there is limited data regarding the use of valacyclovir and famciclovir in pregnancy. Neonatal herpes requires a higher dose of acyclovir given intravenously for a longer duration. Management of the sex partner, counseling and prevention advice are equally important in appropriate management of genital herpes. Vaccines till date have been marginally effective. Helicase-primase inhibitors, needle-free mucosal vaccine and a new microbicide product named VivaGel may become promising treatment options in the future.

    18. Emollients on the genital area.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Farage, Miranda A; Warren, Raphael

      2011-01-01

      Emollients are known to lubricate, moisturize and soothe the skin. Prior to their incorporation into feminine hygiene pads, thorough premarket toxicological testing is conducted to evaluate their safety and effectiveness via in-use clinical settings. Product testing has been conducted on various body sites proven previously to be valid and reliable, such as the arm and popliteal fossa and, more recently, the genital area. Several clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of emollient-containing feminine hygiene products, which have also been shown to provide dermatological benefits in the genital area. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

    19. Male genital trauma in sports.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hunter, Stanley R; Lishnak, Timothy S; Powers, Andria M; Lisle, David K

      2013-04-01

      Male genital trauma is a rare but potentially serious sports injury. Although such an injury can occur by many different mechanisms, including falls, collisions, straddle injuries, kicks, and equipment malfunction, the clinical presentation is typically homogeneous, characterized by pain and swelling. Almost all sports-related male genital injury comes from blunt force trauma, with involvement of scrotal structures far more common than penile structures. Most injuries can be treated conservatively, but catastrophic testicular injury must first be ruled out. Despite being relatively uncommon compared with other sports injuries, more than half of all testicular injuries are sustained during sports.

    20. Bioética e investigación: análisis de caso de la epidemia por el virus Ébola en 2014

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      Boris Julián Pinto Bustamante

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available La epidemia por el virus Ébola, en África occidental (2014, ha suscitado una serie de interrogantes éticos en torno a las medidas de salud pública para su contención, el uso de medicamentos experimentales y el desarrollo de vacunas contra esta enfermedad. El presente trabajo explora algunas de estas preguntas desde la perspectiva de la ética en investigación biomédica. La epidemia por el virus Ébola es un modelo de estudio adecuado para abordar esfuerzos multilaterales en investigación, así como para analizar aspectos antropológicos en salud pública y determinantes sociales, económicos y políticos en salud a nivel global.

    1. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

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      Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV, virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomegalia 14 cm por debajo del reborde costal derecho. Los hallazgos en los exámenes de laboratorios mostraron anemia hemolítica con Coombs directo positivo, anticuerpos tipo inmunoglobulina M contra el virus de la hepatitis A positivos, niveles de bilirrubinas 20 veces y aminotrasferasas cuatro veces por arriba del rango normal; con estos datos el paciente fue diagnosticado como hepatitis A complicada con anemia hemolítica y probable hepatitis autoinmune asociada, por lo que se inició manejo con corticoides, alcanzándose mejoría clínica. Resaltamos la importancia de descartar la infección por el virus de la hepatitis A como posible etiología de anemia hemolítica autoinmune.______________________________________________________________________ Acute auto inmune haemolytic anaemia is associated with a variety of hepatotropic viruses, in particular cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus and hepatitis B. The typical course of hepatitis A is rarely complicated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Wepresent the case of a man without previous haemolysis, he had been unwell for two months with fatigue and jaundice, the liver edge was palpable and tender 14 cm below the costal margin. Clinical chemistry showed haemolytic anaemia with positive direct coombs test, immunoglobulin M antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected, the total bilirrubin concentration 20 times the upper and transaminase 4 times upper limit for normal levels; with this

    2. Primoinfección por virus del herpes simp le tipo 1. Manejo farmacológico y caracteristicas clínicas

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      Hernan Francisco Sariego Santana

      2013-10-01

      Full Text Available ResumenEl presente artículo reporta un caso clínico de gingivoestomatitis herpética primaria y una breve revisión de los medicamentos usados para tratar la infección por virus del herpes simple (HSV. Se presenta un paciente con múltiples ulceraciones confluentes tanto en la cara ventral como en la dorsal de la lengua y en los labios, compatible con gingivoestomatitis herpética primaria. Esta forma de presentarse las ulceraciones y la edad del paciente son frecuentes en pacientes VIH positivo (Virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, esto no pudo ser comprobado en el caso ya que el paciente dejo de asistir a consulta luego de recibido el tratamiento. El tratamiento instaurado fue aciclovir tabletas 200 mg cada 6 horas vía oral por 10 días. Cabe mencionar que los tratamientos para el virus del herpes simple con aciclovir no están aprobados por la Administración de Alimentos y Drogas de los Estados Unidos (FDA siglas en inglés pero si son aceptados por el Centro de Control de Enfermedades (CDC siglas en ingles, también se utilizó gel de polivinilpirrolidona, hialuronato de sodio para facilitar la deglución del paciente. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 199 - 205AbstractThis article reports a case of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis and a brief review of drugs used to treat infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV. We present a patient with multiple confluent ulcers in both the ventral and the dorsal tongue and lips, compatible with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. This way of presenting ulceration and patient age are common in HIV positive patients (human immunodeficiency virus, this could not be found in the case because the patient stopped coming to see after the treatment. Acyclovir treatment was introduced 200 mg tablets orally every 6 hours for 10 days. It is noteworthy that the treatments for herpes simplex virus with acyclovir are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA but if accepted by the Center for Disease Control

    3. Empleo de lauril galato en la prevención y tratamiento de infecciones causadas por el virus de la peste porcina africana (VPPA)

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      González Porque, Pedro; Carrascosa, Ángel L.; Revilla Novella, Yolanda

      2010-01-01

      La invención relaciona al uso del galato del lauril, o a un derivado de eso, en la producción de una composición antiviral farmacéutica para la prevención y/o el tratamiento de enfermedades causados por la infección resultante del virus africano de la fiebre de los cerdos (ASFV).

    4. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

      Science.gov (United States)

      O'Farrell, N

      2001-01-01

      It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease.

    5. Genital and extra-genital warts increase the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus infection in men

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hernandez, Brenda Y; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Goodman, Marc T; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Zhu, Xuemei; Tom, James; Ning, Lily

      2015-01-01

      Objectives To evaluate the relationship of warts in different parts of the body and the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men. Methods We examined the relationship of self-reported genital and extra-genital warts with the subsequent acquisition of asymptomatic genital HPV infection in a cohort of 331 adult men. Participants were followed at 2-month intervals for up to 4 years. Past and current presence of warts was queried at study entry. At each visit, the external genitals were sampled for HPV DNA testing. Results Men who reported a history of genital warts, including current warts, were at increased risk of acquisition of asymptomatic HPV infection of the penis glans/corona, penis shaft and scrotum. The magnitude of these associations was greatest for HPV 6/11 infection. History of warts on the fingers, arms and trunk of the body was also associated with increased risk of genital HPV infection. Current presence of warts on the fingers and trunk specifically increased the risk of acquisition of HPV types not typically found on the genitals. Conclusions Men with a history of warts on the genitals, fingers, arms and trunk may be at increased risk for acquisition of new genital HPV infections. Warts may provide an efficient reservoir for the transmission of virions to the genitals through auto-inoculation. The potential for the spread of HPV throughout the body through auto-inoculation has important implications for prevention and control of HPV infection. PMID:21602516

    6. Cianobactérias e algas reduzem os sintomas causados por Tobacco vosaic virus (tmv em plantas de fumo

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      André B. Beltrame

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available As algas e as cianobactérias produzem uma grande diversidade de compostos com atividade biológica direta sobre microrganismos ou agem como ativadores de mecanismos de resistência em plantas. Em vista disso, foi investigada a manifestação dos sintomas causados pelo Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV em plantas de fumo previamente tratadas com cianobactérias ou algas. Quando as folhas plantas de fumo foram tratadas dois dias antes da inoculação, foi verificado que suspensões de células dos isolados de cianobactérias 004/02, 008/02, Anabaena sp. e Nostoc sp. 61; e do isolado de alga 061/02, bem como as preparações do conteúdo intracelular do isolado 004/02 (4 C e do filtrado do meio de cultivo do isolado 061/02 (61 M apresentaram efeito na redução do número de lesões locais provocadas por TMV em folhas de plantas fumo, cultivar TNN. Além disso, foi observado que os isolados Anabaena sp., Nostoc sp. 21 (cianobactéria, Nostoc sp. 61 e 090/02 (alga mostraram efeito direto sobre o vírus semi-purificado. Em vista disso, pode-se sugerir que os isolados estudados sintetizam compostos que agem diretamente sobre o TMV e/ou ativam o mecanismo de defesa de plantas contra fitopatógenos.

    7. Subpoblaciones neuronales presentes en cultivos primarios de ganglio espinal y su relación con la infección in vitro por virus de rabia

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      Hernán Hurtado

      2000-02-01

      Full Text Available

      El virus de la rabia presenta un fuerte tropismo neuronal y que produce una encefalitis generalmente letal. En un accidente rábico clásico, producido por la mordedura de un animal infectado, el virus es captado por terminaciones nerviosas motoras, autonómicas o sensoriales. Si es captado por estas últimas, el virus se transporta retrógradamente hacia los somas neuronales ubicados en los ganglios espinales y de ahí pasa hasta el Sistema Nervioso Central en donde ejerce su acción patógena. Por este motivo los cultivos de ganglio espinal son un modelo relevante para estudiar la interacción entre el virus de la rabia y las neuronas sensoriales presentes en ellos. En estos cultivos se encuentran dos tipos de células, neuronas y células no neuronales (fibroblastos y células de Schwann. Al inocular los cultivos con virus de rabia cepa CVS (Challenge Virus Standard, a pesar de que las células no neuronales son la mayoría, las que se infectan en mayor proporción son las neuronas, lo que confirma el marcado neurotropismo del virus. Adicionalmente a esto, dentro de la población neuronal, parece existir una subpoblación con mayor susceptibilidad hacia la infección por el virus. Para comprobar esta hipótesis, se caracterizaron las subpoblaciones neuronales presentes en estos cultivos utilizando un criterio morfológico (diámetro neuronal y uno bioquímico (presencia de neuropéptidos como marcadores de subpoblaciones en el ganglio. Se realizó una técnica de doble inmunocitoquímica para virus rábico y los neuropéptidos Sustancia P (SP, Neuropéptido Y (NPY, Galanina (GAL, Péptido Relacionado con el Gen de la Calcitonina (CGRP y Péptido Intestinal Vasoactivo (VIP, que clásicamente se usan para la definición de subpoblaciones. El análisis morfométrico demostró que en nuestros cultivos el 85% de las neuronas presentes son de pequeño diámetro (<25

    8. Ano-Genital Warts and HIV Status– A Clinical Study

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sharma, Shimpa; Gulbake, Arvind

      2017-01-01

      Introduction Ano-Genital Warts (AGW) like other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This study of AGW was done in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Aim To study the risk factors and clinical presentations of ano-genital warts in HIV positive and negative patients. Materials and Methods A comparative, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 25 HIV positive and 25 HIV negative (n=50) AGW patients between 15-60 years of both sex was conducted in Dr. D. Y. Patil Hospital and Research Centre from July 2014 to July 2016. Results Significant association of HIV positivity (phomosexuality (p0.05). No patient presented with changes of malignancy. Four were adolescents below 19 years. Two patients had atypical presentations of giant condylomata i.e., Buschke-Lowenstein Tumour (BLT). Conclusion HIV positivity was significantly associated with the risk factors of age below 30 years, homo sexuality and multiple sexual partners. Anal warts were significantly common in HIV positive patients. Four adolescents with AGW underline the need for high risk behaviour counselling. No patient had malignant ano-genital warts. Follow up of these patients with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) sub-typing is necessary. PMID:28274028

    9. Deteccion del virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo por captura hibrida II segun hallazgos citologicos en mujeres tratadas por lesiones escamosas intraepiteliales de cuello uterino, periodo 2006/2010

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      Pamela Mongelos

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia del virus de papiloma humano de alto riesgo oncogénico (HR-HPV por captura híbrida II (r (CH II(r según hallazgos citológicos en mujeres tratadas por lesiones escamosas intraepiteliales (SIL de cuello uterino. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo de corte transverso de una serie de casos, en donde se incluyeron 122 mujeres tratadas, 79 (65% por SIL de bajo grado (LSIL y 43 (35% por SIL de alto grado (HSIL que concurrieron al Laboratorio de HPV del Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Nacional de Asunción, para realizarse un control post-tratamiento, periodo 2006/2010. RESULTADOS: Se observó un total del 28% (34/122 de mujeres tratadas por SIL positivas para HR-HPV, detectándose infección viral en un 20% de las mujeres con ausencia de SIL (NSIL (22/108, 83% de las mujeres con LSIL (10/12 y 100% de las mujeres con HSIL (2/2. De las 34 mujeres positivas para HR-HPV, 10 mujeres (29% presentaron valores altos (100 pg/mL o más de carga viral relativa, detectándose un aumento de casos positivos con la severidad de la lesión (28% NSIL, 30% LSIL, 50% HSIL. CONCLUSION: La detección de HR-HPV por CH II(r, así como los valores de carga viral relativa altos, en especial en mujeres con NSIL podrían ayudar a identificar mujeres tratadas con riesgo a desarrollar recidivas, contribuyendo así a fortalecer el programa de prevención de cáncer de cuello uterino.

    10. [Differential diagnosis of papillomas in the area of the genitals].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Heinrich, I; Heinrich, J

      1993-01-01

      Infection of the genital organs by human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted disease. Papillomaviruses lead to a contact infection of the epithelium and present with different clinical and histological signs. With the exception of the best known clinical manifestation Condylomata acuminata, subclinical infections can be only diagnosed from a stepwise examination. Physiological results from both men and women may be falsely explained as being caused by viruses, and can lead to an incorrect therapy. Genital papilla (Papillae coronae vulvae et glandis) present as atavistic cutaneous papilla a normal situation but with functional significance. Differences in clinical symptoms as well as the possibilities of further differentiation can be obtained by means of pictures taken during colposcopy.

    11. A microbiological study of genital ulcers in Kuala Lumpur.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zainah, S; Cheong, Y M; Sinniah, M; Gan, A T; Akbal, K

      1991-09-01

      The microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was studied in 249 patients (241 men and 8 women) attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated in 48 (19.2%) patients, Haemophilus ducreyi from 22 (8.8%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae from seven (2.8%) and Chlamydia trachomatis from four (1.6%). Syphilis was diagnosed in 18 (7.2%) patients on the basis of dark field microscopy. Two (0.8%) patients were found to have both chancroid and syphilis and one (0.5%) had both gonorrhoea and syphilis. No organism was isolated in the remaining 151 (61.5%) patients. Overall, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was 58% for single infection, 67% for herpes, 63% for syphilis, 47% for chancroid and 0% for lymphogranuloma venereum. Therefore, our study confirms the need for laboratory tests to diagnose accurately the aetiology of genital ulcer disease.

    12. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

      2013-12-01

      Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

    13. Self-collected genital swabs compared with cervicovaginal lavage for measuring HIV-1 and HSV-2 and the effect of acyclovir on viral shedding.

      Science.gov (United States)

      McNicholl, Janet M; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Whitehead, Sara; Hanson, Debra L; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Cheng, Chen Y; Chonwattana, Wannee; Mueanpai, Famui; Kittinunvorakoon, Chonticha; Markowitz, Lauri; Dunne, Eileen F

      2017-03-01

      HIV-1 and HSV-2 are frequent genital co-infections in women. To determine how self-collected genital swabs compare to provider-collected cervicovaginal lavage, paired self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage from women co-infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 were evaluated. Women were in an acyclovir clinical trial and their samples were tested for HIV-1 RNA (361 samples) and HSV-2 DNA (378 samples). Virus shedding, quantity and acyclovir effect were compared. HIV-1 and HSV-2 were more frequently detected in self-collected genital swabs: 74.5% of self-collected genital swabs and 63.6% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HIV-1 (p ≤ 0.001, Fisher's exact test) and 29.7% of self-collected genital swabs and 19.3% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HSV-2 (p ≤ 0.001) in the placebo month. Cervicovaginal lavage and self-collected genital swabs virus levels were correlated (Spearman's rho, 0.68 for HIV; 0.61 for HSV-2) and self-collected genital swabs levels were generally higher. In multivariate modeling, self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage could equally detect the virus-suppressive effect of acyclovir: for HIV-1, proportional odds ratios were 0.42 and 0.47 and for HSV-2, they were 0.10 and 0.03 for self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage, respectively. Self-collected genital swabs should be considered for detection and measurement of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in clinical trials and other studies as they are a sensitive method to detect virus and can be collected in the home with frequent sampling.

    14. INFECCIÓN POR VIRUS PANDÉMICO (H1N1 2009 EN ANDALUCÍA

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      José María Mayoral Cortés

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Desde que en abril de 2009 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS alertó de la existencia de casos de infección humana por un nuevo virus de la gripe AH1N1 de origen porcino, las autoridades sanitarias de Andalucía activaron un plan específico de actuación para dar respuesta a la crisis sanitaria. Las actividades de vigilancia desarrolladas permitieron disponer de información oportuna sobre las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y virológicas de la enfermedad. En los primeros días se pusieron en marcha planes de contingencia basados en la vigilancia epidemiológica y medidas de control de brotes mediante sistemas de alerta y respuesta rápida. Tras la declaración de fase 6 de alerta pandémica la vigilancia centinela de gripe y de casos graves fueron de utilidad para la planificación de servicios sanitarios, para reducir la transmisión e identificar y para proteger a los grupos de población más vulnerables. El comportamiento de la gripe pandémica en Andalucía ha sido similar al observado en el resto del mundo. La tasa de ataque fue parecida a la de una temporada de gripe estacional y el pico de máxima incidencia se alcanzó en la semana 46/2009. La mayoría de los casos fueron leves y afectó sobre todo a población joven. En los casos hospitalizados la media de edad fue de 32 años. Las patologías previas de base y factores de riesgo mas frecuentes presentes en los casos graves fueron enfermedades pulmonares, tabaquismo y obesidad mórbida (IMC>40. Un escenario de impacto de la onda pandémica en Andalucía, con una tasa de ataque esperada de entre el 2 y 5%, se preparó teniendo en cuenta lo observado durante la onda epidémica en los países del hemisferio sur. Las características de la epidemia en cuanto a su magnitud, gravedad y letalidad, se ajustaron a este escenario utilizado.

    15. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

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      Nissrin Hoffmann

      2013-07-01

      Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

    16. An annotated list of ornamentals naturally found infected by Brevipalpus mite-transmitted viruses Lista comentada de plantas ornamentais naturalmente infectadas por vírus transmitidos por ácaros Brevipalpus

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available The first cases of ornamental plants found infected by Brevipalpus transmitted viruses (BTV were described in the 1990's from the region of Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil; subsequent cases were from other regions in the country and other American countries. Currently, 37 ornamental plant species (for the sake of simplicity, orchids being considered as a single species, belonging to 18 families of dicotyledons, have been reported hosting BTV. Because of the non systemic type of infection of these viruses, the localized diseases they cause are unimportant usually, but they have the potential to cause economic losses if severe outbreaks of Brevipalpus mite populations occur. Some ornamentals may serve as reservoirs to BTV known to cause serious damage to food crops as Citrus leprosis virus- cytoplasmic type (CiLV-C, passion fruit green spot virus (PFGSV and Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV.Os primeiros casos de plantas ornamentais encontradas naturalmente infetadas por vírus transmitidos por Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae (VTB foram registrados nos anos 1990 na região de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo, e ocorrências subseqüentes foram observadas em várias outras regiões do país e de outros países das Américas. Atualmente acham-se relatadas 37 espécies de ornamentais (para efeito de simplificação, orquídeas foram consideradas como única espécie pertencentes a 18 famílias botânicas. Pelo fato de causarem apenas infecções localizadas, geralmente nas folhas, VTB em ornamentais não causam preocupações aos produtores, mas potencialmente podem causar perdas econômicas se ocorrerem explosões populacionais do ácaro vetor. Plantas ornamentais podem servir de reservatório de VTB de importância econômica como os vírus da leprose dos citros-tipo citoplasmático (CiLV-C, da mancha verde do maracujá (PFGSV e da mancha anular do cafeeiro (CoRSV.

    17. Compromiso genital en un paciente con lepra lepromatosa Involvement of genitals in e patient with lepromatous leprosy

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      I Soto

      2007-03-01

      Full Text Available El compromiso de los órganos genitales masculinos en la lepra, se observa con mayor frecuencia en el transcurso de los cuadros reaccionales. Sin embargo, fuera de estos episodios agudos, la piel y mucosa de los genitales externos pueden estar comprometidas por lesiones específicas. Se comunica el caso de un paciente hanseniano que recidivó, lepromatoso con lesiones infiltradas y nodulares en prepucio y lóbulo auricular, como únicas manifestaciones de la enfermedad.The involvement of male genitals in leprosy appears more frecuently in the immunologic reactions. Although, the genital skin and mucous can be affected, by specific lesions too. We report a case of relapsed lepromatous leprosy with infiltrated lesions and nodules in prepuce and earlobe as the only disease manifestation.

    18. Caracterización biológica del virus del mosaico de la sida de Sinaloa: transmisión por semilla, rango de hospedantes y asociación con partículas subvirales

      OpenAIRE

      Domínguez Durán, Gustavo

      2014-01-01

      En México la horticultura es una de las actividades de primordial importancia, tanto por la generación de divisas como por la generación de empleos; sin embargo, existen diferentes plagas y enfermedades que afectan su producción, siendo estas últimas el principal factor limitante, destacando las inducidas por los virus por su impacto en rendimiento y calidad en frutos. Los begomovirus infectan plantas dicotiledóneas, son trasmitidos por mosquita blanca y su genoma puede ser ...

    19. Female genital cutting.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

      2013-11-01

      Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins

    20. Genital immunization of heifers with a glycoprotein Edeleted, recombinant bovine herpesvirus 1 strain confers protection upon challenge with a virulent isolate Imunização genital de bezerras com uma cepa recombinante do herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 defectiva na glicoproteína E confere proteção frente a desafio com um isolado virulento

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marcelo Weiss

      2010-01-01

      mild and transient vulvovaginitis (3/4 or mild to moderate genital lesions (1/4. In the IV group, the clinical signs lasted 4 to 8 days (x: 5.5 days. Clinical examination of the animals after challenge revealed that vaccination by both routes conferred some degree of protection, yet IV vaccination was clearly more effective in reducing the severity and duration of clinical disease. Furthermore, IV vaccination reduced the period of virus shedding in comparison with both groups. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SV265gE- is sufficiently attenuated upon IV vaccination in a low-titer dosis, is not readily reactivated after corticosteroid treatment and lastly, and more importantly, confers local protection upon challenge with a high titer of a virulent heterologous BoHV-1 isolate. Therefore, the use of this recombinant for genital immunization may be considered for prevention of BoHV-1-associated genital disease in the field.A infecção genital de novilhas ou vacas soronegativas pelo herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2 (BoHV-1.2 pode resultar em vulvovaginite e infertilidade temporária. As vacinas atenuadas ou inativadas administradas pela via parenteral freqüentemente conferem proteção incompleta frente a desafio pela via genital. Este estudo relata uma avaliação da resposta imunológica e proteção conferida pela vacinação genital de bezerras soronegativas com uma cepa recombinante do BoHV-1 defectiva na glicoproteína E (SV265gE-. Um grupo de seis bezerras foi vacinado com a cepa SV265gE(0,2mL contendo 10(6,9TCID50 na submucosa da vulva (grupo IV; quatro bezerras foram vacinadas pela via intramuscular (IM; dose 10(7,6TCID50 e quatro bezerras permaneceram como controles não-vacinadas. As bezerras vacinadas pela via IV apresentaram edema e hiperemia leve e transitório na vulva e excretaram vírus em títulos baixos por alguns dias após a vacinação, porém uma bezerra soronegativa mantida em contato não soroconverteu. Administração de dexametasona

    1. Infecciones bucales producidas por virus herpes simplex: características clínicas y diagnóstico diferencial

      OpenAIRE

      Puy Carrión, David; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo; Dorado, C; López López, José, 1958-; Jané Salas, Enric; Roselló Llabrés, Xavier

      1998-01-01

      El virus Herpes simplex (VHS) es el agente patogénico de numerosas lesiones a nivel cutáneo y mucoso, pudiendo involucrar también diversos órganos de la economía. Su alta prevalencia en la población hace que sea necesario que el odontólogo, el estomatólogo, el dermatólogo e incluso el médico generalista conozcan los diversos cuadros clínicos que puede originar dicho virus . En este artículo se revisarán las características clínicas de la infección por VHS cuando se presenta a nivel bucal y la...

    2. Female Genital Warts: Global Trends and Treatments

      OpenAIRE

      Gall, Stanley A.

      2001-01-01

      The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated conditions such as genital warts in women is a global concern. Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV infection is also strongly associated with cervical cancer, and is prevalent in as many as 99% of cases. The psychological stress of having genital warts is often greater than the morbidi...

    3. Coevolution of female and male genital components to avoid genital size mismatches in sexually dimorphic spiders.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lupše, Nik; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

      2016-08-17

      In most animal groups, it is unclear how body size variation relates to genital size differences between the sexes. While most morphological features tend to scale with total somatic size, this does not necessarily hold for genitalia because divergent evolution in somatic size between the sexes would cause genital size mismatches. Theory predicts that the interplay of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual genital size dimorphism (SGD) should adhere to the 'positive genital divergence', the 'constant genital divergence', or the 'negative genital divergence' model, but these models remain largely untested. We test their validity in the spider family Nephilidae known for the highest degrees of SSD among terrestrial animals. Through comparative analyses of sex-specific somatic and genital sizes, we first demonstrate that 99 of the 351 pairs of traits are phylogenetically correlated. Through factor analyses we then group these traits for MCMCglmm analyses that test broader correlation patterns, and these reveal significant correlations in 10 out of the 36 pairwise comparisons. Both types of analyses agree that female somatic and internal genital sizes evolve independently. While sizes of non-intromittent male genital parts coevolve with male body size, the size of the intromittent male genital parts is independent of the male somatic size. Instead, male intromittent genital size coevolves with female (external and, in part, internal) genital size. All analyses also agree that SGD and SSD evolve independently. Internal dimensions of female genitalia evolve independently of female body size in nephilid spiders, and similarly, male intromittent genital size evolves independently of the male body size. The size of the male intromittent organ (the embolus) and the sizes of female internal and external genital components thus seem to respond to selection against genital size mismatches. In accord with these interpretations, we reject the validity of the

    4. MECANISMO DE INFECCIÓN Y TRANSFORMACIÓN NEOPLÁSICA PRODUCIDO POR VIRUS PAPILOMA HUMANO EN EL EPITELIO CERVICAL

      OpenAIRE

      Rivera Z,René; Delgado D,Jorge; Painel P,Vicente; Barrero P,Raúl; Larraín H,Angélica

      2006-01-01

      Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica del mecanismo de infección y transformación neoplásica producida por el virus papiloma humano, de alto riesgo oncogénico, en el epitelio cervical. Se expone la interacción cápside receptor, internalización celular, expresión de genes tempranos, integración del genoma viral al de la célula huésped y algunos mecanismos vinculados a la proliferación y desarrollo neoplásico

    5. Torque Teno Virus em amostras fezes de pacientes com gastroenterite : preval??ncia, distribui????o por genogrupos e carga viral

      OpenAIRE

      Nascimento, Carlos Augusto Pinho do

      2011-01-01

      O Torque teno virus (TTV) ?? um v??rus de DNA do g??nero Alphatorquevirus da fam??lia Anelloviridae. O TTV ?? altamente prevalente em popula????es de todo o mundo. Isolados foram classificados em cinco grupos filogen??ticos (1-5) com grande dist??ncia gen??tica entre eles. A presen??a do TTV j?? foi detectada nas fezes, por??m, n??o se sabe se todos os cinco genogrupos do TTV s??o excretados nas fezes, e qual a distribui????o do TTV entre os genogrupos. A fim de avaliar a pr...

    6. Infección asintomática por el virus influenza H1N1 (2009 en personal sanitario. Estudio Marbegrip. Resultados preliminares

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Julián Olalla Sierra

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available Fundamento: La proporción de individuos asintomáticos que se infectan por gripe AH1N1v varía según las series. Los sanitarios están expuestos al virus de la gripe AH1N1v por su condición laboral, por lo que cabe esperar una prevalencia elevada de individuos con serología positiva sin presentar cuadro clínico asociado. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de sanitarios asintomáticos con serología positiva para el virus de la gripe AH1N1v. Métodos: Se propuso un estudio prospectivo de cohortes en personal hospitalario en función de un hipotético gradiente decreciente de exposición al virus: personal de urgencias, área médica, área quirúrgica y celadores no de urgencias. Se extrajo sangre de los participantes en septiembre- octubre de 2009, noviembre-diciembre de 2009 y en abril-mayo de 2010, junto con la extracción se rellenaba un cuestionario de salud. Se ofreció la participación voluntaria a los miembros de los diferentes servicios. En sangre se procedió a determinar anticuerpos específicos frente al virus de la gripe AH1N1v por medio de inhibición de la hemaglutinación. Participaron 18 hospitales con un total de 1.371 participantes. Resultados: Se dispone de cuestionario de salud y de resultados serológicos de cuatro hospitales. Se observó una proporción variable de sanitarios asintomáticos con serología positiva sin haber sido vacunados (entre el 5,6! y el 83!. Sólo se vacunaron un 19,4! de los sanitarios, con un porcentaje de serologías positivas también variable (entre un 18,8! y 64,7!. El porcentaje de serologías positivas fue significativamente menor entre los celadores y el resto de categorías profesionales. La vacunación fue mayor entre los médicos que en el resto de estamentos profesionales. Conclusiones: Existe un porcentaje variable de individuos con serología positiva sin haber sufrido síntomas, con claras diferencias geográficas. Se observan también diferencias en la

    7. La infección por el virus del papiloma humano, un posible marcador biológico de comportamiento sexual en estudiantes universitarios

      OpenAIRE

      Sánchez-Alemán Miguel A; Uribe-Salas Felipe; Conde-González Carlos J

      2002-01-01

      Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en estudiantes universitarios y utilizar dicha frecuencia como un marcador biológico para evaluar el comportamiento sexual. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal, en estudiantes de la Universidad Autónoma del estado de Morelos, México, durante el periodo 2000-2001. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se colectaron muestras genitales para detectar ADN de los VPH oncogénicos. Los datos se analizaron uti...

    8. Prevalencia de la infección por virus de Epstein Barr (VEB) en mujeres gestantes y con aborto, durante las primeras semanas de embarazo

      OpenAIRE

      Mariangel Ramos; César Pérez

      2013-01-01

      El virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB) es un agente patógeno común para los humanos y su efecto en la infección vertical es poco estudiado. Durante el embarazo hay riesgo a contraer infecciones que afectan al feto. La infección adquirida antes del nacimiento ocasiona abortos, mortinatos, malformaciones, retraso en el crecimiento intrauterino, prematuridad y secuelas por infección postnatal crónica. Los efectos inmediatos o a largo plazo representan un problema a nivel mundial. Durante el embarazo se ...

    9. Sexual selection and genital evolution: an overview.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Shamloul, Rany; el-Sakka, Ahmed; Bella, Anthony J

      2010-05-01

      Genital morphology (especially male) among the animal kingdom is characterized by extensive differences that even members of closely related species with similar general morphology may have remarkably diverse genitalia. To present the sexual medicine specialist with a basic understanding of the current hypotheses on genital evolution with an emphasis on the sexual selection theories. A review of current literature on the theories of genital evolution. Analysis of the supporting evidence for the sexual selection theories of genital evolution. Several theories have been proposed to explain genital evolution. Currently, the sexual selection theories are being considered to present valid and solid evidence explaining genital evolution. However, other theories, including sexual conflict, are still being investigated. All theories of genital evolution have their own weaknesses and strengths. Given that many complex biological mechanisms, mostly unknown yet, are involved in the process of genital evolution, it is thus reasonable to conclude that not one theory can independently explain genital evolution. It is likely that these mechanisms may prove to have synergistic rather than exclusive effects.

    10. Aspectos generales sobre la estructura y función de las proteínas codificadas por el virus del Papiloma Humano

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jorge Félix Beltrán Lissabet

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available El virus del Papiloma Humano (VPH es el agente causal de una de las infecciones de transmisión sexual más propagadas en todo el mundo que afecta principalmente a la población femenina. L os mecanismos moleculares por los que el VPH establece las infecciones son muy complejos y las vías por las que lleva a cabo su ciclo infectivo, están sometidas a una regulación compleja del genoma viral, el cual contiene ocho marcos abiertos de lectura (M AL que codifican una serie de proteínas clave (E6, E7, E1, E4, E2, E5, L2, L1 en el mantenimiento del ciclo viral en la célula hospedera, incluyendo E2^E8, resultado de la fusión de los productos de los MAL E2 y E8. La capacidad de la proteína L1 de auto ensamblarse en partículas semejantes a virus ha permitido el desarrollo de las vacunas profilácticas Gardasil ® y Cervarix ® , las que han demostrado ser eficaces en la prevención de las infecciones provocadas por el VPH. A pesar de los avances en el desarrol lo de inmunógenos, se hace necesario seguir avanzando en el diseño de futuras vacunas contra las infecciones producidas por el VPH, teniendo en cuenta la amplia variedad de tipos virales y el elevado costo de las vacunas actuales.

    11. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get genital herpes from oral sex. Genital herpes is caused by the herpes ... Genital herpes is usually caused by HSV-2; oral herpes (cold sores) is usually caused by HSV-1. ...

    12. [Chronic genital ulcerations and HIV infection: 29 cases].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gbery, I P; Djeha, D; Kacou, D E; Aka, B R; Yoboue, P; Vagamon, B; Sangare, A; Kanga, J M

      1999-01-01

      Genital ulcers are common manifestations of infectious disease. The incidence of genital ulcers featuring a chronic course has increased since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic. The purpose of this 18-month cross-sectional study was to determine the main infectious causes of chronic genital ulcers (CGU) and their correlation with HIV infection. A total of 29 patients with CGU defined as an ulcer showing no sign of healing after more than one month were studied. Mean age ranged from 24 to 54 years. The male-to-female sex ratio was 1:5. The etiology was herpes in 19 cases (65.5 p. 100), chancroid in 6 cases (20.6 p. 100), streptococcal infection in 2 cases (6.8 p. 100), Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in 1 case (3.4 p. 100) and cutaneous amibiasis in 1 case (3.4 p. 100). Twenty-two patients (75.8 p. 100) presented HIV infection including 16 with HIV1 and 6 with HIV1 and HIV2. All patients with herpes were HIV-positive. Eighteen of these patients were in stage C3 of HIV infection. Genital herpes was the main etiology of UGC in patients with HIV infection (p < 0.001). Conversely chancroid was the main etiology in patients without HIV infection (p < 0.05). This finding suggests that herpetic CGU is highly suggestive of AIDS whereas chancroid CGU is not. Although syphilis is widespread in Africa, it was not a cause of CGU in this study. Search for herpes simplex virus or Haemophilus ducreyi in patients with CGU is an important criteria for presumptive diagnosis of AIDS in Africa.

    13. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sohrabi, Amir; Hajia, Masoud; Jamali, Firouzeh; Kharazi, Faranak

      2017-02-16

      Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections. This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits. HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59%) with mean age of 32.35±9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%), 160 (28.42%) and 5 (0.89%) cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%), 42 (26.2%), 17 (10.6%) and 9 (5.7%) cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases. In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections.

    14. El pene voluntarioso: parcialidad de la pulsión genital. // The self-willed penis: partiality of the genital drive.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fredy Ricardo Moreno Chia.

      2008-06-01

      Full Text Available This work, besides presenting the characteristics of the so-called genital stage regarding the alterations each one of the components of the drive suffer, examines the idea that the genital stage constitutes the integration —either biological or psychic— of the partial drives. In this sense, it aims to show, based on descriptions done by several thinkers not necessarily psychoanalysts, that the genitality, at least in its male version, turns out to be problematic since it introduces a relation of surprise in the order of the egoic representations of the individual as regards to its own sex organ. By this way, we paradoxically conclude that the genitality is the expression of a partial drive (as opposed to an apparent totality whose source is the penis. // Este trabajo, además de poner de presente las características de la llamada fase genital, en lo tocante a las modificaciones que se suceden en cada uno de los componentes de la pulsión, interroga la idea de que la fase genital constituye la integración acaso biológica, acaso psíquica- de las pulsiones parciales. En este sentido intenta mostrar, tomando como base descripciones hechas por varios pensadores no necesariamente psicoanalistas, que la genitalidad, al menos en su versión masculina, resulta problemática en la medida en que introduce una relación de extrañeza en el orden yoico, del sujeto respecto a su propio órgano sexual. Por esta vía se concluye con la idea paradójica de que la genitalidad es la expresión de una pulsión parcial (en oposición a una aparente totalidad cuya fuente es el pene.

    15. 酶联免疫吸附试验检测单纯疱疹病毒抗体在生殖器疱疹筛查中的应用%Application of ELISA detection of herpes simplex virus antibodies in genital herpes screening

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      徐雪峰; 皮治兵

      2015-01-01

      目的:探讨酶联免疫吸附试验检测单纯疱疹病毒(HSV)抗体对生殖器疱疹筛查的意义。方法:选取50例2010年2月至2013年10月来我院治疗疑似生殖器疱疹患者,将其作为试验组,使用酶联免疫吸附试验进行HSV抗体检测,另外选择50例健康体检人员血清作为对照组。结果:在50例疑似生殖器疱疹患者HSV-I IgM,HSV-I IgG的检出率依次为14%,32%,HSV-ⅡIgM检出率为20%,HSV-ⅡIgG的检出率为34%;在对照组中HSV-I IgM,HSV-I IgG的检出率依次为0.8%,14%,HSV-ⅡIgM检出率为10%,HSV-ⅡIgG的检出率为24%,两组患者HSV抗体检测阳性率有显著的不同,二者明显的差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:疑似生殖器疱疹患者单纯疱疹病毒抗体检出率高,酶联免疫检测HSV抗原的方法可直接检测出泌尿生殖道及皮损中HSV病原体,在生殖器疱疹筛查中具有一定的优势。%Objectives:To investigate the application of ELISA detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibody in screening genital herpes.Method:50 patients,from February 201 0 to October 201 3,in our hospital with suspected genital herpes were selected as the test group,using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect HSV antibodies.In addition,50 healthy people were selected as control group.Results:In the 50 cases of test group,the detection rates of HSV-I IgMand HSV-I IgG were 1 4%and 32%respectively.HSV-ⅡIgMdetec-tion rate was 20%.HSV-ⅡIgG detection rate was 34%.In the control group,HSV-I IgM and HSV-I IgG de-tection rates were 0.8% and 1 4%,respectively.HSV-Ⅱ IgM detection rate was 1 0%.HSV-Ⅱ IgG detection rate was 24%.The difference of the HSV antibody positive rates in the two groups were statistically significant (P<0. 05 ).Conclusion:The detection rate of simplex virus antibody in patients with suspected genital herpes is high. ELISA method can directly detect HSV antigen

    16. Leishmaniasis in the genital area

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      CABELLO Ismery

      2002-01-01

      Full Text Available Two patients from the gold mines of Bolivar State, Venezuela, presenting cutaneous leishmaniasis in the genital region, an unusual location, are described. The first patient showed an ulcerated lesion of the glans penis. Leishmanin skin test was positive. A biopsy specimen revealed a granulomatous infiltrate containing Leishmania parasites. In the second patient, Leishmanin skin test was positive, HIV and VDRL were negative. Leishmania parasites were present in a biopsy of an ulcerated lesion in the scrotum, with an indurated base, infiltrative borders with an yellowish exudate. Patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate and the lesions healed.

    17. Review of Genital Wart Treatment

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      TIAN Hongqing(田洪清); DU Donghong(杜东红)

      2002-01-01

      Although many traditional therapies areavailable for genital warts(GW), one of the major problemsin the treatment of GW is a high recurrenence rate. Inorder to resolve the problem of recurrence, new theraputicapproaches have been investigated. New approaches beingexplored include 5-fiuorouracil/epinephrine injectablecollagen gel, 5% imiguimod cream and humanpapillomavirus vaccine. Fluorouracil /epinephrine injectable collagen gel achieves high concentration of fiuorouracilat the site of injection. Imiguimod is a novelimmune-respones modifier, giving good clearance rates andtolerable side effects. Although the use of an HPV vaccine isfar away, preliminary studies show that it may be possibleto develop suitable prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines togenital warts.

    18. Biomarcadores inmunológicos de riesgo cardiovascular en la infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana-1

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      María Teresa Rugeles-López

      2017-03-01

      Full Text Available La infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana-1 se ha consolidado como una epidemia mundial. La masificación de la terapia antirretroviral altamente activa ha traído consigo un aumento importante en la expectativa de vida de los pacientes seropositivos, pero también serias preocupaciones por la aparición de diferentes comorbilidades; entre las cuales se destaca la enfermedad cardiovascular como la tercera causa de mortalidad no asociada al síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida en estos pacientes. Este artículo muestra una revisión actualizada de los biomarcadores de la enfermedad cardiovascular en pacientes infectados con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana-1, e incluye los marcadores inmunológicos que han sido identificados más recientemente. Ante la ausencia de una estrategia para estimar el riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares validada en esta población, se discute el potencial clínico y la investigación que poseen dichos biomarcadores.

    19. 生殖器疱疹患者单纯疱疹病毒2型抗原抗体检测结果分析%Patients with genital herpes herpes simplex virus type 2 antigen antibody test results of analysis

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      余宝珠

      2012-01-01

      目的 分析生殖器疱疹患者单纯疱疹病毒2型(HSV-2)抗原抗体检测结果,探讨HSV-2抗原抗体检测的临床诊断意义.方法 86例生殖器疱疹患者开展HSV-2抗原抗体ELISA检测.结果 86例生殖器疱疹患者中,HSV-2抗原阳性检出率为90.70%,HSV-2 IgG阳性检出率为70.93%,HSV-2 IgM阳性为13.95%;45例初发患者HSV-2抗原阳性检出率为88.89%,HSV-2 IgG阳性检出率为40%,HSV-2 IgM阳性检出率为26.67%;41例复发患者,HSV-2抗原阳性检出率为87.80%,HSV-2 IgG阳性检出率为100%,HSV-2 IgM阳性检出率为0%.结论 ELISA法具有快速、简便、特异性高的特点;应根据患者不同症状选择HSV-2抗原抗体不同的检测方式.%Objective Analysis of patients with genital herpes herpes simplex virus type 2 antigen antibody detection results,discusses the HSV-2 antigen antibody detection in clinical diagnostic significance;. Methods Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in,selection of 86 patients with genital herpes patients HSV-2 carry out antigen antibody detection. Results In 86 patients with genital herpes patients, the HSV-2 antigen positive detection rate was 90. 70%, HSV-2 positive rate of IgG was 70. 93%, HSV-2 IgM positive rate was 13. 95%. 45 cases of patients with incipient HSV-2 antigen positive rate was 88. 89% ,HSV-2 positive rate of IgG was 40% ,HSV-2 IgM positive rate was 26. 67% ; in 41 cases of recurrent patients, HSV-2 antigen positive rate was 87. 80% , HSV-2 positive rate of IgG was 100% , HSV-2 IgM positive rate was 0%. Conclusion Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay could be a rapid,simple,highly specific characteristics. According to different symptoms of patients with HSV-2 antigen antibody of different detection methods.

    20. Infección oculta por el virus de la hepatitis B en hijos de madres positivas al HBsAg

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      Marité Bello-Corredor

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available La infección oculta por el virus de la hepatitis B (IOB, se caracteriza por la presencia en suero o plasma del genoma viral (ADN-VHB y anticuerpos contra la proteína de la cápside (anti-HBc en ausencia del antígeno de superficie (HBsAg, marcador que tradicionalmente se emplea para identificar la presencia del virus. Con el objetivo de caracterizar la presencia de IOB en hijos de madres positivas al HBsAg, se estudiaron 291 muestras séricas de niños con la condición de ser HBsAg (- y anticuerpos anti-HBsAg (anti-HBs menores de 50 UI/L, conservadas en la seroteca del Laboratorio de Referencia Nacional de Hepatitis Virales. Se realizaron ensayos para determinar la exposición al virus (anti-HBc, a los sueros anti-HBc (+ se les realizó Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa en Tiempo Real (RCP-TR para determinar y cuantificar el ADN-VHB. La prevalencia de exposición al VHB (anti-HBc fue 16,8% (49/291. El ADN viral se cuantificó en el 14% (6/43 de los casos anti-HBc (+, observándose cargas virales que oscilaban entre 2,15 x 101 hasta 3,42 x 101 UI/mL. La prevalencia de la IOB para el total de los pacientes analizados fue 2,1% (6/291, considerada relativamente baja. No se encontró asociación significativa entre las variables sociodemográficas analizadas tales como: edad, sexo y provincia de procedencia. La IOB está presente en hijos de madres positivas al HBsAg, a pesar de la profilaxis contra la hepatitis B. Por lo tanto, se requiere de pesquisajes adecuados para detectar dicha entidad. Las implicaciones clínicas y epidemiológicas de la misma, requieren de un estrecho monitoreo y atención de estos pacientes. Este estudio se realiza por primera vez en Cuba y aporta conocimientos útiles para el diagnóstico, prevención y control de esta enfermedad en niños.

    1. PREDICCIÓN DE LA EVOLUCIÓN DE LA BRONQUIOLITIS POR VIRUS RESPIRATORIO SINCITIAL EN LACTANTES MENORES DE 6 MESES

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      José Miguel Ramos-Fernández

      2017-01-01

      Full Text Available La necesidad de ventilación mecánica (VM en la bronquiolitis aguda por el virus respiratorio sincitial (VRS varía según las series entre el 6 y el 18 %. Nuestro objetivo fue conocer los ingresos en la unidad de cuidados intensivos para VM de pacientes con bronquiolitis aguda menores de 6 meses y definir los factores de riesgo con el fin de construir un modelo de predicción. Método. Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes menores de 6 meses ingresados por bronquiolitis aguda por VRS entre los periodos 1 de abril de 2010 y 31 de marzo de 2015. La variable principal fue el ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos para ventilación mecánica. Además, se recogieron variables clínicas relacionadas para hallar factores de riesgo en un modelo de regresión logística binaria. Con el modelo se elaboró una curva ROC y se identificó un punto óptimo de corte. Resultados. De 695 casos, precisaron VM en unidad pediátrica de cuidados intensivos 56 (8,1%. Los factores de riesgo incluidos en la ecuación fueron: 1. Sexo varón (OR: 4,27 2. Edad postmenstrual (OR:0,76 3. Peso al ingreso 37 semanas OR (0,32. El área bajo la curva, sensibilidad y especificidad fueron 0,943; 0,84 y 0,93 respectivamente. Conclusiones. Los ingresos en UCIP para VM fueron 8,1 por cada 100 lactantes sanos hospitalizados por BA y año. La ecuación elaborada del modelo de predicción puede ser de ayuda para predecir los pacientes con mayor riesgo de evolución grave.

    2. Manifestaciones reumáticas de la infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH

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      Gloria María Vásquez Duque

      2005-02-01

      Full Text Available Con la aparición del VIH/SIDA se ha puesto de manifiesto un espectro de manifestaciones clínicas reumáticas. El compromiso articular incluye las artralgias, la artritis por VIH, el síndrome de Reiter, la artritis psoriásica y la espondiloartropatía indiferenciada. También se ha documentado una miopatía inducida por el VIH en cuyo diagnóstico diferencial se deben tener en cuenta la miopatía inducida por zidovudina y la debida a toxoplasmosis, cuya presentación clínica es más parecida a la miopatía inducida por el VIH que a otras afecciones musculares. El síndrome de linfocitosis con infiltración difusa es una entidad parecida al síndrome de Sjögren, que es exclusiva de los pacientes VIH positivos, con algunas diferencias en la presentación clínica e inmunológica. Por último, es frecuente la presencia de fenómenos autoinmunes el más común de los cuales es la hipergamaglobulinemia policlonal. También se han descrito diferentes tipos de vasculitis como parte de esta enfermedad.

    3. Estudios sobre la transmisión por "moscas blancas" (Homoptera: aleyrodidae de virus asociados con el "cuero de sapo" en yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz

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      Angel S. Juan C.

      1987-12-01

      Full Text Available Estudios realizados en la zona endémica al "cuero de sapo" (Quilcacé, Cauca, encaminados a determinar la presencia de vectores de la enfermedad mostraron la existencia de dos virus asociados con "moscas blancas". El primero denominado "agente mosaico" fue transmitido por Bemisia tuberculata, el segundo asintomático, por Aleurotrachelus socialis. El 3.3% de la población de B. tuberculata utilizada transmitió el "agente mosaico" al clón M Col 2063 (Secundina y no a M Col 113: el 2.4 % de A. socialis transmitió el asintomático al clón Secundina y el 4.7% a M Col 113. El "agente mosaico", no fue identificado, pero si se demostró que el asintomático presente era CsXV; este sería el primer registro de un potexvirus transmitido por "moscas blancas". El papel de los dos virus en la etiología del “cuero de sapo” continúa en estudio.Whiteflies collected from a frogskin infested field in Quilcacé (Cauca were caged individually on M Col 2063 (Secundina and M Col 113 plants. It was possible to identify the species (Aleurotrachelus socialis, Trialeurodes variabilis and Bemisia tuberculata from pupae present on over 50% of the plants. A. socialis was found most f frequently and B. tuberculata the least com mom of the species. A. socialis was associated with the transmission of both CsXV and a serologically related strain, identified on the basis of symptoms produced on Nicotiana bentamiana, B. tuberculata was associated with the transmission of a mosaic agent to Secundina. The identify of the mosaic agent is unknown.

    4. Detección del virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo por captura híbrida II® según hallazgos citológicos en mujeres tratadas por lesiones escamosas intraepiteliales de cuello uterino, período 2006/2010

      OpenAIRE

      Mongelós,Pamela; Páez,Malvina; Rodriguez-Riveros, Isabel; Giménez,Graciela; Castro, Amalia; Mendoza, Laura

      2013-01-01

      OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia del virus de papiloma humano de alto riesgo oncogénico (HR-HPV) por captura híbrida II (r) (CH II(r)) según hallazgos citológicos en mujeres tratadas por lesiones escamosas intraepiteliales (SIL) de cuello uterino. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo de corte transverso de una serie de casos, en donde se incluyeron 122 mujeres tratadas, 79 (65%) por SIL de bajo grado (LSIL) y 43 (35%) por SIL de alto grado (HSIL) que concurrieron al Laboratorio de HPV...

    5. La infección por el virus del papiloma humano, un posible marcador biológico de comportamiento sexual en estudiantes universitarios

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      Sánchez-Alemán Miguel A

      2002-01-01

      Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH en estudiantes universitarios y utilizar dicha frecuencia como un marcador biológico para evaluar el comportamiento sexual. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal, en estudiantes de la Universidad Autónoma del estado de Morelos, México, durante el periodo 2000-2001. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se colectaron muestras genitales para detectar ADN de los VPH oncogénicos. Los datos se analizaron utilizando pruebas de Ji cuadrada y razones de momios. Resultados. La prevalencia global del VPH en 194 estudiantes fue de 14.4%. Las mujeres con dos o más parejas sexuales durante el último año presentaron mayor riesgo de infección por el VPH (RM 6.0 IC 1.7-21.1, al igual que las que utilizaron anticonceptivos hormonales y espermicidas en su última relación sexual (RM 3.0 IC 1.0-8.7. Los hombres que consumieron cocaína tuvieron más riesgo de infección por el VPH (RM 7.6 IC 1.3-45.1. Conclusiones. La prevalencia del VPH es relativamente alta. La utilización del VPH como un marcador biológico de comportamientos sexuales en mujeres es pertinente; en hombres, es necesario ampliar la muestra.

    6. Transplante hepático en pacientes con cirrosis por VHB y VHC Liver transplantation in patients with cirrhosis secondary to Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus injections

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      J. F. Lucena

      2004-01-01

      Full Text Available La cirrosis hepática asociada al virus C constituye la principal indicación de trasplante hepático en Europa y EEUU, representando en adultos hasta el 50% de las indicaciones, mientras que la cirrosis asociada al virus B representa alrededor del 10%. Las indicaciones de trasplante en los pacientes con infección por virus B y C son la hepatitis fulminante, la cirrosis descompensada y la aparición de hepatocarcinoma. Las dos infecciones pueden recidivar tras el trasplante. La evolución de la reinfección en el injerto es variable y puede incluir alteraciones no significativas de las pruebas de función hepática, hepatitis crónica activa y cirrosis. Con menor frecuencia se desarrolla una forma particularmente grave denominada "hepatitis colestásica fibrosante" que produce una rápida evolución al fallo del injerto. La inmunoglobulina contra el virus B y la lamivudina disminuyen el riesgo de reinfección. El factor principal asociado a la recidira de la hepatitis B es la replicación viral activa antes del trasplante, por lo que actualmente se considera una contraindicación para el transplante. Para el tratamiento de la reinfección por el virus de la hepatitis B se ha utilizado INF-a con resultados desalentadores. Más recientemente se han usado lamivudina y adefovir. La recidiva del virus de la hepatitis C postrasplante es universal y su evolución hacia la cirrosis es más rápida que en pacientes inmunocompetentes, siendo la disfunción del injerto la causa más frecuente de mortalidad y de indicación de retrasplante. Se han descrito factores relacionados con la gravedad de la recidiva que incluyen factores relacionados con el donante, el receptor, el virus, la inmunosupresión y la cirugía. No existen tratamientos preventivos de la recidiva de la hepatitis C postrasplante. En el tratamiento de la reinfección por virus de la hepatitis C se han usado INF-a y rivabirina tanto en forma única como combinada con resultados variables

    7. A Comparative Analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Genital Herpes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sardana, Kabir; Sethi, Sumit

      2017-01-01

      To compare laboratory tests that can simultaneously detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) directly from the genital ulcer specimens in clinically suspected cases of genital herpes. A study was conducted over 10 months and 44 adult male and female patients clinically suspected with genital herpes were recruited. Genital ulcer swab specimens were subjected to glycoprotein-G gene-based conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercially available direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and the results were compared. PCR for HSV was positive in 82% (36/44) cases. DFA was positive in 68.2% (30/44) cases. There was 100% agreement between HSV types detected by DFA and PCR. The strength of agreement between the results was better in primary genital herpes than recurrent cases. PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA.

    8. Tiroiditis autoinmune inducida por interferón en pacientes con infección por virus de la hepatitis C. Interferon-induced autoimmune thyroiditis in a patient with hepatitis C virus infection

      OpenAIRE

      Pinto, José L.; Miguel E. Pinto

      2011-01-01

      Se reporta el caso de un varón de 43 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió por elevación asintomática de la alanino aminotransferasa (ALT). El paciente negó ser bebedor crónico de alcohol. Se hizo el diagnóstico serológico de infección activa por hepatitis C y la biopsia de hígado reveló inflamación crónica activa. Con estos resultados, se inició tratamiento con interferón-alfa y ribavirina. Durante el tratamiento de 48 semanas, el paciente presentó anticuerpos...

    9. Estudio transversal de comorbilidades y medicaciones concomitantes en una cohorte de pacientes infectados por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

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      Maria Asunción García Gonzalo

      2017-05-01

      Conclusiones: Nuestros pacientes con infección por VIH son cada vez mayores, con mayor número de comorbilidades, con uso muy frecuente de tratamientos concomitantes y elevada prevalencia de episodios adversos. Esto obliga a un abordaje multidisciplinar y a una labor coordinada con atención primaria.

    10. Oncogenes E6-E7 de los Papilomavirus Humanos de alto riesgo detectados por PCR en Biopsias de pene incluidas en parafina

      OpenAIRE

      Guerrero, I; R Mejía; Velazco, R.; O Misad; M Pow-Sang

      1999-01-01

      La alta prevalencia del papilomavirus humano (PVH), referida a nivel mundial, en lesiones genitales de ambos sexos, el rol del varón como reservorio pasivo del virus, y el incremento de la mortalidad por cáncer genital en la mujer en nuestro país, motiva la detección y correlación de los oncogenes de los PVH de alto riesgo con la neoplasia de pene. Informamos de diez casos de biopsias de carcinoma escamoso de pene, incluidos en parafina, los cuales fueron investigados para la presencia de los...

    11. Incidencia, duración y determinantes de la infección por virus de papiloma humano (VPH en una cohorte de mujeres colombianas

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      Mónica Molano

      2004-03-01

      Full Text Available

      Ciertos tipos de VPH son los agentes etiológicos de cáncer cervical, lesiones tempranas y ulceras genitales (1-4. Las infecciones por VPH tienen alta prevalencia y se transmiten por contacto sexual (5-6. Los datos publicados sobre incidencia son en mujeres jóvenes pero son escasos los datos en mujeres de mediana edad (7-10. Se sugiere que los VPH de alto riesgo tienen mayor duración que los de bajo riesgo (7-11.

      Para examinar estos aspectos se presentan los datos sobre una cohorte de 2,200 mujeres seguidas desde Noviembre de 1993 a julio del 2001 en Bogotá, sexualmente activas, entre 13-85 años de edad. Se realizó detección y tipificación del VPH mediante PCR estándar GP5+/GP6+ e inmunoensayo enzimático (EIA. Para el cálculo de la incidencia se usaron métodos de persona-tiempo, asumiendo que la infección se presentó en la mitad de periodo entre la última visita negativa a VPH y la siguiente positiva.

      Para este análisis se tomaron 1,610 mujeres después de excluir las infecciones prevalentes. La duración media de seguimiento por paciente fue de 4,1 años (Rango intercuartil RIQ 3.2-5.0, la mediana de seguimiento fue de 7 meses (RIQ 6.0-12.0, más del 65% de las mujeres tenían 4 visitas y la edad media fue de 32,3 años (RIQ 26,5-39,2. La incidencia para infección por VPH fue de 6,2 por 100 personas-año, siendo la incidencia mayor para los tipos de alto riesgo que para los de bajo riesgo.

      Los tipos de mayor incidencia fueron los VPH 16, 58, 31 y 18. La curva de incidencia por edad mostró una forma bimodal, con un pico de incidencia de 15-19 años, que decrece hasta alrededor de los 50 años, cuando presenta un pequeño incremento

    12. Infecciones concurrentes por dos serotipos del virus dengue durante un brote en el noroeste de Perú, 2008

      OpenAIRE

      Mamani, Enrique; Laboratorio de Arbovirus, Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Biólogo. Magister en Microbiología.; Figueroa, Dana; Laboratorio de Arbovirus, Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; García, María Paquita; Laboratorio de Arbovirus, Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Tecnóloga Médico.; Garaycochea, María del Carmen; Laboratorio de Arbovirus, Centro Nacional de Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Pozo, Edwar J.; Oficina de Epidemiología, Subregión de Salud Luciano Castilla. Sullana, Perú. Biólogo.

      2010-01-01

      Objetives. To establish the existence of concurrent infections by different dengue virus (DENV) serotypes in an outbreak in the Northwestern in Peru during 2008. Material and methods. 73 serum samples from patients with dengue were analyzed during an outbreak that occurred in Northwestern in Peru between May and June 2008. Molecular biology techniques were used to serotype the DENV, thus, firstly the viral RNA viral was extracted using Viral QIAamp RNA mini kit (Qiagen, Valencia, Californ...

    13. Hepatite crônica por vírus C: Parte 1. Considerações gerais Hepatitis C virus: Part 1. General considerations

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vinício Paride CONTE

      2000-07-01

      necessariamente ausência de vírus da hepatite C no fígado. A associação de autoimunidade à hepatite C é questionável. Os marcadores imunes são freqüentemente detectados em baixos níveis. A modulação da resposta imune ao envelope protéico E2, após injeção de plasmídios DNA, tem sido usada para induzir respostas imunes específicas ao vírus da hepatite C. O espectro de tais respostas poderia ser ampliada mediante combinação de plasmídios, vias de administração e outras formas de imunógenos codificados (vacinas a base de peptídios. Tais estratégias podem vir a ser importantes, em breve, no combate aos altamente mutantes vírus da hepatite C. O papel patogênico dos novos vírus G e TT das hepatites está em estudos, porém é de consenso que suas associações com doença hepática ativa é fortuita.Hepatitis C virus was identified in 1989 as the main causative agent of non-A, non-B and was followed by the recognition of a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection after transfusion of infected blood or blood products and in association with intravenous drug abuse. The availability of sensitive and reliable techniques to screen blood for hepatitis C virus has reduced the incidence of post-transfusion hepatitis. True healthy carriers of hepatitis C virus did not exist. Aproximately 95% of hepatitis C virus infected individuals can be identified by third generation anti- hepatitis C virus testing. Retrospective studies of iatrogenic hepatitis C virus infection are the main source of the natural history of the disease. The distribution of different hepatitis C virus genotypes varies according to the grographic region. In South America, Europe, The United States and Japan hepatitis C virus genotypes 1, 2 and 3 account for the majority of the infections, being (subtype 1b the most prevalent. Epidemiological parameters (age, risk factors and duration of infection may be associated with hepatitis C virus genotypes (intravenous drug abuse with types 1-a and 3

    14. La gD2 coadministrada con el AFCo1 por vía intranasal induce inmunidad protectora contra virus de herpes simple tipo 2 en ratones

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      Osmir Cabrera

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available La infección por virus herpes simple tipo 2 (VHS-2 continúa siendo un problema de salud mundial. Esta infección es transmitida sexualmente y es la principal causa de úlceras genitales. La prevención de esta enfermedad requiere de la utilización de vacunas mucosales, pues las vacunas parenterales no han sido exitosas. Por otra parte, no existen adyuvantes mucosales, por lo que el desarrollo de estos es esencial para la estrategia de estas vacunas. La administración intranasal (IN de la glicoproteína D del VHS-2 (gD2, coadministrada con el cocleato (AFCo1+gD2 sería igualmente efectiva con la gD2 incluida (AFCo1-gD2. Se inocularon ratones hembras C57BL/6 por la vía IN con gD2, contenida dentro del cocleato, coadministrada con el cocleato o gD2 sola. Se determinaron los niveles de IgG anti gD2 en suero y lavado vaginal, así como las subclases de IgG anti gD2 por ELISA. Se determinó la respuesta linfoproliferativa en células de bazo, el perfil de citoquinas Th1/Th2, los signos de la enfermedad y la protección frente al reto viral. Se observaron altos títulos de IgG e IgG2c anti gD2 en el suero de los animales inoculados con la gD2 y el AFCo1 como adyuvante. No se observaron diferencias significativas (p>0,05 entre los grupos que recibieron AFCo1+gD2 y los que recibieron AFCo1-gD2. Se observó un perfil de citoquinas tipo Th1 y un 100% de sobrevida en los grupos que recibieron el AFCo1 como adyuvante de la gD2, mientras que en el grupo que recibió la gD2 sola no se observó protección. Estos resultados indican que la gD2 puede ser utilizada coadministrada con AFCo1 por vía IN como un potencial candidato vacunal contra VHS-2.

    15. Situaciones clínicas importantes en niños infectados por el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH Important clinical situations in pediatric hiv infection

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      Carlos Aguirre Muñoz

      2006-01-01

      Full Text Available La infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH en los niños se comporta en forma diferente a la infección en adultos, no sólo por sus manifestaciones clínicas sino por la forma de hacer el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. Los niños tienen un sistema inmune en desarrollo y no poseen inmunidad previa para la mayoría de los agentes infecciosos, a diferencia de los pacientes adultos, cuyo sistema inmune ya es competente. Por lo tanto, las infecciones oportunistas de los adultos generalmente corresponden a reactivaciones, mientras que las de los niños usualmente son el resultado de infecciones primarias. El examen físico del neonato infectado por el VIH-1 puede ser normal pero, a medida que avanza la infección, van apareciendo manifestaciones clínicas que sugieren un compromiso inmunológico. Los hallazgos más frecuentes en los niños, a diferencia de los adultos, son: infecciones bacterianas recurrentes, edema parotídeo crónico, neumonía intersticial linfoide y deterioro neurológico prematuro. Ciertos sistemas, como el respiratorio y el nervioso central, son atacados con frecuencia y gravedad y enfermedades como la tuberculosis revisten características especiales en los niños infectados por el VIH-1. Presentation of HIV infection in children differs from than in adults: there are different clinical manifestations and, therefore, diagnosis and treatment have their own particularities. Unlike adults, children have a developing immune system without previous immunity for many infectious agents; consequently, opportunistic infections in children correspond to primary infections while those in adults usually result from reactivations. Physical examination in HIV-infected newborns is usually normal, but as the infection progresses clinical manifestations of immunological incompetence appear. In contrast to adults, the most frequent findings in children are recurrent bacterial infections, parotid chronic edema, lymphoid

    16. The Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease among Patients Attending Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in Guangzhou, China

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      GU Jin(谷进); ZENG Zhirong(曾志荣); CHEN Rongzhang(陈荣章); ZHU Huilan(朱慧兰); QIU Xiaoshan(邱晓珊)

      2002-01-01

      Objectives: To investigate the etiology of genital ulcerdisease (GUD) among patients attending sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinics in Guangzhou, China.Methods: Between September 8, 1998, and August 9,2001, 267 patients with a genital ulcer were clinicallyassessed. Clinical etiology of GUD was dependent onphysical appearance and microbiologic examination,including the following: dark field microscopy and serologyfor Treponema pallidum (TP), swabs of genital ulcer forHerpes simplex virus (HSV), processed quantitativefluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) forsimultaneous detection of HSV, TP, Haemophilus ducreyi(HD), Human papillomavirus (HPV), and serology for HIVinfection.Results: Two hundred thirty men and thirty-sevenwomen with a median age of 33.4 (range 16-74 years) wereanalyzed. The etiology of GUD was syphilis (26.59%)(71/267), genital herpes (17.60%) (47/267), condylomataacuminata (4.87%) (13/267), candidiasis (3.37%) (9/267),bacterial infection (3.75%) (10/267), and multiple infection(6.74%) (18/267). The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.75%(2/267). No etiology was identified in 50.56% (135/267).Conclusion: The etiology of GUD among STD patients inour area was multifactorial with a predominance of syphilisand genital herpes. Based on this limited data obtained atSTD clinics, HIV infection was not common.

    17. Tiroiditis autoinmune inducida por interferón en pacientes con infección por virus de la hepatitis C. Interferon-induced autoimmune thyroiditis in a patient with hepatitis C virus infection

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      José L. Pinto

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un varón de 43 años de edad, sin antecedentes patológicos de importancia, que acudió por elevación asintomática de la alanino aminotransferasa (ALT. El paciente negó ser bebedor crónico de alcohol. Se hizo el diagnóstico serológico de infección activa por hepatitis C y la biopsia de hígado reveló inflamación crónica activa. Con estos resultados, se inició tratamiento con interferón-alfa y ribavirina. Durante el tratamiento de 48 semanas, el paciente presentó anticuerpos antitiroideos positivos con variaciones en sus niveles de tirotropina (TSH y hormonas tiroideas. En el seguimiento postratamiento, el paciente continuó con hipertiroidismo por enfermedad de Graves. La tiroiditis autoinmune es una complicación frecuente del uso de interferón en pacientes con hepatitis C. En algunos casos se presenta como hipertiroidismo por enfermedad de Graves. Se debe evaluar la función tiroidea y los anticuerpos antitiroideos antes y durante el tratamiento con interferón.A 43 year old man presented with asymptomatic elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and no relevant past history. The patient denied being a chronic alcohol drinker. Work-up revealed an active hepatitis C, and liver biopsy showed active inflammation. Treatment was started with interferon-alfa and ribavirin. During the 48 weeks of treatment, the patient developed positive thyroid antibodies with varying level of thyrotropin (TSH and thyroid hormones. At follow-up after treatment, the patient continued with hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease. Autoimmune thyroiditis is a common complication of using interferon in patients with hepatitis C. In some cases, it is presented as hyperthyroidism because of Graves’ disease. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies should be evaluated before and during treatment with interferon.

    18. Infección por el virus de la Lengua azul: activación de señales celulares que inducen apoptosis Bluetongue virus infection: signaling pathway activated during apoptosis

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      E. Mortola

      2009-09-01

      Full Text Available El virus de la Lengua azul (VLA es un ARN virus de doble cadena que induce apoptosis tanto en cultivos celulares como en tejidos blanco. Con el fin de dilucidar el mecanismo de apoptosis en la infección por el VLA, en el presente trabajo examinamos en detalle, por la técnica de Western blot, las señales celulares de caspasas, Bax, citocromo c, Smac/DIABLO y factor nuclear kappa B (NF-kB que se activan en la infección viral. Hemos comprobado que luego de la infección in vitro con el VLA, se detectó la activación de la caspasa 8 y con ello el mecanismo extrínseco de la apoptosis. También detectamos por primera vez no sólo la activación de miembros de la familia Bcl-2 (Bax, sino también la liberación del citocromo c y la proteína Smac/DIABLO, confirmando que en la infección por el VLA está involucrado el mecanismo secuencial intrínseco de la apoptosis. Asimismo, demostramos que la infección por el VLA activa el NF-kB y que la apoptosis es sustancialmente reducida mediante la inhibición del mismo. La activación de las señales celulares tales como Bax, citocromo c, Smac/DIABLO y NF-kB presentados en este trabajo, esclarecen los mecanismos apoptóticos durante la infección por el VLA para una mayor comprensión del papel primario que juega la apoptosis en la patogénesis del virus.Bluetongue (BTV is a double-stranded RNA virus that induces apoptosis both in mammalian cell cultures and in target tissues. To elucidate the apoptosis pathways in BTV infection, we have examined in detail the apoptosis mechanism by examination of caspases, Bax, cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO and NF-kB signalling pathways. In this report, after cell infection with BTV, the activation of caspase 8 was detected, proving the extrinsic receptor binding apoptotic pathway. Apoptosis followed a sequential pathway involving the detection of activated Bcl-2 family members. Furthermore, its translocation to the mitochondria, as well as the release of cytochrome c and

    19. Hepatopulmonary syndrome in a patient with AIDS and virus C cirrhosis (viral cirrhosis type C); Sindrome hepatopulmonar em paciente com cirrose por virus C e SIDA

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Ferreira, Maria Angelica; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Servico de Pneumologia; Barreto, Sergio Saldanha Menna; Knorst, Marli Maria [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Medicina Interna

      2001-02-01

      Hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by a triad consisting of liver disorder, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and hypoxaemia. No case of hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with AIDS has been reported so far. In this study, the authors report the case of a 43-year woman with AIDS and virus C cirrhosis taking prophylactic cotrimoxazole for pneumocystosis and retroviral therapy. Upon admission, the patient presented dyspnoea, cyanosis, digital clubbing, vascular spiders, and normal chest examination. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral interstitial infiltration and evidenced increased alveolar-arterial gradient and liver function impairment. Intrapulmonary shunt was evidenced by contrast-enhanced echocardiography and radionuclide perfusion scanning, thus confirming hepatopulmonary syndrome. (author)

    20. Novas variedades de pimentão resistentes ao mosaico causado por virus Y New lines of sweet pepper resistant to strains of potato Y virus

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      Hiroshi Nagai

      1971-05-01

      Full Text Available Novas variedades de pimentão denominadas "Agronômico 9" e "Agronômico 10" foram obtidas de cruzamentos múltiplos, em que tomaram parte as variedades de pimentão Casca Dura (Casca Grossa, Mogi das Cruzes, Porto Rico Wonder, Moura, Ikeda, Yolo Wonder e Modestão, além de uma pimenteira P 11 (P.I. 264281. Cada uma dessas variedades contribuiu com respectivos genes de resistência às estirpes Yn, Yw, Yf, Yat do complexo PVY e mais hipersensibilidade ao TMV. "Agronômico 9" produz frutos quadrados (tipo California Wonder e "Agronômico 10" apresenta frutos cônico-alongados (tipo Casca Dura.Breeding work carried out by the writer in the past led to the development of two new sweet pepper varieties, Agronômico 7 (California wonder type and Agronômico 8 (conical fruit, incorporating the high level of resistance to strains of potato Y virus from P 11 (P.I. 264281. The occurrence of a potato Y virus strain (Atibaia - Yat that infected these new pepper types and the fact that their fruit was considered as below the desirable market size led author to continue their improvement. Further breeding work either the two varieties was carried out, as follows: (1 Agronômico 7 was crossed with a California pepper type that has been called Modestão; selection made in advanced generations of this cross resulted in a sweet pepper type with the blocky type of fruit that combines other favorable characteristics of both parents, and has been designated as Agronômico 9; (2 A selection of Agronômico 8, resistant to the Yat strain, was crossed, with Ikeda, a variety that is tolerant to the virus and has larger fruit than the other parent. Selection in advanced generations of this cross led to Agronômico 10, that has conical fruit of a size comparable to that of Ikeda, and the very high level of resistance to potato Y virus of P 11. Agronômico 9 and 10 are being tested on a large scale at present and scheduled to be released in the future.

    1. Enfoque bioético y social de la infección por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana

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      Fernando Crespo Domínguez

      Full Text Available Las personas portadoras o enfermas del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana han experimentado consecuencias devastadoras en el plano personal, familiar y social desde la aparición de los primeros casos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar el cumplimiento de los principios bioéticos, así como la repercusión derivada de las implicaciones éticas del actuar profesional con estos pacientes, lo cual demuestra la necesidad de vencer los tabúes y la discriminación que han sido objeto desde los inicios de la epidemia.

    2. Células NK: generalidades y papel durante la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1 NK cells: characteristics and role during the infection by type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1

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      María Teresa Rugeles López

      2007-03-01

      Full Text Available Las células NK exhiben actividad espontánea contra células tumorales o células infectadas, particularmente por virus. Ellas se caracterizan por la expresión de las moléculas CD16 y CD56, y se subdividen en dos poblaciones, CD16Low/CD56Hi y CD16Hi/CD56Low, que difieren en las citoquinas que producen y en la capacidad citotóxica. La activación de las células NK está regulada por la expresión de receptores inhibidores y activadores que interactúan con diferentes ligandos de las células blanco. La actividad efectora de estas células incluye la lisis de las células blanco por diferentes mecanismos y la producción de citoquinas; las células NK participan por medio de estos factores solubles en diversos procesos fisiológicos, como la hematopoyesis y la regulación de otras células del sistema inmune. Durante la infección por el VIH-1, las células NK ayudan al control de la replicación viral tanto por mecanismos citotóxicos como por la producción de citoquinas, particularmente -quimoquinas. Sin embargo, el VIH- 1 ha desarrollado mecanismos para evadir la respuesta antiviral mediada por las células NK. Adicionalmente, esta infección induce anormalidades cuantitativas y funcionales en estas células que pueden presentarse muy temprano en la evolución de la enfermedad y que hacen parte de la inmunosupresión severa característica del SIDA. NK cells exhibit spontaneous activity against tumor and infected cells, particularly with virus. They are characterized by the expression of the CD16 and CD56 molecules. Two NK cell subpopulations have been described: CD16Low/CD56Hi and CD16Hi/ CD56Low that differ in the cytokines produced and their cytotoxic ability. NK cell activation is regulated by the expression of inhibition and activation receptors, which interact with different ligands on the target cells. The effector activity of these cells includes lysis of target cells by different mechanisms and the production of cytokines

    3. Tratamiento de la infección crónica por el VHB Treatment of chronic Hepatitis B virus infection

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      N. Carreño

      2004-01-01

      Full Text Available El tratamiento del paciente con hepatitis crónica por virus B (VHB debe realizarse bajo el conocimiento de que el porcentaje de pacientes infectados por el virus B que desarrollan hepatitis crónica se mantiene entre el 5-10%. De ellos, el 10-30% presentarán infección crónica con replicación viral activa, lesión hepática necroinflamatoria, evolución a cirrosis hepática y riesgo de desarrollar hepatocarcinoma. Por este motivo la meta del tratamiento es lograr la negativización del HBeAg, la seroconversión a anti-HBe y la reducción de la replicación viral a valores indetectables (estimados por niveles de DNA-VHB, durante períodos prolongados de tiempo. Cuando se obtiene una pérdida sostenida del HBeAg y la reducción de la replicación viral, se consigue una remisión bioquímica, clínica e histológica. Las alternativas terapéuticas en la infección crónica por el virus B hasta el momento son la inmunomodulación con interferón alfa y el bloqueo de la replicación viral con lamivudina o adefovir dipivoxil. Hay que diferenciar la respuesta bioquímica, definida como un descenso de las transaminasas hasta valores normales, de la respuesta virológica, que se refiere a un descenso de los niveles de DNA-VHB por debajo de 105 copias/ml. Finalmente, se define la respuesta completa como la respuesta virológica y bioquímica con negativización del HBsAg. Si se obtiene una respuesta sostenida durante varios meses, es predecible una respuesta histológica con reducción en la intensidad de la lesión hepática y ausencia o estabilización en el proceso de fibrosis. La respuesta sostenida, debe durar no menos de 6 a 12 meses tras acabar el tratamiento.The treatment of the patient with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (HBV must be carried out with the knowledge that the percentage of patients infected with the B virus that develop chronic hepatitis remains between 5-10%. Of these, 10-30% will present chronic infection with active

    4. La infección por virus dengue induce la disminución de marcadores de diferenciación en células de neuroblastoma = Dengue virus infection down-regulates differentiation markers in neuroblastoma cells

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      Rincón Forero, Verónica del Pilar

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available Introducción: cerca del 5% de los pacientes con dengue hemorrágico pueden presentar manifestaciones neurológicas; sin embargo, existe poca información sobre la infección directa por el virus dengue (DENV en neuronas.Objetivo: determinar el papel del fenotipo neuronal en la infección por DENV en células de neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y inducidas o no a la diferenciación con ácido retinoico (AR.Materiales y métodos: células SH-SY5Y fueron inducidas con AR a diferenciarse e infectadas con DENV. Posteriormente se cuantificó la expresión de antígeno viral y de dos marcadores de diferenciación (GAP43 y sinaptofisina. También se evaluó la viabilidad postinfección por la técnica de MTT.Resultados: se encontró que las células diferenciadas son más susceptibles a la infección por DENV, pues se detectó en ellas mayor cantidad de antígeno viral que en las indiferenciadas. A pesar de que el virus indujo muerte celular en ambos tipos de células, la proporción fue mayor en las indiferenciadas (40,3% frente a 21,5%. La infección por DENV en células SH-SY5Y diferenciadas indujo una disminución significativa en la expresión de GAP-43 y sinaptofisina.Conclusiones: los resultados que se presentan permiten sugerir una relación entre la infección viral y la función neuronal, que podría ser importante para esclarecer la patogénesis de las manifestaciones neurológicas durante las formas graves de dengue.

    5. Therapeutic options for external genital warts.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles

      2013-12-01

      The primary goal of treatment for external genital warts (EGWs) is to eradicate visible lesions and address symptoms that may accompany them, but it does not address the underlying virus. Left untreated, warts may grow, remain the same, or spontaneously regress as a result of being cleared by the immune system. However, recurrence is common with or without treatment and may occur within 3 months of ending treatment in one-quarter to two-thirds of cases. Treatment options fall into two categories: provider or patient applied. Provider-based therapies include cryotherapy, trichloroacetic and bichloroacetic acid, electrocautery, surgical excision, and CO2 laser therapy. Patient-applied therapy choices include imiquimod and podophyllotoxin. Imiquimod 3.75% is a fairly new, patient-administered topical cream approved by Health Canada in 2011. Another recently approved patient-applied choice is sinecatechins, a green tea extract with immunomodulatory effects. Self-treatment options are attractive to patients because they offer privacy, convenience, and autonomy. In contrast, provider-administered therapies may boast increased precision (especially for areas that are hard to reach) and closer monitoring, which can be augmented by patient education and counseling. Available topical and surgical therapies vary widely in terms of cost, efficacy, adverse effects, dosage/frequency, and length of treatment. No one treatment is ideally suited to all patients or constitutes a gold standard. Treatment regimens must be tailored to each patient's needs and preferences. The health care provider's skills and experience will also factor into treatment decisions. In addition, the size, number, and location of lesions and whether the infection is new or recurrent will help guide the decision process toward the best treatment for a given patient.

    6. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery

      OpenAIRE

      Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.; Garcia, Maurice M.

      2016-01-01

      Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation i...

    7. The medicalisation of female genital mutilation

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      Pierre Foldes

      2015-05-01

      Full Text Available The ‘medicalisation’ of female genital mutilation should be denounced on two counts.Firstly, it is usually anatomically more damaging and, secondly, it goes against the ethical basis of the medical profession.

    8. Female genital warts: global trends and treatments.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gall, S A

      2001-01-01

      The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated conditions such as genital warts in women is a global concern. Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV infection is also strongly associated with cervical cancer, and is prevalent in as many as 99% of cases. The psychological stress of having genital warts is often greater than the morbidity of the disease, and therefore successful treatment is crucial. Current treatments are patient-applied and provider-administered therapies. Imiquimod 5% cream, a patient-applied therapy, is an efficacious treatment with tolerable side-effects and a low recurrence rate, and has the potential to be an effective strategy for the management of genital warts.

    9. Neonatal genital prolapse: A case report

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      Sindu Saksono

      2015-04-01

      Full Text Available Neonatal genital prolapse without congenital spinal abnormality is rare. Several treatment modalities are known to manage this condition. Our management consists of manually reducing the prolapsed mass and applying purse string suture technique.

    10. Evaluación de la calidad de vida en personas infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH)

      OpenAIRE

      Miguel Arranz, Laura

      2002-01-01

      Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Aunque los actuales tratamientos antirretorvirales han conseguido aumentar la supervivencia y la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas por el VIH/SIDA, no es menos cierto que sigue siendo una enfermedad crónica que requiere de un tratamiento continuado, no exento de efectos adversos, a los que cabe añadir el importante impacto emocional y psicosocial. En tales circunstancias, el estudio de la Calidad de Vida referida...

    11. Enfermedad respiratoria grave en terapia intensiva durante la pandemia por el virus de influenza A (H1N1 2009

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      José Aquino-Esperanza

      2010-10-01

      Full Text Available Se describen pacientes hospitalizados en una unidad de terapia intensiva por enfermedad respiratoria aguda grave con características de influenza durante los primeros meses de la pandemia por influenza A(H1N1 2009 en la Argentina. Evaluamos datos clínicos, scores de gravedad, pruebas de laboratorio, microbiología y radiología torácica al ingreso, evolución y mortalidad hospitalaria, comparando pacientes con y sin confirmación de H1N1 por test de reacción de polimerasa en cadena, transcriptasa reversa (RT-PCR. Entre junio y julio de 2009 se internaron 31 pacientes adultos con una mediana de edad de 54 años (percentilo 25-75: 33-66. Presentaron test positivo para H1N1, 17 pacientes. Tenían al menos una condición concurrente 16 pacientes. La expresión radiográfica más frecuente fue infiltrados intersticio-alveolares bilaterales en 20 casos; 5 tenían consolidación lobar unilateral. La coinfección bacteriana (aislamiento de bacterias o IgM positiva para infecciones bacterianas, se demostró en 21 pacientes. Requirieron ventilación mecánica 23 pacientes y 18 desarrollaron síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo (SDRA. La linfopenia y elevación de creatinina-fosfoquinasa fue frecuente (83% y 65%, respectivamente. Los 6 pacientes que murieron (19% eran mayores de 75 años o tenían cáncer o inmunodepresión. El tratamiento antiviral temprano (≤ 48 horas se asoció a menor necesidad de ventilación mecánica (54% vs. 89%; p: 0.043. No hubo diferencia significativa en las variables analizadas entre el grupo H1N1 positivo y el negativo, lo que sugiere tener igual enfoque terapéutico frente a una epidemia. La infección por H1N1 determinó falla respiratoria aguda y SDRA. La mortalidad ocurrió en pacientes añosos o con co-morbilidades graves.

    12. Evolución de la prevalencia de infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en población reclusa al ingreso en prisión durante el período 1991-1995

      OpenAIRE

      Martín Vicente; Caylà Joan A; Morís María L.; Alonso Luis E.; Pérez Rafael

      1997-01-01

      FUNDAMENTO: Las prisiones españolas albergan un elevado número de usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral (UDVP), y otras personas con prácticas de riesgo para la infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la evolución de la prevalencia de infección por VIH en el momento del ingreso en prisión y los factores asociados a la misma en este colectivo, lo que puede permitir una aproximación a la efectividad de las estrategias de reducción de ries...

    13. Is oral contraceptive associated with genital warts?

      OpenAIRE

      Ross, J. D.

      1996-01-01

      OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between oral contraceptive use and the prevalence of genital warts in women. METHODS: Cross sectional case control study comparing oral contraceptive use in women with and without genital warts attending a city centre genitourinary medicine clinic controlling for recent sexual activity, the presence of other sexually transmitted infections, socio-economic class and history of pregnancy using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: After control...

    14. Prevalencia de la infección por virus de Epstein Barr (VEB en mujeres gestantes y con aborto, durante las primeras semanas de embarazo

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      Mariangel Ramos

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available El virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB es un agente patógeno común para los humanos y su efecto en la infección vertical es poco estudiado. Durante el embarazo hay riesgo a contraer infecciones que afectan al feto. La infección adquirida antes del nacimiento ocasiona abortos, mortinatos, malformaciones, retraso en el crecimiento intrauterino, prematuridad y secuelas por infección postnatal crónica. Los efectos inmediatos o a largo plazo representan un problema a nivel mundial. Durante el embarazo se ha mostrado una prevalencia del 98% y aproximadamente el 40% de las embarazadas son susceptibles y transmitirán el virus al feto. Los actuales exámenes clínicos de rutina revelan pocos hallazgos específicos en la madre pues en su mayoría la infección por VEB tiene un curso asintomático. La poca efectividad en su tratamiento hace que la prevención y el diagnóstico sean de gran importancia. Se conoce que el VEB se mantiene latente en el 90% de los pacientes después de la infección primaria y que la infección puede ser reactivada debido a diversos factores como el estrés crónico, posiblemente debido a la disminución de la respuesta inmune celular. En la presente investigación se evaluó la prevalencia de la infección por VEB en mujeres gestantes y con aborto que se encontraban durante las primeras 15 semanas de embarazo. Las muestras de pacientes de la consulta de obstetricia en diferentes ambulatorios de los Municipios Libertador y Campo Elías del Estado Mérida y de mujeres en la sala de emergencia obstétrica del Instituto Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes (IAHULA que acudieron por aborto durante las primeras semanas, se analizaron con una prueba ELISA para la detecctar anticuerpos séricos de tipo IgG VCA-VEB que no discriminan entre una primoinfección y una infección pasada. El 35% de la población de estudio fueron 9 mujeres en gestación sin antecedente de aborto y el 65% corresponde a 17 mujeres que historia previa

    15. Primera evidencia de infección por el virus de la coriomeningitis linfocítica (arenavirus en roedores Mus musculus capturados en la zona urbana del municipio de Sincelejo, Sucre, Colombia

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      Anais Castellar

      2017-04-01

      Conclusión. Los resultados indicaron que la infección por el virus de la coriomeningitis linfocítica en humanos podría ocurrir en el área urbana de Sincelejo, aunque hasta la fecha no se hayan reportado casos.

    16. Prevalencia de infección por el virus del Nilo Occidental en dos zoológicos del estado de Tabasco Prevalence of West Nile Virus infection in animals from two state zoos Tabasco

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      M Hidalgo-Martínez

      2008-02-01

      Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por el virus del Nilo Occidental (VNO en animales, mosquitos y personal que labora en dos zoológicos del estado de Tabasco, en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Con la utilización de ELISA de bloqueo se detectaron anticuerpos en sueros de animales: se buscó un fragmento del genoma del VNO por RT-PCR en el suero de animales, empleados y mosquitos. RESULTADOS: En el zoológico "La Venta" se encontró una seroprevalencia de 25.67% (19/74 en aves y de 85.71% (6/7 en reptiles. En el zoológico "Yum-Ká", 31.25% (50/160 de las aves y 34.48% (16/29, de los mamíferos, tuvieron anticuerpos contra el VNO. En un grupo de mosquitos (Culex quinquefasciatus se detectó el genoma del virus. CONCLUSIONES: La detección de anticuerpos contra el VNO en animales de ambos zoológicos y del genoma viral en mosquitos demuestra la presencia del virus, lo cual representa un riesgo potencial de infección para animales y humanos.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of West Nile Virus (WNV infection in animals, mosquitoes and employees from two zoos of Tabasco state, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: WNV antibodies were detected by blocking ELISA in serum samples from animals. Viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR from mosquitoes and serum samples from employees at "Yum-Ká" zoo. RESULTS: Seroprevalence in birds was 25.65% (19/74 and 85% (6/7 in reptiles from "La Venta" zoo. Thirty-one percent of birds (50/160 and 34.48% mammals (16/29 at the "Yum-Ká" zoo, were seropositive. All human serum samples from Yum-ká zoo were negative by RT-PCR. A pool of mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus was positive for WNV. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of WNV antibodies in animals from both zoos and the detection of viral genome in mosquitoes demonstrate the presence of WNV in this region and indicates a potential risk of infection in animals and humans.

    17. Encefalitis por virus San Luis en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el brote de dengue 2009 Saint Louis encephalitis virus in Buenos Aires city during the outbreak of dengue in 2009

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      Horacio López

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente de 80 años de edad, residente en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, con diagnóstico serológico para el virus de la encefalitis de San Luis (SLE durante el brote de dengue ocurrido entre enero y mayo de 2009. Presentaba leucemia linfoide crónica en tratamiento con clorambucilo, cáncer de próstata tratado con hormonoterapia y radioterapia, e imágenes óseas compatibles con metástasis. El estudio del líquido cefalorraquídeo demostró pleocitosis con predominio de mononucleares y proteinorraquia elevada. El resultado de los cultivos para bacterias, hongos y micobacterias, así como el PCR en LCR para herpes virus, HSV, CMV y EBV, fue negativo. Se detectaron anticuerpos IgM para virus SLE tanto en LCR como en muestra de suero, con seroconversión IgG por neutralización en cultivos celulares y resultados negativos para los demás Flavivirus con circulación en Argentina. Se revisan evidencias sobre la presencia de virus de San Luis en nuestro país, y se señala la importancia de la confirmación diagnóstica y el estudio de otros Flavivirus en casos sospechosos de dengue con presentación grave o atípica. Este trabajo remarca la necesidad de fortalecer tanto la vigilancia epidemiológica del virus SLE, como el control vectorial para prevenir las diferentes infecciones transmitidas por mosquitos y conocer su efecto en Salud Pública en la Argentina.We report the case of a male, 80-year-old resident in the City of Buenos Aires, with a diagnosis of St. Louis encephalitis (SLE during a countrywide dengue outbreak, from January to May 2009. The patient had a chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with chlorambucil, prostate cancer (hormone therapy and radiotherapy and images consistent with bone metastases. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed pleocytosis with a predominance of mononuclear cells and high protein concentration. Bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria cultures, as well as the PCR for herpes virus, HSV, CMV and EBV, were

    18. Infecciones concurrentes por dos serotipos del virus dengue durante un brote en el noroeste de Perú, 2008 Concurrent infections by two dengue virus serotypes during an outbreak in northwestern Peru, 2008

      OpenAIRE

      Enrique Mamani; Dana Figueroa; María Paquita García; María del Carmen Garaycochea; Pozo, Edwar J.

      2010-01-01

      Objetivo. Describir la existencia de infecciones concurrentes por diferentes serotipos del virus dengue (DENV) en un brote ocurrido en el noroeste de Perú durante el 2008. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó 73 muestras séricas de pacientes con dengue en un brote en el noroeste de Perú entre mayo y junio de 2008. Para la serotipificación del DENV se utilizó técnicas de biología molecular; así, primero se realizó la extracción del ARN con el kit QIAamp viral RNA Mini, luego se realizó la transcri...

    19. Deteccion de la infección por virus papiloma humano en hombres: Penescopía como método de cribado Detection of infection by human papilloma virus in men: Peniscopy as screening method

      OpenAIRE

      R del Pazo; B Lukaszuk; Leite, M.(Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil); J. L. Iribas

      2008-01-01

      Este trabajo es el resultado de la preocupación relativa y la escasa atención que se le presta al hombre, como portador y posible trasmisor del Virus Papiloma Humano. La población estudiada quedó conformada por 45 hombres, de 18 a 60 años de edad, que concurrieron al consultorio de Dermatología del Hospital Dr. J M Cullen de la ciudad de Santa Fe. Se confeccionó una ficha clínica protocolizada y se les realizó una penescopía. La penescopía resultó positiva en el 53,3% de la muestra tomada. Se...

    20. [Transfer factor effectiveness patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

      2012-01-01

      Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Most HPV infections are cleared within two years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women the infection persists determining a high risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The transfer factor (TF) or dialyzable leukocyte extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. One daily dose of transfer factor was given for five days and subsequently each week for five weeks to a group of women with persistent genital papillomavirus infection. We included 13 patients, aged 19 to 45 years, with first intercourse between the ages of 14 to 23, and a mean of three sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options, including cervical freezing, cervical conization, cauterizing loop, imiquimod and podophyllin. Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and subsequently at 7-day intervals for 5 weeks. We found a clinical significant improvement in the gynaecological evaluation of cervical, vaginal, vulvar and perineal lesions. No recurrences have developed for at least 1 year of follow-up. The use of transfer factor in women with HPV showed resolution of genital lesions, without recurrences for at least one year after the treatment was ended.

    1. Human α-amylase present in lower-genital-tract mucosal fluid processes glycogen to support vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

      2014-10-01

      Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary α-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of α-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of α-amylase digestion. These studies show that human α-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract.

    2. EVOLUCIÓN DE LA PANDEMIA POR EL VIRUS DE LA GRIPE (H1N1 2009 EN LA COMUNIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE LA RIOJA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Eva María Martínez Ochoa

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Fundamento. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido realizar un análisis de la evolución de la pandemia por el virus de la gripe (H1N1 2009 en la Comunidad Autónoma de La Rioja tanto en atención primaria como en hospitalaria. Métodos. El periodo de estudio incluyó desde la semana 28- 2009 hasta la 3-2010. La información de los casos de gripe se obtuvo de las bases informatizadas de atención primaria (OMI, de los listados remitidos por los servicios hospitalarios de medicina preventiva, del laboratorio de referencia de La Rioja y de los formularios de notificación individual. Se realizó una descripción de los casos según distribución por semana, sexo, edad, factores de riesgo, evolución y complicaciones. Se utilizó la regresión binaria logística para estimar las odds ratios ajustadas y su intervalo de confianza al 95%, de recibir tratamiento antiviral según factores de riesgo. Resultados. Hasta la semana epidemiológica 3 de 2010 se declararon a través del sistema OMI de atención primaria 7.096 casos de sospecha de gripe (H1N1 2009, fueron hospitalizados 111 casos con diagnóstico confirmado por laboratorio. Requirieron atención en cuidados intensivos 5 (4,5% y 2 fallecieron. Todos ellos presentaban factores de riesgo. Ninguno de los niños ni de las mujeres embarazadas hospitalizados precisaron ingreso en cuidados intensivos. Conclusiones. Durante la pandemia la gripe (H1N1 2009 fue una enfermedad propia de la población pediátrica y joven, apareciendo con menor frecuencia en las personas mayores de 60 años. La evolución clínica en La Rioja cursó de forma leve en la mayoría de las personas diagnosticados.

    3. Seroprevalencia de la infección por el virus herpes simplex tipo 2 en tres grupos poblacionales de la Ciudad de México Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence among three female population groups from Mexico City

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Carlos J Conde-González

      2003-01-01

      Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la seroprevalencia de infección por el virus herpes simplex tipo 2 y los factores epidemiológicos asociados a ella, en tres grupos de población femenina de la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal efectuado en el año 2000, que incluyó mujeres de la Ciudad de México diagnosticadas con cáncer de mama, cáncer cervical , y mujeres de población general negativas al Papanicolaou. Todas las participantes proporcionaron su consentimiento informado para responder un cuestionario sociodemográfico y de vida sexual, y permitir la toma de una muestra sanguínea. La presencia de anticuerpos contra el virus herpes simplex tipo 2 entre las mujeres se realizó por la técnica de "Western blot"específica para el virus herpes simplex tipo 2; las asociaciones entre estos resultados y los datos de la encuesta se analizaron estadísticamente, de manera cruda y ajustada. RESULTADOS: Las mujeres concáncer cervical tuvieron una seroprevalencia de infección por el virus herpes simplex tipo 2 de 46.8% (191/408; las de población general negativas al Papanicolaou de 29.3% (214/730, y aquellas con cáncer de mama de 22.6% (29/128. Las variables asociadas significativamente a la seropositividad contra este virus fueron la edad creciente, el aumento en el número de parejas sexuales, tener cáncer cervical, y entre las mujeres con esa patología, el inicio antes de los 21 años de edad de la actividad sexual y el estar divorciadas o separadas. CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos observados revelaron diferencias estadísticas en la seroprevalencia del virus herpes, de acuerdo con los grupos poblacionales estudiados. La frecuencia global de la infección viral entre las participantes las sitúa en un riesgo intermedio, en comparación con otros grupos poblacionales que en México son de alto y bajo riesgo (trabajadoras sexuales y estudiantes universitarias, respectivamente, analizados en años recientes. Las principales caracter

    4. Evolución de los embarazos de mujeres infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana Pregnancy outcome in HIV-infected women

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      Ricardo Figueroa-Damián

      1999-10-01

      Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar las complicaciones médicas de las embarazadas infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH y asintomáticas, y determinar el riesgo que el virus representa para el desarrollo de las mismas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se comparó la evolución del embarazo y el resultado perinatal de 44 embarazadas seropositivas al VIH, asintomáticas y que presentaron más de 200 linfocitos CD4/mm³, con embarazadas control no infectadas; las pacientes se parearon por edad y nivel socioeconómico. RESULTADOS: En 42 (95.4% pacientes la vía de contagio fue sexual; 35 (79.5% tenían menos de un año de saber que estaban infectadas y 15 (34% recibieron tratamiento antiviral durante la gestación. Las mujeres infectadas por el VIH presentaron un riesgo mayor de complicaciones infecciosas (RR3.1, IC95% 1.9-52, cervicovaginitis (RR2.2, IC95% 1- 48 y enfermedades de transmisión sexual (RR18, IC95% 2.3-137. El promedio de peso y talla de los recién nacidos y el número de complicaciones neonatales fueron similares entre los grupos comparados. El análisis estratificado mostró que la ausencia de tratamiento antirretroviral y el antecedente de tres o más parejas sexuales incrementaron el riesgo de complicaciones infecciosas. CONCLUSIONES: Las embarazadas seropositivas al VIH y asintomáticas no tuvieron un riesgo mayor de complicaciones médicas del embarazo, con excepción de problemas infecciosos.OBJECTIVE: To identify the medical complications in a cohort of HIV-infected, pregnant women and to determine the risk of having the virus in the development of these complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort study of 44 HIV-infected and 88 seronegative pregnant women was performed. Pregnancy was followed and perinatal results were compared. HIV-infected women were asymptomatic with CD4 count > 200 mm³. Patients were matched for age and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: In 42 (95.4% of HIV patients the disease had been transmitted sexually

    5. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zhang, William R; Garrett, Giorgia L; Arron, Sarah T; Garcia, Maurice M

      2016-06-01

      Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient's identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS.

    6. Recomendaciones para el uso de la terapia antirretroviral en infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en Costa Rica Guidelines for antiretroviral treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection in Costa Rica

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antonio Solano-Chinchilla

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available El siguiente documento recolecta información actualizada para el abordaje de la persona con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humano, adaptado a la realidad nacional. Se considera que la terapia antirretroviral debe iniciarse lo antes posible en personas con conteo linfocitario menor de 350 linfocitos T CD4+/mm³, previa valoración clínica y asegurando seguimiento estricto por parte de un equipo interdisciplinario. La carga viral será el parámetro que se utilizará para el seguimiento y, como meta, se proyecta alcanzar indetectabilidad a los 6 meses de tratamiento.Abstract: The following document is a guideline adapted to the national reality for the management of people living with HIV. Once a clinical assessment has been made, the antiretroviral therapy must be initiated as soon as possible in all the patients with a CD4+ count less than 350 cels/mm³. A strict follow-up by an interdisciplinary team must be guaranteed. The viral load will be the follow-up parameter. The aim is that it will be undetectable after 6 months of treatment.

    7. Vacina contra o vírus da influenza e mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares na cidade de São Paulo Vacuna contra el virus de la Influenza y mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en la Ciudad de São Paulo Vaccination against the influenza virus and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in the city of Sao Paulo

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antonio de Padua Mansur

      2009-10-01

      Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A influência da vacinação contra o vírus da gripe na mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares (DCV é controversa. OBJETIVO: Analisar a mortalidade por DCV antes e depois do início da vacinação contra a gripe na cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Analisou-se a mortalidade por doenças isquêmicas do coração (DIC, doenças cerebrovasculares (DCbV e por causas externas (CE na população da região metropolitana de São Paulo com idade > 60 anos, antes e depois do programa de vacinação contra a gripe. As estimativas da população e os dados de mortalidade foram, respectivamente, obtidos do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br e do Ministério da Saúde (www.datasus.gov.br para o período entre 1980 e 2006. O risco de morte foi ajustado pelo método direto, em que se utilizou a população padrão (mundial referente a 1960. RESULTADOS: As comparações entre as inclinações das linhas de regressão foram semelhantes para as DCbV (p = 0,931 e CE (p = 0,941, porém, para as DIC (p = 0,022, observou-se significativa redução da linha do período pós-vacina quando comparada com a linha do período pré-vacina. Mudança na tendência da mortalidade após 1996 foi significativa somente para as DIC (p = 0,022, permanecendo inalterada para as DCbV (p = 0,931 e CE (p = 0,941. CONCLUSÃO: A vacinação contra a gripe associou-se a significativa redução da mortalidade por DIC.FUNDAMENTO: La influencia de la vacunación contra el virus de la gripe en la mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV es controvertida. OBJETIVO: Analizar la mortalidad por ECV antes y después del inicio de la vacunación contra la gripe en la ciudad de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Se analizó la mortalidad por enfermedades isquémicas del corazón (EIC, enfermedades cerebrovasculares (ECbV y por causas externas (CE en la población de la región metropolitana de São Paulo con edad > 60 años, antes y después del

    8. Inhibición de la replicación del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana por extractos de taninos de Pinus caribaea Morelet

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ignacio Juan Ruibal Brunet

      2003-08-01

      Full Text Available Diferentes concentraciones de 6 extractos de corteza de Pinus caribaea Morelet var. caribaea se enfrentaron a 2 dosis de virus en un ensayo in vitro, sobre células MT4; la actividad antiviral se midió por ensayo inmunoenzimático de captura de proteína 24 del virus. Todas las fracciones mostraron actividad citotóxica moderada y solo una fue altamente tóxica. La fracción 02 mostró un alto porcentaje de inhibición de la replicación viral, en relación con la dosis viral y la concentración del producto, con un índice de selectividad de 100, pero son necesarios estudios adicionales sobre la identificación de la estructura química para definir el mecanismo de acción del producto.Six different fractions from the bark of Pinus caribae Moralet var. caribae were faced in five different concentrations against two viral doses (MOI 0,1 y 0,01 in a vitro assay on MT4 cell lines; the antiviral activity was measured by p24 Ag capture ELISA assay (DAVIH Agp24. All the fractions showed a mild cytotoxicity activity and only one fraction showed the highest cytotoxicity activity. The fraction 02 had the highest percentage of viral replication inhibition, correlated with the viral dose and the product concentration, having a selectivity rate of 100; however, more research about the chemical structure of active compounds, and possible mechanisms of action are needed.

    9. Deficiências minerais nas fôlhas induzidas por moléstias e pragas Leaf deficiencies associated with virus infection or insect toxin

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      A. S. Costa

      1965-01-01

      Full Text Available Certas moléstias de vírus e o efeito fitotóxico provocado por toxinas de alguns insetos influenciam a composição mineral das fôlhas de plantas afetadas. As alterações provocadas podem se assemelhar a deficiências minerais puramente nutricionais e, em certos casos, há realmente menor teor do elemento associado aos sintomas da moléstia. A aplicação do elemento faltante nos casos citados não provoca geralmente recuperação dos tecidos afetados, com exceção da deficiência de zinco associada à infecção de citros pela tristeza. É sugerido que a resposta à aplicação do elemento em deficiência dependerá de ser ou não esta, sintoma primário ou secundário da moléstia. É salientado que as recomendações sôbre adubação, baseadas nos resultados da diagnose foliar, deverão sempre considerar a possibilidade de não serem as deficiências constatadas resultantes sempre da falta de disponibilidade do elemento no solo, mas, possivelmente, da interferência de fatôres como a infecção por vírus, ação de toxina de inseto etc.Virus diseases or the toxicogenic effect induced by insect feeding influence the mineral content of affected plants. Some of the changes induced result in leaf deficiencies similar to those associated with lack of the available element in the soil. Application of the lacking element in most cases does not promote a favorable response with exception of the zinc deficiency associated with tristeza infection in citrus. It is suggested that the negative or positive response might depend on the symptom being primary or secondary. It is pointed out that fertilizer recommendations based on foliar diagnosis should always take into consideration that the deficiencies encountered are not necessarily theresult of lack of the available element in thesoil, but sometimes of the interference of virus diseases, insect toxins, and other factors.

    10. Zika: the origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus/Zika: origine et propagation d'un virus transmis par des moustiques/El zika: el origen y la propagacion de un virus transmitido por mosquitos

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      Kindhauser, Mary Kay; Allen, Tomas; Frank, Veronika; Santhana, Ravi Shankar; Dye, Christopher

      2016-01-01

      Objective To describe the temporal and geographical distribution of Zika virus infection and associated neurological disorders, from 1947 to 1 February 2016, when Zika became a Public Health Emergency...

    11. [Microbiological study of male genital ulcers. Apropos of 75 cases].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Casin, I; Bianchi, A; Ramel, F; Lajoie, C; Chastang, C; Scieux, C; Ferchal, F; Janier, M; Morel, P; Perol, Y

      1990-09-01

      Between November 1986 and June 1987, the microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was assessed in 75 male patients attending the Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic in Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris. Evidence of Haemophilus ducreyi was found in 18 patients (24%), Herpes simplex virus in 19 (25.3%). Syphilis was diagnosed on the basis of dark field microscopy and/or positive serology test in 19 patients (25.3%). Lymphogranuloma venereum was not diagnosed in any patient. Primary pathogens were not identified from the remaining 19 (25.3%) men. Neisseria gonorrhoea was isolated in five patients, from the ulcer in three cases, from the urethra in two. Asymptomatic urethral carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis was culture proven in seven cases. The presence of IgM antibodies to C. trachomatis at a titre greater than 40 found in 17 patients was a indication of a current chlamydial infection. Three patients (4%) were discovered to be HIV-1 positive.

    12. Condylomatous genital lesions in cynomolgus macaques from Mauritius.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Harari, Ariana; Wood, Charles E; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Chen, Zigui; Domaingue, Marie Claire; Elmore, David; Koenig, Patricia; Wagner, Janice D; Jennings, Ryan N; Burk, Robert D

      2013-08-01

      Genital condyloma-like lesions were observed on male and female cynomolgus macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating from the island of Mauritius. Cytobrush and/or biopsy samples were obtained from lesions of 57 affected macaques. Primary histologic features included eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and lymphoplasmacytic penile and vulvar inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia with acanthosis, and increased collagenous stroma. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays to amplify viral DNA revealed the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) DNA but not papillomavirus or poxvirus DNA. Subsequent DNA analyses of 3 genomic regions of LCV identified isolates associated with lesions in 19/25 (76%) biopsies and 19/57 (33%) cytology samples. Variable immunolabeling for proteins related to the human LCV Epstein Barr Virus was observed within intralesional plasma cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells. Further work is needed to characterize the epidemiologic features of these lesions and their association with LCV infection in Mauritian-origin macaques.

    13. Seroprevalencia de las infecciones por el virus Diarrea Vírica Bovina en ganado bovino en Andalucía (Seroprevalence of infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus in cattle in Andalucia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gómez-Pacheco, Juan M:

      2009-02-01

      Full Text Available ResumenSe ha realizado un estudio seroepidemiológico frente al virus de la Diarrea Vírica Bovina (vDVB en la cabaña bovina andaluza, tilizando para ello un ELISA indirecto para la detección de anticuerpos frente a una proteína altamente conservada (p80. Después de eliminar los animales vacunados, la encuesta se realizó sobre 4.768 individuos pertenecientes a 227 colectivos no vacunados frente al vDVB, mediante muestreo estadístico para un nivel de confianza del 95 por ciento. La seropositividad obtenida ha sido del 42,3 por ciento de los individuos analizados, mientras que la prevalencia estimada de rebaños seropositivos alcanzó el 70,9 por ciento. La proporción de bovinos persistentemente infectados (IPencontrada en la muestra (0,063 % de los individuos y 1,32 de los colectivos, ha sido más baja de la esperada en función de la alta seroprevalencia detectada, hecho que demuestra que la supervivencia de estos animales lógicamente está condicionada.SummaryAn epidemiological survey of the Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD on bovine farms from Andalusia Region was carried out. An indirect enzyme-linked inmunosorbent assay was used for the detection of p80 specific antibodies. After elimination of vaccinated animals, the study was performed with 4768 serum samples obtained from non vaccinated animals belonged to 227 farm selected by statistical sampling, on the population base of the official registry of bovine herds in this region. The prevalence obtained for the BVD infections in farms were 70.9 percent. This prevalence for individuals resulted in 42.3 percent. A number of Persistent Infected (PI was detected in this study (0.063% animals and 1.325% in farms frequency lower than expected according toseroprevalence obtained.

    14. Factores de riesgo para la infección por el virus de la hepatitis C en la Costa Caribe colombiana: un estudio de casos y controles

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      Ismael de Jesús Yepes

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available Introducción. Se estima que aproximadamente 6,8-8,9 millones de personas están infectadas por el virus de la hepatitis C en Latinoamérica, de los cuales menos del 1% llega a recibir tratamiento antiviral. Los estudios realizados hasta ahora en Colombia han intentado determinar la prevalencia de la enfermedad en algunos grupos de riesgo, lo que ha impedido la identificación de otros factores potencialmente implicados en el contagio. Objetivos. Identificar factores de riesgo tradicionales y no tradicionales para hepatitis C crónica en la Costa Caribe colombiana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio de casos y controles (1:3 emparejados por empresa promotora de salud, edad (+/- 10 años, realizado en primer nivel de atención de la consulta de hepatología y gastroenterología. Todos los pacientes con Elisa positivo se realizaron una carga viral confirmatoria. Un análisis de regresión logística multivariante identificó los predictores independientes de infección. Resultados. La transfusión sanguínea (OR 159,2; IC 95% 35,4 – 715; p <0,001 y el antecedente de hospitalización antes de 1994 (OR 4,7; IC 95% 1,3 – 17,1; p = 0,018 se identificaron como los dos únicos predictores independientes de infección. Conclusión. Es necesario comprobar la reproducibilidad de estos resultados y realizar estudios de costo-efectividad antes de recomendar su utilización en el diseño de nuevas estrategias de cribado.

    15. Historia natural de la infección por el virus del papiloma humano: un estudio de cinco años de seguimiento

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Martín Plummer

      2004-03-01

      Full Text Available

      Introducción: El virus del papiloma humano es el principal factor de riesgo asociado con el desarrollo de cáncer cervical, uno de los cánceres más comunes en mujeres colombianas. En Colombia, donde las tasas de incidencia de cáncer cervical son altas, se tiene poca información acerca de la prevalencia de la infección y no se tienen datos de seguimiento sobre la persistencia o eliminación de la infección y los factores de riesgo asociados. En este reporte se presentan los resultados de la prevalencia de la infección por HPV y los factores de riesgo asociados en mujeres que tuvieron una citología normal al comienzo del estudio así como el seguimiento de 227 mujeres positivas para la infección por HPV durante un periodo de cinco años, en la ciudad de Bogotá, Colombia.

      Materiales y Métodos: 1859 mujeres con citología normal firmaron un consentimiento escrito y respondieron a un cuestionario estructurado. La presencia de HPV fue analizada mediante PCR con el uso de los iniciadores GP5+/ GP6+, que amplifican para un fragmento de 140 pb de la región L1/HPV (1 y tipificadas por medio del ensayo de EIA para la identificación de 37 diferentes tipos de HPV (2.

      Se calcularon riesgos relativos para eliminación de la infección por HPV mediante el uso de curvas de supervivencia.

      Resultados: La prevalencia de la infección fue de 14.8%; 9% de las mujeres fueron infectadas por HPV de alto riesgo, 3.1% por HPV de bajo riesgo, 2.3% por ambos tipos virales y 0.4% por HPV indeterminados. Se identificaron 32 diferentes tipos de HPV, siendo el HPV16, 58, 56, 81 y 18, los tipos mas comunes. La prevalencia de la infección por HPVs de alto riesgo entre

    16. Encefalitis aguda: Manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas como expresión de infección por virus de influenza Acute encephalitis: Neuropsychiatric manifestations as expression of influenza virus infection

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      Noris Moreno-Flagge

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available El objetivo fue revisar la encefalitis en niños y adolescentes, su etiología, manifestaciones clínicas, fisiopatología, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento, enfatizando las manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas de la encefalitis durante una epidemia de influenza. La encefalitis se considera una inflamación del sistema nervioso central (SNC que compromete el cerebro. Se manifiesta usualmente por cefaleas, fiebre y trastorno del estado de conciencia. Puede además manifestarse por convulsiones, cambios en la personalidad y manifestaciones obsesivas (síntomas neuropsiquiátricos. Las manifestaciones dependerán del tipo de virus y las células afectadas. La encefalitis puede ser causada por una gran variedad de agentes infecciosos incluyendo virus, bacterias, hongos y parásitos. Causas virales de encefalitis incluyen herpesvirus, arbovirus, rabia y enterovirus. Casos establecidos de bacterias incluyen Borrelia burgdorferi y rickettsia y el Mycoplasma neumoniae, al cual se atribuyen varios casos de encefalitis. Otros agentes como el hongo Coccidioides immitis e Histoplasma capsulatum pueden también generarla. Más de 100 agentes se han asociado a encefalitis. El diagnóstico de encefalitis constituye un reto para el clínico, y su etiología infecciosa usualmente se identifica entre el 40% al 70% de casos. El diagnóstico se hace con absoluta certeza sólo con una biopsia cerebral. La epidemiología depende de ciertos factores como la edad, la localización geográfica, la época del año, las condiciones climáticas y la inmunocompetencia del huésped. El tratamiento temprano puede disminuir el riesgo de muerte y las secuelas. Describimos cuatro pacientes con encefalitis y manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas durante una epidemia de influenza, con el fin de alertar sobre esta asociación.The aim is to review the encephalitis in infants and adolescents as well as its etiology, clinical manifestation, epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnostic

    17. La infección por virus Zika: una nueva emergencia de salud pública con gran impacto mediático

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      Joan A. Caylà

      2016-11-01

      Full Text Available La infección por virus Zika (VZ está afectando intensamente a los países latinoamericanos y se ha convertido en una nueva epidemia mediática. Su posible asociación con microcefalia y síndrome de Guillain-Barré motivó que la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS declarase el 1 de febrero de 2016 que esta epidemia constituye una emergencia de salud pública de importancia internacional. Los datos epidemiológicos muestran una incidencia creciente en países como Brasil y Colombia, y que la epidemia sigue expandiéndose por muchos otros países. Desde enero de 2007 hasta el 27 de abril de 2016, la OMS ha detectado transmisión autóctona en 55 países (en 42 de ellos ha sido el primer brote de Zika, y 1198 microcefalias y otros trastornos neurológicos en Brasil. Así mismo, durante 2015 y 2016, 13 países detectaron un incremento de los casos de síndrome de Guillain-Barré y de confirmación de VZ asociado a este. En relación a las microcefalias y otras graves alteraciones cerebrales en recién nacidos de madres afectadas por VZ, las investigaciones ya evidencian una relación causal. Clínicamente muchos casos son asintomáticos y el diagnóstico ofrece dificultades con otras arbovirosis. El control de vectores en España es prioritario, dada la existencia de Aedes albopictus (mosquito tigre. También se recomienda el diagnóstico precoz, evitar viajes a zonas endémicas, mantener relaciones sexuales protegidas y procurar que la prioridad política, que puede evitar que esta epidemia se convierta en una enfermedad endémica de alta prevalencia, no nos haga olvidar otros problemas de salud.

    18. International efforts on abandoning female genital mutilation

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      E. Edouard

      2013-09-01

      Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM, sometimes referred to as female circumcision or female genital cutting, is a harmful cultural practice without any known health benefit. Its short-term and long-term health risks have led to numerous initiatives toward its eradication at international and local levels, over the last two decades. While major challenges remain and millions of girls and women are still at risk of being subjected to FGM, there is growing evidence that interventions that take into account the social dynamics that perpetuate FGM are yielding positive results toward its reduction. Well-recognized as a human rights violation in international treaties, the elimination of female genital mutilation requires ongoing interventions through cross-sectoral approaches that address attitudinal, cultural and behavioral change.

    19. 2 Doses of HPV Shot Enough to Prevent Genital Warts

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Doses of HPV Shot Enough to Prevent Genital Warts: Study Findings back up new CDC recommendations for ... human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to protect against genital warts in preteens and teens. Investigators at Boston University ...

    20. Impacto de la mutilación genital femenina en los objetivos del milenio

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      Ismael Jiménez Ruiz

      Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo Relacionar la Mutilación Genital Femenina como factor negativo para la consecución de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio 1, 3, 4, 5 y 6. Métodos Se ha realizado la recogida de datos a través de una revisión integradora de la literatura en los años 2014 y 2015. Se consultaron las bases de datosMedline/PubMed, Web of Science , LILACS, SCIELO, Tesis Doctorales TESEO y en las webs de WOK, UNICEF, UNAF y WHO utilizando los descriptores: circuncisión femenina, objetivos de desarrollo del milenio y mutilación genital femenina. Se incluyeron artículos publicados entre los años de 2010 y 2015, y se seleccionaron finalmente 24 artículos. Resultados La Mutilación Genital Femenina es una práctica basada en discriminaciones de género que refuerza e incentiva el círculo de la pobreza. Provoca complicaciones físicas que pueden repercutir en la mortalidad y morbilidad infantil, así como en complicaciones en el embarazo y el parto y en la adquisición del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. Conclusión La lucha contra la Mutilación Genital Femenina contribuye a la consecución de cinco de los ocho Objetivos del Milenio.

    1. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      2006-01-01

      Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.

    2. Valoración diagnóstica de técnicas moleculares para detección de infección bucal por virus del papiloma humano

      OpenAIRE

      Myriam Lucrecia Medina; Marcelo Gabriel Medina; Luis Antonio Merino

      2012-01-01

      La infección por Virus del Papiloma Humano está considerada actualmente como la infección de transmisión sexual más frecuente en el mundo. Muchas veces, estas infecciones son asintomáticas, pasando desapercibidas a no ser que se empleen métodos moleculares. Otras infecciones se vuelven crónicas, siendo las que tienen mayor potencial oncogénico. Desarrollo: El virus se detectó en carcinoma bucal de células escamosas, así como en lesiones benignas de mucosa bucal, donde se encontró HPV de bajo ...

    3. LEPROMATOUS LEPROSY PRESENTING AS GENITAL ULCER

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      Arunkumar

      2015-06-01

      Full Text Available Mycobacterium leprae can invade almost any part of the skin but most commonly affects the cooler parts rather than the warmer areas. Involvement of the male external genitalia although not very common due to the relatively higher temperature caused by the occlusive undergarments, can still be affected in leprosy. Most of the genital lesions seen on the leprosy patients are either nodules, patches, plaques, papules and or swelling of external genitalia. Herewith we are presenting a lepromatous leprosy patient presenting as genital ulcers in this era of syndromic management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI.

    4. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

      2014-01-01

      The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes.

    5. Female genital mutilation: medico-legal issues.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mswela, Maureen

      2010-12-01

      The rising prevalence and severe impact of HIV/AIDS in relation to women still persists in South Africa. Both economically and socially the HIV/AIDS pandemic strikes women the hardest, with disadvantaged black women mainly at risk of higher infection. The theoretical framework of this paper focuses on the connection between HIV/AIDS, sexual inequalities and sexual violence, and more precisely, female genital mutilation, a cultural practice and custom which amplifies women's exposure to HIV. Pertinent to this focus is inescapably an analysis of apparent threats to precise essential human rights as a result of the continued use of the practice of female genital mutilation in South Africa.

    6. Female Genital Mutilation - the Importance of Recognition and Management

      OpenAIRE

      Campos, AC

      2010-01-01

      Female genital mutilation, also named female genital cutting or female circumcision, refers to all practices involving total or partial removal of female external genitalia, or causing other lesions without an established health benefit. The World Health Organization estimates that 130 million women have been submitted to genital mutilation and 3 million are annually exposed to such risk in Africa. It has classified the practice of female genital mutation in four types. Portugal is considered...

    7. Attitudes towards female genital mutilation: an integrative review

      OpenAIRE

      Reig Alcaraz, María; Siles González, José; Solano Ruiz,María del Carmen

      2013-01-01

      Background: Immigration and globalization processes have contributed to the international dissemination of practices such as female genital mutilation. Between 100 and 400 million girls and women have been genitally mutilated, and every year 3 million girls are at risk of being subjected to female genital mutilation. Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the attitudes towards the practice of female genital mutilation in relation to different health systems and the factors th...

    8. Female genital mutilation and reporting duties for all clinical personnel.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cropp, Gabrielle; Armstrong, Jane

      2016-07-01

      Female genital mutilation is illegal. It is now mandatory for health-care professionals to report female genital mutilation to the police. Professionals caring for women and girls of all ages must understand how female genital mutilation presents, and what action to take.

    9. Detección por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de transcriptasa inversa del virus de la fiebre amarilla en monos silvestres: una herramienta sensible para la vigilancia epidemiológica

      OpenAIRE

      Méndez, Jairo A; Édgar Parra; Marcela Neira; Rey,Gloria J

      2007-01-01

      Introducción. La fiebre amarilla es una enfermedad zoonótica mantenida en la naturaleza por primates no humanos; su vigilancia por técnicas sensibles de laboratorio es necesaria para hacer evidente la actividad viral en territorio selvático. Objetivo. Detectar el virus de la fiebre amarilla en muestras de tejido hepático de primates no humanos, mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de transcriptasa inversa (RT-PCR) con iniciadores diagnósticos específicos. Materiale...

    10. Patrón de alteraciones en la radiografía de tórax de niños hospitalizados por infección causada por virus influenza A (H1N1 Pattern of chest radiographic abnormalities in children hospitalized because of influenza H1N1 virus infection

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      KARLA MOËNNE B

      2010-09-01

      Full Text Available El año 2009 aparecieron los primeros casos de influenza humana causada por virus influenza A H1N1, propagándose como pandemia. En nuestra institución se observó 88,5% de aumento en consultas de urgencia, adultos y niños; se diagnosticaron 10.048 pacientes como influenza A H1N1 (45,6% confirmación de laboratorio. La media de edad fue 13 años. Se hospitalizaron 59 niños (edad: 1 mes - 15 años 7 meses, 33 niñas y 26 niños. El tiempo promedio de hospitalización fue de 3,9 días; 9 pacientes requirieron UTIy 4 ventilación mecánica. No hubo mortalidad en esta serie. Se demostró sobreinfección por VRS (5, infección bacteriana (9 y Mycoplasma (1. El patrón radiológico predominante en los niños hospitalizados correspondió a compromiso intersticial (72% y el 28% presentó hiperinsuflación pulmonar. Los niños con infección bacteriana asociada presentaron mayoritariamente (78% patrones radiológicos mixtos y de relleno alveolar. El propósito de esta revisión es conocer los patrones radiológicos en los niños que requirieron hospitalización por infección virus influenza A H1N1 en nuestra institución, durante la epidemia del año recién pasado.The first cases of H1N1- type Influenza virus infection in humans were reported in 2009, and since then, it rapidly expanded and became pandemic. At that time, an 88.5% increase in emergency consultations was observed in our institution, including adults and children and H1N1- type Influenza virus infection was clinically diagnosed in 10,048patients, 45.6% of them with laboratory confirmation. A total of 59 child, 33 girls and 26 boys, aged between 1 month and 15.5 years old, needed hospitalization. The average of hospitalization time was 3.9 days, 9 patients required intensive unit care and 4 of them mechanical ventilation. No fatal cases were registered in this series. Associated infection was confirmed in 15 patients: VRS (5, bacterial (9 and Mycoplasma (1. The most frequent

    11. Estudios en la ecoepidemiología y enfermedad por el virus dengue en el Valle del Cauca 2002-2004

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      Mauricio Barreto Barreto

      2004-03-01

      Full Text Available

      Se conoce muy poco sobre la dinámica de transmisión del virus dengue y sobre los factores que regulan la ocurrencia de brotes en el Valle del Cauca. Se determinó de manera prospectiva la ocurrencia de infección en las poblaciones de mosquitos y humanos en cuatros focos epidémicos del departamento, con el propósito de analizar la acumulación de infecciones asintomáticas, la tasa de infección mínima en mosquitos (TIM y los serotipos circulantes del virus en ambas poblaciones y su relación con los períodos de alta o baja transmisión.

      Se describió también el patrón témporo-espacial de la ocurrencia de dengue en los cuatro municipios del estudio desde 1996 hasta 2004, mediante el análisis retrospectivo de los registros de enfermedad notificados a la Secretaría Departamental de Salud del Valle del Cauca, y su asociación con variables climáticas.

      Desde Nov/ 2002 hasta Marzo/2004, se realizaron 6 visitas trimestrales a viviendas y centros educativos de los barrios que habían reportado mayor número de casos de dengue en los últimos años y se colectó simultáneamente información de la ocurrencia de infección en humanos y en mosquitos. Las infecciones en humanos se examinaron en los escolares asistentes a los planteles educativos de las zonas, mediante aislamiento viral.

      Se colectaron adultos y larvas de Aedes en los colegios participantes y en una muestra probabilística de viviendas en su vecindario. Las larvas y hembras de Aedes se agruparon según especie y sitio de colección para detección del ARN viral por RT-PCR. Los resultados muestran que entre enero de 1996 y marzo de 2004 se registraron en el Valle del Cauca dos

    12. Deteccion de la infección por virus papiloma humano en hombres: Penescopía como método de cribado Detection of infection by human papilloma virus in men: Peniscopy as screening method

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      R del Pazo

      2008-09-01

      Full Text Available Este trabajo es el resultado de la preocupación relativa y la escasa atención que se le presta al hombre, como portador y posible trasmisor del Virus Papiloma Humano. La población estudiada quedó conformada por 45 hombres, de 18 a 60 años de edad, que concurrieron al consultorio de Dermatología del Hospital Dr. J M Cullen de la ciudad de Santa Fe. Se confeccionó una ficha clínica protocolizada y se les realizó una penescopía. La penescopía resultó positiva en el 53,3% de la muestra tomada. Se encontró asociación estadísticamente significativa con la falta de uso del preservativo regularmente (p=0,01 y con la promiscuidad (p=0,008. No se vislumbró asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el resultado de la penescopía con otras patologías y antecedentes personales relacionados. Las lesiones encontradas fueron: máculas (p=0,037, pápulas (p=0,000 y vegetaciones (p=0,245. Los resultados señalan que es recomendable realizar penescopía como instrumento diagnóstico, especialmente por ser económica y simple de efectuar. Además se concluyó que el uso de preservativo de manera regular así como evitar la promiscuidad, son esenciales para la prevención de infecciones con VPH.Introduction: in most of the cases, the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV infection is transmitted through sexual contact. The competent immune system limits its spread, making it latent or subclinical, and its clinical symptoms rarely result in high mortality. It's difficult to estimate precisely its incidence in males due to the lack of epidemiological studies. In this work, the peniscopy was selected as the screening method of the subclinical disease due to its high sensitivity and low cost. General objective: to detect male carriers of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, possible transmitters of the virus. Material and methods: the population studied consisted of 45 men, between 18 and 60 years old, who assisted to the Dermatology Department of the Hospital

    13. Detection and analysis of herpes simplex virus antigens and antibodies in patients with suspected genital herpes%疑似生殖器疱疹患者单纯疱疹病毒抗原及抗体检测与分析

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      方小娴; 林贤娜; 方苗; 廖胡君

      2012-01-01

      目的 了解性病门诊疑似生殖器疱疹患者单纯疱疹病毒抗原及抗体检测情况.方法 对2008年4月至2012年3月到我院性病门诊就诊的1101名疑似GH患者进行HSV-2抗原检测,并对其中336名愿意同时采集血标本进行HSV-2血清抗体检测患者进行血清HSV-2IgM、HSV-2IgG抗体检测,对所检测结果及临床资料进行统计分析.结果 1101例疑似GH患者共检出551例HSV-2 DNA阳性,总阳性率50.05%,其中男性患者HSV-2 DNA阳性率为52.33%,女性患者HSV-2 DNA阳性率为40.99%,男女患者阳性率比较差异有显著性(P<0.01);不同类型的标本HSV-2 DNA检出率有明显的差异,其中疱液拭子的检出率最高,为57.05%,其次是男性的阴茎拭子及包皮拭子,两者检出率分别为56.25%、46.62%;从年龄段来看,以20 ~ 29岁年龄段患者HSV-2抗原检出率最低,除该年龄段,其它年龄段阳性率均超过50%,≥50岁受检测患者,HSV-2抗原检出率高达56.21%.336位同时接受HSV-2 DNA及血清HSV-2IgM、HSV-2 IgG抗体检测患者中,共检出血清HSV-2 IgM抗体阳性33例,阳性率9.82%.血清HSV-2 IgG抗体阳性149例,阳性率44.35%,其中155名HSV-2 DNA阳性患者有104例至少一种抗体阳性,181名HSV-2 DNA阴性患者有61例至少一种抗体阳性.结论 对于疑似生殖器疱疹患者,同时进行HSV-2抗原及血清HSV-2 IgM、HSV-2 IgG抗体三者联合检测更有助于临床GH诊断;老年生殖器疱疹的防治应引起足够的重视.%Objectives To explore the detection of antigens and antibodies of herpes simplex virus in patients with suspected genital herpes ( GH ).Methods HSV-2 antigens were detected in 1101 patients with suspected GH who visited our sexually transmitted disease clinic from April 2008 to March 2012; HSV-2 IgM and HSV-2 IgG antibodies were also detected in 336 of the patients by using serological tests.The test results and clinical data were analyzed statistically.Results 551 of the 1101

    14. Current approach to metastasis of extra-genital system malignancies to the female genital tract

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      Kemal Güngördük

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Metastases to the female genital tract from extra-genital malignancies are very uncommon and have a poor prognosis. The most common extra-genital primary sites are breast and gastrointestinal system. The ovaries are frequent targets of metastasis for malignant tumors. Distinction between primary and metastatic tumors is important because misinterpretation of a metastatic tumor as primary tumor may lead to inappropriate management and suboptimal treatment outcome. The routes of tumor spread to the genital system are variable such as lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis or direct extension. Multidisciplinary approach is required to management and follow-up for these patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 406-413

    15. Mutilação genital e psicose Genital mutilation and psychosis

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      David Souza Lima

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available A automutilação em pacientes psiquiátricos não é incomum, podendo estar relacionada a crenças religiosas, impulsividade, abuso de substâncias e sintomas psicóticos. Relatos de mutilação genital em pacientes esquizofrênicos são encontrados na literatura médica. Encontra-se aqui descrito um caso de automutilação genital em um paciente de 42 anos de idade, portador de esquizofrenia.Self-mutilation in psychiatric patients is not uncommon, and may result from religious beliefs, impulsivity, substance abuse and psychotic symptoms. Reports of genital mutilation among patients with schizophrenia can be found in medical literature. We described a case of genital self-mutilation in a 42-year-old schizophrenic patient.

    16. [Medical and legal aspects of genital mutilation and circumcision part I: female genital mutilation (FGM)].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Laux, Johannes; Friedl, Hannah; Zedler, Barbara; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus

      2011-01-01

      Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered to be against the law and against morality not only in Western countries, although a woman of age and able to consent may sometimes think differently. The procedure may have serious physical and emotional consequences for the girl or woman. Nevertheless there are attempts to justify the procedure with medical and hygienic pseudoarguments, ideology, freedom of religion, cultural identity and social adequacy. Outside the Western world, some people claim that religion and culture alone justify the practice. In Germany, parents can lose the right to determine the residence of their daughter, if she is faced with the risk of genital mutilation in order to prevent that the child or girl is taken to her home country. Genital mutilation as a gender-specific threat is recognized as a reason to grant asylum or prevent deportation. Proposals to make genital mutilation a separate punishable offence are presently discussed by the legislator.

    17. Genital HPV infection progression to external genital lesions: The HIM Study

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sudenga, Staci L.; Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

      2015-01-01

      Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). Objective The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. Design, Setting and Participants A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied, subjected to pathological evaluation, and categorized by pathological diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsies. Outcome Measurements EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Results and Limitations Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 months of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV6 infection developed a HPV6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV11 infections progressed to an HPV11-positive condyloma. During the first 12-months of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV16 infection developed an HPV16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Conclusions Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. Patient Summary In this study, we looked at genital HPV infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented through a vaccine. PMID:26051441

    18. Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Davis, Dena S

      2010-05-01

      The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, children, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation or female genital cutting (FGC), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. Immigrants in the United States from areas in which FGC is common may have daughters who have undergone a ritual genital procedure or may request that such a procedure be performed by a physician. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice has life-threatening health risks for children and women. The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters.

    19. Large inclusion cyst complicating female genital mutilation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Abdel Aziem AbdAllah Ali

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available We report a case of an inclusion cyst, resulting from female genital mutilation (FGM, which enlarged to such a degree that it restricted the patient’s movement. This report aims to raise the awareness of the medical community to the dangers that arise from a common remote complication of FGM.

    20. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B; Herberstein, Marie E

      2014-05-01

      The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

    1. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Malin Ah-King

      2014-05-01

      Full Text Available The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias.

    2. Mothers' Perceptions of Female Genital Mutilation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.

      2014-01-01

      The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…

    3. Female genital mutilation : Conditions of decline

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Caldwell, JC; Orubuloye, IO; Caldwell, P

      2000-01-01

      Female genital mutilation (or female circumcision) has been experienced by over 100 million women in sub-Saharan Africa and the Nile valley Efforts to suppress the practice were made in the earlier decades of the present century, especially by missionaries in Kenya in the 1920s and early 1930s. Succ

    4. New approach to managing genital warts

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

      2013-01-01

      Abstract Objective To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. Sources of information The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Main message Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. Conclusion The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations. PMID:23851535

    5. Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Pongsakdi Chaisilwattana

      1995-01-01

      Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the ability of septicemic and nonsepticemic isolates of group B streptococci (GBS to inhibit in vitro the principal bacterial groups found in the normal bacterial flora of the female genital tract.

    6. [Genital actinomycosis in women wearing IUD].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brittig, F; Bánlaki, S

      1980-12-14

      The authors describe genital actinomycosis in 5 women using the IUD. They call attention to the relationship between the IUD and actinomycosis. They think it necessary to examine tissues and fluids adhering to the IUD coil upon removal. And they recommend that this be supplemented by regular cytological examination of the coil, with this data being associated with data from screening.

    7. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: ARE WE WINNING?

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      2013-07-30

      Jul 30, 2013 ... practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. .... Islam. 137. 24.2. Traditionalist. 0. 0. Total. 565. 100. Ethnicity. Hausa. 23. 4.1. Ibo ... Evidence of FGM ... among adult females followed by South-East zone.

    8. Chemoattractant-mediated leukocyte trafficking enables HIV dissemination from the genital mucosa

      Science.gov (United States)

      Deruaz, Maud; Murooka, Thomas T.; Ji, Sophina; Gavin, Marc A.; Vrbanac, Vladimir D.; Lieberman, Judy; Tager, Andrew M.; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Luster, Andrew D.

      2017-01-01

      HIV vaginal transmission accounts for the majority of newly acquired heterosexual infections. However, the mechanism by which HIV spreads from the initial site of viral entry at the mucosal surface of the female genital tract to establish a systemic infection of lymphoid and peripheral tissues is not known. Once the virus exits the mucosa it rapidly spreads to all tissues, leading to CD4+ T cell depletion and the establishment of a viral reservoir that cannot be eliminated with current treatments. Understanding the molecular and cellular requirements for viral dissemination from the genital tract is therefore of great importance, as it could reveal new strategies to lengthen the window of opportunity to target the virus at its entry site in the mucosa where it is the most vulnerable and thus prevent systemic infection. Using HIV vaginal infection of humanized mice as a model of heterosexual transmission, we demonstrate that blocking the ability of leukocytes to respond to chemoattractants prevented HIV from leaving the female genital tract. Furthermore, blocking lymphocyte egress from lymph nodes prevented viremia and infection of the gut. Leukocyte trafficking therefore plays a major role in viral dissemination, and targeting the chemoattractant molecules involved can prevent the establishment of a systemic infection. PMID:28405607

    9. [Detection and typing by molecular biology of human papillomavirus in genital samples].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Suárez Moya, A; Esquivias Gómez, J I; Vidart Aragón, J A; Picazo de la Garza, J J

      2006-06-01

      Recently, there has been a marked increase in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the etiological relationship between some HPV genotypes and genital cancer has been confirmed. Therefore, we used current molecular biology techniques to evaluate the prevalence of these viruses and their genotype in genital samples. We processed 401 genital samples from 281 women and 120 men, all with a diagnosis compatible with HPV infection. Virus was detected using PCR, and positive samples were typed using an array technique which enabled us to detect the 35 most common types of mucous-associated HPV. Of the 401 patients studied, 185 (46.1%) were positive, and only one type of HPV was detected in 133 cases. We found that 41.6% of the women and 56.7% of the men were positive. A total of 260 HPVs were typed; 154 were high oncogenic risk. They infected 16 men (23.5%) and 88 women (75.2%). The difference was statistically significant (pHVP 16 in 52 cases. We found a 46% prevalence of HPV infection. More than half of these patients were infected by high-risk HPV. The presence of high-risk HPV was significantly higher in women.

    10. Factores asociados a la infección celular por el virus de la necrosis pancreática infecciosa (IPNV Factors associated with cellular infection by the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      C Ortega

      2007-01-01

      Full Text Available El virus de la necrosis pancreática infecciosa (IPNV es una de las principales causas de pérdidas económicas en salmónidos de cultivo; la expresión temporal y las características de sus componentes han sido descritas en varios trabajos; sin embargo, el papel de las distintas proteínas en la patogénesis viral no ha sido completamente determinado. En este artículo se presenta una revisión bibliográfica de los procesos que permiten establecer la relación virus-célula, la replicación y diseminación de la infección, destacando el papel de los componentes virales en tales mecanismos y los efectos de su variabilidad sobre la virulencia viral, describiendo también los mecanismos moleculares que son característicos de los Birnavirusen relación a su replicación, traducción y maduración. Las respuestas y mecanismos de defensa del hospedero en contra de la infección viral son abordadas resaltando la importancia de la inmunidad inespecífica a través de la vía interferón como estimulador de la síntesis de proteínas antivirales y la implicancia de la apoptosis también como un mecanismo de defensa, pero que puede ser modulado por las proteínas del virus. El desarrollo del estado portador, considerado uno de los aspectos más importantes en la diseminación de IPNV, se aborda describiendo la participación de factores virales y celulares.The infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV is one of the main causes of economic losses in salmon farms. Its temporal expression and the characteristics of its components have been described in many studies, however, the role of proteins in viral pathogenesis has not been completely determined. The aim of this review is to detail the processes that allow the establishment of a virus-cell relationship, replication and dissemination of the infection, highlighting the role of the viral components in such mechanisms and the effect of their variability on viral virulence. The molecular mechanisms

    11. Serological markers and risk factors for hepatitis B and C viruses in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus Marcadores serológicos y factores de riesgo para los virus de la hepatitis B y C en individuos infectados por el VIH

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alvaro Hoyos-Orrego

      2006-12-01

      Full Text Available Both hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV infection are common in HIV-infected individuals as a result of shared risk factors for acquisition. A serological study for HBV and HCV was performed in 251 HIV-positive individuals from Medellín, Colombia. A qualitative RT-PCR for HCV was done in 90 patients with CD4+ T-cell count La infección por los virus de la hepatitis B y hepatitis C (VHB y VHC es frecuente en individuos infectados por el VIH como resultado de compartir factores de riesgo para su contagio. Se realizó un estudio serológico para el VHB y VHC en 251 individuos VIH positivos de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia. En 90 pacientes con un recuento de linfocitos T < 150 células por mm³ se hizo una PCR-RT cualitativa para el VHC. Se encontraron marcadores serológicos para la infección por el VHB en 97 (38.6% pacientes. Treinta y seis de 97 (37.1% tuvieron un anti-HBc aislado. El análisis multivariado indicó que los factores de riesgo significativos asociados a la presencia de estos marcadores fueron: edad (OR = 1.05, 95% IC: 1.01-1.08, pediculosis púbica (OR = 1.83, 95% IC: 1.01-3.33, hombres que tienen sexo con hombres y mujeres (OR = 3.23, 95% IC: 1.46-7.13 y hombres que tienen sexo solo con hombres (OR = 3.73, 95% IC: 1.58-8.78. El mismo análisis restringido a mujeres mostró que la sífilis fue el único factor de riesgo significativo. Por lo tanto, la infección por el VHB fue considerablemente asociada a conductas sexuales de alto riesgo. El VHC se presentó en solo 2 (0.8% de los pacientes VIH. Ambos pacientes fueron positivos por la PCR-RT y los anti-VHC. La baja frecuencia de la coinfección VIH/VHC fue probablemente debido al bajo uso de drogas intravenosas en esta población. El hallazgo frecuente de anti-HBc como marcador aislado asegura estudios moleculares para descartar la presencia de infección críptica por el VHB.

    12. Perfil cognitivo en pacientes con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana neurológicamente asintomáticos

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Erik Guevara-Silva

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Introducción: Diversos estudios han comunicado la presencia de deterioro cognitivo asociado al virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH tipo 1, aún en estadios tempranos de la infección. Las principales funciones comprometidas son la memoria a corto plazo, velocidad psicomotriz, atención y función ejecutiva. Objetivos: Describir el perfil cognitivo en pacientes con VIH neurológicamente asintomáticos, antes de iniciar terapia antirretroviral de gran actividad (TARGA, y determinar posibles factores asociados. Diseño: Estudio transversal-analítico. Lugar: Hospital Regional de Huacho. Participantes: Pacientes con VIH y con criterios para ingresar a TARGA. Intervenciones: Veintiún pacientes con VIH, que fueron atendidos desde de abril a julio de 2011, fueron evaluados clínicamente y se les administró una batería neuropsicológica estandarizada. Principales medidas de resultados: Puntajes alcanzados en las pruebas de velocidad psicomotriz, función ejecutiva, memoria inmediata, atención y habilidades visuoespaciales. Resultados: El 47,6% de pacientes presentó un deterioro cognitivo significativo. Los pacientes fallaron principalmente en las pruebas de velocidad psicomotriz y función ejecutiva. Con excepción de un paciente, todos fracasaron en al menos un test. La edad, tiempo de enfermedad, grado de instrucción y depresión no influyeron significativamente sobre el perfil cognitivo. Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos sugieren que el compromiso cognitivo en algún grado puede presentarse desde las fases tempranas y asintomáticas de la infección por el VIH; estos hallazgos coinciden con la literatura.

    13. Transmissibilidade do virus do mosaico comum da soja (VMCS por intermédio das sementes de soja(Glycine max (L. Merrill Transmission of soybean mosaic virus (SMV by soybean seeds (Glycine max (L. Merrill

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      A.S.do R. Barros

      1992-01-01

      Full Text Available Diante da dispersão do vírus VMCS nas lavouras brasileiras de soja, o presente trabalho foi conduzido procurando verificar a transmissibilidade do patógeno pelas sementes portadoras do sintoma ("mancha café" característico da doença. Para tanto, material proveniente de campos contaminados foi testado quanto às porcentagens de emergência e infecção das plântulas. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que o patógeno é transmitido por sementes, ainda que estas estejam livres de sintomas; contudo, apesar da inexistência de efeitos sobre a emergência, a elevação da freqüência de sementes com "mancha café" tende a ampliar o número de plântulas contaminadas.In view of the long-range dissemination of the virus SMV in Brazilian soybean fields, this research was conserned with the transmission of the pathogen by seeds that show seedcoat mottling. Seeds proceeding from contaminated fields were submitted to emergence tests and examination of infected seedlings. The results indicated that the pathogen is transmited through the seeds even when they do not show seedcoat mottling; although no particular effect was found on emergence percentage, the use of mottled seeds tends to increase the number of infected seelings.

    14. Fenotipificación de la resistencia a la infección por el virus de la fiebre aftosa en ganado blanco orejinegro (BON

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jorge Eliécer Ossa Londoño

      2000-02-01

      Full Text Available

      El virus de la fiebre aftosa (VFA es un picornavirus del género aftovirus que afecta artiodáctilos provocándoles fiebre y vesículas en mucosas de cavidad oral, piel de pezones y banda coronaria de los cascos. En Colombia circulan los serotipos A y O y la infección es de reporte obligatorio. El ganado criollo BON, que actualmente alcanza una población de 2866 ejemplares, según campesinos y ganaderos, es relativamente resistente a esta infección. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la resistencia in vitro del ganado BON al VFA, serotipos A24-Cruzeiro y O1-Campus, para contribuir a la caracterización inmunogenética de esta raza criolla colombiana y aportar elementos para su conservación y propagación.

      Se realizó un estudio experimental, para éste se tomaron biopsias de oreja de 60 ejemplares BON, de las que se obtuvieron cultivos primarios de fibroblastos de piel, en los que se evalúo la magnitud de replicación de ambos virus por un ensayo de dilución limitante y se determinó la dosis infectante 50% del cultivo celular (DICC50%. Una vez halladas las DICC50% para los cultivos primarios de fibroblastos de BON y para el control de células susceptibles BHK-21, se determinó el índice de infecciosidad (I.I y se clasificaron los fenotipos in vitro en tres grupos:

       

      Se encontró que existe polimorfismo fenotípico en la resistencia del ganado BON al VFA in-vitro; el 93.2% de los animales resultaron resistentes o medianamente resistentes al serotipo A24- Cruzeiro, mientras que solo el 56% lo es para el serotipo O1-campus. Las diferencias entre grupos pueden ser debidas a mecanismos mediados por interferón, lo cual sería v

    15. Diagnóstico y epidemiología de la infección por el nuevo retrovirus humano XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) en diferentes grupos de población en España

      OpenAIRE

      Arredondo Calvo, Miguel

      2012-01-01

      En el año 2006 se identificó un nuevo retrovirus humano en pacientes con cáncer de próstata (CP). Se trata de un gammaretrovirus que, por su homología con el virus de la leucemia del ratón, se ha denominado XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus). A finales del año 2009 se publicó en la revista Science un artículo en el que se relacionaba la infección por XMRV con el síndrome de fatiga crónica (SFC). Se comunicó la presencia de XMRV en más de dos terceras partes de los pacientes...

    16. Oral shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2

      OpenAIRE

      Wald, A; Ericsson, M.; Krantz, E; Selke, S; Corey, L

      2004-01-01

      Objectives: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 reactivate preferentially in the oral and genital area, respectively. We aimed to define frequency and characteristics associated with oral shedding of HSV-2.

    17. The first step toward diagnosing female genital schistosomiasis by computer image analysis

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Lillebø, Kristine

      2015-01-01

      Schistosoma haematobium causes female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), which is a poverty-related disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, it is co-endemic with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and biopsies from genital lesions may expose the individual to increased risk of HIV infection. How...... statistics, we estimate that the computer color analysis yields a sensitivity of 80.5% and a specificity of 66.2% for the diagnosis of FGS........ However, microscopy of urine and hematuria are nonspecific and insensitive predictors of FGS and gynecological investigation requires extensive training. Safe and affordable diagnostic methods are needed. We explore a novel method of diagnosing FGS using computer color analysis of colposcopic images....... In a cross-sectional study on young women in an endemic area, we found strong associations between the output from the computer color analysis and both clinical diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 5.97, P

    18. Genital Tuberculosis as the Cause of Tuboovarian Abscess in an Immunosuppressed Patient

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M. Ilmer

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Background. Although tuberculosis (TB is a major health problem worldwide, primary extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB, and in particular female genital tract infection, remains a rare event. Case Report. A 35-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive woman of African descent with lower abdominal pain and fever of two days duration underwent surgery due to left adnexal mass suggesting pelvic inflammatory disease. The surgical situs showed a four quadrant peritonitis, consistent with the clinical symptoms of the patient, provoked by a tuboovarian abscess (TOA on the left side. All routine diagnostic procedures failed to determine the causative organism/pathogen of the infection. Histopathological evaluation identified a necrotic granulomatous salpingitis and specific PCR analysis corroborated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tb. Consequently, antituberculotic therapy was provided. Conclusion. In the differential diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease, internal genital tuberculosis should be considered. Moreover, physicians should consider tuberculous infections early in the work-up of patients when immunosuppressive conditions are present.

    19. Detección del virus del papiloma humano de alto riesgo por captura híbrida II® según hallazgos citológicos en mujeres tratadas por lesiones escamosas intraepiteliales de cuello uterino, período 2006/2010 Detection of high risk human papillomavirus by hybrid capture II(r) according cytological findings in women treated for squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, period 2006/2010

      OpenAIRE

      Pamela Mongelós; Malvina Páez; Isabel Rodriguez-Riveros; Graciela Giménez; Amalia Castro; Laura Mendoza

      2013-01-01

      OBJETIVO: Determinar la frecuencia del virus de papiloma humano de alto riesgo oncogénico (HR-HPV) por captura híbrida II (r) (CH II(r)) según hallazgos citológicos en mujeres tratadas por lesiones escamosas intraepiteliales (SIL) de cuello uterino. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo de corte transverso de una serie de casos, en donde se incluyeron 122 mujeres tratadas, 79 (65%) por SIL de bajo grado (LSIL) y 43 (35%) por SIL de alto grado (HSIL) que concurri...

    20. Desarrollo de improntas para el diagnóstico del virus Epstein-Barr por inmunofluorescencia indirecta Development of slides for Epstein-Barr virus diagnosis by indirect immunofluorescence

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Germán R. Pérez

      2005-08-01

      Full Text Available El virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB es el principal agente oncogénico linfotrópico dentro de la familia Herpesviridae y se encuentra mundialmente distribuido. La primoinfección se produce en adultos jóvenes y se manifiesta como mononucleosis infecciosa. La detección de anticuerpos anti-viral capside antigen (VCA indica infección previa o presente con VEB. Además, se observan títulos elevados de anticuerpos anti-VCA en las enfermedades neoplásicas asociadas al VEB como los linfomas, en individuos HIV-positivos. El objetivo de este estudio fue el desarrollo y puesta a punto de improntas de células P3HR1 para la detección serológica del VEB por técnicas de inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI. Se estimularon cultivos de células P3HR1 en crecimiento exponencial con phorbol-12-mirystoil-13-acetato, y se recolectaron alícuotas a distintos tiempos para realizar improntas. Se realizó una IFI con cada impronta usando como anticuerpo primario un suero VEB-positivo. Se observó un aumento del 11% en la expresión del VCA a las 40 horas post-estimulación, decayendo al 3.5% a las 48 horas. Estos datos fueron corroborados por ensayo de western blot con inmunodetección. La precisión intra- e inter-lote de las improntas fue evaluada para anticuerpos IgM e IgG, con sueros probados previamente por equipos para esta determinación disponibles en el mercado para el VEB y con sueros reactivos para otros miembros de la familia Herpesviridae. No se obtuvieron resultados falsos-negativos ni falsos-positivos para el VEB ni se observó reactividad cruzada con otros herpesvirus. Las improntas desarrolladas constituyen un instrumento para el diagnóstico de la primoinfección del VEB y la detección serológica de anticuerpos IgG anti-VCA de neoplasias asociadas al VEB.Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the main oncogenic lymphotropic agent of the Herpesviridae family and is globally distributed. EBV acute infection occurs in young adults producing infectious

    1. The specifities of the HPV-genital infections in males

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mihael Skerlev

      2010-08-01

      Full Text Available Anogenital infections caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV are the most frequently diagnosed sexually transmitted infections of viral origin and up to 150 HPV DNA types have been recognized so far. Anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata are the most common lesions presented in men, however, during the last decade the other HPV-associated exaggerated lesions such as condylomata plana, penile,scrotal, and anal intraepithelial neoplasias, as well as the penile, urine bladder and prostate cancer have been studied somewhat more extensively. The clinical variations might range from clinically invisible, asymptomatic lesions to the bizarre forms of giant condyloma of Buschke-Löwenstein type, including Bowenoid papulosis,Mb. Bowen, different kinds of eryhtroplasia both in men and women and a large spectrum of HPV-induced dermatovenereological entities in genital region including high-grade intraepithelial genital neoplasias, such as penile, anal, scrotal, vulvar, vaginal etc. (thus not only cervical, and, last but not least - the anogenital warts. A prophylactic vaccine that targets these types should thus substantially reduce the burden of HPV-associated clinical diseases. Ultimately, within the spectrum of therapeutic options for condylomata, no method is really superior to others; recurrences occurred in 30-70% of cases. We definitely need the HPV vaccination programme to eliminate one of the oldest and up to now unsolved problems of the mankind. Since HPV is transmitted by sexual intercourse, treatment of both partners is necessary in order to eliminate the virus from the population. Approaches to this include prophylactic vaccines such as quadrivalent HPV vaccine for both men and women

    2. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

      2012-07-01

      Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship.

    3. Venous angioarchitecture of the bovine female genital organ Angioarquitetura venosa do órgão genital da fêmea bovina

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M.M. Gioso

      2005-12-01

      Full Text Available The venous angioarchitecture of the non-pregnant female genital organs from five cattle obtained from a slaughterhouse was studied for possible anastomoses of the vulva and vagina vasa and the uterus-ovary vein, with the aid of the X-ray technique. In the laboratory, a branch of the caudal vaginal vein was injected with radiographic contrast. Vaginal vein formed and anastomotic network in the ventral surface of the uterus between the right and left sides. The genitals present anastomoses of the vulvar and vaginal veins with vasa of cervix, body and uterine horns and suggest that a portion of luteolytic agents injected through intravulvosubmucosal route can be transported directly to the ovary through a local route before reaching the systemic circulation.Investigou-se a angioarquitetura venosa da genitália de fêmeas bovinas não prenhes, para avaliar a presença de possíveis anastomoses dos vasos provenientes da região da vulva e da vagina com a veia útero-ovariana, usando-se cinco peças obtidas em abatedouros. No laboratório, um ramo da veia vaginal caudal, infundido com contraste radiográfico intravascular, foi submetido à radiografia. Observou-se que a veia vaginal forma intensa rede de anastomoses na superfície ventral do útero, entre os antímeros direito e esquerdo. As genitálias apresentaram anastomoses dos vasos vulvares e vaginais com vasos da cérvice, corpo e cornos uterinos, sugerindo que parte de um agente luteolítico administrado via intravulvosubmucosa pode ser transportado diretamente aos ovários por uma rota local, sem atingir a circulação sistêmica.

    4. Insects are Crawling in My Genital Warts.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dhawan, Jyoti; Singh, Saurabh; Gupta, Somesh

      2011-05-01

      A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation) in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the crypts. The procedure was abandoned and maggots were removed manually. Subsequently external giant warts were removed using radiofrequency device. There was no recurrence of excised warts during 3 month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of maggots in genital warts.

    5. Insects are crawling in my genital warts

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jyoti Dhawan

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the crypts. The procedure was abandoned and maggots were removed manually. Subsequently external giant warts were removed using radiofrequency device. There was no recurrence of excised warts during 3 month follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of maggots in genital warts.

    6. In defence of genital autonomy for children.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Earp, Brian D

      2016-03-01

      Arora and Jacobs (2016) assume that liberal societies should tolerate non-therapeutic infant male circumcision, and argue that it follows from this that they should similarly tolerate-or even encourage-what the authors regard as 'de minimis' forms of female genital mutilation (as defined by the World Health Organization). In this commentary, I argue that many serious problems would be likely to follow from a policy of increased tolerance for female genital mutilation, and that it may therefore be time to consider a less tolerant attitude toward non-therapeutic infant male circumcision. Ultimately, I suggest that children of whatever sex or gender should be free from having healthy parts of their most intimate sexual organs either damaged or removed, before they can understand what is at stake in such an intervention and agree to it themselves.

    7. A CASE REPORT OF GIANT GENITAL WARTS

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      L. Grimaldi

      2014-12-01

      Full Text Available Giant genital warts (GGW represent a rare form of sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus, arising more frequently in the vulvar and perianal regions as large exophytic cauliflower-like mass. Estimated rate of recurrence is 60 to 66%, while malignant transformation is possible and it has been reported in 30 to 56% of cases. A 45- years-old woman was admitted to our Structure of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Siena, Italy with an extensive cauliflower- like masses diffused on vulvar and perianal region. The patient was treated in general anaesthesia, with a wide en bloc excision up to free clinical edges and immediate reconstruction of the vulvar continuity. Buschke Lowenstein tumour or giant genital warts is a sporadic tumour with an elevate local recurrence rate. In some cases, surgery can be very difficult and it must be associated to other strategies. An accurate follow-up is always necessary

    8. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lang Kuhs, Krystle A; Kuniholm, Mark H; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R; Peters, Marion G; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B; Strickler, Howard D; Villacres, Maria C; Quinn, Thomas C; Gange, Stephen J; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M; O'Brien, Thomas R

      2015-01-01

      IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV-1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV-2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV-2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large prospective study, IFNL4-

    9. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Krystle A Lang Kuhs

      Full Text Available IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815 genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS. WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported oral herpes, (self-reported genital sores and (clinician-observed genital ulcers; HSV-2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV-1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV-2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons; oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35; genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71; genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53; detectable HSV-2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49; HSV-2 DNA level (p = 0.68. In this large prospective study, IFNL4

    10. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R.; Peters, Marion G.; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B.; Strickler, Howard D.; Villacres, Maria C.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gange, Stephen J.; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; O’Brien, Thomas R.

      2015-01-01

      IFNL4-ΔG/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-λ4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-ΔG allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-ΔG, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-ΔG/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV–1 and HSV–2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV–2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-ΔG/ΔG or IFNL4-TT/ΔG genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-ΔG carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV–1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV–2. We observed no association between IFNL4-ΔG/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV–1 or HSV–2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV–2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV–2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large

    11. Genital anomalies in boys and the environment

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Main, Katharina M; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Virtanen, Helena E

      2010-01-01

      testis differentiation, the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). There is recent evidence that also the prevalence of genital malformations is increasing and the rapid pace of increase suggests that lifestyle factors and exposure to environmental chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties may play...... a role. Recent prospective studies have established links between perinatal exposure to persistent halogenated compounds and cryptorchidism, as well as between phthalates and anti-androgenic effects in newborns. Maternal alcohol consumption, mild gestational diabetes and nicotine substitutes were also...

    12. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

      2016-06-01

      Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented.

    13. Insects are Crawling in My Genital Warts

      OpenAIRE

      Jyoti Dhawan; Saurabh Singh; Somesh Gupta

      2011-01-01

      A 23-year-old woman presented with large exophytic genital wart arising from perineum, vulva, introitus of the vagina, and inner aspect of thighs. Patient developed severe itching and formication (insect-crawling sensation) in the lesions for past 1 week, though careful examination did not reveal any insects. Considering that the disease was causing psychological stress and physical symptoms, radiofrequency excision was planned. However, during the procedure, several maggots appeared from the...

    14. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

      2015-01-01

      "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy.

    15. STUDY OF GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS IN INFERTILE WOMEN

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      Shrikant

      2016-06-01

      Full Text Available AIM To determine the incidence of female Genital Tuberculosis (GTB and to analyse clinicopathological features for GTB and comparison of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, Acid Fast Bacillus (AFB staining and Histopathology (HPR. STUDY SETTING A prospective study conducted on 50 infertile patients in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Krishna Hospital, Karad, for a period of 2 years between December 2013 and December 2015. METHODS Patients were investigated for the presence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB on samples collected by endometrial curettage by PCR, AFB and HPR. Additional tests like Hysterosalpingography (HSG Laparoscopic chromopertubation and hysteroscopy were performed if not done earlier. RESULT PCR demonstrated MTB DNA in 9 patients, and 2 were positive with AFB and HPR. Within positive patients HSG findings were suggestive of TB in 3 cases and laparoscopy in 5 cases and hysteroscopy in 4 cases. Two MTB PCR positive patients conceived spontaneously after 6 months of anti-tubercular treatment. CONCLUSION Genital tuberculosis is a diagnostic challenge if untreated it is chronic, progressive and destructive disease. Early diagnosis is crucial because once the infection damages the tubes, reverting tubal patency is very difficult. Molecular tests like DNA PCR have enabled us to detect the organism in its latent stage and initiation of treatment early in the disease can prevent many irreversible changes in the female genital tract.

    16. Clinical Presentation of Atypical Genital Herpes

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      李俊杰; 梁沛杨; 罗北京

      2002-01-01

      Objective: To make a clinical analysis on the basis of 36cases of atypical genital herpes (GH) patients. Methods: Thirty-six cases of atypical GH were diagnosedclinically, and their case histories, symptoms and signs wererecorded in detail and followed up. Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) was adopted for testing HSV2-DNA with cotton-tippedswabs. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) forserum anti-HSV2-IgM was done to establish a definfiivediagnosis. Other diagnoses were excluded at the same time bytesting for related pathogens including fungi, Chlamydia,Mycoplasma, Treponema pallidum, gonococci, Trichomonas,etc. Results: The main clinical manifestations of atypical GHwere: (1) small genital ulcers; (2) inflammation of urethralmeatus; (3) nonspecific genital erythema; (4) papuloid noduleson the glands; (5) nonspecific vaginitis. Twenty-three cases(64%) tested by PCR were HSV2-DNA sera-positive, and 36cases (100 %) anti-HSV2-IgM sera-positive by ELISA. Conclusion: atypical HSV is difficult to be diagnosed. Butthe combination of PCR and ELIAS will be helpful to thediagnosis of atypical HSV.

    17. OBSTETRICAL MORBIDITIES IN GENITAL TRACT INFECTION S

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sapna

      2013-05-01

      Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION- Sub clinical ascending infections through the lower female genital tract are predominant worldwide. Important morbidit ies related to poor perinatal outcome both for the mother and for the fetus and new born compr ise preterm birth, prelabor rupture of membranes, post partum sepsis and maternal anaemia. In the fetus, sepsis and intrauterine growth retardation are suspected to be the consequences of ascending maternal infection. Both the direct effect of the infection and the maternal immune r esponse contribute to these eventualities. This study was done to identify antenatal women with va rious genital infections and to know the outcome of pregnancy in presence of these infection s. OBJECTIVES- Diagnosis treatment and preventive measures in genital infections in Antena tal period to improve the pregnancy out come . MATERIAL AND METHODS- One thousand women were studied for lower genital tract infection by ELISA KITS for chlamydia trachomatis, hanging dr op preparation of vaginal discharge for trichomoniasis and mycelia of candida albicans can be seen by wet mount of vaginal dischage in 10% KOH. Gardnerella vaginal infection was diagnose d by Amsel's criteria . RESULT- out of thousand women 53% were positive for single or mult iple infections (gp-1, 47% women had no infection (gp-11 . Labour outcome was studied in 4 15 antenatal women of gp -1 &395 antenatal women of gp -11 . In gp-1 51.80% had no effect ,7.7 1% had abortions and 40.48% had pre term labour and/or PROM .Which was significantly higher than in non infected group . IN INFECTED GROUP- 41.92% neonates had no effect others had some effec t in terms of LBW, birth asphyxia, neonatal death & IUD. Which was significantly highe r than in non infected group. P=0.00 CONCLUSION- The study showed significantly higher incidence of obstetrical morbidities in women with lower genital tract infection,since geni tal infections are the root cause of these obstetrical

    18. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

      2016-01-11

      Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain.

    19. Campilobacteriose genital bovina e tricomonose genital bovina: epidemiologia, diagnóstico e controle

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      T.M. Alves

      2011-04-01

      Full Text Available A presente atualização trata de duas das mais importantes doenças sexualmente transmitidas de bovinos, a campilobacteriose genital bovina e a tricomonose genital bovina. São abordados aspectos relacionados à epidemiologia destas doenças, principalmente em relação a sua distribuição no Brasil. Também são revisados aspectos importantes de diagnóstico, incluindo as técnicas e interpretação dos resultados, além de medidas de controle para ambas as doenças.

    20. Reconocimiento alogénico: su papel protector durante la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo1 (VIH-1

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      María Teresa Rugeles López

      2004-03-01

      Full Text Available

      Varios estudios han señalado la importancia de la respuesta alogénica en la protección a la infección por el VIH-1; inclusive, se ha propuesto la aloinmunización como una vacuna profiláctica (1. Sin embargo, la evidencia más fuerte de que el aloreconocimiento contribuye a la protección contra la infección con el VIH-1 es aportada por un estudio de transmisión perinatal realizado en Nairobi. En este estudio la transmisión vertical se correlacionó con el grado de concordancia entre los alelos del CMH clase I entre la madre y el bebé: el máximo grado de concordancia se asoció con un 31% de incidencia de transmisión, mientras que la infección ocurrió solo en un 3% de niños que tenían el máximo grado de disparidad con su madre (2. La incidencia de la transmisión vertical del VIH-1 es del 25-30% en ausencia de terapia antirretroviral (3. El hecho de que el 70-75% de recién nacidos no nazca infectado, a pesar de haber estado expuesto en forma continua al virus, sugiere la existencia de barreras protectoras que previenen la transmisión vertical durante la gestación y el parto. Aunque existen reportes de inmunidad celular neonatal específica anti VIH-(4, otros mecanismos deben contribuir a la protección del feto y a prevenir la transmisión vertical. Recientemente, se reportó que factores solubles que se encuentran en la placenta, importantes para la implantación y el desarrollo del embrión, inhiben la replicación del VIH-1 in vitro.

      Entre estos factores se destacan: el factor inhibidor de leucemias (LIF (5, la hormona gonadotropina coriónica humana (hCG (6 y el factor derivado de células estromales tipo 1 (SDF-1 (7. Adicionalmente, en 1996 se describió la producción in vitro de un factor soluble que se genera en cultivos mixtos de linfocitos (CML conocido como ASF (8

    1. Conocimiento del personal de salud sobre la mutilación genital femenina Knowledge of health personnel about female genital mutilation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ivanny Cambronero-Aguilar

      2008-12-01

      Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: La mutilación genital femenina genera consecuencias psicológicas, sexuales, sociales y médicas a corto y largo plazo, es una práctica común en países no occidentales; sin embargo, a medida que las poblaciones se dispersan se está convirtiendo en un problema a tratar dondequiera que los grupos practicantes se establezcan. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el grado de conocimiento de médicos y enfermeras obstétricas sobre mutilación genital femenina, sus consecuencias y manejo clínico. Materiales y método: Se realizó un cuestionario compuesto por preguntas abiertas y cerradas, el cual se aplicó a 70 médicos y 30 enfermeras, entre octubre y noviembre de 2006, en cuatro hospitales nacionales de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, específicamente: San Juan de Dios, México, de la Mujer, y Calderón Guardia. Resultados: El 81% respondió que conocía acerca de la mutilación genital femenina, sin embargo 63% ignoraba que la mutilación genital femenina puede producir complicaciones obstétricas y 97% dijo desconocer el método de deinfibulación. El 60% de los médicos manifestó no estar preparado para manejar un caso de mutilación genital femenina. Discusión: Se refleja falta de conocimiento sobre este tema, explicado porque no es un diagnóstico común en la práctica médica en Costa Rica. No obstante, el hecho de que estas poblaciones estén migrando a nuevos territorios y que sí se haya documentado este diagnóstico en el país, justifica la necesidad de mayor información al personal de salud, sobre todo en el posible manejo que se le daría a una de estas pacientes. En este sentido es relevante el papel de la educación médica continua.Background and aim: Nowadays, the short and long-term consequences in psychological, sexual, social and medical areas of female genital mutilation are known. It is a common practice in non occidental countries. However because of globalization and

    2. Sexual and natural selection both influence male genital evolution.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Clarissa M House

      Full Text Available Rapid and divergent evolution of male genital morphology is a conspicuous and general pattern across internally fertilizing animals. Rapid genital evolution is thought to be the result of sexual selection, and the role of natural selection in genital evolution remains controversial. However, natural and sexual selection are believed to act antagonistically on male genital form. We conducted an experimental evolution study to investigate the combined effects of natural and sexual selection on the genital-arch lobes of male Drosophila simulans. Replicate populations were forced to evolve under lifetime monogamy (relaxed sexual selection or lifetime polyandry (elevated sexual selection and two temperature regimes, 25°C (relaxed natural selection or 27°C (elevated natural selection in a fully factorial design. We found that natural and sexual selection plus their interaction caused genital evolution. Natural selection caused some aspects of genital form to evolve away from their sexually selected shape, whereas natural and sexual selection operated in the same direction for other shape components. Additionally, sexual and natural selection tended to favour larger genitals. Thus we find that the underlying selection driving genital evolution is complex, does not only involve sexual selection, and that natural selection and sexual selection do not always act antagonistically.

    3. Two novel genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, related to the potentially oncogenic HPV39.

      OpenAIRE

      Longuet, M; Beaudenon, S; Orth, G

      1996-01-01

      The genomes of two novel human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, were cloned from a low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and a vulvar papilloma, respectively, and partially sequenced. Both types are related to HPV39, a potentially oncogenic virus. HPV68 and HPV70 were also detected in genital intraepithelial neoplasia from three patients and one patient, respectively. Comparison with sequence data in the literature indicates that the subgenomic ME180-HPV DNA fragment, clone...

    4. Comunicação não-verbal durante cuidados prestados aos filhos por mães com Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana Comunicación no-verbal durante cuidados prestados a los hijos por madres con Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana Non-verbal communication during child care by mothers with Human Inmunodeficiency Virus

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Simone de Souza Paiva

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a comunicação não verbal durante os cuidados prestados a filhos menores de seis meses por mães portadoras do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV. MÉTODOS: Estudo desenvolvido em ambiente experimental com cinco mães HIV+, no segundo semestre de 2007. Utilizou-se como recurso de coleta de dados a filmagem de cuidados maternos (banho, troca de roupas, mamadeira, brincar e ninar dispensados ao filho. As cenas foram analisadas em face dos aspectos da comunicação não-verbal. RESULTADOS: Analise estatística indica diferença entre os cuidados em todas as manifestações da comunicação. Entre os cuidados, a troca de roupas e o banho foram os cuidados mais instrumentais. A comunicação não-verbal é utilizada pela mãe para demonstrar apego ao filho e para perceber anormalidades. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram necessidade de incentivar a mãe a interagir com seu filho durante todos os cuidados, promovendo estímulos para o desenvolvimento infantil.OBJETIVO: Analizar la comunicación no verbal durante los cuidados prestados a hijos menores de seis meses por madres portadoras del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV. MÉTODOS: Estudio desarrollado en ambiente experimental con cinco madres HIV+, durante el segundo semestre de 2007. Se utilizó como recurso de recolección de datos la filmación de cuidados maternos (baño, cambio de ropas, mamadera, jugar y arrullar dados al hijo. Las escenas fueron analizadas bajo los aspectos da comunicación no-verbal. RESULTADOS: El análisis estadístico indica una diferencia entre los cuidados en todas las manifestaciones de la comunicación. Entre los cuidados, el cambiar de ropas y el baño fueron los cuidados más instrumentales. La comunicación no-verbal es utilizada por la madre para demostrar apego a su hijo y para percibir anormalidades. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados demuestran la necesidad de incentivar a la madre a interactuar con su hijo durante todos los

    5. Genital ulcers disease among sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in Ibadan, Nigeria.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fawole, O I; Okesola, A O; Fawole, A O

      2000-03-01

      Genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a risk factor in the transmission of human immuno deficiency virus (HIV). The goal of this study is to estimate proportion, identify risk factors, and improve prevention and control of GUD. This is a retrospective study of 211 cases of GUD seen between 1993 and 1997 in an urban public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Genital ulcers form 7.6% of all STDs seen. Overall, genital herpes was commonest (89 or 42.25%). It was the predominant infection (84 or 44.7%) in the males, while lymphogranuloma venereum (52 or 24.7%) was in females. The peak incidence in both sexes occurred in the 20-29 age group. Males out numbered females by a ratio of 8:1. Most of the patients were single 114 (68.3%) and most 70 or 33.3% were students. Risk markers identified were: casual sex (103 or 53.5%) and multiple sexual partners (77 or 36.5%). Both were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in single patients. Self-treatment, use of multiple drugs and incomplete course of antibiotics were also common. The need to intensify STDS education programmes to all occupational groups and to students in particular is highlighted. Commercial sex workers require periodic education, screening and treatment.

    6. Genital Ulcer Disease: How Worrisome Is It Today? A Status Report from New Delhi, India

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sumathi Muralidhar

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Genital ulcer diseases represent a diagnostic dilemma, especially in India, where few STI clinics have access to reliable laboratory facility. The changing STI trends require that a correct diagnosis be made in order to institute appropriate treatment and formulate control policies. The objective of this study was to determine recent trends in aetiology of genital ulcers, by using accurate diagnostic tools. Methods. Specimens from 90 ulcer patients were processed for dark field microscopy, stained smears, culture for H. ducreyi, and real-time PCR. Blood samples were collected for serological tests. Results. Prevalence of GUD was 7.45 with mean age at initial sexual experience as 19.2 years. Use of condom with regular and nonregular partners was 19.5% and 42.1%, respectively. Sexual orientation was heterosexual (92.2% or homosexual (2.2%. There were 8 cases positive for HIV (8.9%. Herpes simplex virus ulcers were the commonest, followed by syphilis and chancroid. There were no cases of donovanosis and LGV. Conclusions. A valuable contribution of this study was in validating clinical and syndromic diagnoses of genital ulcers with an accurate aetiological diagnosis. Such reliable data will aid treatment and better define control measures of common agents and help eliminate diseases amenable to elimination, like donovanosis.

    7. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      test. Not only is it cost‑effective, acceptable to most patients, and adoptable to wide‑spread screenings, it is specific enough to detect ..... The Null Hypothesis is hereby discarded, and the Alternate .... Harris RW, Brinton LA, Cowdell RH.

    8. Frecuencia de infecciones respiratorias inferiores causadas por el virus sincitial respiratorio, en niños menores de dos años, hospitalizados en el servicio de pediatría del Hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso, Cuenca, 2008

      OpenAIRE

      Célleri Gomescoello, Alba Milena; Jerez Cárdenas, Doris Patricia; Ortíz Hinojosa, María Fernanda

      2009-01-01

      Con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia de infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas (IRABs) causadas por el virus sincitial respiratorio (VSR), en niños menores de dos años, hospitalizados en el servicio de pediatría del hospital Vicente Corral Moscoso. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo, realizado en 163 niños/as menores de 2 años de edad, con infección respiratoria aguda baja. Se estudió al universo, es decir al total de la población seleccionada durante el período de 6 meses. Se e...

    9. Alteraciones hidrocarbonadas en los pacientes con infección crónica por el virus de la hepatitis C estudio de prevalencia y de los mecanismos etiopatogénicos /

      OpenAIRE

      Lecube Torelló, Albert

      2006-01-01

      Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Existen cada vez más evidencias de que el virus de la hepatitis C favorece el desarrollo de diabetes. Objetivos: 1.- Analizar la prevalencia de las alteraciones del metabolismo hidrocarbonado (diabetes y glucemia anómala en ayunas) en los pacientes con infección crónica por el VHC (n=498) y compararla con la que presentan los pacientes con otras enfermedades hepáticas (n=144), considerando el grado de lesión hepática (he...

    10. Alteraciones hidrocarbonadas en los pacientes con infección crónica por el virus de la hepatitis C: estudio de prevalencia y de los mecanismos etiopatogénicos

      OpenAIRE

      Lecube Torelló, Albert

      2005-01-01

      Existen cada vez más evidencias de que el virus de la hepatitis C favorece el desarrollo de diabetes. Objetivos: 1.- Analizar la prevalencia de las alteraciones del metabolismo hidrocarbonado (diabetes y glucemia anómala en ayunas) en los pacientes con infección crónica por el VHC (n=498) y compararla con la que presentan los pacientes con otras enfermedades hepáticas (n=144), considerando el grado de lesión hepática (hepatitis crónica o cirrosis) y los genotipos del VHC en el análisis de los...

    11. Efecto de la melatonina sobre la apoptosis y activación de la microglia en modelos experimentales de la infección por el virus de encefalitis equina venezolana

      OpenAIRE

      2011-01-01

      El virus de la encefalitis equina venezolana (EEV) afecta el SNC en humanos y équidos provocando las encefalitis equinas. La melatonina (MLT) posee efecto protector ante las infecciones virales, y su influencia sobre la apoptosis y activación de la microglía ha aumentado su interés como factor en la patogénesis viral. El presente estudio pretende evaluar el efecto de la MLT sobre la apoptosis y activación de la microglia en modelos experimentales de la infección por EEV. Los ensayos in vivo f...

    12. Influencia de la infección por el virus respiratorio sincitial en el desarrollo inmunológico en niños de 0 a 2 años de edad

      OpenAIRE

      Garriga Badia, Montserrat

      2004-01-01

      OBJETIVO:El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la relación entre la infección por el virus respiratorio sincitial y las modificaciones de la inmunidad que conducen a la aparición de asma infantil.PACIENTES Y MÉTODO:Estudio prospectivo realizado en la Sección de Inmunoalérgia del Hospital Universitario Sant Joan de Déu de Barcelona.Dos grupos de estudio. NIÑOS CON BRONQUIOLITIS. (Grupo A). El grupo de niños problema estaba formado inicialmente por 65 niños (edad media 3 meses, 1 día a 7 m...

    13. Movilización de progenitores hematopoyéticos de sangre periférica para transplante autólogo en pacientes con linfomas e infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

      OpenAIRE

      Sagüés Serrano, Miguel; Feliu Frasnedo, Evarist; Ribera Santasusana, Josep María

      2012-01-01

      La infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) es un factor limitante para la movilización de progenitores hematopoyéticos de sangre periférica (PHSP). En este estudio se compararon los resultados de dos estrategias de movilización de PHSP en 42 pacientes con linfoma e infección por el VIH remitidos para trasplante autogénico y los factores asociados con una movilización adecuada. La tasa de movilización satisfactoria (recolección &1,6x106 células CD34/Kg) con G-CSF (16/22 [72...

    14. Urinary and genital tract obstruction as a complication of female genital mutilation: case report and literature review.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Okwudili, Obi Anselm; Chukwudi, Onoh Robinson

      2012-01-01

      Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other deliberate injury to the female genital organs, either for cultural or non-therapeutic reasons. This barbaric act is accompanied by a variety of complications ranging from hemorrhage, fracture, infective complications, gynetresia, with its attendant sexual and obstetric difficulties, and death. A 23-year-old girl, with urinary and genital tract obstruction following female genital mutilation(infibulation) is presented. She was managed by elective defibulation, with a satisfactory outcome. Robust health education strategies are needed for the eradication of FGM.

    15. Valoración diagnóstica de técnicas moleculares para detección de infección bucal por virus del papiloma humano

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Myriam Lucrecia Medina

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available La infección por Virus del Papiloma Humano está considerada actualmente como la infección de transmisión sexual más frecuente en el mundo. Muchas veces, estas infecciones son asintomáticas, pasando desapercibidas a no ser que se empleen métodos moleculares. Otras infecciones se vuelven crónicas, siendo las que tienen mayor potencial oncogénico. Desarrollo: El virus se detectó en carcinoma bucal de células escamosas, así como en lesiones benignas de mucosa bucal, donde se encontró HPV de bajo y alto riesgo oncogénico. En mucosa bucal normal se identificaron diferentes tipos de HPV de alto riesgo oncogénico. Los estudios señalan que el hallazgo en mucosa sana depende del método de estudio empleado. No obstante, a pesar de la importancia del diagnóstico precoz, existe poca información respecto de la prevalencia en mucosa bucal sana. La infección por HPV puede diagnosticarse por diferentes métodos, pero no todos permiten detectar el genoma ni determinar el tipo viral involucrado. Discusión: La tipificación del HPV permite conocer tipos virales circulantes en una población, facilitando el desarrollo e implementación de programas de prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento adecuados, por lo que la identificación de HPV de alto riesgo oncogénico debería realizarse rutinariamente. Si bien, los mejores métodos diagnósticos son las pruebas moleculares, debe considerarse la prevalencia geográfica para los diferentes tipos de HPV en la elección del método específico afín de evitar conclusiones inexactas.

    16. Disfunción tiroidea relacionada a la progresión de la infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana

      OpenAIRE

      Prener, Paola Claudia

      2015-01-01

      Objetivo general: Estudiar los niveles de Tirotrofina, hormonas tiroideas y autoanticuerpos como indicadores de disfunción tiroidea en pacientes portadores del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana HIV/SIDA que se atienden en el Servicio de Infectología del Hospital San Juan de Dios de La Plata. Objetivos específicos: 1. Analizar las características demográficas y clínicas en pacientes portadores del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV) internados y ambulatorios...

    17. Etiology of genital ulcer disease in a sexually transmitted infection reference center in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Felipe Gomes Naveca

      Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the etiology and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD among patients presenting to a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil; and to compare a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR assay for the diagnosis of GUD with standard methods. METHODS: Ulcer swabs were collected and used for Tzanck test and processed in an M-PCR to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum, and Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi. Sera were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Multivariable analysis was used to measure the association between clinical aspects and GUD. M-PCR results were compared with syphilis serology and Tzanck tests. RESULTS: Overall, 434 GUD samples were evaluated, 84.8% from men. DNA from HSV-2 was detected in 55.3% of GUD samples, T. pallidum in 8.3%, HSV-1 in 3.2%, and 32.5% of GUD specimens were negative for the DNA of all three pathogens. No cases of H. ducreyi were identified. HIV serology among GUD patients was 3.2%. Treponemal antibodies and Tzanck test positivity for genital herpes was detected in 25 (5.8% and in 125 (30.3% of GUD patients, respectively. In multivariable analysis genital herpes etiology by M-PCR was associated with the vesicular, multiple and recurrent lesions whereas T. pallidum with non-vesicular, non-recurrent lesions. Compared to M-PCR, syphilis serology was 27.8% sensitive and 96.2% specific whereas Tzanck test was 43.8% sensitive and 88.9% specific. CONCLUSIONS: The predominance of genital herpes etiology suggests a revision of existing national syndromic treatment guidelines in Brazil to include antiherpetic treatment for all GUD patients. The use of M-PCR can significantly improve the diagnosis of GUD and provide a greater sensitivity than standard diagnostics.

    18. Genital melanoma: prognosis factors and treatment modality.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ferraioli, Domenico; Lamblin, Gery; Mathevet, Patrice; Hetu, Jessika; Berakdar, Isabelle; Beurrier, Frederic; Chopin, Nicolas

      2016-11-01

      Genital melanoma is a rare pathology. We present the experience of two comprehensive cancer centers in Lyon (France) in the management of genital melanoma in order to identify prognostic factors and optimal treatments. Between April 1992 and Mars 2014, 16 patients with a primary genital melanoma were referred to our department. Nine patients presented a vaginal melanoma, six vulvar melanomas and only one cervical melanoma. The median dimension of the lesion was 33.7 mm (5-100 mm). The AJCC stage ranged from IB to IIIC. 12 cases were the classic dark-blue flat melanoma and the other 4 cases were an atypical amelanotic tumor. Wide local surgery was performed in nine patients. A radical surgery was performed in six patients. In the large cervical melanoma, radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. In all the patients regional lymph node staging was performed. Adjuvant treatment was realized in nine patients. Two patients are alive without recurrence. Only one patient was lost to the first follow-up. The other 13 patients experienced a rapid recurrence. The median disease-free survival and the median overall survival were 11.8 months (2-49 m) and of 30.4 m (11-144 m), respectively. The disease-free survival and overall survival could be linked to a clinical presentation (Breslow thickness and morphology of lesion) associated to the early diagnosis. In our small series, the most important prognosis factor remains the tumor thickness. These rare lesions should be treated in experienced centers in order to improve their prognostic.

    19. Prevalencia de infección por virus de papiloma humano (VPH) de alto riesgo y factores asociados en embarazadas derechohabientes del IMSS en el estado de Morelos

      OpenAIRE

      Carlos Hernández-Girón; Jennifer S Smith; Attila Lorincz; Emilio Arreola Cháidez; Eduardo Lazcano; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila; Jorge Salmerón

      2005-01-01

      Objetivo. Algunos estudios sugieren la posibilidad de que el proceso fisiológico del embarazo modifique algunas características del hospedero, lo que incrementa el riesgo de infección por VPH; sin embargo, esta asociación no está bien establecida. Pocos estudios se han realizado para determinar la prevalencia de infección por VPH de alto riesgo en mujeres embarazadas, y sus factores relacionados. El presente estudio busca determinar la prevalencia de infección por VPH de alto riesgo, en una m...

    20. Cutaneous metastases presenting as genital ulcer disease

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      S Vasuki

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis from an internal organ malignancy is rare and as, the presenting sign of malignancy is an uncommon phenomenon. Their presence, signals a poor prognosis. We report a case of 50-year-old female who was referred to sexually transmitted diseases - out patient department, with complaints of multiple genital ulcers to rule out sexually transmitted infections. After thorough evaluation, she was found to be a case of carcinoma cervix with metastatic squamous cell carcinomatous deposits on external genitalia. This case was unique because of relatively asymptomatic nature of internal malignancy and atypical presentation of carcinoma cervix as cutaneous metastasis.

    1. Managing recurrent genital herpes with acyclovir

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Bedi T

      1995-01-01

      Full Text Available Seventy five patients of recurrent genital herpes (RGH treated with oral or topical acyclovir and placebo were compared and followed for periods ranging 4 to 8 years in a prospective study. Oral acyclovir definitely helps RGH patients; it shortens healing time; postpones recurrences and instills confidence in the patients. There is sufficient evidence that RGH dies a natural death with time as seen after 8 years follow up in placebo group patients. Topical use of acyclovir cream is not as useful as believed.

    2. Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nour, Nawal M

      2008-01-01

      More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC occurs in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into 4 types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. PMID:19015765

    3. Diseño de un algoritmo para la inclusión de unidades de bancos de sangre positivas para Anti-HBc y sin infección por el virus de la hepatitis B

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sandra Vega

      2016-06-01

      Full Text Available Introducción: Una de las mayores causas de descarte de unidades transfusionales en los bancos de sangre es la infección por el virus de la hepatitis B (VHB. Objetivo: Diseñar un algoritmo estadístico con base en los títulos para anti-HBs y anti-HBc contra el VHB en sueros de donantes de sangre, con el fin de evitar el descarte de unidades sanguíneas de donantes que resolvieron la infección por el virus. Materiales y métodos: 700 alícuotas de suero de donantes del año 2015 fueron suministradas por el Hemocentro del Hospital universitario de Santander (HUS para realizar titulaciones de anti-HBs y anti-HBc. Se busca cuantificar los títulos de anticuerpos se realizará en sueros utilizando ensayos inmunoenzimáticos competitivo (ELISA, siguiendo el protocolo de la casa comercial Diapro. Adicionalmente, se realizará extracción de ácido desoxirribonucleico (ADN con el método de columnas de silica gel (Ultra Sense kit Virus QIAamp a partir de suero siguiendo el protocolo de la casa comercial. El material genético del virus será amplificado por ensayo de PCR anidado utilizando dos tipos de cebadores; un par externo (HBS1 hacia adelante y HBS2 inversa y un par interno (HBS3 hacia adelante y HBS4 inversa, siguiendo el protocolo previamente estandarizado por nuestro laboratorio y obteniendo un producto final de 1100 pares de base. Se establecerá el punto de corte de acuerdo, con lo cual se procederá a crear un algoritmo estadístico utilizando el método de análisis por correspondencia con las variables “Anti-HBc-anti-HBs y DNA viral” teniendo en cuenta cada una de las modalidades de la tabla, cercanía/lejanía entre los puntos calculados (punto de corte. Resultados: Mediante la cuantificación de anticuerpos anti-HBs y anti-HBc se determinará un punto de corte en las unidades de sangre que no tengan el DNA viral siendo estas útiles en caso de llegar a ser transfundidas. Conclusiones: En Santander existen aproximadamente 2’061

    4. Citología y Cáncer Genital

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Carlos Cortes Caballero

      1989-09-01

      Full Text Available

      Introduccion

      Hace algunos años (1 el grupo de patólogos de Bucaramanga resolvió motu proprio revisar la frecuencia de los procesos neoplásicos malignos en Bucaramanga. Posteriormente contando con la colaboración de las citotécnicas de la ciudad (2-3 se convino en observar a través de las citologías la tendencia al cáncer genital en nuestra población.

      Hoy después de más de diez años de esas observaciones hemos decidido comparar esos datos con los resultantes de los tres últimos años, en las usuarias del I.S.S. y Pro familia, movidos por el interés de que el cáncer del cervix ocupó la segunda causa de muerte en 1987,en la Seccional de Santander de los Seguros Sociales (-0,40 – (4.

      Utilizamos como entonces la evaluación de la citología siendo conscientes de las limitaciones de éste procedimiento de laboratorio...

    5. The Emergence of the "s"-Genitive in Danish

      Science.gov (United States)

      Perridon, Harry

      2013-01-01

      The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…

    6. Human papillomavirus genital infections among men, China, 2007-2009.

      Science.gov (United States)

      He, Zhonghu; Liu, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Xi, Long Fu; Chen, Ke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Gao, Lei; Liu, Fangfang; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

      2013-06-01

      To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners.

    7. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

      Science.gov (United States)

      Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

      2015-01-01

      Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

    8. Markers of genital tuberculosis in infertility.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Khanna, A; Agrawal, A

      2011-12-01

      Although genital tuberculosis is a condition that is prevalent worldwide, it is still a diagnostic dilemma. This study aimed to find an effective diagnostic modality for the condition. A total of 100 infertile women were clinically evaluated with haemoglobin estimation, total and differential count, Mantoux test, tubercle bacilli enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TB ELISA), hysterosalpingography, pelvic ultrasonography, laparohysteroscopy, premenstrual endometrial biopsy for histopathology, culture and tubercle bacilli polymerase chain reaction (TBPCR). The womens' Day 2 hormonal profile (luteinising, follicle-stimulating, prolactin and thyroidstimulating hormones) and their husbands' semen analysis were also conducted. A total of 58 women had primary infertility and 42 had secondary infertility. Female factor infertility was present in 63 percent of the cases (mostly tubal; 45.97 percent). 26 women tested positive for endometrial TBPCR. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Mantoux test, TB ELISA and hysterosalpingography were found to have high negative predictive value (greater than 80 percent), while the positive predictive value was 35-45 percent. Laparoscopy findings were suggestive of tuberculosis in 13 percent of the women, out of which 83.3 percent were positive for endometrial TBPCR. Hysteroscopy revealed intrauterine adhesions in 34.8 percent of the women, with 68.8 percent being positive for tubercular bacilli. Our study established that in cases of genital tuberculosis, the use of expensive endometrial TBPCR tests may be avoided with a detailed workup, which would also help in the institution of anti-tubercular treatment in early disease, thus enhancing the chance of pregnancy.

    9. [Carcinosarcomas in female genital tracts: general review].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Casteillo, François; Forest, Fabien; Pacaut, Cécile; Moncharmont, Coralie; Espenel, Sophie; Vallard, Alexis; Langrand Escure, Julien; Collard, Olivier; Peoc'h, Michel; Magné, Nicolas

      2014-01-01

      Carcinosarcoma, also known as mixed mesodermal tumor or malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT) is a pathological entity combining a sarcomatous and a carcinomatous component. Found in thoracic, digestive, genitourinary, liver or skin locations, the most common location is the female genital tract. In gynecological tumors, carcinosarcoma accounts for about 2-5% of endometrial cancers, and 1% of ovarian cancers. To date, there is no consensus on the therapeutic strategy. It relies mostly on maximum cytoreductive surgery. Adjuvant therapy remains controversial, and few prospective studies investigating its interest. Retrospective studies show the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy based on platinum in most cases. Radiation therapy has a place in the adjuvant situations of endometrial and cervical carcinosarcoma. A more detailed pathological knowledge, and the use of targeted therapies may be promising in this histological subtype whose prognosis remains very poor. The objective of this study is to present the main principles of carcinosarcoma management in female genital tracts, describing pathological and prognostic features at the same time.

    10. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Elneil, Sohier

      2016-01-01

      Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

    11. Labial hair tourniquet: unusual complication of an unrepaired genital laceration.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dua, Anahita; Jamshidi, Ramin; Lal, Dave R

      2013-07-01

      Hair tourniquet syndrome has been recognized as a medical entity since the 1600 s. Appendages develop acute ischemia from tightening of hair strands circumferentially wrapped around them. Most commonly affected sites are fingers, toes, and penis, but limited reports have described involvement of the female genitalia. Although hair strangulation involving the labia minora or clitoris has been described, it typically occurs in young children. We present a case of an adolescent girl with a labial appendage hair tourniquet resulting from a previous unrepaired genital laceration. This is one of the oldest patients in whom a genital hair tourniquet has been reported, as well as description of a posttraumatic genital appendage. Genital hair tourniquets are medical emergencies that require prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid tissue necrosis and possible amputation. Genital trauma in general requires surgical evaluation.

    12. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Malhotra, S; Kumar, Bhushan

      2004-01-01

      Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having 'genital ulcer syndrome' in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

    13. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

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      Gupta Somesh

      2004-01-01

      Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

    14. Bipolar aphthosis presenting as mutilating genital ulcers in women

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gupta Somesh

      2004-11-01

      Full Text Available Three women with large, mutilating genital ulcers of long duration, destroying almost the lower half of the external genitalia, are reported. They had a history of recurrent oral ulcers as well. All patients had been diagnosed as having ′genital ulcer syndrome′ in the past and had been treated with antimicrobials. Histopathology of the biopsy from the margin of the ulcer revealed features of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Considering the history, clinical features and histology, a diagnosis of bipolar aphthosis was made in all patients. All patients responded well to immunosuppressive therapy. The cases are reported because of the presence of genital ulcers of an unusually large size, mutilating character and their close similarity to genital ulcers due to sexually transmitted diseases, especially genital herpes and donovanosis.

    15. Asociación entre infección por el virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo I (HTLV-I y mortalidad en pacientes hospitalizados con tuberculosis

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      Kristien Verdonck Bosteels

      2004-10-01

      Full Text Available El Perú es un país de alta prevalencia de tuberculosis (TBC y endémico para la infección por el virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo I (HTLV-I. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación entre la infección por HTLV-I y la mortalidad de los pacientes hospitalizados por TBC. Material y métodos: Los pacientes que ingresaron consecutivamente con el diagnóstico de TBC a los servicios de hospitalización de los Departamentos de Medicina Interna y de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Tropicales y Dermatológicas del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia fueron entrevistados y sometidos a una prueba diagnóstica para la infección por HTLV-I. Se revisaron sus historias clínicas y los libros de altas para definir el resultado de la hospitalización. Las variables clínicas y epidemiológicas que estuvieron asociadas con mortalidad durante la hospitalización en el análisis univariado fueron incluidos en un modelo de regresión logística múltiple. Resultados: Se incluyeron 193 pacientes hospitalizados con TBC; 14 tuvieron infección por HTLV-I (7.3%. En el análisis multivariado, la infección por HTLV-I (OR ajustado 9.4; IC 2.2 - 40.6, TBC meníngea (OR ajustado 3.8; IC 1.3 - 11.5 y la condición de infección por VIH desconocido (OR ajustado 0.2; IC 0.04 - 0.6 se encontraron asociadas con la mortalidad durante la hospitalización. Conclusión: Este estudio demuestra que la infección por HTLV-I es frecuente entre los pacientes hospitalizados con TBC y que existe una relación independiente entre esta infección y la mortalidad durante la hospitalización.(Rev Med Hered 2004;15:197-202.

    16. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the female genital tract.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Axiotis, C A; Merino, M J; Duray, P H

      1991-03-15

      Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the female genital tract is rare. Four new cases are reported, and there is a review of the 38 cases in the literature. This disease may involve the vulva, vagina, cervix, endometrium, and ovary. Four distinct patient groups, segregated on the basis of initial presentation and subsequent anatomic extent of disease, were categorized as follows: (1) "pure" genital LCH, (2) genital LCH with subsequent multi-organ involvement, (3) oral or cutaneous LCH with subsequent genital and multi-organ involvement, and (4) diabetes insipidus with subsequent genital and multi-organ disease. Although involvement of the genital tract can occur at any age, it is most common in young adulthood. Clinically, LCH may mimic either primary neoplasia or various inflammatory lesions; the major pathologic differential diagnosis is venereal and other inflammatory diseases. The pure genital form may have a distinct nosologic position in the spectrum of LCH similar to the "pure," self-limited cutaneous histiocytosis seen in infants. There is no correlation between histologic findings and the outcome of the genital lesions. There is also no correlation between clinical presentation and/or the extent of involvement and outcome of genital lesions; complete regression, partial improvement, persistent lesions, and recurrences were seen in all four groups of patients. The treatment of genital LCH is not well defined and is highly individualized. Therapy has included surgery, radiation, topical corticosteroids, topical nitrogen mustard, systemic chemotherapy, and combination therapy; mixed results were obtained with all treatment modalities. Although no modality has been shown to yield a superior outcome, complete surgical excision is advocated as initial therapy.

    17. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

      OpenAIRE

      Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD; Sara Inés Jiménez Sanguino, MD; Carlos Andrés Pérez Martínez, MD; Amaury Alexis Amaris Vergara, MD; Luis Antonio Salazar Montaña, MD; Ángela Peña Castellanos, MD; Jesica Liliana Pinto Ramírez; Laura Andrea Rincón Arenas

      2010-01-01

      La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV), virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomeg...

    18. Anemia hemolítica autoinmune postinfección por virus de la hepatitis A. Informe de caso; Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia associated to hepatitis A. Case report

      OpenAIRE

      Claudia Lucía Sossa Melo, MD; Sara Inés Jiménez Sanguino, MD; Carlos Andrés Pérez Martínez, MD; Amaury Alexis Amaris Vergara, MD; Luis Antonio Salazar Montaña, MD; Ángela Peña Castellanos, MD; Jesica Liliana Pinto Ramírez; Laura Andrea Rincón Arenas

      2010-01-01

      La anemia hemolítica autoinmune se asocia con una variedad de virus hepatotrópicos, en particular citomegalovirus (CMV), virus del Epstein-Barr y de la hepatitis B. No es frecuente dentro de la historia natural de la hepatitis A, la aparición de anemia hemolítica, y cuando se presenta, generalmente se asocia a deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino sin hemólisis previa, con astenia e ictericia de dos meses de evolución y hepatomeg...

    19. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

      2016-01-01

      Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.

    20. Evaluación de accesiones de Capsicum spp. por su reacción al virus del mosaico deformante del pimentón (PepDMV Screening of Capsicum spp. to the deforming mosaic virus from pepper (PepDMV

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      Catherine Pardey R

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Se evaluaron 235 accesiones de Capsicum spp. procedentes del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira en condiciones de invernadero por su reacción al Virus deformante del Pimentón (PepDMV. Solamente se identificaron 13 accesiones (5% como resistentes al virus, según la ausencia de síntomas y ausencia del virus en pruebas serológicas (PTA-ELISA y RT-PCR. Los materiales resistentes incluyen variedades de C. annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.A total of 235 accessions of Capsicum sp from the gene bank of the Colombian National University campus Palmira’s were screened under controlled glasshouse conditions for their reaction to pepper deforming mosaic virus. Only 5.5 % 8139 of the accessions inoculated showed resistance to the Virus, as determined by symptom expression and serological (PTA-ELISA and RT-PCR. The resistant genotypes included varieties of C. annuum, C frutescens, C. chinense y C. baccatum.

    1. A primate model for age and host response to genital herpetic infection: determinants of latency.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Reeves, W C; Di Giacomo, R; Alexander, E R

      1981-04-01

      Thirty five female Cebus albifrons monkeys (16 adolescents and 19 adults) were infected vaginally with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2. Fifteen developed spontaneous recurrent genital HSV infections. All 35 were killed for study eight to 12 months after primary infection, and tissue from the vagina, cervix, uterus, ovary, paracervical autonomic plexus, and lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia of eight animals. Host age was the most important variable influencing viral latency; 69% of adolescents and 42% of adults had latent HSV type 2 infections. Animals that developed latent infections were significantly easier to infect, shed virus during the primary infection significantly longer, and had more severe primary disease than those who did not become latently infected.

    2. FORMACIÓN DE PORO EN MEMBRANA CELULAR POR MEDIO DE LA PEQUEÑA GLICOPROTEÍNA DE SECRECIÓN DEL VIRUS DE EBOLA ZAIRE

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      Nury EsperanzaVargas-Alejo

      2004-12-01

      Full Text Available Uno de los patógenos capaces de inducir fiebres hemorrágicas es el virus de Ebola, clasificado en la familia filoviridae con cuatro subtipos, de los cuales el más analizado es el subtipo de Ebola Zaire, identificando en su genoma siete proteínas estructurales y una de secreción denominada pequeña glicoproteína de secreción del virus de Ebola Zaire.Utilizando las herramientas de bioinformática y los diferentes estudios realizados al virus de Ebola Zaire a escala estructural y funcional, se logró predecir la estructura terciaria de su pequeña glicoproteína de secreción (SSGP EBO-Z. Basados en esta estructura se generó un posible modelo del mecanismo de entrada del virus de Ebola Zaire a la célula huésped, donde juegan un papel importante los receptores y ligandos de la membrana celular; permitiendo a la vez explicar los daños patológicos encontrados en los pacientes.

    3. Infección por papiloma virus humano y carcinoma escamocelular bucal: diversas técnicas moleculares para detectar su presencia

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      A. Martínez Martínez

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available El cáncer bucal (CB es una neoplasia maligna de comportamiento agresivo, que comprende el 4 al 5 % de todos los tumores, con una alta tasa de mortalidad, la gran mayoría son carcinomas escamocelulares (90%. Entre los factores de riesgo asociados al CB se describen el tabaquismo, predisposición genética, alcohol y últimamente se menciona algunos virus con el virus de papiloma humano (VPH entre otros. El objetivo del presente artículo es revisar los reportes de literatura que dan cuenta de la relación que existe entre CB y VPH, específicamente se describe el comportamiento molecular de los VPH de alto riesgo, el mapa genómico del virus y su posible relación con CB. La evidencia científica muestra que entre el 15 al 30% de los CB están relacionados con HPV, específicamente el subtipo 16 considerado de alto riesgo oncogénico y que los individuos con presencia de VPH bucal tienen dos veces mayor riesgo de desarrollar un CB que aquel que no está expuesto al virus.

    4. Aspectos virológicos e clínico-patológicos da infecção genital aguda e latente pelo herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2 em bezerras infectadas experimentalmente Virological and clinico-pathological features of acute vulvovaginitis and latent infection by bovine herpesvirus 1.2 in heifers experimentally infected

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      Andréia Henzel

      2008-03-01

      Full Text Available A infecção genital de vacas pelo herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2 (BoHV-1.2 pode resultar em vulvovaginite e infertilidade temporária. Após a infecção aguda, o BoHV-1 estabelece infecção latente, que pode cursar com episódios periódicos de reativação. O presente trabalho descreve os aspectos virológicos e clínico-patológicos da vulvovaginite aguda e infecção latente resultantes da inoculação de bezerras com uma amostra de BoHV-1.2 isolada de casos de balanopostite em touros. A inoculação do vírus em quatro bezerras pela via genital (10(8.1TCID50/animal resultou em replicação viral na mucosa genital e no desenvolvimento de vulvovaginite moderada a severa. Os animais inoculados excretaram o vírus nas secreções genitais até o dia 10 pós-inoculação (p.i. com título máximo de 10(7.3TCID50/mL. Foram observados congestão e edema da mucosa vulvovestibular, e formação de pequenas vesículas e pústulas. Durante a progressão clínica, as vesículas e pústulas aumentaram de tamanho e eventualmente se tornaram coalescentes e recobertas por um exsudato fino de coloração amarelada. Estes sinais foram observados a partir do dia 2 p.i. e aumentaram progressivamente de severidade até os dias 5-8 p.i. A administração de dexametasona no dia 55 p.i. resultou em excreção viral nas secreções genitais dos quatro animais por até 10 dias. A reativação da infecção latente foi acompanhada de recrudescência clínica, porém com sinais menos severos e com menor duração do que na infecção aguda. O DNA viral latente foi detectado por PCR, aos 36 dias pós-reativação (p.r., nos seguintes tecidos: gânglio sacrais: pudendo (4/4; genitofemoral e retal caudal (3/4 e obturador (4/4 e em alguns linfonodos regionais. Estes resultados demonstram que o isolado SV-56/90 é virulento para fêmeas soronegativas, após inoculação genital, e pode ser utilizado em estudos de patogenia e de desafio vacinal.Venereal infection of heifers

    5. Determinación de subtipos del virus respiratorio sincicial en muestras positivas por el virus, aisladas en el Hospital Nacional de Niños Detection of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus subtypes A and B in hospitalized children in Costa Rica

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      Doris Mora

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available Objetivo: El virus respiratorio sincicial (VRS es un pneumovirus de la familia Paramyxovridae, que causa enfermedad severa del tracto respiratorio inferior en neonatos y niños pequeños, especialmente en los primeros años de vida. Es responsable de constantes hospitalizaciones y visitas a los servicios de emergencias. Se han identificado dos subtipos: VRS-A y VRS-B, mediante anticuerpos monoclonales y técnicas moleculares. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer por primera vez la circulación de ambos subtipos del VRS, en muestras positivas de niños hospitalizados durante el pico estacional de 2008, en el Hospital Nacional de Niños (HNN. Métodos: Se analizaron 49 muestras de aspirados nasofaríngeos de niños hospitalizados, de un total de 578, de las cuales 197 fueron previamente positivas para VRS por inmunofluorescencia directa. Se realizó cultivo celular, y un RT-PCR múltiple, estandarizado en el laboratorio, para detectar VRS-A y VRS-B. Resultados: La frecuencia del VRS fue del 34% en el HNN, para agosto y septiembre de 2008. De las 49 muestras analizadas por RT-PCR, 41 (84% fueron positivas, 34 (83% por el subtipo A y 7 (17% por el B; 8 fueron negativas. Ningún paciente presentó infección mixta y no hubo diferencia entre los síntomas, la edad o el origen geográfico de los niños. El cultivo fue positivo solo en el 30% de las muestras. Conclusión: La frecuencia del VRS para el periodo en estudio fue del 34% de las muestras analizadas en aspirados nasofaríngeos. Este es el primer reporte de la detección de los subtipos A y B del VRS, en una pequeña cohorte del HNN, confirmados por un RT-PCR múltiple estandarizado en el laboratorio.Aim: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV a Pneumovirus belonging to Paramyxovridae family is a common cause of severe lower respiratory disease in neonates and young children especially in the first years of life. It causes frequent hospitalizations and visits to the emergency rooms. Utilizing

    6. Lipschütz ulcer (ulcus vulvae acutum: a rare cause of genital lesion Úlcera de Lipschütz (ulcus vulvae acutum: uma causa rara de lesão genital

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      Ana Brinca

      2012-08-01

      Full Text Available Lipschütz Ulcer, or ulcus vulvae acutum, is a rare and probably underdiagnosed entity that usually presents as an acute painful vulvar ulcer in young women. The etiology is unknown, although recent reports have associated it with the Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis is made by exclusion after ruling out sexually transmitted diseases, autoimmune causes, trauma, and other etiologies of genital ulcerations. We report a case of a young woman who developed flu-like symptoms and painful vulvar ulcers. Complementary examinations ruled out sexually transmitted diseases and the other usual causes of genital ulcers; lesions healed with no sequelae or recurrences. This case represents a rare important differential diagnosis of genital ulceration.A Úlcera de Lipschütz, ou ulcus vulvae acutum, é uma entidade rara mas provavelmente subdiagnosticada, que se apresenta como úlcera vulvar aguda dolorosa numa mulher jovem. A etiologia é desconhecida embora relatos recentes a tenham associado à primo-infecção pelo vírus Epstein-Barr. O diagnóstico é estabelecido após exclusão de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, causas autoimunes, traumáticas e outras etiologias de úlceras genitais. Relatamos o caso de uma jovem que desenvolveu quadro gripal e dolorosas úlceras genitais. Os exames complementares excluiram doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e as outras causas habituais de ulceração genital. As lesões cicatrizaram sem sequelas e sem recorrências. Este caso representa um diagnóstico diferencial importante e raro de ulceração genital.

    7. Efecto de la infección por el virus de la rabia sobre la expresión de parvoalbúmina, calbindina y calretinina en la corteza cerebral de ratones.

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      Orlando Torres-Fernández

      2004-03-01

      Full Text Available Algunas manifestaciones clínicas de la rabia, así como los resultados de experimentos con cultivos celulares y animales de laboratorio han llevado a sugerir que el virus de la rabia afecta la neurotransmisión gabaérgica. En la corteza cerebral existen diferentes tipos de neuronas que sintetizan el neurotransmisor GABA. Éstas se pueden identificar con marcadores neuronales, entre los que se destacan tres proteínas ligadoras de calcio: la parvoalbúmina (PV, la calbindina (CB y la calretinina (CR. El virus de la rabia se disemina a través de la corteza cerebral pero se desconocen sus posibles efectos citopáticos sobre las neuronas gabaérgicas. Para evaluar el efecto de la rabia sobre estas neuronas, se estudió mediante inmunohistoquímica la expresión de PV, CB y CR en la corteza frontal de ratones normales y ratones infectados con virus 'calle' o virus 'fijo' de la rabia. La PV se expresó en neuronas multipolares dispersas regularmente entre las capas II y VI, y en botones sinápticos que bordeaban el soma de las neuronas piramidales. La inmunorreactividad a CB se manifestó en dos franjas corticales: la primera, en las capas supragranulares II y III en neuronas con somas redondeados e inmersos en un neuropilo intensamente marcado; la segunda, en las capas infragranulares V y VI en neuronas multipolares dispersas y rodeadas por un neuropilo menos reactivo. La CR se expresó en neuronas bipolares con somas fusiformes distribuidas en las seis capas corticales, pero concentradas principalmente en las capas II y III. Hubo una característica común en las muestras infectadas con los dos tipos de virus: la inmunotinción a PV fue más intensa que en las muestras normales. La infección derivada del virus 'calle' no causó alteraciones adicionales en la expresión de las tres proteínas. En contraste, la infección con virus 'fijo' produjo una reducción notable del número de neuronas CB+, así como de la inmunorreactividad a CB en el

    8. [Secondary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of female genital tract].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kovachev, S; Nacheva, A; Ganovska, A; Ivanov, A; Gigov, P; Vassilev, N

      2014-01-01

      Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) are a separate group of blood diseases, which includes all types of lymphomas, without Hodgkin lymphomas. The incidence of NHL in the female genital system is 0.5% of all the NHL. They develop in the female genital organs primary or affect them secondary. Secondary development of the genital non-Hodgkin's lymphoma we have when the biopsy of a lymph node that precedes the diagnosis of the disease is before the development of a genital tumor or we can find a genital tumor--along with simultaneous involvement of the lymph nodes or extra genital authority. We present a clinical case of 56 years patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with secondary genital involvement. From ultrasonography, computed axial tomography and Tu markers that were maiden we have suspicion for ovarian tumor with mechanical pressure over pyelocalix system due to left hidroureter and left hydronephrosis II degree. That was the only reason for urgent surgical treatment with intraoperative histologic diagnosis of NHL. The postoperative chemotherapy in combination with surgical treatment in our case had a good and long-lasting disease survivor effect. One year after the operation and the chemotherapy in the patient, there is no evidence of relapse.

    9. Female genital mutilation/cutting: an update.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F

      2015-01-01

      Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls.

    10. Difficulties in Preventing Repeated Genital Self-Mutilation

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      Djuricic Katarina Nikic

      2016-09-01

      Full Text Available Self-mutilation is self-inflicted and intentional damage done to one’s body or one’s body parts without a conscious suicidal intention. The first case of genital self-mutilation was published in 1846, and the first scientific description of genital self-mutilation was written by Stroch in 1901. Since the first case has been described, there have been a relatively small number of described cases of genital self-mutilation in both genders; there have been an even smaller number of cases of repeated genital self-mutilation and only a few descriptions of repetitive forms of male genital self-mutilation in the literature. The aim of our study is to present difficulties in preventing repeated male genital self-mutilation of a patient with an intellectual disability who was diagnosed and treated for epilepsy and psychosis in early adult life and had a previous history of self-destructive behaviour during childhood. Previous literature does not contain many repeated cases of male genital self-mutilation. After evaluating the contribution of each individual factor in the aetiology of self-mutilation, we concluded that every individual factor is significant in the aetiology of self-mutilation; however, no single factor, as well as all the factors put together, is not enough for prevention of self-mutilation. Our conclusion is that all the presented factors in our research (intellectual disability, epilepsy, psychosis, self-destructive tendencies in childhood have their place in the aetiology of male genital self-mutilation, but none of them are determining factors. This confirms that it is necessary to conduct further research in the field of aetiology of male genital self-mutilation, which would contribute towards more adequate prevention.

    11. Guinea pigs experimentally infected with vaccinia virus replicate and shed, but do not transmit the virus Cobaias infectadas experimentalmente com vírus vaccínia replicam e excretam, porém não transmitem o vírus

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      Juliana Felipetto Cargnelutti

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available The origin of vaccinia viruses (VACV associated with vesicular disease in cattle and humans in Southeast Brazil remains uncertain, yet the role of wild species in virus transmission has been suggested. This study investigated the susceptibility and transmission potential by guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus - phylogenetically close to an abundant Brazilian rodent (Cavia aperea - to two VACV strains (P1V and P2V isolated from an outbreak of cutaneous disease in horses in Southern Brazil. Eight guinea pigs inoculated intranasally with P1V and P2V (10(6 TCID50.ml-1 did not develop clinical signs, but six animals shed virus in nasal secretions (day 1 to 9 post-inoculation - pi, developed viremia (between days 1 and 10 pi and seroconverted to VACV. In spite of virus replication and shedding, the virus was not transmitted to sentinel animals by direct or indirect contact (aerosols or through food and water contaminated with virus. These results demonstrate that, in spite of replicating and shedding the virus, guinea pigs do not transmit the virus upon experimental inoculation. This finding makes unlikely a possible participation of related species in VACV maintenance and transmission in nature.A origem dos vírus vaccínia (VACV, envolvidos em surtos de doença vesicular em bovinos e humanos no Sudeste do Brasil, permanece desconhecida, e a participação de espécies silvestres na manutenção e transmissão do vírus tem sido sugerida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a susceptibilidade e o potencial de transmissão por cobaias (Cavia porcellus - filogeneticamente relacionada a uma espécie de roedor, conhecido por preá (Cavia aperea, bastante abundante no país - a duas cepas de VACV (P1V e P2V isoladas de um surto de doença cutânea em equinos no Rio Grande do Sul. Oito cobaias inoculadas pela via intranasal com uma mistura das amostras P1V e P2V (10(6 DICC50.ml-1 não apresentaram sinais clínicos, porém seis animais excretaram o vírus nas

    12. [Sarcoidosis of the female genital tract].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Šefčíková, A; Turková, M; Žurková, M

      To present the findings of sarcoidosis on female genital tract. Review. Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Silesian Hospital Opava. Overview of published findings from case studies. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unclear cause. It typically involves the lymph nodes of mediastinum, predominantly billateral and/or pulmonary infiltrates. We find extrapulmonary involvement in 30-50% of cases. Sarcoidosis of the female reproductive system is a rare, it represent less than 1% cases of sarcoidosis. Lesions there may affect any organ, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tube and ovary, but also for example placenta and breast. There is also recorded the incidence of multiple localization on female genitalia. Since sarcoidosis of this area is so rare, often proceeds asymptomatic and recognized only as an incidental finding, there are mention only the case histories in literature yet.Clinical symptoms may be non-specific, often imitating a tumor, or tend to be specific, depending on the localization of disability such as perineal pain, pain in the scar after the previous birth trauma, persistent pruritus, itching, irritation, dyspareunia, menstrual cycle disorders, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, postmenopausal bleeding, amenorrhoe, abdominal pain, endometrial polypoid lesions, recurrent or persistent serometra or discharge. The diagnosis is made up of histologically - we are demonstrating noncaseating granulomas.The therapy is difficult, there are no available official guidelines. If the lesions are clinically silent, we can observed them because they may spontaneously disappear. If we are embarking on medical therapy, we start from a local application, and if this is unsuccessful then we approach the systemic administration. Corticosteroids are the drug of choice. If we diagnose the sarcoidosis of the female genital organs we must exclude systemic disease of sarcoidosis. The prognosis of disease is good.

    13. Penile herpes simplex virus type 1 infection presenting two and a half years after Jewish ritual circumcision of an infant.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yossepowitch, Orit; Gottesman, Tamar; Schwartz, Orna; Stein, Michal; Serour, Francis; Dan, Michael

      2013-06-01

      The association between Jewish ritual circumcision and genital herpes simplex virus type 1 infection has been well described. We report a case of genital herpes that first presented at the age of 2½ years. We believe that the infection was acquired asymptomatically through direct orogenital suction performed during circumcision in the newborn period.

    14. HLA Class I and II alleles, heterozygosity and HLA-KIR interactions are associated with rates of genital HSV shedding and lesions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Magaret, A; Dong, L; John, M; Mallal, S A; James, I; Warren, T; Gaudieri, S; Koelle, D M; Wald, A

      2016-12-01

      Variation at HLA and KIR loci is associated with the severity of viral infections. To assess associations of genital HSV-2 infection with human HLA and KIR genetic loci, we measured the frequencies of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA detection and of genital lesions in HSV-2 seropositive persons. We followed 267 HSV-2 seropositive persons who collected daily genital swabs and recorded lesions for ⩾30 days. All persons were laboratory-documented as HIV-seronegative, and all were Caucasian by self-report. HSV detection rate and lesion frequency were compared by genotype using Poisson regression. Overall, HSV was detected on 19.1% of days and lesions on 11.6% of days. The presence of HLA-A*01 was directly associated with HSV detection frequency, whereas the presence of HLA-C*12 was inversely associated with HSV detection frequency. The presence of HLA-A*01 was directly associated with lesion rate, while HLA-A*26, -C*01 and -DQB1*0106 were associated with decreased lesions. We observed an interaction between the absence of both 2DS4del and HLA-Bw4 and higher lesion rate. Heterozygosity of HLA was also associated with reduced lesion frequency. Immune control of genital HSV infection relies on multiple interacting immunogenetic elements, including epistatic interactions between HLA and KIR.

    15. Association between HSV-2 and HIV-1 viral load in semen, cervico-vaginal secretions and genital ulcers of Thai men and women.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chu, Kathryn; Jiamton, Sukhum; Pepin, Jacques; Cowan, Frances; Mahakkanukrauh, Bussakorn; Suttent, Ruengpung; Robinson, Noah J; Deslandes, Sylvie; Frost, Eric; Chaisilwattana, Pongsakdi; Suthipinittharm, Puan; Grosskurth, Heiner; Brown, David; Jaffar, Shabbar

      2006-10-01

      We studied the association between herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) and HIV-1 viralload in plasma, semen, cervico-vaginal secretions and genital ulcers. Forty-seven (68%) men and 57 (80%) women were HSV-2 antibody positive, of whom 12 (26%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 20, 32) and five (8%, 95% CI 4, 12), respectively, had HSV-2 genital shedding detected by polymerase chain reaction. The mean HIV-1 seminal and cervico-vaginal viral loads did not differ significantly according to the presence of HSV-2 shedding. Eleven men and 15 women presented with genital ulcers; all ulcers were due to HSV-2. Ten men and nine women were followed up over six days: the mean (95% CI) HIV-1 log viral load copies/mL in the genital ulcers at baseline and final visits were 2.5 (2.3, 2.7) and 3.1 (2.0, 4.2) for men and 3.0 (2.6, 3.4) and 2.7 (2.3, 3.1) for women. These findings do not support the hypothesis that HSV-2 increases the HIV-1 viral load in genital secretions.

    16. Clinical Application of Multiplex PCR Assay for the Diagnosis of the Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease Among Patients Attending STD Clinics in Guangzhou, China

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      朱慧兰; 苏向阳; 林路洋; 叶兴东

      2002-01-01

      Objectives: To develop a method of simultaneous PCRdetection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, andHerpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 from genital ulcersamong patients attending STD clinics in Guangzhou, China;and evaluate the clinical application of multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for diagnosing the etiology of genital ulcerdiseases (GUD). Methods: 244 patients with a genital ulcer were evaluated.Clinical etiology of GUD was based on physical appearanceand microbiologic evaluations that included dark fieldmicroscopy examination (D-F) and serology test for syphilis(STS). Swabs of each genital ulcer were tested for HSVantigen by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and processed in anM-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of T. pallidum, HSVand H. ducreyi. Results: The standard strains of T. pallidum, HSV and H.ducreyi were amplified by M-PCR, producing amplifiedproducts of 260bp,432bp,170bp, respectively. The sensitivityof M-PCR is 102pg DNA. M-PCR assay for T. pallidum, HSVand H. ducreyi showed good agreement when compared withD-F detection for T. pallidum, STS, H. ducreyi culture and EIAfor HSV antigen (Kappa scores are 0.774,0.704,0.793,0.756,respectively). Conclusions: The M-PCR is a convenient, accurate andreliable assay for the detection of T. pallidum, HSV and H.ducreyi from genital ulcers, and can be used as a method of diagnosing the etiology of GUD.

    17. The Natural History of Genital Human Papillomavirus Among HIV-Negative Men Having Sex With Men and Men Having Sex With Women

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nyitray, Alan G.; Chang, Mihyun; Villa, Luisa L.; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

      2015-01-01

      Background. Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative men having sex with men (MSM) bear a substantial burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated disease, prospective studies of genital HPV infection in this population are scarce. Methods. HPV genotyping was conducted on genital samples from men (aged 18–70 years) from Brazil, Mexico, or the United States who provided specimens at 6-month intervals for up to 4 years. Eligibility criteria included no history of genital warts or HIV infection. Evaluable specimens were collected from 564 MSM and 3029 men having sex with women (MSW). Incidence and clearance estimates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results. The 12-month cumulative incidence of genital HPV was high in both MSM (25%; 95% confidence interval, 21%–30%) and MSW (21%; 20%–23%). After stratifying by city, MSM and MSW incidence rates were comparable, with 3 exceptions where MSM had higher incidence in ≥1 city: the group of quadrivalent vaccine types, HPV-45, and HPV-11. Median times to HPV-16 clearance were also comparable, with point estimates of >6 months for both MSM and MSW. Conclusions. Unlike with many other sexually transmitted infections, genital HPV natural history may be similar in HIV-negative MSM and MSW. Study periods of ≤6 months, however, may not be long enough to accurately measure the persistence of these infections in men. PMID:25649172

    18. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ogunsiji, Olayide

      2015-01-01

      Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered.

    19. Conocimiento del personal de salud sobre la mutilación genital femenina

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ivanny Cambronero-Aguilar

      2008-12-01

      Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: La mutilación genital femenina genera consecuencias psicológicas, sexuales, sociales y médicas a corto y largo plazo, es una práctica común en países no occidentales; sin embargo, a medida que las poblaciones se dispersan se está convirtiendo en un problema a tratar dondequiera que los grupos practicantes se establezcan. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar el grado de conocimiento de médicos y enfermeras obstétricas sobre mutilación genital femenina, sus consecuencias y manejo clínico. Materiales y método: Se realizó un cuestionario compuesto por preguntas abiertas y cerradas, el cual se aplicó a 70 médicos y 30 enfermeras, entre octubre y noviembre de 2006, en cuatro hospitales nacionales de la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, específicamente: San Juan de Dios, México, de la Mujer, y Calderón Guardia. Resultados: El 81% respondió que conocía acerca de la mutilación genital femenina, sin embargo 63% ignoraba que la mutilación genital femenina puede producir complicaciones obstétricas y 97% dijo desconocer el método de deinfibulación. El 60% de los médicos manifestó no estar preparado para manejar un caso de mutilación genital femenina. Discusión: Se refleja falta de conocimiento sobre este tema, explicado porque no es un diagnóstico común en la práctica médica en Costa Rica. No obstante, el hecho de que estas poblaciones estén migrando a nuevos territorios y que sí se haya documentado este diagnóstico en el país, justifica la necesidad de mayor información al personal de salud, sobre todo en el posible manejo que se le daría a una de estas pacientes. En este sentido es relevante el papel de la educación médica continua.

    20. Seroprevalencia de infección por virus C de la hepatitis en población reclusa del noroeste de España al ingreso en prisión

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      1998-01-01

      Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Las prisiones españolas albergan un elevado número de personas con prácticas de riesgo para la infección por virus de la hepatitis C (VHC. El objeto de este trabajo es conocer la prevalencia de esta infección en la población reclusa del noroeste de España y sus factores asociados. MÉTODOS: Se estudia a las personas ingresadas en siete centros penitenciarios del noroeste español. Se recogieron variables socio-demográficas, penitenciarias y factores de riesgo para la infección por VHC. Se realizó determinación de anticuerpos frente a VHC (EIA e INNO-LIA HCV III, virus de la hepatitis B (VHB (EIA y virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH (EIA y Western-Blott. El análisis de los factores asociados se basó en regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El 47,9% de los estudiados presentaron anticuerpos frente a VHC. Destacó la mayor prevalencia en: UDVP (89,6%, los que compartieron jeringuillas (94%, los infectados por VIH (92,7%, los portadores de antígeno Australia (65,1% y de anticuerpos frente al antígeno del core del VHB (79,8%, aquellos con ingresos previos en prisión (60,9 %, los solteros (54,8 %, los gitanos (52 %, los trabajadores no cualificados (50,4 %, los que no habían obtenido el graduado escolar (50,9 %, los tatuados (66,7 % y aquellos con antecedentes de autolesiones (79,3 %. En el análisis de regresión logística las variables asociadas a la infección por VHC fueron: UDVP (OR=33,3; I.C.95%=25-50, HBcAc (+ (OR=4,1; I.C.95%=2,9-6,3, no graduado escolar (OR=1,6; I.C.95%=1,1-2,5, infección por VIH (OR=2,4; I.C.95%=1,1-5,3, edad (OR=0,98; I.C.95%=0,96-1,00, meses en prisión (OR=1,011;I.C.95%=1,004-1,019 y antecedentes de estancias previas en prisión (OR= 2,3; I.C.95%=1,5-3,6. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de infección por VHC en presos es muy elevada. Se aconseja potenciar las medidas preventivas (programas de reducción del daño y la elaboración de protocolos de seguimiento clínico-analítico de los

    1. Púrpura trombocitopénico inmune asociado a infección por virus hepatitis C en paciente hemofílico: Caso clínico

      OpenAIRE

      Pilleux C,Lilian; MARTÍNEZ G,ALEJANDRA; DONOSO S,MARIO; CARRASCO L,CRISTIAN

      2010-01-01

      Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a cause of secondary chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). We report a 43 year old man with mild Hemophilia A, who received blood transfusions during childhood, that consulted for epistaxis and ecchymoses. The laboratory showed a platelet count of 23.000/mm³, positive HCV serology and elevated transaminases. Steroids administered in pulses followed by oral doses resulted in a partial response requiring a second pulse and association of azathioprine. A stero...

    2. The impact of altitude on hospitalization and hospital mortality from pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1 virus pneumonia in Mexico El impacto de la altitud en las tasas de hospitalización y mortalidad por el virus de la influenza A (H1N1 pandémico en México

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rogelio Pérez-Padilla

      2013-02-01

      Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of altitude of residence on influenza A (H1N1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 207 135 officially notified of influenza-like illness (ILI cases, 23 048 hospitalizations and 573 deaths during the first months of the novel pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus, to examine if residents of high altitude had more frequently these adverse outcomes. RESULTS: Adjusted rates for hospitalization and hospital mortality rates increased with altitude, probably due to hypoxemia.OBJETIVO: Determinar el efecto de la altitud del lugar de residencia sobre la epidemia de influenza A (H1N1. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizaron 207 135 casos notificados a la Secretaría de Salud, 23 048 hospitalizaciones y 573 muertes por enfermedad similar a la influenza (ILI, por sus siglas en inglés durante los primeros meses de la pandemia del nuevo virus de la influenza A H1N1 durante 2009, para examinar si los residentes de zonas más altas presentaron tasas más altas de hospitalización y muerte. RESULTADOS: Las tasas ajustadas de hospitalización y mortalidad hospitalaria se incrementaron con la altitud probablemente por la presencia de hipoxemia.

    3. Reconocimiento alogénico: su papel protector durante la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo1 (VIH-1)

      OpenAIRE

      María Teresa Rugeles López

      2004-01-01

      Varios estudios han señalado la importancia de la respuesta alogénica en la protección a la infección por el VIH-1; inclusive, se ha propuesto la aloinmunización como una vacuna profiláctica (1). Sin embargo, la evidencia más fuerte de que el aloreconocimiento contribuye a la protección contra la infección con el VIH-1 es aportada por un estudio de transmisión perinatal realizado en Nairobi. En este estudio la ...

    4. “ESTRATEGIAS DIAGNOSTICO- TERAPEUTICAS EN LA NEUMONIA POR VIRUS INFLUENZA A H1N1 EN EL HOSPITAL INFANTIL DE MORELIA EVA SAMANO DE LOPEZ MATEOS”

      OpenAIRE

      Zirate Arzate, Gabriela Alejandra

      2012-01-01

      Los historiadores de la medicina afirman que la gripe ya era conocida en la antigüedad. Existe la posibilidad de que la epidemia descrita por Hipócrates en el año 412 a.C. fuera de gripe. Otra pestilencia de perfil similar fue la que afectó al ejército griego en el sitio de Siracusa, en el año 395 a.C. El primer registro de una gran pandemia de gripe se refiere a la que ocurrió en Europa en el año de 1170 d.C., a la que siguieron por lo menos 47 epidemias importantes en el viej...

    5. “ESTRATEGIAS DIAGNOSTICO- TERAPEUTICAS EN LA NEUMONIA POR VIRUS INFLUENZA A H1N1 EN EL HOSPITAL INFANTIL DE MORELIA EVA SAMANO DE LOPEZ MATEOS”

      OpenAIRE

      Zirate Arzate, Gabriela Alejandra

      2012-01-01

      Los historiadores de la medicina afirman que la gripe ya era conocida en la antigüedad. Existe la posibilidad de que la epidemia descrita por Hipócrates en el año 412 a.C. fuera de gripe. Otra pestilencia de perfil similar fue la que afectó al ejército griego en el sitio de Siracusa, en el año 395 a.C. El primer registro de una gran pandemia de gripe se refiere a la que ocurrió en Europa en el año de 1170 d.C., a la que siguieron por lo menos 47 epidemias importantes en el viej...

    6. Genital tuberculosis is common among females with tubal factor ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Abdulhakim Ali Al eryani

      2015-01-02

      Jan 2, 2015 ... Of a total 151 women who had tubal factor infertility, 61 cases were investigated ... Introduction. Female genital tuberculosis (GTB) is a common health ... had normal hormonal profile, and normal male parameters assessed by ...

    7. Prevalence of Genital Prolapse among Married Women in Southern Karnataka

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sahana A

      2017-07-01

      Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to estimate the prevalence of genital prolapse among married women of Udupi taluk, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1256 married women using a structured questionnaire. Women were interviewed in their residence using the Manipal Pelvic Floor Dysfunction screening questionnaire. Result: The mean age of the women participated in this study was 42.3±12.2. The overall prevalence of genital prolapse found in this study was 2% (n=25. Thirty-two percent (n=8 of the women with prolapse had symptoms of urinary incontinence. An association was reported between the age and the genital prolapse. Conclusion: This study shows a 2% (n=25 prevalence of genital prolapse in married women of Udupi Taluk.

    8. Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... 163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach tested on lab monkeys, guinea ... vaccines have not shown very robust protection in animal and human trials. Friedman and his colleagues decided that an effective ...

    9. Genital rhabdomyoma of the urethra in an infant girl.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lu, David Y; Chang, Sue; Cook, Heather; Alizadeh, Yalda; Karam, Amer K; Moatamed, Neda A; Dry, Sarah M

      2012-04-01

      Extracardiac rhabdomyomas are rare benign entities that usually occur in the head and neck region. Although genital rhabdomyoma is known to occur in the lower genital tract of young and middle-aged women, involvement of the anatomically adjacent urethra by rhabdomyoma is exceedingly rare. We present a case of genital rhabdomyoma arising from the urethra of an infant girl. The tumor was characterized by the submucosal presence of mature-appearing rhabdomyoblastic cells containing conspicuous cross-striations, with the cells set in a collagenous stroma. Necrosis and mitoses were absent. Skeletal muscle differentiation of the tumor cells was supported by positive immunohistochemical staining for desmin and myogenin. To our knowledge, this is the first case of urethral genital-type rhabdomyoma in a child.

    10. Association of cutis laxa and genital prolapse: a case report.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Paladini, Dario; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Mandato, Vincenzo Dario; Guerra, Germano; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Mauriello, Silvana; Nappi, Carmine

      2007-11-01

      Cutis laxa (CL) is an extremely inherited or acquired connective tissue disorder characterised by a markedly reduced systemic elastin content. Genital abnormalities in patients with CL have been rarely reported. We report such a case in a 48-year-old CL patient affected by genital prolapse, focusing on immunohistological and molecular biology assessment of elastin and collagen type I, III, VI content in the main uterine ligaments. The woman was referred to our department for the onset of a rapidly progressing genital prolapse and urinary incontinence. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and sacrocolpopexy. Punch biopsies from both cardinal and uterosacral ligaments revealed a dramatic reduction in elastin and an increase in collagen type VI content. The present report seems to underline the central role exerted primarily by elastin in the supportive connective tissue and might contribute to the knowledge of extracellular matrix abnormalities at the basis of genital abnormalities in CL patients.

    11. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA EXPRESIÓN DE RESPUESTA INMUNE INESPECÍFICA MEDIADA POR IFN TIPO I (IFN-I(α)) EN SALMÓNIDOS, ANTE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIRUS DE LA NECROSIS PANCREÁTICA INFECCIOSA (IPNV).

      OpenAIRE

      ARGUEDAS CORTES, DONALD

      2015-01-01

      El virus de la necrosis pancreática infecciosa (IPNV) es un Birnavirus que causa una enfermedad que afecta predominantemente a peces salmónidos jóvenes. Su genoma está compuesto por dos segmentos de RNA de cadena doble (dsRNA) que codifican cinco proteínas; el segmento A codifica VP2, VP3, VP4 y VP5, mientras que el B sólo codifica a la VP1. La respuesta celular contra IPNV activa IFN-I(α) y ISGs mediante la vía JAK-STAT. Variaciones en la temperatura del agua impactan la fisiología de la tru...

    12. Genital donovanosis with malignant transformation: An interesting case report

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      K Navya Sri

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available Donovanosis is a chronic indolent sexually transmitted granulomatous ulceration of genito-inguinal region, caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. It became uncommon due to indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics. In recent years, much interest is being focused on this condition because genital ulcers facilitate HIV infection. We report an interesting episode of genital donovanosis complicated with squamous cell carcinoma in a middle aged female for its rarity and clinical interest.

    13. Genital self mutilation in alcohol withdrawal state complicated with delirium

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sri Hari Charan

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available Genital self mutilation is a rare and a severe form of self-injurious behavior usually described in psychotic disorders, with delusions and hallucinations. It has been ascribed to sexual conflicts, Body image distortions, Internalized aggression, and suicidal intent. This phenomenon has been described in schizophrenia, affective psychosis, alcohol intoxication, and personality disorders. The present case genital self mutilation in a case of alcohol withdrawal state complicated by delirium is reported.

    14. Evolución de la prevalencia de infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en población reclusa al ingreso en prisión durante el período 1991-1995

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Martín Vicente

      1997-01-01

      Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Las prisiones españolas albergan un elevado número de usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral (UDVP, y otras personas con prácticas de riesgo para la infección por virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la evolución de la prevalencia de infección por VIH en el momento del ingreso en prisión y los factores asociados a la misma en este colectivo, lo que puede permitir una aproximación a la efectividad de las estrategias de reducción de riesgos y contribuir a mejorarlas. MÉTODOS: Todas aquellas personas que ingresaron en un centro penitenciario provincial del noroeste español entre los años 1991 y 1995. Se recogieron variables socio-demográficas, penitenciarias y factores de riesgo para VIH. Previo consentimiento, se practicó prueba de infección por VIH (ELISA y Western-blot. RESULTADOS: El 19,4% de los 1663 individuos estudiados estaban infectados por VIH. Destacaban, con significación estadística, las prevalencias en: mujeres (26,0%, el grupo de edad desde 25 a 34 años (29,1%, blancos (20,9%, solteros (22,8%, tatuados (29,9%, los que presentaban antecedentes de autolesiones (42,4%, los UDVP (46,3%, los que reconocieron compartir jeringuillas (61,5 % y aquellos con antecedentes de haber permanecido en prisión un año o más (37,3%. El análisis de regresión logística mostró como predictores de infección VIH: los UDVP, los que ingresaron en 1992, las mujeres, los grupos de edad de 25-34 y de 35-44 años, los tatuados, los que presentaban antecedentes de autolesiones y aquellos con antecedentes de estancia en prisión superior a un año. La etnia gitana presentó menor probabilidad de infección por VIH. La tendencia temporal de la infección VIH estratificada según el antecedente de estancia previa en prisión, mostró un descenso casi significativo (P=0,064. La tendencia de la infección según UDVP no mostró modificación (P=0,16. CONCLUSIONES: Se ha detectado una

    15. Deteccion de la infección por virus papiloma humano en hombres: Penescopía como método de cribado Detection of infection by human papilloma virus in men: Peniscopy as screening method

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      R del Pazo; B Lukaszuk; M Leite; J L Iribas

      2008-01-01

      Este trabajo es el resultado de la preocupación relativa y la escasa atención que se le presta al hombre, como portador y posible trasmisor del Virus Papiloma Humano. La población estudiada quedó...

    16. Herpes simplex virus infections of women and their offspring: implications for a developed society.

      OpenAIRE

      Whitley, R J

      1994-01-01

      Herpes simplex virus infections of humans have been known since ancient times. Contemporary society has witnessed a series of devastating manifestations of herpes simplex virus infections--namely, genital herpes simplex virus infection and neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. With the evolution of society, particularly advances in birth control and increasing promiscuity, the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infections has increased worldwide, however, more so in developed so...

    17. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

      2011-01-01

      The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

    18. Encefalitis aguda: Manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas como expresión de infección por virus de influenza Acute encephalitis: Neuropsychiatric manifestations as expression of influenza virus infection

      OpenAIRE

      Noris Moreno-Flagge; Vicente Bayard; Evelia Quirós; Tomás Alonso

      2009-01-01

      El objetivo fue revisar la encefalitis en niños y adolescentes, su etiología, manifestaciones clínicas, fisiopatología, métodos diagnósticos y tratamiento, enfatizando las manifestaciones neuropsiquiátricas de la encefalitis durante una epidemia de influenza. La encefalitis se considera una inflamación del sistema nervioso central (SNC) que compromete el cerebro. Se manifiesta usualmente por cefaleas, fiebre y trastorno del estado de conciencia. Puede además manifestarse por convulsiones, cam...

    19. Various hysterosalpingography findings of female genital tuberculosis: A case series

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nargess Afzali

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Background: Genital tuberculosis is a chorionic disease and mostly occurs by haematogenous spread from extra genital source like lungs, peritoneum, lymph nodes and bones. Transmission through a sexual intercourse is also possible. Since the majority of patients are in reproductive ages, involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrium cause infertility in patients. Cases: Reviewing 4 cases of female genital tuberculosis, which referred to an infertility treatment center with various symptoms, we encountered various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG. Conclusion: The genitourinary tract is the most common site of extra pulmonary TB. The primary focus of genital tuberculosis is fallopian tubes, which are almost always affected bilaterally but not symmetrically. Because of common involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrial cavity, disease causes infertility. Diagnosis is not easy because genital tuberculosis has a wide range of clinical and radiological manifestations with slow growing symptoms. Detailed hysterosalpingography finding may be helpful in better diagnosis of the disease. This case series aims to depict the various hystrosalpingographic appearances and pathology produced by tuberculosis and related literatures are reviewed in order to establish a better diagnostic evaluation of genital tuberculosis

    20. Male genital mutilation (amputation) and its complications: a case report.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kaggwa, Sam; Galukande, Moses

      2014-08-12

      Genital losses from ritual attacks are often reported in the media and often discussed in the social media but are hardly reported in medical literature. Male genital mutilation (MGM) refers to permanent modification of the external genitalia that involves ablation of genital tissues.When found, it is usually as a consequence of poor circumcision skills, auto mutilation/castration or genital injuries caused by attacks or accidents. Male circumcision on its own is widely regarded as a rather safe and acceptable practice which is known to have some health benefits and in keeping with several religious customs as rite of passage. Outside of professional performed circumcision, MGM is usually associated with dark arts and malicious intentions like witchcraft or as a consequence of torture of prisoners of war for information. In this case we describe a 5-year old Ugandan boy who had his genitals mutilated in bizarre circumstances within a ritual attack. He survived and a urethrostomy was fashioned. There is need to document more of these cases in order to gather enough information to inform prevention and treatment strategies. Issues of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) and possible sex change require much debate. These genital sex changing operations should preferably be avoided until a child can fully participate in decision making.

    1. O pediatra frente a uma criança com ambigüidade genital The role of the pediatrician in the management of children with genital ambiguities

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gil Guerra-Júnior

      2007-11-01

      Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar os critérios diagnósticos de ambigüidade genital, a conduta médica inicial e a postura esperada do pediatra. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão de literatura científica por meio de artigos publicados no MEDLINE nos idiomas inglês e português, no período de 1990 a 2007 e na faixa etária pediátrica. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O pediatra tem papel fundamental na avaliação da ambigüidade genital, cujo objetivo é obter diagnóstico etiológico preciso no menor tempo possível para definição do sexo e estabelecimento dos procedimentos terapêuticos. Há critérios diagnósticos específicos, porém, de modo geral, uma genitália é ambígua sempre que houver dificuldade para se atribuir o sexo à criança. O pediatra deve informar à família que a definição do sexo dependerá de investigação laboratorial minuciosa, feita preferencialmente por equipe interdisciplinar em serviço terciário. O cariótipo 46,XX ou 46,XY não é suficiente para definir o sexo de criação, porém esse exame é fundamental para direcionar a investigação. Quando não houver gônadas palpáveis, a primeira hipótese deve ser hiperplasia adrenal congênita. Entre as outras causas, estão insensibilidade parcial a andrógenos, deficiência da enzima 5alfa-redutase, disgenesia gonadal parcial e hermafroditismo. A família deve receber apoio e informações durante todo o processo de avaliação, e sua participação é fundamental na decisão sobre o sexo de criação. CONCLUSÕES: Embora casos de ambigüidade genital sejam relativamente raros para o pediatra, este deve estar informado sobre o tema e a conduta adequada a tomar, pois freqüentemente será o responsável pela orientação inicial da família e pela ligação entre esta e a equipe interdisciplinar.OBJECTIVE: To present the diagnostic criteria of genital ambiguity, the initial medical management and the attitude expected of pediatricians. SOURCES: Review of the scientific literature in

    2. Transplante de órganos en pacientes con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: Actualización y recomendaciones

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Laura Barcán

      2011-02-01

      Full Text Available Hasta hace pocos años la infección por HIV era una contraindicación absoluta para el trasplante de órganos. Desde la introducción del HAART y el aumento de la superivencia de los pacientes, comenzó a evidenciarse alta mortalidad por enfermedades terminales hepáticas y en menor grado renales. Por estos motivos los pacientes HIV+ hoy son reconsiderados para trasplante. En el año 2008, motivada por la creciente experiencia publicada sobre trasplantes renales y hepáticos en esta población, la Sociedad Argentina de Trasplantes (SAT y la Sociedad Argentina de Infectología (SADI decidieron conformar un Grupo de Trabajo para realizar una actualización del tema y emitir recomendaciones. La reunión inicial se llevó a cabo el 4 de diciembre de 2008. La principal conclusión de esta reunión fue que el status HIV+ no era una contraindicación para recibir un trasplante de órgano sólido. Posteriormente se revisó la experiencia acumulada y la bibliografía disponible que dieron lugar al documento actual. Los pacientes HIV+ candidatos a trasplante de órganos sólidos deben cumplir con una serie de requisitos clínicos, inmunológicos, virológicos y psicosociales. La supervivencia a corto y mediano plazo de los receptores HIV+ de trasplante renal y hepático es hoy comparable a la de los pacientes HIV negativos. Todavía no existen datos suficientes como para incluir pacientes HIV+ en lista de espera para trasplante de órganos intratorácicos. Las interacciones entre los inmunosupresores y los antirretrovirales (inhibidores de proteasas en especial son muy importantes y requieren una supervisión y vigilancia estrictas de los niveles sanguíneos de inmunosupresores.

    3. Diagnóstico tardío de la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana: oportunidades diagnósticas perdidas

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      M. Rivero Marcotegui

      2014-12-01

      Full Text Available Fundamento: Analizar el porcentaje de pacientes con diagnóstico tardío (DT de infección por VIH, sus factores de riesgo y las oportunidades perdidas para un diagnóstico más precoz. Material y métodos: Se incluyó a 165 pacientes diagnosticados de infección por VIH entre 2009 y 2013 en Navarra. Mediante regresión logística se estudiaron los factores asociados con DT (CD4 <350 células/mm³ o enfermedad definitoria de sida al diagnóstico. Se analizó la presencia de factores de riesgo e indicadores clínicos de una posible infección por VIH en los 5 años previos al diagnóstico. Resultados: La prevalencia global de DT fue del 55% (90/165. Este porcentaje fue mayor en los pacientes inmigrantes que en los españoles, y en aquellos sin serología realizada previamente. Se observó una interacción entre la edad y el origen del paciente. En los españoles el riesgo de DT aumentó con la edad a partir de los 40 años (OR: 3,72; IC95%: 1,52-9,12 pero esto no ocurrió en los inmigrantes. De los 132 pacientes con atención médica en los años previos al diagnóstico, 20 (15% tenían factores de riesgo clásicos documentados en la historia, 14 (11% procedían de regiones con alta prevalencia de VIH y 46 (35% habían presentado indicadores clínicos sin la realización de la serología. Conclusiones: A pesar de los múltiples contactos con nuestro sistema sanitario, más de la mitad de los nuevos diagnósticos de infección por VIH se realizan tarde. Es necesario una mayor atención a los signos clínicos de la infección y, sobre todo, una mejor valoración del riesgo en pacientes asintomáticos.

    4. Estudio comparativo de la respuesta inmune inducida por dos tipos de vacunas (VLP e inactivada) frente al virus de la lengua azul en el ganado ovino

      OpenAIRE

      Pérez de Diego Camacho, Ana Cristina

      2012-01-01

      La Lengua azul (LA) es una enfermedad infecciosa, no contagiosa, transmitida por jejenes del género Culicoides que afecta a diferentes especies de rumiantes, tanto domésticos, como silvestres. Los animales que desarrollan la enfermedad son fundamentalmente las ovejas, pudiéndose alcanzar altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad. La enfermedad de la LA no afecta al ser humano, pero cobra gran importancia debido a su elevado poder de transmisión y difusión provocando graves consecuencias socioeco...

    5. Egyptian court overturns ban on genital mutilation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      1997-07-04

      The ban on female genital mutilation (FGM) performed by health professionals in Egypt was overturned by a June 24 [1997] ruling of Judge Abdul Aziz Hamade of a mid-level administrative court in Cairo. The judge determined that the ministerial decree, which had been implemented last July by Health Minister Ismail Sallam, inappropriately restricted the practice of doctors. According to news reports, the court cited research purporting to show that failure to perform FGM harmed children, as well as quotes from Mohammed, which FGM advocates said endorsed the procedure under Islamic law. Although the court overturned the ministerial decree, it did acknowledge that Parliament could outlaw the practice; however, human rights groups believe the practice is too popular for Parliament to do so. The suit against the ban had been filed by Sheik Youssef al-Badry, a conservative Islamic cleric, and Munir Fawzi, a Cairo gynecologist. In May, Egypt's highest court had recommended to the mid-level court that FGM should be legal. The decision does not effect a ban on the performance of surgery by those without a medical license, including barbers and midwives. It is estimated that 80% of girls in Egypt undergo FGM. Egypt's highest Sunni Moslem authority contests the endorsement of FGM under Islamic law.

    6. Major traumatic and septic genital injuries.

      Science.gov (United States)

      McAninch, J W; Kahn, R I; Jeffrey, R B; Laing, F C; Krieger, M J

      1984-04-01

      Major injuries to the testicles, penis, and genital skin from trauma and infection were seen in 62 patients over a 6-year period (1977 to 1983). Urethral injuries were excluded. In the past blunt testicle injuries were infrequently diagnosed and surgically ignored because of large surrounding hematomas. With the use of real-time ultrasound, 17 of 18 cases of testicle rupture were correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Surgical repair resulted in testicle salvage in 16 patients. Penetrating testicle injuries resulted in a high orchiectomy rate secondary to the infrequently described but recognized entity of self-emasculation in transsexuals. Penile rupture from blunt injuries (8) was successfully repaired and complete function was recovered. Penetrating penile injuries (4) were extensive and involved the urethra in two cases; full function returned after reconstruction. Major skin loss of the penis and/or scrotum (19) occurred from necrotizing fasciitis, burns, avulsion and penetrating injuries. Early debridement, bowel and urinary diversion followed by penile skin grafting, thigh pouches to protect testicles, and scrotal reconstruction resulted in acceptable cosmetic and functional results in all cases of major skin loss.

    7. Abdominal sacral colpopexy for massive genital prolapse.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Powell; Joseph

      1998-07-01

      Objective: A retrospective study to determine the success and complications of abdominal sacral colpopexy in correcting massive genital prolapse over an 8-year period between September 1989 and January 1997.Methods: The charts were reviewed for 3 patients with massive procidentia and 15 patients with symptomatic posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse, who desired preservation of sexual function and underwent abdominal sacral colpopexy with Marlex mesh at two community teaching hospitals.Results: In 16 of the 18 patients, one or more concurrent procedures were performed at the same time, including three Burch colpocystourethropexies and one Raz bladder neck suspension, which successfully controlled urinary stress incontinence. In three cases, staging procedures were done for ovarian neoplasia. There were no intraoperative complications. One patient developed a superficial abdominal wound infection, one patient had a deep venous thrombosis in her left leg 7 days postoperatively, and one patient experienced a 1 cm area of graft erosion 10 months postoperative requiring partial resection. Duration of follow-up has varied from 8 months to 5 years. One patient died 43 months after surgery of unrelated causes. No patients developed recurrent prolapse.Conclusions: Abdominal sacral colpopexy is a successful operation for the correction of prolapse. Serious complications are infrequent. Photographs of the technique and a review of the literature are presented.

    8. Female genital cutting: impact on women's health.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nour, Nawal M

      2015-01-01

      More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC is practiced in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into four types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. In December 2012, the UN General Assembly accepted a resolution on the elimination of FGC. Although it is illegal to perform FGC in the United States, women from countries where the practice occurs have been and are still immigrating here. Many enter as refugees from war-torn, famine-stricken, or politically unstable countries. They bring along with them their cultural pride, health complications, and fears of being judged when visiting a health provider. A deeper understanding of the history, cultural beliefs, medical complications, and methods of surgical reconstruction is necessary to provide culturally and linguistically competent care to this unique group of women. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

    9. Patologias genitais associadas à leishmaniose visceral canina Genital pathologies associated with canine visceral leishmaniasis

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vinícius Vasconcelos Gomes de Oliveira

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available A leishmaniose visceral canina (LVC é uma doença parasitária crônica causada por protozoários pertencentes ao gênero Leishmania. No Brasil, a transmissão se dá, principalmente, pela ação hematófaga de insetos vetores pertencentes à subfamília Phlebotominae, particularmente, a espécie Lutzomyia longipalpis. Todavia, a trasmissão vertical e venérea da LVC está presente. Os principais sinais clínicos observados nos animais acometidos pela LVC são linfoadenomegalia, dermatopatias, hepatoesplenomegalia, onicogrifose e oftalmopatias, contudo quadros atípicos podem ser observados, inclusive com o envolvimento do sistema genital. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste artigo é realizar revisão sobre as principais patologias genitais em cães machos e fêmeas com leishmaniose visceral (LV.The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CanL is a chronic parasitic disease caused by protozoa belonging to the genus Leishmania. In Brazil, the transmission occurs mainly by the action of blood-sucking insects belonging to the subfamily Phlebotominae, particularly the Lutzomyia longipalpis species. However, the venereal and vertical transmission of the CanL is present. The main clinical signs observed in animals affected by the CanL are lymphadenopathy, skin diseases, hepatosplenomegaly, onychogryphosis and ophthalmopathy, however atypical manifestations can be observed, including the involvement of the genital system. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review on the major pathologies in genital male and female dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL.

    10. GENITAL CONDYLOMAS. PREVALENCE, ETIOLOGY, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      L.K. Aslamazyan

      2008-01-01

      Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the papilloma virus infection. As it became known in October 2008, the nobel prize in the field of medicine and physiology this year is awarded to the German doctor of Harald Zur Hausen who has proved the role of the human papilloma virus as causative factor of the cervical carcinoma. This is epoch making discovery because of human papilloma virus is most frequent of sexually transmitted infections. The authors demonstrated the high HPV prevalence. One of the most frequent manifestations of this infection is in more details presented pointed condy loma, clinical course of the disease and differential diagnostics of its various forms. Considering treatment inefficiency, the authors convincingly demonstrate that the only opportunity available to keep a human from the illness development is a specific immune prevention.Key words: papillomavirus infection, pointed condylomas, precancers, prevention.

    11. Frequent genital HSV-2 shedding among women during labor in Soweto, South Africa.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Perti, Tara; Nyati, Mandisa; Gray, Glenda; De Bruyn, Guy; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Huang, Meei-Li; Velaphi, Sithembiso; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

      2014-01-01

      Despite high herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) incidence and prevalence among women in Africa, we are unaware of published neonatal herpes reports. To assess neonatal HSV transmission potential in South Africa, we investigated the frequency of the strongest risk factors: HSV acquisition in late pregnancy and HSV shedding during labor. Women admitted in early labor to a hospital in Soweto underwent HSV serologic testing and genital swab collection for HSV PCR. HSV-2 seronegative women were assessed for seroconversion 4-6 weeks after delivery. Of 390 women enrolled, 229 (58.7%) were HSV-2 seropositive. Genital HSV-2 was detected in 17.2% of HSV-2 seropositive women, including 26 of 115 HIV-positive and 13 of 110 HIV-negative women (22.6% versus 11.8%; RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04-3.53; P = 0.038), but in none of 161 HSV-2 seronegative women. Among the 91 HSV-2 seronegative women followed after delivery, none seroconverted. HSV-2 reactivation is common among South African women during labor, especially those with HIV coinfection. To determine the epidemiology of neonatal herpes in South Africa and to investigate whether the lack of reported cases is due to alterations in immune control or HSV-2 virulence, studies evaluating acutely ill neonates for HSV and studies of maternal HSV-2 shedding patterns are needed.

    12. Seroconversion Following Anal and Genital HPV Infection in Men: The HIM Study

      Science.gov (United States)

      Giuliano, Anna R.; Viscidi, Raphael; Torres, B. Nelson; Ingles, Donna J.; Sudenga, Staci L.; Villa, Luisa L.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

      2015-01-01

      Background Protection from naturally acquired human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies may influence HPV infection across the lifespan. This study describes seroconversion rates following genital, anal, and oral HPV 6/11/16/18 infections in men and examines differences by HPV type and anatomic site. Methods Men with HPV 6/11/16/18 infections who were seronegative for those genotypes at the time of DNA detection were selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Sera specimens collected ≤36 months after detection were analyzed for HPV 6/11/16/18 antibodies using a virus-like particle-based ELISA. Time to seroconversion was separately assessed for each anatomic site, stratified by HPV type. Results Seroconversion to ≥1 HPV type (6/11/16/18) in this sub-cohort (N=384) varied by anatomic site, with 6.3, 18.9, and 0.0% seroconverting following anal, genital, and oral HPV infection, respectively. Regardless of anatomic site, seroconversion was highest for HPV 6 (19.3%). Overall, seroconversion was highest following anal HPV 6 infection (69.2%). HPV persistence was the only factor found to influence seroconversion. Conclusions Low seroconversion rates following HPV infection leave men susceptible to recurrent infections that can progress to HPV-related cancers. This emphasizes the need for HPV vaccination in men to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease. PMID:26688833

    13. Pattern Recognition via the Toll-Like Receptor System in the Human Female Genital Tract

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kaei Nasu

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available The mucosal surface of the female genital tract is a complex biosystem, which provides a barrier against the outside world and participates in both innate and acquired immune defense systems. This mucosal compartment has adapted to a dynamic, non-sterile environment challenged by a variety of antigenic/inflammatory stimuli associated with sexual intercourse and endogenous vaginal microbiota. Rapid innate immune defenses against microbial infection usually involve the recognition of invading pathogens by specific pattern-recognition receptors recently attributed to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs. TLRs recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs synthesized by microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses as well as endogenous ligands associated with cell damage. Members of the TLR family, which includes 10 human TLRs identified to date, recognize distinct PAMPs produced by various bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The available literature regarding the innate immune system of the female genital tract during human reproductive processes was reviewed in order to identify studies specifically related to the expression and function of TLRs under normal as well as pathological conditions. Increased understanding of these molecules may provide insight into site-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms in the female reproductive tract.

    14. Preventing cervical cancer and genital warts - How much protection is enough for HPV vaccines?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Stanley, Margaret

      2016-07-01

      HPV associated disease is a global health problem: 5.2% of all cancers are HPV associated with HPV 16 and 18 accounting for 70% of cases of cervical cancer. Genital warts caused by HPV 6 and 11 have a lifetime risk of acquisition of 10%. HPV vaccines are subunit vaccines consisting of virus like particles comprised of the L1 major capsid protein. Two vaccines have been licenced since 2006/2007 and are in the National Immunisation programmes in 62 countries. Both vaccines include HPV 16 and 18 VLPs and one also includes HPV 6 and 11. The vaccines are highly immunogenic and well tolerated. Genital HPV is a sexually transmitted infection with peak incidence occurring just after the onset of sexual activity and the routine cohort for immunisation in almost all countries are adolescent girls 9-15 years of age with or without catch up for older adolescents and young women. Population effectiveness is now being demonstrated for these vaccines in countries with high vaccine coverage. HPV vaccines are highly immunogenic and effective and the original 3 dose schedules have already been reduced, for those 14 years and under, to 2 for both licenced vaccines. There is preliminary evidence that 1 dose of vaccine is as effective as 2 or 3 in preventing persistent HPV infection in the cervix in young women and further reductions in dosage may be possible if supported by appropriate virological, immunological and modelling studies.

    15. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in pregnancy: asymptomatic viral excretion at delivery and seroepidemiologic survey of two socioeconomically distinct populations in São Paulo, Brazil Infecções por herpes simplex tipo 2 durante a gestação: excreção assintomática do vírus durante o parto e estudo soroepidemiológico de duas populações socioeconomicamente distintas

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Adriana Weinberg

      1993-06-01

      constou em determinar a prevalência dos anticorpos anti virus herpes simplex (HSV tipo 2 em mulheres em idade fértil, pertencendo a 2 populações socioeconomicamente distintas, e verificar o risco de exposição neonatal a HSV, por meio de isolamento de vírus no início do parto. O estudo foi realizado em 2 hospitais: A, servindo uma população de baixa renda; B, servindo a classe média. 173 participantes do grupo A e 127 do grupo B responderam um questionário que mostrou que os pacientes pertenciam à mesma faixa etária (27,7 e 26,8 anos, respectivamente mas divergiam quanto ao estado socioeconômico, idade ao início da vida sexual (18,6 e 20,6, respectivamente, número de parceiros sexuais (1,5 comparado à 1,2 e doenças sexualmente transmitidas (15% e 1,5%, respectivamente. Uma história de herpes genital no passado foi obtida em números semelhantes nos dois grupos, 11% do grupo A e 7% do B. 200 soros do grupo A e 455 do B foram analisados por ELISA quanto à presença de anticorpos anti HSV, e 92% e 86%, respectivamente, foram positivos. 60 amostras soropositivas do grupo A e 90 do B foram analisados por Western blot, que mostrou anticorpos anti HSV 2 em 42% do grupo A e 31% do B. Material cervical foi obtido para isolamento de vírus de 299 parturientes assintomáticas do grupo A e 313 do B. Uma paciente em cada grupo teve isolamento positivo para HSV, indicando uma incidência de 0,3% de excreção vírica assintomática em ambos os grupos. Em conclusão, a prevalência de anticorpos anti HSV 2 em mulheres em idade fértil em São Paulo se mostrou muito elevada, mas não variou com o estado socioeconômico da população. O risco da transmissão perinatal do HSV foi semelhante nas duas populações e comparável aos números relatados em países desenvolvidos. Nossos achados não indicam a necessidade de programas especiais de detecção da excreção assintomática de HSV em gestantes do Brasil.

    16. Hipertensión portal idopática en pacientes con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana

      OpenAIRE

      Marín Casajús, Olga

      2016-01-01

      La hipertensión portal es un síndrome frecuente que se caracteriza por un aumento de la presión a nivel de la vena porta y del gradiente de presión portosistémico. El aumento de la presión portal conlleva determinadas consecuencias, como esplenomegalia, crecimiento de una extensa red de colaterales porto-sistémicas que desvían el flujo sanguíneo portal a la circulación sistémica y el desarrollo de un estado circulatorio hipercinético. La cirrosis hepática, como estadio final de diferentes enf...

    17. Genital Culture: Exploring the Cultural Importance of Genital Surgeru in the West

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alexa Dodge

      2014-11-01

      Full Text Available The assumed importance of genital surgery for intersex children as well as the rising popularity of cosmetic surgery for one’s genitals (namely for women exemplify the importance placed on gender distinction in Western culture. This paper will explore how these genital surgeries are tied to the idealized conception of the gender binary that exists in our culture. Despite the reality that genitals, especially the vulva, vary widely in appearance (size, shape, colour, the belief that there are norms of genital appearance that need to be adhered to continues to be propagated within Western culture. I will posit that genital surgeries in the West are a culturally imbued practice. This will be argued in light of Leti Volpp’s assertion that people in the West need to recognize how our own culture promotes patriarchal/normative practices that can be dangerous and degrading to individuals. For instance, Western discourse vilifies cultures that engage in female genital mutilation (FGM without realizing how Western culture itself pressures women to ‘mutilate’ their genitals through cosmetic surgery or intersex surgery. The cultural influence of the West must be acknowledged so that we can better perceive how the agency of Western subjects is also directed and confined by our cultural context. Western culture also acts upon its subjects and, in this case, pushes gender binaries and the ideal of the perfect ‘normal’ vagina. This paper will utilize queer theory to question the necessity of gender binaries and to reveal the way that binary gender is privileged in our society. L'importance majeure de la chirurgie génitale pour les enfants intersexués ainsi que la popularité croissante de la chirurgie esthétique pour les organes génitaux, particulièrement pour les femmes, illustrent l'importance accordée à la distinction entre les sexes dans la culture occidentale. Cet article examine comment ces interventions chirurgicales génitales sont

    18. Nonoverlapping Clinical and Mutational Patterns in Melanomas from the Female Genital Tract and Atypical Genital Nevi.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yélamos, Oriol; Merkel, Emily A; Sholl, Lauren Meldi; Zhang, Bin; Amin, Sapna M; Lee, Christina Y; Guitart, Gerta E; Yang, Jingyi; Wenzel, Alexander T; Bunick, Christopher G; Yazdan, Pedram; Choi, Jaehyuk; Gerami, Pedram

      2016-09-01

      Genital melanomas (GM) are the second most common cancer of the female external genitalia and may be confused with atypical genital nevi (AGN), which exhibit atypical histological features but have benign behavior. In this study, we compared the clinical, histological, and molecular features of 19 GM and 25 AGN. We described chromosomal copy number aberrations and the mutational status of 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in both groups. Our study showed that a pigmented lesion occurring in mucosal tissue, particularly in postmenopausal women, was more likely to be a melanoma than a nevus. GM had high levels of chromosomal instability, with many copy number aberrations. Furthermore, we found a completely nonoverlapping pattern of oncogenic mutations when comparing GM and AGN. In GM, we report somatic mutations in KIT and TP53. Conversely, AGN had frequent BRAF V600E mutations, which were not seen in any of the GM. Our results show that GM and AGN have distinct clinical and molecular changes and that GM have a different mutational pattern compared with AGN.

    19. Effect of ASP2151, a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor, in a guinea pig model of genital herpes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Katsumata, Kiyomitsu; Chono, Koji; Sudo, Kenji; Shimizu, Yasuaki; Kontani, Toru; Suzuki, Hiroshi

      2011-08-25

      ASP2151 is a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor with antiviral activity against varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Here, we examined the potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV in vitro and in vivo. We found that ASP2151 was more potent in inhibiting the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in Vero cells in the plaque reduction assay and had greater anti-HSV activity in a guinea pig model of genital herpes than did acyclovir and valacyclovir (VACV), respectively. Oral ASP2151 given from the day of infection reduced peak and overall disease scores in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in complete prevention of symptoms at the dose of 30 mg/kg. The 50% effective dose (ED(50)) values for ASP2151 and VACV were 0.37 and 68 mg/kg, respectively, indicating that ASP2151 was 184-fold more potent than VACV. When ASP2151 was administered after the onset of symptoms, the disease course of genital herpes was suppressed more effectively than by VACV, with a significant reduction in disease score observed one day after starting ASP2151 at 30 mg/kg, whereas the therapeutic effect of VACV was only evident three days after treatment at the highest dose tested (300 mg/kg). This indicated that ASP2151 possesses a faster onset of action and wider therapeutic time window than VACV. Further, virus shedding from the genital mucosa was significantly reduced with ASP2151 at 10 and 30 mg/kg but not with VACV, even at 300 mg/kg. Taken together, our present findings demonstrated the superior potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV.

    20. Effect of ASP2151, a Herpesvirus Helicase-Primase Inhibitor, in a Guinea Pig Model of Genital Herpes

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Toru Kontani

      2011-08-01

      Full Text Available ASP2151 is a herpesvirus helicase-primase inhibitor with antiviral activity against varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1 and 2 (HSV-2. Here, we examined the potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV in vitro and in vivo. We found that ASP2151 was more potent in inhibiting the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in Vero cells in the plaque reduction assay and had greater anti-HSV activity in a guinea pig model of genital herpes than did acyclovir and valacyclovir (VACV, respectively. Oral ASP2151 given from the day of infection reduced peak and overall disease scores in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in complete prevention of symptoms at the dose of 30 mg/kg. The 50% effective dose (ED50 values for ASP2151 and VACV were 0.37 and 68 mg/kg, respectively, indicating that ASP2151 was 184-fold more potent than VACV. When ASP2151 was administered after the onset of symptoms, the disease course of genital herpes was suppressed more effectively than by VACV, with a significant reduction in disease score observed one day after starting ASP2151 at 30 mg/kg, whereas the therapeutic effect of VACV was only evident three days after treatment at the highest dose tested (300 mg/kg. This indicated that ASP2151 possesses a faster onset of action and wider therapeutic time window than VACV. Further, virus shedding from the genital mucosa was significantly reduced with ASP2151 at 10 and 30 mg/kg but not with VACV, even at 300 mg/kg. Taken together, our present findings demonstrated the superior potency and efficacy of ASP2151 against HSV.

    1. Transnodal Lymphangiography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genital Lymphedema

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gomez, F. M., E-mail: gomez_fermun@gva.es; Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Marti-Bonmati, L. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Radiologia (Spain); Santos, E. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Radiology (United States); Forner, I. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Medicina Fisica y Rehabilitacion (Spain); Lloret, M.; Perez-Enguix, D.; Garcia-Marcos, R. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Servicio de Radiologia (Spain)

      2012-12-15

      Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4-8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.

    2. Most important etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of genital prolapse depends on numerous factors. The contribution of race, gender and genetic factors is significant. However, additional factors of initiation, promotion and decomposition are necessary if a person with the genetic predisposition to genital prolapse begins to suffer from it. At least 50% of parous women are believed to suffer from genital prolapse of various degrees. Moreover, the prevalence of genital prolapse increases with age. The prevalence of genital prolapse is expected to be even higher in the future due to the extension of the lifespan of women worldwide. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the most common etiologic factors in the development of genital prolapse in the population of Serbia. Methods The study was conducted as prospective and included 50 women who underwent surgical treatment due to the problems caused by genital prolapse. Results Mean age of the women was 58.74 years. Twenty percent of the women had the menstrual cycle, while 80% were in menopause. Mean menopause period was 8.88 years. None of the women used hormone replacement therapy. Mean BMI was 27.395 kg/m2. Twenty-eight percent of the women were of normal weight, while 72% of the women were obese (42% were obese and 30% were severely obese. Ninety-eight percent of the women were parous, and mean parity was 2.08. Mean birth weight of neonates was 3682.77 g. Sixty-four percent of the women did physical labour and lifted heavy objects. Conclusion Vaginal childbirth is one of the most important initiating factors. The most significant promoting factor is obesity and heavy labour. Ageing and entering menopause are the most important factors of decomposition as well as the occurrence of clinical manifestations of the pelvic floor dysfunction. .

    3. por valores

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jazmín Díaz-Barrios

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available La era actual se caracteriza por una búsqueda de la identidad del hombre, donde el pivote del cambio organizacional es el individuo; cambiar en este entorno depende, en gran medida, de los valores que imperen en la cultura de la organización. Este trabajo documental intenta identificar aquellos valores, condición sine-qua-non, para el logro de los objetivos de cambio y analizarlos a fin de determinar sus indicadores, con el objeto de presentar una herramienta a las organizaciones que les facilite adaptarse a los nuevos tiempos. Se encontró que los valores: Delegación, Comunicación, Colaboración, Participación y Aprendizaje, son esenciales en los cambios integrales de esta era. Se determinaron 20 indicadores de su presencia. Se concluye que con esta información cada ente puede elaborar instrumentos que le permitan saber si los valores requeridos están presentes y en caso contrario tomar decisiones que alineen a la organización alrededor de los valores humanistas planteados, incrementando así las posibilidades de éxito en el proceso de cambio y por ende, las posibilidades de supervivencia en esta nueva época.

    4. Pregnancy Outcomes in Association with STDs including genital HSV-2 shedding in a South African Cohort Study.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Moodley, Dhayendre; Sartorius, Benn; Madurai, Savithree; Chetty, Vani; Maman, Suzanne

      2017-04-10

      Genital herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) shedding in pregnant women in association with neonatal herpes infection has been widely studied but there is limited evidence of its association with pregnancy outcomes. In this retrospective observational study, we included a subgroup of pregnant women who were enrolled in a randomized control behavioural intervention study that was conducted in South Africa in 2008-2010. In pregnancy, women had a HIV rapid test done and a genital swab taken to test for curable STIs and HSV-2 DNA. Subsequent visits were scheduled for 6, 10, 14 weeks and 9 months post-delivery. Pregnancy outcomes were documented at the 6-week or 10-week postpartum visit. Women were treated syndromically for curable STIs. Among 615 women included in this data analysis, 36.6% (n=225) tested HIV positive and 8.3% (n=51) tested positive for genital HSV-2 shedding during pregnancy. Women <24 years and HIV-1 seropositive women were 1.5 and 2.5 times more likely to test positive for HSV-2 genital shedding respectively. STI treatment records were available for 158/205 (77.1%) women; all 87 women with symptomatic STIs were treated the same day, and 50/71 (70.4%) asymptomatic women received treatment at the subsequent visit. Remaining 21 (29.6%) asymptomatic women did not receive treatment because they failed to return for antenatal follow-up. In a multivariable regression analysis, genital HSV-2 shedding, HIV-1, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomanas vaginalis were not associated with preterm deliveries, still births and low birth weight. However with stratification by treatment for a STI, asymptomatic women who were not treated were 3.3 times more likely to deliver prematurely (33.3%; n=6/18) when compared to women who were treated during pregnancy (13.2%; n=15/114) (p=0.042). Genital HSV-2 shedding in pregnancy does not appear to alter pregnancy outcomes. Untreated curable STIs (T.vaginalis, C.trachomatis, N.gonorrhoea) were more likely

    5. Serologic Screening for Genital Herpes: An Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Feltner, Cynthia; Grodensky, Catherine; Ebel, Charles; Middleton, Jennifer C; Harris, Russell P; Ashok, Mahima; Jonas, Daniel E

      2016-12-20

      Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Vertical transmission of HSV can lead to fetal morbidity and mortality. To assess the evidence on serologic screening and preventive interventions for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adults and adolescents to support the US Preventive Services Task Force for an updated recommendation statement. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through March 31, 2016. Surveillance for new evidence in targeted publications was conducted through October 31, 2016. English-language randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing screening with no screening in persons without past or current symptoms of genital herpes; studies evaluating accuracy and harms of serologic screening tests for HSV-2; RCTs assessing preventive interventions in asymptomatic persons seropositive for HSV-2. Dual review of abstracts, full-text articles, and study quality; pooled sensitivities and specificities of screening tests using a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve analysis when at least 3 similar studies were available. Accuracy of screening tests, benefits of screening, harms of screening, reduction in genital herpes outbreaks. A total of 17 studies (n = 9736 participants; range, 24-3290) in 19 publications were included. No RCTs compared screening with no screening. Most studies of the accuracy of screening tests were from populations with high HSV-2 prevalence (greater than 40% based on Western blot). Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of the most commonly used test at the manufacturer's cutpoint were 99% (95% CI, 97%-100%) and 81% (95% CI, 68%-90%), respectively (10 studies; n = 6537). At higher cutpoints, pooled estimates were 95% (95% CI, 91%-97%) and 89% (95% CI, 82%-93%), respectively (7 studies; n = 5516). Use of this test at the manufacturer's cutpoint in a population of 100 000 with a prevalence of HSV-2 of 16% (the

    6. Stopping female genital mutilation. An update.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gamble, A

      1995-01-01

      There is widespread consensus among many individuals, countries, and organizations that female genital mutilation (FGM) is a human rights abuse. France, Britain, Sweden, and Switzerland have passed legislation forbidding medical personnel from performing FGM, eighteen African countries have made official statements against FGM, and FGM was an issue in the 1993 World Health Assembly, the 1993 World Human Rights Conference, and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. True change, however, depends upon a transformation in the informal economic, social, and political structures which perpetuate women's dependency upon marriage and men. The Research Action Information Network for the Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBOW) and the Development Law and Policy Unit of the Columbia University School of Public Health introduced the Global Action Against FGM (GAAFGM) Project in June 1994. The project is designed to integrate action against FGM into existing health and human rights programs and to pool available resources against FGM. GAAFGM has also coordinated an interagency working group comprised of international agencies, in-country grassroots organizations, and women's groups, which met for the first time in November 1994. The project should provide considerable information and leadership on the issue. On another front, participants in the most recent preparatory meeting for the upcoming Beijing Conference noted the existence of a strong recognition that FGM is a problem upon which the international community should act. The author notes recent litigation brought by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights against the grand sheik of Al-Azhar University for issuing a fatwa declaring female circumcision an Islamic duty. In addition, a Ghanaian may be granted refugee status in Canada on the basis of her efforts to avoid mutilation if deported to her country of origin.

    7. Changing cultural attitudes towards female genital cutting.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vogt, Sonja; Mohmmed Zaid, Nadia Ahmed; El Fadil Ahmed, Hilal; Fehr, Ernst; Efferson, Charles

      2016-10-27

      As globalization brings people with incompatible attitudes into contact, cultural conflicts inevitably arise. Little is known about how to mitigate conflict and about how the conflicts that occur can shape the cultural evolution of the groups involved. Female genital cutting is a prominent example. Governments and international agencies have promoted the abandonment of cutting for decades, but the practice remains widespread with associated health risks for millions of girls and women. In their efforts to end cutting, international agents have often adopted the view that cutting is locally pervasive and entrenched. This implies the need to introduce values and expectations from outside the local culture. Members of the target society may view such interventions as unwelcome intrusions, and campaigns promoting abandonment have sometimes led to backlash as they struggle to reconcile cultural tolerance with the conviction that cutting violates universal human rights. Cutting, however, is not necessarily locally pervasive and entrenched. We designed experiments on cultural change that exploited the existence of conflicting attitudes within cutting societies. We produced four entertaining movies that served as experimental treatments in two experiments in Sudan, and we developed an implicit association test to unobtrusively measure attitudes about cutting. The movies depart from the view that cutting is locally pervasive by dramatizing members of an extended family as they confront each other with divergent views about whether the family should continue cutting. The movies significantly improved attitudes towards girls who remain uncut, with one in particular having a relatively persistent effect. These results show that using entertainment to dramatize locally discordant views can provide a basis for applied cultural evolution without accentuating intercultural divisions.

    8. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

      2007-04-01

      Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

    9. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

      2007-04-01

      Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

    10. Mutilación genital femenina: Revisión y aspectos de interés médico legal Female genital mutilation: Review and aspects of medico-legal interests

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      MA. Gallego

      2010-09-01

      Full Text Available La progresiva llegada a España de personas procedentes del África subsahariana ha evidenciado la práctica de una serie de rituales ancestrales en niñas, perjudiciales para su salud, y que se engloban dentro del concepto de mutilación genital femenina (MGF. En nuestro país estas prácticas están tipificadas como delito de lesiones y, por lo tanto, son susceptibles de plantear valoraciones médico legales. Es por ello que consideramos de especial importancia el conocimiento por parte de los profesionales de la medicina forense de una serie de aspectos generales sobre estas prácticas.The gradual arrival in Spain of people from sub-Saharan Africa, has highlighted the practice of a series of ancient rituals in girls, harmful to their health, and which are encompassed within the concept of Female Genital Mutilation in accordance with the WHO definition. In our country these acts are classified as a crime of injury. Therefore they are likely to raise legal medical evaluations. We consider it particularly important knowledge of these practices on the part of professionals in the forensic medicine.

    11. [Genital ulcers caused by sexually transmitted diseases: current therapies, diagnosis and their relevance in HIV pandemy].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Da Costa, João Borges; Domingues, Dulce; Castro, R; Exposto, Filomena

      2006-01-01

      The sexual transmitted pathogens associated with genital ulcers are Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2. Although geographic differences still exist, herpetic infections prevalence is growing worldwide as the most frequent ulcerative sexual transmitted disease. The failure of the many different used guidelines in achieving a sustained reduction in the number of new cases, in particular the WHO syndromic management, leads into an over treatment of bacterial agents and missing of viral agents. This situation is also associated with poor efficacy and wasting of economical resources. Ulcerative and non-ulcerative sexual transmitted diseases are important in the world HIV pandemy because they promote HIV transmission and are also associated with the disease evolution. Portugal had until recently the highest incidence of HIV infection in Europe and that points out to importance of treating and control of both ulcerative and non-ulcerative sexual transmitted diseases in order.

    12. Ulcus vulvae acutum — A case of genital ulcers in adolescent girl

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      Daniela Visentin

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Ulcus vulvae acutum is a rare clinical condition characterized by the presence of multiple acute painful genital ulcers of non-venereal origin associated with systemic symptoms in young women. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood, although recent reports have associated it with the Epstein–Barr virus. Diagnosis is difficult and generally made by exclusion after venereal diseases, and autoimmune, inflammatory, traumatic, and neoplastic causes. We describe a case of adolescent female with an episode of ulcus vulvae acutum associated with infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis was supported by the clinical symptoms, elevated circulating levels of liver enzymes, positive EBV serology, cervical and inguinal lymphadenomegaly, and hepatosplenomegaly. The patient presented a history of aphthous stomatitis. Negative Pathergy test and the absence of any other related symptoms allowed us to exclude the Behçhet syndrome. Lesions healed with no sequelae or recurrences.

    13. Determining the cost of genital warts: a study from Ireland.

      LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

      Dee, A

      2009-09-01

      OBJECTIVES: To determine the average cost of a case of genital warts, for both males and females, with a view to informing the current debate as to which Human papillomavirus vaccine would have maximum cost-effectiveness in the Irish population. METHODS: Contact time between patients and healthcare professionals was prospectively measured at five genitourinary medicine clinics in the south-west of Ireland, over a period of 3 weeks. By identifying all those with genital warts, it was possible to calculate the proportion of total time taken by patients with this condition, and from this to calculate a cost per incident case, by gender. RESULTS: A total of 25.5% of attendances were for genital warts, and these patients used 26.2% of total clinic time (CI 25.4 to 27.0%). The average cost calculated for genital warts was 335 euros per incident case, and by gender 300 euros per male case and 366 euros per female case. CONCLUSIONS: There are considerable costs associated with the treatment of genital warts, with female cases representing a higher cost than males. By vaccinating with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, there are significant savings to be made.

    14. Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan

      2013-01-01

      The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.

    15. Alta prevalencia de la infección por el virus de hepatitis B en la comunidad indígena Japreira, Estado Zulia, Venezuela High prevalence of hepatitis B infection in Amerindians in Japreira, Zulia State, Venezuela

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Francisca Monsalve-Castillo

      2008-05-01

      Full Text Available A fin de conocer la prevalencia de la infección por el virus de hepatitis B (VHB en la comunidad indígena Japreira, Venezuela, y determinar las pautas de su adquisición en función de la edad y sexo, se seleccionaron 149 individuos de un total de 300. Se detectó por métodos serológicos la presencia de anticuerpos totales del VHB (anti-HBc total, y en las positivas se investigó la presencia del antígeno de superficie (HBsAg y del antígeno "e" del VHB (HBeAg. La prevalencia de anti-HBc total fue de 72,9% en el sexo femenino y 81,1% en el masculino, la prevalencia de HBsAg fue elevada (61,1% en el sexo masculino, sólo cuatro de los portadores de HBsAg fueron positivos para HBeAg. Los resultados obtenidos indican un grado elevado de endemia para esta infección y que su diseminación comienza a temprana edad. El factor involucrado en la adquisición y diseminación del virus seria la vía sexual. Hacinamiento, contacto intercorpóreo con fluidos biológicos, prácticas sociales, y características de la cepa viral circulante podrían estar involucradas en la alta cronicidad observada en la comunidad indígena Japreira.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in the Japreira indigenous community, Venezuela, and its relationship to age and gender. An intentional, non-probabilistic sample of 149 individuals was selected from a total of 300. All samples were studied for the presence of total HBV antibodies (total anti-HBc, and the positive samples were tested for HBV surface and "e" antigens (HBsAg, HBeAg. Overall prevalence rates of total anti-HBc were 72.9% in females and 81.1% in males. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was observed in males 26-35 years of age. Only four of the 44 HBsAg carriers were positive for HBeAg. The results showed a high endemic HBV infection rate and indicated that its spread begins at early ages. Sexual transmission may be the main route for spread of the virus

    16. Síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (Virus Río Mamoré en la Amazonía Peruana Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore Virus in the Peruvian Amazon region

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      Martín Casapía

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available La hantavirosis es una infección viral zoonótica transmitida por roedores cuya forma clínica más letal es el síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH. La variante río Mamoré es autóctona de Sudamérica y fue descrita en roedores sin asociarla a enfermedad en humanos. Se presenta dos casos de SPH causados por hantavirus río Mamoré en la Amazonía peruana en noviembre de 2011. En ambos casos, el diagnóstico confirmatorio fue molecular, efectuados en el Instituto Nacional de Salud de Perú. Se realizó análisis filogenético del fragmento de genoma viral y la evaluación histopatológica. Ambos pacientes evolucionaron a síndrome de distrés respiratorio del adulto y estado de choque refractario. Un paciente falleció y el otro se recuperó a los doce díasHantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation. The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later

    17. INFECCIÓN POR VIRUS DE LA GRIPE A H1N1NV EN ELCOMPLEJO ASISTENCIAL UNIVERSITARIO DE BURGOSDESDE DICIEMBRE DE 2010 A MARZO DE 2011

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Megías Lobón G

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available SUMMARY: INFLUENZA A H1N1NV INFECTION IN A BURGOS HOSPITAL FROM DECEMBER 2010 TO MARCH 2011 Introduction: Monitoring and characterization of infection with pandemic (H1N1nv 2009 is an essential part of monitoring the evolution, epidemiology and severity of a pandemic. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze the clinical characteristics and risk factors of patients admitted to our hospital the 2010-2011 season. Methods: Detection of influenza A H1N1nv virus in 266 respiratory specimens (242 patients with suspected infection and descriptive and comparative analysis of data collected from each patient: age, sex, service, reason for admission, risk factors and treatment with antivirals. Results: The most common reason for admission (52.47% was the presence of clinical respiratory signs. 69.4% of patients had risk factors, with chronic respiratory disease (CRD, the most frequent (20.2%. 14.2% were pediatric patients. The infection of Influenza A H1N1nv was confirmed in 26,4% of patients. The mean age among the infected patients was 36 years versus 44.85 years in non-infected. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.011. 75% of infected patients had risk factors. Of these, 68.7% had CRD only factor being predominant. 6% of patients with infection were vaccinated. Conclusion: The positivity rate was similar to that observed in the previous season. There was a greater involvement among young-adult population. The CRD is the most common risk factor. Vaccine coverage was low.

    18. Infección por herpes virus 1-2 como manifestación del síndrome de reconstitución inmune: Actualización y reporte de un caso de difícil diagnóstico Herpes virus 1-2 infection as a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome: Actualization and case report of difficult diagnose

      OpenAIRE

      J. Casariego Zulema; T. Butler; Cabrini, M.

      2010-01-01

      Frecuentemente en pacientes Sida las lesiones bucales son de difícil diagnóstico. Nuestro objetivo es actualizar la etiofisiopatogenia de lesiones producidas por herpes virus como una manifestación del síndrome de reconstitución inmune, en mucosa bucal y presentar un paciente inmunosuprimido con lesiones difícilmente diagnosticables de herpes virus simple 1/2. Caso clínico. Paciente masculino, 39 años, homosexual, antecedentes de HZV, TBC y ETS. CMV, hepatitis B y Toxoplasmosis negativas y he...

    19. Modulación de la respuesta inmune durante la infección por virus distemper canino: implicancias terapéuticas y en el desarrollo de vacunas Modulation of immune response during canine distemper virus infection: therapeutic and vaccine development implications

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      PF Céspedes

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available La infección por virus distemper canino (VDC es la principal causa infecciosa de muerte en caninos domésticos y especies exóticas alrededor del mundo, amenazando especies protegidas como el panda gigante y grandes félidos. A través de la infección de linfocitos y células mononucleares periféricas, VDC bloquea la síntesis y vías de señalización de interferones y citoquinas, fenómeno que produce agotamiento selectivo de linfocitos CD4+ Th1 y disminuye la proliferación de células B y T. Estos eventos explican la severa inmunosupresión que caracteriza la infección por VDC y que conduce a una enfermedad multisistémica asociada a infecciones oportunistas deletéreas. Durante el curso de la infección, complejos eventos como la disfunción celular causada directamente por el virus o la respuesta immune exagerada contribuyen a la inmunopatogénesis de SNC. Considerando que varias especies son afectadas y que la infección posee una elevada infectividad y letalidad, esta revisión destaca la importancia de diseñar vacunas más seguras, capaces de inducir una inmunidad estratégica y de prevenir la neuropatología. Adicionalmente, para comprender de mejor manera los diversos y dinámicos mecanismos involucrados en la disrupción de la respuesta immune adaptativa, así como aquellos responsables de la inducción de inmunidad durante la vacunación o la exposición al virus, esta revisión expone el rol de las células dendríticas durante la infección por VDC. Finalmente, se discute cómo las terapias combinadas basadas en la fisiología de estas células nos permitirán mejorar la recuperación de pacientes en términos de sobrevida y la prevención de las secuelas asociadas a la infección.Canine distemper virus (CDV infection is the main infectious cause of mortality in canines and exotic animals worldwide, and also threatens several endangered species such as the giant panda and big felids. The CDV blocks interferon and cytokines

    20. RETRASO DIAGNÓSTICO Y ENFERMEDAD AVANZADA EN LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIRUS DE LA INMUNODEFICIENCIA HUMANA EN LA COMUNIDAD DE MADRID (2007-2011

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      Carlos Cevallos García

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available Fundamentos: El diagnóstico precoz de la infección por VIH conlleva un beneficio a nivel individual y de salud pública. El objetivo fue determinar la prevalencia de retrasos en el diagnóstico de infección por VIH en la Comunidad de Madrid (CM y factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de diagnósticos de VIH de enero- 2007 a septiembre-2011. Se estudiaron todos los nuevos diagnósticos con linfocitos CD4+ menores de 200/µl (presentación enfermedad avanzada, PEA, 350/µl (retraso diagnóstico, RD y 500/µl. Análisis descriptivo y multivariante mediante regresión logística. Resultados: Se notificaron 3.347 casos. Se disponía de cifra de linfocitos CD4+ en 2.896 casos. El 29,7 presentaron PEA, 48,1% RD y 67,7% <500CD4+/µ. Tanto en autóctonos como foráneos, la edad y mecanismo de transmisión (usuarios de drogas inyectadas (UDI y heterosexual (HTX fueron variables independientes relacionadas con el diagnóstico tardío. En foráneos, el área geográfica de origen fue, igualmente, una variable independiente La probabilidad de PEA y RD en españoles aumentó con la edad de diagnóstico y fue mayor en HTX [OR:3,38 (IC95%:2,29-4,98 y 2,44 (1,67-3,56] y UDI [OR:2,41 (1,47-3,94 y 1,89 (1,19-3,01] respecto hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH. La probabilidad de PEA y RD en foráneos aumentó con la edad de diagnóstico y fue mayor en HTX (OR:2,04 (1,44-2,89 y 2,29 (1,61-3,25 respecto HSH y en procedentes de Latinoamérica [OR:2,56 (1,48-4,42 y 2,29 (1,49-3,51] y África Subsahariana [OR:2,83 (1,52-5,28 y 2,52 (1,48-4,30] respecto originarios de Europa Occidental. Conclusiones: En la CM un elevado número de nuevos diagnósticos se producen en pacientes susceptibles a tratamiento, parte de ellos además presentan un grado importante de inmunosupresión. La edad, mecanismo de transmisión y país de origen se relacionan con un diagnóstico más tardío.