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Sample records for genital chlamydial infection

  1. Chlamydial variants differ in ability to ascend the genital tract in the guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Bowlin, Anne K; Spencer, Nicole; Maurelli, Anthony T; Rank, Roger G

    2015-08-01

    An important question in the study of chlamydial genital tract disease is why some women develop severe upper tract disease while others have mild or even "silent" infections with or without pathology. Animal studies suggest that the pathological outcome of an infection is dependent upon both the composition of the infecting chlamydial population and the genotype of the host, along with host physiological effects, such as the cyclical production of reproductive hormones and even the size of the infecting inoculum or the number of repeated infections. In this study, we compared two variants of Chlamydia caviae, contrasting in virulence, with respect to their abilities to ascend the guinea pig genital tract. We then determined the effect of combining the two variants on the course of infection and on the bacterial loads of the two variants in the genital tract. Although the variants individually had similar infection kinetics in the cervix, SP6, the virulent variant, could be isolated from the oviducts more often and in greater numbers than the attenuated variant, AZ2. SP6 also elicited higher levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the lower genital tract and increased leukocyte infiltration in the cervix and uterus compared to AZ2. When the two variants were combined in a mixed infection, SP6 outcompeted AZ2 in the lower genital tract; however, AZ2 was able to ascend the genital tract as readily as SP6. These data suggest that the ability of SP6 to elicit an inflammatory response in the lower genital tract facilitates the spread of both variants to the oviducts. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Seroepidemiological and socioeconomic studies of genital chlamydial infection in Ethiopian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M E; Jamil, Y; Tibaux, G; Pelzer, A; Mehari, L; Darougar, S

    1992-08-01

    To measure the prevalence of chlamydial genital infection in Ethiopian women attending gynaecological, obstetric and family planning clinics; to identify the epidemiological, social and economic factors affecting the prevalence of infection in a country where routine laboratory culture and serological tests for chlamydial species are unavailable; to determine the risk factors for genital chlamydial infection in those with serological evidence of other sexually transmitted diseases. 1846 Ethiopian women, outpatient attenders at two teaching hospitals and a mother and child health centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Gynaecological outpatient department, antenatal, postnatal and family planning clinics. Sera were tested for type-specific anti-chlamydial antibodies using purified chlamydial antigens (C. trachomatis A-C (CTA-C), C. trachomatis D-K (CTD-K), Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV1-3), and C. pneumoniae (CPn)), in a micro-immunofluorescence test. The genital chlamydia seropositivity was analysed against patient's age, clinic attended, ethnic group, religion, origin of residence, age at first marriage and first coitus, income, number of sexual partners, duration of sexual activity, marital status/profession, obstetric and contraceptive history, and seropositivity for other sexually transmitted diseases. Overall exposure to chlamydia species was found in 84%, genital chlamydial infection in 62%, and titres suggestive of recent or present genital infection in 42% of those studied. Genital chlamydial infection was highest (64%) in family planning and lowest (54%) in antenatal clinic attenders. Exposure to genital chlamydia species was influenced by ethnic group and religion. Those married and sexually active under 13 years of age had greater exposure (69%) to genital chlamydial infection than those first sexually active aged over 18 (46%). Prevalence of infection was highest in those with more than five sexual partners (78%) and in bargirls (84%). The lowest income groups

  3. The role of genital chlamydial infection in acute pelvic inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that 11.1 per cent of women with acute PID were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis as compared to 4.3 per cent in the control group (odds ratio 2.75: 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-11.7). Neiserria gonorrhoeae was not detected in either of the two groups. Trichomoniasis (10% in PID cases and no ...

  4. Interruption of CXCL13-CXCR5 axis increases upper genital tract pathology and activation of NKT cells following chlamydial genital infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Jiang

    Full Text Available Regulation of immune responses is critical for controlling inflammation and disruption of this process can lead to tissue damage. We reported that CXCL13 was induced in fallopian tube tissue following C. trachomatis infection. Here, we examined the influence of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in chlamydial genital infection.Disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis by injecting anti-CXCL13 Ab to BALB/c mice or using Cxcr5-/- mice increased chronic inflammation in the upper genital tract (UGT; uterine horns and oviducts after Chlamydia muridarum genital infection (GT. Further studies in Cxcr5-/- mice showed an elevation in bacterial burden in the GT and increased numbers of neutrophils, activated DCs and activated NKT cells early after infection. After resolution, we noted increased fibrosis and the accumulation of a variety of T cells subsets (CD4-IFNγ, CD4-IL-17, CD4-IL-10 & CD8-TNFα in the oviducts. NKT cell depletion in vitro reduced IL-17α and various cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that activated NKT cells modulate neutrophils and DCs through cytokine/chemokine secretion. Further, chlamydial glycolipids directly activated two distinct types of NKT cell hybridomas in a cell-free CD1d presentation assay and genital infection of Cd1d-/- mice showed reduced oviduct inflammation compared to WT mice. CXCR5 involvement in pathology was also noted using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis in C. trachomatis infected women attending a sub-fertility clinic. Women who developed tubal pathology after a C. trachomatis infection had a decrease in the frequency of CXCR5 SNP +10950 T>C (rs3922.These experiments indicate that disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis permits increased activation of NKT cells by type I and type II glycolipids of Chlamydia muridarum and results in UGT pathology potentially through increased numbers of neutrophils and T cell subsets associated with UGT pathology. In addition, CXCR5 appears to contribute to inter-individual differences in

  5. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  6. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rank, R.G.; Batteiger, B.E.; Soderberg, L.S.

    1990-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae, belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed

  7. Apoptosis modulation in the immune system reveals a role of neutrophils in tissue damage in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zortel, Tom; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Kirschnek, Susanne; Häcker, Georg

    2018-03-07

    Chlamydial infection frequently causes damage to the female genital tract. The precise mechanisms of chlamydial clearance and tissue damage are unknown but studies suggest immunopathology with a particular role of neutrophils. The goal of this study was to understand the contribution of the immune system, in particular neutrophils. Using Chlamydia muridarum, we infected mice with a prolonged immune response due to expression of Bcl-2 in haematopoietic cells (Bcl-2-mice), and mice where mature neutrophils are lacking due to the deletion of Mcl-1 in myeloid cells (LysM-cre-mcl-1-flox-mice; Mcl-1-mice). We monitored bacterial clearance, cellular infiltrate and long-term tissue damage. Both mutant strains showed slightly delayed clearance of the acute infection. Bcl-2-mice had a strongly increased inflammatory infiltrate concerning almost all cell lineages. The infection of Bcl-2-mice caused increased tissue damage. The loss of neutrophils in Mcl-1-mice was associated with substantial quantitative and qualitative alterations of the inflammatory infiltrate. Mcl-1-mice had higher chlamydial burden and reduced tissue damage, including lower incidence of hydrosalpinx and less uterine dilation. Inhibition of apoptosis in the haematopoietic system increases inflammation and tissue damage. Neutrophils have broad functions, including a role in chlamydial clearance and in tissue destruction.

  8. High prevalence of extra-genital chlamydial or gonococcal infections among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan-Blitz, Lao-Tzu; Leon, Segundo R; Bristow, Claire C; Konda, Kelika A; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Brown, Brandon J; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are among the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections in the world. Data are limited, however, on the burden of extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru. Data were gathered from self-collected anal or pharyngeal swabs from participants in Lima, Peru, and analyzed via cross-sectional methods. Prevalence ratios for the association between extra-genital infection with socio-demographic and sexual behaviors were determined. Overall, 127 (32.8%) participants had anal or pharyngeal infections. On multivariate modeling, anal infection was positively associated with practicing both receptive and insertive anal sex, when compared to insertive alone (PR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.32-4.71), and negatively associated with any antibiotic use in the prior three months (PR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.39-0.91). Pharyngeal infection was negatively associated with age greater than 30 years compared to 18-30 years (PR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.30-0.96), and positively associated with gender identity of transgender women (PR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.20-3.73). This study demonstrates considerable burden of extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.

  9. Study of the prevalence and association of ocular chlamydial conjunctivitis in women with genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans attending outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between chlamydial conjunctivitis and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans, in addition to the possible relationship between cultured bacterial pathogens and oculogenital chlamydial infection. This study was performed on 100 (50 symptomatic and 50 asymptomatic) women attending the Gynecological and Obstetric outpatient clinic of Alzahra hospital, Alazhar University. Simultaneously a conjunctival swab was taken from these patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done on DNA extracted from both vaginal and conjunctival swab samples. Culture for both vaginal and conjunctival swabs was also done. Candida albicans was the predominant organism isolated by culture in 20% and 40% of conjunctival and vaginal swabs respectively. By the PCR method, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 60% of symptomatic women, while genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was present in 30% of symptomatic women. The results of this method also indicated that 25/50 (50%) vaginal swabs were positive with PCR for Candida albicans versus 15/50 (30%) were PCR positive in conjunctival swab. Mycoplasma genitalium was present in only 10% of vaginal swabs. Concomitant oculogenital PCR positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis and Candida albicans were 30% and 28% respectively. Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was associated with genital Chlamydia trachomatis in a high percentage of women followed by Candida albicans. Cultured bacterial organisms do not play a role in enhancement of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

  10. Screening for chlamydial infection.

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    Nelson, H D; Helfand, M

    2001-04-01

    To examine data on the effectiveness of screening for chlamydial infection by a physician or other health care professional. Specifically, we examine the evidence that early treatment of chlamydial infection improves health outcomes, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of screening strategies in nonpregnant women, pregnant women, and men, and the accuracy of tests used for screening. This review updates the literature since the last recommendation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published in 1996. We searched the topic of chlamydia in the MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, and Cochrane Library databases from January 1994 to July 2000, supplemented by reference lists of relevant articles and from experts in the field. Articles published prior to 1994 and research abstracts were cited if particularly important to the key questions or to the interpretation of included articles. A single reader reviewed all English abstracts. Articles were selected for full review if they were about Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infections in nonpregnant women, pregnant women, or men and were relevant to key questions in the analytic framework. Investigators read the full-text version of the retrieved articles and applied additional eligibility criteria. For all topics, we excluded articles if they did not provide sufficient information to determine the methods for selecting subjects and for analyzing data. We systematically reviewed three types of studies about screening in nonpregnant women that relate to three key questions: (1) studies about the effectiveness of screening programs in reducing prevalence rates of infection, (2) studies about risk factors for chlamydial infection in women, and (3) studies about chlamydial screening tests in women. Our search found too few studies on pregnant women to systematically review, although pertinent studies are described. We systematically reviewed two types of studies about screening in men: (1) studies about prevalence rates and

  11. Chlamydial serum IgG, IgA and local IgA antibodies in patients with genital-tract infections measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terho, P.; Meurman, O.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for IgG and IgA class antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was developed with C. trachomatis serotype L2 as antigen. The assay was sensitive, reproducible and correlated well with an immunofluorescence test (r = 0.85). Serum IgG antibodies were detected in 79% of Chlamydia isolation-positive versus 43% of isolation-negative male patients with urethritis and serum IgA antibodies in 53% and 21%, respectively. Urethral IgA antibodies, measured from specimens taken for chlamydial isolation, could be detected in 94% and 38%, respectively. From 737 male urethral and 909 female cervical secretions screened for the presence of IgA antibodies, about half were isolation and IgA negative. Only 4% (6/151) of male and 5.4% (2/37) of female isolation-positive specimens were IgA negative. The determination of local IgA antibodies may be used as a screening test in chlamydial genital infections. (author)

  12. Aspects of human chlamydial infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Tjiam

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis takes a closer look at three aspects of human chlamydial infections. With regard to diagnosis the influence of logistics on the sensitivity of the culture method is discussed, along with optimalization of the culture itself and an evaluation of new diagnostic methods.

  13. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    modulation in several innate immunity markers particularly associated with NK cells and Th1/Th2 specific cytokines and chemokines in immunized guinea pigs...reduced antigen-specific activation (IL-12 and IFN-c production) of CD4+ T cells isolated from lymphoid tissues and genital tract, and an associated...CD4+ T cells [12, 13]. However, due to differences in immunological responses [23, 24, 25, 26], and chlamydial strain susceptibilities between mice

  14. Chlamydial infections - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swelling and tenderness of the testicles Chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together. The symptoms of chlamydia infection may be similar to symptoms of gonorrhea, but they continue even after treatment for gonorrhea ...

  15. Interruption of CXCL13-CXCR5 Axis Increases Upper Genital Tract Pathology and Activation of NKT Cells following Chlamydial Genital Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Janina; Karimi, Ouafae; Ouburg, Sander; Champion, Cheryl I.; Khurana, Archana; Liu, Guangchao; Freed, Amanda; Pleijster, Jolein; Rozengurt, Nora; Land, Jolande A.; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Tiitinen, Aila'; Paavonen, Jorma; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Morre, Servaas A.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Regulation of immune responses is critical for controlling inflammation and disruption of this process can lead to tissue damage. We reported that CXCL13 was induced in fallopian tube tissue following C. trachomatis infection. Here, we examined the influence of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in

  16. The Characterization Of The Kinetics Of Chlamydia Muridarum Infection In Defined Regions Of The Murine Genital Tract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eskildsen, Ilea

    2008-01-01

    .... The continued increase in incidence rates of genital chlamydial infection over the last decade underscores a need for comprehensive understanding of the infection kinetics, host immune response...

  17. Laboratory diagnosis of persistent human chlamydial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirja ePuolakkainen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic assays for persistent chlamydial infection are much needed to conduct high-quality, large-scale studies investigating the persistent state in vivo, its disease associations and the response to therapy. Yet in most studies the distinction between acute and persistent infection is based on the interpretation of the data obtained by the assays developed to diagnose acute infections or on complex assays available for research only and/or difficult to establish for clinical use. Novel biomarkers for detection of persistent chlamydial infection are urgently needed. Chlamydial whole genome proteome arrays are now available and they can identify chlamydial antigens that are differentially expressed between acute infection and persistent infection. Utilizing these data will lead to the development of novel diagnostic assays. Carefully selected specimens from well-studied patient populations are clearly needed in the process of translating the proteomic data into assays useful for clinical practice. Before such antigens are identified and validated assays become available, we face a challenge of deciding whether the persistent infection truly induced appearance of the proposed marker or do we just base our diagnosis of persistent infection on the presence of the suggested markers. Consequently, we must bear this in mind when interpreting the available data.

  18. Recent advances in understanding the biology, epidemiology and control of chlamydial infections in koalas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Adam; Hanger, Jon; Timms, Peter

    2013-08-30

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is recognised as a threatened wildlife species in various parts of Australia. A major contributing factor to the decline and long-term viability of affected populations is disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia. Two chlamydial species infect the koala, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae, and have been reported in nearly all mainland koala populations. Chlamydial infections of koalas are associated with ocular infections leading to blindness and genital tract infections linked to infertility, among other serious clinical manifestations. Diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation alone, however, it is complicated by the observation that many koala chlamydial infections occur with no overt signs of clinical disease. Instead, accurate diagnosis requires detailed clinical assessment and confirmatory testing by a range of PCR-based assays. Antibiotic treatment for koala chlamydial infection is possible, however, results on its success are mixed. A more practical solution for the protection of diseased populations is the application of a koala Chlamydia vaccine, with recent trials indicating promising results. Interestingly, molecular epidemiology studies of koala C. pecorum infections and recent comparative genomic analyses of koala C. pneumoniae have revealed potential differences in their origin that will have wider ramifications for our understanding of human chlamydial infections and host adaptation of the chlamydiae. This review summarises changes to the taxonomy of koala chlamydial infections and recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, control and evolution of Chlamydia infections in this iconic wildlife species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Liposome delivery of Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein primes a Th1 response that protects against genital chlamydial infection in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Follmann, Frank

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunity to chlamydia is thought to rely on interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting T helper cells type 1 (Th1) with an additional effect of secreted antibodies. A need for Th1-polarizing adjuvants in experimental chlamydia vaccines has been demonstrated, and antigen conformation has also been......-alpha and a profoundly reduced vaginal chlamydial load, compared with control mice. The protection was CD4(+) T cell dependent and was not dependent on MOMP conformation. CONCLUSION: CAF01 adjuvant facilitates a protective anti-MOMP CD4(+) T cell response independent of MOMP conformation....

  20. Diagnosis and follow-up of genital chlamydial infection by direct methods and by detection of serum IgG, IgA and secretory IgA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresse A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a high-risk population by direct and indirect methods and to evaluate the diagnosis of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA. Patients and Methods: Urethral or endocervical specimens from 78 patients (48 females and 30 males were examined by cell culture, direct fluorescence assay, PCR Cobas Amplicor (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, and sIgA was detected by the recombinant lipopolysaccharide (LPS-enzyme-linked immunoassay (rELISA. Serum from each patient was also obtained and analysed for the presence of IgG and IgA antibody by in-house microimmunofluorescence (MIF and by the rELISA method (Medac, Hamburg, Germany. Results: The overall C. trachomatis prevalence determined by direct methods was 28%. The detection of sIgA antibodies was significantly higher in the group of patients with a positive direct detection (50% than in the group of negative direct detection (10.7%. The Chlamydia-specific IgA antibodies were detected by the rELISA in 40.9 and 53.6% of group I (positive direct detection and group II patients (negative direct detection, respectively. The species-specific IgA antibodies were detected by the MIF method in 18.2 and 16.1% of group I and II patients, respectively. Chlamydia genus-specific IgG antibodies were detected by the rELISA in 86.4 and 83.9% of group I and group II patients and, C. trachomatis specific IgG were present in 81.8 and 73.2% of group I and group II patients, respectively, as assessed by the MIF test. Conclusion: Combining the positive direct methods and/or positive sIgA antibody results from cervical or urethral specimens had an indication of current C. trachomatis infection.

  1. Seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in cattle in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kim; Sammin, Donal; Harmeyer, Silke; Nath, Mintu; Livingstone, Morag; Longbottom, David

    2012-08-01

    Although few studies have investigated the prevalence of chlamydial infections in cattle, reported prevalence rates vary hugely. In order to assess the prevalence of this infection in cattle in Ireland, serum samples (100 herds, 20 samples/herd) collected for statutory screening for brucellosis were examined by soluble chlamydial antigen indirect ELISA. The assay detects antibodies to the two most common Chlamydiaceae spp. affecting cattle, namely Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum. A total of 95 samples from 57 herds were seropositive, representing an observed prevalence rate of 4.75%. The parametric bootstrap estimate of the mean disease prevalence in the population was 6.04% (95%, CI 4.70-7.50). The results suggest the prevalence of chlamydial infection is low in cattle in Ireland. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chlamydial Infection, Plasma Peroxidation and Obesity in Tubal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association of Chlamydial infection, obesity and oxidative response with tubal infertility in Nigerian women. Methods: It was a case-control study of 40 women with tubal infertility and 32 fertile women, respectively, recruited from the Infertility and Family Planning Clinics ...

  3. Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections

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    Andreas Stein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.

  4. Genital herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M S

    1979-09-01

    In recent years, a great increase in interest in genital herpes has been stimulated partly by the rising prevalence of this disease and partly by observations suggesting that genital herpes is a cause of cervical cancer. The clinical pictures produced by genital herpes simplex virus infections are similar in men and women. In contrast to recurrent attacks, initial episodes of infection are generally more extensive, last longer, and are more often associated with regional lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms. Genital herpes in pregnancy may pose a serious threat to the newborn infant. Although the data suggesting genital herpes simplex virus infection is a cause of cervical cancer are quite extensive, the evidence is largely circumstantial. In spite of these more serious aspects of genital herpes simplex virus infection, episodes of genital herpes are almost always self-limited and benign. Frequent recurrences pose the major therapeutic and management problem. At present, there is no satisfactory treatment for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus in fection. Many of the suggested therapies, although some sound very promising, are potentially dangerous and should be used only under carefully controlled conditions.

  5. Dynamics of NKT-Cell Responses to Chlamydial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Joyee, Antony George; Yang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells have gained great attention owing to their critical functional roles in immunity to various pathogens. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the role of NKT cells in host defense against and pathogenesis due to Chlamydia, which is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that poses a threat to the public health worldwide. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that NKT cells, particularly invariant NKT (iNKT) cells, play a crucial role in host defense against chlamydial infections, especially in C. pneumoniae infection. iNKT cells can promote type-1 protective responses to C. pneumoniae by inducing enhanced production of IL-12 by dendritic cells (DCs), in particular CD8α+ DCs, which promote the differentiation of naive T cells into protective IFN-γ-producing Th1/Tc1 type CD4+/CD8+ T cells. This iNKT-cell-mediated modulation of DC function is largely dependent upon CD40-CD40L interaction, IFN-γ production, and cell-to-cell contact. In addition, iNKT cells modulate the function of natural killer cells. NKT cells may be also involved in the pathogenesis of some chlamydial diseases by inducing different patterns of cytokine production. A better understanding of NKT-cell biology will enable us to rationally design prophylactic and therapeutic tools to combat infectious diseases.

  6. Productivity losses attributable to untreated chlamydial infection and associated pelvic inflammatory disease in reproductive-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandford, John M; Gift, Thomas L

    2006-10-01

    The productivity losses attributable to disease-related morbidity and mortality impose a burden on society in general and on employers in particular. A reliable assessment of the productivity losses associated with untreated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) would complement earlier work on direct medical costs and contribute to an estimate of the full cost of chlamydial disease. The goal of this study was to estimate the discounted lifetime productivity losses attributable to untreated chlamydial infection in reproductive-aged women. We developed a cost model using Monte Carlo methods to estimate the lifetime discounted productivity losses attributable to untreated lower genital tract Ct infection among reproductive-aged women. The model considered the impact of disability resulting from acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) associated with untreated Ct infection and from the sequelae of acute PID, including chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. To accommodate disparate Ct infection rates and labor market characteristics across age groups, we matched age-based risk factors for Ct infection with labor market patterns. Data sources included the 2001 National Chlamydia Surveillance Data, the 2001 Current Population Survey, and published literature. Estimates indicate that the mean weighted productivity losses per untreated Ct infection were approximately US dollars 130 (in year 2001 dollars). Mean weighted productivity losses per case of acute PID were estimated at US dollars 649. Estimated productivity losses were highly correlated with age, reflecting age-dependent differences in labor market characteristics. The productivity losses attributable to untreated infection with Ct and to sequelae of this infection form a substantial portion of the total economic burden of disease. Effective programs to prevent chlamydial infection and effective screening, diagnosis, and treatment of Ct-infected women may reduce productivity losses and

  7. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Janina; Liu, Guangchao; Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Rome, Leonard H; Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J; Kelly, Kathleen A

    2017-01-19

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG) peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia -vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation.

  8. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia-vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the male genital tract: an update.

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    Mackern-Oberti, Juan Pablo; Motrich, Rubén Darío; Breser, María Laura; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Cuffini, Cecilia; Rivero, Virginia Elena

    2013-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although the prevalence of chlamydial infection is similar in men and women, current research and screening are still focused on women, who develop the most severe complications, leaving the study of male genital tract (MGT) infection underrated. Herein, we reviewed the literature on genital CT infection with special focus on the MGT. Data indicate that CT certainly infects different parts of the MGT such as the urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate, epididymis and testis. However, whether or not CT infection has detrimental effects on male fertility is still controversial. The most important features of CT infection are its chronic nature and the presence of a mild inflammation that remains subclinical in most individuals. Chlamydia antigens and pathogen recognition receptors (PRR), expressed on epithelial cells and immune cells from the MGT, have been studied in the last years. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression has been observed in the testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. It has been demonstrated that recognition of chlamydial antigens is associated with TLR2, TLR4, and possibly, other PRRs. CT recognition by PRRs induces a local production of cytokines/chemokines, which, in turn, provoke chronic inflammation that might evolve in the onset of an autoimmune process in genetically susceptible individuals. Understanding local immune response along the MGT, as well as the crosstalk between resident leukocytes, epithelial, and stromal cells, would be crucial in inducing a protective immunity, thus adding to the design of new therapeutic approaches to a Chlamydia vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genital infections mycoplasma

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    Urošević R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from 01.01. to 31.12.2012, we have examined 1035 samples of vaginal secretions, cervical swabs and urethral swab the UU and Mh. The main objective of the study was to determine the incidence of mycoplasma infections, the distribution by sex, age of patients, the clinical diagnosis for which it was conducted microbiological testing of patients and determine the sensitivity of the isolated pathogens to antibiotics. From a total of 1035 samples tested positive findings were in 331 patients, of which 316 (95.5% women and 15 (4.5% males. The difference was statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences in average age among women (29 years and women (30. Infection with a UU was statistically significantly higher (70.1% compared to the MH (5.4% and a mixed infection (24.5%. The incidence of infections caused by UU in females was 70% and 80% in males. Males and females do not differ significantly according to the frequency of infections caused by UU. The highest incidence of female patients, was diagnosed with vulvovaginitis 34% Colpitis had 22%; Colpitis and cervicitis-17%, while only Cervicitis was diagnosed in 10% of patients. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. The difference in the incidence of clinical diagnosis was statistically significant. All pathogens isolated showed significantly greater osteljivost three or more antibiotics. The sensitivity of the three or more antibiotics is not significantly associated with the cause of the infection.

  11. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  12. New and emerging chlamydial infections of creatures great and small

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    A. Taylor-Brown

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, our knowledge of the host range and diversity of members of the Chlamydiaceae, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of humans and animals, was thought to be nearly complete. Aided by advances in molecular diagnostics, a new picture is emerging, however, that the host barriers may be looser than previously thought for many chlamydial species. While cross-host transmission of chlamydial species is a concern for animal health, new reports highlight an emerging zoonotic risk for several species associated with intensification of farming and the widespread popularity of companion animals. The description of an expanded cohort of new species within this family from avian and reptilian hosts has also highlighted how much we still have to learn about the biology and pathogenicity of the Chlamydiaceae as a whole. Reports emerging about these relatives of the traditional chlamydial pathogens are matched by the continued identification of novel Chlamydia-related bacteria in the phylum Chlamydiae, providing evidence that many may be pathogenic to humans or animals and pose a zoonotic or vector-borne risk. The review examines the new hosts described for well-characterized chlamydial veterinary pathogens, emerging novel chlamydial species and the potential for these to cause disease in their respective hosts.

  13. The value of tests of cure following cervical chlamydial infection.

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    White, D J; Mann, C H; Matthews, R S; Leeming, J G; Clay, J C

    1993-01-01

    Test of cure (TOC) was performed 2, 4 and 6 weeks after treatment for cervical chlamydia infection with 10-14 days of Deteclo one tablet twice daily, erythromycin 500 mg twice daily or doxycycline 100 mg twice daily. Testing was by chlamydia culture and IDEIA (DAKO diagnostics Ltd). Discrepant results were subsequently checked by immunofluorescence (Syva MicroTrak) of both sets of left over transport media. Two hundred and three patients attended on at least one occasion; 189, 146 and 107 at 2, 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Of these 127, 70 and 34, respectively, denied sexual intercourse or had consistently used condoms. Fourteen were positive over the study period by either or both methods of detection. Of 8 culture positive results 3 were negative by IDEIA. Two of these had elementary bodies (EBs) on immunofluorescence of both sets of saved transport media. One had EBs on immunofluorescence of the saved culture transport medium only. None of the 6 IDEIA positive, culture negative patients had immunofluorescent EBs in the IDEIA transport media although one had EBs in the saved culture transport medium. One IDEIA suspicious, culture negative patient had EBs in both sets of saved transport media. There was no significant difference in the rate of chlamydia detection from patients admitting to or denying unprotected intercourse. TOC has a low yield in cases of cervical chlamydial infection when there has been careful contact tracing and treatment has been completed. If TOC is performed culture should be used if available and where antigen detection methods are used confirmation should be sought for any positive results.

  14. Chlamydial infections in wildlife-conservation threats and/or reservoirs of 'spill-over' infections?

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    Burnard, Delaney; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-11-30

    Members of the order Chlamydiales are biphasic intracellular pathogens known to cause disease in both humans and animals. As we learn more about the genetic diversity of this group of pathogens, evidence is growing that these bacteria infect a broader range of animal hosts than previously thought. Over 400 host species are now documented globally with the majority of these being wild animals. Given the impact of chlamydial infections on humans and domesticated animals, the identification of members of the order Chlamydiales in wildlife raises significant questions over a) their impact on animal health and b) the relationships to those strains also found in humans and domestic animals. In some species such as the iconic marsupial, the koala, the conservation impact is known with chlamydial infections associated with debilitating disease, however, in general, little is known about the pathogenic potential of Chlamydiae infecting most wildlife hosts. Accumulating evidence suggests contact with wild animals is a risk factor for infections in domestic animals and/or humans. Beyond the well-recognised zoonotic pathogen, Chlamydia psittaci, a range of studies have now reported traditional pathogens in the family Chlamydiaceae such as Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia abortus in wild animals. The spectre of cross-host transmission 'spill-over' and 'spill-back' in the epidemiology of infections is of potential concern, however, comprehensive epidemiological studies are lacking for most of these. Accurate evaluation of the significance of chlamydial infections in wildlife is otherwise hampered by i) the cross-sectional nature of most impact studies, ii) a lack of standardised diagnostic approaches, iii) limited study sizes, and iv) biases associated with opportunistic sampling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiology of chlamydial infection and disease in a free-ranging koala (Phascolarctos cinereus population.

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    Sharon Nyari

    Full Text Available Chlamydial disease continues to be one of the main factors threatening the long-term survival of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus. Despite this, large epidemiological studies of chlamydial infection and disease in wild koala populations are lacking. A better understanding of the prevalence, transmission and pathogenesis is needed to improve control measures, such as the development of vaccines. We investigated the prevalence of Chlamydia pecorum infection and disease in 160 koalas in a peri-urban wild population in Queensland, Australia and found that 31% of koalas were Chlamydia PCR positive and 28% had clinically detectable chlamydial disease. Most infections were at the urogenital site (27%; both males and females with only 14% at the ocular site. Interestingly, we found that 27% (4/15 of koalas considered to be sexually immature (9-13 months were already infected with C. pecorum, suggesting that a significant percentage of animals are infected directly from their mother. Ocular infection levels were less prevalent with increasing age (8% in koalas older than 4 years, whereas the prevalence of urogenital tract infections remained high into older age (26% in koalas older than 4 years, suggesting that, after mother-to-young transmission, C. pecorum is predominantly a sexually transmitted infection. While 28% of koalas in this population had clinically detectable chlamydial disease (primarily urogenital tract disease, many PCR positive koalas had no detectable disease and importantly, not all diseased animals were PCR positive. We also observed higher chlamydial loads in koalas who were C. pecorum infected without clinical disease than in koalas who were C. pecorum infected with clinical disease. These results shed light on the potential mechanisms of transmission of C. pecorum in koalas and also guide future control measures, such as vaccination.

  16. Epidemiology of chlamydial infection and disease in a free-ranging koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyari, Sharon; Waugh, Courtney A; Dong, Jianbao; Quigley, Bonnie L; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydial disease continues to be one of the main factors threatening the long-term survival of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Despite this, large epidemiological studies of chlamydial infection and disease in wild koala populations are lacking. A better understanding of the prevalence, transmission and pathogenesis is needed to improve control measures, such as the development of vaccines. We investigated the prevalence of Chlamydia pecorum infection and disease in 160 koalas in a peri-urban wild population in Queensland, Australia and found that 31% of koalas were Chlamydia PCR positive and 28% had clinically detectable chlamydial disease. Most infections were at the urogenital site (27%; both males and females) with only 14% at the ocular site. Interestingly, we found that 27% (4/15) of koalas considered to be sexually immature (9-13 months) were already infected with C. pecorum, suggesting that a significant percentage of animals are infected directly from their mother. Ocular infection levels were less prevalent with increasing age (8% in koalas older than 4 years), whereas the prevalence of urogenital tract infections remained high into older age (26% in koalas older than 4 years), suggesting that, after mother-to-young transmission, C. pecorum is predominantly a sexually transmitted infection. While 28% of koalas in this population had clinically detectable chlamydial disease (primarily urogenital tract disease), many PCR positive koalas had no detectable disease and importantly, not all diseased animals were PCR positive. We also observed higher chlamydial loads in koalas who were C. pecorum infected without clinical disease than in koalas who were C. pecorum infected with clinical disease. These results shed light on the potential mechanisms of transmission of C. pecorum in koalas and also guide future control measures, such as vaccination.

  17. Demonstration of different endocervical staining methods and their usefulness in the diagnosis of the chlamydial infection in exfoliated cells advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmutović, Sabina; Beslagić, Edina; Hamzić, Sadeta; Aljicević, Mufida

    2004-02-01

    Microscopic demonstration of chlamydial inclusions within cells offered the first laboratory procedure supporting the clinical diagnosis of chlamydial infection. Our aim is to evaluate the usefulness of different endocervical staining methods in diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection within exfoliated cells of the endocervix. The cytological test for the detection of chlamydial inclusions in genital tract infection, though not as sensitive and specific as isolation in the cell culture monolayers, is still of the diagnostic value. The present study discusses the collection of clinical smears for microscopic examination, their preparation; fixation and staining of slides by a variety of staining methods that have been used to detect Chlamydia in clinical smears and biopsies. Most of these methods such as Giemsa stain, Papanicolaou, iodine, and immunofluorescence (IF) using monoclonal antibodies, are based on the combination of dyes designed to obtain optimum differentiation of the various structures. The utilization of different endocervical smear stains together with the clinical information can be used to identify women at high risk for CT infection.

  18. Genital herpes simplex virus infections in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, G; Corey, L

    1984-02-01

    With the decline in prevalence of childhood-acquired oral-labial herpes simplex type 1 infections in some populations and the increasing incidence of genital herpes infections in adults, clinicians are more likely to see patients with severe primary, first-episode genital herpes infections. Complications of these primary infections may include aseptic meningitis and urine retention secondary to sacral radiculopathy or autonomic dysfunction. Presented are the clinical course of first-episode and recurrent infections, complications, diagnostic laboratory methods, and results of controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of topical, intravenous, and oral preparations of acyclovir.

  19. Screening and syndromic approaches to identify gonorrhea and chlamydial infection among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, N L; Winikoff, B; Haberland, N; Coggins, C; Elias, C

    2000-03-01

    The standard diagnostic tools to identify sexually transmitted infections are often expensive and have laboratory and infrastructure requirements that make them unavailable to family planning and primary health-care clinics in developing countries. Therefore, inexpensive, accessible tools that rely on symptoms, signs, and/or risk factors have been developed to identify and treat reproductive tract infections without the need for laboratory diagnostics. Studies were reviewed that used standard diagnostic tests to identify gonorrhea and cervical chlamydial infection among women and that provided adequate information about the usefulness of the tools for screening. Aggregation of the studies' results suggest that risk factors, algorithms, and risk scoring for syndromic management are poor indicators of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection in samples of both low and high prevalence and, consequently, are not effective mechanisms with which to identify or manage these conditions. The development and evaluation of other approaches to identify gonorrhea and chlamydial infections, including inexpensive and simple laboratory screening tools, periodic universal treatment, and other alternatives must be given priority.

  20. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Karolin; Schott, Franziska; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Wanninger, Sabrina; Sidler, Xaver; Borel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants. PMID:26619187

  1. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors.

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    Karolin Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants.

  2. Water-filtered infrared a irradiation in combination with visible light inhibits acute chlamydial infection.

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    Hanna Marti

    Full Text Available New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C. in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8 and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination

  3. Immunobiological outcomes of repeated chlamydial infection from two models of within-host population dynamics.

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    David M Vickers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is a common human pathogen that mediates disease processes capable of inflicting serious complications on reproduction. Aggressive inflammatory immune responses are thought to not only direct a person's level of immunity but also the potential for immunopathology. With human immunobiology being debated as a cause of prevailing epidemiological trends, we examined some fundamental issues regarding susceptibility to multiple chlamydial infections that could have implications for infection spread. We argue that, compared to less-frequent exposure, frequent exposure to chlamydia may well produce unique immunobiological characteristics that likely to have important clinical and epidemiological implications. METHODS AND RESULTS: As a novel tool for studying chlamydia, we applied principles of modeling within-host pathogen dynamics to enable an understanding of some fundamental characteristics of an individual's immunobiology during multiple chlamydial infections. While the models were able to reproduce shorter-term infection kinetics of primary and secondary infections previously observed in animal models, it was also observed that longer periods between initial and second infection may increase an individual's chlamydial load and lengthen their duration of infectiousness. The cessation of short-term repeated exposure did not allow for the formation of long-lasting immunity. However, frequent re-exposure non-intuitively linked the formation of protective immunity, persistent infection, and the potential for immunopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results provide interesting insights that should be verified with continued study. Nevertheless, these results appear to raise challenges for current evidence of the development of long-lasting immunity against chlamydia, and suggest the existence of a previously unidentified mechanism for the formation of persistent infection. The obvious next goal is to investigate the

  4. Genital elephantiasis and sexually transmitted infections - revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Sehgal, Virendra N; Kumar, Bhushan; Mete, Uttam

    2006-03-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an important medical problem in the tropics. It usually affects young and productive age group, and is associated with physical disability and extreme mental anguish. The majority of cases are due to filariasis; however, a small but significant proportion of patients develop genital elephantiasis due to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and donovanosis. STI-related genital elephantiasis should be differentiated from elephantiasis due to other causes, including filariasis, tuberculosis, haematological malignancies, iatrogenic, or dermatological diseases. Laboratory investigations like microscopy of tissue smear and nucleic acid amplification test for donovanosis, and serology and polymerase chain reaction for LGV may help in the diagnosis, but in endemic areas, in the absence of laboratory facilities, diagnosis largely depends on clinical characteristics. The causative agent of LGV, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1-L3, is a lymphotropic organism which leads to the development of thrombolymphangitis and perilymphangitis, and lymphadenitis. Long-standing oedema, fibrosis and lymphogranulomatous infiltration result in the final picture of elephantiasis. Elephantiasis in donovanosis is mainly due to constriction of the lymphatics which are trapped in the chronic granulomatous inflammatory response generated by the causative agent, Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis. The LGV-associated genital elephantiasis should be treated with a prolonged course of doxycycline given orally, while donovanosis should be treated with azithromycin or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole combination given for a minimum of three weeks. Genital elephantiasis is not completely reversible with medical therapy alone and often needs to be reduced surgically.

  5. Natural killer cells regulate Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance in chlamydial lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Dong, Xiaojing; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Yang, Xi; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell is an important component in innate immunity, playing a critical role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by modulating the function of other immune cells including T cells. In this study, we focused on the role of NK cells in regulating Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance during chlamydial lung infection. We found that NK cell-depleted mice showed decreased Th1 and Th17 cells, which was correlated with reduced interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17 and IL-22 production as well as T-bet and receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t expression compared with mice treated with the isotype control antibody. In contrast, NK cell depletion significantly increased Treg in cell number and related transcription factor (Foxp3) expression. The opposite trends of changes of Th1/Th17 and Treg led to significant reduction in the Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg ratios. The data implicate that NK cells play an important role in host defence against chlamydial lung infection, mainly through maintaining Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among women in sub-Saharan Africa: A structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbink, Jan Henk; Verweij, Stephan P; Struthers, Helen E; Ouburg, Sander; McIntyre, James A; Morré, Servaas A; Peters, Remco Ph

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae constitute major public health problems among women, but the burden of infection in sub-Saharan Africa is poorly documented. We conducted a structured review of the prevalence and incidence of genital, oral and anal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection in women in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science over a 10-year period for studies on epidemiology of genital, oral and anal chlamydial infection and gonorrhoea in women in all countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed geographic and demographic differences in prevalence and incidence of infection; weighted mean prevalence estimates were calculated with a random-effect model. A total of 102 study results were included, with data available for 24/49 of sub-Saharan countries. The weighted prevalence of chlamydial infection was lower among women in community-based studies (3.9%; 95% CI: 2.9-5.1%) than for women recruited at primary healthcare facilities (6.0%; 95% CI: 4.2-8.4%, p sub-Saharan Africa. Better control strategies are warranted to reduce the burden of infection and to prevent long-term complications of these infections.

  7. Chlamydial Protease-Like Activity Factor Mediated Protection Against C. trachomatis In Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Koundinya Lanka, Gopala Krishna; Chambers, James P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Zhong, Guangming; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    We have comprehensively demonstrated using the mouse model that intranasal immunization with recombinant chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF) leads to a significant reduction in bacterial burden, genital tract pathology and preserves fertility following intravaginal genital chlamydial challenge. In the present report, we evaluated the protective efficacy of rCPAF immunization in guinea pigs, a second animal model for genital chlamydial infection. Using a vaccination strategy similar to the mouse model, we intranasally immunized female guinea pigs with rCPAF plus CpG deoxynucleotides (CpG; as an adjuvant), and challenged intravaginally with C. trachomatis serovar D (CT-D). Immunization with rCPAF/CpG significantly reduced vaginal CT-D shedding and induced resolution of infection by day 24, compared to day 33 in CpG alone treated and challenged animals. Immunization induced robust anti-rCPAF serum IgG 2 weeks following the last immunization, and was sustained at a high level 4 weeks post challenge. Upregulation of antigen specific IFN-γ gene expression was observed in rCPAF/CpG vaccinated splenocytes. Importantly, a significant reduction in inflammation in the genital tissue in rCPAF/CpG-immunized guinea pigs compared to CpG-immunized animals was observed. Taken together, this study provides evidence of the protective efficacy of rCPAF as a vaccine candidate in a second animal model of genital chlamydial infection. PMID:27990018

  8. Clinical and morphological characteristics of chronic uretheroprostatitis associated with chlamydial and mycoplasmal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Kondratyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical symptoms, features of morphological structure of prostate in patients with chronic recurrent prostatitis associated with chlamydial and mycoplasmal infections. 60 male patients were examined. Anamnesis and interview data, results of laboratory and instrumental tests were analyzed. In 73.3% of cases cultural test and PCR allowed to identify M. hominis, U. urealiticum, M. genitalium, C. trachomatis in patients with chronic uretheroprostatitis. Out of 16 patients (26,6% of all examined with chronic recurrent uretheroprostatitis for whom neither chlamidial nor mycoplasmal infection was diagnosed by laboratory tests, for 14 patients (87,5% it was confirmed that patogenic urogenital infectious agents were localized intracellularly. Pathomorphological investigation of prostate bioptates allowed to estimate the type and degree of specific changes in the prostate tissue in cases of recurrent uretheroprostatitis resistant to the therapy and with frequent relapses.

  9. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J; Buckner, Lyndsey R; Sherchand, Shardulendra P; Chang, Theresa L; Zea, Arnold H; Martin, David H; Belland, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C. trachomatis.

  10. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok eAiyar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium’s capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C

  11. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  12. Comparison of antigen detection and quantitative PCR in the detection of chlamydial infection in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanger, Jon; Loader, Joanne; Wan, Charles; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-03-01

    The gold standard method for detecting chlamydial infection in domestic and wild animals is PCR, but the technique is not suited to testing animals in the field when a rapid diagnosis is frequently required. The objective of this study was to compare the results of a commercially available enzyme immunoassay test for Chlamydia against a quantitative Chlamydia pecorum-specific PCR performed on swabs collected from the conjunctival sac, nasal cavity and urogenital sinuses of naturally infected koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). The level of agreement for positive results between the two assays was low (43.2%). The immunoassay detection cut-off was determined as approximately 400 C. pecorum copies, indicating that the test was sufficiently sensitive to be used for the rapid diagnosis of active chlamydial infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of correct and consistent condom use on chlamydial and gonococcal infection among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Koumans, Emilia H; Sternberg, Maya; Pierce, Antonya; Papp, John; Unger, Elizabeth R; Sawyer, Mary; Black, Carolyn M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate the relationship between self-reported correct and consistent condom use and chlamydial and gonococcal infection. Cross-sectional study. An urban adolescent health care clinic. Patients A total of 509 adolescent girls tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection by urine nucleic acid amplification tests. Main Outcome Measure Effect of condom use on infection rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea. Consistent condom use was defined as using condoms for every act of vaginal sex and correct use as consistent use without any of the following: beginning sex without a condom, taking it off before finishing sex, flipping it over, condom breakage, or condom slippage. A total of 95% of the participants were African American, with a mean age of 16.6 years. Chlamydia prevalence was 21% (105/509) and gonorrhea prevalence was 7% (36/509). Condom errors were reported by 316 (71%) of 442 participants who had reported using a condom at least once in the previous 3 months. Consistent use was reported by 176 patients (35%); however, both correct and consistent use was reported by only 80 patients (16%). After adjusting for confounders, correct and consistent use was protective for chlamydia (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-1.0) and highly protective for gonorrhea (odds ratio, 0.1; 95% confidence interval, 0-0.7). Our findings indicate that assessing both correctness and consistency of use is important for evaluation of condom effectiveness.

  14. Chlamydial infection in a high risk population: association with vaginal flora patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Camila; Donders, Gilbert G G; Martin, Laura F; Ramos, Bruna R A; Duarte, Marli T C; Parada, Cristina M G L; Tristão, Andréa R; Silva, Márcia G

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection among high risk Brazilian women and evaluate its association with vaginal flora patterns. This was a cross-sectional study, performed in an outpatient clinic of Bauru State Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 142 women were included from 2006 to 2008. Inclusion criteria was dyspareunia, pain during bimanual exam, presence of excessive cervical mucus, cervical ectopy or with three or more episodes of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) in the previous year before enrollment. Endocervical CT testing was performed by PCR. Vaginal swabs were collected for microscopic assessment of the microbial flora pattern. Gram-stained smears were classified in normal, intermediate or bacterial vaginosis (BV), and recognition of Candida sp. morphotypes. Wet mount smears were used for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis and aerobic vaginitis (AV). Thirty-four of 142 women (23.9%) tested positive for CT. AVF was found in 50 (35.2%) cases. The most frequent type of AVF was BV (17.6%). CT was strongly associated with the presence of AV (n = 7, 4.9%, P = 0.018), but not BV (n = 25, 17.6%, P = 0.80) or intermediate flora (n = 18, 12.7%, P = 0.28). A high rate of chlamydial infection was found in this population. Chlamydia infection is associated with aerobic vaginitis.

  15. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection Progression to External Genital Lesions: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Messina, Jane L; Stoler, Mark H; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied; the biopsy specimens were subjected to pathologic evaluation and categorized by pathologic diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsy specimens. EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 mo were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 mo of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV 6 infection developed an HPV 6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV 11 infections progressed to an HPV 11-positive condyloma. During the first 12 mo of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV 16 infection developed an HPV 16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. In this study, we looked at genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented by a vaccine. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  18. Aberrant chlamydial developmental forms in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs spontaneously and experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole; Chowdhury, Emdad H; Guscetti, Franco

    2009-03-16

    The phenomenon of persistence is well known from in vitro studies, where it is associated with the production of aberrant bodies, but its occurrence in vivo is less well documented. The objective of this study was to search for aberrant bodies in intestinal tissues from pigs, describe their ultrastructure, and investigate the suitability of immunohistochemical staining for chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60) to detect such forms. Intestinal tissues derived from pigs naturally and experimentally infected with Chlamydia (C.) suis were examined by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. The chlamydial species involved in the natural infection were determined using an Array Tube Microarray to C. suis and Chlamydophila abortus. Ultrastructurally, aberrant bodies were detected in the gut of both naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the aberrant bodies were labeled less strongly than the normal forms by antibodies against LPS and cHSP60 respectively. It was concluded that aberrant bodies occur in vivo in pigs and that the gnotobiotic pig model might be suitable for the study of chlamydial persistence in vivo. The antibody against cHSP60 does not appear to be suitable to specifically detect such forms.

  19. Genital mycoplasmosis in rats: a model for intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M B; Peltier, M; Hillier, M; Crenshaw, B; Reyes, L

    2001-09-01

    Microbial infections of the chorioamnion and amniotic fluid have devastating effects on pregnancy outcome and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens cause adverse effects are best addressed by an animal model of the disease with a naturally-occurring pathogen. Intrauterine infection in humans as well as genital mycoplasmosis in humans and rodents is reviewed. We describe a genital infection in rats, which provides a model for the role of infection in pregnancy, pregnancy wastage, low birth weight, and fetal infection. Infection of Sprague-Dawley rats with Mycoplasma pulmonis either vaginally or intravenously resulted in decreased litter size, increased adverse pregnancy outcome, and in utero transmission of the microorganism to the fetus. Mycoplasma pulmonis is an ideal model to study maternal genital infection during pregnancy, the impact of infections on pregnancy outcome, fetal infection, and maternal-fetal immune interactions.

  20. Bioluminescence imaging of Chlamydia muridarum ascending infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Campbell

    Full Text Available Chlamydial pathogenicity in the upper genital tract relies on chlamydial ascending from the lower genital tract. To monitor chlamydial ascension, we engineered a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum. In cells infected with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, luciferase gene expression and enzymatic activity (measured as bioluminescence intensity correlated well along the infection course, suggesting that bioluminescence can be used for monitoring chlamydial replication. Following an intravaginal inoculation with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, 8 of 10 mice displayed bioluminescence signal in the lower with 4 also in the upper genital tracts on day 3 after infection. By day 7, all 10 mice developed bioluminescence signal in the upper genital tracts. The bioluminescence signal was maintained in the upper genital tract in 6 and 2 mice by days 14 and 21, respectively. The bioluminescence signal was no longer detectable in any of the mice by day 28. The whole body imaging approach also revealed an unexpected airway infection following the intravaginal inoculation. Although the concomitant airway infection was transient and did not significantly alter the genital tract infection time courses, caution should be taken during data interpretation. The above observations have demonstrated that C. muridarum can not only achieve rapid ascending infection in the genital tract but also cause airway infection following a genital tract inoculation. These findings have laid a foundation for further optimizing the C. muridarum intravaginal infection murine model for understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms.

  1. Infection with koala retrovirus subgroup B (KoRV-B), but not KoRV-A, is associated with chlamydial disease in free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney A; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; King, Andrew; Hobbs, Matthew; Johnson, Rebecca; Timms, Peter

    2017-03-09

    The virulence of chlamydial infection in wild koalas is highly variable between individuals. Some koalas can be infected (PCR positive) with Chlamydia for long periods but remain asymptomatic, whereas others develop clinical disease. Chlamydia in the koala has traditionally been studied without regard to coinfection with other pathogens, although koalas are usually subject to infection with koala retrovirus (KoRV). Retroviruses can be immunosuppressive, and there is evidence of an immunosuppressive effect of KoRV in vitro. Originally thought to be a single endogenous strain, a new, potentially more virulent exogenous variant (KoRV-B) was recently reported. We hypothesized that KoRV-B might significantly alter chlamydial disease outcomes in koalas, presumably via immunosuppression. By studying sub-groups of Chlamydia and KoRV infected koalas in the wild, we found that neither total KoRV load (either viraemia or proviral copies per genome), nor chlamydial infection level or strain type, was significantly associated with chlamydial disease risk. However, PCR positivity with KoRV-B was significantly associated with chlamydial disease in koalas (p = 0.02961). This represents an example of a recently evolved virus variant that may be predisposing its host (the koala) to overt clinical disease when co-infected with an otherwise asymptomatic bacterial pathogen (Chlamydia).

  2. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Nicole; Dumrese, Claudia; Ziegler, Urs; Schifferli, Andrea; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas

    2010-07-27

    Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs), medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 microm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs) was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  3. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Results Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs, medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 μm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. Conclusions In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  4. Genital Infection as a First Sign of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Oiso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene is a life-threatening disorder caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection. We report a case of genital infection as the initial warning sign of acute myeloid leukemia. We were able to prevent progression to Fournier’s gangrene in our patient by immediate intensive therapy with incision, blood transfusions and intravenous administration of antibiotics. This case suggests that hematologists and dermatologists should keep in mind that genital infection can be a first sign of hematologic malignancy.

  5. Genital Mycoplasma Infections Among Women In An Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    those who presented with vaginal discharge were infected with Mycoplasma spp. (P< 0.05); also, the incidence of infection among the separated/divorce/widowed group was significantly higher than the married group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Mycoplasmas are common genital organisms, hence should be sought out for from ...

  6. DNA immunization against experimental genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I; Lew, D

    1996-04-01

    A nucleic acid vaccine, expressing the gene encoding herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 glycoprotein D (gD2) under control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter, was used to immunize guinea pigs against genital HSV-2 infection. The vaccine elicited humoral immune responses comparable to those seen after HSV-2 infection. Immunized animals exhibited protection from primary genital HSV-2 disease with little or no development of vesicular skin lesions and significantly reduced HSV-2 replication in the genital tract. After recovery from primary infection, immunized guinea pigs experienced significantly fewer recurrences and had significantly less HSV-2 genomic DNA detected in the sacral dorsal root ganglia compared with control animals. Thus, immunization reduced the burden of latent infection resulting from intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, and a nucleic acid vaccine expressing the HSV-2 gD2 antigen protected guinea pigs against genital herpes, limiting primary infection and reducing the magnitude of latent infection and the frequency of recurrent disease.

  7. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sohrabi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections.This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits.HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59% with mean age of 32.35 ± 9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%, 160 (28.42% and 5 (0.89% cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%, 42 (26.2%, 17 (10.6% and 9 (5.7% cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases.In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections. Keywords: Multiple HPV Types, Incidence, Genital infection, Cervical cancer, Iran

  8. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  9. Diversity of Cervical Microbiota in Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Filardo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection continues to be an important public health problem worldwide due to its increasing incidence. C. trachomatis infection can lead to severe sequelae, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, obstructive infertility, and preterm birth. Recently, it has been suggested that the cervico-vaginal microbiota may be an important defense factor toward C. trachomatis infection as well as the development of chronic sequelae. Therefore, the investigation of microbial profiles associated to chlamydial infection is of the utmost importance. Here we present a pilot study aiming to characterize, through the metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons, the cervical microbiota from reproductive age women positive to C. trachomatis infection. The main finding of our study showed a marked increase in bacterial diversity in asymptomatic C. trachomatis positive women as compared to healthy controls in terms of Shannon's diversity and Shannon's evenness (P = 0.031 and P = 0.026, respectively. More importantly, the cervical microbiota from C. trachomatis positive women and from healthy controls significantly separated into two clusters in the weighted UniFrac analysis (P = 0.0027, suggesting that differences between the two groups depended entirely on the relative abundance of bacterial taxa rather than on the types of bacterial taxa present. Furthermore, C. trachomatis positive women showed an overall decrease in Lactobacillus spp. and an increase in anaerobes. These findings are part of an ongoing larger epidemiological study that will evaluate the potential role of distinct bacterial communities of the cervical microbiota in C. trachomatis infection.

  10. The female lower genital tract is a privileged compartment with IL-10 producing dendritic cells and poor Th1 immunity following Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

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    Ellen Marks

    Full Text Available While a primary genital tract infection with C. trachomatis stimulates partial-protection against re-infection, it may also result in severe inflammation and tissue destruction. Here we have dissected whether functional compartments exist in the genital tract that restrict Th1-mediated protective immunity. Apart from the Th1-subset, little is known about the role of other CD4(+ T cell subsets in response to a genital tract chlamydial infection. Therefore, we investigated CD4(+ T cell subset differentiation in the genital tract using RT-PCR for expression of critical transcription factors and cytokines in the upper (UGT and lower genital tract (LGT of female C57BL/6 mice in response to C. trachomatis serovar D infection. We found that the Th1 subset dominated the UGT, as IFN-γ and T-bet mRNA expression were high, while GATA-3 was low following genital infection with C. trachomatis serovar D. By contrast, IL-10 and GATA-3 mRNA dominated the LGT, suggesting the presence of Th2 cells. These functional compartments also attracted regulatory T cells (Tregs differently as increased FoxP3 mRNA expression was seen primarily in the UGT. Although IL-17A mRNA was somewhat up-regulated in the LGT, no significant change in RORγ-t mRNA expression was observed, suggesting no involvement of Th17 cells. The dichotomy between the LGT and UGT was maintained during infection by IL-10 because in IL-10-deficient mice the distinction between the two compartments was completely lost and a dramatic shift to the predominance of Th1 cells in the LGT occurred. Unexpectedly, the major source of IL-10 was CD11c(+ CD11b(+ DC, probably creating an anti-inflammatory privileged site in the LGT.

  11. Infection with koala retrovirus subgroup B (KoRV-B), but not KoRV-A, is associated with chlamydial disease in free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    OpenAIRE

    Waugh, Courtney A.; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; King, Andrew; Hobbs, Matthew; Johnson, Rebecca; Timms, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The virulence of chlamydial infection in wild koalas is highly variable between individuals. Some koalas can be infected (PCR positive) with Chlamydia for long periods but remain asymptomatic, whereas others develop clinical disease. Chlamydia in the koala has traditionally been studied without regard to coinfection with other pathogens, although koalas are usually subject to infection with koala retrovirus (KoRV). Retroviruses can be immunosuppressive, and there is evidence of an immunosuppr...

  12. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Qualai

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  13. The cryptic plasmid is more important for Chlamydia muridarum to colonize the mouse gastrointestinal tract than to infect the genital tract.

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    Lili Shao

    Full Text Available Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals and humans. However, the mechanism by which Chlamydia colonizes the gut remains unclear. Chlamydia muridarum is known to spread from the genital to the gastrointestinal tracts hematogenously. The C. muridarum plasmid is a key pathogenic determinant in the mouse upper genital tract although plasmid-deficient C. muridarum is still able to colonize the upper genital tract. We now report that plasmid-deficient C. muridarum exhibits significantly delayed/reduced spreading from the mouse genital to the gastrointestinal tracts. C. muridarum with or without plasmid maintained similar levels in the mouse circulatory system following intravenous inoculation but the hematogenous plasmid-deficient C. muridarum was significantly less efficient in colonizing the gastrointestinal tract. Consistently, plasmid-deficient C. muridarum failed to restore normal colonization in the gastrointestinal tract even after intragastric inoculation at a high dose. Thus, we have demonstrated a plasmid-dependent colonization of C. muridarum in the gastrointestinal tract, supporting the concept that C. muridarum may have acquired the plasmid for adaptation to the mouse gastrointestinal tract during oral-fecal transmission. Since the plasmid is more important for C. muridarum to colonize the gastrointestinal tract than to infect the genital tract, the current study has laid a foundation for further defining the host pathways targeted by the plasmid-encoded or -regulated chlamydial effectors.

  14. Genital herpes simplex virus infections: clinical manifestations, course, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, L; Adams, H G; Brown, Z A; Holmes, K K

    1983-06-01

    The clinical course and complications of 268 patients with first episodes and 362 with recurrent episodes of genital herpes infection were reviewed. Symptoms of genital herpes were more severe in women than in men. Primary first-episode genital herpes was accompanied by systemic symptoms (67%), local pain and itching (98%), dysuria (63%), and tender adenopathy (80%). Patients presented with several bilaterally distributed postular ulcerative lesions that lasted a mean of 19.0 days. Herpes simplex virus was isolated from the urethra, cervix, and pharynx of 82%, 88%, and 13% of women with first-episode primary genital herpes, and the urethra and pharynx of 28% and 7% of men. Complications included aseptic meningitis (8%), sacral autonomic nervous system dysfunction (2%), development of extragenital lesions (20%), and secondary yeast infections (11%). Recurrent episodes were characterized by small vesicular or ulcerative unilaterally distributed lesions that lasted a mean of 10.1 days. Systemic symptoms were uncommon and 25% of recurrent episodes were asymptomatic. The major concerns of patients were the frequency of recurrences and fear of transmitting infection to partners or infants.

  15. Validity of genito-urinary discharges, genital ulcers and genital rashes as indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection

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    Eziyi Iche Kalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the validity of vaginal discharges, urethral discharges, genital rashes, and painful genital ulcers as indicators of early detection of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection among pregnant women in Benin metropolis. Methods: Participants were antenatal clinic attendees of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital, Benin. Baseline sociodemographic, obstetric and HSV-2 serological data were collected. The HSV-2-seronegative returned for a repeat HSV-2 antibody assay before delivery date. Data on incidence of genital rashes, abnormal vaginal discharges, painful genital ulcers and urethral discharges were collected. Results: The sensitivities of abnormal vaginal discharges, genital rashes, urethral discharges and painful genital ulcers were 82.3%, 70.6%, 41.2% and 28.6% respectively; while their positive-predictive values were 53.8%, 60.0%, 58.3% and 66.7% respective. All the symptoms had >95% specificities and 95% negative-predictive values for seroincident HSV-2 infection. Conclusions: Abnormal vaginal discharge, genital rashes, urethral discharges and genital ulcers are valid indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection and could be useful in formulation of screening tools in resource-limited settings.

  16. Humoral immune responses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) either naturally infected with Chlamydia pecorum or following administration of a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Polkinghorne, Adam; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-02-03

    The development of a vaccine is a key strategy to combat the widespread and debilitating effects of chlamydial infection in koalas. One such vaccine in development uses recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) as an antigen and has shown promising results in several koala trials. Previous chlamydial vaccine studies, primarily in the mouse model, suggest that both cell-mediated and antibody responses will be required for adequate protection. Recently, the important protective role of antibodies has been highlighted. In our current study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the antibody-mediated immune response in koalas that are either (a) naturally-infected, and/or (b) had received an rMOMP vaccine. Firstly, we observed that naturally-infected koalas had very low levels of Chlamydia pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A strong correlation between low IgG total titers/neutralising antibody levels, and higher C. pecorum infection load was also observed in these naturally-infected animals. In vaccinated koalas, we showed that the vaccine was able to boost the humoral immune response by inducing strong levels of C. pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A detailed characterisation of the MOMP epitope response was also performed in naturally-infected and vaccinated koalas using a PepScan epitope approach. This analysis identified unique sets of MOMP epitope antibodies between naturally-infected non-protected and diseased koalas, versus vaccinated koalas, with the latter group of animals producing a unique set of specific epitope-directed antibodies that we demonstrated were responsible for the in vitro neutralisation activity. Together, these results show the importance of antibodies in chlamydial infection and immunity following vaccination in the koala. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections

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    François Coutlee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.

  18. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

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    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  19. Development of principles of two-cascaded laser speckle-microscopy with implication to high-precision express diagnostics of chlamydial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianova, Onega; Moiseeva, Yulia; Filonova, Nadezhda; Subbotina, Irina; Zaitsev, Sergey; Saltykov, Yury; Polyanina, Tatiana; Lyapina, Anna; Ulyanov, Sergey; Larionova, Olga; Utz, Sergey; Feodorova, Valentina

    2018-04-01

    Principles of two-cascaded laser speckle-microscopy prospect for application to express diagnostics of chlamydial infection are developed. Prototype of two-cascaded speckle-microscope is designed and tested. Specific case of illumination of bacterial cells by dynamic speckles is considered. Express method of detection of epithelial cells, containing defects, which are caused by Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria, is suggested. Results of improved recognition of C. trachomatis bacteria are discussed.

  20. Genital herpes simplex virus infection: clinical course and attempted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L G; Keeney, R E

    1981-06-01

    The epidemiology, clinical course, diagnosis, and attempted treatments of herpes genitalis are reviewed. Herpes genitalis is an increasingly common sexually transmitted disease for which there is no effective treatment. It can occur in either sex and is mot commonly first found in patients 14 to 29 years old. Initial exposure to the virus may result in prolonged local symptoms (pain, itching, discharge) and signs (ulcerative lesions) as well as fever, malaise, myalgias, and fatigue. After the initial exposure, the virus may be found in a latent stage in the dorsal nerve root ganglia in the sacral area, and recurrences of disease may ensue. The frequency and clinical course of recurrent genital herpes can be of varying duration and severity. Although antiviral substances, immune potentiators, topical surfactants, and photodynamic inactivation have been used to treat genital herpes infections, there is no proven effective therapy.

  1. Dendrimer-conjugated peptide vaccine enhances clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganda, Ingrid S; Zhong, Qian; Hali, Mirabela; Albuquerque, Ricardo L C; Padilha, Francine F; da Rocha, Sandro R P; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A

    2017-07-15

    Peptide-based vaccines have emerged in recent years as promising candidates in the prevention of infectious diseases. However, there are many challenges to maintaining in vivo peptide stability and enhancement of peptide immunogenicity to generate protective immunity which enhances clearance of infections. Here, a dendrimer-based carrier system is proposed for peptide-based vaccine delivery, and shows its anti-microbial feasibility in a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydiae are the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacteria worldwide, and also the causal agent of trachoma, the leading cause of preventable infectious blindness. In spite of the prevalence of this infectious agent and the many previous vaccine-related studies, there is no vaccine commercially available. The carrier system proposed consists of generation 4, hydroxyl-terminated, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G4OH), to which a peptide mimic of a chlamydial glycolipid antigen-Peptide 4 (Pep4, AFPQFRSATLLL) was conjugated through an ester bond. The ester bond between G4OH and Pep4 is expected to break down mainly in the intracellular environment for antigen presentation. Pep4 conjugated to dendrimer induced Chlamydia-specific serum antibodies after subcutaneous immunizations. Further, this new vaccine formulation significantly protected immunized animals from vaginal challenge with infectious Chlamydia trachomatis, and it reduced infectious loads and tissue (genital tract) damage. Pep4 conjugated to G4OH or only mixed with peptide provided enhanced protection compared to Pep4 and adjuvant (i.e. alum), suggesting a potential adjuvant effect of the PAMAM dendrimer. Combined, these results demonstrate that hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimer is a promising polymeric nanocarrier platform for the delivery of peptide vaccines and this approach has potential to be expanded to other infectious intracellular bacteria and viruses of public health significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  2. CHLAMYFAST-OIA TEST IN THE GENITAL CHLAMYDIA MALE INFECTION DIAGNOSIS

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    Anka Vasic

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ch. trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum represent, in the countries with developed industry, those diseases which are most often sexually transmissible. Chronic infections provoked by the mentioned causes are considered to be the risk factors for sterility.The aim of this paper is to examine the importance and specific characteristics of the CHLAMYFAST-OIA test in the Chlamydia genital infection diagnosis. This study includes 400 male patients with urethritis symptoms. The CHLAMYFAST-optical immunologic test has been used to determine the presence of the Ch. trachomatis in the genital tract of 360 males (Mycoplasma, International, France. The genital microplasmas, that is M. hominis and U. urealyticum, have been detected with the use of MYCOFAST-test (Mycroplasm International, France. The presence of the genital microplasmas has been studied in 129 patients.Chlamydia genital infection has been determined in 128 males (35,55%. The genital infection caused by M. hominis has been determined in a largely lower number of patients (3; 2,32%, as well as the infection caused by U. urealyticum (in 8 patients; 6,20%. Mixed infections have been detected in 8 patients. In 6 men (4,64% there has been detected a mixed infection caused by genital microplasmas. The mixed infection provoked by Ch. Trachomatis and M. hominis, and the one caused by Ch. trachomatis and U. urealyticum, has been proven only in one patient respectively.

  3. A trivalent subunit antigen glycoprotein vaccine as immunotherapy for genital herpes in the guinea pig genital infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Hook, Lauren M; Shaw, Carolyn E; Friedman, Harvey M

    2017-12-02

    An estimated 417 million people worldwide ages 15 to 49 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the most common cause of genital ulcer disease. Some individuals experience frequent recurrences of genital lesions, while others only have subclinical infection, yet all risk transmitting infection to their intimate partners. A vaccine was developed that prevents shingles, which is a recurrent infection caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a closely related member of the Herpesviridae family. The success of the VZV vaccine has stimulated renewed interest in a therapeutic vaccine for genital herpes. We have been evaluating a trivalent subunit antigen vaccine for prevention of genital herpes. Here, we assess the trivalent vaccine as immunotherapy in guinea pigs that were previously infected intravaginally with HSV-2. The trivalent vaccine contains HSV-2 glycoproteins C, D, and E (gC2, gD2, gE2) subunit antigens administered with CpG and alum as adjuvants. We previously demonstrated that antibodies to gD2 neutralize the virus while antibodies to gC2 and gE2 block their immune evasion activities, including evading complement attack and inhibiting activities mediated by the IgG Fc domain, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the trivalent vaccine significantly boosts ELISA titers and neutralizing antibody titers. The trivalent vaccine reduces the frequency of recurrent genital lesions and vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA by approximately 50% and almost totally eliminates vaginal shedding of replication-competent virus, suggesting that the trivalent vaccine is a worthy candidate for immunotherapy of genital herpes.

  4. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  5. The distribution of the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in communities where trachoma is disappearing

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    Thomas M. Lietman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models predict that the prevalence of infection in different communities where an infectious disease is disappearing should approach a geometric distribution. Trachoma programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization (WHO has targeted trachoma to be eliminated as a public health concern by the year 2020. We assess the distribution of the community prevalence of childhood ocular chlamydia infection from periodic, cross-sectional surveys in two areas of Ethiopia. These surveys were taken in a controlled setting, where infection was documented to be disappearing over time. For both sets of surveys, the geometric distribution had the most parsimonious fit of the distributions tested, and goodness-of-fit testing was consistent with the prevalence of each community being drawn from a geometric distribution. When infection is disappearing, the single sufficient parameter describing a geometric distribution captures much of the distributional information found from examining every community. The relatively heavy tail of the geometric suggests that the presence of an occasional high-prevalence community is to be expected, and does not necessarily reflect a transmission hot spot or program failure. A single cross-sectional survey can reveal which direction a program is heading. A geometric distribution of the prevalence of infection across communities may be an encouraging sign, consistent with a disease on its way to eradication.

  6. Genital sores - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  7. Human Papillomaviruses and genital co-infections in gynaecological outpatients

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    Nicosia Rosa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High grade HPV infections and persistence are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Nevertheless other genital microorganisms may be involved in the progression of HPV associated lesions. Methods Cervical samples were collected to search for human Papillomavirus (HPV, bacteria and yeast infections in gynaecologic outpatients. HPV typing was carried out by PCR and sequencing on cervical brush specimens. Chlamydia trachomatis was identified by strand displacement amplification (SDA and the other microorganisms were detected by conventional methods. Results In this cross-sectional study on 857 enrolled outpatients, statistical analyses revealed a significant association of HPV with C. trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum (at high density detection, whereas no correlation was found between HPV infection and bacterial vaginosis, Streptococcus agalactiae, yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis and U. urealyticum. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated only in a few cases both in HPV positive and negative women and no patient was infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Conclusion Although bacterial vaginosis was not significantly associated with HPV, it was more common among the HPV positive women. A significant association between HPV and C. trachomatis was found and interestingly also with U. urealyticum but only at a high colonization rate. These data suggest that it may be important to screen for the simultaneous presence of different microorganisms which may have synergistic pathological effects.

  8. Natural cross chlamydial infection between livestock and free-living bird species.

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    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.

  9. Recent trends in chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis among neonates and adults in an Irish hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quirke, Michael

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are two important and frequently overlooked causes of neonatal and adult conjunctivitis. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: In order to improve primary treatment, prevention, and control of infection caused by these organisms, an analysis of all cases presenting from July 2002 to December 2006 at a major Irish regional teaching hospital was performed. RESULTS: There were 51 cases of conjunctivitis in total. Among neonates and adults, C. trachomatis was the most common cause of conjunctivitis. Of the adult patients, 75% were men. The annual incidence of adult chlamydial conjunctivitis increased yearly from 2002 and correlated with an overall increase in genital chlamydia infection in the region. Neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis has an overall incidence of 0.65\\/1000 live births and is continuing to rise annually. In 2006, gonococcal conjunctivitis accounted for 20% of all cases of conjunctivitis caused by sexually transmitted bacteria presenting to our hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in the incidence of gonococcal keratitis serves to remind us that this important infection should be borne in mind when treating cases of purulent conjunctivitis. The diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment with systemic antibiotics.

  10. Chlamydial infections in feral pigeons in Europe: Review of data and focus on public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnino, S; Haag-Wackernagel, D; Geigenfeind, I; Helmecke, S; Dovc, A; Prukner-Radovcić, E; Residbegović, E; Ilieski, V; Laroucau, K; Donati, M; Martinov, S; Kaleta, E F

    2009-03-16

    Feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica), which thrive in most European towns and cities, are commonly infected with the zoonotic bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci, the agent of psittacosis (also known as ornithosis) in humans. A number of surveys carried out over the last thirty years across Europe have detected high seropositivity values and high percentages of infection in feral pigeon populations. Overall, when considering data from 11 European countries, seropositivity values to C. psittaci in the sampled populations ranged from 19.4% to 95.6%. In most surveys, the complement fixation test was used, and antibodies were detected in 19.4-66.3% of the samples, with a median of 46.1%. Indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA tests were employed less frequently, but led to the detection of higher percentages of seropositivity (23.7-67.7% and 35.9-95.6%, respectively). Attempts to grow C. psittaci in cell culture or embryonated chicken eggs were successful in 2-42.3% and 0-57.1% of samples, respectively, antigen detection methods were positive in 2.3-40% of samples, while conventional PCR and real-time PCR using different genomic targets detected the organism in 3.4-50% of samples. Twenty-five C. psittaci isolates from pigeons were typed as ompA genotype B (n=14), E (n=10) and E/B (n=1). The huge increase of feral pigeon populations in Europe is a major cause of concern for the detrimental effect of pigeon droppings on environmental hygiene, in addition to the extensive damage due to the fouling of buildings and monuments. The most important pathogenic organism transmissible from feral pigeons to humans is C. psittaci, with 101 cases of disease reported in the literature. Exposure to C. psittaci-contaminated dust, direct contact with pigeons through handling and, to a lesser extent, through pigeon feeding have been identified as hazardous exposures in more than half of the human cases, while loose or transient contacts with feral pigeons have been mentioned in about 40

  11. Genital infections and syndromic diagnosis among HIV-infected women in HIV care programmes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomand, Gaston; Gao, Hongjiang; Singa, Benson; Hornston, Sureyya; Bennett, Eddas; Odek, James; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Control of genital infections remains challenging in most regions. Despite advocacy by the World Health Organization for syndromic case management, there are limited data on the syndromic approach, especially in HIV care settings. This study compared the syndromic approach with laboratory diagnosis among women in HIV care in Kenya. A mobile team visited 39 large HIV care programmes in Kenya and enrolled participants using population-proportionate sampling. Participants provided behavioural and clinical data with genital and blood specimens for lab testing. Among 1063 women, 68.4% had been on antiretroviral therapy >1 year; 58.9% were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis; 51 % had CD4+T-lymphocytes Kenya have high rates of vaginal infections. Syndromic diagnosis was a poor predictor of those infections. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Knowledge of genital herpes infection among antenatal clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a major cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide and a significant factor for increased risk of acquisition and transmission of the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV). The determination of the level of knowledge of genital herpes is necessary for the design and implementation of ...

  13. Design of the FemCure study: prospective multicentre study on the transmission of genital and extra-genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women receiving routine care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.; Eppings, Lisanne; Götz, Hannelore M.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Janssen, Kevin; Lucchesi, Mayk; Heijman, Titia; van Benthem, Birgit H.; van Bergen, Jan E.; Morre, Servaas A.; Herbergs, Jos; Kok, Gerjo; Steenbakkers, Mieke; Hogewoning, Arjan A.; de Vries, Henry J.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2016-01-01

    In women, anorectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are about as common as genital CT, yet the anorectal site remains largely untested in routine care. Anorectal CT frequently co-occurs with genital CT and may thus often be treated co-incidentally. Nevertheless, post-treatment detection

  14. Cognitive orientation and genital infections in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, S; Kreitler, H; Schwartz, R

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to explore the psychological determinants of common genital infections in young women. The study was done in the framework of the cognitive orientation theory which assumes that cognition guides behavior and provides predictions of behaviors and psychophysiological phenomena. We expected that beliefs of four types (about self, norms, goals, and general) would predict the occurrence and/or frequency of 17 gynecological symptoms (e.g., itching, swelling, different vaginal discharges, abscesses). The subjects were 195 female volunteers, undergraduates, about 23 years old, without gross gynecological disorders, mostly (87.7%) unmarried, mostly (83.6%) having had intercourse. They were administered anonymously questionnaires about demographic variables, frequency and treatment of gynecological symptoms and 3 urological ones (for control), and about cognitive orientation that referred to pretested themes (e.g., assertiveness, hypochondriasis). Stepwise discriminant and regression analyses showed that the belief types enabled predicting the occurrence and frequency of all symptoms, with a mean 34.5% improvement over the 50% chance level, accounting for 45.7-67.2% of the variance. Also the urological symptoms were predicted although at a lower level. Discussion focuses on the specificity of cognitive-motivational determinants and their role in producing conditions favoring physical pathology.

  15. Laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of herpes simplex 1 and 2 genital infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinšek Biškup, Urška; Uršič, Tina; Petrovec, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Although herpes simplex virus type 2 is the major cause of genital lesions, herpes simplex virus type 1 accounts for half of new cases in developed countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence rises with sexual activity from adolescence through adulthood. Slovenian data in a high-risk population shows 16% seroprevalence of HSV-2. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA in genital swabs was detected in 19% and 20.7%, respectively. In most cases, genital herpes is asymptomatic. Primary genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 can be manifested by a severe clinical picture, involving the vesicular skin and mucosal changes and ulcerative lesions of the vulva, vagina, and cervix in women and in the genital region in men. Direct methods of viral genome detection are recommended in the acute stage of primary and recurrent infections when manifest ulcers or lesions are evident. Serological testing is recommended as an aid in diagnosing genital herpes in patients with reinfection in atypical or already healed lesions. When herpes lesions are present, all sexual activities should be avoided to prevent transmission of infection. Antiviral drugs can reduce viral shedding and thus reduce the risk of sexual transmission of the virus.

  16. Chlamydial plasmids and bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowska-Warych, Małgorzata; Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia are absolute pathogens of humans and animals; despite being rather well recognised, they are still open for discovery. One such discovery is the occurrence of extrachromosomal carriers of genetic information. In prokaryotes, such carriers include plasmids and bacteriophages, which are present only among some Chlamydia species. Plasmids were found exclusively in Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. pneumoniae, C. suis, C. felis, C. muridarum and C. caviae. In prokaryotic organisms, plasmids usually code for genes that facilitate survival of the bacteria in the environment (although they are not essential). In chlamydia, their role has not been definitely recognised, apart from the fact that they participate in the synthesis of glycogen and encode proteins responsible for their virulence. Furthermore, in C. suis it was evidenced that the plasmid is integrated in a genomic island and contains the tetracycline-resistance gene. Bacteriophages specific for chlamydia (chlamydiaphages) were detected only in six species: C. psittaci, C. abortus, C. felis, C. caviae C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae. These chlamydiaphages cause inhibition of the developmental cycle, and delay transformation of reticulate bodies (RBs) into elementary bodies (EBs), thus reducing the possibility of infecting other cells in time. Plasmids and bacteriophages can be used in the diagnostics of chlamydioses; although especially in the case of plasmids, they are already used for detection of chlamydial infections. In addition, bacteriophages could be used as therapeutic agents to replace antibiotics, potentially addressing the problem of increasing antibiotic-resistance among chlamydia.

  17. Genital Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus Among Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Persons with HSV-2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronstein, Elizabeth; Johnston, Christine; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Warren, Terri; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Context Since HSV-2 antibody tests have become commercially available, an increasing number of persons learn that they have genital herpes through serologic testing. The course of natural history of HSV-2 in asymptomatic, seropositive persons is uncertain. Objective To evaluate the virologic and clinical course of HSV genital shedding among participants with symptomatic and asymptomatic HSV-2 infection. Design, Setting and Participants Cohort of 498 immunocompetent HSV-2 seropositive persons enrolled in prospective studies of genital HSV shedding at the University of Washington Virology Research Clinic, Seattle, Washington, and Westover Heights Clinic in Portland, Oregon, between 1992 and 2008. Each participant obtained daily self-collected swabs of genital secretions for ≥ 30 days. Main Outcome Measurement The rate of viral shedding measured by quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV DNA from genital swabs. Results HSV was detected on 4,753 of 23,683 days (20.1%; 95% CI, 18.3 to 22.0) in persons with symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection compared with 519 of 5,070 days (10.2%; 95% CI, 7.7 to 13.6) in persons with asymptomatic infection, pgenital viral shedding among persons with symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection compared with 85 of 519 days (16.4%; 95% CI, 11.2 to 23.9) among persons with asymptomatic infection, pgenital tract less frequently than persons with symptomatic infection, but much of the difference is attributable to less frequent genital lesions, as lesions are accompanied by frequent viral shedding. PMID:21486977

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results: The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%. The use of the intrauterine device (IUD as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas.

  19. Genital mycoplasma & Chlamydia trachomatis infections in treatment naïve HIV-1 infected adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Dhawan, Benu; Chaudhry, Rama; Vajpayee, Madhu; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) enhance the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thus, screening for STIs is a routine component of primary HIV care. There are limited data for selective screening guidelines for genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis in HIV-infected adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of genital infections with Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and C. trachomatis in treatment naïve asymptomatic HIV-1 - infected adults and study their association with CD4+ T-cell count. Methods: First-void urine samples were collected from 100 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adults and 50 healthy volunteers. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis were detected by both culture and PCR. Circulating CD4+ cell counts of HIV-1-infected patients were determined from peripheral blood by flow-cytometry. Results: C. trachomatis was detected in 7 per cent of HIV-1-infected adults compared to none in control population. Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis showed infection rates of 6 and 1 per cent in the HIV group and 2 and 0 per cent in the control group, respectively. None of the individuals from the patient and control groups was tested positive for M. genitalium. A significant association was found between CD4 cell count and detection of C. trachomatis in HIV-infected adults (P = 0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: Screening of HIV-infected individuals for C. trachomatis infection could be recommended as a routine component of HIV care. The role of mycoplasmas as co-pathogens of the genitourinary tract in HIV-1 infected patients seems to be unlikely. Further longitudinal studies need to be done to confirm these findings. PMID:22310829

  20. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Genital human papilloma virus, Pap smear, Risk factors. Access this article online .... their Pap smears taken and questionnaires on sexual attitudes, .... the high‑risk types, which mediate the response of the enhancer to steroid ...

  1. Genital and urinary tract infections in diabetes: impact of pharmacologically-induced glucosuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Suzanne; Fonseca, Vivian; Castro-Diaz, David; List, James; Parikh, Shamik

    2014-01-01

    Predisposition to genital infections and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results from several factors such as glucosuria, adherence of bacteria to the uroepithelium and immune dysfunction. The tendency to develop these infections could be even higher in patients

  2. Recurrences after oral and genital herpes simplex virus infection. Influence of site of infection and viral type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, W E; Coombs, R W; Benedetti, J; Critchlow, C; Corey, L

    1987-06-04

    We prospectively followed 39 adults with concurrent primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (12 with HSV type 1 and 27 with HSV type 2) of the oropharynx and genitalia, caused by the same virus in each person, to evaluate the influence of viral type (HSV-1 vs. HSV-2) and site of infection (oropharyngeal vs. genital) on the frequency of recurrence. The subsequent recurrence patterns of HSV infection differed markedly according to viral type and anatomical site. Oral-labial recurrences developed in 5 of 12 patients with HSV-1 and 1 of 27 patients with HSV-2 (P less than 0.001). Conversely, genital recurrences developed in 24 of 27 patients with HSV-2 and 3 of 12 patients with HSV-1 (P less than 0.01). The mean rate of subsequent genital recurrences (due to HSV-1 and HSV-2) was 0.23 per month, whereas the mean rate of oral-labial recurrences was only 0.04 per month (P less than 0.001). The mean monthly frequencies of recurrence were, in order, genital HSV-2 infections, 0.33 per month; oral-labial HSV-1 infections, 0.12 per month; genital HSV-1 infections, 0.020 per month; and oral HSV-2 infections, 0.001 per month (P less than 0.01 for each comparison). We conclude that the likelihood of reactivation of HSV infection differs between HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections and between the sacral and trigeminal anatomical sites. The sixfold more frequent clinical recurrence rate of genital HSV infections as compared with oral-labial HSV infections may account for the relatively rapid increase in the prevalence of clinically recognized genital herpes in recent years.

  3. Vγ4+ T Cells: A Novel IL-17-Producing γδ T Subsets during the Early Phase of Chlamydial Airway Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-da Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that γδ T cells provided immune protection against Chlamydial muridarum (Cm, an obligate intracellular strain of chlamydia trachomatis, lung infection by producing abundant IL-17. In this study, we investigated the proliferation and activation of lung γδ T cell subsets, specifically the IL-17 and IFNγ production by them following Cm lung infection. Our results found that five γδ T cell subsets, Vγ1+ T, Vγ2+ T, Vγ4+ T, Vγ5+ T, and Vγ6+ T, expressed in lungs of naïve mice, while Cm lung infection mainly induced the proliferation and activation of Vγ4+ T cells at day 3 p.i., following Vγ1+ T cells at day 7 p.i. Cytokine detection showed that Cm lung infection induced IFNγ secretion firstly by Vγ4+ T cells at very early stage (day 3 and changed to Vγ1+ T cells at midstage (day 7. Furthermore, Vγ4+ T cell is the main γδ T cell subset that secretes IL-17 at the very early stage of Cm lung infection and Vγ1+ T cell did not secrete IL-17 during the infection. These findings provide in vivo evidence that Vγ4+T cells are the major IL-17 and IFNγ-producing γδ T cell subsets at the early period of Cm lung infection.

  4. The contribution of Chlamydia-specific CD8⁺ T cells to upper genital tract pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Kelly R; Li, Weidang; Manam, Srikanth; Zanotti, Brian; Nicholson, Bruce J; Ramsey, Kyle H; Murthy, Ashlesh K

    2016-02-01

    Genital chlamydial infections lead to severe upper reproductive tract pathology in a subset of untreated women. We demonstrated previously that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-producing CD8(+) T cells contribute significantly to chlamydial upper genital tract pathology in female mice. In addition, we observed that minimal chlamydial oviduct pathology develops in OT-1 transgenic (OT-1) mice, wherein the CD8(+) T-cell repertoire is restricted to recognition of the ovalbumin peptide Ova(257-264), suggesting that non-Chlamydia-specific CD8(+) T cells may not be responsible for chlamydial pathogenesis. In the current study, we evaluated whether antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells mediate chlamydial pathology. Groups of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J, OT-1 mice, and OT-1 mice replete with WT CD8(+) T cells (1 × 10(6) cells per mouse intravenously) were infected intravaginally with C. muridarum (5 × 10(4) IFU/mouse). Serum total anti-Chlamydia antibody and total splenic anti-Chlamydia interferon (IFN)-γ and TNF-α responses were comparable among the three groups of animals. However, Chlamydia-specific IFN-γ and TNF-α production from purified splenic CD8(+) T cells of OT-1 mice was minimal, whereas responses in OT-1 mice replete with WT CD8(+) T cells were comparable to those in WT animals. Vaginal chlamydial clearance was comparable between the three groups of mice. Importantly, the incidence and severity of oviduct and uterine horn pathology was significantly reduced in OT-1 mice but reverted to WT levels in OT-1 mice replete with WT CD8(+) T cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Chlamydia-specific CD8(+) T cells contribute significantly to upper genital tract pathology.

  5. Virologic and Immunologic Evidence of Multifocal Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J.; McClurkan, Christopher M.; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W.; Huang, Meei-li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P genital tract and are associated with a localized cellular infiltrate that was demonstrated to be HSV specific in 3 cases. These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. IMPORTANCE This detailed report of the anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 shedding demonstrates that HSV-2 reactivation can be detected at multiple bilateral sites in the genital tract, suggesting that HSV establishes latency throughout the sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells are found at sites of asymptomatic shedding. These findings suggest that widespread asymptomatic genital HSV-2 shedding is associated with a targeted host immune response and contributes to chronic

  6. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.

  7. Animal models for studying female genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model.

  8. Influence of common mucosal co-factors on HIV infection in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K; Kaushic, Charu

    2014-06-01

    Women constitute almost half of HIV-infected population globally, and the female genital tract (FGT) accounts for approximately 40% of all new HIV infections worldwide. The FGT is composed of upper and lower parts, distinct in their morphological and functional characteristics. Co-factors in the genital microenvironment, such as presence of hormones, semen, and other sexually transmitted infections, can facilitate or deter HIV infection and play a critical role in determining susceptibility to HIV. In this review, we examine some of these co-factors and their potential influence. Presence of physical and chemical barriers such as epithelial tight junctions, mucus, and anti-microbial peptides can actively block and inhibit viral replication, presenting a significant deterrent to HIV. Upon exposure, HIV and other pathogens first encounter the genital epithelium: cells that express a wide repertoire of pattern recognition receptors that can recognize and directly initiate innate immune responses. These and other interactions in the genital tract can lead to direct and indirect inflammation and enhance the number of local target cells, immune activation, and microbial translocation, all of which promote HIV infection and replication. Better understanding of the dynamics of HIV transmission in the female genital tract would be invaluable for improving the design of prophylactic strategies against HIV. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ureaplasma serovars & their antimicrobial susceptibility in patients of infertility & genital tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Benu; Malhotra, Neena; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Chaudhry, Rama; Mittal, Suneeta

    2012-12-01

    Ureaplasmas have been implicated in a variety of clinical conditions. However, only certain serovars of ureaplasmas are disease associated. Only a few classes of antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment of mycoplasmal infections in humans. Increase of resistance of genital mycoplasmas to antimicrobials has been reported worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Ureaplasma serovars in patients with infertility and genital tract infections with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based serotyping. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis were also assessed to determine the most suitable treatment strategy. Sexually active adults (n=147) with symptoms of genital tract infections and 115 infertile women were enrolled. Endocervical swabs from women and urethral swabs from men were subjected to culture and multiplex PCR for detection of genital mycoplasmas. Serotyping of Ureaplasma was done by PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility to doxycycline, azithromycin, josamycin and ofloxacin was done by microbroth dilution method. Ureaplasma was detected in 25.8 per cent patients with genital tract infections and 20.8 per cent in infertile women. Serovar 3/14 was the most frequent isolate followed by serovar 1 and serovar 6. The majority of Ureaplasma isolates were susceptible to doxycycline (91%) and josamycin (86%) followed by ofloxacin (77%) and azithromycin (71%). All the isolates of M. hominis were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline, josamycin and ofloxacin. The predominance of Ureaplasma serovar 3/14 suggests their possible pathogenic role in genital tract infections and infertility. For empirical treatment, doxycycline could be the drug of choice for genital mycoplasmas.

  10. Serologic Screening for Genital Herpes Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Davidson, Karina W; Epling, John W; García, Francisco A R; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phillips, William R; Phipps, Maureen G; Pignone, Michael P; Silverstein, Michael; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2016-12-20

    Genital herpes is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the United States, occurring in almost 1 in 6 persons aged 14 to 49 years. Infection is caused by 2 subtypes of the herpes simplex virus (HSV), HSV-1 and HSV-2. Antiviral medications may provide symptomatic relief from outbreaks but do not cure HSV infection. Neonatal herpes infection, while uncommon, can result in substantial morbidity and mortality. To update the 2005 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for genital herpes. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the accuracy, benefits, and harms of serologic screening for HSV-2 infection in asymptomatic persons, including those who are pregnant, as well as the effectiveness and harms of preventive medications and behavioral counseling interventions to reduce future symptomatic episodes and transmission to others. Based on the natural history of HSV infection, its epidemiology, and the available evidence on the accuracy of serologic screening tests, the USPSTF concluded that the harms outweigh the benefits of serologic screening for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adolescents and adults, including those who are pregnant. The USPSTF recommends against routine serologic screening for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adolescents and adults, including those who are pregnant. (D recommendation).

  11. Sacral myeloradiculitis complicating genital herpes in a HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, I; Quereda, C; Navas, E; Pérez-Elias, M J; Jover, F; Moreno, S

    2005-02-01

    Myeloradiculitis is a rare neurological complication of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection, frequently associated with a fatal outcome. Among patients with HIV infection, HSV-2 myeloradiculitis has occasionally been reported, always associated with advanced immunosuppression and AIDS. We report a patient with HIV infection but no history of previous opportunistic infections, who developed sacral myeloradiculitis immediately after an episode of genital herpes. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium showed necrotizing myelitis in the conus medullaris and enhancement of sacral roots. CD4 lymphocyte count was 530/mm3. Other possible causes of myeloradiculitis in HIV-infected patients were appropriately excluded. Acyclovir therapy resulted in partial clinical improvement. This report shows that myeloradiculitis as a complication of genital herpes may occur in the early stages of HIV infection and may have a favourable outcome with antiviral treatment.

  12. Therapeutic Vaccine for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Infection: Findings From a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Wald, Anna; Warren, Terri; Fife, Kenneth; Tyring, Stephen; Lee, Patricia; Van Wagoner, Nick; Magaret, Amalia; Flechtner, Jessica B; Tasker, Sybil; Chan, Jason; Morris, Amy; Hetherington, Seth

    2017-03-15

    Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes recurrent lesions and frequent viral shedding. GEN-003 is a candidate therapeutic vaccine containing HSV-2 gD2∆TMR and ICP4.2, and Matrix-M2 adjuvant. Persons with genital herpes were randomized into 3 dose cohorts to receive 3 intramuscular doses 21 days apart of 10 µg, 30 µg, or 100 µg of GEN-003, antigens without adjuvant, or placebo. Participants obtained genital swab specimens twice daily for HSV-2 detection and monitored genital lesions for 28-day periods at baseline and at intervals after the last dose. One hundred and thirty-four persons received all 3 doses. Reactogenicity was associated with adjuvant but not with antigen dose or dose number. No serious adverse events were attributed to GEN-003. Compared with baseline, genital HSV-2 shedding rates immediately after dosing were reduced with GEN-003 (from 13.4% to 6.4% for 30 μg [P genital HSV shedding and lesion rates. NCT01667341 (funded by Genocea). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Virologic and immunologic evidence of multifocal genital herpes simplex virus 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J; McClurkan, Christopher M; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4(+) T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased numbers of CD8(+) T cells compared to control tissue, and HSV-specific CD4(+) T cells are found at sites of asymptomatic shedding. These findings suggest that widespread asymptomatic genital HSV-2 shedding is associated with a targeted host immune response and contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract.

  14. Transient urinary retention and chronic neuropathic pain associated with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haanpää, Maija; Paavonen, Jorma

    2004-10-01

    Genital herpes (GH) causes genital ulcer disease, severe transient pain, and often paresthesias. Whether or not GH can cause urinary retention or chronic neuropathic pain is not well known. We present two immunocompetent patients with GH associated with neuropathic symptoms. We also review the literature on GH and associated neurologic problems. Patient 1 had primary herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 infection with transient urinary retention and chronic bilateral neuropathic pain in the sacral area. Patient 2 had recurrent HSV-1 associated with unitaleral chronic neuropathic pain in the sacral area. Although transient urinary retention associated with GH is not uncommon, chronic neuropathic pain has not been reported previously. Our cases show that chronic neuropathic pain, that is "pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system," can follow genital HSV infection.

  15. Impact of genital hygiene and sexual activity on urinary tract infection during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Yaser Ali; El-Kashef, Tarek Ahmed; Abdelaziz, Alsayed Saad; Ali, Mahmoud Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection commonly occurring during pregnancy. The incidence of UTI in pregnant women depends on parity, race, and socioeconomic status and can be as high as 8%. The objective was to determine the association of UTI with genital hygiene practices and sexual activity in pregnant women. From January 2011 to June 2014, a total of 200 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Al-Zahra Hospital and King Khalid Hospital in Saudia Arabia Kingdom were selected. Eighty pregnant women, who had positive urine cultures (cases), were compared with the remaining 120 healthy pregnant women matched for age, social, economic and education status, and parity (controls). In the present work, Escherichia coli were the infecting organism in 83% of cases. Factors associated with UTI included sexual intercourse ≥ 3 times/week (odds ratio [OR] =5.62), recent UTI (OR = 3.27), not washing genitals precoitus (OR = 2.16), not washing genitals postcoitus (OR = 2.89), not voiding urine postcoitus (OR = 8.62) and washing genitals from back to front (OR = 2.96) [OR = odds ratio]. Urinary tract infection in pregnant women was primarily caused by bacteria from the stool (E. coli) and that hygiene habits, and sexual behavior may play a role in UTI in pregnant women.

  16. A novel guinea pig model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, M.I.; Keizer, S.A.; El Moussaoui, H.M.; van Dorsten, L.; Azzawi, R.; van Zuilekom, H.I.; Peters, P.P.; van Opzeeland, F.J.; Dijk, L..; Nieuwland, R.; Roosenboom-Theunissen, H.W.; Vrijenhoek, M.P.; Debyser, I.; Verwey, P.J.; van Duijnhoven, W.G.; van den Bosch, J.F.; Nuijten, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections often result in pelvic inflammatory disease and sequelae including infertility and ectopic pregnancies. In addition to the already established murine models, the development of other animal models is necessary to study the safety and efficacy of prototype

  17. Cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix in genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, R; Costa, S; Rumpianesi, F; Donati, M; Guerra, B; Diana, R; Antonini, M P

    1981-10-01

    Since genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis may be associated with cervical abnormalities 160 patients with grandular ectopia attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic were examined for antibodies against C trachomatis, the presence of C trachomatis infection, and cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix.A significantly higher incidence of histological dysplasia was found in women with glandular ectopia who had antichlamydial antibodies than in those without.

  18. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van de Perre Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492 among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273 among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2% experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population.

  19. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  20. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth / For Teens / Genital Warts (HPV) What's in ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  1. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  2. Clinical risk factors predicting genital fungal infections with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor treatment: The ABCD nationwide dapagliflozin audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Ken Yan; Yadagiri, Mahender; Barnes, Dennis Joseph; Morris, David Stuart; Chowdhury, Tahseen Ahmad; Chuah, Ling Ling; Robinson, Anthony Michael; Bain, Stephen Charles; Adamson, Karen Ann; Ryder, Robert Elford John

    2018-02-01

    Treatment of type 2 diabetes with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors may result in genital fungal infections. We investigated possible risk factors for developing such infections among patients treated with the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin. The Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD) collected data on patients treated with dapagliflozin in routine clinical practice from 59 diabetes centres. We assessed possible associations of patient's age, diabetes duration, body mass index, glycated haemoglobin, renal function, patient sex, ethnicity and prior genital fungal infection, urinary tract infection, urinary incontinence or nocturia, with the occurrence of ≥1 genital fungal infection within 26 weeks of treatment. 1049 out of 1116 patients (476 women, 573 men) were analysed. Baseline characteristics were, mean±SD, age 56.7±10.2years, BMI 35.5±6.9kg/m 2 and HbA 1c 9.4±1.5%. Only patient sex (13.2% women vs 3.3% men) and prior history of genital fungal infection (21.6% vs 7.3%) were found to be associated with occurrence of genital fungal infections after dapagliflozin treatment, adjusted OR 4.22 [95%CI 2.48,7.19], Prisks of developing genital fungal infections with dapagliflozin treatment. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. All rights reserved.

  3. Sequential Acquisition of Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Following Genital Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Women: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamnani, Shitaldas J; Nyitray, Alan G; Abrahamsen, Martha; Rollison, Dana E; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Huang, Yangxin; Borenstein, Amy; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of sequential acquisition of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection following a type-specific genital HPV infection for the 9-valent vaccine HPV types and investigate factors associated with sequential infection among men who have sex with women (MSW). Genital and anal specimens were available for 1348 MSW participants, and HPV genotypes were detected using the Roche Linear Array assay. Sequential risk of anal HPV infection was assessed using hazard ratios (HRs) among men with prior genital infection, compared with men with no prior genital infection, in individual HPV type and grouped HPV analyses. In individual analyses, men with prior HPV 16 genital infections had a significantly higher risk of subsequent anal HPV 16 infections (HR, 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-15.23). In grouped analyses, a significantly higher risk of sequential type-specific anal HPV infections was observed for any of the 9 types (adjusted HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.32-5.99), high-risk types (adjusted HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.26, 5.55), and low-risk types (adjusted HR, 5.89; 95% CI, 1.29, 27.01). MSW with prior genital HPV infections had a higher risk of a subsequent type-specific anal infection. The higher risk was not explained by sexual intercourse with female partners. Autoinoculation is a possible mechanism for the observed association. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Seroconversion following anal and genital HPV infection in men: The HIM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Giuliano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protection from naturally acquired human papillomavirus (HPV antibodies may influence HPV infection across the lifespan. This study describes seroconversion rates following genital, anal, and oral HPV 6/11/16/18 infections in men and examines differences by HPV type and anatomic site. Methods: Men with HPV 6/11/16/18 infections who were seronegative for those genotypes at the time of DNA detection were selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM Study. Sera specimens collected ≤36 months after detection were analyzed for HPV 6/11/16/18 antibodies using a virus-like particle-based ELISA. Time to seroconversion was separately assessed for each anatomic site, stratified by HPV type. Results: Seroconversion to ≥1 HPV type (6/11/16/18 in this sub-cohort (N=384 varied by anatomic site, with 6.3%, 18.9%, and 0.0% seroconverting following anal, genital, and oral HPV infection, respectively. Regardless of anatomic site, seroconversion was highest for HPV 6 (19.3%. Overall, seroconversion was highest following anal HPV 6 infection (69.2%. HPV persistence was the only factor found to influence seroconversion. Conclusions: Low seroconversion rates following HPV infection leave men susceptible to recurrent infections that can progress to HPV-related cancers. This emphasizes the need for HPV vaccination in men to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease. Keywords: HPV, Men, Seroconversion, HPV antibodies, Human papillomavirus

  5. Seroconversion Following Anal and Genital HPV Infection in Men: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Anna R; Viscidi, Raphael; Torres, B Nelson; Ingles, Donna J; Sudenga, Staci L; Villa, Luisa L; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Protection from naturally acquired human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies may influence HPV infection across the lifespan. This study describes seroconversion rates following genital, anal, and oral HPV 6/11/16/18 infections in men and examines differences by HPV type and anatomic site. Men with HPV 6/11/16/18 infections who were seronegative for those genotypes at the time of DNA detection were selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Sera specimens collected ≤36 months after detection were analyzed for HPV 6/11/16/18 antibodies using a virus-like particle-based ELISA. Time to seroconversion was separately assessed for each anatomic site, stratified by HPV type. Seroconversion to ≥1 HPV type (6/11/16/18) in this sub-cohort (N=384) varied by anatomic site, with 6.3, 18.9, and 0.0% seroconverting following anal, genital, and oral HPV infection, respectively. Regardless of anatomic site, seroconversion was highest for HPV 6 (19.3%). Overall, seroconversion was highest following anal HPV 6 infection (69.2%). HPV persistence was the only factor found to influence seroconversion. Low seroconversion rates following HPV infection leave men susceptible to recurrent infections that can progress to HPV-related cancers. This emphasizes the need for HPV vaccination in men to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16-26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01-8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available.

  7. The Characterization Of The Kinetics Of Chlamydia Muridarum Infection In Defined Regions Of The Murine Genital Tract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eskildsen, Ilea

    2008-01-01

    ..., and disease pathogenesis. A mouse model of genital Chlamydia muridarum infection is generally employed in such studies, with most studies relying upon the enumeration of bacterial numbers from vaginal swab material to assess...

  8. [FEMALE STEROID HORMONES - MODULATORS OF IMMUNE RESPONSE TO GENITAL CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, E; Ivanov, S; Bechev, B; Angelova, M; Grueva, E; Kolev, N; Ivanova, V

    In the recent years according to WHO, genital chlamydia is the mos't common sexually transmitted infection. Chlamydia Trachomatis is an intracellular parasite which target are the tubular epithelial cells of the urethra, endocervix, endometrium, endosalpinx, conjunctiva, synovial lining of the joints, Glisson's capsule of the liver Our study, as well as some international researches, shows that in the cases of genital chlamydia there are changes in the ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), their impact on the immune system and their importance for the development and the complications of the infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. The physiological level of the steroid hormones in its turn contributes for the normalization of the local immunity and reduces the possibility of recurrences.

  9. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant

    OpenAIRE

    Janina Jiang; Guangchao Liu; Valerie A. Kickhoefer; Leonard H. Rome; Lin-Xi Li; Stephen J. McSorley; Kathleen A. Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting g...

  10. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  11. Effect of cold water-induced stress on immune response, pathology and fertility in mice during Chlamydia muridarum genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Woart, Anthony; Graffeo, Vincent

    2017-07-31

    Genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. It causes serious reproductive health complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Stress is implicated as a risk factor for various infections; however, its effect on chlamydia genital infection is unknown. We previously showed that repeated exposure of mice to cold water results in increased severity of chlamydia genital infection. In this study, cold water-induced stress resulted in (i) elevated levels of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine in the spleen and genital tract of stressed mice; (ii) elevated IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and nitric oxide production in macrophage-rich peritoneal cells of mice; (iii) supplement of NE in vitro exerts an immunosuppressive effect on splenic T-cell production of cytokines; (iv) decreased C. muridarum shedding in the genital tract of β1Adr/β2Adr receptor KO mice; and (v) a higher rate of infertility in infected mice. These results suggest that cold water stress induces the production of catecholamines, which may play a critical role in the modulation of the immune system leading to increased intensity of C. muridarum genital infection. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection—an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy. PMID:24885431

  13. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.

  14. Population-based study of chlamydial and gonococcal infections among women in Shenzhen, China: Implications for programme planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhen-Zhou; Li, Wu; Wu, Qiu-Hong; Zhang, Li; Tian, Li-Shan; Liu, Lan-Lan; Ding, Yi; Yuan, Jun; Chen, Zhong-Wei; Lan, Li-Na; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Cai, Yu-Mao; Hong, Fu-Chang; Feng, Tie-Jian; Zhang, Min; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed to estimate the prevalences of chlamydia (CT) and gonococcal (NG) infections and explore risk factors associated with the CT infection among women in Shenzhen, China. We collected socio-demographic and clinical data from women (aged 20-60) and determined positivity of CT or NG by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) with self-collected urine specimens. We estimated prevalence of CT and NG and determined risk factors associated with CT infection. Among 9,207 participants, 4.12% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.71%-4.53%) tested positive for CT and 0.17% (95% CIs, 0.09%-0.25%) for NG. Factors significantly associated with CT infection included being an ethnic minority (ethnicity other than Han China) (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0), using methods other than condom for contraception (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8), having a history of adverse pregnancy outcomes (AOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8), and experiencing reproductive tract symptoms in the past three months (AOR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7). we found that CT infection is prevalent among women in Shenzhen, China and associated with both demographic and behavioral factors. A comprehensive CT screening, surveillance and treatment programme targeting this population is warranted.

  15. Genital prevalence of HPV types and co-infection in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos P. Freire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HPV infection is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted disease and there is evidence of the relationship of HPV infection and the development of genital warts, penile intraepitelial neoplasia, invasive penile carcinoma and cervical cancer. However, there is sparse data regarding the prevalence of HPV types and co-infection of different HPV types among men. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of HPV subtypes infections and rates of co-infection among men. Materials and Methods: 366 men were evaluated from March to October 2010. Men were referred to our institution for HPV diagnostic evaluation based on the following criteria: 1. presence of a genital wart; 2. presence of an atypical genital lesion; 3. absence of symptoms and a partner with a HPV diagnosis; 4. absence of symptoms and a desire to undergo a full STD diagnostic evaluation. Genital samples were collected from the urethra, penile shaft, scrotum and anus with Digene® collection and preservation kit and submitted to HPV genotype microarray detection (Papillocheck®. All men were tested for the low-risk HPV types 6-11-40-42-43-44 and for the high-risk HPV types 16-18-31-33-35-39-45-51-52-53-56-58-59-66-68-70-73-82. Results: Of the 366 men, 11 were tested inconclusive and were excluded from the analysis. 256 men (72.1% of the men from the cohort referred to our institution tested positive with genotype micro-array detection and 99 tested negative. The most prevalent HPV-subtypes in the studied population were 6, 42, 51 and 16. Co-infection was found in 153 men. Of those, 70 (19.7% had a co-infection by 2 types, 37 (10.4% by 3 types; 33 men (9.2% by 4 types; 8 men (2.2% by 5 types; 1 man (0.3% by 6 types; 1 man (0.3% by 7 types; 2 men (0.6% by 8 types and 1 man (0.3% by 9 types. Conclusion: The most frequent HPV types were 6, 16, 42 and 51. Co-infection was found in 59% of our patients. This information is vital to drive future public health policies including massive

  16. A novel whole-bacterial enzyme linked-immunosorbant assay to quantify Chlamydia trachomatis specific antibodies reveals distinct differences between systemic and genital compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L Albritton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is the leading sexually transmitted bacterial infection. The continued global burden of CT infection strongly predicates the need for a vaccine to supplement current chlamydial control programs. The correlates of protection against CT are currently unknown, but they must be carefully defined to guide vaccine design. The localized nature of chlamydial infection in columnar epithelial cells of the genital tract necessitates investigation of immunity at the site of infection. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive whole bacterial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to quantify and compare CT-specific IgG and IgA in sera and genital secretions from CT-infected women. To achieve this, elementary bodies (EBs from two of the most common genital serovars (D and E were attached to poly-L-lysine-coated microtiter plates with glutaraldehyde. EB attachment and integrity were verified by the presence of outer membrane antigens and the absence of bacterial cytoplasmic antigens. EB-specific IgG and IgA standards were developed by pooling sera with high titers of CT-specific antibodies from infected women. Serum, endocervical and vaginal secretions, and endocervical cytobrush specimens from CT-infected women were used to quantify CT-specific IgG and IgA which were then normalized to total IgG and IgA, respectively. Analyses of paired serum and genital samples revealed significantly higher proportions of EB-specific antibodies in genital secretions compared to sera. Cervical and vaginal secretions and cytobrush specimens had similar proportions of EB-specific antibodies, suggesting any one of these genital sampling techniques could be used to quantify CT-specific antibodies when appropriate normalization methodologies are implemented. Overall, these results illustrate the need to investigate genital tract CT antibody responses, and our assay provides a useful quantitative tool to assess natural immunity in defined

  17. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high......-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital Ig...

  18. Laser therapy in women genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection complicated with PID and infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinzan, Daniela; Paiusan, Lucian; Smeu, Claudia-Ramona

    2018-04-01

    Genital Chlamydia Trachomatis infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections with more than 50 million new cases occurred globally every year. Underdiagnosed and untreated, it can generate long term severe complications including PID, infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. Among 20 patients diagnosed with PID and infertility in our medical office during one year, we selected a study group of 10 patients with genital Chlamydia Trachomatis infection. The diagnostic methods used were anamnesis, clinical examination, Pap smear, bacteriological and serological tests, ultra sound examination. The group of patients selected was monitored for one year. The treatment took into account general measures for both partners and specific measures (antibiotic treatment and focused laser therapy). The initial group was split in two, group A treated only with antibiotics and group B treated with both antibiotics and laser therapy. All the 5 patients of group B presented an improvement of the clinical manifestations and 3 of them ended up with pregnancy. On the other hand, in group B, only one patient manifested total disappearance of pains and the infertility persisted for all. It is noteworthy that the association of laser therapy in the treatment of Chlamydia Trachomatis infection has brought significant improvement in the inflammatory processes of internal genitalia (PID) and in the fertility of the couple.

  19. Genital HSV Detection among HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women in Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Patterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare genital HSV shedding among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Methods. Women with and without known HIV infection who delivered at the University of Washington Medical Center between 1989–1996 had HSV serologies done as part of clinical care. Genital swabs from HSV-2-seropositive women were evaluated by real-time quantitative HSV DNA PCR. Results. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 71% and 30% among 75 HIV-positive and 3051 HIV-negative women, respectively, (P<.001. HSV was detected at delivery in the genital tract of 30.8% of HIV-seropositive versus 9.5% of HIV-negative women (RR=3.2, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.5, P=.001. The number of virion copies shed per mL was similar (log 3.54 for HIV positive versus 3.90 for HIV negative, P=.99. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that HIV-, HSV-2-coinfected women are more likely to shed HSV at delivery.

  20. Relationship between female genital tract infections, mucosal interleukin-17 production and local T helper type 17 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Lindi; Salkinder, Amy L; Olivier, Abraham Jacobus; McKinnon, Lyle R; Gamieldien, Hoyam; Mlisana, Koleka; Scriba, Thomas J; Lewis, David A; Little, Francesca; Jaspan, Heather B; Ronacher, Katharina; Denny, Lynette; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-12-01

    T helper type 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in immunity to fungal and bacterial pathogens, although their role in the female genital tract, where exposure to these pathogens is common, is not well understood. We investigated the relationship between female genital tract infections, cervicovaginal interleukin-17 (IL-17) concentrations and Th17 cell frequencies. Forty-two cytokines were measured in cervicovaginal lavages from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Frequencies of Th17 cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) IL-17a(+)) were evaluated in cervical cytobrushes and blood by flow cytometry. Women were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis and herpes simplex virus 2 by PCR, and candidal infections and bacterial vaginosis by Gram stain. Women with bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), specifically chlamydia and gonorrhoea, had higher genital IL-17 concentrations than women with no STI, whereas women with candidal pseudohyphae/spores had lower IL-17 concentrations compared with women without candidal infections. Viral STIs (herpes simplex virus 2 and HIV) were not associated with significant changes in genital IL-17 concentrations. Genital IL-17 concentrations correlated strongly with other inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Although Th17 cells were depleted from blood during HIV infection, cervical Th17 cell frequencies were similar in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Cervical Th17 cell frequencies were also not associated with STIs or candida, although few women had a STI. These findings suggest that IL-17 production in the female genital tract is induced in response to bacterial but not viral STIs. Decreased IL-17 associated with candidal infections suggests that candida may actively suppress IL-17 production or women with dampened IL-17 responses may be more susceptible to candidal outgrowth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilienne Verkaeren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner.

  2. Role of human papilloma virus infection and oral-genital contact in oral cancer ethiopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanko, P; Kruzliak, P; Labas, P

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and especially oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is a very significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The majors risk factors of these tumors are tobacco smoking, chewing and alcohol consumption. But there is a group, non-drinking and non-smoking, patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In these patients may be oral-genital contact and human papillomavirus infection the major risk factor for oral carcinogenesis. Aim of this review is to point out this fact in correlation with clinical studies and clinical conclusion for medical practice (Fig. 1, Ref. 32).

  3. Haemophilus influenzae type B genital infection and septicemia in pregnant woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosuru Subramanya Supram

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae type B a non-motile, aerobic, gram negative cocobacillus is a commensal of upper respiratory tract. Genitourinary infection due to H. influenzae has been reported but bacteremia associated with such infection appears to be rare. We report a case of 19 years young primigravida with complaints of amenorrhea of 32 weeks and 5 days, pyrexia, abdominal pain and blood stained discharge per vaginum. H. influenzae type B was recovered from the genital tract as well as blood of the mother indicating maternal septicemia. Septicemia caused by H. influenzae type B in pregnant women following vaginal colonization and infection is rare. It has been reported in many parts of world over the years; to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case from Nepal. H. influenzae should be considered as a potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal pathogen.

  4. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers

    2015-01-01

    in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference...... is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs...... is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary...

  5. Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding Among Adults With and Without HIV Infection in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Warren; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Kambugu, Fred; Orem, Jackson; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa, the natural history of infection among Africans is not well characterized. We evaluated the frequency of genital HSV shedding in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men and women in Uganda. Ninety-three HSV-2-seropositive Ugandan adults collected anogenital swab specimens for HSV DNA quantification by polymerase chain reaction 3 times daily for 6 weeks. HSV-2 was detected from 2484 of 11 283 swab specimens collected (22%), with a median quantity of 4.3 log10 HSV copies/mL (range, 2.2-8.9 log10 HSV copies/mL). Genital lesions were reported on 749 of 3875 days (19%), and subclinical HSV shedding was detected from 1480 of 9113 swab specimens (16%) collected on days without lesions. Men had higher rates of total HSV shedding (relative risk [RR], 2.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.3-2.9]; P genital lesions (RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.2-3.4]; P = .005), compared with women. No differences in shedding rates or lesion frequency were observed based on HIV serostatus. HSV-2 shedding frequency and quantity are high among HSV-2-seropositive adults in sub-Saharan Africa, including persons with and those without HIV infection. Shedding rates were particularly high among men, which may contribute to the high prevalence of HSV-2 and early acquisition among African women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Chlamydial partner notification in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) 2011 UK national audit against the BASHH Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Carne, C A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, K W; Ahmed-Jushuf, I

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on chlamydial partner notification (PN) performance in the 2011 BASHH national audit against the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health (MedFASH) Sexually Transmitted Infection Management Standards (STIMS). There was wide regional variation in level 3 clinic PN performance against the current standard of index case-reported chlamydial PN, with 43% (regional range 0-80%) of clinics outside London meeting the ≥0.6 contacts seen per index standard, and 85% of clinics (regional range 82-88%) in London meeting the ≥0.4 standard. For level 2 clinics, 39% (regional range 0-100%) of clinics outside London met the ≥0.6 standard, and 43% (regional range 40-50%) of clinics in London met the ≥0.4 standard. Performance for health-care worker (HCW)-verified contact attendance is also reported. New standards for each of these performance measures are proposed for all level 3 clinics: ≥0.6 contacts seen per index case based on index case report, and ≥0.4 contacts seen per index case based on HCW verification, both within four weeks of the first partner notification interview. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of standards by commissioners of services, relevance to national quality agendas, and the need for development of a national system of PN quality assurance measurement and reporting.

  7. Protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an HSV-2 replication-defective mutant virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Fernando M; Knipe, David M

    2016-01-15

    Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 virus reduced disease, viral shedding, seroconversion, and latent infection by the HSV-2 challenge virus. Therefore, it may be feasible to obtain protection against genital disease, seroconversion and latent infection by immunization, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of genital herpes on cervicovaginal HIV shedding in women co-infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jim; Riedner, Gabriele; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Weiss, Helen A; Lyamuya, Eligius; Mabey, David; Rusizoka, Mary; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV. Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1) 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2) 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3) 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4) 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL), herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined. Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03). In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL) was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41-0.60, pgenital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility.

  9. Progressive Hypertrophic Genital Herpes in an HIV-Infected Woman despite Immune Recovery on Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Yudin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most HIV-infected individuals are coinfected by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. HSV-2 reactivates more frequently in HIV-coinfected individuals with advanced immunosuppression, and may have very unusual clinical presentations, including hypertrophic genital lesions. We report the case of a progressive, hypertrophic HSV-2 lesion in an HIV-coinfected woman, despite near-complete immune restoration on antiretroviral therapy for up to three years. In this case, there was prompt response to topical imiquimod. The immunopathogenesis and clinical presentation of HSV-2 disease in HIV-coinfected individuals are reviewed, with a focus on potential mechanisms for persistent disease despite apparent immune reconstitution. HIV-infected individuals and their care providers should be aware that HSV-2 may cause atypical disease even in the context of near-comlpete immune reconstitution on HAART.

  10. Broad HPV distribution in the genital region of men from the HPV infection in men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichero, Laura; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sobrinho, João S; Luiza Baggio, Maria; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L

    2013-09-01

    The HPV infection in men (HIM) study examines the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genotyping methods used in this study identify 37 α-HPV types; however, the viral type could not be identified in approximately 22% of male genital specimens that were HPV PCR positive. Our aim was to genotype HPV-unclassified specimens by sequencing PGMY09/11, GP5+/6+ or FAP59/64 PCR products. Using this approach we were able to detect 86 unique HPV types among 508 of 931 specimens analyzed. We report for the first time the presence of a broad range of α-, β- and γ-HPV at the male genitals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of the Natural History of Genital HPV Infection among Men by Country: Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-07-01

    Background: Male genital human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and incidence has been reported to vary by geographical location. Our objective was to assess the natural history of genital HPV by country among men with a median of 48 months of follow-up. Methods: Men ages 18-70 years were recruited from United States ( n = 1,326), Mexico ( n = 1,349), and Brazil ( n = 1,410). Genital specimens were collected every 6 months and HPV genotyping identified 37 HPV genotypes. Prevalence of HPV was compared between the three countries using the Fisher exact test. Incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The median time to HPV clearance among men with an incident infection was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The prevalence and incidence of the genital HPV types known to cause disease in males (HPV 16 and 6) was significantly higher among men from Brazil than men from Mexico. Prevalence and incidence of those genital HPV types in the United States varied between being comparable with those of Mexico or Brazil. Although genital HPV16 duration was significantly longer in Brazil ( P = 0.04) compared with Mexico and the United States, HPV6 duration was shortest in Brazil ( P = 0.03) compared with Mexico and the United States. Conclusions: Men in Brazil and Mexico often have similar, if not higher prevalence of HPV compared with men from the United States. Impact: Currently, there is no routine screening for genital HPV among males and while HPV is common in men, and most naturally clear the infection, a proportion of men do develop HPV-related diseases. Men may benefit from gender-neutral vaccine policies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1043-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Cross-sectional imaging of complicated urinary infections affecting the lower tract and male genital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tonolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complicated urinary tract infections (C-UTIs are those associated with structural or functional genitourinary abnormalities or with conditions that impair the host defence mechanisms, leading to an increased risk of acquiring infection or failing therapy. C-UTIs occur in patients with risk factors such as neurogenic dysfunction, bladder outlet obstruction, obstructive uropathy, bladder catheterisation, urologic instrumentation or indwelling stent, urinary tract post-surgical modifications, chemotherapy- or radiation-induced damage, renal impairment, diabetes and immunodeficiency. Multidetector CT and MRI allow comprehensive investigation of C-UTIs and systemic infection from an unknown source. Based upon personal experience at a tertiary care hospital focused on the treatment of infectious illnesses, this pictorial essay reviews with examples the clinical features and cross-sectional imaging findings of C-UTIs affecting the lower urinary tract and male genital organs. The disorders presented include acute infectious cystitis, bladder mural abscesses, infections of the prostate and seminal vesicles, acute urethritis and related perineal abscesses, funiculitis, epididymo-orchitis and scrotal abscesses. Emphasis is placed on the possible differential diagnoses of lower C-UTIs. The aim is to provide radiologists greater familiarity with these potentially severe disorders which frequently require intensive in-hospital antibiotic therapy, percutaneous drainage or surgery. Teaching Points • Complicated urinary tract infections occur in patients with structural or functional risk factors. • CT and MRI comprehensively investigate complicated urinary infections and sepsis from unknown sources. • Infections of the urinary bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, urethra and scrotum are presented. • Emphasis is placed on differential diagnoses of complicated lower urogenital infections. • Unsuspected urinary infections may be detected on CT

  13. Innate immunity and the sensing of infection, damage and danger in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Iain Martin; Owens, Siân-Eleri; Turner, Matthew Lloyd

    2017-02-01

    Tissue homeostasis in the female genital tract is challenged by infection, damage, and even physiological events during reproductive cycles. We propose that the evolutionarily ancient system of innate immunity is sufficient to sense and respond to danger in the non-pregnant female genital tract. Innate immunity produces a rapidly inducible, non-specific response when cells sense danger. Here we provide a primer on innate immunity and discuss what is known about how danger signals are sensed in the endometrium and ovary, the impact of inflammatory responses on reproduction, and how endocrinology and innate immunity are integrated. Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and ovarian granulosa cells express pattern recognition receptors, similar to cells of the innate immune system. These pattern recognition receptors, such as the Toll-like receptors, bind pathogen-associated or damage-associated molecular patterns. Activation of pattern recognition receptors leads to inflammation, recruitment of immune cells from the peripheral circulation, and phagocytosis. Although the inflammatory response helps maintain or restore endometrial health, there may also be negative consequences for fertility, including perturbation of oocyte competence. The intensity of the inflammatory response reflects the balance between the level of danger and the systems that regulate innate immunity, including the endocrine environment. Understanding innate immunity is important because disease and inappropriate inflammatory responses in the endometrium or ovary cause infertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Association between Female Genital Cutting and Spousal HCV Infection in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R. Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the risk factors for HCV infection within married couples in Egypt. Methods. In 2008 Egypt conducted its first nationally representative survey of HCV prevalence. 11126 of the 12780 individuals aged 15–59 year who were sampled agreed to participate and provided information via a questionnaire about demographic and behavioural characteristics and blood for HCV antibody and RNA analysis. We assessed the risk factors for HCV infection in a subsample of 5182 married individuals via multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall HCV antibody prevalence in the married couples was 18.2% (95% CI, 16.8–19.6. HCV antibody prevalence was higher in the husbands (23.7% than the wives (12.1%; P<0.001. Having a spouse who was infected with HCV was an independent risk factor for HCV infection with odds ratios of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.6–2.9 and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6–3.1 for women and men, respectively. Husbands whose wives had experienced female genital cutting (FGC had a higher prevalence of HCV and this relationship was driven by a strong association in urban areas. Amongst the women there was no association between FGC and HCV overall but in urban areas only women who had experienced FGC were HCV infected. Conclusions. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of intrafamilial transmission of HCV in Egypt.

  15. Does interval laparoscopic sterilisation influence the risk of lower genital tract infections and menstrual abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kistan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tubal sterilisation is a safe, accessible and effective contraceptive method. There is a paucity of data regarding the risk of genital tract infections and menstrual abnormalities post sterilisation in Durban, South Africa.Objectives. To evaluate the risk of lower genital tract infections (LGTIs and menstrual abnormalities following interval laparoscopic sterilisation.Methods. A prospective cohort study of 225 women undergoing sterilisation between August 2012 and April 2013, with follow-up 1 year post procedure, was conducted at King Dinuzulu Hospital, Durban.Results. Following sterilisation, LGTIs were increased only in women with a history of infection pre sterilisation (odds ratio 6.7; 95% CI 2.2 - 20.9; p=0.002. There was no significant risk of HIV acquisition post sterilisation. In women who had not used contraception or used barrier methods pre sterilisation, we found no significant change in menstrual patterns post sterilisation. There was an increase in menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhoea post sterilisation among previous combined oral contraceptive users. Among women with amenorrhoea on injectable contraception pre sterilisation, 73.8% reported return to regular menses and 26.2% reported abnormal uterine bleeding post sterilisation. Among injectable contraceptive users with regular menses pre sterilisation, 71.4% reported no change in menses post sterilisation and 28.6% reported abnormal uterine bleeding post sterilisation.Conclusion. In women undergoing interval tubal sterilisation, the risk of LGTIs was only increased in those women with a history. Menstrual abnormalities post sterilisation were more likely in women who used steroid contraception prior to sterilisation.

  16. Acquired homotypic and heterotypic immunity against oculogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars following female genital tract infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña A Salvador

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen causing female genital tract infection throughout the world. Reinfection with the same serovar, as well as multiple infections with different serovars, occurs in humans. Using a murine model of female C. trachomatis genital tract infection, we determined if homotypic and/or heterotypic protection against reinfection was induced following infection with human oculogenital strains of C. trachomatis belonging to two serovars (D and H that have been shown to vary significantly in the course of infection in the murine model. Methods Groups of outbred CF-1 mice were reinfected intravaginally with a strain of either serovar D or H, two months after initial infection with these strains. Cellular immune and serologic status, both quantitative and qualitative, was assessed following initial infection, and the course of infection was monitored by culturing vaginal samples collected every 2–7 days following reinfection. Results Serovar D was both more virulent (longer duration of infection and immunogenic (higher level of circulating and vaginal IgG and higher incidence of IgA in vaginal secretions in the mouse genital tract. Although both serovars induced cross-reacting antibodies during the course of primary infection, prior infection with serovar H resulted in only a slight reduction in the median duration of infection against homotypic reinfection (p ~ 0.10, while prior infection with serovar D resulted in significant reduction in the median duration of infection against both homotypic (p Conclusion Serovar D infection resulted in significant homotypic and heterotypic protection against reinfection, while primary infection with serovar H resulted in only slight homotypic protection. In addition to being the first demonstration of acquired heterotypic immunity between human oculogenital serovars, the differences in the level and extent of this immunity

  17. Accurate detection of male subclinical genital tract infection via cervical culture and DNA hybridization assay of the female partner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trum, J. W.; Pannekoek, Y.; Spanjaard, L.; Bleker, O. P.; van der Veen, F.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of the PACE2 DNA hybridization assay of the cervix and cervical culture in female partners for the diagnosis of male subclinical genital tract infection were assessed in a male infertility population. A total of 184 men were screened for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma

  18. Effect of genital herpes on cervicovaginal HIV shedding in women co-infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Todd

    Full Text Available To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV.Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL, herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined.Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03. In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41-0.60, p<0.001 and HSV shedding (β = 0.24 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95% CI:0.16-0.32, p<0.001 but not the presence of herpetic lesions (β = -0.10, 95%CI:-0.28-0.08, p = 0.27.HIV PVL and HSV shedding were more important determinants of genital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility.

  19. Prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Russia: systematic literature review and multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelov, Vitaly; Thomas, Pierre; Ouburg, Sander; Morré, Servaas A

    2017-09-29

    A reliable overview of data on the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in Russia is lacking and needed. All the available data on CT prevalence were analyzed in a systematic literature review on CT prevalence in Russia, strengthened with data from the multicenter study among 1263 people in the second-largest Russian megalopolis, St. Petersburg, testing for CT DNA in urethral, anal, cervical and prostate samples. A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria. The overall average prevalence of genital CT infections in Russian populations ranged from 2.9% to 33%. Risk factors included being symptomatic (P = 0.004; in men P Russia should be considered. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

  1. Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, genital herpes simplex infection, and molluscum contagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra; Čeović, Romana

    2014-01-01

    Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale may be considered as tropical venereal diseases. These diseases were a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in past centuries. Currently, patients with these bacterial infections that are endemic to the tropics occasionally consult with dermatologists in temperate climates. Due to the increasing frequency of travel to the tropics for tourism and work, as well as the increasing number of immigrants from these areas, it is important for dermatologists practicing in temperate climates to be familiar with the dermatologic manifestations of such infections, to be prepared to diagnose these diseases, and to treat these patients. All three "tropical" infections respond well to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, although herpes progenitalis still cannot be cured, and the number of people infected keeps growing; moreover, genital herpes can be transmitted by viral shedding before and after the visual signs or symptoms. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe or even stop them from happening. There is currently no etiologic treatment for molluscum contagiosum, and the majority of treatment options are mechanical, causing a certain degree of discomfort. The molluscum contagiosum virus, unlike the other infectious agents mentioned, does not invade the skin. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vaccination with the Secreted Glycoprotein G of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Induces Protective Immunity after Genital Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Görander, Staffan; Bergström, Tomas; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2016-04-22

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a life-long infection in sensory ganglia. After primary infection HSV-2 may reactivate causing recurrent genital ulcerations. HSV-2 infection is prevalent, and globally more than 400 million individuals are infected. As clinical trials have failed to show protection against HSV-2 infection, new vaccine candidates are warranted. The secreted glycoprotein G (sgG-2) of HSV-2 was evaluated as a prophylactic vaccine in mice using two different immunization and adjuvant protocols. The protocol with three intramuscular immunizations combining sgG-2 with cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs and alum induced almost complete protection from genital and systemic disease after intra-vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers were detected with no neutralization activity. Purified splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) when re-stimulated with the antigen in vitro. sgG-2 + adjuvant intra-muscularly immunized mice showed a significant reduction of infectious HSV-2 and increased IFN-γ levels in vaginal washes. The HSV-2 DNA copy numbers were significantly reduced in dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and in serum at day six or day 21 post challenge. We show that a sgG-2 based vaccine is highly effective and can be considered as a novel candidate in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against HSV-2 infection.

  3. Genital herpes simplex.

    OpenAIRE

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and canc...

  4. Genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the genital area near the warts Increased vaginal discharge Genital itching Vaginal bleeding during or after sex ... have visible warts on your external genitals, itching, discharge, or abnormal vaginal bleeding. Keep in mind that genital warts may ...

  5. Distinct Effects of the Cervicovaginal Microbiota and Herpes Simplex Type 2 Infection on Female Genital Tract Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, B; Gajer, P; Yi, T J; Ma, B; Humphrys, M S; Thomas-Pavanel, J; Chieza, L; Janakiram, P; Saunders, M; Tharao, W; Huibner, S; Shahabi, K; Ravel, J; Kaul, R

    2017-05-01

    Genital inflammation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, and may increase HIV-susceptible target cells and alter epithelial integrity. Several genital conditions that increase HIV risk are more prevalent in African, Caribbean, and other black (ACB) women, including bacterial vaginosis and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) infection. Therefore, we assessed the impact of the genital microbiota on mucosal immunology in ACB women and microbiome-HSV-2 interactions. Cervicovaginal secretions and endocervical cells were collected by cytobrush and Instead Softcup, respectively. T cells and dendritic cells were assessed by flow cytometry, cytokines by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the microbiota by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing. The cervicovaginal microbiota of 51 participants were composed of community state types (CSTs) showing diversity (20/51; 39%) or predominated by Lactobacillus iners (22/51; 42%), L. crispatus (7/51; 14%), or L. gasseri (2/51; 4%). High-diversity CSTs and specific bacterial phyla (Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia) were strongly associated with cervicovaginal inflammatory cytokines, but not with altered endocervical immune cells. However, cervical CD4+ T-cell number was associated with HSV-2 infection and a distinct cytokine profile. This suggests that the genital microbiota and HSV-2 infection may influence HIV susceptibility through independent biological mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  7. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Alami Chentoufi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2 are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed.

  8. Genital infections and reproductive complications associated with Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Streptococcus agalactiae in women of Qom, central Iran

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    Mahmoud Nateghi Rostam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis (T.vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N.gonorrhoeae are two most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections in the world. No data are available regarding the epidemiology of genital infections in women of Qom, central Iran. Objective: Epidemiological investigation of sexually transmitted infections in genital specimens of women referred to the referral gynecology hospital in Qom, central Iran. Materials and Methods: Genital swab specimens were collected from women volunteers and used for identification of bacterial and protozoal infections by conventional microbial diagnostics, porA pseudo gene LightCycler® real-time PCR (for N.gonorrhoeae and ITS-PCR (for T.vaginalis. Results: Of 420 volunteers, 277 (65.9% had genital signs/symptoms, including 38.3% malodorous discharge, 37.9% dyspareunia, and 54.8% abdominal pain. Totally, 2 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae were identified. Five specimens (1.2% in Thayer-Martin culture and 17 (4.1% in real-time PCR were identified as N.gonorrhoeae. Fifty-four specimens (12.9% in wet mount, 64 (15.2% in Dorset’s culture, and 81 (19.3% in ITS-PCR showed positive results for T.vaginalis. Five mixed infections of T.vaginalis+ N.gonorrhoeae were found. The risk of T.vaginalis infection was increased in women with low-birth-weight (p=0.00; OR=43.29, history of abortion (p=0.00; OR=91.84, and premature rupture of membranes (PROM (p=0.00; OR=21.75. The probability of finding nuclear leukocytes (p=0.00; OR=43.34 in vaginal smear was higher in T.vaginalis infection. Conclusion: The significant prevalence of trichomoniasis and gonorrhea emphasizes the need for accurate diagnosis and effective surveillance to prevent serious reproductive complications in women.

  9. The DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, is essential for induction of IFN-β during Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

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    Zhang, Yugen; Yeruva, Laxmi; Marinov, Anthony; Prantner, Daniel; Wyrick, Priscilla B; Lupashin, Vladimir; Nagarajan, Uma M

    2014-09-01

    IFN-β has been implicated as an effector of oviduct pathology resulting from genital chlamydial infection in the mouse model. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic DNA and engagement of DNA sensors in IFN-β expression during chlamydial infection. We determined that three-prime repair exonuclease-1, a host 3' to 5' exonuclease, reduced IFN-β expression significantly during chlamydial infection using small interfering RNA and gene knockout fibroblasts, implicating cytosolic DNA as a ligand for this response. The DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) has been shown to bind cytosolic DNA to generate cyclic GMP-AMP, which binds to the signaling adaptor stimulator of IFN genes (STING) to induce IFN-β expression. We determined that cGAS is required for IFN-β expression during chlamydial infection in multiple cell types. Interestingly, although infected cells deficient for STING or cGAS alone failed to induce IFN-β, coculture of cells depleted for either STING or cGAS rescued IFN-β expression. These data demonstrate that cyclic GMP-AMP produced in infected cGAS(+)STING(-) cells can migrate into adjacent cells via gap junctions to function in trans in cGAS(-)STING(+) cells. Furthermore, we observed cGAS localized in punctate regions on the cytosolic side of the chlamydial inclusion membrane in association with STING, indicating that chlamydial DNA is most likely recognized outside the inclusion as infection progresses. These novel findings provide evidence that cGAS-mediated DNA sensing directs IFN-β expression during Chlamydia trachomatis infection and suggest that effectors from infected cells can directly upregulate IFN-β expression in adjacent uninfected cells during in vivo infection, contributing to pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Using centralized laboratory data to monitor trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 infection in British Columbia and the changing etiology of genital herpes.

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    Gilbert, Mark; Li, Xuan; Petric, Martin; Krajden, Mel; Isaac-Renton, Judith L; Ogilvie, Gina; Rekart, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the regional epidemiology of genital Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infections is important for clinical and public health practice, due to the increasing availability of type-specific serologic testing in Canada and the contribution of genital HSV-2 infection to ongoing HIV transmission. We used centralized laboratory data to describe trends in viral identifications of genital HSV in BC and assess the utility of these data for ongoing population surveillance. Records of viral identifications (1997-2005) were extracted from the Provincial Public Health Microbiology & Reference Laboratory database. Classification as genital or other site was based on documented specimen site. We conducted a descriptive analysis of trends over time, and calculated odds of HSV-1 infection among individuals with genital herpes. Of 48,183 viral identifications, 56.8% were genital, 10.0% were peri-oral and 9.1% cutaneous; site was unknown for 22.9%. Among genital identifications, HSV-1 infection was more likely in females, younger age groups, and later time periods. The proportion of genital herpes due to HSV-1 increased over time from 31.4% to 42.8% in BC. Our analysis of population-level laboratory data demonstrates that the proportion of genital herpes due to HSV-1 is increasing over time in BC, particularly among women and younger age groups; this has implications for clinical practice including the interpretation of type-specific serology. Provincial viral identification data are useful for monitoring the distribution of genital HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections over time. Improving clinical documentation of specimen site would improve the utility of these data.

  11. Prevalence of genital tract infection with Entamoeba gingivalis among copper T 380A intrauterine device users in Egypt.

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    Foda, Ashraf A; El-Malky, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to study the prevalence and potential pathogenicity of E. gingivalis in the genital tracts of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) users. A prospective study conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department and Fertility Care Unit, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. The study was carried out on 87 IUD users and 87 nonusers. The copper T 380A IUD was removed from each woman and washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4; the IUD wash was centrifuged. The sediment was resuspended in 2 ml PBS and divided into two portions. One portion was used for preparation of direct and iron hematoxylin-stained smears. Direct smears and stained smears were examined for detailed morphology. The second portion of the sediment was used for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA of E. gingivalis. The parasite was found in 12.64% of IUD users and in 6.9% of non users (p>.3). It was found that 90.9% of those harboring E. gingivalis in their genital tract had the parasite in their oral cavity. The percentage of genital infection in IUD users increased with low level of education, rural areas, insertion in primary health-care center and among those not washing hands before checking the strings. In the infected cases, vaginal discharge was more common (81.8%) than in noninfected cases (32.9%), such difference was statistically significant (p<.05). Also, excessive vaginal discharge is more common than backache and menorrhagia in the infected cases. Higher incidence of E. gingivalis infection in IUD users is related to oral cavity infection, residence, the facility where they inserted their IUD and washing hands attitude before checking the strings. We recommend treatment of gingival infection, proper counseling and medical education on oral and genital tract hygiene for IUD users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The chlamydial periplasmic stress response serine protease cHtrA is secreted into host cell cytosol

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    Flores Rhonda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The periplasmic High Temperature Requirement protein A (HtrA plays important roles in bacterial protein folding and stress responses. However, the role of chlamydial HtrA (cHtrA in chlamydial pathogenesis is not clear. Results The cHtrA was detected both inside and outside the chlamydial inclusions. The detection was specific since both polyclonal and monoclonal anti-cHtrA antibodies revealed similar intracellular labeling patterns that were only removed by absorption with cHtrA but not control fusion proteins. In a Western blot assay, the anti-cHtrA antibodies detected the endogenous cHtrA in Chlamydia-infected cells without cross-reacting with any other chlamydial or host cell antigens. Fractionation of the infected cells revealed cHtrA in the host cell cytosol fraction. The periplasmic cHtrA protein appeared to be actively secreted into host cell cytosol since no other chlamydial periplasmic proteins were detected in the host cell cytoplasm. Most chlamydial species secreted cHtrA into host cell cytosol and the secretion was not inhibitable by a type III secretion inhibitor. Conclusion Since it is hypothesized that chlamydial organisms possess a proteolysis strategy to manipulate host cell signaling pathways, secretion of the serine protease cHtrA into host cell cytosol suggests that the periplasmic cHtrA may also play an important role in chlamydial interactions with host cells.

  13. The role of zoonotic chlamydial agents in ruminants abortion.

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    Barati, Sara; Moori-Bakhtiari, Naghmeh; Najafabadi, Masoud Ghorbanpoor; Momtaz, Hassan; Shokuhizadeh, Leili

    2017-10-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) is caused by infection of sheep and goats by Chlamydia abortus bacterium. Chlamydial abortion in bovine could occur by Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. C. psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis or ornithosis disease in humans and birds. It also causes acute pneumonia in cattle and sheep. The present study aimed at surveying the role of chlamydial agents in ruminants abortion. A total of 117 aborted material samples (Cotyledon, liver, spleen, and abomasal contents of fetus) from 9 cattle and 100 sheep in Shahr-e-Kord and 8 sheep from Bagh-e-Malek were collected from different herds with abortion history during the lambing periods from 2014 to 2016. After DNA extraction, the samples were tested by species-specific PCR to detect C. abortus, C. pecorum and C. psittaci. Out of 117 clinical sample (108 sheep and 9 cattle), chlamydial infection was detected in 66 (56.41%) samples by Chlamydiales order-specific primers. A total of 24 (36.36%) and 24 (36.36%) samples indicated positive forms of C. abortus and C. psittasi infections, respectively. Only 1 (1.5%) C. pecorum was identified from cattle using nested PCR during this study. Among 66 Chlamydiales -positive samples, 20 (30.30%) samples with coinfection of C. abortus and C. psittaci were detected, however, infection of 3 species was not detected in the samples. Because of the high percentage of chlamydial infection in these regions and probability of coinfection, conducting epidemiological studies on the role of different animals is highly recommended.

  14. Incidence, clearance, and disease progression of genital human papillomavirus infection in heterosexual men.

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    Moreira, Edson Duarte; Giuliano, Anna R; Palefsky, Joel; Flores, Carlos Aranda; Goldstone, Stephen; Ferris, Daron; Hillman, Richard J; Moi, Harald; Stoler, Mark H; Marshall, Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Guris, Dalya; Haupt, Richard M

    2014-07-15

    In this analysis, we examine the incidence and clearance of external genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among heterosexual males aged 16-24 years. A total of 1732 males aged 16-24 years old in the placebo arm of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine trial were included in this analysis. Participants were enrolled from 18 countries in Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Latin America, and North America. Subjects underwent anogenital examinations and sampling of the penis, scrotum, and perineal/perianal regions. The incidence rate of any HPV DNA genotype 6, 11, 16, and/or 18 detection was 9.0 cases per 100 person-years. Rates of HPV DNA detection were highest in men from Africa. Median time to clearance of HPV genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA was 6.1, 6.1, 7.7, and 6.2 months, respectively. Median time to clearance of persistently detected HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA was 6.7, 3.2, 9.2, and 4.7 months, respectively. The study results suggest that the acquisition of HPV 6, 11, 16, and/or 18 in males is common and that many of these so-called infections are subsequently cleared, similar to findings for women. Nevertheless, given the high rate of HPV detection among young men, HPV vaccination of males may reduce infection in men and reduce the overall burden of HPV-associated disease in the community. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is essential for induction of IFN beta during Chlamydia trachomatis infection1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yugen; Yeruva, Laxmi; Marinov, Anthony; Prantner, Daniel; Wyrick, Priscilla; Lupashin, Vladimir; Nagarajan, Uma M.

    2014-01-01

    IFNβ has been implicated as an effector of oviduct pathology resulting from genital chlamydial infection in the mouse model. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic DNA and engagement of DNA sensors in IFNβ expression during chlamydial infection. We determined that TREX-1, a host 3’to 5’ exonuclease, reduced IFNβ expression significantly during chlamydial infection using siRNA and gene knock out fibroblasts, implicating cytosolic DNA as a ligand for this response. The DNA sensor cGAS has been shown to bind cytosolic DNA to generate cGAMP, which binds to the signaling adaptor STING to induce IFNβ expression. We determined that cGAS is required for IFNβ expression during chlamydial infection in multiple cell types. Interestingly, although infected cells deficient for STING or cGAS alone failed to induce IFNβ, co-culture of cells depleted for either STING or cGAS rescued IFNβ expression. These data demonstrate that cGAMP produced in infected cGAS+STING− cells can migrate into adjacent cells via gap junctions to function in trans in cGAS−STING+ cells. Further, we observed cGAS localized in punctate regions on the cytosolic side of the chlamydial inclusion membrane in association with STING, indicating that chlamydial DNA is likely recognized outside the inclusion as infection progresses. These novel findings provide evidence that cGAS-mediated-DNA sensing directs IFNβ expression during C.trachomatis infection and suggests that effectors from infected cells can directly upregulate IFNβ expression in adjacent uninfected cells during in vivo infection, contributing to pathogenesis. PMID:25070851

  16. Circumcision status and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, genital ulcer disease, and HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Supriya D.; Moses, Stephen; Parker, Corette B.; Agot, Kawango; Maclean, Ian; Bailey, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We assessed the protective effect of medical male circumcision (MMC) against HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and genital ulcer disease (GUD) incidence. Design Two thousand, seven hundred and eighty-seven men aged 18–24 years living in Kisumu, Kenya were randomly assigned to circumcision (n=1391) or delayed circumcision (n =1393) and assessed by HIV and HSV-2 testing and medical examinations during follow-ups at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Methods Cox regression estimated the risk ratio of each outcome (incident HIV, GUD, HSV-2) for circumcision status and multivariable models estimated HIV risk associated with HSV-2, GUD, and circumcision status as time-varying covariates. Results HIV incidence was 1.42 per 100 person-years. Circumcision was 62% protective against HIV [risk ratio =0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22–0.67] and did not change when controlling for HSV-2 and GUD (risk ratio =0.39; 95% CI 0.23–0.69). GUD incidence was halved among circumcised men (risk ratio =0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.73). HSV-2 incidence did not differ by circumcision status (risk ratio =0.94; 95% CI 0.70–1.25). In the multivariable model, HIV seroconversions were tripled (risk ratio =3.44; 95% CI 1.52–7.80) among men with incident HSV-2 and seven times greater (risk ratio =6.98; 95% CI 3.50–13.9) for men with GUD. Conclusion Contrary to findings from the South African and Ugandan trials, the protective effect of MMC against HIV was independent of GUD and HSV-2, and MMC had no effect on HSV-2 incidence. Determining the causes of GUD is necessary to reduce associated HIV risk and to understand how circumcision confers protection against GUD and HIV PMID:22382150

  17. The late endocytic Rab39a GTPase regulates the interaction between multivesicular bodies and chlamydial inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarte Tudela, Julian; Capmany, Anahi; Romao, Maryse; Quintero, Cristian; Miserey-Lenkei, Stephanie; Raposo, Graca; Goud, Bruno; Damiani, Maria Teresa

    2015-08-15

    Given their obligate intracellular lifestyle, Chlamydia trachomatis ensure that they have access to multiple host sources of essential lipids by interfering with vesicular transport. These bacteria hijack Rab6-, Rab11- and Rab14-controlled trafficking pathways to acquire sphingomyelin from the Golgi complex. Another important source of sphingolipids, phospholipids and cholesterol are multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Despite their participation in chlamydial inclusion development and bacterial replication, the molecular mechanisms mediating the interaction between MVBs and chlamydial inclusions remain unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that Rab39a labels a subset of late endocytic vesicles - mainly MVBs - that move along microtubules. Moreover, Rab39a is actively recruited to chlamydial inclusions throughout the pathogen life cycle by a bacterial-driven process that depends on the Rab39a GTP- or GDP-binding state. Interestingly, Rab39a participates in the delivery of MVBs and host sphingolipids to maturing chlamydial inclusions, thereby promoting inclusion growth and bacterial development. Taken together, our findings indicate that Rab39a favours chlamydial replication and infectivity. This is the first report showing that a late endocytic Rab GTPase is involved in chlamydial infection development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Association of genital mycoplasmas including Mycoplasma genitalium in HIV infected men with nongonococcal urethritis attending STD & HIV clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhas, Ashwini; Sethi, Sunil; Sharma, Meera; Wanchu, Ajay; Kanwar, A J; Kaur, Karamjit; Mehta, S D

    2009-03-01

    Acute nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections affecting men. The role of genital mycoplasmas including Mycoplasma genitalium in HIV infected men with NGU is still not known. The aim of this study was to determine the isolation pattern/detection of genital mycoplasma including M. genitalium in HIV infected men with NGU and to compare it with non HIV infected individuals. One hundred male patients with NGU (70 HIV positive, 30 HIV negative) were included in the study. Urethral swabs and urine samples obtained from patients were subjected to semi-quantitative culture for Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasama urealyticum, whereas M. genitalium was detected by PCR from urine. The primers MgPa1 and MgPa3 were selected to identify 289 bp product specific for M. genitalium. Chalmydia trachomatis antigen detection was carried out by ELISA. M. genitalium and M. hominis were detected/isolated in 6 per cent of the cases. M. genitalium was more common amongst HIV positive cases (7.1%) as compared to HIV negative cases (3.3%) but difference was not statistically significant. Co-infection of C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum was found in two HIV positive cases whereas, C. trachomatis and M. hominis were found to be coinfecting only one HIV positive individual. M. genitalium was found to be infecting the patients as the sole pathogen. Patients with NGU had almost equal risk of being infected with M. genitalium, U. urealyticum or M. hominis irrespective of their HIV status. M.genitalium constitutes one of the important causes of NGU besides other genital mycoplasmas.

  19. Herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus co-infection presenting as exuberant genital ulcer in a woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, A I; Borges-Costa, J; Soares-Almeida, L; Sacramento-Marques, M; Kutzner, H

    2014-12-01

    In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), genital herpes can result in severe and atypical clinical presentations, and can become resistant to aciclovir treatment. Rarely, these manifestations may represent concurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) with other agents. We report a 41-year-old black woman with HIV who presented with extensive and painful ulceration of the genitalia. Histological examination of a biopsy sample was suggestive of herpetic infection, and intravenous aciclovir was started, but produced only partial improvement. PCR was performed on the biopsy sample, and both HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected. Oral valganciclovir was started with therapeutic success. CMV infection is common in patients infected with HIV, but its presence in mucocutaneous lesions is rarely reported. This case exemplifies the difficulties of diagnosis of genital ulcers in patients infected with HIV. The presence of exuberant and persistent HSV genital ulcers in patients with HIV should also raise suspicions of the presence of co-infection with other organisms such as CMV. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Attitudes and Willingness to Assume Risk of Experimental Therapy to Eradicate Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseso, Linda; Magaret, Amalia S; Jerome, Keith R; Fox, Julie; Wald, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Current treatment of genital herpes is focused on ameliorating signs and symptoms but is not curative. However, as potential herpes simplex virus (HSV) cure approaches are tested in the laboratory, we aimed to assess the interest in such studies by persons with genital herpes and the willingness to assume risks associated with experimental therapy. We constructed an anonymous online questionnaire that was posted on websites that provide information regarding genital herpes. The questions collected demographic and clinical information on adults who self-reported as having genital herpes, and assessed attitudes toward and willingness to participate in HSV cure clinical research. Seven hundred eleven participants provided sufficient responses to be included in the analysis. Sixty-six percent were women; the median age was 37 years, and the median time since genital HSV diagnosis was 4.7 years. The willingness to participate in trials increased from 59.0% in phase 1 to 68.5% in phase 2, and 81.2% in phase 3 trials, and 40% reported willingness to participate even in the absence of immediate, personal benefits. The most desirable outcome was the elimination of risk for transmission to sex partner or neonate. The mean perceived severity of receiving a diagnosis of genital HSV-2 was 4.2 on a scale of 1 to 5. Despite suppressive therapy available, persons with genital herpes are interested in participating in clinical research aimed at curing HSV, especially in more advanced stages of development.

  1. High level of soluble HLA-G in the female genital tract of Beninese commercial sex workers is associated with HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Valérie; Lajoie, Julie; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Zannou, Marcel D; Fowke, Keith R; Alary, Michel; Poudrier, Johanne; Roger, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Most HIV infections are transmitted across mucosal epithelium. Understanding the role of innate and specific mucosal immunity in susceptibility or protection against HIV infection, as well as the effect of HIV infection on mucosal immunity, are of fundamental importance. HLA-G is a powerful modulator of the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) expression in the female genital tract is associated with HIV-1 infection. Genital levels of sHLA-G were determined in 52 HIV-1-uninfected and 44 antiretroviral naïve HIV-1-infected female commercial sex workers (CSWs), as well as 71 HIV-1-uninfected non-CSW women at low risk of exposure, recruited in Cotonou, Benin. HIV-1-infected CSWs had higher genital levels of sHLA-G compared with those in both the HIV-1-uninfected CSW (P = 0.009) and non-CSW groups (P = 0.0006). The presence of bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.008), and HLA-G*01:01:02 genotype (P = 0.002) were associated with higher genital levels of sHLA-G in the HIV-1-infected CSWs, whereas the HLA-G*01:04:04 genotype was also associated with higher genital level of sHLA-G in the overall population (P = 0.038). When adjustment was made for all significant variables, the increased expression of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa remained significantly associated with both HIV-1 infection (P = 0.02) and bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.03). This study demonstrates that high level of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa is independently associated with both HIV-1 infection and bacterial vaginosis.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sample of northern Brazilian pregnant women: prevalence and prenatal importance

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    Ana Paula B. de Borborema-Alfaia

    Full Text Available There are limited data regarding prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among northern Brazilian pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women in their third trimester and to determine the repercussion of this infection on their offspring. METHODS: In the first phase of this study 100 pregnant women receiving prenatal care in a local public university hospital were examined to assess the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction technique. In the second phase, 88 pregnant women were prospectively evaluated for premature rupture of membranes, puerperal consequences associated with chlamydial infection, and neonates were checked for low-birth weight. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was 11%, and 72.7% of the positive participants were predominantly less than 30 years of age (p = 0.1319. A total of 36.4% of the participants had premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.9998. Neither low-birth weight infants nor preterm delivery were observed. A cohort of 16 newborn babies were followedup up to 60 days of life to ascertain outcome: 50% had respiratory symptoms. Neonates born to infected mothers had a higher risk to develop respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. CONCLUSION: The scarcity of data about the effects of chlamydial infection on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justified this study. Diagnosing and treating chlamydial infection during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent neonate infection. Therefore, preventive screening should be seen as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection as part of local public health strategies.

  3. Efficacy of N-methanocarbathymidine against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding and infection in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Bravo, Fernando J; Pullum, Derek A; Shen, Hui; Wang, Mei; Rahman, Aquilur; Glazer, Robert I; Cardin, Rhonda D

    2015-02-01

    Current approved nucleoside therapies for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are effective but improved therapies are needed for treatment of both acute and recurrent diseases. The effects of N-methanocarbathymidine were evaluated and compared to acyclovir using guinea pig models of acute and recurrent infection. For acute disease following intravaginal inoculation of 10(6 )pfu HSV-2 (MS strain), animals were treated intraperitoneally beginning 24 h post-infection, and the effects on disease severity, vaginal virus replication, subsequent recurrences, and latent virus loads were evaluated. For evaluation of recurrent infection, animals were treated for 21 days beginning 14 days after infection and disease recurrence and recurrent shedding were evaluated. Treatment of the acute disease with N-methanocarbathymidine significantly reduced the severity of acute disease and decreased acute vaginal virus shedding more effectively than acyclovir. Significantly, none of the animals developed visible disease in the high-dose N-methanocarbathymidine group and this was the only group in which the number of days with recurrent virus shedding was reduced. Treatment of recurrent disease was equivalent to acyclovir when acyclovir was continuously supplied in the drinking water. N-methanocarbathymidine was effective as therapy for acute and recurrent genital HSV-2 disease in the guinea pig models. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. Systemic infection by equid herpesvirus-1 in a Grevy's zebra stallion (Equus grevyi) with particular reference to genital pathology.

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    Blunden, A S; Smith, K C; Whitwell, K E; Dunn, K A

    1998-11-01

    A severe multi-systemic form of equid herpesvirus-1 infection is described in an adult zebra stallion. There was multifocal necrotizing rhinitis, marked hydrothorax and pulmonary oedema, with viral antigen expression in degenerating epithelial cells, local endothelial cells and intravascular leucocytes of the nasal mucosa and lung. Specific localization of EHV-1 infection was seen in the testes and epididymides, including infection of Leydig cells and germinal epithelium, which would have facilitated venereal shedding of virus in life. The case provided a unique opportunity to study hitherto undescribed aspects of the pathogenesis of naturally occurring EHV-1 infection in the male equine genital tract. Restriction digests of the isolate demonstrated a pattern similar to that of EHV-1 isolates previously recovered from aborted zebra and onager fetuses.

  5. Effect of undecylenic acid as a topical microbicide against genital herpes infection in mice and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N; Ireland, J; Stanberry, L R; Bernstein, D I

    1999-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of topical microbicides to help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Undecylenic acid (UA), a monosaturated fatty acid, is the active ingredient in a number of over-the-counter (OTC) antifungal spray powders, that also exhibits in vitro antibacterial and antiviral activity, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity. We, therefore, evaluated UA as a topical microbicide against genital HSV infection using the murine and guinea pig models of genital herpes. Mice were administered a 20% solution of UA in polyethylene glycol (PEG) vehicle, vehicle alone or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) intravaginally immediately prior to vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Pre-treatment with UA decreased the number of mice that became infected (P < 0.001 vs. PBS or vehicle control), developed symptoms (P <0.001) or died (P <0.001). However, when treatment was extended to either 5 min prior to or after viral inoculation, protection was lost. Similar findings were found using the guinea pig model, where UA treatment completely prevented HSV-2 vaginal infection when given immediately prior to HSV-2 inoculation (P<0.001 vs. PBS or vehicle control). Thus, UA, an approved OTC medication, provided significant protection against HSV disease and infection only when applied immediately before viral inoculation, indicating that better formulations were needed to extend the duration of protection.

  6. Oncogenic human papillomavirus genital infection in southern Iranian women: population-based study versus clinic-based data

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    Eghbali Seyed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies on genital human papilloma viruses infection (HPVs in general population are crucial for the implementation of health policy guidelines for developing the strategies to prevent the primary and secondary cervical cancer. In different parts of Iran, there is a lack of population-based studies to determine the prevalence of HPV in the general population. The aim of this population-based study is to compare the prevalence rate of genital HPV infection among reproductive women with our previous clinic-based data, which showed a prevalence rate of 5% in women in southern Iran. Results Using general primers for all genotypes of HPV, of 799 randomly selected women, five (0.63%, 95% CI 0.23-1.55% tested positive for HPV DNA. Overall, seven different HPV genotypes were detected: six types (16, 18, 31, 33, 51 and 56 were carcinogenic, or “high risk genotypes” and one genotype (HPV-66 was “probably carcinogenic.” Conclusions In a population-based study, the prevalence of HPV infection among southern Iranian women was lower than that observed worldwide. However, our gynaecological clinic-based study on the prevalence of HPV infection showed results comparable with other studies in the Middle East and Persian Gulf countries. Since gynaecological clinic-based data may generally overestimate HPV prevalence, estimates of prevalence according to clinic-based data should be adjusted downward by the population-based survey estimates.

  7. Clinical Characteristics of Herpes Simplex Virus Urethritis Compared With Chlamydial Urethritis Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason J; Morton, Anna N; Henzell, Helen R; Berzins, Karen; Druce, Julian; Fairley, Christopher K; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Read, Tim Rh; Hocking, Jane S; Chen, Marcus Y

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical characteristics associated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) urethritis in men and to compare those with chlamydial urethritis. We compared clinical and laboratory data from men diagnosed with polymerase chain reaction confirmed HSV urethritis with those of men with chlamydial urethritis presenting to Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2000 and 2015. Eighty HSV urethritis cases were identified: 55 (68%, 95% confidence interval, 58-78) were by HSV-1 and 25 (32%, 95% confidence interval, 22-42) by HSV-2. Compared with chlamydial urethritis, men with HSV urethritis were significantly more likely to report severe dysuria (20% vs 0%, P < 0.01) or constitutional symptoms (15% vs 0%, P < 0.01). Men with HSV urethritis were significantly more likely to have meatitis (62% vs 23%, P < 0.01), genital ulceration (37% vs 0%, P < 0.01), or inguinal lymphadenopathy (30% vs 0%, P < 0.01) but less likely to have urethral discharge (32% vs 69%, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the proportion of men who had raised (≥5) polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-powered field between the two groups (P = 0.46). The clinical presentation of HSV urethritis in men may differ from those of chlamydial urethritis and guide testing for HSV in men presenting with non-gonococcal urethritis.

  8. Herpes simplex virus specific T cell response in a cohort with primary genital infection correlates inversely with frequency of subsequent recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen-Röhl, Elisabeth; Schepis, Danika; Atterfelt, Fredrik; Franck, Kristina; Wikström, Arne; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke; Bergström, Tomas; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Kärre, Klas; Berg, Louise; Gaines, Hans

    2017-05-01

    During the last decades, a changing epidemiological pattern of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has emerged. Primary infection is now caused as often by HSV-1 as by HSV-2. Once established, HSV can be reactivated leading to recurrent mucocutaneous lesions as well as meningitis. Why some otherwise immune-competent individuals experience severe and frequent recurrences is not known, and the immunological mechanism underlying recurrent symptomatic HSV infection is not fully understood. In this study, we investigate and characterise the immune response of patients with first episode of HSV genital infection and its relation to the frequency of symptomatic recurrences. In this cohort study, clinical and immunological data were collected from 29 patients who were followed 1 year after presenting with a first episode of genital or meningeal HSV infection. They were classified by PCR and serology as those with primary HSV-1, primary HSV-2 and non-primary HSV-2 infection. HSV-specific interleukin(Il)-4 and Il-10 responses at first visit were higher in primary infected HSV-2 infected patients experiencing lower numbers of recurrences during subsequent year. The median number of recurrences following primary HSV-2 genital infection may partly be predicted by the strength of an early HSV-specific IL-4 and IL-10 response. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. The Incidence of Co-occurrence of Chlamydial Cervicitis with Bacterial Vaginosis

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    Yusefi S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an imbalance in normal vaginal bacterial flora mainly caused by the introduction of pathogenic bacteria. Failure to properly treat this condition can not only induce abortion but also increase the chance of acquiring other serious infections such as AIDS, gonorrhea and chlamydiosis. Chlamydia trchomatis is one of the causative agents of cervicitis of which 70% is totally asymptomatic. Untreated cases can lead to salpengititis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, infertility, pelvic area pains and other complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of these two conditions.Methods: A total of 137 patients were examined for both Chlamydial cervicitis and for bacterial vaginosis. Gram stain was used to detect bacterial vaginosis and anti-chlamydial antibodies were titered by microimmunofluoresence (MIF assay. Results: According to the MIF results, 10 patients(7.3% had elevated anti-chlamydial IgG and 3 patients (2.2% showed high IgM titers. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected in 6 patients(4.7% as the causative agent of vaginosis. There were 3 cases of co-occurrence of chlamydial cervicitis and bacterial vaginosis (30%. Conclusion: Due to the fact that bacterial vaginosis can provide the pre-disposing conditions for cervicitis and its chronicity and the similarity of the cilinical singns of these two conditions, Infections with Chlamydia are often overlooked. It therefore seems necessary to check any patient with bacterial vaginosis for chlamydial co-infection.

  10. [TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RECURRENT HERPES VIRUS INFECTION OF GENITAL LOCALIZATION: A CLINICAL STUDY OF FORTEPREN PREPARATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narovlyansky, A N; Sedov, A M; Pronin, A V; Shulzhenko, A E; Sanin, A V; Zuikova, I N; Schubelko, R V; Savchenko, A Yu; Parfenova, T M; Izmestieva, A V; Izmestieva, An V; Grigorieva, E A; Suprun, O V; Zubashev, I K; Kozlov, V S

    2015-01-01

    Selection of optimal dosage regimen, length of treatment course (frequency of administration), safety, tolerance and clinical effectiveness evaluation of the medical preparation fortepren in patients with chronical recurrent herpes virus infection of genital localization. The medical product of antiviral and immune modulating effect--fortepren (sodium polyprenyl phosphate) as a 4 mg/ml solution for injections combined with the base course of acyclic nucleoside acyclovir, 400 mg tablets, held studies. 40 male and female patients participated in the study. After a 10-day acyclovir course (400 mg x 3 times a day) for removing the acute phase, 4 groups of 10 individuals were formed: 1--5 ml (20 mg) of fortepren i/m once at day 13 ± 2 after the start of the study after the completion of the treatment of the acute phase of the disease; 2--5 ml (20 mg) fortepren i/m 3 times at an interval of 21 days; 3--2 ml (8 mg) fortepren i/m 3 times at an interval of 21 days; 4 (control)--5 ml of placebo i/m at remission stage 3 times at an interval of 21 days. Increase of the duration of inter-recurrence period, decrease of the severity of the recurrences, state of skin and mucous damage elements, improvements of immunologic parameters were considered during effectiveness evaluation. Significant differences in the frequency of recurrences of genital herpes were shown for 3 months of observation in experimental and control groups. A significant reduction of genital herpes recurrence frequency from 3.52 ± 0.09 (before treatment) to 2.89 ± 0.08 (after treatment) was noted in patients of group 3 (p genital herpes in the form of vesicle elements after treatment in groups 2 (p = 0.02) and 3 (p = 0.005) was found. Evaluation of local symptoms has established that burning have caused minimal discomfort for patients of groups 3 and 4 and itch and soreness--of groups 1 and 3. The least pronounced exacerbations were noted in patients of group 3. Intramuscular administration of fortepren

  11. Intravaginal infection with herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) generates a functional effector memory T cell population that persists in the murine genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Vera A; Rosenthal, Kenneth L

    2010-12-01

    Although the female genital tract is the main portal of entry for sexually transmitted infections in women, we still have limited understanding of the generation, maintenance and characteristics of memory T cells in the local tissue. Here, we utilized a mouse model of intravaginal HSV-2 infection and tetramers against the immunodominant HSV glycoprotein B epitope recognized by CD8+ T cells to examine the generation, maintenance and characteristics of anti-HSV memory T cells in the genital tract following acute infection. Our results show that the highest percentage of HSVgB-specific CD8+ T cells was found in the genital tract compared to the spleen or iliac lymphnode. Indeed, although the actual number of CD8+ T cells contracted following viral clearance, approximately one quarter of the CD8+ population that remained in the genital tissue was HSVgB-specific. Memory gB-tetramer+CD8 T cells in the genital tract were positive for CD127 and KLRG1 and negative for CD62L and CCR7, thus confirming that HSV-specific CD8 cells were effector memory T cells that lack the capacity for homing to lymphoid tissues. Functionally, both memory CD8+ and CD4+ HSV-specific populations in the genital tract produced IFNγ when stimulated in vitro and CD4+ cells also produced TNFα. Genital HSVgB-specific memory T cells expressed tissue-homing integrins CD103 (αE integrin) and CD49a (VLA-1 or α1 integrin). Our findings suggest that HSV-specific memory T cells are retained in the genital tract, poised to act as an early line of defense against future virus encounter. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus with Genital Tract Mucosal Immune Factors In HIV-Infected Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Niall; Huber, Ashley; Lo, Yungtai; Castle, Philip E.; Kemal, Kimdar; Burk, Robert D.; Strickler, Howard D.; Einstein, Mark H.; Young, Mary; Anastos, Kathryn; Herold, Betsy C.

    2015-01-01

    Problem High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is prevalent in HIV-infected women and may be associated with mucosal changes that promote HIV replication. Method of Study Innate immune molecules, antimicrobial activity, HIV RNA, and HPV DNA genotypes were measured in a cross-sectional study of 128 HIV-infected women categorized into HPV-16 (n=8), other HR-HPV (n=41), and non-HR-HPV controls (n=79). Results Compared to controls, HR-HPV groups had higher plasma viral loads (p=0.004), lower CD4 cells (p=0.02), more genital tract HIV RNA (p=0.03), greater number of different HPV types (p<0.001), higher cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) IL-1α (p=0.03) and human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) (p=0.049), and less anti-HIVBal activity (p=0.03). HPV-16 remained significantly associated with higher HBD2 (p=0.03), higher IL-1α (p=0.009), and lower anti-HIVBaL activity (p=0.03) compared to controls after adjusting for plasma viral load and CD4 T cell count. Conclusion HR-HPV is associated with mucosal changes in HIV-infected women that could adversely impact genital tract health. PMID:26685115

  13. Epidemiological investigation of the relationship between common lower genital tract infections and high-risk human papillomavirus infections among women in Beijing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Zhang

    Full Text Available The incidence of lower genital tract infections in China has been increasing in recent years. The link between high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs remains unclear.From March to October 2014, gynecological examinations and questionnaires were conducted on 1218 married women. Cervical secretions and vaginal swab specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, yeast, clue cells and HR-HPV.Laboratory results were available for 1195 of 1218 married women. HR-HPV was detected in 7.0% of participants. Forty-seven percent of women had lower genital tract infections (LGTIs. UU was the most common infection (35.5%, followed by bacterial vaginosis (BV (10.5%, yeast infection (3.7%, CT (2.2%, and Trichomonas vaginalis (1.7%. BV was associated with an increased risk of HR- HPV (P < 0.0001; odds ratio, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.7-5.4]. There was a strong correlation between abnormal cervical cytology and HR-HPV infection (P < 0.0001.The prevalence of LGTIs in Beijing is at a high level. It is clinically important to screen for the simultaneous presence of pathogens that cause co-infections with HR-HPV.

  14. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Innate immunity is sufficient for the clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the female mouse genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant, Gail L; Caldwell, Harlan D

    2014-10-01

    Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis, mouse and human strains, respectively, have been used to study immunity in a murine model of female genital tract infection. Despite evidence that unique genes of these otherwise genomically similar strains could play a role in innate immune evasion in their respective mouse and human hosts, there have been no animal model findings to directly support this conclusion. Here, we infected C57BL/6 and adaptive immune-deficient Rag1(-/-) female mice with these strains and evaluated their ability to spontaneously resolve genital infection. Predictably, C57BL/6 mice spontaneously cleared infection caused by both chlamydial strains. In contrast, Rag1(-/-) mice which lack mature T and B cell immunity but maintain functional innate immune effectors were incapable of resolving C. muridarum infection but spontaneously cleared C. trachomatis infection. This distinct dichotomy in adaptive and innate immune-mediated clearance between mouse and human strains has important cautionary implications for the study of natural immunity and vaccine development in the mouse model. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum, and Chlamydia suis as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Hoelzle, Katharina; Wittenbrink, Max M

    2004-10-05

    Recombinant major outer membrane proteins (rMOMP) of Chlamydophila (Ch.) abortus, Ch. pecorum, and Chlamydia (C.) suis were used as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in (i) immune sera from six rabbits and three pigs raised against native purified elementary bodies, (ii) serum samples from 25 sows vaccinated with Ch. abortus, and (iii) 40 serum samples from four heifers experimentally infected with Ch. abortus. All post-exposition sera contained chlamydial antibodies as confirmed by strong ELISA seroreactivities against the chlamydial LPS. For the rMOMP ELISA mean IgG antibody levels were at least 5.8-fold higher with the particular rMOMP homologous to the chlamydial species used for immunisation or infection than with heterologous rMOMPs (P <0.001). Preferential rMOMP ELISA reactivities of sera were confirmed by Western blotting. The results suggest that the entire chlamydial rMOMP could provide a species-specific serodiagnostic antigen.

  17. Genital infections and risk of premature rupture of membranes in Mulago Hospital, Uganda: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakubulwa, Sarah; Kaye, Dan K; Bwanga, Freddie; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Mirembe, Florence M

    2015-10-16

    Inflammatory mediators that weaken and cause membrane rupture are released during the course of genital infections among pregnant women. We set out to determine the association of common genital infections (Trichomonas vaginalis, syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Group B Streptococcus, Bacterial vaginosis, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and candidiasis) and premature rupture of membranes in Mulago hospital, Uganda. We conducted an unmatched case-control study among women who were in the third trimester of pregnancy at New Mulago hospital, Uganda. The cases had PROM and the controls had intact membranes during latent phase of labour in the labour ward. We used interviewer-administered questionnaires to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric and medical history. Laboratory tests were conducted to identify T. vaginalis, syphilis, N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Group B Streptococcus, Bacterial vaginosis, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) and candidiasis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI of the association between genital infections and PROM. There was an association between PROM and abnormal vaginal discharge (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.10-3.70 and AOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.18-4.47), presence of candidiasis (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.14-0.52 and AOR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.10-0.46) and T. vaginalis (OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.18-7.56 and AOR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.51-11.80). However, there was no association between PROM and presence of C. trachomatis (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 0.37-11.49) and HSV-2 serostatus (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.63-2.09). Few or no patients with Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Group B streptococcus or syphilis were identified among the cases and controls. Co-infection of Trichomoniasis and candidiasis was not associated with PROM (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.16-11.10). Co infection with T. vaginalis and C. trachomatis was associated with PROM (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.21-7.84 and AOR = 4.22, 95% CI 1

  18. Herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Dhankani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA and singular value decomposition (SVD to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density.

  19. A Cross Sectional Analysis of Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infections among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Kevin Rebe

    Full Text Available Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM are at high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI transmission. Asymptomatic STIs are common in MSM and remain undiagnosed and untreated where syndromic management is advocated. Untreated STIs could be contributing to high HIV rates. This study investigated symptomatic (SSTI and asymptomatic STIs (ASTIs in MSM in Cape Town.MSM, 18 years and above, were enrolled into this study. Participants underwent clinical and microbiological screening for STIs. Urine, oro-pharyngeal and anal swab specimens were collected for STI analysis, and blood for HIV and syphilis screening. A psychosocial and sexual questionnaire was completed. STI specimens were analysed for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection.200 MSM were recruited with a median age of 32 years (IQR 26-39.5. Their median number of sex partners within the last year was 5 (IQR 2-20. 155/200 (78% reported only male sex partners while 45/200 (23% reported sex with men and women. 77/200 (39% reported transactional sex. At enrolment, 88/200 (44% were HIV positive and 8/112 (7% initially HIV-negative participants seroconverted during the study. Overall, 47/200 (24% screened positive for either NG or CT. There were 32 MSM (16% infected with NG and 7 (3.5% of these men had NG infections at two anatomical sites (39 NG positive results in total. Likewise, there were 23 MSM (12% infected with CT and all these men had infections at only one site. Eight of the 47 men (17% were infected with both NG and CT. ASTI was more common than SSTI irrespective of anatomical site, 38 /200 (19% versus 9/200 (5% respectively (p<0.001. The anus was most commonly affected, followed by the oro-pharynx and then urethra. Asymptomatic infection was associated with transgender identity (OR 4.09 CI 1.60-5.62, ≥5 male sex partners in the last year (OR 2.50 CI 1.16-5.62 and transactional sex (OR 2.33 CI 1.13-4.79 but not with HIV infection.Asymptomatic STI was

  20. Association of viridans group streptococci from pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis and upper genital tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Rabe, L K; Winterscheid, K K; Hillier, S L

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence and role of viridans group streptococci in the female genital tract have not been well described. In this study of 482 pregnant women, 147 (30%) were culture positive for viridans group streptococci. Of 392 women with predominant Lactobacillus morphotypes by Gram stain (normal), 110 (28%) were colonized with viridans group streptococci, compared with 37 (41%) of 90 women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) (P = 0.02). To determine whether any species were associated with BV, 177 cons...

  1. Genital herpes simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummon, I S; Dudley, D K; Walters, J H

    1981-07-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history.

  2. Isolation and identification of Taylorella asinigenitalis from the genital tract of a stallion, first case of a natural infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båverud, V; Nyström, C; Johansson, K-E

    2006-09-10

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, is a widely known highly contagious genital equine disease that is transmitted venereally. A new bacterium, Taylorella asinigenitalis resembling T. equigenitalis was recently isolated from three American donkey jacks, at routine testing for CEM. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a strain of Taylorella sp. from the genital tract of a stallion. Swab samples for culture of T. equigenitalis were taken from urethral fossa, urethra and penile sheath of a 3-year-old stallion of the Ardennes breed when it was routinely tested for CEM. A small Gram-negative rod was isolated, but the colony appearance, the slow growth rate and the results in the API ZYM test differed slightly from those of T. equigenitalis. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was therefore performed and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequence of the strain Bd 3751/05 represents T. asinigenitalis and that the strain is identical with the Californian asinine strain UCD-1T (ATCC 700933T). The T. asinigenitalis strain had a low MIC of gentamicin (MIC16 microg/ml). Taylorella asinigenitalis has thus for the first time been isolated from the genital tract of a stallion with a natural infection. To determine the pathogenicity of T. asinigenitalis it will be important to conduct further experimental studies. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was shown to be a reliable tool for differentiation of T. asinigenitalis from T. equigenitalis as well as for identification of these species.

  3. HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 genital shedding among co-infected women using self-collected swabs in Chiang Rai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhan, S E; Dunne, E F; Sternberg, M R; Whitehead, S J; Leelawiwat, W; Thepamnuay, S; Chen, C; Evans-Strickfaden, Tt; McNicholl, J M; Markowitz, L E

    2012-08-01

    We analysed 528 genital self-collected swabs (SCS) from 67 HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) co-infected women collected during the placebo month of a randomized crossover clinical trial of suppressive acyclovir in Chiang Rai, Thailand. In this first longitudinal study of HIV-1 and HSV-2 co-infected women using genital SCS specimens, we found frequent mucosal HIV-1 shedding. Overall, 372 (70%) swabs had detectable HIV-1 RNA with median HIV-1 viral load of 2.61 log(10) copies/swab. We found no statistically significant association between detectable HIV-1 RNA and HSV-2 DNA in the same SCS specimen (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.40; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.78-2.60, P = 0.25). Only baseline HIV-1 plasma viral load was independently associated with genital HIV-1 RNA shedding (aOR, 7.6; 95% CI, 3.3-17.2, P genital sampling, and inclusion of genital sites other than the cervix.

  4. A case of MOG antibody-positive bilateral optic neuritis and meningoganglionitis following a genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masataka; Iwasaki, Yuko; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Kimihiko; Nakashima, Ichiro; Kunieda, Takenobu; Kaneko, Satoshi; Kusaka, Hirofumi

    2017-10-01

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-positive optic neuritis (ON) and myelitis are recognized as important differential diagnosis of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica (NMO)/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Similar to NMO/NMOSD associated with AQP4 antibodies, preceding infections have been reported in patients with MOG antibody-positive ON. This is the first report of bilateral ON following a herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection associated with a positive MOG antibody. A 41-year-old man who initially presented with genital herpes developed allodynia in the Th2-Th5 and Th8-L2 areas, urinary retention, and painful visual loss in the left eye. Ophthalmological evaluation and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral ON. A spinal MRI showed leptomeningeal enhancement from the thoracic to lumbar vertebrae and abnormal enhancement of the L3 to S3 dorsal root ganglia without a change in intramedullary signals. Following treatment with acyclovir and steroid pulse, he fully recovered. Serum anti-AQP4 antibodies were negative, but anti-MOG antibodies were positive. Finally, he was diagnosed with MOG antibody-positive bilateral ON and meningoganglionitis following an HSV infection. Our case supports a relationship between anti-MOG antibodies and ON triggered by an HSV infection. Clinicians should thus consider testing for MOG antibodies in patients with post-infectious neurological symptoms due to an HSV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of in vitro chlamydial cultures in low-oxygen atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nicolai Stefan; Jensen, Helene; Hvid, Malene

    2007-01-01

    To mimic in vivo conditions during chlamydial infections, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D and Chlamydia pneumoniae CWL029 were cultured in low-oxygen atmospheres containing 4% O(2), with parallel controls cultured in atmospheric air. Both were enriched with 5% CO(2). The results showed a dramatic...

  6. Urbanization and baseline prevalence of genital infections including Candida, Trichomonas, and human papillomavirus and of a disturbed vaginal ecology as established in the Dutch Cervical Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; Kok, LP

    OBJECTIVE: An overgrowth of coccoid bacilli in the absence of lactobacilli (bacterial vaginosis) is considered a sign of a "disturbed" vaginal ecologic system. The aim of this study was to establish the baseline prevalence of genital infections and of a disturbed vaginal ecologic system and their

  7. Development of a chip-based multiplexed immunoassay using liposomal nanovesicles and its application in the detection of pathogens causing female lower genital tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiang Su

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: This microarray chip was a rapid, easy, inexpensive and sensitive tool for detecting female lower genital tract Candida infection in a one-time vaginal sampling process, although the data on the four other pathogens were still unavailable. A larger population study is encouraged to test the validity of this multiplexed immunoassay chip.

  8. Association of viridans group streptococci from pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis and upper genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, L K; Winterscheid, K K; Hillier, S L

    1988-06-01

    The prevalence and role of viridans group streptococci in the female genital tract have not been well described. In this study of 482 pregnant women, 147 (30%) were culture positive for viridans group streptococci. Of 392 women with predominant Lactobacillus morphotypes by Gram stain (normal), 110 (28%) were colonized with viridans group streptococci, compared with 37 (41%) of 90 women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) (P = 0.02). To determine whether any species were associated with BV, 177 consecutively isolated viridans group streptococci from the vagina were identified to the species level by using the Facklam scheme. The most frequently isolated species from the vagina was Streptococcus intermedius (13%), followed by Streptococcus acidominimus (6%), Streptococcus constellatus (5%), Streptococcus sanguis II (4%), Streptococcus mitis (2%), Streptococcus salivarius (2%), Streptococcus morbillorum (2%), Streptococcus sanguis I (1%), Streptococcus mutans (0.2%), and Streptococcus uberis (0.2%) with an average of 1.2 species per woman. The distribution of the species among women with BV compared with normal women was not significantly different, with the exception of two species which were associated with BV: S. acidominimus (18% versus 3%, P less than 0.001) and S. morbillorum (6% versus 0.7%, P = 0.005). Amniotic fluid and placenta cultures yielded 54 isolates: S. sanguis II (13 isolates), S. acidominimus (9 isolates), S. intermedius (10 isolates), S. constellatus (3 isolates), S. mitis (4 isolates), S. sanguis I (4 isolates), S. morbillorum (5 isolates), S. mutans (2 isolates), S. uberis (1 isolate), mannitol-positive S. intermedius (1 isolate), and 2 isolates which were not classified. The distribution of species isolated from the upper genital tract was not a reflection of the distribution in the lower genital tract. Dextran-producing species of viridans group streptococci may have a greater pathogenic potential in the placenta than the non

  9. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis in genital specimens: kerman city, PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes genital disease and the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. The most frequent risk factors associated with chlamydial infection are related to sexual behavior, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Presenting primarily as urtheritis in men and cervicitis in women, CT a major cause of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and subsequent infertility in women, eye and lung infection in newborns and other manifestations. Identification of CT-infected patients may prevent its spread and thereby reduce the high morbidity associated with CT infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of small quantity of bacterial DNA in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of C. trachomatis by PCR in genital samples from patients in the city of Kerman.Methods: A total of 130 genital samples including 64 endocervical and 66 urethral swab samples were collected by physicians. Nucleic acid was extracted from each sample using a commercial DNA extraction kit. PCR primers specific for a conserved region of the C. trachomatis omp2 gene, encoding an outer membrane protein, were used for amplification.  Results: A total of 9.2% (6.25% of cervicitis and 12.1% of urethritis of the samples were found positive for CT using this PCR method. Conclusions:  The present study shows a high prevalence of CT infection, especially in men with urethritis. Such patients should be referred to genitourinary clinics for treatment and partner notification. Given its worldwide prevalence, further CT studies on more populations are needed to assess potential public health implications of these infections.

  10. Prevention and management of genital herpes simplex infection during pregnancy and delivery: Guidelines from the French College of Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénat, Marie-Victoire; Anselem, Olivia; Picone, Olivier; Renesme, Laurent; Sananès, Nicolas; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle; Sellier, Yann; Laplace, Jean-Pierre; Sentilhes, Loïc

    2018-05-01

    Identify measures to diagnose, prevent, and treat genital herpes infection during pregnancy and childbirth as well as neonatal herpes infection. Bibliographic search from the Medline and Cochrane Library databases and review of international clinical practice guidelines. Genital herpes lesions are most often due to HSV-2 (LE2). The risk of HSV seroconversion during pregnancy is 1-5% (LE2). Genital herpes lesions during pregnancy in a woman with a history of genital herpes is a recurrence. In this situation, there is no need for virologic confirmation (Grade B). In pregnant women with genital lesions who report they have not previously had genital herpes, virological confirmation by PCR and identifying the specific IgG type is necessary (professional consensus). A first episode of genital herpes during pregnancy should be treated with aciclovir (200 mg 5 times daily) or valaciclovir (1000 mg twice daily) for 5-10 days (Grade C), and recurrent herpes during pregnancy with aciclovir (200 mg 5 times daily) or valaciclovir (500 mg twice daily) (Grade C). The risk of neonatal herpes is estimated at between 25% and 44% if a non primary and primary first genital herpes episode is ongoing at delivery (LE2) and 1% for a recurrence (LE3). Antiviral prophylaxis should be offered to women with either a first or recurrent episode of genital herpes during pregnancy from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery (Grade B). Routine prophylaxis is not recommended for women with a history of genital herpes but no recurrence during pregnancy (professional consensus). A cesarean delivery is recommended if a first episode of genital herpes is suspected (or confirmed) at the onset of labor (Grade B) or if it occured less than 6 weeks before delivery (professional consensus) or in the event of premature rupture of the membranes at term. When a recurrence of genital herpes is underway at the onset of labor, cesarean delivery is most likely to be considered when the membranes are

  11. [Place of vulvovaginal candidiasis in the lower genital tract infections and associated risk factors among women in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Adisso, S; Djamal, J; Sanni, R; Amangbegnon, R; Biokou-Bankole, B; Kinde Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the place of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) in the lower genital infections and seek risk factors among women in Benin. The study was conducted in the laboratory of mycology of Hôpital de la Mère et de l'Enfant Lagune (Homel) from 1st March to 31st July, 2013. It involved all the women who were asked a vaginal swab and gave their consent in written form. After administration of a questionnaire, the vaginal samples were collected with sterile cotton swabs for a test with potassium hydroxide, an estimation of vaginal pH, direct microscopic examination, fresh, and after a Gram stain and culture on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol, ordinary agar and fresh blood agar. One hundred and thirty-one women were included in the study period. Clinical signs were dominated by vaginal discharge (74.8%), followed by vulvar pruritus (51.9%) and dyspareunia (36.6%). Culture on Sabouraud was positive in 51 cases or 38.9%. Candida albicans was isolated in 96.1% of cases, against 3.9% of Candida glabrata. The risk factors involved were: pregnancy, antibiotics, synthetic underclothing and frequent wearing tight pants. In addition of Candida, Gardnerella vaginalis was found in 36.6% of samples with an association with C. albicans in 28.2% of cases. This study showed that vulvovaginal candidiasis is the leading cause of lower genital tract infections in women in Benin with involvement of several risk factors which research is needed to develop appropriate preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (pinfection cycle suggesting that the ability of lactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (pvaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of long-term weekly iron and folic acid supplementation on lower genital tract infection - a double blind, randomised controlled trial in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabin, Loretta; Roberts, Stephen A; Gies, Sabine; Nelson, Andrew; Diallo, Salou; Stewart, Christopher J; Kazienga, Adama; Birtles, Julia; Ouedraogo, Sayouba; Claeys, Yves; Tinto, Halidou; d'Alessandro, Umberto; Faragher, E Brian; Brabin, Bernard

    2017-11-23

    Provision of routine iron supplements to prevent anaemia could increase the risk for lower genital tract infections as virulence of some pathogens depends on iron availability. This trial in Burkina Faso assessed whether weekly periconceptional iron supplementation increased the risk of lower genital tract infection in young non-pregnant and pregnant women. Genital tract infections were assessed within a double blind, controlled, non-inferiority trial of malaria risk among nulliparous women, randomised to receive either iron and folic acid or folic acid alone, weekly, under direct observation for 18 months. Women conceiving during this period entered the pregnancy cohort. End assessment (FIN) for women remaining non-pregnant was at 18 months. For the pregnancy cohort, end assessment was at the first scheduled antenatal visit (ANC1). Infection markers included Nugent scores for abnormal flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV), T. vaginalis PCR, vaginal microbiota, reported signs and symptoms, and antibiotic and anti-fungal prescriptions. Iron biomarkers were assessed at baseline, FIN and ANC1. Analysis compared outcomes by intention to treat and in iron replete/deficient categories. A total of 1954 women (mean 16.8 years) were followed and 478 (24.5%) became pregnant. Median supplement adherence was 79% (IQR 59-90%). Baseline BV prevalence was 12.3%. At FIN and ANC1 prevalence was 12.8% and 7.0%, respectively (P Iron-supplemented non-pregnant women received more antibiotic treatments for non-genital infections (P = 0.014; mainly gastrointestinal infections (P = 0.005), anti-fungal treatments for genital infections (P = 0.014) and analgesics (P = 0.008). Weekly iron did not significantly reduce iron deficiency prevalence. At baseline, iron-deficient women were more likely to have normal vaginal flora (P = 0.016). Periconceptional weekly iron supplementation of young women did not increase the risk of lower genital tract infections but did increase

  14. An investigation of genital ulcers in Jackson, Mississippi, with use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay: high prevalence of chancroid and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Weiss, J B; Webb, R M; Levine, W C; Lewis, J S; Orle, K A; Totten, P A; Overbaugh, J; Morse, S A; Currier, M M; Fishbein, M; St Louis, M E

    1998-10-01

    In 1994, an apparent outbreak of atypical genital ulcers was noted by clinicians at the sexually transmitted disease clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Of 143 patients with ulcers tested with a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, 56 (39%) were positive for Haemophilus ducreyi, 44 (31%) for herpes simplex virus, and 27 (19%) for Treponema pallidum; 12 (8%) were positive for > 1 organism. Of 136 patients tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by serology, 14 (10%) were HIV-seropositive, compared with none of 200 patients without ulcers (P chancroid were significantly more likely than male patients without ulcers to report sex with a crack cocaine user, exchange of money or drugs for sex, and multiple sex partners. The strong association between genital ulcers and HIV infection in this population highlights the urgency of preventing genital ulcers in the southern United States.

  15. Chlamydial Pneumonitis: A Creepy Neonatal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of neonatal chlamydial pneumonitis to illustrate that a high index of suspicion is necessary to make the diagnosis so that treatment can be promptly instituted. The child was afebrile and the only symptom was a cough. The respiratory equations are calculated to understand the respiratory physiology. There was no overt abnormality with ventilation, oxygenation, compliance, resistance, or ventilation-perfusion mismatch despite radiographic abnormality. The literature is searched to review if treatment with a systemic macrolide antibiotic is needed in an otherwise asymptomatic neonate with chlamydial pneumonitis.

  16. Genital tract lesions in sexually mature Göttingen minipigs during the initial stages of experimental vaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erneholm, Karin; Lorenzen, Emma; Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Andersen, Peter; Cassidy, Joseph P; Follmann, Frank; Jensen, Henrik E; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2016-09-10

    Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans worldwide, causing chronic lesions in the reproductive tract. Due to its often asymptomatic course, there is limited knowledge about the initial changes in the genital tract following infection. This study employs a novel sexually mature minipig model to investigate the initial histopathological changes following vaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D. A vaginal inoculation resulted in an infection primarily affecting the lower genital tract. The histopathological changes were characterized by a subepithelial inflammation consisting of neutrophils and mononuclear cells, followed by an increase in the number of plasma cells within the sub-epithelial stroma of the vagina. Detection of Chlamydia was associated with expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-8 by superficial epithelial cells. The infection was self-limiting, with a duration of 7 days. Neutrophils, plasma cells and IL-8 have been linked with Chlamydia genital infection of unknown duration in human patients. In this study, we observe a similar pattern of local immune response/inflammation following experimental inoculation suggesting this porcine model shows promise as a model for translational chlamydia research.

  17. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital herpes? ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital herpes? ...

  18. HIV infection, genital symptoms and sexual risk behavior among Indian truck drivers from a large transportation company in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Dude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel surveillance conducted in the high Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV prevalent state of Andhra Pradesh includes sub-populations thought to be at high-risk for HIV, but has not included truck drivers. Novel HIV prevention programs targeting this population increasingly adopt public - private partnership models. There have been no targeted studies of HIV prevalence and risk behavior among truck drivers belonging to the private sector in India. Methods: A sample of 189 truck drivers, aged between 15 and 56, were recruited from Gati Limited′s large trucking depot in Hyderabad, India. A quantitative survey instrument was conducted along with blood collection for HIV 1/2 testing. Multivariate regression models were utilized to determine predictors of HIV infection and risk behavior. Results: 2.1% of subjects were infected with HIV. Older age was protective against self-reported genital symptoms (OR = 0.77; P = 0.03, but these were more likely among those truck drivers with greater income (OR = 1.05; P = 0.02, and those who spent more time away from home (OR = 25.7; P = 0.001. Men with higher incomes also reported significantly more sex partners (OLS coefficient = 0.016 more partners / 100 rupees in monthly income, P = 0.04, as did men who spent a great deal of time away from home (OLS coefficient = 1.30, P = 0.002. Drivers were more likely to report condom use with regular partners if they had ever visited a female sex worker (OR = 6.26; P = 0.002, but married drivers exhibited decreased use of condoms with regular partners (OR = 0.14, P = 0.008. Men who had higher levels of knowledge regarding HIV and HIV preventative practices were also more likely to use condoms with regular partners (OR = 1.22, P = 0.03. Conclusion: Time away from home, urban residence, income, and marital status were the strongest correlates of genital symptoms for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI and risk behaviors, although none were consistent

  19. Masculine Gender Ideologies, Intimate Partner Violence, and Alcohol Use Increase Risk for Genital Tract Infections Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Fleming, Paul J; Ghule, Mohan; Madhusudana, Battala; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay G; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Masculine gender ideologies are thought to underlie alcohol use, intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and sexual risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We extend on studies in the Indian context by examining the roles of masculine gender ideologies, alcohol use, and IPV on three outcomes of HIV risk (condom use, genital tract infection [GTI] symptoms, and GTI diagnosis). We applied logistic regression models to cross-sectional data of men and their wives in rural Maharashtra, India ( n = 1,080 couples). We found that men with less masculine gender ideologies demonstrated greater odds of condom use (i.e., lower odds no condom use, odds ratio [OR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.93, 0.98]). IPV perpetration was associated with increased odds of reporting ≥1 GTI symptom (adjusted OR [AOR] = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.07, 2.26]) and decreased GTI diagnosis (AOR = 0.28, 95% CI = [0.08, 0.97]). Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with increased odds of reporting ≥1 GTI symptom (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = [1.01, 2.25]). Our findings have direct implications for men's and women's health in rural India, including targeted GTI diagnosis and treatment, integrated violence prevention in STI clinics, and targeted intervention on masculine gender ideologies.

  20. Soap and water prophylaxis for limiting genital ulcer disease and HIV-1 infection in men in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, N

    1993-08-01

    In general, East, Central and Southern Africa appear to be worse affected by HIV-1 infection than West Africa. So far there is little evidence to suggest that differences in either sexual behaviour or numbers of sexual partners could account for this disparity. Two risk factors in men for acquiring HIV-1, that tend to vary along this geographical divide, are lack of circumcision and genital ulcer disease (GUD) which are much less common in West Africa. Although uncircumcised men with GUD are an important high frequency HIV-1 transmitter core group, few interventions have targeted such individuals. Given the recent expansion in AIDS-related technologies, is it possible that methods effective in limiting GUD in the preantibiotic era have been overlooked? During the first and second world wars, chancroid, the commonest cause of GUD in Africa today, was controlled successfully with various prophylactics including soap and water. Many parts of Africa are undergoing social upheaval against a background of violence, and in this environment soap and water prophylaxis would now seem to merit re-evaluation as an intervention for preventing both GUD and HIV-1 in uncircumcised men. By facilitating healing of traumatic, inflammatory and infected penile lesions, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis with soap and water could be a cheap and effective method for decreasing the risks of acquiring GUD and HIV in this vulnerable group of uncircumcised men.

  1. Community-Based Prevalence of Genital Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeena, Sasidharanpillai; Bhat, Parvati V; Kamath, Veena; Bhat, Shashikala K; Nair, Sreekumaran; n, Ravishankar; Chandrabharani, Kiran; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer probably represents the best-studied human cancer caused by a viral infection and the causal association of this preventable cancer with human papilloma virus (HPV) is well established. Worldwide there is a scarcity of data regarding HPV prevalence with vast differences existing among populations. Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the community-based HPV prevalence estimates among asymptomatic women from urban and rural set ups and in participants of cancer screening clinics. Study design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed-Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google scholar were systematically searched for studies providing prevalence data for HPV infection among asymptomatic women between 1986 and 2016. Results: The final analysis included 32 studies comprising a population of 224,320 asymptomatic women. The overall pooled HPV prevalence was 11% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9%-12%). The pooled HPV prevalence of 11% (95% CI, 9%-11%) was observed among women attending cervical cancer screening clinics. The pooled HPV prevalences were 10% (95% CI 8%-12%) and 11% (95% CI 4%-18%) from urban and rural areas respectively, indicating higher infection rates among the rural women with the least access to cancer screening and cancer care. Conclusion: The prevalence rates in this systematic quantitative review provide a reliable estimate of the burden of HPV infection among asymptomatic women from developed as well as developing nations. Rural women and women attending cervical cancer screening programmes feature higher genital HPV prevalences compared to their urban counterparts. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. Hormonal Contraceptives Differentially Suppress TFV and TAF Inhibition of HIV Infection and TFV-DP in Blood and Genital Tract CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zheng; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Patel, Mickey V; Bodwell, Jack; Kashuba, Angela D M; Wira, Charles R

    2017-12-18

    HIV prevention research is focused on combining antiretrovirals (ARV) and progestin contraceptives to prevent HIV infection and pregnancy. The possibility that progestins compromise ARV anti-HIV activity prompted us to evaluate the effects of progestins on tenofovir (TFV) and TFV-alafenamide (TAF) on HIV infection and intracellular TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations in blood and genital CD4+ T cells. Following incubation of blood CD4+ T cells with TFV or TAF, Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), but not Levonorgestrel, Norethisterone or progesterone, suppressed the anti-HIV effect of TFV by reducing intracellular TFV-DP, but had no effect on TAF inhibition of infection or TFV-DP. In contrast, with genital CD4+ T cells, MPA suppressed TAF inhibition of HIV infection and lowered of TFV-DP concentrations without affecting TFV protection. These findings demonstrate that MPA selectively compromises TFV and TAF protection in blood and genital CD4+ T cells and suggests that MPA may decrease ARV protection in individuals who use ARV intermittently for prevention.

  3. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1991-01-01

    the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples......Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... not detect Chlamydia trachomatis after sufficient antibiotic treatment of the chlamydial infections....

  4. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1993-01-01

    the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples......Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... not detect Chlamydia trachomatis after sufficient antibiotic treatment of the chlamydial infections....

  5. The nervous system in genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in mice. Lethal panmyelitis or nonlethal demyelinative myelitis or meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J R; Stoner, G L

    1984-11-01

    Female mice were inoculated vaginally with the MS strain of herpes simplex virus type 2, and serially positive vaginal cultures were used to confirm infection. The proportion of mice infected and the mortality rate in infected mice decreased with increasing age. In mice 12 weeks old, clinical, neuropathologic, and virologic criteria defined four patterns of disease. Moribund mice had severe genital lesions, hindleg paralysis, and urinary and fecal retention, and most died during the second week of infection. These mice had a panmyelitis with a decreasing gradient of both viral antigen and lesions extending rostrally from the lumbosacral cord into the brain stem. Lesions were about equally distributed in gray and white matter and were characterized by neuronal loss and axonal demyelination, respectively. By contrast, mice with nonfatal infections had mild or no evident genital lesions and a small proportion had mild hindleg weakness. Of these, some mice had demyelinative lesions, particularly in the lower spinal cord but also at higher cord and brain stem levels, whereas others had leptomeningitis. Both of these groups had sacral sensory root abnormalities. A third group of survivors lacked both sensory root and central nervous system abnormalities. This report defines a broader spectrum of disease patterns following infection by a natural route than has been previously appreciated. It provides the first evidence that nonfatal herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by a peripheral route can produce central nervous system demyelination. It indicates that in aseptic meningitis with this agent, the route of virus spread to the central nervous system is neural and not hematogenous. Finally, the antigenic and pathologic observations presented here complement and confirm the virus isolation data and pathologic findings of others that genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection causes ascending infection in the peripheral and central nervous system.

  6. Interleukin 17A is an immune marker for chlamydial disease severity and pathogenesis in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Marina; Waugh, Courtney; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is an iconic Australian marsupial species that is facing many threats to its survival. Chlamydia pecorum infections are a significant contributor to this ongoing decline. A major limiting factor in our ability to manage and control chlamydial disease in koalas is a limited understanding of the koala's cell-mediated immune response to infections by this bacterial pathogen. To identify immunological markers associated with chlamydial infection and disease in koalas, we used koala-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qrtPCR) assays to profile the cytokine responses of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) collected from 41 koalas with different stages of chlamydial disease. Target cytokines included the principal Th1 (Interferon gamma; IFNγ), Th2 (Interleukin 10; IL10), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha; TNFα). A novel koala-specific IL17A qrtPCR assay was also developed as part of this study to quantitate the gene expression of this Th17 cytokine in koalas. A statistically significant higher IL17A gene expression was observed in animals with current chlamydial disease compared to animals with asymptomatic chlamydial infection. A modest up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα and IFNγ, was also observed in these animals with signs of current chlamydial disease. IL10 gene expression was not evident in the majority of animals from both groups. Future longitudinal studies are now required to confirm the role played by cytokines in pathology and/or protection against C. pecorum infection in the koala. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and incidence of urinary tract and genital infections among patients with and without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Gregory A; Brodovicz, Kimberly G; Kimes, Teresa M; Déruaz-Luyet, Anouk; Bartels, Dorothee B

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological data on genitourinary infections (GUIs) comparing patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is scant. We aimed to estimate the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs), genital infections (GIs), or any GUI in total and stratified by history of GUI and sex. We identified 39,295 patients in the Kaiser Permanente Northwest health plan with T2DM and an equal number of age and sex matched patients without diabetes. The cohort was followed for up to 9years (2006-2014). We calculated incidence rates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of any GUI, UTIs and GIs adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, presence of chronic kidney disease, annual number of outpatient visits, and diuretic use. Adjusted incidence of any GUI was 97.2/1000person-years (p-y) (95% CI 95.5-98.8) among the T2DM cohort vs. 79.7/1000 p-y (78.3-81.2) among those without diabetes. T2DM was associated with an adjusted 25% increased risk of UTI (rate ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.22-1.29), a 26% increased risk of GI (1.26, 1.22-1.31) and a 22% increased risk of any GUI (1.22, 1.19-1.25). Incidence rates were lower among those with no GUI history, but the relative risks were similar. Women in both groups had higher incidence rates of GUIs than men. T2DM was associated with increased risks of any GUI, UTIs and GIs. Incidence rates of UTIs were higher than rates of GIs, but the relative risk of GIs was essentially identical. A similar pattern was observed when stratifying by sex. RESEARCH QUESTIONS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genital condyloma virus infection following pelvic radiation therapy: report of seven cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowell, D.M.; Livolsi, V.A.; Ludwig, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Six women who underwent radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies demonstrated cytologic evidence of condyloma virus infection 2 or more years following radiation. Histologic confirmation was obtained in two of the cases. A seventh patient developed in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma in a vulvar condyloma acuminatum following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. This venereal infection is found most frequently in sexually active younger women (average age, 27 years). It is felt that depressed cell-mediated immunity consequent to the radiation therapy allowed the development of this infection in the older patients described in this report. The evolution of invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the condyloma acuminatum may indicate a possible oncogenic or cocarcinogenic effect of the virus. The immunologic responses to infection caused by the human papillomavirus group are discussed, as well as its potential for malignant transformation

  9. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were

  11. Genotype-Specific Concordance of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection Within Heterosexual Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Julia A; Katz, Barry P; Markowitz, Lauri E; Braslins, Phillip G; Shrier, Lydia A; Madico, Guillermo; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Orr, Donald P; Rice, Peter A; Batteiger, Byron E

    2016-12-01

    Sexual transmission rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) cannot be measured directly; however, the study of concordance of Ct infection in sexual partnerships (dyads) can help to illuminate factors influencing Ct transmission. Heterosexual men and women with Ct infection and their sex partners were enrolled and partner-specific coital and behavioral data collected for the prior 30 days. Microbiological data included Ct culture, and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction, and ompA genotyping. We measured Ct concordance in dyads and factors (correlates) associated with concordance. One hundred twenty-one women and 125 men formed 128 dyads. Overall, 72.9% of male partners of NAAT-positive women and 68.6% of female partners of NAAT-positive men were Ct-infected. Concordance was more common in dyads with culture-positive members (78.6% of male partners, 77% of female partners). Partners of women and men who were NAAT-positive only had lower concordance (33.3%, 46.4%, respectively). Women in concordant dyads had significantly higher median endocervical quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction values (3,032) compared with CT-infected women in discordant dyads (1013 inclusion forming units DNA equivalents per mL; P model coitus-specific transmission probabilities.

  12. Risk factors for candida infection of the genital tract in the tropics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.09-5.67) and vaginal lavage (adjusted odds ratio: 4.41, 95% confidential interval: 1.13-5.14) were significantly associated ... vaginal lavage, use of pantyliners, times of sex, cleaning the vulva before sex, ... probability of infection in patients with vaginal lav- age was ..... research the distribution of Candida spp. isolated from.

  13. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine.We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set.Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them.The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  14. Clearance of chlamydial elementary bodies from the conjunctival sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.R.; Velez, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    The rate of disappearance of inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body (EB) preparations from the conjunctival sac was studied in monkeys. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) cytology showed that the majority of EB had been cleared from the eye within 24 hr of the inoculation of 1 X 10(6) inactivated EB, although small numbers of EB could be detected for up to 144 hr. The rate of clearance in normal and ocular immune animals did not differ, and formalin-killed and UV-inactivated EBs disappeared at a comparable rate. These studies suggest that chlamydial EB are cleared relatively quickly from the eye and support the notion that EBs detected by DFA cytology indicate the presence of current infection

  15. Mathematical Modeling Predicts that Increased HSV-2 Shedding in HIV-1 Infected Persons Is Due to Poor Immunologic Control in Ganglia and Genital Mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T Schiffer

    Full Text Available A signature feature of HIV infection is poor control of herpes virus infections, which reactivate from latency and cause opportunistic infections. While the general mechanism underlying this observation is deficient CD4+T-cell function, it is unknown whether increased severity of herpes virus infections is due primarily to poor immune control in latent or lytic sites of infection, or whether CD4+ immunodeficiency leads to more critical downstream deficits in humoral or cell-mediated immunologic responses. Here we compare genital shedding patterns of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 in 98 HIV infected and 98 HIV uninfected men matched on length of infection, HSV-1 serostatus and nationality. We demonstrate that high copy HSV-2 shedding is more frequent in HIV positive men, particularly in participants with CD4+ T-cell count <200/μL. Genital shedding is more frequent due to higher rate of shedding episodes, as well as a higher proportion of prolonged shedding episodes. Peak episode viral load was not found to differ between HIV infected and uninfected participants regardless of CD4+ T-cell count. We simulate a mathematical model which recapitulates these findings and identifies that rate of HSV-2 release from neural tissue increases, duration of mucosal cytolytic immune protection decreases, and cell-free viral lifespan increases in HIV infected participants. These results suggest that increased HSV-2 shedding in HIV infected persons may be caused by impaired immune function in both latent and lytic tissue compartments, with deficits in clearance of HSV-2 infected cells and extracellular virus.

  16. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

  17. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women Complaining of Genital Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bitew, Adane; Abebaw, Yeshiwork; Bekele, Delayehu; Mihret, Amete

    2017-01-01

    Background. Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul’s Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent’s procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were cha...

  18. Mycoplasma genitalium in Spain: prevalence of genital infection and frequency of resistance to macrolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, Alejandra; Kusters, Johannes G; Severs, Tim T; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infection and the resistance to macrolides within a general population in Madrid in 2015. We collected 359 urine samples from a general population with symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). All samples underwent a real-time PCR. For the detection of macrolide resistance, a 283bp fragment of region V of the 23S rRNA gene of M. genitalium was amplified and sequenced. We found a prevalence of 3.34% of M. genitalium and a macrolide resistance rate of 20%. In males, the prevalence was 6.62% and in women 0.96%, being significantly higher in males. The prevalence obtained shows that it is a pathogen to consider in our environment. These findings stress the need for routine testing of M. genitalium infections and would seem to suggest the advisability of resistance testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Human papillomavirus and genital cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapose Alwyn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections world-wide. Low-risk HPV-types are associated with genital warts. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV-types is associated with genital cancers. Smoking and HIV infection have consistently been associated with longer duration of HPV infection and risk for genital cancer. There is an increasing incidence of anal cancers, and a close association with HPV infection has been demonstrated. Receptive anal sex and HIV-positive status are associated with a high risk for anal cancer. Two HPV vaccines are now available and offer protection from infection by the HPV-types included in the vaccine. This benefit is maximally seen in young women who were uninfected prior to vaccination.

  20. Preventing HIV infection without targeting the virus: how reducing HIV target cells at the genital tract is a new approach to HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, Julie; Mwangi, Lucy; Fowke, Keith R

    2017-09-12

    For over three decades, HIV infection has had a tremendous impact on the lives of individuals and public health. Microbicides and vaccines studies have shown that immune activation at the genital tract is a risk factor for HIV infection. Furthermore, lower level of immune activation, or what we call immune quiescence, has been associated with a lower risk of HIV acquisition. This unique phenotype is observed in highly-exposed seronegative individuals from different populations including female sex workers from the Pumwani cohort in Nairobi, Kenya. Here, we review the link between immune activation and susceptibility to HIV infection. We also describe a new concept in prevention where, instead of targeting the virus, we modulate the host immune system to resist HIV infection. Mimicking the immune quiescence phenotype might become a new strategy in the toolbox of biomedical methods to prevent HIV infection. Clinical trial registration on clinicaltrial.gov: #NCT02079077.

  1. The molecular fingerprint of human papillomavirus infection and its effect on the Langerhans cell population in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Rios-Yuil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information is scarce about the presence of molecular alterations related to human papillomavirus (HPV infection in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin and about the effect of this infection in the number of Langerhans cells present in these tumors. Aims: To determine the presence of HPV in genital skin squamous cell carcinomas and to see the relationship between HPV infection and changes in the expression of Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67, p53 protein (p53, retinoblastoma protein (pRb and E-cadherin and to alterations in Langerhans cell density, if any. Methods: A descriptive, comparative, retrospective and cross-sectional study was performed with all the cases diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin at the Dermatopathology Service from 2001 to 2011. The diagnosis was verified by histopathological examination. The presence of HPV was examined using chromogenic in situ hybridization, and protein expression was studied via immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The 34 cases studied were verified as squamous cell carcinomas and 44.1% were HPV positive. The degree of expression of pRb was 17.50% ±14.11% (mean ± SD in HPV-positive cases and 29.74% ±20.38% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0236. The degree of expression of Ki-67 was 47.67% ±30.64% in HPV-positive cases and 29.87% ±15.95% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0273. Conclusion: HPV infection was related to lower pRb expression and higher Ki-67 expression in comparison with HPV negative samples. We could not find a relationship between HPV infection and the degree of expression of p53 and E-cadherin or with Langerhans cell density.

  2. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandie D Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  3. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent HSV-2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clarice L; Banasik, Brianne N; Gorder, Summer R; Xia, Jingya; Auclair, Sarah; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-12-01

    Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Although the murine model of HSV-2 infection is useful for understanding immunity following immunization, it is limited by the lack of spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency. Genital infection of guinea pigs with HSV-2 accurately models the disease of humans including the spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency and provides a unique opportunity to examine virus-host interactions during latency. Although the guinea pig represents an accurate model of many human infections, relatively few reagents are available to study the immunological response to infection. To analyze the cell-mediated immune response of guinea pigs at extended periods of time after establishment of HSV-2 latency, we have modified flow-cytometry based proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays to detect and quantify HSV-specific cell-mediated responses during latent infection of guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that a combination of proliferation and ELISPOT assays can be used to quantify and characterize effecter function of virus-specific immune memory responses during HSV-latency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria A Burmistrova

    Full Text Available Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh, for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection.

  5. Impact of improved laboratory compliance on notification of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S C; MacEachern, A; Stevenson, E

    1997-02-01

    Although regulations in Victoria require notification of chlamydia infection by both clinician and laboratory, review found many reports that were notified only by one source (i.e., were unmatched). To identify problems with the notification system and to improve the quality of surveillance for this disease. All notified cases of chlamydia diagnosed in January or February 1995 were followed up by contacting diagnosing doctors. Identified noncompliant laboratories were asked to provide a list of all diagnoses for the period and institute ongoing reporting. Notification data were reviewed for timeliness and completeness. Clinicians never notified without laboratory confirmation. Soliciting laboratory reports increased total notifications by 30%, and there was a highly significant improvement in reporting by both clinicians and laboratories. Reasons for failure to notify by clinicians included an assumption by some clinicians that laboratories would notify and ignorance that notification was required. Notified cases generally are now accompanied by a laboratory report, and although nonnotification by clinicians continues, notification has improved. Further improvements in clinician notification may depend on doctors knowing that public health action results from reporting. An alternative to requiring doctors' time to be spent in duplicate notification would be to strengthen laboratory reporting and then check that adequate treatment and partner notification has occurred through contact with the diagnosing doctor.

  6. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women Complaining of Genital Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adane Bitew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul’s Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent’s procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were characterized, and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. Results. The overall prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 48.6%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with number of pants used per day (p=0.001 and frequency of vaginal bathing (p=0.045. Of 151 bacterial isolates, 69.5% were Gram-negative and 30.5% were Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-positive bacteria was high against penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Cefoxitin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-negative bacteria was high against tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. Amikacin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high and was affected by individual hygiene. Routine culture of vaginal samples should be performed on patients with vaginitis and the drug susceptibility pattern of each isolate should be determined.

  7. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women Complaining of Genital Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitew, Adane; Abebaw, Yeshiwork; Bekele, Delayehu; Mihret, Amete

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul's Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent's procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were characterized, and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. The overall prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 48.6%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with number of pants used per day ( p = 0.001) and frequency of vaginal bathing ( p = 0.045). Of 151 bacterial isolates, 69.5% were Gram-negative and 30.5% were Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-positive bacteria was high against penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Cefoxitin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-negative bacteria was high against tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. Amikacin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-negative bacteria. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high and was affected by individual hygiene. Routine culture of vaginal samples should be performed on patients with vaginitis and the drug susceptibility pattern of each isolate should be determined.

  8. Genital Tract Infections in an Isolated Community: 100 Women of the Príncipe Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vieira-Baptista

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize the vaginal microbiome and the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STIs in the women of Príncipe (São Tomé and Príncipe. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 100 consecutive women, invited for a free appointment and cervical cancer screening. A vaginal slide (wet mount microscopy and a cervical sample (ThinPrep® (Pap test, high risk human papillomavirus [HR-HPV], N. gonorrhea [NG], T. vaginalis [TV], and C. trachomatis [CT] were obtained. Results. TV, NG, CT, and HIV were found in 8.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, and 2.0%, respectively, and were more prevalent in younger women. HR-HPV was positive in 36.7%; 2 were positive for HPV18, but none for HPV16. Coinfection of HPV with other STIs was 8.3%. Prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF was 82.5%, mostly bacterial vaginosis (BV 54.6%, and moderate/severe aerobic vaginitis (msAV 25.8%. HR-HPV was not related to BV (p=0.67. The association of abnormal Pap test with msAV was not significant (p=0.08. Conclusion. The prevalence of NG, CT, TV, and HR-HPV was according to expected, while that of HR-AVF was higher. The surprisingly low prevalence of HPV16 and HPV18 must be considered in the design of programs for prevention and vaccination; this setting can be useful as a model for postvaccination scenarios.

  9. Genital Tract Infections in an Isolated Community: 100 Women of the Príncipe Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Baptista, Pedro; Grinceviciene, Svitrigaile; Sousa, Carlos; Saldanha, Conceição; Broeck, Davy Vanden; Bogers, John-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objective To characterize the vaginal microbiome and the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the women of Príncipe (São Tomé and Príncipe). Methods Cross-sectional study of 100 consecutive women, invited for a free appointment and cervical cancer screening. A vaginal slide (wet mount microscopy) and a cervical sample (ThinPrep®) (Pap test, high risk human papillomavirus [HR-HPV], N. gonorrhea [NG], T. vaginalis [TV], and C. trachomatis [CT]) were obtained. Results TV, NG, CT, and HIV were found in 8.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, and 2.0%, respectively, and were more prevalent in younger women. HR-HPV was positive in 36.7%; 2 were positive for HPV18, but none for HPV16. Coinfection of HPV with other STIs was 8.3%. Prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) was 82.5%, mostly bacterial vaginosis (BV) 54.6%, and moderate/severe aerobic vaginitis (msAV) 25.8%. HR-HPV was not related to BV (p = 0.67). The association of abnormal Pap test with msAV was not significant (p = 0.08). Conclusion The prevalence of NG, CT, TV, and HR-HPV was according to expected, while that of HR-AVF was higher. The surprisingly low prevalence of HPV16 and HPV18 must be considered in the design of programs for prevention and vaccination; this setting can be useful as a model for postvaccination scenarios. PMID:29259388

  10. Reactive Chlamydial Arthritis and Ophtalmopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.К. Pavliuchenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oculopathies in reactive chlamydial arthritis are diagnosed in 63 % of patients, with «conjunctivitis — uveitis — scleritis — glaucoma — cataract — keratitis» ratio as 13 : 8 : 2 : 2 : 1 : 1, and the nature of eye pathology is closely related to the severity of inflammatory process in uroge­nitalia and general activity of the disease, influences the le­vel of antichlamidial antibodies in the blood, prevalence, severity of joint syndrome and rates of its progression, development of cardiopath

  11. The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F

    2012-10-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections.

  12. Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get genital warts? ... Notice Language Assistance Available Accessibility Privacy Policy Disclaimers Freedom of Information Act ... A federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  13. Genital herpes.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment.

  14. Copper(II)-bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes as anti-chlamydial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, James W; Djoko, Karrera Y; McEwan, Alastair G; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2017-09-29

    Lipophilic copper (Cu)-containing complexes have shown promising antibacterial activity against a range of bacterial pathogens. To examine the susceptibility of the intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis to copper complexes containing bis(thiosemicarbazone) ligands [Cu(btsc)], we tested the in vitro effect of CuII-diacetyl- and CuII-glyoxal-bis[N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazonato] (Cu(atsm) and Cu(gtsm), respectively) on C. trachomatis. Cu(atsm) and to a greater extent, Cu(gtsm), prevented the formation of infectious chlamydial progeny. Impacts on host cell viability and respiration were also observed in addition to the Chlamydia impacts. This work suggests that copper-based complexes may represent a new lead approach for future development of new therapeutics against chlamydial infections, although host cell impacts need to be fully explored. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Clinical protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 genital infection by intranasal administration of a live attenuated glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurens François

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1 is responsible of systemic diseases in kids and genital diseases leading to abortions in goats. CpHV-1 is widespread and especially in Mediterranean countries as Greece, Italy and Spain. CpHV-1 is antigenically and genetically closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1. Taking into account the biological properties shared by these two viruses, we decided in the current study to assess the protection of a live attenuated glycoprotein E (gE negative BoHV-1 vaccine against a genital CpHV-1 infection in goats. Results The vaccine was inoculated intranasally twice three weeks apart followed by a subsequent CpHV-1 intravaginal challenge which is the natural route of infection in three goats. To analyse the safety and the efficacy of this marker vaccine, two groups of three goats served as controls: one immunised with a virulent CpHV-1 and one uninoculated until the challenge. Goats were clinically monitored and all sampling procedures were carried out in a blind manner. The vaccine did not induce any undesirable local or systemic reaction and goats did not excrete gE-negative BoHV-1. After challenge, a significant reduction in disease severity was observed in immunised goats. Moreover, goats immunised with either gE-negative BoHV-1 or CpHV-1 exhibited a significant reduction in the length and the peak of viral excretion. Antibodies neutralising both BoHV-1 and CpHV-1 were raised in immunised goats. Conclusion Intranasal application of a live attenuated gE-negative BoHV-1 vaccine is able to afford a clinical protection and a reduction of virus excretion in goats challenged by a CpHV-1 genital infection.

  16. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. © FEMS 2015.

  17. Primary Genital Herpes Diseases in İnfancy

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    Sevinç Gümüş Pekacar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic primary genital herpes infection is very rare in early childhood. Herpes simplex virus 1 type is the infectious agent in 20-50% percent of primery infections. Sexual abuse should be considered when genital herpes is seen in a person before sexual active age. It is mild and self limiting unless the patient is immune compramised. In this paper we discussed a 17 months old patient with genital herpes and approach to genital herpes in children.

  18. Utilidade da citologia anal no rastreamento dos homens heterossexuais portadores do HPV genital Anal cytology for screening heterosexual men harboring genital HPV infection

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    Raphael Marianelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPV de alto risco estão fortemente relacionados à etiologia do carcinoma espinocelular (CEC anogenital e suas lesões precursoras. O HPV-16 é o tipo mais freqüente, estando presente em até 87% dos CEC do canal anal HPV-positivo. Apesar de ser relativamente raro, vem sendo cada vez mais diagnosticado, nas últimas décadas, sobretudo em indivíduos do sexo masculino. A incidência é ainda mais elevada nos grupos considerados de risco, particularmente, os homens e as mulheres HIV-positivo e os homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH. Grande parte das pesquisas direcionadas à infecção anal pelo HPV e sua relação com neoplasia intraepitelial-anal (NIA e com o carcinoma esteve focada nos grupos de risco. Pouco interesse vem sendo destinado à investigação dos homens heterossexuais. Estudos epidemiológicos da prevalência da infecção pelo HPV em homens, mostraram que os heterossexuais masculinos apresentavam infecção anal pelo HPV em até 12%. As Sociedades médicas e os especialistas recomendam o rastreamento dos portadores de imunodepressão e dos HSH com citologia do raspado do canal anal. Entretanto, até o momento, não há recomendação de rastreamento para homens que fazem sexo com mulheres.The oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV are straightly associated with anogenital cancer and dysplasia. The HPV-16 is the most common type, isolated in 87% of the HPV-positive anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Despite being a rare tumor, the incidence of SCC has increased in the last decades, especially in males. Incidence is particularly high amongst men who have sex with men (MSM and among HIV infected men and women. For decades anogenital HPV researches have largely focused risk groups. Poor interest was intended to men who have sex with women (MSW. Prevalence studies of HPV infection in MSW have demonstrated that anal infection was identified in as far as 12%. Medical societies and specialists recommend anal

  19. Identification of MHCII variants associated with chlamydial disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus

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    Quintin Lau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiosis, the most common infectious disease in koalas, can cause chronic urogenital tract fibrosis and infertility. High titres of serum immunoglobulin G against 10 kDa and 60 kDa chlamydial heat-shock proteins (c-hsp10 and c-hsp60 are associated with fibrous occlusion of the koala uterus and uterine tube. Murine and human studies have identified associations between specific major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII alleles or genotypes, and higher c-hsp 60 antibody levels or chlamydia-associated disease and infertility. In this study, we characterised partial MHCII DAB and DBB genes in female koalas (n = 94 from a single geographic population, and investigated associations among antibody responses to c-hsp60 quantified by ELISA, susceptibility to chlamydial infection, or age. The identification of three candidate MHCII variants provides additional support for the functional role of MHCII in the koala, and will inform more focused future studies. This is the first study to investigate an association between MHC genes with chlamydial pathogenesis in a non-model, free-ranging species.

  20. Targeting eukaryotic Rab proteins: a smart strategy for chlamydial survival and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, María Teresa; Gambarte Tudela, Julián; Capmany, Anahí

    2014-09-01

    Chlamydia, an obligate intracellular bacterium which passes its entire lifecycle within a membrane-bound vacuole called the inclusion, has evolved a variety of unique strategies to establish an advantageous intracellular niche for survival. This review highlights the mechanisms by which Chlamydia subverts vesicular transport in host cells, particularly by hijacking the master controllers of eukaryotic trafficking, the Rab proteins. A subset of Rabs and Rab interacting proteins that control the recycling pathway or the biosynthetic route are selectively recruited to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. By interfering with Rab-controlled transport steps, this intracellular pathogen not only prevents its own degradation in the phagocytic pathway, but also creates a favourable intracellular environment for growth and replication. Chlamydia, a highly adapted and successful intracellular pathogen, has several redundant strategies to re-direct vesicles emerging from biosynthetic compartments that carry host molecules essential for bacterial development. Although current knowledge is limited, the latest findings have shed light on the role of Rab proteins in the course of chlamydial infections and could open novel opportunities for anti-chlamydial therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Identification of MHCII variants associated with chlamydial disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Quintin; Griffith, Joanna E; Higgins, Damien P

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiosis, the most common infectious disease in koalas, can cause chronic urogenital tract fibrosis and infertility. High titres of serum immunoglobulin G against 10 kDa and 60 kDa chlamydial heat-shock proteins (c-hsp10 and c-hsp60) are associated with fibrous occlusion of the koala uterus and uterine tube. Murine and human studies have identified associations between specific major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) alleles or genotypes, and higher c-hsp 60 antibody levels or chlamydia-associated disease and infertility. In this study, we characterised partial MHCII DAB and DBB genes in female koalas (n = 94) from a single geographic population, and investigated associations among antibody responses to c-hsp60 quantified by ELISA, susceptibility to chlamydial infection, or age. The identification of three candidate MHCII variants provides additional support for the functional role of MHCII in the koala, and will inform more focused future studies. This is the first study to investigate an association between MHC genes with chlamydial pathogenesis in a non-model, free-ranging species.

  2. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in humanized HIV-transgenic mice triggers HIV shedding and is associated with greater neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Briana; Fakioglu, Esra; Stefanidou, Martha; Wang, Yanhua; Dutta, Monica; Goldstein, Harris; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-02-15

    Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate synergy between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Higher HIV-1 loads are observed in coinfected individuals, and conversely, HIV-1 is associated with more-severe herpetic disease. A small animal model of coinfection would facilitate identification of the biological mechanisms underlying this synergy and provide the opportunity to evaluate interventions. Mice transgenic for HIV-1 provirus and human cyclin T1 under the control of a CD4 promoter (JR-CSF/hu-cycT1) were intravaginally infected with HSV-2 and evaluated for disease progression, HIV shedding, and mucosal immune responses. HSV-2 infection resulted in higher vaginal HIV loads and genital tissue expression of HIV RNA, compared with HSV-uninfected JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice. There was an increase in genital tract inflammatory cells, cytokines, chemokines, and interferons in response to HSV-2, although the kinetics of the response were delayed in HIV-transgenic, compared with control mice. Moreover, the JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice exhibited earlier and more-severe neurological disease. The latter was associated with downregulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor expression in neuronal tissue, a molecule with antiinflammatory, antiviral, and neuroprotective properties. JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice provide a valuable model to study HIV/HSV-2 coinfection and identify potential mechanisms by which HSV-2 facilitates HIV-1 transmission and HIV modulates HSV-2-mediated disease.

  3. Developing a system to predict laboratory-confirmed chlamydial and/or gonococcal urethritis in adult male emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; DePalo, Dina M; Liu, Tao; Rich, Josiah D; Stein, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to create a system for predicting which male emergency department (ED) patients with suspected chlamydial and/or gonococcal urethritis would have laboratory-confirmed infections based on clinical factors available at the initial ED encounter. We used statistical models to develop a system to predict either the presence or absence of laboratory-confirmed chlamydial and/or gonorrheal urethritis based on patient demographics and presenting symptoms. Data for the system were extracted from a retrospective chart review of adult male patients who were suspected of having, and were tested for, chlamydial and/or gonococcal urethritis at an adult, urban, northeastern United States, academic ED from January 1998 to December 2004. Among the 822 patients tested, 29.2% had chlamydia, gonorrhea, or both infections; 13.8% were infected with chlamydia alone, 12.1% were infected with gonorrhea alone, and 3.3% were infected with both. From the statistical models, the following factors were predictive of a positive laboratory test for chlamydia and/or gonorrhea: age urethritis, paired with baseline ED prevalence of these infections, was confirmed through internal validation testing to modestly predict which patients had or did not have a laboratory-confirmed infection. This system of a combination of risk factors available during the clinical encounter in the ED modestly predicts which adult male patients suspected of having chlamydial and/or gonorrheal urethritis are more likely to have or not have a laboratory-confirmed infection. A prospective study is needed to create and validate a clinical prediction rule based on the results of this system.

  4. An Estimate of the Proportion of Symptomatic Gonococcal, Chlamydial and Non-gonococcal Non-chlamydial Urethritis Attributable to Oral Sex among Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Lindley A.; Khosropour, Christine M.; Dombrowski, Julia C.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Golden, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections of the pharynx are common among men who have sex with men (MSM); the degree to which these infections are transmitted through oral sex is unknown. Methods We conducted a case-control study of MSM attending Public Health – Seattle & King County STD Clinic between 2001 – 2013 to estimate the proportion of symptomatic urethritis cases attributable to oral sex using two methods. First, we categorized men into the following mutually exclusive behavioural categories based on their self-reported sexual history in the previous 60 days: 1) only received oral sex (IOS); 2) 100% condom usage with insertive anal sex plus oral sex (PIAI); 3) inconsistent condom usage with anal sex (UIAI); and 4) no sex. We then determined the proportion of cases in which men reported the oropharynx as their only urethral exposure (IOS and PIAI). Second, we calculated the population attributable risk percent (PAR%) associated with oral sex using Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio estimates. Results Based on our behavioural categorization method, men reported the oropharynx as their only urethral exposure in the past 60 days in 27.5% of gonococcal, 31.4% of chlamydial, and 35.9% non-gonococcal, non-chlamydial (NGNCU) urethritis cases. The PAR%s for symptomatic gonococcal, chlamydial and NGNCU urethritis attributed to oropharyngeal exposure were 33.8%, 2.7% and 27.1% respectively. Conclusions The pharynx is an important source of gonococcal transmission, and may be important in the transmission of chlamydia and other, unidentified pathogens that cause urethritis. Efforts to increase pharyngeal gonorrhoea screening among MSM could diminish STI transmission. PMID:26297719

  5. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.

  6. Selective testing of women based on age for genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in a centralized regional microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Deirdre L; Amante, L; Semeniuk, H; Gregson, D B

    2007-04-01

    Calgary Laboratory Services, Alberta, Canada, provides microbiology services via a centralized laboratory to the Calgary Health Region. A selective genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) testing policy for women >35 years was implemented. The changes in physician ordering practice, the rate of detection of infections, and the test turnaround times were monitored. The volume of tests, the cost/test, and the total service costs accrued in the year before and after this policy change were compared. An immediate impact was a 30% decrease in tests performed due to the laboratory rejecting samples from older women. Subsequently, physicians' practice changed so that tests were ordered when test criteria were met. Detection rates did not change in any age group. A 27.9% decrease in the total service costs resulted in a labor reduction of 0.2 FTE. Selective testing of women >35 years with a low prevalence of CT/GC infection is clinically relevant and cost-effective.

  7. Lack of evidence for intertypic recombinants in the pathogenesis of recurrent genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, K H; Boggs, D

    1986-01-01

    Clinical observations indicate that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is significantly less likely than herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) to establish latency in (or reactivate from) sacral ganglionic tissue. In an effort to identify viral functions associated with latency, we analyzed HSV-1 isolates from three patients with established recurrent genital herpes and sought evidence of DNA sequences and proteins similar to those found in HSV-2. By restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns and by DNA hybridization analysis using either whole HSV-2 DNA or several cloned segments of HSV-2 DNA as probes, we found that the three HSV-1 isolates from patients with recurrent genital herpes showed no unusual homology to HSV-2 as compared with other HSV-1 isolates. Similarly, the proteins of these isolates could not be distinguished from those of other HSV-1 isolates and were distinct from those of HSV-2. At this level of resolution, there was no evidence to suggest that these recurrent genital HSV-1 isolates were intertypic recombinants, nor did they show any other unusual similarity to HSV-2.

  8. Infection and cellular defense dynamics in a novel 17β-estradiol murine model of chronic human group B streptococcus genital tract colonization reveal a role for hemolysin in persistence and neutrophil accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Alison J; Tan, Chee Keong; Mirza, Shaper; Irving-Rodgers, Helen; Webb, Richard I; Lam, Alfred; Ulett, Glen C

    2014-02-15

    Genital tract carriage of group B streptococcus (GBS) is prevalent among adult women; however, the dynamics of chronic GBS genital tract carriage, including how GBS persists in this immunologically active host niche long term, are not well defined. To our knowledge, in this study, we report the first animal model of chronic GBS genital tract colonization using female mice synchronized into estrus by delivery of 17β-estradiol prior to intravaginal challenge with wild-type GBS 874391. Cervicovaginal swabs, which were used to measure bacterial persistence, showed that GBS colonized the vaginal mucosa of mice at high numbers (10(6)-10(7) CFU/swab) for at least 90 d. Cellular and histological analyses showed that chronic GBS colonization of the murine genital tract caused significant lymphocyte and PMN cell infiltrates, which were localized to the vaginal mucosal surface. Long-term colonization was independent of regular hormone cycling. Immunological analyses of 23 soluble proteins related to chemotaxis and inflammation showed that the host response to GBS in the genital tract comprised markers of innate immune activation including cytokines such as GM-CSF and TNF-α. A nonhemolytic isogenic mutant of GBS 874391, Δcyle9, was impaired for colonization and was associated with amplified local PMN responses. Induction of DNA neutrophil extracellular traps, which was observed in GBS-infected human PMNs in vitro in a hemolysin-dependent manner, appeared to be part of this response. Overall, this study defines key infection dynamics in a novel murine model of chronic GBS genital tract colonization and establishes previously unknown cellular and soluble defense responses to GBS in the female genital tract.

  9. Genital Herpes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes.

  10. Penicillin G-Induced Chlamydial Stress Response in a Porcine Strain of Chlamydia pecorum

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    Cory Ann Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pecorum causes asymptomatic infection and pathology in ruminants, pigs, and koalas. We characterized the antichlamydial effect of the beta lactam penicillin G on Chlamydia pecorum strain 1710S (porcine abortion isolate. Penicillin-exposed and mock-exposed infected host cells showed equivalent inclusions numbers. Penicillin-exposed inclusions contained aberrant bacterial forms and exhibited reduced infectivity, while mock-exposed inclusions contained normal bacterial forms and exhibited robust infectivity. Infectious bacteria production increased upon discontinuation of penicillin exposure, compared to continued exposure. Chlamydia-induced cell death occurred in mock-exposed controls; cell survival was improved in penicillin-exposed infected groups. Similar results were obtained both in the presence and in the absence of the eukaryotic protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide and at different times of initiation of penicillin exposure. These data demonstrate that penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response (persistence and is not bactericidal, for this chlamydial species/strain in vitro, regardless of host cell de novo protein synthesis.

  11. 'Can you recommend any good STI apps?' A review of content, accuracy and comprehensiveness of current mobile medical applications for STIs and related genital infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jo; Gkatzidou, Voula; Tickle, Laura; Manning, Sarah R; Tilakkumar, Tilna; Hone, Kate; Ashcroft, Richard E; Sonnenberg, Pam; Sadiq, S Tariq; Estcourt, Claudia S

    2017-06-01

    Seeking sexual health information online is common, and provision of mobile medical applications (apps) for STIs is increasing. Young people, inherently at higher risk of STIs, are avid users of technology, and apps could be appealing sources of information. We undertook a comprehensive review of content and accuracy of apps for people seeking information about STIs. Search of Google Play and iTunes stores using general and specific search terms for apps regarding STIs and genital infections (except HIV), testing, diagnosis and management, 10 September 2014 to 16 September 2014. We assessed eligible apps against (1) 19 modified Health on The Net (HON) Foundation principles; and (2) comprehensiveness and accuracy of information on STIs/genital infections, and their diagnosis and management, compared with corresponding National Health Service STI information webpage content. 144/6642 apps were eligible. 57 were excluded after downloading. 87 were analysed. Only 29% of apps met ≥6 HON criteria. Content was highly variable: 34/87 (39%) covered one or two infections; 40 (46%) covered multiple STIs; 5 (6%) focused on accessing STI testing. 13 (15%) were fully, 46 (53%) mostly and 28 (32%) partially accurate. 25 (29%) contained ≥1 piece of potentially harmful information. Apps available on both iOS and Android were more accurate than single-platform apps. Only one app provided fully accurate and comprehensive information on chlamydia. Marked variation in content, quality and accuracy of available apps combined with the nearly one-third containing potentially harmful information risks undermining potential benefits of an e-Health approach to sexual health and well-being. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Comparison of clinical performance of antigen basedenzyme immunoassay (EIA and major outer membrane protein (MOMP-PCR for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

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    Mahmoud Nateghi Rostami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications. Objective: Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA and major outer membrane protein (MOMP-polymerase chain reaction (PCR for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 37 (7.14% cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMPPCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48. Conclusion: C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed.

  13. Comparison of clinical performance of antigen based-enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-PCR for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi Rostami, Mahmoud; Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Aghsaghloo, Fatemeh; Nazari, Razieh

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Early detection and treatment of C.trachomatis genital infection prevent serious reproductive complications. Performances of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of genital C.trachomatis infection in women were compared. In this cross sectional study a total of 518 women volunteers were included (33.67±8.3 yrs) who had been referred to Gynecology clinics of Qom province, Iran, were included. Endocervical swab specimens were collected to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen in EIA and to amplify MOMP gene of C.trachomatis in PCR. Results were confirmed using ompI nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated for performance of the tests. Odds ratios were determined using binary logistic regression analysis. In total, 37 (7.14%) cases were positive by EIA and/or MOMP-PCR. All discrepant results were confirmed by nested-PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV values of EIA were 59.46%, 100%, 100% and 96.98%, and those of MOMP-PCR were 97.30%, 100%, 100%, 99.79%, respectively. Reproductive complications including 2.7% ectopic pregnancy, 5.4% stillbirth, 5.4% infertility, and 10.8% PROM were recorded. The risk of developing chlamydiosis was increased 4.8-fold in volunteers with cervicitis (p<0.05; OR 4.80; 95% CI 1.25-18.48). C.trachomatis infection should be regarded in women of reproductive ages especially those with cervicitis. Primary screening of women by using the low cost antigen-EIA is recommended; however, due to the low sensitivity of Ag-EIA, verification of the negative results by a DNA amplification method is needed.

  14. Superior efficacy of helicase-primase inhibitor BAY 57-1293 for herpes infection and latency in the guinea pig model of human genital herpes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Judith; Fischer, Ruediger; Eckenberg, Peter; Henninger, Kerstin; Ruebsamen-Waigmann, Helga; Kleymann, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of BAY 57-1293, a novel non-nucleosidic inhibitor of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), bovine herpesvirus and pseudorabies virus, was studied in the guinea pig model of genital herpes in comparison with the licensed drug valaciclovir (Valtrex). Early therapy with BAY 57-1293 almost completely suppressed the symptoms of acute HSV-2 infection, and reduced virus shedding and viral load in the sacral dorsal root ganglia by up to three orders of magnitude, resulting in decreased latency and a greatly diminished frequency of subsequent recurrent episodes. In contrast, valaciclovir showed only moderate effects in this set of experiments. When treatment was initiated late during the course of disease after symptoms were apparent, that is, a setting closer to most clinical situations, the efficacy of therapy with BAY 57-1293 was even more pronounced. Compared with valaciclovir, BAY 57-1293 halved the time necessary for complete healing. Moreover, the onset of action was fast, so that only very few animals developed new lesions after treatment commenced. Finally, in a study addressing the treatment of recurrent disease in animals whose primary infection had remained untreated BAY 57-1293 was efficient in suppressing the episodes. In summary, superior potency and efficacy of BAY 57-1293 over standard treatment with valaciclovir was demonstrated in relevant animal models of human genital herpes disease in terms of abrogating an HSV infection, reducing latency and the frequency of subsequent recurrences. Furthermore, BAY 57-1293 shortens the time to healing even if initiation of therapy is delayed.

  15. Efficacy of the Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Glycoprotein D/AS04 Vaccine against Genital HSV-2 and HSV-1 Infection and Disease in the Cotton Rat Sigmodon hispidus Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhvalova, Marina; McKay, Jamall; Mbaye, Aissatou; Sanford-Crane, Hannah; Blanco, Jorge C G; Huber, Ashley; Herold, Betsy C

    2015-10-01

    Subunit vaccines based on the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD-2) have been the major focus of HSV-2 vaccine development for the past 2 decades. Based on the promising data generated in the guinea pig model, a formulation containing truncated gD-2, aluminum salt, and MPL (gD/AS04) advanced to clinical trials. The results of these trials, however, were unexpected, as the vaccine protected against HSV-1 infection but not against HSV-2. To address this discrepancy, we developed a Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)-treated cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus model of HSV-2 and HSV-1 genital infection. The severity of HSV-1 genital herpes was less than that of HSV-2 genital herpes in cotton rats, and yet the model allowed for comparative evaluation of gD/AS04 immunogenicity and efficacy. Cotton rats were intramuscularly vaccinated using a prime boost strategy with gD/AS04 (Simplirix vaccine) or control vaccine formulation (hepatitis B vaccine FENDrix) and subsequently challenged intravaginally with HSV-2 or HSV-1. The gD/AS04 vaccine was immunogenic in cotton rats and induced serum IgG directed against gD-2 and serum HSV-2 neutralizing antibodies but failed to efficiently protect against HSV-2 disease or to decrease the HSV-2 viral load. However, gD/AS04 significantly reduced vaginal titers of HSV-1 and better protected animals against HSV-1 compared to HSV-2 genital disease. The latter finding is generally consistent with the clinical outcome of the Herpevac trial of Simplirix. Passive transfer of serum from gD/AS04-immunized cotton rats conferred stronger protection against HSV-1 genital disease. These findings suggest the need for alternative vaccine strategies and the identification of new correlates of protection. In spite of the high health burden of genital herpes, there is still no effective intervention against the disease. The significant gap in knowledge on genital herpes pathogenesis has been further highlighted by the recent failure of GSK

  16. The first case of lymphogranuloma venereum in a woman in East-Central Europe and its multiple co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzlova, Katerina; Rob, Filip; Zakoucka, Hana; Kubatova, Andrea; Secnikova, Zuzana; Krasova, Martina; Bohac, Petr; Hercogova, Jana

    2018-01-01

    We are reporting the first case of lymphogranuloma venereum in women in East-Central Europe. A 22-year-old heterosexual woman attended our department of venereology. She complained about a burning sensation in the urethra and vaginal discharge. Many tests were performed, and lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis, genital herpes, genital warts, and hepatitis C were diagnosed. Lymphogranuloma venereum was originally endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but since 2003, outbreaks of this infection have been reported in North America, Europe, and Australia in men who have sex with men (MSM) community. To date, all cases of lymphogranuloma venereum in the Czech Republic appeared in men, predominantly in HIV-positive MSM. There are not many evidences about lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in women in developed countries. This report underlines the need for awareness of lymphogranuloma venereum in women among gynecologists, venereologists, and other physicians not only in Western Europe, but across all European countries.

  17. Caveolin-2 associates with intracellular chlamydial inclusions independently of caveolin-1

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    Norkin Leonard C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid raft domains form in plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells by the tight packing of glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Caveolae are invaginated structures that form in lipid raft domains when the protein caveolin-1 is expressed. The Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate entirely within inclusions that develop from the phagocytic vacuoles in which they enter. We recently found that host cell caveolin-1 is associated with the intracellular vacuoles and inclusions of some chlamydial strains and species, and that entry of those strains depends on intact lipid raft domains. Caveolin-2 is another member of the caveolin family of proteins that is present in caveolae, but of unknown function. Methods We utilized a caveolin-1 negative/caveolin-2 positive FRT cell line and laser confocal immunofluorescence techniques to visualize the colocalization of caveolin-2 with the chlamydial inclusions. Results We show here that in infected HeLa cells, caveolin-2, as well as caveolin-1, colocalizes with inclusions of C. pneumoniae (Cp, C. caviae (GPIC, and C. trachomatis serovars E, F and K. In addition, caveolin-2 also associates with C. trachomatis serovars A, B and C, although caveolin-1 did not colocalize with these organisms. Moreover, caveolin-2 appears to be specifically, or indirectly, associated with the pathogens at the inclusion membranes. Using caveolin-1 deficient FRT cells, we show that although caveolin-2 normally is not transported out of the Golgi in the absence of caveolin-1, it nevertheless colocalizes with chlamydial inclusions in these cells. However, our results also show that caveolin-2 did not colocalize with UV-irradiated Chlamydia in FRT cells, suggesting that in these caveolin-1 negative cells, pathogen viability and very likely pathogen gene expression are necessary for the acquisition of caveolin-2 from the Golgi. Conclusion Caveolin-2 associates with the chlamydial

  18. Evaluation of an anti-chlamydial antibiotic therapy influence on asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglicka, Beata; Wegrzyn-Szkutnik, Irena; Michnar, Marek; Mazur, Elzbieta; Niedźwiadek, Justyna; Milanowski, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of the most frequent pathogens causing airways infections. Contribution of chronic chlamydial infection to the following diseases: asthma, POChP, coronary heart disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, is particularly interesting. The connection between such infection and bronchial asthma was described in the literature in 1991. C. pneumoniae often causes asthma exacerbation; it is suggested that it also may be an etiologic factor of the disease. In a group of 55 subjects with chronic, stable bronchial asthma treated in the Pulmonary Department, serologic characteristic of C. pneumoniae infection was found in 34 patients (61,8%). Thirteen of these subjects agreed to participate in the study. They were divided into two groups; placebo was administered to the first one and azithromycin in a dose of 1000 mg once a week--to the other one. The research was conducted using the double blind trial method. Anti-chlamydial antibody level was evaluated before and after treatment. Spirometry tests as well as subjective estimation of physical fitness and dyspnoea degree were also determined. In comparison with 'the placebo group', statistically significant improvement in respiratory parameters 'in the treated group' was not ascertained.

  19. 宫颈癌与女性生殖道感染的相关性研究%Correlation between cervical cancer and female genital tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹; 金卓杏; 张晓兰; 兰彩娇; 朱晓华

    2017-01-01

    目的 观察宫颈癌与女性生殖道人乳头瘤病毒、单纯疱疹病毒Ⅱ型、沙眼衣原体、滴虫、细菌性阴道病感染的相关性.方法 选择医院2012年1月-2015年12月宫颈癌患者100例为宫颈癌组,健康体检女性100名为对照组,检测生殖道人乳头瘤病毒、单纯疱疹病毒Ⅱ型、沙眼衣原体、滴虫、细菌性阴道病感染情况.结果 宫颈癌组患者生殖道人乳头瘤病毒、单纯疱疹病毒Ⅱ型、沙眼衣原体、滴虫、细菌性阴道病的感染率均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);宫颈癌组高危型人乳头瘤病毒检出率明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);宫颈癌组人乳头瘤病毒合并沙眼衣原体、人乳头瘤病毒合并滴虫、人乳头瘤病毒合并细菌性阴道病的感染率均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);高危型人乳头瘤病毒感染和沙眼衣原体、滴虫、细菌性阴道病感染均呈正相关,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 宫颈癌的发生与生殖道感染有关,宫颈癌患者生殖道人乳头瘤病毒感染以高危型为主,高危型人乳头瘤病毒感染和沙眼衣原体、滴虫、细菌性阴道病感染均呈正相关.%OBJECTIVE To observe the correlation between the cervical cancer and the female genital tract human papillomavirus ,herpes simplex virus type Ⅱ ,Chlamydia trachomatis ,Trichomonas or bacterial vaginosis infec-tion .METHODS Totally 100 patients with cervical cancer who were treated in the hospital from Jan 2012 to Dec 2015 were chosen as the cervical cancer group ,and 100 healthy women who received physical examination were set as the control group .The prevalence of genital tract human papillomavirus ,herpes simplex virus type Ⅱ ,C .tra-chomatis ,trichomonas or bacterial vaginosis infection was detected .RESULTS The incidence rate of the genital tract human papillomavirus ,herpes simplex virus type Ⅱ ,C .trachomatis ,trichomonas or bacterial

  20. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women seen at the lower genital tract pathology clinic, Jundiaí School of Medicine, Brazil

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    João Bosco Ramos Borges

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis ina population with a high risk of sexually transmitted diseases and tocompare data of the literature and the relationship of infection withthe presence of human papilloma virus induced lesions. Methods:A total of 28 hybrid capture tests for C. trachomatis were collectedfrom patients referred to the Municipal Health Division of the city ofJundiaí (SP for the lower genital tract pathology. The results werecompared with findings in the literature, and with the test resultsfrom a general population of the city of Jundiaí. Results: Of the 28tests, 3 (10.7% were positive. We did not find a positive associationbetween C. trachomatis infection and the presence or aggravationof intraepithelial cervical cancer. Conclusion: Our findings showed ahigh prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in the population studied,but no association with human papilloma virus infection. Because thenumber of patients assessed was small, it is difficult to generalizefrom our findings. We suggest there is a need to expand screeningprograms for C. trachomatis, mainly in symptomatic patients and inthose patients with cervical changes.

  1. Inactivated HSV-2 in MPL/alum adjuvant provides nearly complete protection against genital infection and shedding following long term challenge and rechallenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Christopher S; Kraynyak, Kimberly A; Levinson, Michael S; Chen, Zhijiang; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Spector, Deborah H

    2012-10-12

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) infection can result in life-long recurrent genital disease, asymptomatic virus shedding, and transmission. No vaccine to date has shown significant protection clinically. Here, we used a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection to test the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of whole, formalin-inactivated HSV-2 (FI-HSV2) formulated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and alum adjuvants. Vaccine components were administered alone or as a prime-boost immunization together with DNA vaccines encoding a truncated glycoprotein D2 (gD2t) and two conserved HSV-2 genes necessary for virus replication, UL5 (DNA helicase) and UL30 (DNA polymerase). Our results show: (1) compared with mock immunized controls, mice immunized with FI-HSV2 plus MPL/alum consistently showed protection against disease burden and total viral shedding while the mice immunized with gD2t protein with MPL/alum did not; (2) protection against genital disease and viral replication correlated with the type of boost in a prime-boost immunization with little advantage afforded by a DNA prime; (3) intramuscular (i.m.) immunization with FI-HSV2 in MPL/Alhydrogel adjuvant provided nearly complete protection against vaginal HSV-2 shedding after a lethal intravaginal (i.vag.) short-term challenge and long-term rechallenge; (4) single formulation immunization with DNA vaccines, FI-HSV2, and MPL in an aluminum phosphate (Adju-Phos) adjuvant did not increase protection relative to FI-HSV2/MPL/Adju-Phos alone; and (5) addition of MPL/alum to the FI-HSV2 was required for optimal protection against disease, viral replication, and latent virus load in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Most notably, an optimized vaccine formulation of FI-HSV2 MPL/Alhydrogel given i.m. completely protected against detectable vaginal HSV-2 shedding in the majority of animals and HSV-2 latent DNA in the DRG of all animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of Molecular Genotyping of Ureaplasma SPP in Women with Genital Infections by 16S–23S rDNA PCR-RFLP Method

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    R. Mirnejad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: So far, despite the wide range of methods such as analytic methods used for differentiation of Mycoplasma, the diagnosis of Mycoplasma species is still difficult. Generally the low-level discriminatory power of serological methods because of the rapid changes in size and phase of the dominant antigens in the immune cell surface of Mycoplasmas greatly limits their applicability to the typing of Mycoplasmas. On the contrary,molecular methods do not suffer from these drawbacks and can be used for typing of Mycoplasmas. The aim of this investigation was molecular identification and genotyping of ureaplasma SPP in women with genital infections by 16S–23S rDNA PCR-RFLP.Materials & Methods: Genital swabs were taken from 210 patients who referred to gynecology clinic of Rasool hospital in Tehran, Iran during December 2007 until June 2008. The swabs suspended in PBS, were immediately transferred to laboratory .Following DNA extraction, PCR assay was performed using a genus specific primer pair. These primer sets amplified a 559 bp fragment for Ureaplasma Spp. Samples containing bands of the expected size for Ureaplasma strains were subjected to digestion with different restriction endonuclease enzymes (AluI, Taq I, CacI8, BbsI, EcoRI. Results: Of the 210 samples, Ureaplasma Spp was isolated from 93 patients (44.3% by PCR and 69 samples by culture. In the present study only Biovar 1 (Ureaplasma parvum was isolated from clinical specimens and the results were confirmed using a cutting enzyme TaqI (enzyme specific species of ureaplasma SPP. The results of this analysis using PCR-RFLP and sequencing showed that all had the same genotype and shared identical sequence with the genome sequence of serovar 3 Ureaplasma parvum.Conclusion: Ureaplasma parvum is generally isolated from the genital samples. In this study all isolates were identical and no difference was found among the enzyme patterns of the bacteria after PCR-RFLP .So

  3. Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections

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    Mika A. Brown

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species in the family Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause common human diseases, while Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia suis represent zoonotic threats or are endemic in human food sources. Although chlamydial infections are currently manageable in human populations, chlamydial infections in livestock are endemic and there is significant difficulty achieving effective treatment. To combat the spread of Chlamydiaceae in humans and other hosts, improved methods for treatment and prevention of infection are needed. There exist various studies exploring the potential of natural products for developing new antichlamydial treatment modalities. Polyphenolic compounds can inhibit chlamydial growth by membrane disruption, reestablishment of host cell apoptosis, or improving host immune system detection. Fatty acids, monoglycerides, and lipids can disrupt the cell membranes of infective chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs. Peptides can disrupt the cell membranes of chlamydial EBs, and transferrins can inhibit chlamydial EBs from attachment to and permeation through the membranes of host cells. Cellular metabolites and probiotic bacteria can inhibit chlamydial infection by modulating host immune responses and directly inhibiting chlamydial growth. Finally, early stage clinical trials indicate that polyherbal formulations can be effective in treating chlamydial infections. Herein, we review an important body of literature in the field of antichlamydial research.

  4. Prevalence of asymptomatic chlamydial urethritis in military recruits in the Celje region, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaza, A; Grsković, B; Plestina, S; Bozina, N; Potocnik, M; Waugh, M A

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of asymptomatic chlamydial urethritis in military recruits in the Celje region (population 300,000), Slovenia. A first-void urine specimen was tested for Chlamydia trachomatis using the polymerase chain reaction assay. The research was supported by a questionnaire to obtain information on sexual behaviour of the participants. In the cross-sectional study from 1999 to 2001, 1272 asymptomatic recruits were included. None had received antibiotics in the previous two weeks. The mean age was 19.9 years. At the time of their first sexual experience the mean age was 16.6 years, whereas the age of their female sexual partners was 17.1 years. During their first sexual intercourse 77% of recruits used contraception (condom, diaphragm, contraceptive pill), most of those a condom (86%). The prevalence of asymptomatic chlamydial urethritis was 2.6% (95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 3.5). The mean age of those infected was 19.8 years. At the time of their first sexual experience the mean age was 16.2 years, whereas the age of their female sexual partners was 16.9 years. During their first sexual intercourse 57% of infected subjects used protection, half of which was a condom. Those who never or only occasionally used condoms were at a greater risk of being infected with C. trachomatis (adjusted odds ratio 2.04).

  5. Current thinking on genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Annika M; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R

    2014-02-01

    Genital herpes has a high global prevalence and burden of disease. This manuscript highlights recent advances in our understanding of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. Studies demonstrate a changing epidemiological landscape with an increasing proportion of genital herpes cases associated with HSV type 1. There is also growing evidence that the majority of infected individuals exhibit frequent, brief shedding episodes that are most often asymptomatic, which likely contribute to high HSV transmission rates. Given this finding as well as readily available serological assays, some have proposed that routine HSV screening be performed; however, this remains controversial and is not currently recommended. Host immune responses, particularly local CD4 and CD8 T cell activity, are crucial for HSV control and clearance following initial infection, during latency and after reactivation. Prior HSV immunity may also afford partial protection against HSV reinfection and disease. Although HSV vaccine trials have been disappointing to date and existing antiviral medications are limited, novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities are currently in development. Although much remains unknown about genital herpes, improved knowledge of HSV epidemiology, pathogenesis and host immunity may help guide new strategies for disease prevention and control.

  6. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Lauren C; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M; Belland, Robert J; Ingalls, Robin R; O'Connell, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains.

  7. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Frazer

    Full Text Available Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains.

  8. Decreasing seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in Germany leaves many people susceptible to genital infection: time to raise awareness and enhance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korr, Gerit; Thamm, Michael; Czogiel, Irina; Poethko-Mueller, Christina; Bremer, Viviane; Jansen, Klaus

    2017-07-06

    Herpes simplex infections (HSV1/2) are characterized by recurrent symptoms, a risk of neonatal herpes, and the facilitation of HIV transmission. In Germany, HSV1/2 infections are not notifiable and data are scarce. A previous study found higher HSV1/2 seroprevalences in women in East Germany than in women in West Germany. We assessed changes in the HSV1/2 seroprevalences over time and investigated determinants associated with HSV1/2 seropositivity to guide prevention and control. The study was based on the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS; 2008-2011) and the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GNHIES; 1997-1999). We tested serum samples from DEGS participants for HSV1 and HSV2 immunoglobulin G. We used Pearson's χ 2 test to compare the HSV1/HSV2 seroprevalences in terms of sex, age, and region of residence (East/West Germany) and investigated potential determinants by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) with log-binomial regression. All statistical analyses included survey weights. In total, 6627 DEGS participants were tested for HSV1, and 5013 were also tested for HSV2. Overall, HSV1 seroprevalence decreased significantly from 1997-1999 (82.1%; 95%CI 80.6-83.6) to 2008-2011 (78.4%; 95%CI 77.8-79.7). In the same period, overall HSV2 seroprevalence decreased significantly from 13.3% (95%CI 11.9-14.9) to 9.6% (95%CI 8.6-10.8), notably in 18-24-year-old men (10.4 to 0%) in East Germany. Women were more likely than men to be seropositive for HSV1 (PR 1.1) or HSV2 (PR 1.6). A lower level of education, smoking, and not speaking German were associated with HSV1 in both sexes. Women of older age, who smoked, or had a history of abortion and men of older age or who had not attended a nursery school during childhood were more often seropositive for HSV2. The reduced seroprevalences of HSV1 and HSV2 leave more people susceptible to genital HSV1/2 infections. Practitioners should be aware of HSV infection as a differential

  9. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... conditions > Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract defects E-mail to a friend Please fill ... and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary tract defects affect ...

  10. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

  11. Inhibition of Wnt Signaling Pathways Impairs Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, Jennifer; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Butler, Megan; Hall, Jennifer V

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent the predominant cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. As an obligate intracellular bacterium, C. trachomatis is dependent on the host cell for survival, propagation, and transmission. Thus, factors that affect the host cell, including nutrition, cell cycle, and environmental signals, have the potential to impact chlamydial development. Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling benefits C. trachomatis infections in fallopian tube epithelia. In cervical epithelial cells chlamydiae sequester β-catenin within the inclusion. These data indicate that chlamydiae interact with the Wnt signaling pathway in both the upper and lower female genital tract (FGT). However, hormonal activation of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways is an essential component of cyclic remodeling in another prominent area of the FGT, the endometrium. Given this information, we hypothesized that Wnt signaling would impact chlamydial infection in endometrial epithelial cells. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of Wnt inhibition on chlamydial inclusion development and elementary body (EB) production in two endometrial cell lines, Ishikawa (IK) and Hec-1B, in nonpolarized cell culture and in a polarized endometrial epithelial (IK)/stromal (SHT-290) cell co-culture model. Inhibition of Wnt by the small molecule inhibitor (IWP2) significantly decreased inclusion size in IK and IK/SHT-290 cultures ( p Wnt inhibition caused chlamydiae to become aberrant in morphology. EB formation was also impaired in IK, Hec-1B and IK/SHT-290 cultures regardless of whether Wnt inhibition occurred throughout, in the middle (24 hpi) or late (36 hpi) during the development cycle. Overall, these data lead us to conclude that Wnt signaling in the endometrium is a key host pathway for the proper development of C. trachomatis .

  12. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be can be considerable embarrassment, shame, and stigma associated with a herpes diagnosis that can substantially ... complications for a pregnant woman and her newborn child. See “ How does herpes infection affect a pregnant ...

  13. Transfer of IgG in the female genital tract by MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) confers protective immunity to vaginal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    IgG is a major immunoglobulin subclass in mucosal secretions of human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about whether and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role of local IgG may play ...

  14. Trichomoniasis and associated co-infections of the genital tract among pregnant women presenting at two hospitals in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmah, Richard H; Blankson, Harriet N A; Seanefu, Kekeli A; Obeng-Nkrumah, Noah; Awuah-Mensah, Georgina; Cham, Momodou; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2017-12-13

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted pathogen worldwide. Among pregnant women, the infection may cause adverse birth outcomes such as premature rupture of membranes and premature labour. In view of the paucity of information relating to TV among Ghanaian pregnant women, this study investigated its prevalence and associated co-infections among pregnant women. High vaginal swabs were obtained from 99 pregnant women using sterile cotton swab sticks. Wet preparation, Grams staining, culturing, coagulase and sensitivity testing were carried out to determine the presence of TV and associated microorganisms. The prevalence of TV among the pregnant women was found to be 20.2% (n = 20). Concurring with Trichomoniasis, 75% (n = 15) of participants had other infections such as Candida with prevalence of 53% (n = 8), Proteus infection - 20% (n = 3), Streptococcus infection - 13% (n = 2) and other GNRs and Gonococci having 7% each (n = 1). Moreover, there was 86.9% (n = 86) prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. among study participants. There was statistically significant correlation between TV and Gonococci infection at a correlation co-efficient of 0.107 (P TV and Proteus spp. at a correlation co-efficient of 0.189 (P TV infection was high (60%) among the most sexually active age group (19 to 29 yrs). There was 20.2% prevalence of TV among the pregnant women presenting at the hospitals, with Gonococci and Proteus infections being statistically significant associated infections.

  15. Penicillin kills Chlamydia following the fusion of bacteria with lysosomes and prevents genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Dumoux

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia exists as two distinct forms. Elementary bodies (EBs are infectious and extra-cellular, whereas reticulate bodies (RBs replicate within a specialized intracellular compartment termed an 'inclusion'. Alternative persistent intra-cellular forms can be induced in culture by diverse stimuli such as IFNγ or adenosine/EHNA. They do not grow or divide but revive upon withdrawal of the stimulus and are implicated in several widespread human diseases through ill-defined in vivo mechanisms. β-Lactam antibiotics have also been claimed to induce persistence in vitro. The present report shows that upon penicillin G (pG treatment, inclusions grow as fast as those in infected control cells. After removal of pG, Chlamydia do not revert to RBs. These effects are independent of host cell type, serovar, biovar and species of Chlamydia. Time-course experiments demonstrated that only RBs were susceptible to pG. pG-treated bacteria lost their control over host cell apoptotic pathways and no longer expressed pre-16S rRNA, in contrast to persistent bacteria induced with adenosine/EHNA. Confocal and live-video microscopy showed that bacteria within the inclusion fused with lysosomal compartments in pG-treated cells. That leads to recruitment of cathepsin D as early as 3 h post pG treatment, an event preceding bacterial death by several hours. These data demonstrate that pG treatment of cultured cells infected with Chlamydia results in the degradation of the bacteria. In addition we show that pG is significantly more efficient than doxycycline at preventing genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-C57Bl/6 infected mice. These in vivo results support the physiological relevance of our findings and their potential therapeutic applications.

  16. Intramuscular Immunisation with Chlamydial Proteins Induces Chlamydia trachomatis Specific Ocular Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh

    Full Text Available Ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, which is the leading cause of blindness due to infection worldwide. Despite the large-scale implementation of trachoma control programmes in the majority of countries where trachoma is endemic, there remains a need for a vaccine. Since C. trachomatis infects the conjunctival epithelium and stimulates an immune response in the associated lymphoid tissue, vaccine regimens that enhance local antibody responses could be advantageous. In experimental infections of non-human primates (NHPs, antibody specificity to C. trachomatis antigens was found to change over the course of ocular infection. The appearance of major outer membrane protein (MOMP specific antibodies correlated with a reduction in ocular chlamydial burden, while subsequent generation of antibodies specific for PmpD and Pgp3 correlated with C. trachomatis eradication.We used a range of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with DNA, Adenovirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and protein vaccines based on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP as an antigen, and investigated the effect of vaccine route, antigen and regimen on the induction of anti-chlamydial antibodies detectable in the ocular lavage fluid of mice.Three intramuscular vaccinations with recombinant protein adjuvanted with MF59 induced significantly greater levels of anti-MOMP ocular antibodies than the other regimens tested. Intranasal delivery of vaccines induced less IgG antibody in the eye than intramuscular delivery. The inclusion of the antigens PmpD and Pgp3, singly or in combination, induced ocular antigen-specific IgG antibodies, although the anti-PmpD antibody response was consistently lower and attenuated by combination with other antigens.If translatable to NHPs and/or humans, this investigation of the murine C. trachomatis specific ocular antibody response following vaccination provides a potential mouse model for the rapid and high throughput

  17. Specific chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins associate with active Src family kinases in microdomains that interact with the host microtubule network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Jeffrey; Miller, Natalie J; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Hackstadt, Ted

    2010-09-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that cause diseases with significant medical and economic impact. Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a vacuole termed an inclusion, which is extensively modified by the insertion of a number of bacterial effector proteins known as inclusion membrane proteins (Incs). Once modified, the inclusion is trafficked in a dynein-dependent manner to the microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC), where it associates with host centrosomes. Here we describe a novel structure on the inclusion membrane comprised of both host and bacterial proteins. Members of the Src family of kinases are recruited to the chlamydial inclusion in an active form. These kinases display a distinct, localized punctate microdomain-like staining pattern on the inclusion membrane that colocalizes with four chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins (Incs) and is enriched in cholesterol. Biochemical studies show that at least two of these Incs stably interact with one another. Furthermore, host centrosomes associate with these microdomain proteins in C. trachomatis-infected cells and in uninfected cells exogenously expressing one of the chlamydial effectors. Together, the data suggest that a specific structure on the C. trachomatis inclusion membrane may be responsible for the known interactions of chlamydiae with the microtubule network and resultant effects on centrosome stability.

  18. Dysbiosis of the Vaginal Microbiota and Higher Vaginal Kynurenine/Tryptophan Ratio Reveals an Association with Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Ziklo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural course of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital tract infections varies between individuals. While protective immunity can occur, some women can become reinfected, contributing to the development of severe pathology. While the reasons for these differences are unknown, an individual's response to induced interferon-γ (IFN-γ is suggested to be critical. IFN-γ induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which depletes tryptophan, may be the key. One hypothesis suggests that indole-producing bacteria in the vaginal microbiota can provide a substrate for the Chlamydia to synthesize tryptophan, rescuing the Chlamydia from host IFN-γ attack. We studied a cohort of 25 women who were either, Chlamydia negative, Chlamydia positive with a single infection, or Chlamydia positive with repeated infection, to test our hypothesis. We characterized their vaginal microbiota, cytokine response, as well as their tryptophan, kynurenine and indole concentrations directly in vaginal secretions. We found that C. trachomatis urogenital tract infections either initial or repeat infections, were associated with elevated vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios, primarily as a result of elevated kynurenine levels. In addition, vaginal microbiota of community state type (CST IV showed significantly lower vaginal tryptophan levels compared to CST I and III, which might be related to a higher abundance of indole producers found within this group. Furthermore, we found a higher abundance of indole producers in women who cleared their Chlamydia infection post antibiotic treatment. This study demonstrates for the first time in vivo, the association between high vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios and C. trachomatis infections. In addition, tryptophan depletion was associated with vaginal microbiota of CST IV.

  19. Generating protective immunity against genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-10-01

    Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genotype-Specific Clearance of Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infections among Mothers in the Finnish Family HPV Study▿

    OpenAIRE

    Louvanto, Karolina; Syrjänen, Kari J.; Rintala, Marjut A. M.; Grénman, Seija E.; Syrjänen, Stina M.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young women are transient, but whether the clearance differs among different HPV genotypes and the different factors predicting genotype-specific clearance are partly unknown. In the Finnish Family HPV Study, 131 of 252 women (mean age, 25.5 years) cleared their infection during the prospective follow-up of 6 years (median, 62.4 months; range, 1.6 to 94.5 months). Cervical scrapings collected at each visit were tested for 24 lo...

  1. Systematic screening with information and home sampling for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in young men and women in Norway: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløvstad, Hilde; Natås, Olav; Tverdal, Aage; Aavitsland, Preben

    2013-01-23

    As most genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are asymptomatic, many patients do not seek health care for testing. Infections remain undiagnosed and untreated. We studied whether screening with information and home sampling resulted in more young people getting tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention compared to the current strategy of testing in the health care system. We conducted a population based randomized controlled trial among all persons aged 18-25 years in one Norwegian county (41 519 persons). 10 000 persons (intervention) received an invitation by mail with chlamydia information and a mail-back urine sampling kit. 31 519 persons received no intervention and continued with usual care (control). All samples from both groups were analysed in the same laboratory. Information on treatment was obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). We estimated risk ratios and risk differences of being tested, diagnosed and treated in the intervention group compared to the control group. In the intervention group 16.5% got tested and in the control group 3.4%, risk ratio 4.9 (95% CI 4.5-5.2). The intervention led to 2.6 (95% CI 2.0-3.4) times as many individuals being diagnosed and 2.5 (95% CI 1.9-3.4) times as many individuals receiving treatment for chlamydia compared to no intervention in the three months following the intervention. In Norway, systematic screening with information and home sampling results in more young people being tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention than the current strategy of testing in the health care system. However, the study has not established that the intervention will reduce the chlamydia prevalence or the risk of complications from chlamydia.

  2. PATTERNS OF PERSISTENT GENITAL HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION AMONG WOMEN WORLDWIDE: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rositch, Anne F.; Koshiol, Jill; Hudgens, Michael; Razzaghi, Hilda; Backes, Danielle M.; Pimenta, Jeanne M.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Poole, Charles; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is the strongest risk factor for high-grade cervical precancer. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of HPV persistence patterns worldwide. Medline and ISI Web of Science were searched through January 1, 2010 for articles estimating HPV persistence or duration of detection. Descriptive and meta-regression techniques were used to summarize variability and the influence of study definitions and characteristics on duration and persistence of cervical HPV infections in women. Among 86 studies providing data on over 100,000 women, 73% defined persistence as HPV positivity at a minimum of two time points. Persistence varied notably across studies and was largely mediated by study region and HPV type, with HPV-16, 31, 33 and 52 being most persistent. Weighted median duration of any-HPV detection was 9.8 months. HR-HPV (9.3 months) persisted longer than low-risk HPV (8.4 months), and HPV-16 (12.4 months) persisted longer than HPV-18 (9.8 months). Among populations of HPV positive women with normal cytology, the median duration of any-HPV detection was 11.5 and HR-HPV detection was10.9 months. In conclusion, we estimated that approximately half of HPV infections persist past 6–12 months. Repeat HPV testing at 12 month intervals could identify women at increased risk of high-grade cervical precancer due to persistent HPV infections. PMID:22961444

  3. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Serostatus With Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men: The HPV in Men Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2

  4. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ebola Encephalitis Fevers Fifth Disease Food Poisoning Genital Herpes Genital Warts (HPV) Gonorrhea HIV and AIDS Hand, Foot, ... Toxocariasis Toxoplasmosis Trichomoniasis Sexually Transmitted Diseases Chlamydia Genital Herpes Genital Warts (HPV) Gonorrhea HIV and AIDS Pelvic Inflammatory ...

  5. Bacterial vaginosis, alterations in vaginal flora and HIV genital shedding among HIV-1-infected women in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Kirkcaldy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We investigated whether abnormal vaginal flora, including bacterial vaginosis (BV, are associated with detection of cervical HIV-1 RNA among HIV-infected women in Mozambique. Methods. We obtained clinical data and vaginal specimens from HIV-infected women registering for their first visit at one of two HIV care clinics in Mozambique. We compared women with detectable cervical HIV viral load (≥40 copies/ml with women with undetectable cervical HIV. Results. We enrolled 106 women. Women with abnormal vaginal flora (intermediate Nugent scores, 4 - 6 were more likely to have detectable cervical HIV RNA then women with normal vaginal flora (adjusted odds ratio 7.2 (95% confidence interval 1.8 - 29.1, adjusted for CD4 count. Women with BV had a non-significantly higher likelihood of detectable cervical HIV than women with normal flora. Conclusions. Abnormal vaginal flora were significantly associated with cervical HIV expression. Further research is needed to confirm this relationship.

  6. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genital herpes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... Genital herpes cannot be cured. Antiviral medicine (acyclovir and related drugs) may relieve pain and discomfort and help ...

  8. Status of prophylactic and therapeutic genital herpes vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Friedman, Harvey M

    2014-06-01

    A half billion people have genital herpes infections worldwide. Approximately one-fifth of American women between ages 14 and 49 are HSV-2 seropositive. The development of an effective genital herpes vaccine is a global health necessity based on the mental anguish genital herpes causes for some individuals, the fact that pregnant women with genital herpes risk transmitting infection to their newborn children, and the observation that HSV-2 infection is associated with a 3-fold to 4-fold increased probability of HIV acquisition. We review the strengths and limitations of preclinical animal models used to assess genital herpes vaccine candidates and the goals of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. We also discuss the current pipeline of vaccine candidates and lessons learned from past clinical trials that serve as a stimulus for new strategies, study designs and endpoint determinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Female Genital Tract Microbiome Is Associated With Vaginal Antiretroviral Drug Concentrations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue Carlson, Renee; Sheth, Anandi N; Read, Timothy D; Frisch, Michael B; Mehta, C Christina; Martin, Amy; Haaland, Richard E; Patel, Anar S; Pau, Chou-Pong; Kraft, Colleen S; Ofotokun, Igho

    2017-11-15

    The female genital tract (FGT) microbiome may affect vaginal pH and other factors that influence drug movement into the vagina. We examined the relationship between the microbiome and antiretroviral concentrations in the FGT. Over one menstrual cycle, 20 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women virologically suppressed on tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV) underwent serial paired cervicovaginal and plasma sampling for antiretroviral concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of cervicovaginal lavage clustered each participant visit into a unique microbiome community type (mCT). Participants were predominantly African American (95%), with a median age of 38 years. Cervicovaginal lavage sequencing (n = 109) resulted in a low-diversity mCT dominated by Lactobacillus (n = 40), and intermediate-diversity (n = 28) and high-diversity (n = 41) mCTs with abundance of anaerobic taxa. In multivariable models, geometric mean FGT:plasma ratios varied significantly by mCT for all 3 drugs. For both ATV and TFV, FGT:plasma was significantly lower in participant visits with high- and low-diversity mCT groups (all P < .02). For emtricitabine, FGT:plasma was significantly lower in participant visits with low- vs intermediate-diversity mCT groups (P = .002). Certain FGT mCTs are associated with decreased FGT antiretroviral concentrations. These findings are relevant for optimizing antiretrovirals used for biomedical HIV prevention in women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Human papillomavirus virus (HPV) genotype- and age-specific analyses of external genital lesions among men in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Messina, Jane A; Stoler, Mark H; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A; O'Keefe, Michael T; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009-2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9-19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Primary genital herpes with sacral meningoradiculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, P-N; Anguenot, J-L; Dubuisson, J-B

    2004-02-01

    Herpetic genital infection is a common sexually transmitted disease, caused in most cases by type 2 Herpes simplex virus (HSV2). This virus is characterized by its neurotropic properties and its ability to establish latency in sacral sensory ganglions. Some cases of genital primo-infection are complicated by viral replication dissemination to neigbhoring nerve structures like meninges and radicular terminations. In such cases muco-cutaneous manifestations are associated with peripheral neurological impairment in the form of meningo-radiculitis. Physicians should be familiar with these neurological symptoms knowing that they always regress completely. The present report illustrates these complications and reviews the potential neurological implications described in the literature.

  12. Chlamydial Proctitis in a Young Man Who Has Sex with Men: Misdiagnosed as Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Jaeyeon; Shin, Dong Hwan; Jung, Jun Oh; Koh, Seokyoung; Kim, Ka Young; Lee, Jae Min

    2015-12-01

    We report the case of a 20-year-old man with a 2-month history of anal pain and bloody rectal discharge. He was referred to our clinic of gastroenterology for suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The colonoscopy showed mucosal nodularities on the rectum and an anal tag. Because the colonoscopic findings were not consistent with the typical manifestations of IBD, we took an additional sexual history and performed studies for infectious proctitis, including serologic tests for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum. He had homosexual experience, and the serologic tests and PCR of a rectal swab were positive for C. trachomatis infection. Finally he was diagnosed as having chlamydial proctitis and was treated with intramuscular ceftriaxone 250 mg in a single dose and doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days. After 2 months, he had no lower abdominal symptoms and his endoscopic findings were improved.

  13. Atypical extensive genital ulcer in full blown aids with slim disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct immunofluorescence detection on genital ulcer scraping was negative for Chlamydia trachomatis and Treponema pallidum. Furthermore, the infections with Haemophilus ducreyi and Chlamydia trachomatis were excluded by PCR on genital swabs.Genital PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2.

  14. An estimate of the proportion of symptomatic gonococcal, chlamydial and non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis attributable to oral sex among men who have sex with men: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbee, Lindley A; Khosropour, Christine M; Dombrowski, Julia C; Manhart, Lisa E; Golden, Matthew R

    2016-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) of the pharynx are common among men who have sex with men (MSM); the degree to which these infections are transmitted through oral sex is unknown. We conducted a case-control study of MSM attending Public Health-Seattle & King County STD Clinic between 2001 and 2013 to estimate the proportion of symptomatic urethritis cases attributable to oral sex using two methods. First, we categorised men into the following mutually exclusive behavioural categories based on their self-reported sexual history in the previous 60 days: (1) only received oral sex (IOS); (2) 100% condom usage with insertive anal sex plus oral sex (PIAI); (3) inconsistent condom usage with anal sex (UIAI); and (4) no sex. We then determined the proportion of cases in which men reported the oropharynx as their only urethral exposure (IOS and PIAI). Second, we calculated the population attributable risk per cent (PAR%) associated with oral sex using Mantel-Haenszel OR estimates. Based on our behavioural categorisation method, men reported the oropharynx as their only urethral exposure in the past 60 days in 27.5% of gonococcal urethritis, 31.4% of chlamydial urethritis and 35.9% non-gonococcal, non-chlamydial urethritis (NGNCU) cases. The PAR%s for symptomatic gonococcal urethritis, chlamydial urethritis and NGNCU attributed to oropharyngeal exposure were 33.8%, 2.7% and 27.1%, respectively. The pharynx is an important source of gonococcal transmission, and may be important in the transmission of chlamydia and other, unidentified pathogens that cause urethritis. Efforts to increase pharyngeal gonorrhoea screening among MSM could diminish STI transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. chlamydial infection, plasma peroxidation and obesity in tubal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Human reproductive failure is as old as mankind. This public health problem involves all regions of the world and its prevalence worldwide varies from 10-15%1;. 10-32% in Africa2 and 31.5% in Nigeria3. The various categories of human reproductive failure include: infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss ( ...

  16. The Prevalence and Outcome of Asymptomatic Chlamydial Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Mar-Apr 2014 | Vol 4 | Issue 2 |. 253. Address for .... effect may further compromise the reproductive chance of such women .... easy evaluation and this exercise has been encouraged. Some.

  17. Therapy chronic trichomoniasis at patients with associated urogenital chlamydial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Poznyak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Present material of problem question therapy chronic trichomoniasis. Study clinical and bacteriological effectiveness basic etiotropic preparation and their combination, used in treatment patients trichomoniasis. Found that the combined application antiprotozoal drugs have a more pronounced effect on kills T. vaginalis and shortens the rehabilitation of the patient.

  18. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  19. Clinical and imaging features of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yongli; Peng Yun; Sun Guoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical and imaging features of chlamydial pneumonia in newborns. Methods: Medical records,chest X-Ray and CT findings of 17 neonates with chlamydia pneumonia were reviewed. The age was ranged from 9.0 to 28.0 days with mean of (16.8 ± 5.8) days. There were 11 males and 6 females. Sixteen were full term infants and one was born post term. All babies were examined with chest X-ray film, and 13 patients also underwent chest CT scan. Serologic test using immunofluorescence method for Chlamydia IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in all patients. Results: All newborns presented with cough but without fever. Positive results of the serologic tests were demonstrated. Chest films showed bilateral hyperventilation in 10 patients, diffuse reticular nodules in 10 patients including nodules mimicking military tuberculosis in 7 patients, and accompanying consolidation in 9 patients. CT features included interstitial reticular nodules in 13 patients with size, density, and distribution varied. Subpleural nodules (11 patients) and fusion of nodules (10 patients) predominated. Bilateral hyperinflation was found in 10 patients, which combined with infiltration in 12 patients, thickening of bronchovascular bundles in 10 patients, and ground glass sign in 5 patients. No pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy was detected in any patient. Conclusions: Bilateral hyperinflation and diffuse interstitial reticular nodules were the most common imaging features of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia. The main clinical characteristic of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia is respiratory symptoms without fever, which is helpful to its diagnosis. (authors)

  20. Intraurethral condylomata acuminata associated with genital piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S; Hirano, Y; Kawamura, T; Homma, Y

    2013-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was referred to our institution with papillary masses at the urethral meatus and difficulty urinating. Genital examination showed two piercings on the frenulum, which were penetrating the external urethra. Endoscopic examination revealed papillary tumours over the entire circumference of the penile urethra and the piercing site. The tumours were resected transurethrally. Microscopic examination revealed condylomata acuminata. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 66 were detected in the lesions. Retrograde urethral viral infection is rare because of the protection provided by the mucosal immune system. Genital piercing may have facilitated spread of the human papillomavirus into the urethra.

  1. Chlamydial entry involves TARP binding of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Josh Lane

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis attachment to cells induces the secretion of the elementary body-associated protein TARP (Translocated Actin Recruiting Protein. TARP crosses the plasma membrane where it is immediately phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by unknown host kinases. The Rac GTPase is also activated, resulting in WAVE2 and Arp2/3-dependent recruitment of actin to the sites of chlamydia attachment. We show that TARP participates directly in chlamydial invasion activating the Rac-dependent signaling cascade to recruit actin. TARP functions by binding two distinct Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, Sos1 and Vav2, in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner. The tyrosine phosphorylation profile of the sequence YEPISTENIYESI within TARP, as well as the transient activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K, appears to determine which GEF is utilized to activate Rac. The first and second tyrosine residues, when phosphorylated, are utilized by the Sos1/Abi1/Eps8 and Vav2, respectively, with the latter requiring the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Depletion of these critical signaling molecules by siRNA resulted in inhibition of chlamydial invasion to varying degrees, owing to a possible functional redundancy of the two pathways. Collectively, these data implicate TARP in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton remodeling machinery, demonstrating a mechanism by which C.trachomatis invades non-phagocytic cells.

  2. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  3. Biochemical characterisation of the chlamydial MurF ligase, and possible sequence of the chlamydial peptidoglycan pentapeptide stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, Delphine; Bostock, Julieanne; Chopra, Ian; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Blanot, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that do not synthesise detectable peptidoglycan although they possess an almost complete arsenal of genes encoding peptidoglycan biosynthetic activities. In this paper, the murF gene from Chlamydia trachomatis was shown to be capable of complementing a conditional Escherichia coli mutant impaired in UDP-MurNAc-tripeptide:D-Ala-D-Ala ligase activity. Recombinant MurF from C. trachomatis was overproduced and purified from E. coli. It exhibited ATP-dependent UDP-MurNAc-X-γ-D-Glu-meso-A(2)pm:D-Ala-D-Ala ligase activity in vitro. No significant difference of kinetic parameters was seen when X was L-Ala, L-Ser or Gly. The L-Lys-containing UDP-MurNAc-tripeptide was a poorer substrate as compared to the meso-A(2)pm-containing one. Based on the respective substrate specificities of the chlamydial MurC, MurE, MurF and Ddl enzymes, a sequence L-Ala/L-Ser/Gly-γ-D-Glu-meso-A(2)pm-D-Ala-D-Ala is expected for the chlamydial pentapeptide stem, with Gly at position 1 being less likely.

  4. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-06

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Associação de lesões anorretais em portadoras de infecção genital por HPV e neoplasia cérvico-uterina Association between anorectal lesions in women with genital HPV infection and cervical-uterine neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cotrim Amaral

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diagnosticar a presença do HPV anorretal em portadoras dessa afecção no trato genital inferior, através do exame coloproctológico com anuscopia de alta resolução. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional e transversal realizado através de um protocolo de pesquisa, no Hospital Universitário da UFAL de Fevereiro a Julho de 2008, analisando 57 mulheres com diagnóstico prévio de infecção genital por HPV submetendo-as a uma avaliação através da anuscopia de alta resolução. RESULTADOS: A idade média variou de 31,2 anos, seis pacientes eram gestantes, 59,6% cursaram apenas o 1º grau, 73,7% tinham união estável; A idade média de menarca foi 12,6 anos e a sexarca de 17 anos. Em relação ao número de parceiros sexuais, 33,3% tiveram 2 a 3 parceiros; 68,6% apresentaram lesão intraepitelial genital de baixo grau (LGSIL, CONCLUSÕES: 89,5% não apresentavam lesões e 10,5% apresentavam através da anuscopia de alta resolução(AAR lesões sub-clínicas perianal, vulvar e vaginal. É possível e viável ao especialista incorporar o exame de anuscopia de alta resolução para diagnóstico de HPV ano-retal na forma subclínica à sua rotina, já que é de simples execução, barato e a doença acomete pacientes sem lesões visíveis ao exame proctológico.AIM: To diagnose the presence of anorectal HPV in women with lower genital tract lesions, through rectal examination with High Resolution Anuscopy. METHODS: Observational, transversal study conducted by a research protocol in the Hospital Universitário Prof. Alberto Antunes (HUPAA/UFAL from February to July 2008, examining 57 women with a previous diagnosis of genital HPV infection by subjecting them to an assessment by High Resolution Anuscopy. RESULTS: The mean age ranged from 31.2 years, six patients were pregnant women, 59.6% had finished elementary school, 73.7% were in a stable union with a partner, the average age of menarche was 12.6 years and 17 years for the first

  6. Dual-strain genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in the US, Peru, and 8 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: A nested cross-sectional viral genotyping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Magaret, Amalia; Roychoudhury, Pavitra; Greninger, Alexander L; Reeves, Daniel; Schiffer, Joshua; Jerome, Keith R; Sather, Cassandra; Diem, Kurt; Lingappa, Jairam R; Celum, Connie; Koelle, David M; Wald, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative estimation of the extent to which the immune system's protective effect against one herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection protects against infection with additional HSV-2 strains is important for understanding the potential for HSV-2 vaccine development. Using viral genotyping, we estimated the prevalence of HSV-2 dual-strain infection and identified risk factors. People with and without HIV infection participating in HSV-2 natural history studies (University of Washington Virology Research Clinic) and HIV prevention trials (HIV Prevention Trials Network 039 and Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study) in the US, Africa, and Peru with 2 genital specimens each containing ≥105 copies herpes simplex virus DNA/ml collected a median of 5 months apart (IQR: 2-11 months) were included. It is unlikely that 2 strains would be detected in the same sample simultaneously; therefore, 2 samples were required to detect dual-strain infection. We identified 85 HSV-2 SNPs that, in aggregate, could determine whether paired HSV-2 strains were the same or different with >90% probability. These SNPs were then used to create a customized high-throughput array-based genotyping assay. Participants were considered to be infected with more than 1 strain of HSV-2 if their samples differed by ≥5 SNPs between the paired samples, and dual-strain infection was confirmed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). We genotyped pairs of genital specimens from 459 people; 213 (46%) were men, the median age was 34 years (IQR: 27-44), and 130 (28%) were HIV seropositive. Overall, 272 (59%) people were from the US, 59 (13%) were from Peru, and 128 (28%) were from 8 countries in Africa. Of the 459 people, 18 (3.9%) met the criteria for dual-strain infection. HTS and phylogenetic analysis of paired specimens confirmed shedding of 2 distinct HSV-2 strains collected at different times in 17 pairs, giving an estimated dual-strain infection prevalence of 3.7% (95% CI = 2

  7. Dual-strain genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection in the US, Peru, and 8 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: A nested cross-sectional viral genotyping study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Johnston

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative estimation of the extent to which the immune system's protective effect against one herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection protects against infection with additional HSV-2 strains is important for understanding the potential for HSV-2 vaccine development. Using viral genotyping, we estimated the prevalence of HSV-2 dual-strain infection and identified risk factors.People with and without HIV infection participating in HSV-2 natural history studies (University of Washington Virology Research Clinic and HIV prevention trials (HIV Prevention Trials Network 039 and Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study in the US, Africa, and Peru with 2 genital specimens each containing ≥105 copies herpes simplex virus DNA/ml collected a median of 5 months apart (IQR: 2-11 months were included. It is unlikely that 2 strains would be detected in the same sample simultaneously; therefore, 2 samples were required to detect dual-strain infection. We identified 85 HSV-2 SNPs that, in aggregate, could determine whether paired HSV-2 strains were the same or different with >90% probability. These SNPs were then used to create a customized high-throughput array-based genotyping assay. Participants were considered to be infected with more than 1 strain of HSV-2 if their samples differed by ≥5 SNPs between the paired samples, and dual-strain infection was confirmed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS. We genotyped pairs of genital specimens from 459 people; 213 (46% were men, the median age was 34 years (IQR: 27-44, and 130 (28% were HIV seropositive. Overall, 272 (59% people were from the US, 59 (13% were from Peru, and 128 (28% were from 8 countries in Africa. Of the 459 people, 18 (3.9% met the criteria for dual-strain infection. HTS and phylogenetic analysis of paired specimens confirmed shedding of 2 distinct HSV-2 strains collected at different times in 17 pairs, giving an estimated dual-strain infection prevalence of 3.7% (95% CI = 2

  8. Dual-strain genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in the US, Peru, and 8 countries in sub-Saharan Africa: A nested cross-sectional viral genotyping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Joshua; Sather, Cassandra; Diem, Kurt; Celum, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Background Quantitative estimation of the extent to which the immune system’s protective effect against one herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection protects against infection with additional HSV-2 strains is important for understanding the potential for HSV-2 vaccine development. Using viral genotyping, we estimated the prevalence of HSV-2 dual-strain infection and identified risk factors. Methods and findings People with and without HIV infection participating in HSV-2 natural history studies (University of Washington Virology Research Clinic) and HIV prevention trials (HIV Prevention Trials Network 039 and Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study) in the US, Africa, and Peru with 2 genital specimens each containing ≥105 copies herpes simplex virus DNA/ml collected a median of 5 months apart (IQR: 2–11 months) were included. It is unlikely that 2 strains would be detected in the same sample simultaneously; therefore, 2 samples were required to detect dual-strain infection. We identified 85 HSV-2 SNPs that, in aggregate, could determine whether paired HSV-2 strains were the same or different with >90% probability. These SNPs were then used to create a customized high-throughput array-based genotyping assay. Participants were considered to be infected with more than 1 strain of HSV-2 if their samples differed by ≥5 SNPs between the paired samples, and dual-strain infection was confirmed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). We genotyped pairs of genital specimens from 459 people; 213 (46%) were men, the median age was 34 years (IQR: 27–44), and 130 (28%) were HIV seropositive. Overall, 272 (59%) people were from the US, 59 (13%) were from Peru, and 128 (28%) were from 8 countries in Africa. Of the 459 people, 18 (3.9%) met the criteria for dual-strain infection. HTS and phylogenetic analysis of paired specimens confirmed shedding of 2 distinct HSV-2 strains collected at different times in 17 pairs, giving an estimated dual-strain infection

  9. Isolation of herpes simplex virus from the genital tract during symptomatic recurrence on the buttocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkering, Katrina; Gardella, Carolyn; Selke, Stacy; Krantz, Elizabeth; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2006-10-01

    To estimate the frequency of isolation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from the genital tract when recurrent herpes lesions were present on the buttocks. Data were extracted from a prospectively observed cohort attending a research clinic for genital herpes infections between 1975 and 2001. All patients with a documented herpes lesion on the buttocks, upper thigh or gluteal cleft ("buttock recurrence") and concomitant viral cultures from genital sites including the perianal region were eligible. We reviewed records of 237 subjects, 151 women and 86 men, with a total of 572 buttock recurrences. Of the 1,592 days with genital culture information during a buttock recurrence, participants had concurrent genital lesions on 311 (20%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14-27%) of these days. Overall, HSV was isolated from the genital region on 12% (95% CI 8-17%) of days during a buttock recurrence. In the absence of genital lesions, HSV was isolated from the genital area on 7% (95% CI 4%-11%) of days during a buttock recurrence and, among women, from the vulvar or cervical sites on 1% of days. Viral shedding of herpes simplex virus from the genital area is a relatively common occurrence during a buttock recurrence of genital herpes, even without concurrent genital lesions, reflecting perhaps reactivation from concomitant regions of the sacral neural ganglia. Patients with buttock herpes recurrences should be instructed about the risk of genital shedding during such recurrences. II-2.

  10. Prevalence of plasmid-bearing and plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women who visited obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Tee Cian; Wong, Won Fen; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Shahhosseini, Fatemeh; Tan, Grace Min Yi; Movahed, Elaheh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Shankar, Esaki M; Gupta, Rishien; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Hassan, Jamiyah; Abu Bakar, Sazaly

    2016-03-18

    The 7.5 kb cryptic plasmid of Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to be a virulence factor in animal models, but its significance in humans still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential involvement of the C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid in causing various clinical manifestations; including infertility, reproductive tract disintegrity, menstrual disorder, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) among genital C. trachomatis-infected patients. A total of 180 female patients of child bearing age (mean 30.9 years old, IQR:27-35) with gynecological complications and subfertility issues, who visited Obstetrics and Gynecology clinics in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were recruited for the study. Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection among these patients was alarmingly high at 51.1% (92/180). Of the 92 chlamydia-infected patients, 93.5% (86/92) were infected with plasmid-bearing (+) C. trachomatis while the remaining 6.5% (6/92) were caused by the plasmid-free (-) variant. Our data showed that genital C. trachomatis infection was associated with infertility issues, inflammation in the reproductive tract (mucopurulent cervicitis or endometriosis), irregular menstrual cycles and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). However, no statistical significance was detected among patients with plasmid (+) versus plasmid (-) C. trachomatis infection. Interestingly, plasmid (+) C. trachomatis was detected in all patients with PCOS, and the plasmid copy numbers were significantly higher among PCOS patients, relative to non-PCOS patients. Our findings show a high incidence of C. trachomatis infection among women with infertility or gynecological problems in Malaysia. However, due to the low number of plasmid (-) C. trachomatis cases, a significant role of the plasmid in causing virulence in human requires further investigation of a larger cohort.

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Appear Compartmentalized to the Female Genital Tract in Cross-Sectional Analyses but Genital Lineages Do Not Persist Over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Marta E.; Heath, Laura M.; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L.; Kraft, Kelli M.; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E.; Cohn, Susan E.; Tapia, Kenneth A.; Holte, Sarah E.; Dragavon, Joan A.; Coombs, Robert W.; Mullins, James I.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viru...

  12. Characterization of humoral immune responses to chlamydial HSP60, CPAF, and CT795 in inflammatory and severe trachoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwor, Troy; Kandel, Ram Prasad; Basravi, Sunniya; Khan, Aslam; Sharma, Bassant; Dean, Deborah

    2010-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) remains the leading global cause of preventable blindness. There are limited data on humoral immune responses in trachoma. Evaluating these responses is important for understanding host-pathogen interactions and informing vaccine design. Antibodies to chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60) have been associated with infertility and trachomatous scarring. Other proteins, including chlamydial protease-associated factor (CPAF) and a hypothetical protein unique to the family Chlamydiaceae, CT795, elicit strong immune responses in urogenital infections, but their role in trachomatous disease is unknown. This study was conducted to expand on previous cHSP60 findings and evaluate the association of CPAF and CT795 antibodies with ocular Ct infection and disease. Clinical trachoma grading was performed, and conjunctival samples were obtained from individuals with trachomatous trichiasis (TT; one or more inturned eyelashes) or inflammatory trachoma without trichiasis and control subjects without disease, all of whom resided in trachoma-endemic regions of Nepal. Ct infection was determined using commercial PCR. IgG and IgA tear antibodies against cHSP60, CT795, and CPAF fusion proteins were measured by quantitative ELISA. Significantly higher IgG antibody levels were found against cHSP60, CPAF, and CT795 in the inflammatory cases compared with levels in the controls (P < 0.005 for all three). Ct infection was independently associated with IgG antibodies against all three immunogens in the inflammatory cases but not in the controls (P = 0.025, P = 0.03 and P = 0.017, respectively). Only IgG antibodies against CPAF were significantly elevated among the TT cases (P = 0.013). Among individuals with trachoma, IgG antibody responses to CPAF are likely to be both a marker and risk factor for inflammatory trachoma and severe trachomatous disease.

  13. Genital male piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body piercing has been practiced for thousands of years all over the world for beautification, religion, initiation rites or status reasons. Genital piercings also have a significant background and have been practiced for enhancing sexual pleasure, chastity, shocking or as a protest against a conservative society. As the popularity of genital piercings increased in the last years, the number of complications is also on the rise. It is therefore important for the medical professionals to have at least basic knowledge regarding this practice, as it might be required in the management of unpredictable complications.

  14. Genital donovanosis with malignant transformation: An interesting case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sri, K. Navya; Chowdary, A. Swetha; Reddy, B. S. N.

    2014-01-01

    Donovanosis is a chronic indolent sexually transmitted granulomatous ulceration of genito-inguinal region, caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. It became uncommon due to indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics. In recent years, much interest is being focused on this condition because genital ulcers facilitate HIV infection. We report an interesting episode of genital donovanosis complicated with squamous cell carcinoma in a middle aged female for its rarity and clinical interest.

  15. Rehabilitation of patients with chlamydial spondyloarthritis at the health resortv

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    V.M. Sokrut

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rehabilitation of patients with chlamy­dial spondyloarthritis (CSA under the conditions of the health resort remains undeveloped, there are not enough data to elucidate the mechanism of natural and preformed physical factors in such category of patients, the criteria for the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures not yet defined. The objective of the study: to evaluate the results of treatment in patients with CSA in a Slaviansk balneological health resort. Materials and methods. The research included 117 patients, who were treated at the rheumatological clinic, and then underwent rehabilitation in health resort, which has continental sulfide lake muds and brines with highly minerali­zed chloride-sodium composition. Among the patients under the study, there were 61 % of males and 39 % of females with an average age of 35 years. Both genders did not differ in the duration of illness (median of 7 years and the degree of activity of the pathological process. Seropositivity for rheumatoid factor is detected in 2 % of patients, and by the presence of antibodies to cyclic citrulline peptide — in 70 %. During the resort stage, in 91 % of cases of СSA, Chlamydia trachomatis was found in prostatic secretions, scrapings from the urethra, cervix, vaginal walls, 83 % reported positive serological tests for chlamydial infection. Results. Analysis of the results showed that in 3 % of cases the effect was absent, in 14 % there was a slight improvement, in 50 % — an improvement and in 33 % — a significant improvement. The effectiveness of sanatorium stage of rehabilitation for women was higher, and due to increasing degree of disease activity, the positive results were getting worse. A significant adverse effect on the efficiency of sanatorium and health resort treatment activity has the presence of sacroiliitis and cardiac pathology in patients. Differences in the effectiveness of rehabilitation of patients depends on the types of the

  16. The conserved Tarp actin binding domain is important for chlamydial invasion.

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    Travis J Jewett

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp is conserved among all pathogenic chlamydial species. Previous reports identified single C. trachomatis Tarp actin binding and proline rich domains required for Tarp mediated actin nucleation. A peptide antiserum specific for the Tarp actin binding domain was generated and inhibited actin polymerization in vitro and C. trachomatis entry in vivo, indicating an essential role for Tarp in chlamydial pathogenesis. Sequence analysis of Tarp orthologs from additional chlamydial species and C. trachomatis serovars indicated multiple putative actin binding sites. In order to determine whether the identified actin binding domains are functionally conserved, GST-Tarp fusions from multiple chlamydial species were examined for their ability to bind and nucleate actin. Chlamydial Tarps harbored variable numbers of actin binding sites and promoted actin nucleation as determined by in vitro polymerization assays. Our findings indicate that Tarp mediated actin binding and nucleation is a conserved feature among diverse chlamydial species and this function plays a critical role in bacterial invasion of host cells.

  17. Persistent genital arousal disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI...

  18. Genital lesions following bestiality

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    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  19. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... against STDs. Using douche can actually increase a female's risk of contracting STDs because it can change the natural flora (healthy bacteria) of the vagina and may flush STD pathogens higher into the genital tract. A teen who is being treated for herpes ...

  20. Genital ulcers in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2003-01-01

    Women who are in a low socioeconomic status are most vulnerable to genital ulcer disease (GUD). GUD is recognized as an important co-factor for acquisition of HIV. GUD etiology has been elucidated in the past decade, with the availability of multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Worldwide, herpes

  1. Infección genital por Chlamydia trachomatis y otros microorganismos en dos grupos de mujeres en Cartagena Frequency of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis and other microorganisms in two groups of women in Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pulido

    1992-02-01

    detectada en pacientes con vaginosis bacteriana, en proporción similar en los dos grupos de pacientes

    Diseases associated with Infection with C. trachomatis and the bacterial vaginosis syndrome are Important In sexually active women. In order to establish their frequency In Cartagena, Colombia, we studied 431 women who attended the gynecological service of a University Hospital (167 women and a municipal venereologlcal center (264 women, between may 1988 and may 1990; average age was 28 years. C. trachomatis was searched by an ELISA test and the resulting frequencies ofinfection were: 5.4% in the gynecological patients and 17.4% in the venereological ones (p < 0.005. Concerning other microorganisms the respective rates of infection were (all dlfferences non significant: Gardnerella vaginalis 33.5 and 39%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 0.6 and 2.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis 5.4 and 4.5%, Candida spp. 13.2 and 10.2%. We found a relationship between positivity rate for C. trachomatis and some entitles usually associated with it, nameIy: within the venereological group the frequency of cervicitis was 39% in the infected patients and 11.5% In the non-Infected ones (p < 0.01 ; within the gynecological patients there was a pelvic inflamatory disease In four of the nine infected women (44.4% and in only 11 of 158 non-infected ones (7% (Fisher test p = 0.004. Oral contraception was significantly associated (p < 0.01 with C trachomatis infection in the venereological patients but not in the gynecological ones; in the former group 28.8% of the users and none of the non- users were infected with this bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis was the bacteria most frequently found in patients with bacterial vaginosis and the proportion was similar in both groups of patients.

  2. Expression, processing, and localization of PmpD of Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar L2 during the chlamydial developmental cycle.

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    Andrey O Kiselev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While families of polymorphic membrane protein (pmp genes have been identified in several Chlamydia species, their function remains mostly unknown. These proteins are of great interest, however, because of their location in the outer membrane and possible role in chlamydial virulence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We analyzed the relative transcription of the pmpD gene, a member of the pmp gene family in C. trachomatis serovar L2, and its protein product translation and processing during the chlamydial developmental cycle. By real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the pmpD gene was found to be upregulated at 16 to 24 four hours after infection. Using polyclonal antibodies generated against the predicted passenger domain of PmpD, we demonstrated that it is initially localized on the surface of reticulate bodies, followed by its secretion outside Chlamydia starting at 24 hours after infection. In elementary bodies, we found a approximately 157 kDa PmpD only inside the cell. Both events, the upregulation of pmpD gene transcription and PmpD protein processing and secretion, are coincidental with the period of replication and differentiation of RBs into EBs. We also demonstrated that, in the presence of penicillin, the cleavage and secretion of the putative passenger domain was suppressed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are in agreement with the general concept that PmpD is an autotransporter protein which is post-translationally processed and secreted in the form of the putative passenger domain outside Chlamydia at mid- to- late point after infection, coinciding with the development of RBs into EBs.

  3. Risk of sexual transmitted infection following bipolar disorder: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shyh-Chyang; Hu, Chang-Kuo; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Yang, Albert C; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Huang, Min-Wei; Hu, Li-Yu; Shen, Cheng-Che

    2018-04-03

    Bipolar disorder is a severe mental disorder associated with functional and cognitive impairment. Numerous studies have investigated associations between sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and psychiatric illnesses. However, the results of these studies are controversial. We explored the association between bipolar disorder and the subsequent development of STIs, including human immunodeficiency virus infection; primary, secondary, and latent syphilis; genital warts; gonorrhea; chlamydial infection; and trichomoniasis. The bipolar cohort consisted of 1293 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 5172 matched control subjects without bipolar disorder. The incidence of subsequent STIs (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68-2.96) was higher among the patients with bipolar disorder than in the comparison cohort. Furthermore, female gender is a risk factor for acquisition of STIs (HR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.73-4.89) among patients with bipolar disorder. For individual STIs, the results indicated that the patients with bipolar disorder exhibited a markedly higher risk for subsequently contracting syphilis, genital warts, and trichomoniasis. Bipolar disorder might increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed STIs, including syphilis, genital warts, and trichomoniasis. Clinicians should pay particular attention to STIs in patients with bipolar disorder. Patients with bipolar disorder, especially those with a history of high-risk sexual behaviors, should be routinely screened for STIs. We identified patients who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed of patients without bipolar disorder who were matched with the bipolar cohort according to age and gender. The occurrence of subsequent new-onset STIs was evaluated in both cohorts.

  4. Mucosal immunity in the female genital tract, HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  5. 2017 European guidelines for the management of genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajul; Kennedy, Oliver J; Clarke, Emily; Geretti, Anna; Nilsen, Arvid; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Green, John; Donders, Gilbert; van der Meijden, Willem; Gomberg, Mikhail; Moi, Harald; Foley, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Genital herpes is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Using the best available evidence, this guideline recommends strategies for diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the condition as well as for minimising transmission. Early recognition and initiation of therapy is key and may reduce the duration of illness or avoid hospitalisation with complications, including urinary retention, meningism, or severe systemic illness. The guideline covers a range of common clinical scenarios, such as recurrent genital herpes, infection during pregnancy, and co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

  6. Human immunodeficiency viruses appear compartmentalized to the female genital tract in cross-sectional analyses but genital lineages do not persist over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Marta E; Heath, Laura M; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L; Kraft, Kelli M; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E; Cohn, Susan E; Tapia, Kenneth A; Holte, Sarah E; Dragavon, Joan A; Coombs, Robert W; Mullins, James I; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2013-04-15

    Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viruses mix between genital tract and blood. Eight women with ongoing HIV replication were studied during a period of 1.5 to 4.5 years. Multiple viral sequences were derived by single-genome amplification of the HIV C2-V5 region of env from genital secretions and blood plasma. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for compartmentalization using 4 statistical tests. In cross-sectional analyses compartmentalization of genital from blood viruses was detected in three of eight women by all tests; this was associated with tissue specific clades containing multiple monotypic sequences. In longitudinal analysis, the tissues-specific clades did not persist to form viral lineages. Rather, across women, HIV lineages were comprised of both genital tract and blood sequences. The observation of genital-specific HIV clades only in cross-sectional analysis and an absence of genital-specific lineages in longitudinal analyses suggest a dynamic interchange of HIV variants between the female genital tract and blood.

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Appear Compartmentalized to the Female Genital Tract in Cross-Sectional Analyses but Genital Lineages Do Not Persist Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Marta E.; Heath, Laura M.; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L.; Kraft, Kelli M.; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E.; Cohn, Susan E.; Tapia, Kenneth A.; Holte, Sarah E.; Dragavon, Joan A.; Coombs, Robert W.; Mullins, James I.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viruses mix between genital tract and blood. Methods. Eight women with ongoing HIV replication were studied during a period of 1.5 to 4.5 years. Multiple viral sequences were derived by single-genome amplification of the HIV C2-V5 region of env from genital secretions and blood plasma. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for compartmentalization using 4 statistical tests. Results. In cross-sectional analyses compartmentalization of genital from blood viruses was detected in three of eight women by all tests; this was associated with tissue specific clades containing multiple monotypic sequences. In longitudinal analysis, the tissues-specific clades did not persist to form viral lineages. Rather, across women, HIV lineages were comprised of both genital tract and blood sequences. Conclusions. The observation of genital-specific HIV clades only in cross-sectional analysis and an absence of genital-specific lineages in longitudinal analyses suggest a dynamic interchange of HIV variants between the female genital tract and blood. PMID:23315326

  8. HPV-11 variability, persistence and progression to genital warts in men: the HIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Díaz, Ema; Sereday, Karen A; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sirak, Bradley; Sobrinho, João Simão; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2017-09-01

    HPV-11 and HPV-6 are the etiological agents of about 90 % of genital warts (GWs). The intra-typic variability of HPV-11 and its association with infection persistence and GW development remains undetermined. Here, HPV infection in men (HIM) participants who had an HPV-11 genital swab and/or GW, preceded or not by a normal skin genital swab were analysed. Genomic variants were characterized by PCR-sequencing and classified within lineages (A, B) and sublineages (A1, A2, A3, A4). HPV-11 A2 variants were the most frequently detected in the genital swab samples from controls and in both genital swabs and GW samples from cases. The same HPV-11 variant was detected in the GW sample and its preceding genital swab. There was a lack of association between any particular HPV-11 variant and the increased risk for GW development.

  9. Emergence of herpes simplex type 1 as the main cause of recurrent genital ulcerative disease in women in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, P V; O'Neill, H J; Wyatt, D E; McCaughey, C; Quah, S; McBride, M O

    2003-05-01

    Genital herpes is a common infection affecting some 20% of sexually active people. Although herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 can both establish genital latency, reactivation from the sacral ganglia favours HSV-2. Over the past decade the incidence of type 1 genital infection in women has greatly increased. To determine whether the increased prevalence of HSV-1 genital infection was benign or influencing the pattern of virus recovery in recurrent infection. A retrospective analysis of laboratory computer records was undertaken. Patients attending six genitourinary medicine (GUM) departments, over an 80 months period, were identified. Recurrent infection was confirmed where virus was recovered from at least two separate episodes of genital ulceration that were separated by an interval of 12 or more weeks. Episodes were further analysed for frequency, age, gender and virus type. Sixty nine patients with recurrent genital herpetic infection were identified. HSV-1 and HSV-2 were predominantly recovered from recurrent genital infections in females (34 HSV-1 vs. ten HSV-2) and males (one HSV-1 vs. 24 HSV-2), respectively (P>0.001). The mean age of females and males, at the initial diagnosis, was 26 and 39 years. There was no difference in the recurrence rate by type. HSV-1 has become the commonest cause of recurrent genital ulceration in Northern Ireland, almost entirely due its recent increased prevalence in women over the last decade. Women are experiencing genital herpetic infections at an earlier age than men.

  10. Identificação do papilomavírus humano por biologia molecular em mulheres assintomáticas Genital human papillomavirus infection identification by molecular biology among asymptomatic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Nonnenmacher

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação entre fatores epidemiológicos e infecção genital pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal com 975 mulheres atendidas em um serviço público de rastreamento para o câncer cervical, em Porto Alegre, Brasil. As mulheres foram consideradas infectadas pelo HPV quando apresentaram o teste de DNA positivo para esse vírus, tanto pelo método de captura híbrida II (CH II como pelo método de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. Mulheres infectadas pelo HPV foram comparadas com mulheres não infectadas oriundas da mesma população. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 975 mulheres. A prevalência observada de HPV (pela combinação dos métodos de DNA foi de 27%. Quando a análise de cada método de DNA foi feito isoladamente, a prevalência de HPV-DNA foi de 15% para a CH II e de 16% para PCR. Regressão logística múltipla incondicional foi utilizada na identificação dos fatores associados à infecção pelo HPV. Foi encontrada associação positiva com as seguintes variáveis: anos de escolaridade (11 anos: OR=2,05; IC95%=1,31; 3,20; referência: até oito anos de escolaridade; ser casada (OR=1,69; IC95%=0,78; 2,00; referência: ser solteira; parceiros sexuais ao longo da vida (dois parceiros: OR=1,67; IC95%=1,01; 2,77; quatro ou mais: OR=2,18; IC95%=1,15; 4,13; referência: um parceiro; idade da primeira relação sexual (15-16 anos: OR=4,05; IC95%=0,89; 18,29; referência: > ou = 22 anos. CONCLUSÕES: Vários fatores parecem estar associados à presença de infecção genital pelo HPV, especialmente aqueles referentes ao comportamento sexual (idade da primeira relação sexual, número de parceiros sexuais ao longo da vida e estado marital e aqueles relacionados à situação socioeconômica (escolaridade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether epidemiological factors may be associated to genital human papillomavirus (HPV infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among

  11. Female genital tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, M.P.; Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with cancers of the cervix uteri, the corpus uteri, the ovary, vulva, and vagina. Radiotherapy has an important place in the management of patients with cancers of the genital tract but the radiotherapist must collaborate closely with surgical colleagues, both gynaecological and urological. Each must appreciate the merits and limitations of surgery and radiation therapy, whether used alone or in combination, with curative intent or in a supportive role

  12. [Laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes--direct immunofluorescence method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Zareba-Szczudlik, Julia; Kilijańczyk, Marek; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Młynarczyk, Grazyna

    2013-07-01

    Aim of the study was to determine clinical usefulness of direct immunofluorescence method in the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in women. Overall 187 anogenital swabs were collected from 120 women. Using a dacron-tipped applicator 83 swabs were collected from women suspected of genital herpes and 104 from patients with no signs of genital infection. All samples were tested using cell culture (Vero cell line) and then direct immunofluorescence method (DIF) for the identification of antigens of herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE), indicative of alphaherpesvirus infection, was observed in 43.4% of cultures with clinical specimens collected from women with suspected genital herpes and in 29.8% of cultures of clinical specimens taken from patients with no clinical symptoms of genital herpes. Herpes simplex viruses were determined in 73 samples by direct immunofluorescence method after amplification of the virus in cell culture. The DIF test confirmed the diagnosis based on the microscopic CPE observation in 85%. In 15% of samples (taken from pregnant women without clinical signs of infection) we reported positive immunofluorescence in the absence of CPE. The frequency of antigen detection was statistically significantly higher in samples that were positive by culture study (chi-square test with Yates's correction, p genital herpes in swabs taken from the vestibule of the vagina and the vulva. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of detection of Herpes Simplex Virus antigens in specimens from different parts of the genital tract in both groups of women (chi-square test, p > 0.05). In our study HHV-1 was the main causative agent of genital herpes. The growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes, challenges with the clinical diagnosis, and availability of effective antiviral therapy are the main reasons for a growing interest in rapid, proper laboratory diagnosis of infected

  13. Lycopene Inhibits Propagation of Chlamydia Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylia A. Zigangirova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiaceae is a family of obligate intracellular pathogenic bacteria with similar developmental cycles and cell biology responsible for a wide range of diseases in different hosts including genital and eye inflammatory diseases, arthritis, and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In the present paper, we report that lycopene, one of the main dietary carotenoids, which is present in tomato and some other fruits, has a strong inhibitory effect on C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infections in alveolar macrophages. This finding was documented by both immunofluorescence analysis and electron microscopy. It was noted that lycopene treatment inhibited intracellular phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle and resulted in a significant loss of infectious progeny. The antichlamydial effect of lycopene was also confirmed in a clinical setting. There was a significant reduction of IgG antibodies against C. pneumoniae in the serum of volunteers treated for a month with oral ingestion of 7 mg of lycopene. Additional studies are needed to further explore the antichlamydial activity of lycopene and its possible effect on C. pneumoniae in relation to antichlamydial activity of lycopene to mechanisms of atherosclerosis.

  14. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Anal and Oral Sites Among Patients with Genital Warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Sand, Carsten; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant...

  15. Epidemiologic and mucosal immunologic aspects of HPV infection and HPV-related cervical neoplasia in the lower female genital tract: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjiong, M. Y.; Out, T. A.; ter Schegget, J.; Burger, M. P.; van der Vange, N.

    2001-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia. Considering the morbidity and mortality of cervical cancer, infection with HPV can be regarded as a worldwide problem, especially in developing countries. Currently, many studies

  16. Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (≤35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Genital HSV Shedding among Kenyan Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffins O Manguro

    Full Text Available Genital ulcer disease (GUD prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART, followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment.At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period.Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation.

  18. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, genital symptoms and health-care seeking behaviour among HIV-negative female sex workers in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuijzen, N. J.; van Steijn, M.; Nyinawabega, J.; Kestelyn, E.; Uwineza, M.; Vyankandondera, J.; van de Wijgert, J. H. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is often hampered by the lack of symptoms, inadequate diagnostics and/or poor availability, accessibility and quality of treatment in resource-limited settings. Female sex workers (FSW) are highly vulnerable for HIV and key

  19. [Genital warts and HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilka, R; Dvorák, V; Fait, T

    2011-12-01

    To present and overview of incidence of, and cost of care for, genital warts. Review. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Palacky University and Faculty University, Olomouc; Office gynecology and primary care centre, Brno; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Charles university in Prague-First Faculty of Medicine and General Faculty Hospital, Prague. Literature review of incidence of, and cost of care for, genital warts in some european countries, North America and Australia. Genital warts exert a considerable impact on health services, a large proportion of which could be prevented through immunisation using the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine.

  20. Aspectos virológicos e clínico-patológicos da infecção genital aguda e latente pelo herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2 em bezerras infectadas experimentalmente Virological and clinico-pathological features of acute vulvovaginitis and latent infection by bovine herpesvirus 1.2 in heifers experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Henzel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A infecção genital de vacas pelo herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2 (BoHV-1.2 pode resultar em vulvovaginite e infertilidade temporária. Após a infecção aguda, o BoHV-1 estabelece infecção latente, que pode cursar com episódios periódicos de reativação. O presente trabalho descreve os aspectos virológicos e clínico-patológicos da vulvovaginite aguda e infecção latente resultantes da inoculação de bezerras com uma amostra de BoHV-1.2 isolada de casos de balanopostite em touros. A inoculação do vírus em quatro bezerras pela via genital (10(8.1TCID50/animal resultou em replicação viral na mucosa genital e no desenvolvimento de vulvovaginite moderada a severa. Os animais inoculados excretaram o vírus nas secreções genitais até o dia 10 pós-inoculação (p.i. com título máximo de 10(7.3TCID50/mL. Foram observados congestão e edema da mucosa vulvovestibular, e formação de pequenas vesículas e pústulas. Durante a progressão clínica, as vesículas e pústulas aumentaram de tamanho e eventualmente se tornaram coalescentes e recobertas por um exsudato fino de coloração amarelada. Estes sinais foram observados a partir do dia 2 p.i. e aumentaram progressivamente de severidade até os dias 5-8 p.i. A administração de dexametasona no dia 55 p.i. resultou em excreção viral nas secreções genitais dos quatro animais por até 10 dias. A reativação da infecção latente foi acompanhada de recrudescência clínica, porém com sinais menos severos e com menor duração do que na infecção aguda. O DNA viral latente foi detectado por PCR, aos 36 dias pós-reativação (p.r., nos seguintes tecidos: gânglio sacrais: pudendo (4/4; genitofemoral e retal caudal (3/4 e obturador (4/4 e em alguns linfonodos regionais. Estes resultados demonstram que o isolado SV-56/90 é virulento para fêmeas soronegativas, após inoculação genital, e pode ser utilizado em estudos de patogenia e de desafio vacinal.Venereal infection of heifers

  1. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  2. Genital piercings in the context of acute sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Amy P

    2017-11-01

    After an acute sexual assault, children and adolescents often present for medical evaluation and treatment. Physicians have an important role in both the medical and legal components of these cases. Careful physical examination and questioning are important in determining the origin of the trauma. In the presented case report, genital trauma after an acute sexual assault was noted and attributed to the alleged offender's penis piercing. The genital trauma caused by the piercing provided physical evidence linking offender to victim and may have implications for the victim's risk of HIV infection and other blood borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Genital tuberculosis: A rare cause of vulvovaginal discharge and swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Alhakeem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a patient with vulvovaginal tuberculosis (TB presented with a vulvovaginal mass and vaginal discharge.The diagnosis was made by both histopathological examination of the excised specimen which was clinicallysuspected to be a malignant lesion and cervical smear culture positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The patientwas prescribed a full course of anti-tuberculous drugs. In this report, we discuss the genital TB and its gynecologicaleffects in the light of medical literature. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2013; 3(3: 140-142Key words: Genital tuberculosis, vulvovaginal swelling

  4. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  5. Systemic Immune Activation and HIV Shedding in the Female Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, LaShonda Y; Christiansen, Shawna; Wang, Chia-Hao H; Mack, Wendy J; Young, Mary; Strickler, Howard D; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Cohen, Mardge; Geenblatt, Ruth M; Karim, Roksana; Operskalski, Eva; Frederick, Toni; Homans, James D; Landay, Alan; Kovacs, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Plasma HIV RNA is the most significant determinant of cervical HIV shedding. However, shedding is also associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical inflammation. The mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. There is evidence that systemic immune activation promotes viral entry, replication, and HIV disease progression. We hypothesized that systemic immune activation would be associated with an increase in HIV genital shedding. Clinical assessments, HIV RNA in plasma and genital secretions, and markers of immune activation (CD38(+)DR(+) and CD38(-)DR(-)) on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in blood were evaluated in 226 HIV+ women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. There were 569 genital evaluations of which 159 (28%) exhibited HIV RNA shedding, defined as HIV viral load >80 copies per milliliter. We tested associations between immune activation and shedding using generalized estimating equations with logit link function. In the univariate model, higher levels of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell activation in blood were significantly associated with genital tract shedding. However, in the multivariate model adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, STIs, and genital tract infections, only higher levels of resting CD8(+) T cells (CD38(-)DR(-)) were significantly inversely associated with HIV shedding in the genital tract (odds ratios = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.21 to 0.9, P = 0.02). The association of systemic immune activation with genital HIV shedding is multifactorial. Systemic T-cell activation is associated with genital tract shedding in univariate analysis but not when adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, STIs, and genital tract infections. In addition, women with high percentage of resting T cells are less likely to have HIV shedding compared with those with lower percentages. These findings suggest that a higher percentage of resting cells, as a result of maximal viral suppression with treatment, may decrease local genital activation, HIV

  6. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity...

  7. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed.......A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  8. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Tanton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania.Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load.Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load.RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  9. Influence of vaginal bacteria and D- and L-lactic acid isomers on vaginal extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer: implications for protection against upper genital tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, Steven S; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Linhares, Iara M; Jayaram, Aswathi; Ledger, William J; Forney, Larry J

    2013-08-06

    We evaluated levels of vaginal extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8) in vaginal secretions in relation to the composition of vaginal bacterial communities and D- and L-lactic acid levels. The composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 46 women was determined by pyrosequencing the V1 to V3 region of 16S rRNA genes. Lactobacilli were dominant in 71.3% of the women, followed by Gardnerella (17.4%), Streptococcus (8.7%), and Enterococcus (2.2%). Of the lactobacillus-dominated communities, 51.5% were dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus, 36.4% by Lactobacillus iners, and 6.1% each by Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus jensenii. Concentrations of L-lactic acid were slightly higher in lactobacillus-dominated vaginal samples, but most differences were not statistically significant. D-Lactic acid levels were higher in samples containing L. crispatus than in those with L. iners (Pvaginal communities dominated by species of lactobacilli was in concordance with the proportions found in axenic cultures of the various species grown in vitro. Levels of L-lactic acid (Pvaginal concentrations of EMMPRIN and MMP-8 levels were highly correlated (Pinfections. A large proportion of preterm births (>50%) result from infections caused by bacteria originating in the vagina, which requires that they traverse the cervix. Factors that influence susceptibility to these infections are not well understood; however, there is evidence that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8) is known to alter the integrity of the cervix. In this work, we show that concentrations of vaginal extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) are influenced by members of the vaginal microbial community and concentrations of D- or L-lactic acid isomers in vaginal secretions. Elevated levels of D-lactic acid and the ratio of D- to L-lactic acid influence EMMPRIN concentrations as well as MMP-8 levels. Thus, isomers of lactic acid may function as

  10. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Waugh

    Full Text Available Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive at either urogenital (UGT and/or ocular sites (Oc, but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking, results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  11. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Carver, Scott; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative) at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive) at either urogenital (UGT) and/or ocular sites (Oc), but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking), results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, tubal factor infertility (TFI, and ectopic pregnancy (EP are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health.

  13. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women's Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa R; Calabrese, Sarah K; Rima, Brandi N; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2010-09-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women's body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women's sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction.

  14. Male genital trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references

  15. Pyosalpinges after hysterosalpingography in a patient with lower genital tract infection and managed by laparoscopic surgery in a resource low tertiary hospital case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Thomas Obinchemti; Kobenge, Fidelia Mbi; Arlette, Metogo Mbengono Junette; Belley-Priso, Eugene

    2018-01-01

    Pyosalpinges (a complication of pelvic inflammatory disease) is infection of the fallopian tubes and the morbidity associated with it has major health implications. We are reporting a case of pyosalpinges diagnosed after hysterosalpingography and managed by laparoscopic surgery at the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon. A 29-year-old single woman, an assistant nurse of the Douala tribe in Cameroon. She is G1P0010 and came to our attention because of secondary infertility of three years duration. She has a history consistent with four lifetime sexual partners, self-medication for chlamydia trachomatis infection and induced abortion by dilatation and aspiration. Furthermore, she is HIV positive and had an ultrasound scan suggestive of bilateral hydrosalpinges. After a hysterosalpingography examination she developed painless muco-purulent vaginal discharge and bilateral adnexal tenderness on bimanual examination suggestive of pyosalpinges. Vaginal and cervical cultures isolated Ureaplasma urealyticum and Gardnerella vaginalis sensitive to ofloxacin and metronidazole, respectively.At laparoscopy, bilateral pyosalpinges, pelvic adhesions and peri-hepatic adhesions were found. Bilateral salpingectomy with adhesiolysis including lysis of perihepatic adhesions and peritoneal toileting was done. She was discharged from hospital 72 h later and her hospital stay was uneventful. She was counseled for in-vitro fertilization and to register in the national HIV treatment programme. Her husband was prescribed ofloxacin empirically. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be given to patients prior to HSG, especially those with a history of chlamydia or evidence of hydrosalpinges. There should also be universal STI testing in high risk and HIV positive patients or the danger for suboptimal antibiotic usage in areas where self-medication is common.In resource-low tertiary hospitals where computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is not readily available and/or affordable, clinical

  16. Should urologists care for the pharyngeal infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis when we treat male urethritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Uehara, Shinya; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2012-06-01

    Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) or Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) from the pharynx of women or men is not uncommon. However, there is no recommendation how urologists should care for the pharyngeal infection of men with urethritis in Japan. The aim of this study is to clarify the prevalence of NG or CT infection in the pharynx of men and to show a recommendation for urologists. The Japanese reports about the detection of NG or CT from the pharynx or the oral cavity of men in Japan are reviewed in the literature from 1990 to 2011. The prevalence of NG or CT in the pharynx was 4% or 6% in men who attended clinics, and 20% or 6% in men who were positive for NG or CT from genital specimens, respectively. Single 1-g dose ceftriaxone was recommended to treat pharyngeal NG, but no evidence was found for pharyngeal CT. There was not enough evidence for recommendation. However, when men with urethritis only caused by NG or CT are treated through the guideline of the Japanese Society of Sexually Transmitted Infection, we do not think additional tests or treatment for the pharynx are needed when a single 1-g dose ceftriaxone for gonococcal urethritis or a single 1- or 2- g dose azithromycin is prescribed for chlamydial urethritis in Japan.

  17. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed.

  18. Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Poudel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Chlamydia (C. bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8 in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10(-4. Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10(-4 suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10(-4. High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027, indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics.

  19. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  20. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  1. Comprehensive in silico prediction and analysis of chlamydial outer membrane proteins reflects evolution and life style of the Chlamydiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Garry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria comprising some of the most important bacterial pathogens of animals and humans. Although chlamydial outer membrane proteins play a key role for attachment to and entry into host cells, only few have been described so far. We developed a comprehensive, multiphasic in silico approach, including the calculation of clusters of orthologues, to predict outer membrane proteins using conservative criteria. We tested this approach using Escherichia coli (positive control and Bacillus subtilis (negative control, and applied it to five chlamydial species; Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia muridarum, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila caviae, and Protochlamydia amoebophila. Results In total, 312 chlamydial outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins in 88 orthologous clusters were identified, including 238 proteins not previously recognized to be located in the outer membrane. Analysis of their taxonomic distribution revealed an evolutionary conservation among Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae and Planctomycetes as well as lifestyle-dependent conservation of the chlamydial outer membrane protein composition. Conclusion This analysis suggested a correlation between the outer membrane protein composition and the host range of chlamydiae and revealed a common set of outer membrane proteins shared by these intracellular bacteria. The collection of predicted chlamydial outer membrane proteins is available at the online database pCOMP http://www.microbial-ecology.net/pcomp and might provide future guidance in the quest for anti-chlamydial vaccines.

  2. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir in patient initiated treatment of recurrent genital herpes: A randomised, double blind clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Bodsworth; R.J. Crooks; S. Borelli; G. Vejlsgaard; J. Paavonen; A.M. Worm; N. Uexkull; J. Esmann; A. Strand; A.J. Ingamells; A. Gibb (A.); S.E. Barton (Simon); C. Beylot (C.); J. Bingham (J.); G. Bojs (G.); D. Cheetham (D.); E. Curless (E.); B. Czarnetzki (B.); S. Davies (S.); A. Eichmann (A.); B. Goh; D. Goldmeir (D.); G. Gross; U.F. Haustein; G. Kinghorn (G.); J. Lauharanta; C. Law; G. Luzzi (G.); A. McMillan (A.); J. Meaden (J.); U. Montemagno (U.); P. Morel; M. Negosanti; J.E. Nielsen (Jorgen); A. Nilsen; E-K. Ong; J.P. Ortonne; R. Patel; J. Patten; D. Petzold; T. Rufli; S. Saari; M. Shahmanesh; A. Simpanen (A.); J. Soltz-Szots; J.P. Stahl; E. Stolz (Ernst); I. Thelin; N. von Uexkull; A. Wikstrom; P. Woolley

    1997-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the efficacy and safety of twice daily valaciclovir with five times daily aciclovir in the treatment of an episode of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in immunocompetent individuals. Methods: 739 patients with a history of recurrent genital HSV

  3. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men *

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and mollusc...

  4. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujie; Tang, Weiming; Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04), respectively. Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  5. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Huang

    Full Text Available Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010.The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing.Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone, no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81, 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74, 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99 and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04, respectively.Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  6. Genital Problems in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intercourse. Possible causes may include ALLERGY to a contraceptive, ANXIETY, PROSTATITIS, INFECTION or DRYNESS in the partner. ... and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health Sex and Birth Control ...

  7. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    local and systemic infection, abscess and ulcer formation, septicaemia ... the girl's legs are then bound together from ankles to hips, and she is immobilised for 10 to ... circumcised woman's sexual desire is usually not affected by the procedure ...

  8. Detección de VPH en boca y cérvix de pacientes con diagnóstico citológico sugestivo de infección genital HPV detection in the mouth and cervix of patients with histological diagnosis suggestive of genital infection

    OpenAIRE

    Z. De Guglielmo; M. Ávila; D. Veitía; A. Fernandes; C. Venegas; M. Correnti de Plata

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se evaluó la presencia de VPH en la cavidad bucal (mediante oroscopia y citología oral exfoliativa) y su relación con la infección genital en mujeres con diagnóstico citológico sugestivo de infección por VPH. La muestra consistió en 60 pacientes a quienes se les realizó oroscopia, citología y determinación viral en boca y cérvix por PCR, utilizando los iniciadores genéricos MY09/MY11 y MPCR. Se detectó ADN de VPH en las mucosas oral y genital en 48,33 % y 73,3% de las paciente...

  9. Persistent genital herpes simplex virus-2 shedding years following the first clinical episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Warren; Saracino, Misty; Magaret, Amalia; Selke, Stacy; Remington, Mike; Huang, Meei-Li; Warren, Terri; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2011-01-15

    Patients with newly acquired genital herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection have virus frequently detected at the genital mucosa. Rates of genital shedding initially decrease over time after infection, but data on long-term viral shedding are lacking. For this study, 377 healthy adults with history of symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection collected anogenital swabs for HSV-2 DNA polymerase chain reaction for at least 30 consecutive days. Time since first genital herpes episode was significantly associated with reduced genital shedding. Total HSV shedding occurred on 33.6% of days in participants <1 year, 20.6% in those 1-9 years, and 16.7% in those ≥10 years from first episode. Subclinical HSV shedding occurred on 26.2% of days among participants <1 year, 13.1% in those 1-9 years, and 9.3% in those ≥10 years from first episode. On days with HSV detection, mean quantity was 4.9 log₁₀ copies/mL for those <1 year, 4.7 log₁₀ copies/mL among those 1-9 years, and 4.6 log₁₀ copies/mL among those ≥10 years since first episode. Rates of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding decrease after the first year following the initial clinical episode. However, viral shedding persists at high rates and copy numbers years after infection, and therefore may pose continued risk of HSV-2 transmission to sexual partners.

  10. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  11. [Emergencies of the external genital area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, A; Sperling, H

    2016-04-01

    In addition to epididymitis and testicular torsion, emergencies of the external genital are rare. Rapid diagnosis and therapy are essential so that immediate therapy can be provided, which is important for survival (Fournier gangrene) of the patient or for the preservation of erectile function (priapism and penile fracture). A detailed patient history and clinical examination are generally sufficient for correct diagnosis. Under certain circumstances, it might be useful to perform ultrasound, computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging or retrograde urethrography. A urine analysis is obligatory. In case of penetrating injuries and genital trauma in females, additional imaging should be performed because these are often associated with concomitant injuries of the rectum, vagina, or bladder. Special cases are gunshot wounds, in which caliber and type of weapon play an important role for the degree of damage, and animal or human bites. For animal bites, the risk for rabies infection and in case of a human bite the risk for transmission of HIV and hepatitis should be taken into consideration and post-exposure prophylaxis should possibly be offered.

  12. Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Khute, Prakash; Patel, Anjali; Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    Although atypical presentations of herpetic infection in immunocompetent individuals are common, they very rarely have the extensive, chronic and verrucous appearances seen in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Chemokine-mediated immune responses in the female genital tract mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deruaz, Maud; Luster, Andrew D

    2015-04-01

    The genital tract mucosa is the site where sexually transmitted infections gain entry to the host. The immune response at this site is thus critical to provide innate protection against pathogens that are seen for the very first time as well as provide long-term pathogen-specific immunity, which would be required for an effective vaccine against sexually transmitted infection. A finely regulated immune response is therefore required to provide an effective barrier against pathogens without compromising the capacity of the genital tract to allow for successful conception and fetal development. We review recent developments in our understanding of the immune response in the female genital tract to infectious pathogens, using herpes simplex virus-2, human immunodeficiency virus-1 and Chlamydia trachomatis as examples, with a particular focus on the role of chemokines in orchestrating immune cell migration necessary to achieve effective innate and adaptive immune responses in the female genital tract.

  14. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  15. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Usoro BSN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  16. Urethroscopy and urethral cytology in men with external genital condyloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, R A; Malek, R S; Goellner, J R; Hyland, K M

    1994-03-01

    To develop guidelines as to which asymptomatic male patients with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection need further evaluation of the urethra, we studied two screening methods: urethroscopy and voided urethral cytology. In a four-year period, 135 asymptomatic men underwent complete screening for HPV infection. They were evaluated because of HPV-related genital disease in their female sex partners or visible genital lesions, or both. Of the 135 patients, 21 (16%) had no clinical, subclinical, cytologic, or urethroscopic evidence of disease, and 114 (84%) had biopsy-proven HPV infection. Of these 114 patients, only 14 (12.3%) had intraurethral condyloma. All of these 14 patients had current or historical evidence of meatal or perimeatal "sentinel" lesions. They constituted 29.8 percent of 47 such patients with sentinel lesions. In 5 patients (4%), results of voided urine cytology were positive for condyloma cells, but only 1 of these had visible intraurethral disease. Of the 14 patients with urethral disease, only 1 (7%) had positive results of urine cytology. These observations suggest that any asymptomatic male patient undergoing screening for condyloma acuminatum who has a history of or demonstrable subclinical or grossly visible perimeatal or meatal HPV infection should undergo urethroscopy and that voided urine cytology is not a reliable or cost-effective test for the detection of visible intraurethral disease.

  17. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne

    2015-01-01

    bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serumand T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4+ T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence...

  18. Comparison of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 growth in polarized genital epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional culture with non-polarized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2008-04-01

    A common model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis and growing chlamydial stocks uses Lymphogranuloma venereum serovar L2 and non-polarized HeLa cells. However, recent publications indicate that the growth rate and progeny yields can vary considerably for a particular strain depending on the cell line/type used, and seem to be partially related to cell tropism. In the present study, the growth of invasive serovar L2 was compared in endometrial HEC-1B and endocervical HeLa cells polarized on collagen-coated microcarrier beads, as well as in HeLa cells grown in tissue culture flasks. Microscopy analysis revealed no difference in chlamydial attachment/entry patterns or in inclusion development throughout the developmental cycle between cell lines. Very comparable growth curves in both cell lines were also found using real-time PCR analysis, with increases in chlamydial DNA content of 400-500-fold between 2 and 36 h post-inoculation. Similar progeny yields with comparable infectivity were recovered from HEC-1B and HeLa cell bead cultures, and no difference in chlamydial growth was found in polarized vs. non-polarized HeLa cells. In conclusion, unlike other C. trachomatis strains such as urogenital serovar E, invasive serovar L2 grows equally well in physiologically different endometrial and endocervical environments, regardless of the host cell polarization state.

  19. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-06-27

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  20. Genital Herpes: Insights into Sexually Transmitted Infectious Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Etiology, transmission and protection: Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections with recurring manifestations throughout the lifetime of infected hosts. Currently no effective vaccines or prophylactics exist that provide complete protection or immunity from the virus, which is endemic throughout the world. Pathology/Symptomatology: Primary and recurrent infections result in lesions and inflammation around the genital area and the latter accounts for majority of genital herpes instances. Immunocompromised patients including neonates are susceptible to additional systemic infections including debilitating consequences of nervous system inflammation. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: More than 500 million people are infected worldwide and most reported cases involve the age groups between 16-40 years, which coincides with an increase in sexual activity among this age group. While these numbers are an estimate, the actual numbers may be underestimated as many people are asymptomatic or do not report the symptoms. Treatment and curability: Currently prescribed medications, mostly nucleoside analogs, only reduce the symptoms caused by an active infection, but do not eliminate the virus or reduce latency. Therefore, no cure exists against genital herpes and infected patients suffer from periodic recurrences of disease symptoms for their entire lives. Molecular mechanisms of infection: The last few decades have generated many new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive HSV infection. The viral entry receptors such as nectin-1 and HVEM have been identified, cytoskeletal signaling and membrane structures such as filopodia have been directly implicated in viral entry, host motor proteins and their viral ligands have been shown to facilitate capsid transport and many host and HSV proteins have been identified that help with viral replication and pathogenesis. New understanding has emerged on the role of

  1. The first step toward diagnosing female genital schistosomiasis by computer image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Lillebø, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium causes female genital schistosomiasis (FGS), which is a poverty-related disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, it is co-endemic with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and biopsies from genital lesions may expose the individual to increased risk of HIV infection...... statistics, we estimate that the computer color analysis yields a sensitivity of 80.5% and a specificity of 66.2% for the diagnosis of FGS....

  2. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Genital Infection among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candida albicans (65%), Staphylococcus aureus (51.8%) and Enterobacteriacae (E. coli and Klebsiella species) were predominantly isolated, followed by Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoea. Most of the bacterial isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cotrimoxazole, norfloxacin and augmentin ...

  3. Sexually Transmitted Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected person’s herpes sore or fluid from a herpes sore. Having genital herpes during pregnancy can cause serious health problems for ... pass herpes to your baby if you have genital herpes sores and blisters (called an outbreak) for the ...

  4. Newer trends in the management of genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Amiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of genital herpes is complex. Apart from using the standard antivirals, an ideal management protocol also needs to address various aspects of the disease, including the psychological morbidity. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir are recommended for routine use. Long-term suppressive therapy is effective in reducing the number of recurrences and the risk of transmission to others. Severe or disseminated disease may require intravenous therapy. Resistant cases are managed with foscarnet or cidofovir. Genital herpes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals usually needs a longer duration of antiviral therapy along with continuation of highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART. Genital herpes in late pregnancy increases the risk of neonatal herpes. Antiviral therapy and/or cesarean delivery are indicated depending on the clinical circumstance. Acyclovir appears to be safe in pregnancy. But, there is limited data regarding the use of valacyclovir and famciclovir in pregnancy. Neonatal herpes requires a higher dose of acyclovir given intravenously for a longer duration. Management of the sex partner, counseling and prevention advice are equally important in appropriate management of genital herpes. Vaccines till date have been marginally effective. Helicase-primase inhibitors, needle-free mucosal vaccine and a new microbicide product named VivaGel may become promising treatment options in the future.

  5. Genital reconstruction in exstrophy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgery for bladder exstrophy has been evolving over the last four to five decades. Because survival has become almost universal, the focus has changed in the exstrophy-epispadias complex to improving quality of life. The most prevalent problem in the long-term function of exstrophy patients is the sexual activity of the adolescent and adult males. The penis in exstrophy patients appears short because of marked congenital deficiency of anterior corporal tissue. Many patients approach for genital reconstruction to improve cosmesis as well as to correct chordee. We report our series of male patients seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Materials and Methods: Fourteen adolescent/adult male patients attended urology services during the period January 2000-December 2009 seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Results: Three patients underwent epispadias repair, four patients had chordee correction with cosmetic excision of skin tags and seven patients underwent chordee correction with penile lengthening. All patients reported satisfaction in the answered questionnaire. Patients undergoing penile lengthening by partial corporal dissection achieved a mean increase in length of 1.614 ± 0.279 cm dorsally and 1.543 ± 0.230 cm ventrally. The satisfactory rate assessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 showed that irrespective of the different genital reconstructive procedures done, the patients were satisfied with cosmetic and functional outcome. Conclusions: Surgical procedures have transformed the management in these patients with bladder exstrophy. Bladders can be safely placed within the pelvis, with most patients achieving urinary continence and cosmetically acceptable external genitalia. Genital reconstruction in the form of correction of chordee, excision of ugly skin tags and lengthening of penis can be performed to give the patients a satisfactory cosmetic and functional

  6. Vaccination of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with poly I:C, a host defense peptide and polyphosphazine, elicits strong and long lasting cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Waugh, Courtney; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2014-10-07

    Chlamydial infections are wide spread in koalas across their range and a solution to this debilitating disease has been sought for over a decade. Antibiotics are the currently accepted therapeutic measure, but are not an effective treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of some infections and a low efficacy rate. Thus, a vaccine would be an ideal way to address this infectious disease threat in the wild. Previous vaccine trials have used a three-dose regimen; however this is very difficult to apply in the field as it would require multiple capture events, which are stressful and invasive processes for the koala. In addition, it requires skilled koala handlers and a significant monetary investment. To overcome these challenges, in this study we utilized a polyphosphazine based poly I:C and a host defense peptide adjuvant combined with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) antigen to induce long lasting (54 weeks) cellular and humoral immunity in female koalas with a novel single immunizing dose. Immunized koalas produced a strong IgG response in plasma, as well as at mucosal sites. Moreover, they showed high levels of C. pecorum specific neutralizing antibodies in the plasma as well as vaginal and conjunctival secretions. Lastly, Chlamydia-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses were produced against both whole chlamydial elementary bodies and rMOMP protein, over the 12-month period. The results of this study suggest that a single dose rMOMP vaccine incorporating a poly I:C, host defense peptide and polyphosphazine adjuvant is able to stimulate both arms of the immune system in koalas, thereby providing an alternative to antibiotic treatment and/or a three-dose vaccine regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. S. haematobium as a common cause of genital morbidity in girls: a cross-sectional study of children in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Elise Amlie Hegertun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosoma (S. haematobium infection is a common cause of genital morbidity in adult women. Ova in the genital mucosal lining may cause lesions, bleeding, pain, discharge, and the damaged surfaces may pose a risk for HIV. In a heterogeneous schistosomiasis endemic area in South Africa, we sought to investigate if young girls had genital symptoms and if this was associated with urinary S. haematobium. METHODOLOGY: In a cross-sectional study of 18 randomly chosen primary schools, we included 1057 schoolgirls between the age of 10 and 12 years. We interviewed assenting girls, whose parents had consented to their participation and examined three urines from each of them for schistosome ova. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One third of the girls reported to have a history of genital symptoms. Prior schistosomal infection was reported by 22% (226/1020, this was associated with current genital symptoms (p<0.001. In regression analysis the genital symptoms were significantly associated both with urinary schistosomiasis (p<0.001 and water contact (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Even before sexually active age, a relatively large proportion of the participating girls had similar genital symptoms to those reported for adult genital schistosomiasis previously. Anti-schistosomal treatment should be considered at a young age in order to prevent chronic genital damage and secondary infections such as HIV, sexually transmitted diseases and other super-infections.

  8. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill

    2013-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery.

  9. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Nobre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64. Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5% had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR = 2.46; p = 0.03. In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR = 2.81; p = 0.02. This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer.

  10. 2012—2015年高平市农村妇女生殖道感染状况及其影响因素分析%Analysis of Genital Tract Infections of Rural Women in Gaoping City from 2012 to 2015 and Its Influence Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解高平市宫颈癌筛查项目的35~64岁农村妇女生殖道感染情况及其影响因素, 为有关部门采取干预措施提供科学依据. 方法 对2012年10月—2015年7月高平市的16 297例目标人群生殖道感染上报数据进行回顾性统计分析. 结果 高平市农村妇女生殖道感染疾病最常见的是:宫颈炎、盆腔炎、滴虫性阴道炎、细菌性阴道病和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病.妇女生殖道感染率较高,为52.27%,其中宫颈炎的患病率为37.78%,细菌性阴道病的患病率为20.28%,滴虫性和外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的患病率分别为6.29%和8.01%,慢性盆腔炎的患病率为12.56%,宫颈炎上升趋势逐年递增. 结论 加强妇科病防治,特别要重视生殖道感染的防治,加强妇科病相关健康教育,增强农村妇女自我保健意识,定期妇科检查,实施积极防治干预措施,从而降低妇科相关疾病的患病率,提升妇女的生殖健康水平.%Objective To know genital tract infection of rural women at the age of 35 to 64 in cervical cancer screening pro-gram in Gaoping City and its influence factors so as to provide scientific basis for the related departments to take interven-tion measures. Methods Reported data on genital tract infection of 16297 cases of target population in Gaoping City from October 2012 to July 2015 was retrospectively analyzed. Results The most common genital tract infection diseases in rural women in Gaoping City were cervicitis, pelvic inflammation, trichomonas vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal can-didiasis. genital tract infection rate is higher with 52.27%, the case rates of cervicitis , bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease were respectively 37.78%, 20.28%, 6.29%, 8.01%and 12.56%, the rising trend of cervicitis was increasing year by year. Conclusion In order to strengthen the preven-tion and cure for gynaecopathia, we should

  11. New challenges for vaccination to prevent chlamydial abortion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrican, Gary; Wheelhouse, Nick; Wattegedera, Sean R; Longbottom, David

    2012-05-01

    Ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) is caused by the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia abortus. OEA remains a common cause of infectious abortion in many sheep-rearing countries despite the existence of commercially available vaccines that protect against the disease. There are a number of confounding factors that influence the uptake and use of these vaccines, which includes an inability to discriminate between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) using conventional serological diagnostic techniques. This suggests that the immunity elicited by current vaccines is similar to that observed in convalescent, immune sheep that have experienced OEA. The existence of these vaccines provides an opportunity to understand how protection against OEA is elicited and also to understand why vaccines can occasionally appear to fail, as has been reported recently for OEA. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), the cytokine that classically defines Th1-type adaptive immunity, is a strong correlate of protection against OEA in sheep and has been shown to inhibit the growth of C. abortus in vitro. Humoral immunity to C. abortus is observed in both vaccinated and naturally infected sheep, but antibody responses tend to be used more as diagnostic markers than targets for strategic vaccine design. A future successful DIVA vaccine against OEA should aim to elicit the immunological correlate of protection (IFN-γ) concomitantly with an antibody profile that is distinct from that of the natural infection. Such an approach requires careful selection of protective components of C. abortus combined with an effective delivery system that elicits IFN-γ-producing CD4+ve memory T cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigação da LMP1 do EBV e a coinfeçcão do HPV em lesões genitais de pacientes infectados ou não pelo HIV Investigation of the LMP1 EBV and co-infection by HPV in genital lesions of patients infected or not by HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Resende Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    main virus associated with both benign and malignant epithelial neoplasias. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the presence of EBV and HPV in genital lesions in HIV-infected patients (group A or HIV non-infected patients (group B from both genders. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We selected 126 patients and 135 anogenital lesions, comprising 67 patients (53% and 75 lesions (56% from group A and 59 patients (47% and 60 lesions (44% from group B, to histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses through latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 monoclonal antibodies and HPV (DAKO®. RESULTS: The analysis showed that the total number of lesions with immunopositivity for HPV and for LMP1 was higher in group A (32 and 35 respectively in comparison with B (16 and six respectively. Statistical analysis (significance level of 5% showed that the proportions for HPV are not statistically significant (z = 1.93; value p = 0.053. However, the difference (47% in group A and 10% in B is significant for LMP1 (z = 4.60; value p = 4.2×10-6. Similarly, the association of HPV and LMP1 (21% in group A and 7% in B also showed a significant statistical difference (z = 2.38; value p = 0.017. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated the possibility of synergism between EBV infection and EBV-HPV co-infection in genital epithelial lesions, mainly among HIV-infected patients. However, further investigations with a more specific and sensitive methodology are required in order to assess the real influence of EBV on the pathogenesis of genital epithelial lesions.

  13. Reproductive tract infections in rural women from the highlands, jungle, and coastal regions of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia J; Chavez, Susana; Feringa, Barbara; Chiappe, Marina; Li, Weili; Jansen, Kathrin U; Cárcamo, César; Holmes, King K

    2004-07-01

    To define the prevalences and manifestations of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Peruvian women. During 1997-98, we visited 18 rural districts in coastal, highlands, and jungle regions of Peru. We administered standardized questionnaires and pelvic examinations to members of women's community-based organizations; and collected vaginal fluid for pH, amine odour, Gram stain, microscopy, and culture for Trichomonas vaginalis; cervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; human papilloma virus (HPV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and blood for syphilis serology. The 754 participants averaged 36.9 years of age and 1.7 sex partners ever; 77% reported symptoms indicative of RTIs; 51% and 26% reported their symptoms spontaneously or only with specific questioning, respectively. Symptoms reported spontaneously included abnormal vaginal discharge (29.3% and 22.9%, respectively). One or more RTIs, found in 70.4% of participants, included bacterial vaginosis (43.7%), trichomoniasis (16.5%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (4.5%), chlamydial infection (6.8%), gonorrhoea (1.2%), syphilis seropositivity (1.7%), cervical HPV infection (4.9%), and genital warts or ulcers (2.8%). Of 715 adequate Pap smears, 7 revealed cancer, 4 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and 15 low-grade SIL. Clinical algorithms had very low sensitivity and predictive values for cervical infection, but over half the women with symptoms of malodorous vaginal discharge, signs of abnormal vaginal discharge, or both, had bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Overall, 77% of women had symptoms indicative of RTIs, and 70% had objective evidence of one or more RTIs. Women with selected symptoms and signs of vaginal infection could benefit from standard metronidazole therapy.

  14. Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection under the SAFE strategy in Amhara, Ethiopia, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Scott D; Stewart, Aisha E P; Zerihun, Mulat; Sata, Eshetu; Gessese, Demelash; Melaku, Berhanu; Endeshaw, Tekola; Chanyalew, Melsew; Chernet, Ambahun; Bayissasse, Belay; Moncada, Jeanne; Lietman, Thomas M; Emerson, Paul M; King, Jonathan D; Tadesse, Zerihun; Callahan, E Kelly

    2018-05-05

    WHO recommendations for starting and stopping mass antibiotic distributions are based on a clinical sign of trachoma, which is indirectly related to actual infection with the causative agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. This study aimed to understand the effect of SAFE (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement) interventions on ocular chlamydia in Amhara, Ethiopia by describing the infection prevalence in a population-based sample of children ages 1-5 years. Population-based trachoma surveys were conducted in all districts of Amhara, from 2011 to 2015 following approximately 5 years of SAFE. Ocular swabs were collected from randomly selected children whose households were included in the surveys to estimate the zonal prevalence of chlamydial infection. The Abbott Realtime PCR assay was used to detect C. trachomatis DNA using the m2000 system. A total of 15,632 samples were collected across the 10 zones of Amhara. The prevalence of chlamydial infection in children ages 1-5 years was 5.7% (95% Confidence Interval: 4.2-7.3), zonal range 1.0% to 18.5%. Chlamydial infection and trachomatous-inflammation intense (TI) among children ages 1-9 were highly correlated at the zonal level, Spearman correlation(r)= 0.93; P<0.001, while chlamydial infection and trachomatous-inflammation follicular (TF) among children ages 1-9 years were moderately correlated, r= 0.57; P=0.084. After 5 years of SAFE there is appreciable ocular chlamydial infection in children ages 1-5 years, indicating that transmission has not been interrupted, and that interventions should continue. The sign TI was highly correlated with chlamydial infection and can be used as a proxy indicator of infection.

  15. Identification of MHCII variants associated with chlamydial disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Quintin; Griffith, Joanna E.; Higgins, Damien P.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiosis, the most common infectious disease in koalas, can cause chronic urogenital tract fibrosis and infertility. High titres of serum immunoglobulin G against 10 kDa and 60 kDa chlamydial heat-shock proteins (c-hsp10 and c-hsp60) are associated with fibrous occlusion of the koala uterus and uterine tube. Murine and human studies have identified associations between specific major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) alleles or genotypes, and higher c-hsp 60 antibody levels or c...

  16. The Diagnosis of Genital Herpes – Beyond Culture: An Evidence-Based Guide for the Utilization of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Herpes Simplex Virus Type-Specific Serology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ratnam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of persons with genital herpes is necessary for optimal patient management and prevention of transmission. Because of inherent inaccuracies, clinical diagnosis of genital herpes should be confirmed by laboratory testing for the causative agents herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and HSV type 2 (HSV-2. Further identification of the HSV type is valuable for counselling on the natural history of infection and risk of transmission. Laboratory methods include antigen detection, culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and conventional and type-specific serology (TSS. PCR has, by far, the greater sensitivity and should be the test of choice for symptomatic cases. HSV-2 TSS is indicated for patients with genital lesions in whom antigen detection, culture or PCR fail to detect HSV, and for patients who are asymptomatic but have a history suggestive of genital herpes. HSV-2 TSS is further indicated for patients infected with HIV. HSV-2 TSS along with HSV-1 TSS may be considered, as appropriate, in evaluating infection and/or immune status in couples discordant for genital herpes, women who develop their first clinical episode of genital herpes during pregnancy, asymptomatic pregnant women whose partners have a history of genital herpes or HIV infection, and women contemplating pregnancy or considering sexual partnership with those with a history of genital herpes. The above should be performed in conjunction with counselling of infected persons and their sex partners.

  17. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda Junior, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

  18. Vulvovaginitis: clinical features, aetiology, and microbiology of the genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquiery, A; Stylianopoulos, A; Hogg, G; Grover, S

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To clarify the contribution of clinical and environmental factors and infection to the aetiology of vulvovaginitis in premenarchal girls, and to determine clinical indicators of an infectious cause.
DESIGN—It was necessary first to define normal vaginal flora. Cases were 50 premenarchal girls > 2 years old with symptoms of vulvovaginitis; 50 controls were recruited from girls in the same age group undergoing minor or elective surgery.
RESULTS—Interview questionnaire showed no difference between cases and controls in regards to hygiene practices, exposure to specific irritants, or history of possible sexual abuse. Normal vaginal flora was similar to that described in previous studies, with the exception of organisms likely to be associated with sexual activity. 80% of cases had no evidence of an infectious cause. In the 10 cases in whom an infectious cause was found, there was significantly more visible discharge and distinct redness of the genital area on examination compared with other cases.
CONCLUSIONS— The findings suggest that vulvovaginitis in this age group is not usually infectious or necessarily related to poor hygiene, specific irritants or sexual abuse, although any of these can present with genital irritation. The possibility of sexual abuse should always be considered when a child presents with genital symptoms, but our data indicate it is not a common contributing factor. Infection is generally associated with vaginal discharge and moderate or severe inflammation.

 PMID:10373139

  19. Coevolution of female and male genital components to avoid genital size mismatches in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupše, Nik; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-08-17

    In most animal groups, it is unclear how body size variation relates to genital size differences between the sexes. While most morphological features tend to scale with total somatic size, this does not necessarily hold for genitalia because divergent evolution in somatic size between the sexes would cause genital size mismatches. Theory predicts that the interplay of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual genital size dimorphism (SGD) should adhere to the 'positive genital divergence', the 'constant genital divergence', or the 'negative genital divergence' model, but these models remain largely untested. We test their validity in the spider family Nephilidae known for the highest degrees of SSD among terrestrial animals. Through comparative analyses of sex-specific somatic and genital sizes, we first demonstrate that 99 of the 351 pairs of traits are phylogenetically correlated. Through factor analyses we then group these traits for MCMCglmm analyses that test broader correlation patterns, and these reveal significant correlations in 10 out of the 36 pairwise comparisons. Both types of analyses agree that female somatic and internal genital sizes evolve independently. While sizes of non-intromittent male genital parts coevolve with male body size, the size of the intromittent male genital parts is independent of the male somatic size. Instead, male intromittent genital size coevolves with female (external and, in part, internal) genital size. All analyses also agree that SGD and SSD evolve independently. Internal dimensions of female genitalia evolve independently of female body size in nephilid spiders, and similarly, male intromittent genital size evolves independently of the male body size. The size of the male intromittent organ (the embolus) and the sizes of female internal and external genital components thus seem to respond to selection against genital size mismatches. In accord with these interpretations, we reject the validity of the

  20. Study of females genital tract microflora diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Vertelytė, Justina

    2016-01-01

    Study of females genital tract microflora diversity SUMMARY Study of female genital tract microflora diversity Authors of Master’s degree scientific research work: Justina Vertelytė Head of Master’s degree scientific research work: dr Silvija Kiverytė Vilnius, 2016 The aim of research work was to investigate and analyze the composition of the microflora of the female genital tract using the methods of microbiological smear, vaginal wet mount and PCR. The objectives of the work were to evaluat...

  1. No. 207-Genital Herpes: Gynaecological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Deborah; Steben, Marc

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide recommendations to gynaecology health care providers on optimal management of genital herpes. More effective prevention of complications and transmission of genital herpes. Medline was searched for articles published in French and English related to genital herpes and gynaecology. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types and recommendation reports were reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. [Factual approach to the treatment of genital herpes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E

    2000-05-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease. After the primary infection, the virus establishes a life-long latency in the sacral dorsal root ganglia. Recurrences may occur at an unpredictable rate. The clinical signs are not always easy to recognize and viral identification techniques may be helpful such as immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization on Tzanck smears and muco-cutaneous biopsies. The treatment of genital herpes can follow one of three strategies using antiviral drugs, non-specific immunomodulators, and vaccination. The new oral antiviral drugs decrease the severity of clinical manifestations without, however, providing a definitive cure. In this article recent knowledge about the clinical aspects, differential diagnosis, diagnostic methods, treatment options and management is reviewed.

  3. Establishing homology between mitochondrial calcium uniporters, prokaryotic magnesium channels and chlamydial IncA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andre; Vastermark, Ake; Saier, Milton H

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporters (MCUs) (TC no. 1.A.77) are oligomeric channel proteins found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. MCUs have two well-conserved transmembrane segments (TMSs), connected by a linker, similar to bacterial MCU homologues. These proteins and chlamydial IncA proteins (of unknown function; TC no. 9.B.159) are homologous to prokaryotic Mg(2+) transporters, AtpI and AtpZ, based on comparison scores of up to 14.5 sds. A phylogenetic tree containing all of these proteins showed that the AtpZ proteins cluster coherently as a subset within the large and diverse AtpI cluster, which branches separately from the MCUs and IncAs, both of which cluster coherently. The MCUs and AtpZs share the same two TMS topology, but the AtpIs have four TMSs, and IncAs can have either two (most frequent) or four (less frequent) TMSs. Binary alignments, comparison scores and motif analyses showed that TMSs 1 and 2 align with TMSs 3 and 4 of the AtpIs, suggesting that the four TMS AtpI proteins arose via an intragenic duplication event. These findings establish an evolutionary link interconnecting eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) transporters with chlamydial IncAs, and lead us to suggest that all members of the MCU superfamily, including IncAs, function as divalent cation channels. © 2014 The Authors.

  4. Role for chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins in inclusion membrane structure and biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Mital

    Full Text Available The chlamydial inclusion membrane is extensively modified by the insertion of type III secreted effector proteins. These inclusion membrane proteins (Incs are exposed to the cytosol and share a common structural feature of a long, bi-lobed hydrophobic domain but little or no primary amino acid sequence similarity. Based upon secondary structural predictions, over 50 putative inclusion membrane proteins have been identified in Chlamydia trachomatis. Only a limited number of biological functions have been defined and these are not shared between chlamydial species. Here we have ectopically expressed several C. trachomatis Incs in HeLa cells and find that they induce the formation of morphologically distinct membranous vesicular compartments. Formation of these vesicles requires the bi-lobed hydrophobic domain as a minimum. No markers for various cellular organelles were observed in association with these vesicles. Lipid probes were incorporated by the Inc-induced vesicles although the lipids incorporated were dependent upon the specific Inc expressed. Co-expression of Inc pairs indicated that some colocalized in the same vesicle, others partially overlapped, and others did not associate at all. Overall, it appears that Incs may have an intrinsic ability to induce membrane formation and that individual Incs can induce membranous structures with unique properties.

  5. [Bacterial flora in the genital tract the last trimester of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaka, B; Agbèrè, A D; Baeta, S; Kessie, K; Assimadi, K

    2003-10-01

    Very widespread in our clinical setting, early-onset sepsis is due to organisms that commonly colonize or infect the maternal genital tract; identifying such organisms would help improve prevention and treatment. To determine the bacterial ecology and the pathological status of the genital organs during the last trimester of pregnancy, in order to evaluate the risk of materno-fetal infections and to improve the present prophylactic measures based on monitoring bacterial carriage during the first trimester. Vaginal and endocervical samples, usually taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were delayed and taken during the last trimester of pregnancy, in patients with no signs of sepsis and not taking antibiotics. A macroscopic examination described the aspect of the vagina, the cervix uteri, leukorrhea and possible inflammatory lesions or ulcerations. A microscopic examination searched for parasites, epithelial cells, Clue cells and leukocytes. The appropriate bacteriological cultures were performed after reading the Gram stain and scoring the vaginal flora. The clinical and cytobacteriological aspects were used to identify the bacterial ecology and the pathological genital states. Genital samples were collected from 306 pregnant women. Among them 118 were at 29-32 weeks of gestation, 104 at 33-36 and 84 at 37-40. The most frequent germs were C. albicans (33.3%), Enterobacteriaceae (20.3%) including E. coli (10.9%), S. aureus (15.4%), Gardnerella (13.6%), and Trichomonas (10.6%), in monomicrobian (79.2%) or polymicrobian carriage (20.8%). Lower genital tract pathological states such as vaginitis (29.4%), bacterial vaginosis (21.5%) or cervicitis (10.4%) and asymptomatic bacterial carriage (23.5%) and normal genital flora (15%) were identified. This is the first report of genital bacterial carriage in African women during the last trimester of pregnancy. Larger studies are required to evaluate the risk of maternofetal infections and to improve current

  6. Chronic genital ulcer disease with subsequent development of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA urethritis and bacteraemia in an HIV-seropositive person – a case observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Katusiime

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV-seropositive persons are at increased risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted infection with subsequent MRSA infection in HIV-seropositive persons have been documented only once. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented to the Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda, with chronic genital ulcer disease and who subsequently developed MRSA urethritis and bacteraemia. This case also demonstrates that persistent genital ulcer disease in HIV-seropositive persons may be as a result of concurrent MRSA infection.

  7. Microbiota of male genital tract: impact on the health of man and his partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mändar, Reet

    2013-03-01

    This manuscript describes the male genital tract microbiota and the significance of it on the host's and his partner's health. Microbiota exists in male lower genital tract, mostly in urethra and coronal sulcus while high inter-subject variability exists. Differences appear between sexually transmitted disease positive and negative men as well as circumcised and uncircumcised men. Upper genital tract is generally germ-free, except in case of infections. Prostatitis patients have frequently abundant polymicrobial communities in their semen, expressed prostatic secretion and/or post-massage urine. Coryneform bacteria have ambivalent role in male urogenital tract being frequently commensals but sometimes associated with prostatitis and urethritis. Interactions between male and female genital tract microbiota are highly likely yet there are very scarce studies on the couples' genital tract microbiota. Increase of bacterial vaginosis-type microbiota and coliforms are the most typical findings in men while the adverse effect of male genital tract bacteria on in vitro fertilization and pregnancy outcome has also been indicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genital herpes in children under 11 years and investigations for sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Richard; Hughes, Gwenda; Hill, Julia; Debelle, Geoff

    2011-08-01

    The implications for sexual abuse investigation of genital herpes in a child are uncertain because of a lack of good quality research evidence. The incidence, presenting features, history of exposure, indicators of child maltreatment and outcomes of child protection investigations in children with genital herpes are described. Ascertainment of all cases of genital herpes in children herpes simplex type 1, eight were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and only one had a full STI screen. Three cases had other clinical features suggestive of sexual abuse. Six cases were referred for child protection investigation, but no sexual abuse was substantiated. Genital herpes in children under 11 years is rare. Almost a third of children diagnosed with genital herpes did not have appropriate virological investigation and few were screened for other STIs. Around a quarter of cases were referred to child protection agencies for further investigation, which limits any inferences in this study about mode of transmission in children. Sexual abuse guidance should emphasise the need for thorough assessment and investigation in cases of genital herpes in children.

  9. HPV-6 Molecular Variants Association With the Development of Genital Warts in Men: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Díaz, Ema; Sereday, Karen A; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sirak, Bradley; Sobrinho, João Simão; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2017-02-15

    Human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) and HPV-11 are the etiological agents of approximately 90% of genital warts (GWs). The impact of HPV-6 genetic heterogeneity on persistence and progression to GWs remains undetermined. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study participants who had HPV-6 genital swabs and/or GWs preceded by a viable normal genital swab were analyzed. Variants characterization was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequencing and samples classified within lineages (A, B) and sublineages (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5). Country- and age-specific analyses were conducted for individual variants; odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of GWs according to HPV-6 variants were calculated. B3 variants were most prevalent. HPV-6 variants distribution differed between countries and case status. HPV-6 B1 variants prevalence was increased in GWs and genital swabs of cases compared to controls. There was difference in B1 and B3 variants detection in GW and the preceding genital swab. We observed significant association of HPV-6 B1 variants detection with GW development. HPV-6 B1 variants are more prevalent in genital swabs that precede GW development, and confer an increased risk for GW. Further research is warranted to understand the possible involvement of B1 variants in the progression to clinically relevant lesions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Educating about female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Victoria; Farrington, Rebecca; Mulongo, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in the UK but nevertheless practised in some immigrant communities. Effective educational approaches are required to inform policy and to direct resources, often in the voluntary sector. The opinions in this article arise from discussions with professionals and members of FGM-practising communities. We highlight the importance of sharing experiences and expertise across health and social care professionals as well as working in partnership with culturally sensitive Non-Governmental Organisations. Enlisting the support of men and religious leaders is crucial to breaking down barriers in male-dominated communities and dispelling myths about FGM being a 'requirement' of faith.

  11. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  12. Lymphogranuloma venereum causing a persistent genital ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Terrence; Lee, Yer; Pandori, Mark; Jain, Vivek; Cohen, Stephanie Elise

    2014-04-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy and proctocolitis. We report a patient with a persistent genital ulcer due to LGV (serovar L2b), an unusual presentation among US men who have sex with men. Lymphogranuloma venereum should be considered when evaluating persistent genital ulcers, and LGV-specific testing should be sought.

  13. Female genital schistosomiasis : pathological features and density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the lower genital tract, the cervix accounted for thirty two (68%) cases. Interestingly fifteen (47%) of cases showed association with cervical dysplasia, invasive squamous cell carcinoma or human papilloma virus koliocytosis. Presentations in the lower genital tract were of ulceration, polyps or abnormal vaginal bleeding.

  14. Genital ulcer disease treatment for reducing sexual acquisition of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Florence M; M'imunya, James Machoki; Wiysonge, Charles Shey

    2012-08-15

    oral doses of fleroxacin (one trial, 45 participants; RR 3.00; 95% CI 0.29 to 30.69), or between 400 mg fleroxacin and 800 mg sulfamethoxazole plus 160 mg trimethoprim (one trial, 98 participants; RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.04 to 3.09). Adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity, and included Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions and gastrointestinal symptoms. The differences between the treatment arms in the incidence of adverse events were not significant. The quality of this evidence on the effectiveness of genital ulcer disease treatment in reducing sexual acquisition of HIV, according to GRADE methodology, is of very low quality. At present, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether curative treatment of genital ulcer disease would reduce the risk of HIV acquisition. The very low quality of the evidence implies that the true effect of genital ulcer disease treatment on sexual acquisition of HIV may be substantially different from the effect estimated from currently available data. However, genital ulcer diseases are public health problems in their own right and patients with these conditions should be treated appropriately; whether the treatment reduces the risk of HIV infection or not.

  15. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Moulton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  16. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Laura J; Jernigan, Amelia M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  17. [Herpes simplex virus and malignancies of female genital organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokić-Damjanović, J; Horvat, E; Balog, A

    2001-01-01

    Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of female genital tract usually end with remission, while the virus remains in the organism--almost in the sacral ganglion in a latent form, protected from humoral and cellular immunity. Stress induces the virus and the result is recurrent genital infection. Frequent exacerbations damage some parts of vital cellular structures without cytolysis, but stimulate malignant transformations. Vulvar (portio vaginalis uteri) and endometrial tumor tissue samples were analyzed for HSV by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Pre and postoperative sera samples were analyzed for presence of anti-HSV antibodies--IgM and IgG by Elisa-Enzygnost method. Acellular filtrates obtained by ultrasonic destruction of malignant tissues were used as inoculum for rabbit corneal scarification. Out of 63 tissue samples, 42 were positive for HSV antigen i.e. 67.3%. According to location 50% of vulvar, 76% PVU and 65% of endometrial tissues were positive. This antigen induces production of virus specific antibodies. Two types of antigens are known: the so-called T-antigen persisting in the cell nucleus and cell-surface antigen--product of the viral genome and can be evidenced by immunofluorescence method. Anti HSV antibodies were present in 63 preoperative serum samples and belonged to IgG group, but not one to IgM, implying a long and chronic course of infection excluding acute primary. Out of 38 postoperative serums the titer of antibodies decreased in 36 evidently, but in two samples remained unchanged. Two samples of endometrial and one from PVU origin contained HSV antigen type one. In the remaining 16 samples HSV 2 antigen was present. Rabbit corneal scarification was the proof of complete infectious virus in malignant tissues. Acellular filtrate of malignant tissues served as inoculum. Corneas of examined rabbits showed a mild inflammation after 24 hours which disappeared in the next 24 hours. We could not isolate the

  18. A study on relationship be tween genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection and spontaneous abortion%生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的关系。方法选取我院自然流产患者(自然流产组)及人工流产患者(对照组),各60例。两组均采集宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织进行沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体培养,分析结果。结果自然流产组宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织中沙眼衣原体、解脲支原体、沙眼衣原体+解脲支原体感染率均高于对照组( P<0.01)。结论生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染率与自然流产关系密切,可作为确定自然流产病因的指标。%Objective To explore the corelation of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection with spontaneous abortion,and provide clinical reference for the prevention and control of spontaneous abortion .Methods Patients with spontaneous abortion were selected as spontaneous abortion group ( n =60) and artificial abortion group ( n =60), and cervical se-cretions and decidual tissue of chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum were cultured and the results were analyzed .Results Infection rate of chlamydia trachomatis in cervical secretion of the natural abortion group ,ureaplasma urealyticum,chlamydia trachom-atis infection +UU rates of the natural abortion group were higher than that of the control group ( P <0.01).Conclusion Infection rate of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection rate and spontaneous abortion have a close relationship , which may be one of the causes of spontaneous abortion .

  19. Genital tract of zebu (Bos indicus cows in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moussa Garba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characteristics, and the ovarian and pathological structures of the genital tract of 500 zebu (Bos indicus females belonging to four breeds (Azawak, Bororo, Djelli, Goudali were studied at Niamey’s slaughterhouse in Niger from August 15 to December 15, 2011. Each animal was examined before slaughter. The cows and heifers were on average 8 ± 2.5 years old. Their mean body condition score was 1.6 ± 0.6 and mean carcass weight 113 ± 21 kg. The anatomical characteristics of the genital tract did not show differences between breeds (p > 0.05. The following characteristics were observed: cervix diameter 3.4 ± 1.1 cm, cervix length 8.1 ± 2.5 cm, horn length 21.6 ± 5.2 cm, horn diameter 1.6 ± 0.5 cm, length and width of the right ovary 19.8 ± 4.4 and 11.2 ± 3.8 mm, of the left ovary 18.8 ± 4.5 and 10.2 ± 3.3 mm, and weight of the right and left ovaries 2.9 ± 1.8 and 2.5 ± 1.6 g, respectively. A corpus luteum was identified in only 14% cases and no visible follicles were found on the surface of the ovaries in 32% cases. These characteristics were significantly (p < 0.05 influenced by the age of the animal. Among the examined females, 7.4% were confirmed pregnant. Various genital tract diseases (cysts, uterine infection, free martinism, pyometra... were observed in 10.4% of the genital tracts.

  20. The role of the local microenvironment in regulating susceptibility and immune responses to sexually transmitted viruses in the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushic, Charu

    2009-12-01

    Sexually transmitted viruses cause chronic infections that have serious long-term health consequences. Based on the evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies, women carry a disproportionately higher burden of sexually transmitted diseases. The reasons for this are not well understood and possibly relate to a variety of social, behavioral and economic factors. In addition to these factors there are biological reasons that contribute to the higher prevalence in women. In this context it is critical to focus on and understand the local microenvironment of the female genital tract, since the majority of viral infections in women occur by heterosexual transmission. The genital tract is also the target site for initiation and maintenance of protective immune responses that could prevent or eliminate viral infections. The epithelial cells of the genital tract provide the first line of defense against viral entry. The interactions between each sexually transmitted virus and the genital epithelium are distinct and determine the outcome of exposure. They are also influenced by a number of factors in the local genital milieu. Among these factors are the female sex hormones that regulate both the susceptibility as well as immune responses to viral infections in the genital tract. Better understanding of the interactions of viruses with the local environment in the female genital tract will lead to development of novel methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections as well as to enhance innate and adaptive immunity.

  1. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, E O; Sadiq, Magaji N

    2014-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world with severe complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors of C. trachomatis in Kano. There is dearth of information on this subject in this locality. Urine samples, Endocervical swabs and Urethral swab were collected from consecutive patients attending the Infertility and STD clinics in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH) between June and December 2012, after administering a questionnaire by the attending physician and also obtaining an informed consent.Samples were analyzed using Diaspot Chlamydia kit, a rapid immunoassay test for the detection of genital chlamydial antigen in urinogenital samples. A total of 125 consecutive samples were collected, comprising 69 females and 56 males aged between 14 - 55 years. Twelve samples tested positive for C. trachomatis antigen giving a prevalence rate of 9.6%. The age group prevalence were as follows 25 - 29 yrs (17.1%), 20 - 24 (16.7%), 15 - 19 (12.5%), 30 - 34 (11.1%) and > 49 years (9.0%). Married patients were associated with higher infection rate than single (8.3%), and divorced patients (33.3%). A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of C. trachomatis infection and its complications. Previous STD exposure was associated with increased risk of Chlamydia infection. C. trachomatis infection if unchecked will continue to pose a threat to reproductive life with its established complications. Since asymptomatic cases are common in the population regular screening should be encouraged for every adult especially before commencement of marital life.

  2. [Genes in the development of female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jing-he

    2013-12-01

    Female genital tract, which includes oviduct, uterus, and vagina, is critical for female reproduction. In recent years, animal experiments using knockout mice and genetic studies on patients with female genital malformations have contributed substantially to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the female genital tract development. Here we review genes that are involved in various stages of female genital tract formation and development.

  3. A Study of Isolates from Female Genital Swab Specimens in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infective vaginal discharge, when left untreated, is a possible risk of acquisition of HIV/AIDS as well as other complications. To detect some common microbial agents of vaginal discharge in order to improve the current syndromic management of abnormal vaginal discharge. A prospective study of female genital swabs ...

  4. Molecular diagnostics and newborns at risk for genital herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Caroline; Arnolds, Marin; Niklas, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the newborn carries a high mortality rate and can result in lifelong neurologic impairment. The severity of HSV infection in the newborn has always dictated conservative management when prodromal symptoms or active genital lesions (or those suggestive of genital herpes) are present during labor and delivery. The risk of intrapartum infection, however, is related to the presence or absence of maternal immunity (neutralizing antibody) to HSV. The most significant risk of transmission is in first-episode primary infections with active lesions at delivery. Recent recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics Committees on Infectious Diseases and the Fetus and Newborn use rapid serologic and virologic screening in the management of asymptomatic infants born to mothers with active genital herpes. The revised guidelines highlight infants at greatest risk for HSV disease but do not apply to asymptomatic infants born to mothers with a history of HSV but no genital lesions at delivery. The current guidelines also stipulate that maternal serologic screening and molecular assays for HSV in newborn blood and cerebrospinal fluid must be available and reported in a timely fashion. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. ASPECTS OF REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY THAT INFLUENCE THE DISTRIBUTION AND SPREAD OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS WITHIN THE FEMALE GENITAL TRACT : A NEW PARADIGM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyons, J. M.; Morre, S. A.; Land, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Critical to evaluating Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine candidates is the availability of appropriate animal models. At a minimum, models must mimic the essential features of transmission and disease progression that contribute to the severe outcomes associated with upper genital tract infection.

  6. Colposacrosuspension for severe genital prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronjé, H S

    2004-04-01

    A descriptive study of 140 patients with severe genital prolapse managed by colposacrosuspension with mesh interposition and a modified Burch colposuspension. A laparotomy was performed with mobilization of the rectum and exploration of the rectovaginal septum. Vaginally, a longitudinal incision was made in the posterior vaginal wall which was completely separated from the rectum. A perineal repair was done, whereafter a strip of Vypro (Johnson & Johnson, Brussels, Belgium) mesh was inserted from the perineum to the sacrum at S1. It was fixated to the perineum and vagina while the rectum was elevated and attached to the mesh. Where a perineal repair was deemed not necessary, the mesh extended from the mid-vagina to the sacrum. A second mesh strip was placed anteriorly of the vagina, covering the upper third of the vagina and extending to the sacrum. After closure of the pelvic peritoneum, covering the mesh, a modified Burch colposuspension was performed. Follow-up was done at 6 weeks, 6 months and yearly thereafter. The median age was 61 years with a median parity of 3. All patients presented with grade 2 (extending to the vaginal introitus) or 3 (outside the vaginal introitus) prolapse. Approximately one-third had urinary incontinence and a similar proportion complained of difficulty in defecation. All the patients underwent colposacrosuspension with the mesh extending to the perineum in 67% of the patients. A Burch colposuspension was performed in 79% of the women. Postoperatively, 97% of the patients were followed for 1-29 months with a median of 8.5 months (mean 10.2 months). Recurrent prolapse, grade 2 or 3, developed in 11 patients (8%) and 17 patients (12%) developed urinary incontinence, needing a transvaginal tape procedure. Removal of the mesh was necessary in one patient (0.7%). Colposacrosuspension for severe genital prolapse delivered satisfactory short-term results. It is, however, a major surgical procedure and elderly or compromised patients may

  7. FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION: ARE WE WINNING?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria ... practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in countries like Nigeria. .... Table 1(b) 519 (92%) of the ..... Behrendt, A. and Moritz, S. Posttraumatic stress. 12.

  8. Direct Questioning of Genital Symptoms: Increasing Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    prompted and pelvic examination findings of genital symptoms. Against the ... Correspondence to: ABM Kharsany CAPRISA 2nd Floor Doris Duke Medical Research Institute Nelson R Mandela ..... training efforts should focus on health care.

  9. Peripheral blood T cell proliferative response to chlamydial organisms in gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis and presumed pelvic inflammatory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmanesh, M.; Brunst, M.; Sukthankar, A.; Pearce, J. H.; Gaston, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferative response to Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies in (a) controls, (b) various stages of gonococcal (c) and non-gonococcal urethritis, and (d) women with a clinical diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). METHODS: We categorised 102 men presenting to a GUM clinic with urethritis by organisms (C trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) (both by culture), and whether it was their first (urethritis naive) or subsequent (urethritis experienced) attack. 23 women presenting to the clinic with a clinical diagnosis of PID were also investigated. We measured PBMC proliferative responses to C trachomatis (DK20--an oculogenital strain, serovar E), lysate of McCoy cells (used to propagate chlamydiae), and the recall antigen PPD. Controls were 37 men and women without present or past history of urethritis or chlamydial infection. Results were expressed as the ratio of the stimulation index (SI) obtained with DK20 compared with McCoy cells (DK index), and the ratio of the SI obtained with DK20 compared with PPD (PPD index). RESULTS: The median SI to DK20 in the urethritis was 12.7 which was significantly higher than the controls (7.6, p urethritis patients (17.4) and the controls (22.4). All urethritis patient subgroups had a significantly higher DK index and PPD index than the controls. There was no difference in the PPD and DK index between urethritis naive and urethritis experienced patients and between the culture positive and culture negative urethritis subgroups. In PID patients only the PPD index was significantly higher than the controls. CONCLUSION: Men presenting with urethritis and women presenting with PID both have significantly greater peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses to the DK20 strain of C trachomatis than controls. A similar T cell proliferative response pattern in urethritis naive patients with either gonococcal or non-gonococcal urethritis could

  10. Genital herpes stigma: Toward the Measurement and Validation of a highly prevalent yet hidden public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Merin, Abigail; Rendina, H Jonathon; Pachankis, John E

    2018-02-01

    Despite its highly prevalent and stigmatizing nature, genital herpes has received little attention from stigma researchers relative to other sexually transmitted infections. This limitation is of great relevance to researchers and practitioners in both clinical and healthcare settings, given that stigma can cause psychological distress and hinder disclosure to sexual partners, hence contributing to the spread of genital herpes. The present research developed and examined the psychometric properties of a quantitative measure of genital herpes stigma. Two hundred individuals diagnosed with genital herpes recruited through online genital herpes support groups completed a survey containing 37 items adapted from the HIV Stigma Scale, questions about demographic and herpes-related characteristics, and measures of relevant psychosocial variables. A confirmatory factor analysis yielded an 18-item scale with four factors: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. All subscales demonstrated good internal consistency, with Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.74 to 0.87. Construct validity was supported by correlations with relevant psychosocial variables, including negative affect, rumination, and perceived social support. As a psychometrically sound assessment tool, the Genital Herpes Stigma Scale can be used in both clinical and research settings to facilitate future efforts to alleviate the negative psychological consequences of this incurable viral infection.

  11. Diagnostic Challenges of Female Genital Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Vigi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: India accounts for one fifth of the global incidence of tuberculosis (TB annually. Genital tract TB is one of the extra pulmonary presentations of TB leading to infertility among Indian women. Genital TB is a chronic disease and often asymptomatic with very few specific complaints. Infertility is the most common clinical presentation of genital TB. Herein, we report a case of 32-year-old female patient suffering from abdominal pain and infertility for the last 8 months. Methods: Hysterosalpingography (HSG and ultrasonography (USG did not reveal characteristic radiological appearances of TB although USG detected the presence of a large fibroid in the right uterine wall. Histology, microscopy for acid fast bacilli, liquid culture and nucleic acid amplification assay targeting 64kDa protein encoding gene, the IS6110 element of endometrium biopsy were negative for tubercle bacilli. Results: Since the diagnosis of genital TB is elusive, antitubercular treatment (ATT using isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampicin, and ethambutol was prescribed for two months followed by maintenance therapy with isoniazid and rifampicin for four months without any pregnancy outcome. Conclusion: However, the patient conceived spontaneously after surgical removal of fibroid. Relating infertility to female genital tuberculosis due to high prevalence of TB in the country and ignoring the presence of uterine fibroid might not have been the right decision taken by the gynaecologist. This suggests the urgent need for an accurate method intended for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis.

  12. Microbial Composition Predicts Genital Tract Inflammation and Persistent Bacterial Vaginosis in South African Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Katie; Dabee, Smritee; Barnabas, Shaun L; Havyarimana, Enock; Blakney, Anna; Jaumdally, Shameem Z; Botha, Gerrit; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lewis, David A; Gray, Glenda; Mulder, Nicola; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Jaspan, Heather B

    2018-01-01

    Young African females are at an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and genital inflammation or the vaginal microbiome may contribute to this risk. We studied these factors in 168 HIV-negative South African adolescent females aged 16 to 22 years. Unsupervised clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed three clusters (subtypes), one of which was strongly associated with genital inflammation. In a multivariate model, the microbiome compositional subtype and hormonal contraception were significantly associated with genital inflammation. We identified 40 taxa significantly associated with inflammation, including those reported previously ( Prevotella , Sneathia , Aerococcus , Fusobacterium , and Gemella ) as well as several novel taxa (including increased frequencies of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 1 [BVAB1], BVAB2, BVAB3, Prevotella amnii , Prevotella pallens , Parvimonas micra , Megasphaera , Gardnerella vaginalis , and Atopobium vaginae and decreased frequencies of Lactobacillus reuteri , Lactobacillus crispatus , Lactobacillus jensenii , and Lactobacillus iners ). Women with inflammation-associated microbiomes had significantly higher body mass indices and lower levels of endogenous estradiol and luteinizing hormone. Community functional profiling revealed three distinct vaginal microbiome subtypes, one of which was characterized by extreme genital inflammation and persistent bacterial vaginosis (BV); this subtype could be predicted with high specificity and sensitivity based on the Nugent score (≥9) or BVAB1 abundance. We propose that women with this BVAB1-dominated subtype may have chronic genital inflammation due to persistent BV, which may place them at a particularly high risk for HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Recurrent genital herpes treatments and their impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-01-01

    Herpes genitalis is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases in the world, with an estimated seroprevalence in the US of greater than 20%. Two viruses of the same family cause herpes genitalis: herpes simplex virus 1 and 2. After the resolution of primary infection, the virus persists in the nerve roots of the sacral plexus, often causing recurrent (though generally less severe) outbreaks. These outbreaks, as well as the infectious potential to the patient's sexual partners, results in significant psychological stress on the patient, and has a tremendous negative impact on QOL. Current treatment modalities may result in a reduction in the number of outbreaks and viral shedding, but no cure exists. Although studies have clearly demonstrated the negative impact of recurrent genital herpes on QOL, an assessment scale specific to herpes was not developed until recently. Earlier studies indicated that patients did not perceive a significant benefit from episodic treatment with antivirals, but studies using the Recurrent Genital Herpes Quality of Life Questionnaire (RGHQoL) have now demonstrated that suppressive antiviral therapy improves quality of life in patients with frequent recurrences of genital herpes. However, not all patients with recurrent genital herpes need suppressive therapy, and proposed factors to consider include frequency of recurrence, physical and psychological distress caused by recurrences, and the potential for transmission to the patient's sexual partner. Newer therapeutic modalities, including the topical immune response modifier resiquimod and herpes vaccines, may eventually be shown to further decrease the psychological morbidity of recurrent genital herpes.

  14. The potential of immunostimulatory CpG DNA for inducing immunity against genital herpes: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harandi, Ali M

    2004-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) invades human genital tract mucosa and following local replications can be rapidly transmitted via peripheral nerve axons to the sacral ganglia where it can establish latency. Reactivation of the latent viral reservoir results in recurrent ulcers in the genital region. Innate immunity, the first line of defence during both primary and recurrent genital herpes infections, is crucial during the period of acute infection to limit early virus replication and to facilitate the development of an appropriate specific acquired immunity. Recent developments in immunology reveal that the mammalian innate immune systems use Toll-like receptor (TLR) to specifically sense evolutionary conserved molecules such as bacterial DNA in pathogens. Recently, local-vaginal delivery of CpG containing oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), a synthetic mimic of bacterial DNA, holds substantial promise as a strong inducer of innate immunity against genital herpes infections in the animal models of the disease. These preclinical observations provide a scientific ground work for introduction of this novel intervention strategy to clinic. This review aims to highlight recent developments and future challenges in use of immunostimulatory CpG ODN for inducing immunity against genital herpes infection and disease.

  15. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Birge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject.

  16. Genetic variability of genital mycoplasmas and its clinical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Plakhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on genetic variability of genital mycoplasmas. The author presents the results of genetic variability studies for M. hominis, gene vaa, U. parvum, gene mba, and M. genitalium, gene mg192, sampled from women with different clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system. Based on the molecular typing results for 138 samples of genital mycoplasmas, the author revealed a relationship between clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system caused by U. parvum and different U. parvum serovars as well as different genetic variations of M. hominis.Infection with 6 U. parvum serovar results in the development of inflammatory diseases of the urogenital tract accompanied by subjective manifestations (р < 0.05. Genetic variant II of М. hominis was revealed more often in patients with clinical manifestations of inflammatory diseases while variant I was revealed more often in patients infected with М. hominis without any signs of inflammation (р < 0.05. Genetic variants of M. genitalium were determined; no significant differences in terms of their prevalence in the examined patients were revealed.

  17. The use of serological titres of IgA and IgG in (early) discrimination between rectal infection with non-lymphogranuloma venereum and lymphogranuloma venereum serovars of Chlamydia trochomotis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van der Snoek (Eric); J.M. Ossewaarde (Jacobus); W.I. van der Meijden (Willem); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); H.B. Thio (Bing)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To investigate whether serological titres of species-specific IgA and IgG antibodies in patients with rectal chlamydial infection could discriminate between infection with serovar L2 lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and infection with non-LGV serovars. Methods: A total of 39

  18. Intra-vaginal Zinc Oxide Tetrapod Nanoparticles as Novel Immunoprotective Agents against Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Thessicar E.; Hadigal, Satvik R.; Yakoub, Abraam; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Bhattacharya, Palash; Haddad, Christine; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Adelung, Rainer; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all efforts to generate an effective protection against the life-long, recurrent genital infections caused by Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) have failed. Apart from sexual transmission, the virus can also be transmitted from mothers to neonates, and is a key facilitator of HIV co-acquisition. Here, we uncover a nanoimmunotherapy using specially designed Zinc Oxide Tetrapod Nanoparticles (ZOTEN) with engineered oxygen vacancies. We demonstrate that ZOTEN, when used intravaginally as a microbicide, is an effective suppressor of HSV-2 genital infection in female BALB/c mice. The strong HSV-2 trapping ability of ZOTEN significantly reduced the clinical signs of vaginal infection and effectively decreased animal mortality. In parallel, ZOTEN promoted the presentation of bound HSV-2 virions to mucosal antigen presenting cells, enhancing T cell- mediated and antibody-mediated responses to the infection, and thereby, suppressing a re-infection. We also found that ZOTEN exhibits strong adjuvant-like properties, which is highly comparable to alum, a commonly used adjuvant. Overall, our study provides very first evidence for the protective efficacy of an intravaginal microbicide/vaccine or microbivac platform against primary and secondary female genital herpes infections. PMID:27183601

  19. Characteristics and quantities of HIV host cells in human genital tract secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politch, Joseph A; Marathe, Jai; Anderson, Deborah J

    2014-12-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected leukocytes have been detected in genital secretions from HIV-infected men and women and may play an important role in the sexual transmission of HIV. However, they have been largely overlooked in studies on mechanisms of HIV transmission and in the design and testing of HIV vaccine and microbicide candidates. This article describes the characteristics and quantities of leukocytes in male and female genital secretions under various conditions and also reviews evidence for the involvement of HIV-infected cells in both horizontal and vertical cell-associated HIV transmission. Additional research is needed in this area to better target HIV prevention strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Genital Tuberculosis as the Cause of Tuboovarian Abscess in an Immunosuppressed Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ilmer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although tuberculosis (TB is a major health problem worldwide, primary extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB, and in particular female genital tract infection, remains a rare event. Case Report. A 35-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive woman of African descent with lower abdominal pain and fever of two days duration underwent surgery due to left adnexal mass suggesting pelvic inflammatory disease. The surgical situs showed a four quadrant peritonitis, consistent with the clinical symptoms of the patient, provoked by a tuboovarian abscess (TOA on the left side. All routine diagnostic procedures failed to determine the causative organism/pathogen of the infection. Histopathological evaluation identified a necrotic granulomatous salpingitis and specific PCR analysis corroborated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Tb. Consequently, antituberculotic therapy was provided. Conclusion. In the differential diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease, internal genital tuberculosis should be considered. Moreover, physicians should consider tuberculous infections early in the work-up of patients when immunosuppressive conditions are present.

  1. Effects of a traditional Chinese medicine, Longdanxiegan formula granule, on Toll-like receptor pathway in female guinea pigs with recurrent genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Lin; Deng, Yihui; Liu, Xiaodan; Zou, Zhixiang; Mi, Lan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Longdanxiegan formula granule (LDXGFG), a Chinese traditional medicine on Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway in recurrent genital herpes. An experimental recurrent genital herpes model was constructed using herpes guinea pig model. The effect of LDXGFG on expression levels of TLR pathway genes were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the dendritic cells and Langerhans cells were isolated and the TLR pathway genes of these cells were assayed after LDXGFG treatment. The result suggested two different expression patterns of TLR pathway genes in genital herpes and recurrent genital herpes, including upregulated genes and downregulated genes. TLR1, TLR4, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, and TLR10 showed a significant decrease while, TLR2, TLR3, and TLR5 increased in genital herpes and recurrent genital herpes guinea pigs. Meanwhile, the downregulated genes in genital herpes and recurrent genital herpes were stimulated by LDXGFG. By contrast, the upregulated genes decreased significantly after LDXGFG treatment. In both dendritic cells and Langerhans cells, the TLR pathway genes exhibited same pattern: the LDXGFG corrected the abnormal expression of TLR pathway genes. The present results suggest that LDXGFG is an alternative, inexpensive, and lasting-effect medicine for herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and bronchial asthma: Is there a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Besides well-defined environmental causes, accumulating evidence suggests that respiratory tract infections play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Among these Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been discussed as possibly inducing the development of asthma. Methods: This study was designed to investigate the presence of anti chlamydial IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies by ELISA in serum samples of 60 adults with a clinical history of asthma and 100 healthy age and sex matched controls. All the samples positive for Chlamydial genus specific IgG antibodies were then subjected to Chlamydia pneumoniae species specific IgG antibody ELISA. Results: The IgG anti chlamydial antibody-positivity rate in the patients with bronchial asthma (80% was significantly higher in all age groups than that in the healthy age and sex matched controls (59%. No significant association was observed for IgA and IgM anti chlamydial antibodies. C. pneumoniae species specific IgG antibody seroprevalence was also found to be significantly higher in all age groups in comparison to controls (61.66% vs 38%. Conclusions: Serological evidence of chronic infection with C. pneumoniae was more frequent in patients with asthma compared with control subjects. Our results support the correlation of bronchial asthma and chronic infection with C. pneumoniae in Indian population.

  3. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. RESULT In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts. PMID:24770498

  4. Compartmentalization of HIV-1 within the female genital tract is due to monotypic and low-diversity variants not distinct viral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Marta; Learn, Gerald; Genowati, Indira; McKernan, Jennifer; Hitti, Jane; Lockhart, David; Tapia, Kenneth; Holte, Sarah; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert; Mullins, James; Frenkel, Lisa

    2009-09-22

    Compartmentalization of HIV-1 between the genital tract and blood was noted in half of 57 women included in 12 studies primarily using cell-free virus. To further understand differences between genital tract and blood viruses of women with chronic HIV-1 infection cell-free and cell-associated virus populations were sequenced from these tissues, reasoning that integrated viral DNA includes variants archived from earlier in infection, and provides a greater array of genotypes for comparisons. Multiple sequences from single-genome-amplification of HIV-1 RNA and DNA from the genital tract and blood of each woman were compared in a cross-sectional study. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for evidence of compartmentalization using four statistical tests. Genital tract and blood HIV-1 appears compartmentalized in 7/13 women by >/=2 statistical analyses. These subjects' phylograms were characterized by low diversity genital-specific viral clades interspersed between clades containing both genital and blood sequences. Many of the genital-specific clades contained monotypic HIV-1 sequences. In 2/7 women, HIV-1 populations were significantly compartmentalized across all four statistical tests; both had low diversity genital tract-only clades. Collapsing monotypic variants into a single sequence diminished the prevalence and extent of compartmentalization. Viral sequences did not demonstrate tissue-specific signature amino acid residues, differential immune selection, or co-receptor usage. In women with chronic HIV-1 infection multiple identical sequences suggest proliferation of HIV-1-infected cells, and low diversity tissue-specific phylogenetic clades are consistent with bursts of viral replication. These monotypic and tissue-specific viruses provide statistical support for compartmentalization of HIV-1 between the female genital tract and blood. However, the intermingling of these clades with clades comprised of both genital and blood sequences and the absence

  5. [Detection and typing by molecular biology of human papillomavirus in genital samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Moya, A; Esquivias Gómez, J I; Vidart Aragón, J A; Picazo de la Garza, J J

    2006-06-01

    Recently, there has been a marked increase in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the etiological relationship between some HPV genotypes and genital cancer has been confirmed. Therefore, we used current molecular biology techniques to evaluate the prevalence of these viruses and their genotype in genital samples. We processed 401 genital samples from 281 women and 120 men, all with a diagnosis compatible with HPV infection. Virus was detected using PCR, and