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Sample records for genital chlamydial infection

  1. Effect of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection of female guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, R G; White, H. J.; Hough, A. J.; Pasley, J N; Barron, A L

    1982-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were treated daily with 1 mg of beta-estradiol-3-benzoate intramuscularly beginning 14 days before intravaginal inoculation with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and continuing during the course of the infection. Treatment with estradiol was found to markedly influence the course of genital infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, producing infections of greater intensity and longer duration than those in control...

  2. Immunization with chlamydial plasmid protein pORF5 DNA vaccine induces protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To validate the immune protective efficacy of pORF5 DNA vaccine and to analyze potential mechanisms related to this protection. In this study, pORF5 DNA vaccine was constructed and evaluated for its protective immunity in a mouse model of genital chlamydial infection. Groups of BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally with pORF5 DNA vaccine. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses were evaluated. The clearance ability of chlamydial challenge from the genital tract and the chlamy- dia-induced upper genital tract gross pathology and histopathological characterization were also de- tected. The results showed that the total and the IgG2a anti-pORF5 antibody levels in serum were sig- nificantly elevated after pcDNA3.1-pORF5 vaccination, as were the total antibody and IgA levels in vaginal fluids. pcDNA3.1-pORF5 induced a significantly high level of Th1 response as measured by robust gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Minimal IL-4 was produced by immune T cells in response to the re-stimulation with pORF5 protein or the inactive elementary body in vitro. pcDNA3.1-pORF5-vacci- nated mice displayed significantly reduced bacterial shedding upon a chlamydial challenge and an accelerated resolution of infection. 100% of pcDNA3.1-pORF5 vaccinated mice successfully resolved the infection by day 24. pcDNA3.1-pORF5-immunized mice also exhibited protection against patho- logical consequences of chlamydial infection. The stimulated index was significantly higher than that of mice immunized with pcDNA3.1 and PBS (P<0.05). Together, these results demonstrated that immu- nization with pORF5 DNA vaccine is a promising approach for eliciting a protective immunity against a genital chlamydial challenge.

  3. Effect of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection of female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, R G; White, H J; Hough, A J; Pasley, J N; Barron, A L

    1982-11-01

    Female guinea pigs were treated daily with 1 mg of beta-estradiol-3-benzoate intramuscularly beginning 14 days before intravaginal inoculation with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and continuing during the course of the infection. Treatment with estradiol was found to markedly influence the course of genital infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, producing infections of greater intensity and longer duration than those in control animals. Moreover, pathogenesis was altered in that ascending infection was observed, resulting in endometritis, cystic salpingitis, and cystitis. Infection in the controls was limited to the cervix and vagina. Estradiol treatment increased the apparent number of infected cells in the cervix and vagina as detected by histopathology and immunofluorescent staining. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis were comparable in estradiol-treated and untreated animals. These data indicate that hormonal manipulation may have profound effects on the course of chlamydial genital infections.

  4. Interleukin-13 promotes susceptibility to chlamydial infection of the respiratory and genital tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Asquith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are intracellular bacteria that commonly cause infections of the respiratory and genital tracts, which are major clinical problems. Infections are also linked to the aetiology of diseases such as asthma, emphysema and heart disease. The clinical management of infection is problematic and antibiotic resistance is emerging. Increased understanding of immune processes that are involved in both clearance and immunopathology of chlamydial infection is critical for the development of improved treatment strategies. Here, we show that IL-13 was produced in the lungs of mice rapidly after Chlamydia muridarum (Cmu infection and promoted susceptibility to infection. Wild-type (WT mice had increased disease severity, bacterial load and associated inflammation compared to IL-13 deficient (-/- mice as early as 3 days post infection (p.i.. Intratracheal instillation of IL-13 enhanced bacterial load in IL-13-/- mice. There were no differences in early IFN-g and IL-10 expression between WT and IL-13-/- mice and depletion of CD4+ T cells did not affect infection in IL-13-/- mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate a lack of CD4+ T cell involvement and a novel role for IL-13 in innate responses to infection. We also showed that IL-13 deficiency increased macrophage uptake of Cmu in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the depletion of IL-13 during infection of lung epithelial cells in vitro decreased the percentage of infected cells and reduced bacterial growth. Our results suggest that enhanced IL-13 responses in the airways, such as that found in asthmatics, may promote susceptibility to chlamydial lung infection. Importantly the role of IL-13 in regulating infection was not limited to the lung as we showed that IL-13 also promoted susceptibility to Cmu genital tract infection. Collectively our findings demonstrate that innate IL-13 release promotes infection that results in enhanced inflammation and have broad implications for the treatment of chlamydial

  5. Effects of various doses of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection in ovariectomized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various doses of estradiol on genital tract infection by the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) was investigated in ovariectomized guinea pigs. Prolongation of infection, as determined by chlamydial inclusion counts of cells in Giemsa-stained smears of vaginal scrapings, was observed in animals receiving daily doses of 1.0, 10.0, 100.0, or 1000 micrograms of estradiol. In contrast to controls, ascending infection resulting in endometritis was found in animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram of estradiol per day. Response to estradiol treatment was reflected in an increase in cervical-uterine wet weight and uterine wall thickness. No differences were observed in time of appearance of antibody titers to GPIC in serum, but a delay in appearance of IgA antibody to GPIC in genital secretions was found in estradiol-treated animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram per day.

  6. Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection in young women entering a national job training program, 1990-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Ransom, R L; St Louis, M E; Groseclose, S L; Hadgu, A; Levine, W C; Hayman, C

    2001-08-01

    This analysis describes trends in the prevalence of genital chlamydial infection in economically disadvantaged young women entering a national job training program. We examined chlamydia test data for May 1990 through June 1997 for women aged 16 to 24 years who enrolled in the program. The significance of trends was evaluated with the chi 2 test for trend. Prevalence of chlamydial infection declined 32.9%, from 14.9% in 1990 to 10.0% in 1997 (P < .001). Prevalence decreased significantly in all age groups, racial/ethnic groups, and geographic regions. The decrease in prevalence of chlamydial infection suggests that prevention activities have reached disadvantaged women across the United States; however, prevalence of chlamydial infection remains high, and enhanced prevention efforts in disadvantaged communities are urgently needed.

  7. Prevalence of Genital Chlamydial Infection in Young Women Entering a National Job Training Program, 1990–1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Kristen J.; Ransom, Raymond L.; St. Louis, Michael E.; Groseclose, Samuel L.; Hadgu, Alula; Levine, William C.; Hayman, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This analysis describes trends in the prevalence of genital chlamydial infection in economically disadvantaged young women entering a national job training program. Methods. We examined chlamydia test data for May 1990 through June 1997 for women aged 16 to 24 years who enrolled in the program. The significance of trends was evaluated with the χ2 test for trend. Results. Prevalence of chlamydial infection declined 32.9%, from 14.9% in 1990 to 10.0% in 1997 (P < .001). Prevalence decreased significantly in all age groups, racial/ethnic groups, and geographic regions. Conclusions. The decrease in prevalence of chlamydial infection suggests that prevention activities have reached disadvantaged women across the United States; however, prevalence of chlamydial infection remains high, and enhanced prevention efforts in disadvantaged communities are urgently needed. PMID:11499120

  8. Absence of progesterone effects on chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of progesterone alone and in combination with estradiol was investigated in ovariectomized and gonadally intact female guinea pigs infected with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). The course of the infection, as determined by the percentage of cells with GPIC (chlamydia) inclusions in Giemsa-stained vaginal scrapings, was not affected in animals receiving 5.0 mg of progesterone daily. Progesterone had no influence on the enhancement of infection by estradiol. In comparison with sesame oil-treated controls, infection was prolonged by four to six days (P less than .05) in animals receiving a combination of 5.0 mg of progesterone plus 1.0 microgram of estradiol or 1.0 microgram of estradiol alone each day. In ovariectomized animals, estradiol delayed the appearance of IgA antibody in genital secretions, whereas progesterone alone had no effect. Guinea pigs treated with estradiol or progesterone plus estradiol manifested an acute endometritis not observed in animals treated with progesterone alone or in controls receiving sesame oil. Although cervical ectopy, analogous to that seen in women with high levels of progesterone, was identified by histopathology in animals treated with progesterone, no enhancement of the chlamydial infection was observed.

  9. Noninvasive screening for genital chlamydial infections in asymptomatic men: Strategies and costs using a urine PCR assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Toye, Baldwin; Jessamine, Peter; Gemmill, Ian

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cost saving strategies to screen for genital chlamydial infection in men using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. METHODS: Men with no urethral symptoms presenting to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic were recruited. Study participants underwent a questionnaire interview. Urethral swabs were taken to perform a smear for polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by culture and PCR. First-catch urine was collected for a leukocyte esterase test (LET) and PCR. RESULTS: C trachomatis infection was detected in 36 of 463 (7.8%) men. LET and PMN were positive in 10 (28%) and 12 (33%) infected men, respectively. Risk factors for chlamydial infection were younger than age 25 years, LET-positive, PMN-positive and STD contact (P<0.001). The direct cost of genital chlamydial infection in men in Canada has been previously estimated at $381/case. Based on a sensitivity of 90% for urine PCR, the estimated direct cost of testing all participants to detect 32 cases was $453/case. Using risk factors recommended in the Canadian STD Guidelines (age younger than 25 years, new partner, STD contact or unprotected sex), the same number of cases would have been detected by testing only 384 men at $376/case. Using age younger than 25 years or STD contact as the screening criterion, 78% of those infected would have been detected at $259/case, and no new cases would have been detected by adding LET-positive or PMN-positive as risk factors. CONCLUSION: Targeted screening for chlamydial infection using urine PCR assay and risk factors recommended in the Canadian guidelines could substantially reduce the cost of screening at a STD clinic setting. LET and PMN smear did not appear to be useful indicators of chlamydial infection in this population. PMID:22346549

  10. Noninvasive Screening for Genital Chlamydial Infections in Asymptomatic Men: Strategies and Costs Using a Urine PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Baldwin Toye; Peter Jessamine; Ian Gemmill

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cost saving strategies to screen for genital chlamydial infection in men using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology.METHODS: Men with no urethral symptoms presenting to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic were recruited. Study participants underwent a questionnaire interview. Urethral swabs were taken to perform a smear for polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by culture and PCR. First-catch urine was collected ...

  11. Interruption of CXCL13-CXCR5 axis increases upper genital tract pathology and activation of NKT cells following chlamydial genital infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulation of immune responses is critical for controlling inflammation and disruption of this process can lead to tissue damage. We reported that CXCL13 was induced in fallopian tube tissue following C. trachomatis infection. Here, we examined the influence of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in chlamydial genital infection. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis by injecting anti-CXCL13 Ab to BALB/c mice or using Cxcr5-/- mice increased chronic inflammation in the upper genital tract (UGT; uterine horns and oviducts after Chlamydia muridarum genital infection (GT. Further studies in Cxcr5-/- mice showed an elevation in bacterial burden in the GT and increased numbers of neutrophils, activated DCs and activated NKT cells early after infection. After resolution, we noted increased fibrosis and the accumulation of a variety of T cells subsets (CD4-IFNγ, CD4-IL-17, CD4-IL-10 & CD8-TNFα in the oviducts. NKT cell depletion in vitro reduced IL-17α and various cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that activated NKT cells modulate neutrophils and DCs through cytokine/chemokine secretion. Further, chlamydial glycolipids directly activated two distinct types of NKT cell hybridomas in a cell-free CD1d presentation assay and genital infection of Cd1d-/- mice showed reduced oviduct inflammation compared to WT mice. CXCR5 involvement in pathology was also noted using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis in C. trachomatis infected women attending a sub-fertility clinic. Women who developed tubal pathology after a C. trachomatis infection had a decrease in the frequency of CXCR5 SNP +10950 T>C (rs3922. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These experiments indicate that disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis permits increased activation of NKT cells by type I and type II glycolipids of Chlamydia muridarum and results in UGT pathology potentially through increased numbers of neutrophils and T cell subsets associated with UGT pathology

  12. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  13. chlamydial infection, plasma peroxidation and obesity in tubal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes include environmental and life style ... upper female genital tract may cause pelvic inflammatory ... Chlamydial infection, obesity and oxidative response with tubal infertility in ..... tubal infertility, and will hopefully shed more light on.

  14. Early microRNA expression profile as a prognostic biomarker for the development of pelvic inflammatory disease in a mouse model of chlamydial genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Myers, Garry S A; Spencer, Nicole; Creasy, Heather Huot; Adams, Nancy E; Maurelli, Anthony T; McChesney, Grant R; Cleves, Mario A; Ravel, Jacques; Bowlin, Anne; Rank, Roger G

    2014-06-24

    It is not currently possible to predict the probability of whether a woman with a chlamydial genital infection will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). To determine if specific biomarkers may be associated with distinct chlamydial pathotypes, we utilized two Chlamydia muridarum variants (C. muridarum Var001 [CmVar001] and CmVar004) that differ in their abilities to elicit upper genital tract pathology in a mouse model. CmVar004 has a lower growth rate in vitro and induces pathology in only 20% of C57BL/6 mouse oviducts versus 83.3% of oviducts in CmVar001-infected mice. To determine if chemokine and cytokine production within 24 h of infection is associated with the outcome of pathology, levels of 15 chemokines and cytokines were measured. CmVar004 infection induced significantly lower levels of CXCL1, CXCL2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and CCL2 in comparison to CmVar001 infection with similar rRNA (rs16) levels for Chlamydiae. A combination of microRNA (miRNA) sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 134 inflammation-related miRNAs was performed 24 h postinfection to determine if the chemokine/cytokine responses would also be reflected in miRNA expression profiles. Interestingly, 12 miRNAs (miR-135a-5p, miR298-5p, miR142-3p, miR223-3p, miR299a-3p, miR147-3p, miR105, miR325-3p, miR132-3p, miR142-5p, miR155-5p, and miR-410-3p) were overexpressed during CmVar004 infection compared to CmVar001 infection, inversely correlating with the respective chemokine/cytokine responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that early biomarkers elicited in the host can differentiate between two pathological variants of chlamydiae and be predictive of upper tract disease. It is apparent that an infecting chlamydial population consists of multiple genetic variants with differing capabilities of eliciting a pathological response; thus, it may be possible to identify biomarkers specific for a given virulence pathotype. mi

  15. CCL5 regulation of mucosal chlamydial immunity and infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igietseme Joseph U

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following genital chlamydial infection, an early T helper type 1 (Th1-associated immune response precedes the activation and recruitment of specific Th1 cells bearing distinct chemokine receptors, subsequently leading to the clearance of Chlamydia. We have shown that CCR5, a receptor for CCL5, is crucial for protective chlamydial immunity. Our laboratory and others have also demonstrated that CCL5 deficiencies found in man and animals can increase the susceptibility and progression of infectious diseases by modulating mucosal immunity. These findings suggest the CCR5-CCL5 axis is necessary for optimal chlamydial immunity. We hypothesized CCL5 is required for protective humoral and cellular immunity against Chlamydia. Results The present study revealed that CCR5 and CCL5 mRNAs are elevated in the spleen, iliac lymph nodes (ILNs, and genital mucosa following Chlamydia muriduram challenge. Antibody (Ab-mediated inhibition of CCL5 during genital chlamydial infection suppressed humoral and Th1 > Th2 cellular responses by splenic-, ILN-, and genital mucosa-derived lymphocytes. Antigen (Ag-specific proliferative responses of CD4+ T cells from spleen, ILNs, and genital organs also declined after CCL5 inhibition. Conclusion The suppression of these responses correlated with delayed clearance of C. muriduram, which indicate chlamydial immunity is mediated by Th1 immune responses driven in part by CCL5. Taken together with other studies, the data show that CCL5 mediates the temporal recruitment and activation of leukocytes to mitigate chlamydial infection through enhancing adaptive mucosal humoral and cellular immunity.

  16. Chlamydial infections - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have symptoms of a chlamydia infection, the health care provider may suggest a lab test called PCR. You provider will take a sample of discharge from the penis. This discharge is sent to a lab to be tested. Results ...

  17. Knowledge of Chlamydial Infection among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David M.; Felts, W. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study designed to assess knowledge about chlamydial infection among university students (N=258) revealed serious gaps in knowledge. Data suggests that students held several misconceptions, or had no knowledge, regarding symptoms, transmission, treatment, and testing for chlamydial infection. (IAH)

  18. Laboratory diagnosis of persistent human chlamydial infection

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    Mirja ePuolakkainen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic assays for persistent chlamydial infection are much needed to conduct high-quality, large-scale studies investigating the persistent state in vivo, its disease associations and the response to therapy. Yet in most studies the distinction between acute and persistent infection is based on the interpretation of the data obtained by the assays developed to diagnose acute infections or on complex assays available for research only and/or difficult to establish for clinical use. Novel biomarkers for detection of persistent chlamydial infection are urgently needed. Chlamydial whole genome proteome arrays are now available and they can identify chlamydial antigens that are differentially expressed between acute infection and persistent infection. Utilizing these data will lead to the development of novel diagnostic assays. Carefully selected specimens from well-studied patient populations are clearly needed in the process of translating the proteomic data into assays useful for clinical practice. Before such antigens are identified and validated assays become available, we face a challenge of deciding whether the persistent infection truly induced appearance of the proposed marker or do we just base our diagnosis of persistent infection on the presence of the suggested markers. Consequently, we must bear this in mind when interpreting the available data.

  19. Recent advances in understanding the biology, epidemiology and control of chlamydial infections in koalas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Adam; Hanger, Jon; Timms, Peter

    2013-08-30

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is recognised as a threatened wildlife species in various parts of Australia. A major contributing factor to the decline and long-term viability of affected populations is disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia. Two chlamydial species infect the koala, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae, and have been reported in nearly all mainland koala populations. Chlamydial infections of koalas are associated with ocular infections leading to blindness and genital tract infections linked to infertility, among other serious clinical manifestations. Diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation alone, however, it is complicated by the observation that many koala chlamydial infections occur with no overt signs of clinical disease. Instead, accurate diagnosis requires detailed clinical assessment and confirmatory testing by a range of PCR-based assays. Antibiotic treatment for koala chlamydial infection is possible, however, results on its success are mixed. A more practical solution for the protection of diseased populations is the application of a koala Chlamydia vaccine, with recent trials indicating promising results. Interestingly, molecular epidemiology studies of koala C. pecorum infections and recent comparative genomic analyses of koala C. pneumoniae have revealed potential differences in their origin that will have wider ramifications for our understanding of human chlamydial infections and host adaptation of the chlamydiae. This review summarises changes to the taxonomy of koala chlamydial infections and recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, control and evolution of Chlamydia infections in this iconic wildlife species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs Shradha Wali1., Rishein Gupta1., Ronald L. Veselenak2, Yansong Li3, Jieh-Juen Yu , Ashlesh K. Murthy , Andrew...contributed equally to this work. Abstract Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti- chlamydial vaccine candidates...tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig- specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using

  1. The risk of transmission of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is less than that of genital Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycke, E; Löwhagen, G B; Hallhagen, G; Johannisson, G; Ramstedt, K

    1980-01-01

    A total of 211 men with 237 female sexual partners and a total of 155 women with 156 male consorts were examined for genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The index patients had either single chlamydial or gonococcal infections or dual infections with both microorganisms. Analysis of recovery rates for groups of sexual consorts indicated that gonorrhea was contracted more frequently than chlamydial infection. Thus, when index patients had dual infections, 45% and 28% of their female and male consorts, respectively, had chlamydial infection, but 64% and 77%, respectively, had gonorrhea. When index patients had single infections with C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae, chlamydial infections were observed in consorts of 45% (women) and 28% (men), but gonococcal infections were observed in 80% (women) and 81% (men). Moreover, a significantly larger proportion of consorts of patients with chlamydial infection eluded infection than did partners of patients with gonorrhea. Women who used an intrauterine contraceptive device had chlamydial and gonococcal infections more often than those who used other forms of contraception, or no contraceptive.

  2. Chlamydial infections in small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietfeld, J C

    2001-07-01

    Chlamydophila abortus (formerly Chlamydia psittaci) is one of the most important causes of reproductive failure in sheep and goats, especially in intensively managed flocks. The disease is usually manifested as abortion in the last 2 to 3 weeks of gestation, regardless of when the animal was infected. Ewes that abort are resistant to future reproductive failure due to C. abortus, but they become inapparent carriers and persistently shed the organism from their reproductive tracts during estrus. Chlamydophila pecorum is the other member of the genus that affects small ruminants, and it is recognized as a primary cause of keratoconjunctivitis in sheep and goats and of polyarthritis in sheep.

  3. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

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    Maria Agnese Latino

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t. infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more common among young women <25 years old, with multiple sexual partners within six months and non protected intercourses. Because re-infection rates are high, complications may be reduced if partners are treated and women re-tested. This paper emphasizes the importance of counselling and prevention programs and underlines that selective screening of high-risk population remains an essential component of C.t. control. In the last years, the detection of C.t. infection has been improved in sensitivity and specificity.We describe the main diagnostic techniques, from culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA, direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA to the new DNA-based test systems. Actually, NAATs (nucleic acid amplification tests are regarded as the gold standard diagnostic techniques for chlamydial infections.

  4. CTA1-DD is an effective adjuvant for targeting anti-chlamydial immunity to the murine genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kelly A; Carey, Alison J; Lycke, Nils; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2009-07-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a significant human pathogen with potentially severe disease sequelae in the genital tract, including infertility. A successful vaccine will need to effectively target immunity to the genital mucosa. Intranasal immunisation with cholera toxin (CT) can target immunity to the genital tract, but has the potential to cause neurological side effects. CTA1-DD is a non-toxic potent mucosal adjuvant which combines the enzymatic properties of CT, with a B cell targeting moiety. Here, we demonstrate that intranasal immunisation with CTA1-DD and chlamydial Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) results in the induction of neutralising systemic and mucosal antibodies, and reduces the level of chlamydial shedding following intravaginal challenge with Chlamydia muridarum. Thus, CTA1-DD is an effective adjuvant for vaccine development against Chlamydia trachomatis, and possibly also a range of other genital pathogens.

  5. Do bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection affect serum cytokine level?

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    Bogavac Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Serbia is the country with extremely low birth rate and a relatively high percentage of preterm deliveries (8%. With this in mind, discovering new diagnostic methods that could be used for the prediction of preterm delivery is of great importance. In this study we tried to determine whether bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection could provoke preterm delivery by activation of systemic cytokine network. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α in pregnant women with symptoms of preterm delivery and to make correlation between these parameters and the presence of bacterial vaginosis or chlamydial infection. Method. In the serum of 35 pregnant women, which were divided in groups according to the presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection, commercial ELISA tests for proinflammatory cytokines were performed. Results. The serum level of IFN-γ was significantly increased in pregnant women having chlamydial infection, as well as the level of IL-1β in women with bacterial vaginosis. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were not significantly different between the investigated groups. Conclusion. The preliminary results obtained in this research point out the possibility that not only intrauterine or systemic infections, but also bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection can cause a partial activation of systemic cytokine network and contribute to the occurrence of preterm delivery.

  6. Chlamydial infection induces host cytokinesis failure at abscission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather M; Knowlton, Andrea E; Grieshaber, Scott S

    2012-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacteria and the infectious agent responsible for the sexually transmitted disease Chlamydia. Infection with Chlamydia can lead to serious health sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease and reproductive tract scarring contributing to infertility and ectopic pregnancies. Additionally, chlamydial infections have been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in patients with a prior human papilomavirus (HPV) infection. Chlamydial infection of cultured cells causes multinucleation, a potential pathway for chromosomal instability. Two mechanisms that are known to initiate multinucleation are cell fusion and cytokinesis failure. This study demonstrates that multinucleation of the host cell by Chlamydia is entirely due to cytokinesis failure. Moreover, cytokinesis failure is due in part to the chlamydial effector CPAF acting as an anaphase promoting complex mimic causing cells to exit mitosis with unaligned and unattached chromosomes. These lagging and missegregated chromosomes inhibit cytokinesis by blocking abscission, the final stage of cytokinesis.

  7. Immunization with Dendritic Cells Pulsed ex vivo with Recombinant Chlamydial Protease-Like Activity Factor Induces Protective Immunity Against Genital Chlamydia muridarum Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard eArulanandam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that immunization with soluble recombinant (r chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF and a T helper (Th 1 type adjuvant can induce significantly enhanced bacterial clearance and protection against Chlamydia–induced pathological sequelae in the genital tract. In this study, we investigated the use of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs pulsed ex vivo with rCPAF+CpG in an adoptive subcutaneous immunization for the ability to induce protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection. We found that BMDCs pulsed with rCPAF+CpG efficiently up-regulated the expression of activation markers CD86, CD80, CD40 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II, and secreted interleukin-12, but not IL-10 and IL-4. Mice adoptively immunized with rCPAF+CpG-pulsed BMDCs or UV-EB+CpG-pulsed BMDCs produced elevated levels of antigen-specific IFN- and enhanced IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. Moreover, mice immunized with rCPAF+CpG-pulsed BMDCs or UV-EB+CpG-pulsed BMDCs exhibited significantly reduced genital Chlamydia shedding, accelerated resolution of infection, and reduced oviduct pathology when compared to infected mock-immunized animals. These results suggest that adoptive subcutaneous immunization with ex vivo rCPAF-pulsed BMDCs is an effective approach, comparable to that induced by UV-EB-BMDCs, for inducing robust anti-Chlamydia immunity.

  8. Regulation of chlamydial infection by host autophagy and vacuolar ATPase-bearing organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Pachikara, Niseema D; Bao, Xiaofeng; Pan, Zui; Fan, Huizhou

    2011-10-01

    As arguably the most successful parasite, Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterium replicating inside a vacuole of eukaryotic host cells. The chlamydial vacuole does not fuse with the defense cell organelle lysosome. We previously showed that chlamydial infection increases markers of autophagy, an innate antimicrobial activity requiring lysosomal function. However, the work presented here demonstrates that p62, an autophagy protein that is degraded in lysosomes, either remained unchanged or increased in chlamydia-infected human epithelial, mouse fibroblast, and mouse macrophage cell lines. In addition, the activities of three lysosomal enzymes analyzed were diminished in chlamydia-infected macrophages. Bafilomycin A1 (BafA), a specific inhibitor of vacuolar ATPase (vATPase) required for lysosomal function, increased the growth of the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (L2) in wild-type murine fibroblasts and macrophages but inhibited growth in the autophagy-deficient ATG5(-/-) fibroblasts. BafA exhibited only slight inhibition or no effect on L2 growth in multiple human genital epithelial cell lines. In contrast to L2, the mouse pathogen Chlamydia muridarum (MoPn) was consistently inhibited by BafA in all cell lines examined, regardless of species origin and autophagy status. Finally, L2 but not MoPn grew more efficiently in the ATG5(-/-) cells than in wild-type cells. These results suggest that there are two types of vATPase-bearing organelles that regulate chlamydial infection: one supports chlamydial infection, while the other plays a defensive role through autophagy when cells are artificially infected with certain chlamydiae that have not been adapted to the host species.

  9. Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy.

  10. Epidemiological and clinical correlates of chlamydial infection of the cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, O P; Mallinson, H; Goddard, A D

    1981-01-01

    Of 474 women studied to identify epidemiological and clinical correlates of chlamydial infection of the cervix, Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 158 (33.3%) of all women, from 48.3% of those infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, from 43% of the sexual consorts of men with nongonococcal urethritis, and from 74% of those whose consorts were also infected with C trachomatis. C trachomatis was the sole pathogen found in 58 women. Age, marital state, occupation, past history of gonorrhoea, m...

  11. Chlamydiaceae and chlamydial infections in sheep or goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolakis, A; Laroucau, K

    2015-12-14

    Chlamydiae induce a range of pathological syndromes in small ruminants. Abortion is the most common clinical expression of the infection that causes important economic losses and presents a risk to human health, particularly in pregnant women. The present paper gives an overview of chlamydial infections in sheep and goats, focusing specifically on abortion and on recent data brought by cellular and genomic approaches regarding genotyping, virulence of strains, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and control of the disease.

  12. Molecular mimicry and horror autotoxicus: do chlamydial infections elicit autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanborg, Robert H; Boros, Dov L; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

    2006-11-30

    All species of the order Chlamydiales are obligate intracellular eubacterial pathogens of their various hosts. Two chlamydial species, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae, are primarily human pathogens, and each is known to cause important diseases. Some strains of C. trachomatis are sexually transmitted and frequently cause severe reproductive problems, primarily in women. Other strains of the organism serve as the aetiological agents for blinding trachoma, still the leading cause of preventable blindness in underdeveloped nations. C. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen known to cause community-acquired pneumonia. Importantly, both organisms engender an immunopathogenic response in the human host, and both have been associated with widely diverse, relatively common and currently idiopathic chronic diseases, most of which include an important autoimmune component. In this article, we explore the available experimental data regarding the possible elicitation of autoimmunity in various contexts by chlamydial infection, and we suggest several avenues for research to explore this potentially important issue further.

  13. The Characterization Of The Kinetics Of Chlamydia Muridarum Infection In Defined Regions Of The Murine Genital Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility . The continued increase in incidence rates of genital chlamydial infection over...bacterial numbers from vaginal swab material to assess the kinetics of infection. Given the differences in tissue anatomy, hormonal regulation, and immune...provide in-depth insight into the kinetics of genital Chlamydia muridarum infection in defined regions of the murine female reproductive tract. vi

  14. Gender-based screening for chlamydial infection and divergent infection trends in men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Rogers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential impact of chlamydial screening policy that recommends routine screening of women but not men. METHODS: Population surveys of probability samples of Baltimore adults aged 18 to 35 years in 1997-1998 and 2006-2009 collected biospecimens to estimate trends in undiagnosed chlamydial infection. Survey estimates are compared to surveillance data on diagnosed chlamydial infections reported to the Health Department. RESULTS: Prevalence of undiagnosed chlamydial infection among men increased from 1.6% to 4.0%, but it declined from 4.3% to 3.1% among women (p = 0.028 for test of interaction. The annual (average number of diagnosed infections was substantially higher among women than men in both time periods and increased among both men and women. Undiagnosed infection prevalence was substantially higher among black than non-black adults (4.0% vs 1.2%, p = 0.042 in 1997-98 and 5.5% vs 0.7%, p<0.001 in 2006-09. CONCLUSION: Divergent trends in undiagnosed chlamydial infection by gender parallel divergent screening recommendations that encourage chlamydial testing for women but not for men.

  15. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-01-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with...

  17. Intrauterine device and upper-genital-tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D A

    2000-09-16

    Concern about upper-genital-tract infection related to intrauterine devices (IUDs) limits their wider use. In this systematic review I summarise the evidence concerning IUD-associated infection and infertility. Choice of an inappropriate comparison group, overdiagnosis of salpingitis in IUD users, and inability to control for the confounding effects of sexual behaviour have exaggerated the apparent risk. Women with symptomless gonorrhoea or chlamydial infection having an IUD inserted have a higher risk of salpingitis than do uninfected women having an IUD inserted; however, the risk appears similar to that of infected women not having an IUD inserted. A cohort study of HIV-positive women using a copper IUD suggests that there is no significant increase in the risk of complications or viral shedding. Similarly, fair evidence indicates no important effect of IUD use on tubal infertility. Contemporary IUDs rival tubal sterilisation in efficacy and are much safer than previously thought.

  18. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    -titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA...... was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity...

  19. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Janina; Liu, Guangchao; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG) peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia-vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation. PMID:28106821

  20. Chlamydial infections of fish: diverse pathogens and emerging causes of disease in aquaculture species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, M C; Polkinghorne, A; Nowak, B F

    2014-05-14

    Chlamydial infections of fish are emerging as an important cause of disease in new and established aquaculture industries. To date, epitheliocystis, a skin and gill disease associated with infection by these obligate intracellular pathogens, has been described in over 90 fish species, including hosts from marine and fresh water environments. Aided by advances in molecular detection and typing, recent years have seen an explosion in the description of these epitheliocystis-related chlamydial pathogens of fish, significantly broadening our knowledge of the genetic diversity of the order Chlamydiales. Remarkably, in most cases, it seems that each new piscine host studied has revealed the presence of a phylogenetically unique and novel chlamydial pathogen, providing researchers with a fascinating opportunity to understand the origin, evolution and adaptation of their traditional terrestrial chlamydial relatives. Despite the advances in this area, much still needs to be learnt about the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in fish if these pathogens are to be controlled in farmed environments. The lack of in vitro methods for culturing of chlamydial pathogens of fish is a major hindrance to this field. This review provides an update on our current knowledge of the taxonomy and diversity of chlamydial pathogens of fish, discusses the impact of these infections on the health, and highlights further areas of research required to understand the biology and epidemiology of this important emerging group of fish pathogens of aquaculture species.

  1. Comparison of Murine Cervicovaginal Infection by Chlamydial Strains: Identification of Extrusions Shed In vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jennifer H.; Behar, Amanda R.; Snider, Timothy A.; Allen, Noah A.; Lutter, Erika I.

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and preventable blindness. Untreated, asymptomatic infection as well as frequent re-infection are common and may drive pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. In vivo models of chlamydial infection continue to be instrumental in progress toward a vaccine and further elucidating the pathogenesis of this intracellular bacterium, however significant gaps in our understanding remain. Chlamydial host cell exit occurs via two mechanisms, lysis and extrusion, although the latter has yet to be reported in vivo and its biological role is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate whether chlamydial extrusions are shed in vivo following infection with multiple strains of Chlamydia. We utilized an established C3H/HeJ murine cervicovaginal infection model with C. trachomatis serovars D and L2 and the Chlamydia muridarum strain MoPn to monitor the (i) time course of infection and mode of host cell exit, (ii) mucosal and systemic immune response to infection, and (iii) gross and histopathology following clearance of active infection. The key finding herein is the first identification of chlamydial extrusions shed from host cells in an in vivo model. Extrusions, a recently appreciated mode of host cell exit and potential means of dissemination, had been previously observed solely in vitro. The results of this study demonstrate that chlamydial extrusions exist in vivo and thus warrant further investigation to determine their role in chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:28217555

  2. The role of NOD1 and NOD2 in host defense against chlamydial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Lei, Wenbo; He, Zhansheng; Li, Zhongyu

    2016-09-01

    Chlamydial species are common intracellular parasites that cause various diseases, mainly characterized by persistent infection, which lead to inflammatory responses modulated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The best understood PRRs are the extracellular Toll-like receptors, but recent significant advances have focused on two important proteins, NOD1 and NOD2, which are members of the intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptor family and are capable of triggering the host innate immune signaling pathways. This results in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which is vital for an adequate host defense against intracellular chlamydial infection. NOD1/2 ligands are known to derive from peptidoglycan, and the latest research has resolved the paradox of whether chlamydial species possess this bacterial cell wall component; this finding is likely to promote in-depth investigations into the interaction between the NOD proteins and chlamydial pathogens. In this review, we summarize the basic characteristics and signal transduction functions of NOD1 and NOD2 and highlight the new research on the roles of NOD1 and NOD2 in the host defense against chlamydial infection.

  3. Retesting for repeat chlamydial infection: family planning provider knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ina U; Amey, Annette; Creegan, Linda; Barandas, Aileen; Bauer, Heidi M

    2010-06-01

    Repeated genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are common and associated with serious adverse reproductive sequelae in women such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Retesting for repeat chlamydial infection is recommended 3 months after treatment for an initial infection; however, retesting rates in various settings are low. In order to design interventions to increase retesting rates, understanding provider barriers and practices around retesting is crucial. Therefore, in this survey of family planning providers we sought to describe: (1) knowledge about retesting for chlamydia; (2) attitudes and barriers toward retesting; (3) practices currently utilized to ensure retesting, and predictors associated with their use. We conducted a cross-sectional, self-administered, Internet-based survey of a convenience sample of family planning providers in California inquiring about strategies utilized to ensure retesting in their practice setting. High-intensity strategies included chart flagging, tickler (reminder) systems, follow-up appointments, and phone/mail reminders. Of 268 respondents, 82% of providers reported at least 1 barrier to retesting, and only 44% utilized high-intensity interventions to ensure that patients returned. Predictors associated with use of high-intensity interventions included existence of clinic-level retesting policies (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.98-7.88), and perception of a high/moderate level of clinic priority toward retesting (OR 3.75, 95% CI 2.12-.6.63). Emphasizing the importance of retesting to providers through adoption of clinic policies will likely be an important component of a multimodal strategy to ensure that patients are retested and that provider/clinic staff take advantage of opportunities to retest patients. Innovative approaches such as home-based retesting with self-collected vaginal swabs and use of cost-effective technologies to generate patient reminders should also be considered.

  4. Chlamydial infections in wildlife-conservation threats and/or reservoirs of 'spill-over' infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, Delaney; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-11-30

    Members of the order Chlamydiales are biphasic intracellular pathogens known to cause disease in both humans and animals. As we learn more about the genetic diversity of this group of pathogens, evidence is growing that these bacteria infect a broader range of animal hosts than previously thought. Over 400 host species are now documented globally with the majority of these being wild animals. Given the impact of chlamydial infections on humans and domesticated animals, the identification of members of the order Chlamydiales in wildlife raises significant questions over a) their impact on animal health and b) the relationships to those strains also found in humans and domestic animals. In some species such as the iconic marsupial, the koala, the conservation impact is known with chlamydial infections associated with debilitating disease, however, in general, little is known about the pathogenic potential of Chlamydiae infecting most wildlife hosts. Accumulating evidence suggests contact with wild animals is a risk factor for infections in domestic animals and/or humans. Beyond the well-recognised zoonotic pathogen, Chlamydia psittaci, a range of studies have now reported traditional pathogens in the family Chlamydiaceae such as Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia abortus in wild animals. The spectre of cross-host transmission 'spill-over' and 'spill-back' in the epidemiology of infections is of potential concern, however, comprehensive epidemiological studies are lacking for most of these. Accurate evaluation of the significance of chlamydial infections in wildlife is otherwise hampered by i) the cross-sectional nature of most impact studies, ii) a lack of standardised diagnostic approaches, iii) limited study sizes, and iv) biases associated with opportunistic sampling.

  5. Genital and extra-genital warts increase the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus infection in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Goodman, Marc T; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Zhu, Xuemei; Tom, James; Ning, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship of warts in different parts of the body and the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men. Methods We examined the relationship of self-reported genital and extra-genital warts with the subsequent acquisition of asymptomatic genital HPV infection in a cohort of 331 adult men. Participants were followed at 2-month intervals for up to 4 years. Past and current presence of warts was queried at study entry. At each visit, the external genitals were sampled for HPV DNA testing. Results Men who reported a history of genital warts, including current warts, were at increased risk of acquisition of asymptomatic HPV infection of the penis glans/corona, penis shaft and scrotum. The magnitude of these associations was greatest for HPV 6/11 infection. History of warts on the fingers, arms and trunk of the body was also associated with increased risk of genital HPV infection. Current presence of warts on the fingers and trunk specifically increased the risk of acquisition of HPV types not typically found on the genitals. Conclusions Men with a history of warts on the genitals, fingers, arms and trunk may be at increased risk for acquisition of new genital HPV infections. Warts may provide an efficient reservoir for the transmission of virions to the genitals through auto-inoculation. The potential for the spread of HPV throughout the body through auto-inoculation has important implications for prevention and control of HPV infection. PMID:21602516

  6. Chlamydial infection of the cervix in contacts of men with nongonococcal urethritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, I A; Rees, E; Hobson, D.; Byng, R E; Tweedie, M C

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of chlamydial infection in sexual contacts of patients with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) was carried out to determine the clinical signs of infection in the cervix, and their response to chemotherapy, and the incidence of cervical infection in the presence of ectopy and oral contraception. In 202 consecutive female contacts of NGU the isolation rate of Chlamydia trachomatis was 35%. Hypertrophic ectopy and endocervical mucopus were present in 19% and 37% of chlamydia-positi...

  7. OBSTETRICAL MORBIDITIES IN GENITAL TRACT INFECTION S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION- Sub clinical ascending infections through the lower female genital tract are predominant worldwide. Important morbidit ies related to poor perinatal outcome both for the mother and for the fetus and new born compr ise preterm birth, prelabor rupture of membranes, post partum sepsis and maternal anaemia. In the fetus, sepsis and intrauterine growth retardation are suspected to be the consequences of ascending maternal infection. Both the direct effect of the infection and the maternal immune r esponse contribute to these eventualities. This study was done to identify antenatal women with va rious genital infections and to know the outcome of pregnancy in presence of these infection s. OBJECTIVES- Diagnosis treatment and preventive measures in genital infections in Antena tal period to improve the pregnancy out come . MATERIAL AND METHODS- One thousand women were studied for lower genital tract infection by ELISA KITS for chlamydia trachomatis, hanging dr op preparation of vaginal discharge for trichomoniasis and mycelia of candida albicans can be seen by wet mount of vaginal dischage in 10% KOH. Gardnerella vaginal infection was diagnose d by Amsel's criteria . RESULT- out of thousand women 53% were positive for single or mult iple infections (gp-1, 47% women had no infection (gp-11 . Labour outcome was studied in 4 15 antenatal women of gp -1 &395 antenatal women of gp -11 . In gp-1 51.80% had no effect ,7.7 1% had abortions and 40.48% had pre term labour and/or PROM .Which was significantly higher than in non infected group . IN INFECTED GROUP- 41.92% neonates had no effect others had some effec t in terms of LBW, birth asphyxia, neonatal death & IUD. Which was significantly highe r than in non infected group. P=0.00 CONCLUSION- The study showed significantly higher incidence of obstetrical morbidities in women with lower genital tract infection,since geni tal infections are the root cause of these obstetrical

  8. Screening for Chlamydial Infections in Women Attending Family Planning Clinics—Evaluation of Presumptive Indicators for Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Schachter, Julius; Stoner, Eileen; Moncada, Jeanne

    1983-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was recovered from the cervices of 9.8 percent (268/2,729) of women attending seven family planning clinics. The infection rate varied from 5.5 percent to 22.5 percent in different clinics. Chlamydial infection could be associated with younger age, nulliparity, being black and use of oral contraceptives. Most (70 percent) of the chlamydial infections were inapparent and presumptive indicators for antichlamydial therapy that are useful for symptomatic women will not make ...

  9. [Treatment of chronic prostatitis caused by chlamydial and ureaplasmic infection and complicated with male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, S N; Tiktinskiĭ, O L

    2010-01-01

    Etiologically, chronic prostatitis can result from urogenital latent infections caused by chlamydia, ureaplasma and others. First of all, such patients should be examined for urethritis. We examined 306 patients aged 23-45 years with chronic prostatitis caused by chlamydial and ureaplasmic infection. The samples were taken from the urethra, urine, prostatic secretion, ejaculate and were examined using direct immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction, culturing. We found spermatogenetic disorders in 50% patients, 35 (11.4%) patients had a deferent duct obstruction. The patients had also immunointerferon deficiency and alterations in prostatic echostructure. In chronic prostatitis caused by chlamydial-ureaplasmic infection the treatment must combine antibacterial drugs (vilprophen, unidox, solutab) with interferons (lavomax, genferon). Male infertility treatment should be started only after elimination of the bacterial infection.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor alpha production from CD8+ T cells mediates oviduct pathological sequelae following primary genital Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ashlesh K; Li, Weidang; Chaganty, Bharat K R; Kamalakaran, Sangamithra; Guentzel, M Neal; Seshu, J; Forsthuber, Thomas G; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2011-07-01

    The immunopathogenesis of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced oviduct pathological sequelae is not well understood. Mice genetically deficient in perforin (perforin(-/-) mice) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production (TNF-α(-/-) mice) displayed comparable vaginal chlamydial clearance rates but significantly reduced oviduct pathology (hydrosalpinx) compared to that of wild-type mice. Since both perforin and TNF-α are effector mechanisms of CD8(+) T cells, we evaluated the role of CD8(+) T cells during genital Chlamydia muridarum infection and oviduct sequelae. Following vaginal chlamydial challenge, (i) mice deficient in TAP I (and therefore the major histocompatibility complex [MHC] I pathway and CD8(+) T cells), (ii) wild-type mice depleted of CD8(+) T cells, and (iii) mice genetically deficient in CD8 (CD8(-/-) mice) all displayed similar levels of vaginal chlamydial clearance but significantly reduced hydrosalpinx, compared to those of wild-type C57BL/6 mice, suggesting a role for CD8(+) T cells in chlamydial pathogenesis. Repletion of CD8(-/-) mice with wild-type or perforin(-/-), but not TNF-α(-/-), CD8(+) T cells at the time of challenge restored hydrosalpinx to levels observed in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that TNF-α production from CD8(+) T cells is important for pathogenesis. Additionally, repletion of TNF-α(-/-) mice with TNF-α(+/+) CD8(+) T cells significantly enhanced the incidence of hydrosalpinx and oviduct dilatation compared to those of TNF-α(-/-) mice but not to the levels found in wild-type mice, suggesting that TNF-α production from CD8(+) T cells and non-CD8(+) cells cooperates to induce optimal oviduct pathology following genital chlamydial infection. These results provide compelling new evidence supporting the contribution of CD8(+) T cells and TNF-α production to Chlamydia-induced reproductive tract sequelae.

  11. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants.

  12. Persistent and acute chlamydial infections induce different structural changes in the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huiling; Li, Hongmei; Wang, Pu; Chen, Mukai; Huang, Zengwei; Li, Kunpeng; Li, Yinyin; He, Jian; Han, Jiande; Zhang, Qinfen

    2014-07-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes a wide range of diseases that have a significant impact on public health. Acute chlamydial infections can cause fragmentation of the Golgi compartment ensuring the lipid transportation from the host cell. However, the changes that occur in the host cell Golgi apparatus after persistent infections are unclear. Here, we examined Golgi-associated gene (golga5) transcription and expression along with the structure of the Golgi apparatus in cells persistently infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. The results showed that persistent infections caused little fragmentation of the Golgi. The results also revealed that Golgi fragmentation might be associated with the suppression of transcription of the gene golga5.

  13. Water-filtered infrared a irradiation in combination with visible light inhibits acute chlamydial infection.

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    Hanna Marti

    Full Text Available New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C. in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8 and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination

  14. Water-Filtered Infrared A Irradiation in Combination with Visible Light Inhibits Acute Chlamydial Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Hanna; Koschwanez, Maria; Pesch, Theresa; Blenn, Christian; Borel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS) has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS) diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs) of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C.) in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa) regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E) as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi) led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi) during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero) neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8) and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β) from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination of water

  15. Immunobiological outcomes of repeated chlamydial infection from two models of within-host population dynamics.

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    David M Vickers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is a common human pathogen that mediates disease processes capable of inflicting serious complications on reproduction. Aggressive inflammatory immune responses are thought to not only direct a person's level of immunity but also the potential for immunopathology. With human immunobiology being debated as a cause of prevailing epidemiological trends, we examined some fundamental issues regarding susceptibility to multiple chlamydial infections that could have implications for infection spread. We argue that, compared to less-frequent exposure, frequent exposure to chlamydia may well produce unique immunobiological characteristics that likely to have important clinical and epidemiological implications. METHODS AND RESULTS: As a novel tool for studying chlamydia, we applied principles of modeling within-host pathogen dynamics to enable an understanding of some fundamental characteristics of an individual's immunobiology during multiple chlamydial infections. While the models were able to reproduce shorter-term infection kinetics of primary and secondary infections previously observed in animal models, it was also observed that longer periods between initial and second infection may increase an individual's chlamydial load and lengthen their duration of infectiousness. The cessation of short-term repeated exposure did not allow for the formation of long-lasting immunity. However, frequent re-exposure non-intuitively linked the formation of protective immunity, persistent infection, and the potential for immunopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results provide interesting insights that should be verified with continued study. Nevertheless, these results appear to raise challenges for current evidence of the development of long-lasting immunity against chlamydia, and suggest the existence of a previously unidentified mechanism for the formation of persistent infection. The obvious next goal is to investigate the

  16. Human papillomavirus genital infections among men, China, 2007-2009.

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    He, Zhonghu; Liu, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Xi, Long Fu; Chen, Ke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Gao, Lei; Liu, Fangfang; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2013-06-01

    To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners.

  17. High frequency of chlamydial co-infections in clinically healthy sheep flocks

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    Sachse Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological situation of ovine chlamydial infections in continental Europe, especially Germany is poorly characterised. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the chlamydial sero- and antigen prevalence was estimated in thirty-two randomly selected sheep flocks with an average abortion rate lower than 1%. Seven vaccinated flocks were reviewed separately. Results A wide range of samples from 32 flocks were examined. Assumption of a seroprevalence of 10% (CI 95% at flock level, revealed that 94% of the tested flocks were serologically positive with ongoing infection (i.e. animals with seroconversion in nearly half (47% of the flocks. On the basis of an estimated 25% antigen prevalence (CI 95%, PCR and DNA microarray testing, together with sequencing revealed the presence of chlamydiae in 78% of the flocks. The species most frequently found was Chlamydophila (C. abortus (50% followed by C. pecorum (47% and C. psittaci genotype A (25%. Mixed infections occurred in 25% of the tested flocks. Samples obtained from the vaccinated flocks revealed the presence of C. abortus field samples in 4/7 flocks. C. pecorum was isolated from 2/7 flocks and the presence of seroconversion was determined in 3/7 flocks. Conclusions The results imply that chlamydial infections occur frequently in German sheep flocks, even in the absence of elevated abortion rates. The fact that C. pecorum and the potentially zoonotic C. psittaci were found alongside the classical abortifacient agent C. abortus, raise questions about the significance of this reservoir for animal and human health and underline the necessity for regular monitoring. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of C. psittaci infections in sheep.

  18. Chlamydia muridarum Alters the Immune Environment of the Murine Genital Tract to be More Permissive for Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a Novel Coinfection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    Figure 6) (62, 152, 169). In 1990, David Taylor-Robinson described long-term gonococcal colonization following treatment of germ-free mice with 17β...oviduct pathology in chlamydial genital tract infection. J Immunol 171:6187-97. 68. David , L. M., A. A. Wade, D. Natin, and K. W. Radcliffe. 1997...Dis 178:742-51. 123. Heine, H., S. Muller-Loennies, L. Brade , B. Lindner, and H. Brade . 2003. Endotoxic activity and chemical structure of

  19. IgA modulates respiratory dysfunction as a sequela to pulmonary chlamydial infection as neonates.

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    Lanka, Gopala Krishna Koundinya; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Gong, Siqi; Gupta, Rishein; Mustafa, Shamimunisa B; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Zhong, Guangming; Chambers, James P; Guentzel, M Neal; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2016-04-01

    Neonatal Chlamydia lung infections are associated with serious sequelae such as asthma and airway hyper-reactivity in children and adults. Our previous studies demonstrated the importance of Th-1 type cytokines, IL-12 and IFN-γ in protection against neonatal pulmonary chlamydial challenge; however, the role of the humoral arm of defense has not been elucidated. We hypothesized that B-cells and IgA, the major mucosal antibody, play a protective role in newborns against development of later life respiratory sequelae to Chlamydia infection. Our studies using neonatal mice revealed that all WT and IgA-deficient (IgA(-/-)) animals survived a sublethal pulmonary Chlamydia muridarum challenge at one day after birth with similar reduction in bacterial burdens over time. In contrast, all B-cell-deficient (μMT) mice succumbed to infection at the same challenge dose correlating to failure to control bacterial burdens in the lungs. Although IgA may not be important for bacterial clearance, we observed IgA(-/-) mice displayed greater respiratory dysfunction 5 weeks post challenge. Specifically, comparative respiratory functional analyses revealed a significant shift upward in P-V loops, and higher dynamic resistance in IgA(-/-) animals. This study provides insight(s) into the protective role of IgA in neonates against pulmonary chlamydial infection induced respiratory pathological sequelae observed later in life.

  20. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  1. Intramuscular priming and intranasal boosting induce strong genital immunity through secretory IgA in minipigs infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Emma eLorenzen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. Intramuscular priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated IFN-ɣ and IL-17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC, we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggest that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general.

  2. Characterisation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other novel chlamydial infections in captive snakes.

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    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Rüegg, Simon; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiosis has been described in both free-ranging and captive reptiles. The infection usually manifests as granulomatous inflammation in inner organs such as spleen, heart, lung and liver but might also occur in asymptomatic reptiles. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise Chlamydia pneumoniae and potential other novel chlamydial infections in the choana and cloaca samples of 137 clinically healthy captive snakes from six private collections. Forty eight samples from 29 animals were found to be positive by a Chlamydiaceae family-specific qPCR. By Chlamydia species-specific ArrayTube Microarray, 43 samples were positive, with 36 of these being identified as C. pneumoniae. The prevalence of Chlamydia ranged from 5 to 33%. PCR and sequencing of the Chlamydiales 16S rRNA signature sequence of 21 Chlamydia positive samples revealed the presence of seven novel 16S rRNA genotypes. BLAST-n and phylogenetic analysis of the near-full length 16S rRNA gene sequence of each of these novel 16S rRNA sequences revealed that five genotypes share closest sequence identity to 16S rRNA sequences from C. pneumoniae (98.6-99.2%), suggesting that these sequences are novel C. pneumoniae strains. One genotype is 96.9% similar to C. pneumoniae strains suggesting it may originate from a yet undescribed chlamydial species within the genus Chlamydia. This study further highlights the broad host range for C. pneumoniae and suggests that reptiles may still contain a significant and largely uncharacterised level of chlamydial genetic diversity that requires further investigation.

  3. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

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    Ashok eAiyar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium’s capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C

  4. Genital HPV infection progression to external genital lesions: The HIM Study

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    Sudenga, Staci L.; Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes two types of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men: genital warts (condyloma) and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). Objective The purpose of this study was to describe genital HPV progression to a histopathologically confirmed HPV-related EGL. Design, Setting and Participants A prospective analysis nested within the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study was conducted among 3033 men. At each visit, visually distinct EGLs were biopsied, subjected to pathological evaluation, and categorized by pathological diagnoses. Genital swabs and biopsies were used to identify HPV types using the Linear Array genotyping method for swabs and INNO-LiPA for biopsies. Outcome Measurements EGL incidence was determined among 1788 HPV-positive men, and cumulative incidence rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were estimated. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to EGL was also calculated, along with median time to EGL development. Results and Limitations Among 1788 HPV-positive men, 92 developed an incident EGL during follow-up (9 PeIN and 86 condyloma). During the first 12 months of follow-up, 16% of men with a genital HPV6 infection developed a HPV6-positive condyloma, and 22% of genital HPV11 infections progressed to an HPV11-positive condyloma. During the first 12-months of follow-up, 0.5% of men with a genital HPV16 infection developed an HPV16-positive PeIN. Although we expected PeIN to be a rare event, the sample size for PeIN (n=10) limited the types of analyses that could be performed. Conclusions Most EGLs develop following infection with HPV 6, 11, or 16, all of which could be prevented with the 4-valent HPV vaccine. Patient Summary In this study, we looked at genital HPV infections that can cause lesions in men. The HPV that we detected within the lesions could be prevented through a vaccine. PMID:26051441

  5. Natural killer cells regulate Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance in chlamydial lung infection.

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    Li, Jing; Dong, Xiaojing; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Yang, Xi; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell is an important component in innate immunity, playing a critical role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by modulating the function of other immune cells including T cells. In this study, we focused on the role of NK cells in regulating Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance during chlamydial lung infection. We found that NK cell-depleted mice showed decreased Th1 and Th17 cells, which was correlated with reduced interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17 and IL-22 production as well as T-bet and receptor-related orphan receptor gamma t expression compared with mice treated with the isotype control antibody. In contrast, NK cell depletion significantly increased Treg in cell number and related transcription factor (Foxp3) expression. The opposite trends of changes of Th1/Th17 and Treg led to significant reduction in the Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg ratios. The data implicate that NK cells play an important role in host defence against chlamydial lung infection, mainly through maintaining Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance.

  6. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

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    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  7. Genital ulcers: etiology, clinical diagnosis, and associated human immunodeficiency virus infection in Kingston, Jamaica.

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    Behets, F M; Brathwaite, A R; Hylton-Kong, T; Chen, C Y; Hoffman, I; Weiss, J B; Morse, S A; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S; Figueroa, J P

    1999-05-01

    Individuals presenting consecutively with genital ulcers in Kingston, Jamaica, underwent serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, chlamydial infection, and syphilis. Ulcer material was analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) analysis. DNA from herpes simplex virus (HSV), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Treponema pallidum was detected in 158 (52.0%), 72 (23.7%), and 31 (10.2%) of 304 ulcer specimens. Of the 304 subjects, 67 (22%) were HIV-seropositive and 64 (21%) were T. pallidum-seroreactive. Granuloma inguinale was clinically diagnosed in nine (13.4%) of 67 ulcers negative by M-PCR analysis and in 12 (5.1%) of 237 ulcers positive by M-PCR analysis (P = .03). Lymphogranuloma venereum was clinically diagnosed in eight patients. Compared with M-PCR analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, and chancroid were 67.7%, 53.8%, and 75% and 91.2%, 83.6%, and 75.4%, respectively. Reactive syphilis serology was 74% sensitive and 85% specific compared with M-PCR analysis. Reported contact with a prostitute in the preceding 3 months was associated with chancroid (P = .009), reactive syphilis serology (P = .011), and HIV infection (P = .007). The relatively poor accuracy of clinical and locally available laboratory diagnoses pleads for syndromic management of genital ulcers in Jamaica. Prevention efforts should be intensified.

  8. Clinical and morphological characteristics of chronic uretheroprostatitis associated with chlamydial and mycoplasmal infections

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    Yu. S. Kondratyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical symptoms, features of morphological structure of prostate in patients with chronic recurrent prostatitis associated with chlamydial and mycoplasmal infections. 60 male patients were examined. Anamnesis and interview data, results of laboratory and instrumental tests were analyzed. In 73.3% of cases cultural test and PCR allowed to identify M. hominis, U. urealiticum, M. genitalium, C. trachomatis in patients with chronic uretheroprostatitis. Out of 16 patients (26,6% of all examined with chronic recurrent uretheroprostatitis for whom neither chlamidial nor mycoplasmal infection was diagnosed by laboratory tests, for 14 patients (87,5% it was confirmed that patogenic urogenital infectious agents were localized intracellularly. Pathomorphological investigation of prostate bioptates allowed to estimate the type and degree of specific changes in the prostate tissue in cases of recurrent uretheroprostatitis resistant to the therapy and with frequent relapses.

  9. Human female genital tract infection by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis elicits robust Type 2 immunity.

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    Rodolfo D Vicetti Miguel

    Full Text Available While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation by endometrial CD4(+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3(+ CD4(+ and CD3(+ CD4(- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures.

  10. 女性生殖道沙眼衣原体持续感染的现状%Persistent genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丹丹; 叶兴东; 任泽舫

    2008-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of genital Chlamydial trachomatis infection in populations. Young women are vulnerable to persistent genital chlamydial infection, which may lead to many serious complications (e.g., infertility). The severity of infection is determined by the virulence of Chlamydia trachomatis, environmental factors, and host susceptibility. The optimal serum marker for screening of persistent genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is the combination of its IgG antibody and C-reactive protein, and IgG alone may only serve as the serum marker for previous infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.%生殖道沙眼衣原体感染在人群中的发生率高,特别在年轻女性人群中,容易导致持续性的生殖道感染,进而引起一系列严重并发症(如不孕不育).感染的严重程度取决于沙眼衣原体本身的致病力大小、环境因素及宿主易感因素.筛检沙眼衣原体持续性感染的最佳血清学指标是其IgG和C反应蛋白(两者同时阳性),而IgG只能作为其既往感染的血清学指标.

  11. Idiopathic genital ulcers in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Clark, R A; Watts, D H; Till, M; Arrastia, C; Schuman, P; Cohn, S E; Young, M; Bessen, L; Greenblatt, R; Vogler, M; Swindells, S; Boyer, P

    1996-12-01

    A national survey of investigators caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was undertaken to describe the clinical presentation of idiopathic genital ulcer disease. Patients with negative syphilis and herpes simplex testing and/or negative genital ulcer biopsy were included in this study. Study participants (n = 29) were generally severely immunocompromised (median CD4 cell count was 50/mm3, and 68% had an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining opportunistic process). Thirty-seven percent had coexistent oral ulcers and 19% had their genital ulcer progress to fistula formation (four rectovaginal and one vaginal-perineal). There was generally a favorable response to topical, systemic, and intralesional steroid treatment. This study suggests that idiopathic or probable aphthous genital ulcers in women have similar clinical characteristics to aphthous oroesophageal ulcers. Although infrequent, these genital ulcers can cause severe morbidity. Further research is warranted to better define the pathophysiology and optimal management.

  12. Host inflammatory response and development of complications of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in CCR5-deficient mice and subfertile women with the CCR5delta32 gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Erika L; Ouburg, Sander; Igietseme, Joseph U; Morré, Servaas A; Okwandu, Edith; Eko, Francis O; Ifere, Godwin; Belay, Tesfaye; He, Qing; Lyn, Deborah; Nwankwo, Gift; Lillard, James W; Black, Carolyn M; Ananaba, Godwin A

    2005-08-01

    T cell immunity protects against diseases caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Incidentally, host inflammatory response that includes T cells appears to also contribute to the pathogenesis of chlamydial diseases such as trachoma and tubal factor infertility (TFI). Therefore, designing effective prevention strategies requires a delineation of immune processes responsible for pathology and those mediating immunity, and identification of the immunogenetic factors predisposing to complication development. The chemokine receptor CCR5 is crucial for T cell activation and function since its deficiency causes suppression of T cell response. We investigated the hypothesis that the clearance of genital chlamydial infection in CCR5-deficient mice could be delayed in the short term; however, a beneficial effect could include protection against inflammation-related complications such as TFI. In a translational study in humans, we investigated the effect of a functional 32 bp deletion in the CCR5 gene on the risk of developing tubal pathology in Dutch Caucasian women with immunologic evidence [i.e., immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses] of chlamydial infection. When genitally-infected wild-type (WT) and CCR5 knockout (CCR5KO) mice were evaluated for microbiologic shedding of chlamydiae, there was a greater intensity of infection and delayed resolution in the knockout mice. However, compared to WT mice, the fertility of infected CCR5KO mice (measured by pregnancy rate) was only mildly affected in the short term and unaffected in the long term (70% vs 30% reduction in the short term, and 50 vs 0% in the long term, respectively). Immunobiologic analysis revealed that the diminished capacity of CCR5KO to control acute chlamydial infection correlated with the relatively low chemokine [interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and regulated upon activation normal cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)] and cytokine (mainly interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis

  13. Comparison of antigen detection and quantitative PCR in the detection of chlamydial infection in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanger, Jon; Loader, Joanne; Wan, Charles; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-03-01

    The gold standard method for detecting chlamydial infection in domestic and wild animals is PCR, but the technique is not suited to testing animals in the field when a rapid diagnosis is frequently required. The objective of this study was to compare the results of a commercially available enzyme immunoassay test for Chlamydia against a quantitative Chlamydia pecorum-specific PCR performed on swabs collected from the conjunctival sac, nasal cavity and urogenital sinuses of naturally infected koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). The level of agreement for positive results between the two assays was low (43.2%). The immunoassay detection cut-off was determined as approximately 400 C. pecorum copies, indicating that the test was sufficiently sensitive to be used for the rapid diagnosis of active chlamydial infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-08-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis.

  15. Genital Infection as a First Sign of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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    Naoki Oiso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene is a life-threatening disorder caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection. We report a case of genital infection as the initial warning sign of acute myeloid leukemia. We were able to prevent progression to Fournier’s gangrene in our patient by immediate intensive therapy with incision, blood transfusions and intravenous administration of antibiotics. This case suggests that hematologists and dermatologists should keep in mind that genital infection can be a first sign of hematologic malignancy.

  16. Experimentally induced ocular chlamydial infection in infant pig-tailed macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, P A; Patton, D L; Kuo, C C; Wang, S P; Lindquist, T D

    1989-05-01

    Four Macaca nemestrina monkeys were inoculated in the conjunctiva with Chlamydia trachomatis (strain E) at 6 weeks of age. A fifth monkey was inoculated with HeLa cell materials only. Ten weeks later, all monkeys were reinoculated with either strain E or strain C. All inoculated monkeys were susceptible to infection with C. trachomatis as documented by fluorescent antibody staining of smears and reisolation of the organism from conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Rectal and vaginal swab specimens remained negative throughout the study. Three of four inoculated animals responded with IgM titers reaching a peak of 1:16 (M#3) and 1:32 (M#1, M#4) 2 weeks after the primary inoculation. IgG appeared in all inoculated animals and titers rose to peak levels of 1:64 (M#2), 1:128 (M#1, M#3), and 1:256 (M#4). Histopathology documented a dramatic difference in immunological response following secondary inoculation. Primary inoculation elicited a typical inflammatory response characterized by moderate stromal infiltration of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. Plasma cells appeared by week 3 postinoculation (pi). Following a secondary inoculation, classic follicle formation was evident by 1 week pi. Mononuclear markers identified a germinal center composed of B cells and a T cell cap. Epithelial thinning near the cap of the follicle was accompanied by a complete loss of goblet cells. This model may be useful for studying the immunopathology of infant chlamydial infections.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and female lower genital tract malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, L; Sun, X W; Wright, T C

    1999-02-01

    The risk of lower genital tract neoplasia is increased in women infected with HIV. This has been best demonstrated in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but has also been observed in vulvar and perianal intraepithelial lesions in some studies. Alterations in the prevalence and natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the lower genital tract appear to account for much of the increase. HIV-infected women are approximately four times more likely to be infected with human papillomavirus (including infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types) than are HIV-uninfected women, and these infections are more likely to be persistent. Human papilomavirus-associated lesions may be more difficult to treat in HIV-infected women. These data highlight the need to develop effective cervical cancer prevention programs for HIV-infected women.

  18. Bioluminescence imaging of Chlamydia muridarum ascending infection in mice.

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    Campbell, Jessica; Huang, Yumeng; Liu, Yuanjun; Schenken, Robert; Arulanandam, Bernard; Zhong, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydial pathogenicity in the upper genital tract relies on chlamydial ascending from the lower genital tract. To monitor chlamydial ascension, we engineered a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum. In cells infected with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, luciferase gene expression and enzymatic activity (measured as bioluminescence intensity) correlated well along the infection course, suggesting that bioluminescence can be used for monitoring chlamydial replication. Following an intravaginal inoculation with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, 8 of 10 mice displayed bioluminescence signal in the lower with 4 also in the upper genital tracts on day 3 after infection. By day 7, all 10 mice developed bioluminescence signal in the upper genital tracts. The bioluminescence signal was maintained in the upper genital tract in 6 and 2 mice by days 14 and 21, respectively. The bioluminescence signal was no longer detectable in any of the mice by day 28. The whole body imaging approach also revealed an unexpected airway infection following the intravaginal inoculation. Although the concomitant airway infection was transient and did not significantly alter the genital tract infection time courses, caution should be taken during data interpretation. The above observations have demonstrated that C. muridarum can not only achieve rapid ascending infection in the genital tract but also cause airway infection following a genital tract inoculation. These findings have laid a foundation for further optimizing the C. muridarum intravaginal infection murine model for understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms.

  19. Bioluminescence imaging of Chlamydia muridarum ascending infection in mice.

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    Jessica Campbell

    Full Text Available Chlamydial pathogenicity in the upper genital tract relies on chlamydial ascending from the lower genital tract. To monitor chlamydial ascension, we engineered a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum. In cells infected with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, luciferase gene expression and enzymatic activity (measured as bioluminescence intensity correlated well along the infection course, suggesting that bioluminescence can be used for monitoring chlamydial replication. Following an intravaginal inoculation with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, 8 of 10 mice displayed bioluminescence signal in the lower with 4 also in the upper genital tracts on day 3 after infection. By day 7, all 10 mice developed bioluminescence signal in the upper genital tracts. The bioluminescence signal was maintained in the upper genital tract in 6 and 2 mice by days 14 and 21, respectively. The bioluminescence signal was no longer detectable in any of the mice by day 28. The whole body imaging approach also revealed an unexpected airway infection following the intravaginal inoculation. Although the concomitant airway infection was transient and did not significantly alter the genital tract infection time courses, caution should be taken during data interpretation. The above observations have demonstrated that C. muridarum can not only achieve rapid ascending infection in the genital tract but also cause airway infection following a genital tract inoculation. These findings have laid a foundation for further optimizing the C. muridarum intravaginal infection murine model for understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms.

  20. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection

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    Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

  1. Genital Mycoplasma infection among Mexican women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Martínez, Socorro; García-Carrasco, Mario; Cedillo-Ramírez, María L; Mendoza-Pinto, Claudia; Etchegaray-Morales, Ivet; Gil-Juárez, Constantino; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro J; Taboada-Cole, Alejandro; Jiménez-Herrera, Erick A; Muñóz-Guarneros, Margarita; Cervera, Ricard

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of genital Mycoplasma spp. among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to identify factors associated with such infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with SLE and healthy women who attended a hospital in Puebla, Mexico, between July 29, 2014, and January 4, 2015. All participants were aged 18 years or older and sexually active. A structured interview assessed sociodemographic, obstetric, gynecologic, and clinical characteristics. Disease activity was evaluated using the Mexican SLE Disease Activity Index. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of Mycoplasma spp. in genital samples. Ureaplasma urealyticum was the only genital mycoplasma detected; it was present in 32 (24.6%) of 130 patients with SLE and 12 (12.8%) of 94 healthy women. Patients with SLE had increased odds of infection (odds ratio 2.120, 95% confidence interval 1.046-4.296). Among patients with SLE, multiparity was more common in those with U. urealyticum infection (P=0.043). One-quarter of women with SLE had genital infection with U. urealyticum. An association was found between infection and multiparity among women with SLE. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. Female Reproductive Hormones and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Genital Chlamydia Infection in Tubal Factor Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Augusta Chinyere; Charles-Davies, Mabel Ayebantoyo; Taiwo, Victor Olusegun; Li, Bin; Oni, Anthony Alabar; Bello, Folashade Adenike

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital Chlamydia infection (GCI) and the associated pathologies have been implicated in tubal infertility. Though the actual pathologic mechanisms are still uncertain, oxidative stress and other factors have been implicated. The purpose of the study was to determine the possible contribution of female reproductive hormones and biomarkers of oxidative stress in genital Chlamydial infection to tubal occlusion. Methods This prospective case control study was carried out by recruiting 150 age matched women grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50), fertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50) and fertile Chlamydia negative women as controls (n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected for screening Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Sera were collected for estimation of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody, female reproductive hormones [Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Oestradiol (E2), Progesterone (P4), Prolactin (PRL)] and biomarkers of oxidative stress [Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Data were analyzed using chi square, analysis of variance and LSD Post hoc to determine mean differences at p = 0.05. Results Among women with GCI, higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia positive women (p < 0.05). Higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG and lower TAC levels were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia negative controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion Mechanisms including oxidative DNA damage and reduced antioxidant capacity may be involved in the pathology of Chlamydia induced tubal damage. PMID:25927024

  3. Infection with koala retrovirus subgroup B (KoRV-B), but not KoRV-A, is associated with chlamydial disease in free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney A; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; King, Andrew; Hobbs, Matthew; Johnson, Rebecca; Timms, Peter

    2017-03-09

    The virulence of chlamydial infection in wild koalas is highly variable between individuals. Some koalas can be infected (PCR positive) with Chlamydia for long periods but remain asymptomatic, whereas others develop clinical disease. Chlamydia in the koala has traditionally been studied without regard to coinfection with other pathogens, although koalas are usually subject to infection with koala retrovirus (KoRV). Retroviruses can be immunosuppressive, and there is evidence of an immunosuppressive effect of KoRV in vitro. Originally thought to be a single endogenous strain, a new, potentially more virulent exogenous variant (KoRV-B) was recently reported. We hypothesized that KoRV-B might significantly alter chlamydial disease outcomes in koalas, presumably via immunosuppression. By studying sub-groups of Chlamydia and KoRV infected koalas in the wild, we found that neither total KoRV load (either viraemia or proviral copies per genome), nor chlamydial infection level or strain type, was significantly associated with chlamydial disease risk. However, PCR positivity with KoRV-B was significantly associated with chlamydial disease in koalas (p = 0.02961). This represents an example of a recently evolved virus variant that may be predisposing its host (the koala) to overt clinical disease when co-infected with an otherwise asymptomatic bacterial pathogen (Chlamydia).

  4. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence

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    Kaiser Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Results Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs, medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 μm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. Conclusions In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  5. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection.

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    Jamal Qualai

    Full Text Available Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  6. Antigen specific immune response in Chlamydia muridarum genital infection is dependent on murine microRNAs-155 and -182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishein; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Keck, Jonathon; Koundinya, Gopala Krishna Lanka; Castillo, Kevin; Hobel, Sabrina; Chambers, James P; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Guentzel, M Neal; Aigner, Achim; Christenson, Lane K; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2016-10-04

    Anti-chlamydial immunity involves efficient presentation of antigens (Ag) to effector cells resulting in Ag-specific immune responses. There is limited information on inherent underlying mechanisms regulating these events. Previous studies from our laboratory have established that select microRNAs (miRs) function as molecular regulators of immunity in Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) genital infection. In this report, we investigated immune cell type-specific miRs, i.e. miR-155 and -182, and the role in Ag-specific immunity. We observed significant up-regulation of miR-155 in C57BL/6 bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC), and miR-182 in splenic Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells. Using mimics and inhibitors, we determined that miR-155 contributed to BMDC activation following Cm infection. Co-cultures of miR-155 over-expressed in BMDC and miR-182 over-expressed in Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells, or miR-155-/- BMDC with miR-182 inhibitor treated Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells, resulted in IFN-γ production comparable to Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells isolated from Cm infected mice. Additionally, miR-182 was significantly up-regulated in intranasally vaccinated mice protected against Cm infection. In vivo depletion of miR-182 resulted in reduction in Ag-specific IFN-γ and genital pathology in Cm infected mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report an interaction of miR-155 (in Cm infected DC) and miR-182 (in CD4+ T-cell) resulting in Ag specific immune responses against genital Cm.

  7. Diversity of Cervical Microbiota in Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection: A Pilot Study

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    Simone Filardo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection continues to be an important public health problem worldwide due to its increasing incidence. C. trachomatis infection can lead to severe sequelae, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, obstructive infertility, and preterm birth. Recently, it has been suggested that the cervico-vaginal microbiota may be an important defense factor toward C. trachomatis infection as well as the development of chronic sequelae. Therefore, the investigation of microbial profiles associated to chlamydial infection is of the utmost importance. Here we present a pilot study aiming to characterize, through the metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16s rRNA gene amplicons, the cervical microbiota from reproductive age women positive to C. trachomatis infection. The main finding of our study showed a marked increase in bacterial diversity in asymptomatic C. trachomatis positive women as compared to healthy controls in terms of Shannon's diversity and Shannon's evenness (P = 0.031 and P = 0.026, respectively. More importantly, the cervical microbiota from C. trachomatis positive women and from healthy controls significantly separated into two clusters in the weighted UniFrac analysis (P = 0.0027, suggesting that differences between the two groups depended entirely on the relative abundance of bacterial taxa rather than on the types of bacterial taxa present. Furthermore, C. trachomatis positive women showed an overall decrease in Lactobacillus spp. and an increase in anaerobes. These findings are part of an ongoing larger epidemiological study that will evaluate the potential role of distinct bacterial communities of the cervical microbiota in C. trachomatis infection.

  8. The female lower genital tract is a privileged compartment with IL-10 producing dendritic cells and poor Th1 immunity following Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

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    Ellen Marks

    Full Text Available While a primary genital tract infection with C. trachomatis stimulates partial-protection against re-infection, it may also result in severe inflammation and tissue destruction. Here we have dissected whether functional compartments exist in the genital tract that restrict Th1-mediated protective immunity. Apart from the Th1-subset, little is known about the role of other CD4(+ T cell subsets in response to a genital tract chlamydial infection. Therefore, we investigated CD4(+ T cell subset differentiation in the genital tract using RT-PCR for expression of critical transcription factors and cytokines in the upper (UGT and lower genital tract (LGT of female C57BL/6 mice in response to C. trachomatis serovar D infection. We found that the Th1 subset dominated the UGT, as IFN-γ and T-bet mRNA expression were high, while GATA-3 was low following genital infection with C. trachomatis serovar D. By contrast, IL-10 and GATA-3 mRNA dominated the LGT, suggesting the presence of Th2 cells. These functional compartments also attracted regulatory T cells (Tregs differently as increased FoxP3 mRNA expression was seen primarily in the UGT. Although IL-17A mRNA was somewhat up-regulated in the LGT, no significant change in RORγ-t mRNA expression was observed, suggesting no involvement of Th17 cells. The dichotomy between the LGT and UGT was maintained during infection by IL-10 because in IL-10-deficient mice the distinction between the two compartments was completely lost and a dramatic shift to the predominance of Th1 cells in the LGT occurred. Unexpectedly, the major source of IL-10 was CD11c(+ CD11b(+ DC, probably creating an anti-inflammatory privileged site in the LGT.

  9. Validity of genito-urinary discharges, genital ulcers and genital rashes as indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection

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    Eziyi Iche Kalu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the validity of vaginal discharges, urethral discharges, genital rashes, and painful genital ulcers as indicators of early detection of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection among pregnant women in Benin metropolis. Methods: Participants were antenatal clinic attendees of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital, Benin. Baseline sociodemographic, obstetric and HSV-2 serological data were collected. The HSV-2-seronegative returned for a repeat HSV-2 antibody assay before delivery date. Data on incidence of genital rashes, abnormal vaginal discharges, painful genital ulcers and urethral discharges were collected. Results: The sensitivities of abnormal vaginal discharges, genital rashes, urethral discharges and painful genital ulcers were 82.3%, 70.6%, 41.2% and 28.6% respectively; while their positive-predictive values were 53.8%, 60.0%, 58.3% and 66.7% respective. All the symptoms had >95% specificities and 95% negative-predictive values for seroincident HSV-2 infection. Conclusions: Abnormal vaginal discharge, genital rashes, urethral discharges and genital ulcers are valid indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection and could be useful in formulation of screening tools in resource-limited settings.

  10. [Chronic genital ulcerations and HIV infection: 29 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbery, I P; Djeha, D; Kacou, D E; Aka, B R; Yoboue, P; Vagamon, B; Sangare, A; Kanga, J M

    1999-01-01

    Genital ulcers are common manifestations of infectious disease. The incidence of genital ulcers featuring a chronic course has increased since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic. The purpose of this 18-month cross-sectional study was to determine the main infectious causes of chronic genital ulcers (CGU) and their correlation with HIV infection. A total of 29 patients with CGU defined as an ulcer showing no sign of healing after more than one month were studied. Mean age ranged from 24 to 54 years. The male-to-female sex ratio was 1:5. The etiology was herpes in 19 cases (65.5 p. 100), chancroid in 6 cases (20.6 p. 100), streptococcal infection in 2 cases (6.8 p. 100), Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in 1 case (3.4 p. 100) and cutaneous amibiasis in 1 case (3.4 p. 100). Twenty-two patients (75.8 p. 100) presented HIV infection including 16 with HIV1 and 6 with HIV1 and HIV2. All patients with herpes were HIV-positive. Eighteen of these patients were in stage C3 of HIV infection. Genital herpes was the main etiology of UGC in patients with HIV infection (p < 0.001). Conversely chancroid was the main etiology in patients without HIV infection (p < 0.05). This finding suggests that herpetic CGU is highly suggestive of AIDS whereas chancroid CGU is not. Although syphilis is widespread in Africa, it was not a cause of CGU in this study. Search for herpes simplex virus or Haemophilus ducreyi in patients with CGU is an important criteria for presumptive diagnosis of AIDS in Africa.

  11. Is incidence of multiple HPV genotypes rising in genital infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Amir; Hajia, Masoud; Jamali, Firouzeh; Kharazi, Faranak

    2017-02-16

    Frequency of cervical cancer related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) has increased remarkably in less-developed countries. Hence, applying capable diagnostic methods is urgently needed, as is having a therapeutic strategy as an effective step for cervical cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of various multi-type HPV infection patterns and their possible rising incidence in women with genital infections. This descriptive study was conducted on women who attended referral clinical laboratories in Tehran for genital infections from January 2012 until December 2013. A total of 1387 archival cervical scraping and lesion specimens were collected from referred women. HPV genotyping was performed using approved HPV commercial diagnostic technologies with either INNO-LiPA HPV or Geno Array Test kits. HPV was positive in 563 cases (40.59%) with mean age of 32.35±9.96. Single, multiple HPV genotypes and untypable cases were detected in 398 (70.69%), 160 (28.42%) and 5 (0.89%) cases, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected in 92 (57.5%), 42 (26.2%), 17 (10.6%) and 9 (5.7%) cases as two, three, four and five or more genotypes, respectively. The prevalence of 32 HPV genotypes was determined one by one. Seventeen HPV genotypes were identified in 95.78% of all positive infections. Five dominant genotypes, HPV6, 16, 53, 11 and 31, were identified in a total of 52.35%of the HPV positive cases. In the present study, we were able to evaluate the rate of multiple HPV types in genital infections. Nevertheless, it is necessary to evaluate the role of the dominant HPV low-risk types and the new probably high-risk genotypes, such as HPV53, in the increasing incidences of genital infections.

  12. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to chlamydial antigens in guinea pigs infected ocularly with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyk, G; Kerlan, R; Stites, D P; Schanzlin, D J; Ostler, H B; Hanna, L; Keshishyan, H; Jawetz, E

    1981-04-01

    Cell-mediated immune response and humoral response to chlamydial antigens were investigated in guinea pigs infected with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Pronounced cell-mediated immune response to the homologous antigen, as well as to two other chlamydial antigens, 6BC (Chlamydia psittaci) and LB-1 (C. trachomatis), occurred in all infected animals. Cell-mediated immune response to GPIC, and to a lesser extent to 6BC and LB-1 as well, was enhanced with time after infection even without the re-inoculation of the infectious agent. Extensive cross-reactions among the three chlamydial antigens during the cell-mediated immune response appeared to be due to shared species-specific and group-reactive antigens. Serum antibody response was pronounced and uniform to GPIC; it was less marked to 6BC and LB-1, with fewer cross-reactions than seen in tests for cell-mediated immunity.

  13. Chlamydial salpingitis in female guinea pigs receiving oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, A L; Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; White, H J; Mrak, R E

    1988-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were given daily doses of a combination of oral contraceptive (OC) agents, consisting of mestranol and norethynodrel suspended in sesame oil or distilled H2O, and were infected in the genital tract with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Counts of chlamydial inclusions in cells of vaginal smears collected during infection, showed prolongation and enhancement of infection in OC-treated animals as compared with controls. Appearance of IgG and IgA antibodies to GPIC in genital secretions, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was also delayed in OC-treated animals as compared with controls. OC-treated infected animals were killed on days 15 and 43, and gross pathological evidence for ascending infection culminating in salpingitis was found in all of five and four of five animals, respectively. On the other hand, among untreated infected controls on each sacrifice day, only one of five animals had any evidence for ascending infection. Chlamydiae were detected by light and electron microscopy in fallopian tube tissue collected on day 15 following OC-treatment but not in tissue from control animals.

  14. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections

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    François Coutlee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.

  15. [Transfer factor effectiveness patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Most HPV infections are cleared within two years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women the infection persists determining a high risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The transfer factor (TF) or dialyzable leukocyte extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. One daily dose of transfer factor was given for five days and subsequently each week for five weeks to a group of women with persistent genital papillomavirus infection. We included 13 patients, aged 19 to 45 years, with first intercourse between the ages of 14 to 23, and a mean of three sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options, including cervical freezing, cervical conization, cauterizing loop, imiquimod and podophyllin. Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and subsequently at 7-day intervals for 5 weeks. We found a clinical significant improvement in the gynaecological evaluation of cervical, vaginal, vulvar and perineal lesions. No recurrences have developed for at least 1 year of follow-up. The use of transfer factor in women with HPV showed resolution of genital lesions, without recurrences for at least one year after the treatment was ended.

  16. [Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections and contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, T; Rullo, F; Smeraglia, R; Giorgio, A; Lettieri, G; Sannino, F; Martinelli, A

    1988-01-01

    330 women with a median age of 30.15 (+- 9.5) years sought gynecological consultation for advice on contraception and for cervical carcinoma screening. Anamnesis explored the presence of dysuria, dyspareunia, secretions, and pelvic pain, the number of partners, and type of contraceptive used. Endocervical samples were collected by means of tampon and the specimens were analyzed for 48 to 120 hours to find antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis (C.T.) by a solid phase immunoenzymatic test. Peripheral blood samples were also taken from all women to look for antibodies of C.T. and also the indirect immunoperoxidase test was used to search for specific antibodies of C.T. (IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG). The chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. None of the women who used oral hormonal contraceptives or condoms were infected (presence of antigens and positivity for IgM and/or IgE and/or IgA), however, 36 of 90 IUD users (40%) were infected, 18 of 132 women who used no contraceptives whatsoever (13.7%) were also infected. 91% of the subjects had a single partner. In view of these findings the use of the condom and oral contraceptives is recommended with proper instruction about their potential side effects.

  17. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

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    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  18. Recombinant outer membrane vesicles carrying Chlamydia muridarum HtrA induce antibodies that neutralize chlamydial infection in vitro

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    Erika Bartolini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs are spheroid particles released by all Gram-negative bacteria as a result of the budding out of the outer membrane. Since they carry many of the bacterial surface-associated proteins and feature a potent built-in adjuvanticity, OMVs are being utilized as vaccines, some of which commercially available. Recently, methods for manipulating the protein content of OMVs have been proposed, thus making OMVs a promising platform for recombinant, multivalent vaccines development. Methods: Chlamydia muridarum DO serine protease HtrA, an antigen which stimulates strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and humans, was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the OmpA leader sequence to deliver it to the OMV compartment. Purified OMVs carrying HtrA (CM rHtrA-OMV were analyzed for their capacity to induce antibodies capable of neutralizing Chlamydia infection of LLC-MK2 cells in vitro. Results: CM rHtrA-OMV immunization in mice induced antibodies that neutralize Chlamydial invasion as judged by an in vitro infectivity assay. This was remarkably different from what observed with an enzymatically functional recombinant HtrA expressed in, and purified from the E. coli cytoplasm (CM rHtrA. The difference in functionality between anti-CM rHtrA and anti-CM rHtrA-OMV antibodies was associated to a different pattern of protein epitopes recognition. The epitope recognition profile of anti-CM HtrA-OMV antibodies was similar to that induced in mice during Chlamydial infection. Conclusions: When expressed in OMVs HtrA appears to assume a conformation similar to the native one and this results in the elicitation of functional immune responses. These data further support the potentiality of OMVs as vaccine platform.

  19. Humoral immune responses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) either naturally infected with Chlamydia pecorum or following administration of a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Polkinghorne, Adam; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-02-03

    The development of a vaccine is a key strategy to combat the widespread and debilitating effects of chlamydial infection in koalas. One such vaccine in development uses recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) as an antigen and has shown promising results in several koala trials. Previous chlamydial vaccine studies, primarily in the mouse model, suggest that both cell-mediated and antibody responses will be required for adequate protection. Recently, the important protective role of antibodies has been highlighted. In our current study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the antibody-mediated immune response in koalas that are either (a) naturally-infected, and/or (b) had received an rMOMP vaccine. Firstly, we observed that naturally-infected koalas had very low levels of Chlamydia pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A strong correlation between low IgG total titers/neutralising antibody levels, and higher C. pecorum infection load was also observed in these naturally-infected animals. In vaccinated koalas, we showed that the vaccine was able to boost the humoral immune response by inducing strong levels of C. pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A detailed characterisation of the MOMP epitope response was also performed in naturally-infected and vaccinated koalas using a PepScan epitope approach. This analysis identified unique sets of MOMP epitope antibodies between naturally-infected non-protected and diseased koalas, versus vaccinated koalas, with the latter group of animals producing a unique set of specific epitope-directed antibodies that we demonstrated were responsible for the in vitro neutralisation activity. Together, these results show the importance of antibodies in chlamydial infection and immunity following vaccination in the koala.

  20. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  1. Protection against Chlamydia promoted by a subunit vaccine (CTH1 compared with a primary intranasal infection in a mouse genital challenge model.

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    Anja Weinreich Olsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chlamydial proteins CT443 (OmcB and CT521 (rl16 have previously been identified as human B and/or T cell targets during a chlamydial infection in humans. Here we compare the protective effector mechanism promoted by a fusion protein composed of CT521 and CT443 (CTH1 with a primary intranasal Chlamydia muridarum infection known to provide high levels of protection against a genital chlamydial challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The fusion protein CTH1, adjuvanted with a strong Th1 inducing cationic adjuvant (CAF01, significantly reduced the bacterial shedding compared to a control group in both a C. trachomatis Serovar D and C. muridarum challenge model. The CTH1/CAF01 vaccine was found to induce polyfunctional T cells consisting of TNFalpha/IL-2 and TNFalpha/IL-2/IFN-gamma positive cells and high titers of CTH1 specific IgG2a and IgG1. By depletion experiments the protection in the C. muridarum challenge model was demonstrated to be mediated solely by CD4(+ T cells. In comparison, an intranasal infection with C. muridarum induced a T cell response that consisted predominantly of TNFalpha/IFN-gamma co-expressing effector CD4(+ T cells and an antibody response consisting of C. muridarum specific IgG1, IgG2a but also IgA. This response was associated with a high level of protection against challenge-a protection that was only partially dependent on CD4(+ T cells. Furthermore, whereas the antibody response induced by intranasal infection was strongly reactive against the native antigens displayed in the chlamydial elementary body, only low levels of antibodies against this preparation were found after CTH1/CAF01 immunization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that CTH1 vaccination promotes a CD4(+ T cell dependent protective response but compared with intranasal C. muridarum infection lacks a CD4 independent protective mechanism for complete protection.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Infections Among Newly Diagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Adults Entering Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care in Windhoek, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomand, Gaston; Schlefer, Madeleine; Gutreuter, Steve; Tobias, Sarah; Patel, Roopal; DeLuca, Nickolas; Hood, Julia; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Chen, Cheng; Muadinohamba, Alexinah; Lowrance, David W.; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and treating genital infections, including sexually transmitted infections (STI), among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals may benefit both public and individual health. We assessed prevalence of genital infections and their correlates among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals enrolling in HIV care services in Namibia. Methods Newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults entering HIV care at 2 health facilities in Windhoek, Namibia, were recruited from December 2012 to March 2014. Participants provided behavioral and clinical data including CD4+ T lymphocyte counts. Genital and blood specimens were tested for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomoniasis, Mycoplasma genitalium, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Results Among 599 adults, 56% were women and 15% reported consistent use of condoms in the past 6 months. The most common infections were bacterial vaginosis (37.2%), trichomoniasis (34.6%) and Chlamydia (14.6%) in women and M. genitalium (11.4%) in men. Correlates for trichomoniasis included being female (adjusted relative risk, [aRR], 7.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.07–12.65), higher education (aRR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38–0.89), and lower CD4 cell count (aRR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.08–2.40). Being female (aRR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.27–4.50), nonmarried (aRR, 2.30; (95% CI, 1.28–4.14), and having condomless sex (aRR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.06–7.00) were independently associated with chlamydial infection. Across all infections, female (aRR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.79–2.98), nonmarried participants (aRR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06–1.59), had higher risk to present with any STI, whereas pregnant women (aRR, 1.16, 95% CI 1.03–1.31) were at increased risk of any STI or reproductive tract infection. PMID:27893600

  3. [Vaginal microscopic evidence in women with symptoms of genital infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbini, S; Greco, M; Lalli, P; Santucci, A; Pitzurra, M

    1985-01-01

    Vaginal living organisms have been defined as the most complete in human ecology. As many as 100 million colonies of microorganisms can live in a single ml of vaginal liquid. More common are the anaerobic types, particularly the lactobacillus and bacteroides. The low pH of the vagina, normally 4, is due to the high lactic acid content of the lactobacillus. Pathogenic bacteria is inhibited at 4.5 pH. Conversely, it proliferates at a high pH. The slightest alteration of this delicate equilibrium allows potentially pathogenic bacteria to grow to a concentration high enough to produce symptoms. Researchers have sought to identify new pathological microorganisms, due to the increase in reported cases of vaginal infection in recent years. New strains such as microplasmas and chlamydia are assuming greater importance. Evidence of the numerous vaginal microbes comes from anamnestic, symptomatological data and from simple laboratory tests conducted in gynecological clinics with microscopes and Gram coloration. 663 women were examined in 6 laboratories. The computerized data revealed that only 29, or 4.37%, showed no symptoms at all and had gone to the lab for a mere check up; 175, or 26.40%, complained of pain, burning and itching; 361, or 54.45%, revealed symptoms associated with leukorrhea; 98, or 14.78%, showed only leukorrhea. The epidemiological study shows the importance of candida albicans in the infectious pathology of the female genital organ. Trichomonas vaginalis and grambacteria infection have been detected particularly when an IUD is used. The negative result of numerous bacterioscopic exams has shown the necessity of more in-depth study of genital infections, using analytical cultural methodology.

  4. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A Ugboma Henry Arinze; Nwagwu Victor Onyebuchi; Jeremiah Isreal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics...

  5. Family planning services in developing countries: an opportunity to treat asymptomatic and unrecognised genital tract infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D; Ndovela, N; Harrison, A; Lurie, M; Connolly, C; Sturm, A W

    1997-12-01

    This is a study of 189 women attending a family planning clinic in rural South Africa to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic and unrecognized genital tract infections. Genital samples were taken from these women to diagnose infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Treponema pallidum, and HIV, and to diagnose bacterial vaginosis. Among the 189 women, 41 (22%) reported having had an STD treated in the preceding 12 months. By direct questioning, 74 women stated the following symptoms: genital itch -- 38 (20%); vaginal discharge -- 56 (30%); dysuria -- 33 (18%); dyspareunia -- 22 (12%); and genital ulcers -- 4 (2%). 45 (24%) women had more than one symptom. 119 (63%) women had at least one genital infection, and 49 (26%) had multiple infections. Most of the infections were asymptomatic; while those that were symptomatic, were unrecognized or not reported. Results showed a high prevalence of genital tract infection among the participating women, with most of their infections remaining asymptomatic or unrecognized. Thus, strategies to detect and treat genital tract infections in rural South Africa need to be developed.

  6. The specifities of the HPV-genital infections in males

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    Mihael Skerlev

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Anogenital infections caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV are the most frequently diagnosed sexually transmitted infections of viral origin and up to 150 HPV DNA types have been recognized so far. Anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata are the most common lesions presented in men, however, during the last decade the other HPV-associated exaggerated lesions such as condylomata plana, penile,scrotal, and anal intraepithelial neoplasias, as well as the penile, urine bladder and prostate cancer have been studied somewhat more extensively. The clinical variations might range from clinically invisible, asymptomatic lesions to the bizarre forms of giant condyloma of Buschke-Löwenstein type, including Bowenoid papulosis,Mb. Bowen, different kinds of eryhtroplasia both in men and women and a large spectrum of HPV-induced dermatovenereological entities in genital region including high-grade intraepithelial genital neoplasias, such as penile, anal, scrotal, vulvar, vaginal etc. (thus not only cervical, and, last but not least - the anogenital warts. A prophylactic vaccine that targets these types should thus substantially reduce the burden of HPV-associated clinical diseases. Ultimately, within the spectrum of therapeutic options for condylomata, no method is really superior to others; recurrences occurred in 30-70% of cases. We definitely need the HPV vaccination programme to eliminate one of the oldest and up to now unsolved problems of the mankind. Since HPV is transmitted by sexual intercourse, treatment of both partners is necessary in order to eliminate the virus from the population. Approaches to this include prophylactic vaccines such as quadrivalent HPV vaccine for both men and women

  7. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    A Ugboma Henry Arinze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of sexual behaviour was noted followed by collection of endocervical swab which was analysed with a Chlamydia Rapid Test Device. Data management was done by SPSS version 17.0 statistical package. Result: The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 30.2%. First coital exposure at14 years or less had the highest prevalence of the disease. Multiple sexual partners, tribe and inconsistent use of condom were significantly related with Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Conclusion: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is prevalent among female undergraduates of the University of Port Harcourt.

  8. A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Di Paolo, Maria; Favaroni, Alison; Aldini, Rita; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Biondi, Roberta; Cremonini, Eleonora; Ginocchietti, Laura; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection was developed. Ninety-nine mice were randomly divided into three groups and intravaginally inoculated with chlamydia: 45 mice (group 1) received C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs), 27 (group 2) were inoculated with C. trachomatis genotype E EBs and 27 mice (group 3) with C. trachomatis genotype F EBs. Additionally, 10 mice were used as a negative control. At seven days post-infection (dpi) secretory anti-C. suis IgA were recovered from vaginal swabs of all C. suis inoculated mice. Chlamydia suis was isolated from 93, 84, 71 and 33% vaginal swabs at 3, 5, 7 and 12 dpi. Chlamydia trachomatis genotype E and F were isolated from 100% vaginal swabs up to 7 dpi and from 61 and 72%, respectively, at 12 dpi. Viable C. suis and C. trachomatis organisms were isolated from uterus and tubes up to 16 and 28 dpi, respectively. The results of the present study show the susceptibility of mice to intravaginal inoculation with C. suis. A more rapid course and resolution of C. suis infection, in comparison to C. trachomatis, was highlighted. The mouse model could be useful for comparative investigations involving C. suis and C. trachomatis species.

  9. Prevalence trends in chlamydial infections among young women entering the national job training program, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joesoef, M Riduan; Mosure, Debra J

    2006-09-01

    To assess the trends and risk factors of chlamydial infections in disadvantaged women aged 16 to 24 years entering a national job training program. To assess the impact of chlamydia screening program on chlamydia trend. The authors calculated the prevalence of chlamydia by demographic and geographic characteristics from 106,377 women who were screened from 1998 through 2004. Chlamydia prevalence was inversely associated with age, decreasing from 12.7% in women aged 16 to 17 years to 6.6% in women aged 22 to 24 years. Blacks had the highest prevalence (13.1%). Chlamydia prevalence significantly decreased from 11.7% in 1998 to 10.0% in 2003 and then slightly increased to 10.3% in 2004. After direct standardization and adjustment for the laboratory test type, a similar trend was observed by age and race/ethnicities. Among disadvantaged women aged 16 to 24 years entering a national job training program, the chlamydia prevalence and racial disparities in prevalence were consistently high from 1998 to 2004, especially among younger black women.

  10. Association of uterine and salpingeal fibrosis with chlamydial hsp60 and hsp10 antigen-specific antibodies in Chlamydia-infected koalas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Damien P; Hemsley, Susan; Canfield, Paul J

    2005-05-01

    Infection by Chlamydia pneumoniae or Chlamydia pecorum commonly causes chronic, fibrotic disease of the urogenital tracts of female koalas. Studies of humans have associated titers of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) against chlamydial hsp60 and hsp10 antigens with chronic infection, salpingeal fibrosis, and tubal infertility. To determine whether a similar relationship exists in Chlamydia-infected koalas, samples were collected opportunistically from 34 wild female koalas and examined by gross pathology and histopathology, PCR, and immunohistochemistry for Chlamydia spp. and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological responses to chlamydial hsp10 and hsp60 antigens. Greater anti-hsp titers occurred in Chlamydia-infected koalas with fibrous occlusion of the uterus or uterine tube than in other Chlamydia-infected koalas (for hsp10 IgG, P = 0.005; for hsp60 IgG, P = 0.001; for hsp10 IgA, P = 0.04; for hsp60 IgA, P = 0.09). However, as in humans, some koalas with tubal occlusion had low titers. Among Chlamydia-infected koalas with tubal occlusion, those with low titers were more likely to have an active component to their ongoing uterine or salpingeal inflammation (P = 0.007), such that the assay predicted, with 79% sensitivity and 92% specificity, tubal occlusion where an active component of inflammation was absent. Findings of this study permit advancement of clinical and epidemiological studies of host-pathogen-environment interactions and pose intriguing questions regarding the significance of the Th1/Th2 paradigm and antigen-presenting and inflammation-regulating capabilities of uterine epithelial cells and the roles of latency and reactivation of chlamydial infections in pathogenesis of upper reproductive tract disease of koalas.

  11. Condom use prevents genital ulcers in women working as prostitutes. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Ronald, A R; Simonsen, J N; Braddick, M; Bosire, M; Kimata, J; Kamala, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Waiyaki, P G

    1991-01-01

    Control of genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a proposed intervention to slow the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should focus on groups of high-frequency transmitters, such as prostitutes and their clientele. This study illustrates the interaction between the prevalence of chancroid, use of barrier prophylaxis against STDs, and HIV infection in a population of female prostitutes in Nairobi. Four hundred and twenty three women were evaluated. Despite the increased use of condoms, the prevalence of genital ulcers remained constant between 1986-87 and 1987-88. Genital ulcer disease was simultaneously associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.7, P less than .01) whereas it was independently and inversely associated with more consistent condom use (P less than .01). The authors conclude that genital ulcer disease can be controlled in these populations but concurrent HIV infection increases the difficulty of this intervention.

  12. Immune responses to chlamydial antigens in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, L; Kerlan, R; Senyk, G; Stites, D P; Juster, R P; Jawetz, E

    1982-01-01

    Antibody titer, lymphocyte stimulation and leukocyte migration inhibition with chlamydial antigens were determined repeatedly over many months on human subjects. The volunteers were retrospectively placed into four groups on the basis of clinical, laboratory and epidemiologic criteria. Group A consisted of persons with proven or probable chlamydial infection, including an illness confirmed by chlamydial isolation or seroconversion, or a clinically compatible illness with positive serologic results. Group B were sexual partners or close contacts of group A individuals. Group C were laboratory workers with prolonged exposure to viable chlamydiae or their antigens. Group D included persons of comparable age as those in groups A and B, but lacking a history of symptomatic chlamydial infection or of contact with chlamydiae. Individual cases illustrated the rise of antibody and some cell mediated immunity reactions (CMI) with active chlamydial infection. By contrast, laboratory exposure resulted in elevation of CMI but not of antibody. Statistical analysis of the results in 46 volunteers tested repeatedly indicated a strong association of specific antibody with lymphocyte stimulation, but not with leukocyte migration inhibition. Regression analysis suggested that the type of exposure markedly influenced the relationship between antibody and lymphocyte stimulation. Measurement of immunotype-specific antibody titer by microimmunofluorescence (or an equally sensitive method) remains the best laboratory indicator of past chlamydial infection. Neither antibody nor CMI can, as yet, be definitely related to resistance to re-infection in humans.

  13. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, N

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease.

  14. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

  15. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

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    Chenfang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women’s health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review.

  16. Prevalence and Determinants of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Male Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Materials and Methods In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Conclusions The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection. PMID:24648877

  17. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in blood samples as a diagnostic method for complicated and persistent forms of urogenital chlamydia infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanakhmedov E.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal: the study of the effectiveness of the method for laboratory diagnostics of urogenital chlamydial infection in patients with chronic form of the disease. Material and methods. The presence of DNAof C. trachomatis was detected by PCR in either genital or extragenital (blood sites in eighth patients (four men and four women. Results. It is established that in biological material taken from extragenital (blood sites, C. trachomatis was detected in all patients examined (in 100% of cases, while in clinical samples obtained from genital sites, in seven patients only (87.5%. Conclusion. We found that specific chlamydial DNAcan be detected in extragenital (blood site, despite the negative reaction in the clinical material from the genital tract of patients with genital chlamydial infection.

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadnia, Elahe; Kharaghani, Roghieh; Maleki, Azam; Avazeh, Azar; Mazloomzadeh, Saeideh; Sedaghatpisheh, Tahereh; Jalilvand, Ahmad; Molae, Behnaz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%). The use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas. PMID:27974960

  19. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Genital and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Married Women of Iran

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    Elahe Ahmadnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genital and sexually transmitted infections and its related factors in married women in Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4 274 married women living in urban and rural areas of the Zanjan province from 2012 to 2013. We used stratified cluster sampling to select the participants. Data collection included demographic characteristics, reproductive status, and cervical cytology results. Results: The prevalence of lower genital infections and sexually transmitted infections were 20.1% and 7.4%, respectively. The most common vaginal infection was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 8.5%, and the most common sexually transmitted infection was Trichomonas vaginalis (1.4%. The use of the intrauterine device (IUD as a contraceptive, living in an urban area, and experiencing vaginal discharge were significantly related to genital tract and sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of genital infection among women living in Zanjab. Screening and treatment of genital infection are necessary to prevent adverse consequences in women who use an IUD or live in urban areas.

  20. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Taylor B; Gottlieb, Sami L; Darville, Toni

    2017-01-19

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection globally. Ascension of chlamydial infection to the female upper genital tract can cause acute pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Shortcomings of current chlamydia control strategies, especially for low- and middle-income countries, highlight the need for an effective vaccine. Evidence from animal models, human epidemiological studies, and early trachoma vaccine trials suggest that a C. trachomatis vaccine is feasible. Vaccine development for genital chlamydial infection has been in the preclinical phase of testing for many years, but the first Phase I trials of chlamydial vaccine candidates are underway, and scientific advances hold promise for additional candidates to enter clinical evaluation in the coming years. We describe the clinical and public health need for a C. trachomatis vaccine, provide an overview of Chlamydia vaccine development efforts, and summarize current vaccine candidates in the development pipeline.

  1. High prevalence of genital HPV infection among long-term monogamous partners of women with cervical dysplasia or genital warts-Another reason for HPV vaccination of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Filip; Tachezy, Ruth; Pichlík, Tomáš; Rob, Lukáš; Kružicová, Zuzana; Hamšíková, Eva; Šmahelová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on the occurrence of a specific type of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among long-term monogamous male partners of women with cervical dysplasia and genital warts. The purpose of the study was to improve knowledge with regards to the management of these couples. The presence of genital HPV-DNA was detected by PCR with broad spectrum primers followed by hybridization. 82 males met the study criteria, 41 in each group. Genital HPV-DNA prevalence was 67.5% in the genital warts group and 72.2% in the cervical dysplasia group. The prevalence of high risk HPVs was higher in the cervical dysplasia group, while low risk HPVs were more prevalent in the genital warts group (p HPV in males was independent of the duration of the relationship (73.5% for 6-24 months and 66.7% for longer relationships). In conclusion, our results suggest that the prevalence of the genital HPV infection in both groups of male partners is comparable and very high, but the spectrum of HPV types varies significantly. The presence of the genital HPV infection in male sexual partners seems to be independent of the duration of the relationship. Applying the HPV vaccination to boys may prevent this phenomenon.

  2. Progress of Study on Chlamydial Pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全中; 傅宜志; 陈锦英

    2001-01-01

    Chlamydia, a human pathogen that mediates chronic, persistent and repeated infection progress, is capable of inflicting permanent scar formation. A typical reticular body is found in persistent infections. Chlamydial Hsp 60, interferon(IFN) -gamma and other cytokines function in the course of repeated infection. Immunopathological factors mediate chronic infection.

  3. Recent trends in chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis among neonates and adults in an Irish hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quirke, Michael

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are two important and frequently overlooked causes of neonatal and adult conjunctivitis. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: In order to improve primary treatment, prevention, and control of infection caused by these organisms, an analysis of all cases presenting from July 2002 to December 2006 at a major Irish regional teaching hospital was performed. RESULTS: There were 51 cases of conjunctivitis in total. Among neonates and adults, C. trachomatis was the most common cause of conjunctivitis. Of the adult patients, 75% were men. The annual incidence of adult chlamydial conjunctivitis increased yearly from 2002 and correlated with an overall increase in genital chlamydia infection in the region. Neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis has an overall incidence of 0.65\\/1000 live births and is continuing to rise annually. In 2006, gonococcal conjunctivitis accounted for 20% of all cases of conjunctivitis caused by sexually transmitted bacteria presenting to our hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in the incidence of gonococcal keratitis serves to remind us that this important infection should be borne in mind when treating cases of purulent conjunctivitis. The diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment with systemic antibiotics.

  4. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities.

  5. Natural cross chlamydial infection between livestock and free-living bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.

  6. [Chlamydial infection of the central nervous system. Laboratory diagnosis and clinic and morphological features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaĭnshenker, Iu I; Nuralova, I V; Onishenko, L S

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents data on the diagnosis, clinical and pathomorphological changes in the central nervous system (CNS) in neurochlamydiasis according to clinical, autoptic, and experimental evidence. It discusses the possible implication of Ch. trachomatis, Ch. pneumoniae, and Ch. psittaci in the development and course of different diseases with CNS involvement: atherosclerosis, vasculitis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, autism, vegetative state, sequels of perinatal lesions in childhood and adolescence, HIV infection, etc. Considerable attention is paid to the specific features of diagnosis of Chlamydia-induced CNS lesions. Purposeful pathomorphological investigations are shown to be needed.

  7. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Dean W; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H; Ramsey, Kyle H; Dando, Samantha J; O'Meara, Connor P; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however

  8. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean W Andrew

    Full Text Available IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii the development of oviduct pathology and (iii the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/- to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated

  9. Therapeutic Vaccine for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Infection: Findings From a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Wald, Anna; Warren, Terri; Fife, Kenneth; Tyring, Stephen; Lee, Patricia; Van Wagoner, Nick; Magaret, Amalia; Flechtner, Jessica B; Tasker, Sybil; Chan, Jason; Morris, Amy; Hetherington, Seth

    2017-03-15

    Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes recurrent lesions and frequent viral shedding. GEN-003 is a candidate therapeutic vaccine containing HSV-2 gD2∆TMR and ICP4.2, and Matrix-M2 adjuvant. Persons with genital herpes were randomized into 3 dose cohorts to receive 3 intramuscular doses 21 days apart of 10 µg, 30 µg, or 100 µg of GEN-003, antigens without adjuvant, or placebo. Participants obtained genital swab specimens twice daily for HSV-2 detection and monitored genital lesions for 28-day periods at baseline and at intervals after the last dose. One hundred and thirty-four persons received all 3 doses. Reactogenicity was associated with adjuvant but not with antigen dose or dose number. No serious adverse events were attributed to GEN-003. Compared with baseline, genital HSV-2 shedding rates immediately after dosing were reduced with GEN-003 (from 13.4% to 6.4% for 30 μg [P < .001] and from 15.0% to 10.3% for 100 µg [P < .001]). Lesion rates were also significantly (P < .01) reduced immediately following immunization with 30 µg or 100 µg of GEN-003. GEN-003 elicited increases in antigen binding, virus neutralizing antibody, and T-cell responses. GEN-003 had an acceptable safety profile and stimulated humoral and cellular immune responses. GEN-003 at doses of 30 µg and 100 µg reduced genital HSV shedding and lesion rates. NCT01667341 (funded by Genocea).

  10. Asymptomatic Genital Infection of Human Papillomavirus in Pregnant Women and the Vertical Transmission Route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Dongrui; WEN Liangzhen; CHEN Wen; LING Xiazhen

    2005-01-01

    Summary: To further investigate the vertical transmission route of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the indication for the choice of mode of delivery, the infective status of 152 asymptomatic pregnant wemen and the maternal-fetal transmission were studied. By using general primers in polymerase chain reaction (GP-PCR) combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, HPV DNA positive rate in cervical secretions and venous blood in asymptomatic pregnant women was 36.21 % and 52.78 %, respectively, and the identified genotypes were mainly HPV16 and 18. The maternal-fetal transmission rate of HPV via genital tract as well as blood was 40.91 % and 57.89 %, respectively. It was concluded that besides the transmission route of genital tract and amniotic fluid, there was also transplacental transmission of HPV in utero. Therefore,in our opinion, it is not an absolut indication to perform a cesarean delivery for the pregnant women with HPV asymtomatic genital infection.

  11. Chlamydial plasmids and bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowska-Warych, Małgorzata; Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia are absolute pathogens of humans and animals; despite being rather well recognised, they are still open for discovery. One such discovery is the occurrence of extrachromosomal carriers of genetic information. In prokaryotes, such carriers include plasmids and bacteriophages, which are present only among some Chlamydia species. Plasmids were found exclusively in Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. pneumoniae, C. suis, C. felis, C. muridarum and C. caviae. In prokaryotic organisms, plasmids usually code for genes that facilitate survival of the bacteria in the environment (although they are not essential). In chlamydia, their role has not been definitely recognised, apart from the fact that they participate in the synthesis of glycogen and encode proteins responsible for their virulence. Furthermore, in C. suis it was evidenced that the plasmid is integrated in a genomic island and contains the tetracycline-resistance gene. Bacteriophages specific for chlamydia (chlamydiaphages) were detected only in six species: C. psittaci, C. abortus, C. felis, C. caviae C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae. These chlamydiaphages cause inhibition of the developmental cycle, and delay transformation of reticulate bodies (RBs) into elementary bodies (EBs), thus reducing the possibility of infecting other cells in time. Plasmids and bacteriophages can be used in the diagnostics of chlamydioses; although especially in the case of plasmids, they are already used for detection of chlamydial infections. In addition, bacteriophages could be used as therapeutic agents to replace antibiotics, potentially addressing the problem of increasing antibiotic-resistance among chlamydia.

  12. Prevalence of genital, oral, and anal HPV infection among STI patients in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Giulia; Herzum, Astrid; Rebora, Alfredo; Drago, Francesco

    2016-12-09

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a carcinogenic agent responsible for tumor development in many sexually involved tissues. We present a survey on the prevalence of HPV infection in a risk population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The studied population was formed by 125 STI clinic attendees, who took part in a screening program on STIs. To be included in the study, the patients had to show no overt clinical signs of HPV infection. Genital (cervical in women, urethral in men), anal, and oral samples were collected with ThinPrep liquid based cytology preparation system. Overall, of the screened population, 56% proved positive for genital HPV, 37% for oral HPV, and 42% for anal HPV infection. Our data indicate that in STI patients, HPV infection is more prevalent, than previously estimated. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiological burden of HPV in sexually involved tissues, especially in the oral mucosa.

  13. Bacterial vaginosis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection among women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic: a longitudinal analysis of possible causal links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Macaluso, Maurizio; Warner, Lee; Fleenor, Michael E; Hook, Edward W; Brill, Ilene; Weaver, Mark A

    2012-03-01

    Interactions between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammatory sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection, are not well understood. Furthermore, evidence regarding the sexual transmission of BV is equivocal. We assessed associations between incident BV and incidences of gonorrhea and/or chlamydial infection ("gonorrhea/chlamydia"), as well as similarities in associations for the two processes, among 645 female patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Alabama followed prospectively for 6 months from 1995 to 1998. We identified predictors of both incident BV and gonorrhea/chlamydia and used bivariate logistic regression to determine whether these predictors differed. Participants completed 3188 monthly, follow-up visits. Several factors associated with incident BV involved sexual intercourse: young age (drug use during sex (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.5), prevalent trichomoniasis (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.7-4.6) and incident syphilis (aOR, 9.7; 95% CI, 1.9-48.4). Few statistical differences between potential factors for BV and gonorrhea/chlamydia emerged. BV appeared to precede the acquisition of gonorrhea/chlamydia (pairwise odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), and vice versa (pairwise odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-3.5). Findings are consistent with a causal role of sexual behavior in the acquisition of BV and confirm that BV facilitates acquisition of gonorrhea/chlamydia and vice versa independently from other risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Analysis of genital Candida albicans infection by rapid microsatellite markers genotyping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-min; MEI Xing-yu; GAO Fei; HUO Ke-ke; SHEN Liang-liang; QIN Hai-hong; WU Zhou-wei; ZHENG Jie

    2007-01-01

    Background Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection, often occurring in genital candidiasis, has increased dramatically recently. Developing an efficient C. albicans typing method may contribute to understanding its epidemiological characteristics and guiding efficient treatment. We used rapid microsatellite genotyping assay for interstrain differentiation of C. albicans isolates and explored some characteristics of its spread.Methods DNA was extracted from C. albicans isolates from gentalia, recta and mouths of 39 female cases and 27 male cases of genital candidiasis. Three fluorescent primers for the microsatellite markers in conserved genes (CDC3, EF3and HIS3) of C. albicans were used to amplify the isolates DNA by PCR. Fluorescent signals were read with an automatic sequencer and analyzed with GeneScan software.Results Analysis of the three microsatellites markers showed 18 gene allelic associations in genital C. albicans infected patients: 10 allelic associations in female and 11 allelic associations in male, of which 3 allelic associations shared by both genders covered 71% of infections. The most dominant allele association of pathogenic strains for both genders was 116:124, 122:131,160:200 that covered about 50% of infection. Gentalia and recta shared the same strains in 80%of female patients, but in only 3.8% of male patients. There were 2.7% female patients, but no males, with same strain in both gentalia and mouths. Five of seven genital C. albicans infected couples had the same allelic associations of which 4were the dominant pathogenic C. albicans susceptible for both genders.Conclusions The predominant allelic association of the pathogenic strain in genital C. albicans infection is 116:124,122:131, 160:200. Vaginal pathogenic strains are probably maintained from the rectal reservoir. Pathogenic strains of male patients are probably from frequent sexual intercourse. The aggressiveness of some strains varies with gender.

  15. A novel guinea pig model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, M.I. de; Keizer, S.A.; El Moussaoui, H.M.; Dorsten, L. van; Azzawi, R.; Zuilekom, H.I. van; Peters, P.P.; Opzeeland, F.J. van; Dijk, L. van; Nieuwland, R.; Roosenboom-Theunissen, H.W.; Vrijenhoek, M.P.; Debyser, I.; Verweij, P.J.; Duijnhoven, W.G. van; Bosch, J.F. van den; Nuijten, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections often result in pelvic inflammatory disease and sequelae including infertility and ectopic pregnancies. In addition to the already established murine models, the development of other animal models is necessary to study the safety and efficacy of prototype

  16. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  17. Genital Warts (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Warts (HPV) A A ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  18. Surgical site infections in genital reconstruction surgery for gender reassignment, Detroit: 1984-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing J; Marchaim, Dror; Palla, Mohan B; Bogan, Christopher W; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Tansek, Ryan; Moshos, Judy; Muthusamy, Arunkumar; Kotra, Harikrishna; Lephart, Paul R; Wilson, Alan N; Kaye, Keith S

    2014-04-01

    Gender reassignment surgery (i.e., male-to-female or female-to-male) entails a series of complex surgical procedures. We conducted a study to explore epidemiologic characteristics of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations as components of gender reassignment and to analyze risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) following these operations. The study was a retrospective cohort study conducted from 1984-2008 at Harper University Hospital, a tertiary hospital with 625 beds in Detroit, Michigan. Surgical site infection was defined according to established criteria. Records were available for 82 patients who underwent a total of 1,383 operations as part of genital-reconstruction processes. Thirty-nine (47.6%) of the patients underwent female-to-male reassignment (FTM) and 43 (52.4%) underwent male-to-female reassignment (MTF). The average age of the study cohort was 39.5±9.8 y. Of the patients in the cohort, 56 (68.3%) were Caucasian and 67 (81.7%) were single. The average number of operative encounters per patient was 11.8±4.6 for FTM and 4.9±2.4 for MTF. Forty-three (52.4%) patients developed an SSI at least once during their genital reconstruction process, of whom 34 (87%) were in the FTM group and nine (21%) in the MTF group (pinfections, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (50%), Enterococcus (39%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.3%). Surgical site infection was associated independently with an increased frequency of operative procedures and operating room encounters. More than 50% of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations developed an SSI at some point during the genital reconstruction process. Surgical site infections are more common in FTM than in MTF reconstruction operations, and for both FTM and MTF, SSIs are associated independently with an increased frequency of total operative procedures and encounters.

  19. Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van de Perre Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492 among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273 among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2% experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/μL and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ≤200 cells/μL. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population.

  20. Genotype-specific concordance of oral and genital human papillomavirus infections among marital couples is low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, K; Rautava, J; Louvanto, K; Syrjänen, K; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2016-04-01

    Data on genotype-specific concordance of oral-oral and genital-oral HPV infections among marital couples are key to understand HPV transmission between spouses. Genotype-specific concordance of HPV infections (oral/genital) and their co-variates among 131 marital couples were determined during 6-year follow-up (FU). Seven oral scrapings were taken from both spouses, accompanied by six genital samplings from the women and one (at baseline) from the male partners. HPV-genotyping was performed by nested PCR and a Luminex®-based Multimetrix Assay. Demographic data were collected with questionnaires at baseline and study conclusion. Prevalence of oral HPV varied from 10.3 to 27.0 % and 15.8 to 31.3 % in women and men, respectively. At baseline, 37.6 % of the male genital samples were HPV-positive while in female genital samples, HPV prevalence varied from 13.3 to 59.4 %. Only 15 couples had HPV genotype-specific concordance (oral-oral n = 7; male oral-female genital n = 9; female oral-male genital n = 2). In the nested case-control setting, higher number of deliveries (OR 0.145, 95%CI 0.030-0.706, p = 0.017) and higher number of intercourse (OR 0.488, 95%CI 0.243-0.978, p = 0.043) decreased the likelihood of concordant HPV infections while practicing oral sex increased the risk (OR 0.299, 95%CI 0.120-0.748, p = 0.010). In multivariate analysis, the likelihood of concordance was decreased by higher number of pregnancies of the female partner (p = 0.020) and by higher frequency of intercourse reported by the male spouse (p = 0.027). To conclude, asymptomatic HPV infections were common in both spouses while genotype-specific concordance was low. This supports the view that HPV profile of the spouses has been established before the current marital relationship.

  1. Do Ureaplasma urealyticum infections in the genital tract affect semen quality?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wang; Cui-Ling Liang; Jun-Qing Wu; Chen Xu; Shi-Xiao Qin; Er-Sheng Gao

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) infection and semen quality. Methods:From 2001 to 2003, 346 eligible patients aged 20-45 years were invited from two hospitals in Shanghai, China, to participate in an investigation which included questionnaires about general and reproductive health, an external genital tract examination, UU culture and semen analysis. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine whether UU had a significant effect on semen quality after adjustment for confounding factors. Results: Findings suggested that UU infection was associated with higher semen viscosity and lower semen pH value. Sperm concentration was lower in UU positive subjects than that in UU negative subjects (54.04 × 106/mL vs.70.58 × 106/mL). However, Uudid not significantly affect other semen quality indexes. Conclusion: UU infection of the male genital tract could negatively influence semen quality.

  2. Association Between Vaginal Douching and Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Thai, Thuy Nhu; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Shete, Sanjay S; Ramondetta, Lois M; Basen-Engquist, Karen M

    2016-11-01

    The very few studies that have examined the association between vaginal douching and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have found contrary results. We investigated the associations between douching and numbers of HPV genotypes infecting 1271 participants aged 20-49 years in the 2003-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After controlling for relevant covariates, douching in the past 6 months was significantly associated with infection by higher numbers of all genital HPV types (relative risk ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.54) and HPV high-risk types (1.40; 1.09-1.80). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Efficacy of an Immune Modulator in Experimental Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if vaginal application of the immune response modifier imiquimod (Aldara cream, 3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, Minn would alter the course and/or outcome of female genital tract infection with a human isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis in a murine model. Methods. Groups of CF-1 mice were treated with Aldara on three different schedules: (1 ongoing beginning 5 days prior to and continuing through day 5 of infection; (2 a single prophylactic dose 2 hours prior to infection; and (3 therapeutic from day 4 to day 14 of infection. Mice were infected vaginally with a serovar D strain of C trachomatis, and monitored by culture to determine the level of shedding and duration of infection. Results. We observed a significant reduction in both duration of infection and the level of shedding during the acute phase in mice treated on an ongoing basis commencing 5 days prior to infection. There was no effect with respect to the other regimens. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that ongoing Aldara treatment has efficacy and may enhance local innate immunity which reduces the duration of subsequent infection with human isolates of C trachomatis in a murine model of female genital tract infection.

  4. Public health policies and management strategies for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

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    Shaw K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Kelly Shaw1,2, David Coleman1, Maree O'Sullivan1, Nicola Stephens31Department of Health and Human Services, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; 2Health and Wellbeing Research Cluster, Southern Cross University, New South Wales, Australia; 3NSW Health, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is a sexually transmissible bacterial infection that is asymptomatic in the majority of infected individuals and is associated with significant short-term and long-term morbidity. The population prevalence of the infection appears to be increasing. C. trachomatis is of public health significance because of the impacts of untreated disease on reproductive outcomes, transmission of other sexually acquired infections, and the costs to health systems. At the individual level, C. trachomatis infection is readily treatable with antibiotics, although antibiotic resistance appears to be increasing. At the population level, public health control of spread of infection is more problematic. Approaches to control include primary preventive activities, increased access to testing and treatment for people with or at risk of infection, partner notification and treatment, and screening either opportunistically or as part of an organized population screening program. A combination of all of the above approaches is likely to be required to have a significant effect on the burden of disease associated with genital chlamdyia infection and to reduce population prevalence. The development of a vaccine for genital chlamydia infection could significantly reduce the public health burden associated with infection; however a vaccine is not expected to be available in the near future.Keywords: chlamydia, public health, health policy, screening

  5. A primate model for age and host response to genital herpetic infection: determinants of latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, W C; Di Giacomo, R; Alexander, E R

    1981-04-01

    Thirty five female Cebus albifrons monkeys (16 adolescents and 19 adults) were infected vaginally with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2. Fifteen developed spontaneous recurrent genital HSV infections. All 35 were killed for study eight to 12 months after primary infection, and tissue from the vagina, cervix, uterus, ovary, paracervical autonomic plexus, and lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia of eight animals. Host age was the most important variable influencing viral latency; 69% of adolescents and 42% of adults had latent HSV type 2 infections. Animals that developed latent infections were significantly easier to infect, shed virus during the primary infection significantly longer, and had more severe primary disease than those who did not become latently infected.

  6. Seroconversion Following Anal and Genital HPV Infection in Men: The HIM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Viscidi, Raphael; Torres, B. Nelson; Ingles, Donna J.; Sudenga, Staci L.; Villa, Luisa L.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Abrahamsen, Martha; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Protection from naturally acquired human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies may influence HPV infection across the lifespan. This study describes seroconversion rates following genital, anal, and oral HPV 6/11/16/18 infections in men and examines differences by HPV type and anatomic site. Methods Men with HPV 6/11/16/18 infections who were seronegative for those genotypes at the time of DNA detection were selected from the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Sera specimens collected ≤36 months after detection were analyzed for HPV 6/11/16/18 antibodies using a virus-like particle-based ELISA. Time to seroconversion was separately assessed for each anatomic site, stratified by HPV type. Results Seroconversion to ≥1 HPV type (6/11/16/18) in this sub-cohort (N=384) varied by anatomic site, with 6.3, 18.9, and 0.0% seroconverting following anal, genital, and oral HPV infection, respectively. Regardless of anatomic site, seroconversion was highest for HPV 6 (19.3%). Overall, seroconversion was highest following anal HPV 6 infection (69.2%). HPV persistence was the only factor found to influence seroconversion. Conclusions Low seroconversion rates following HPV infection leave men susceptible to recurrent infections that can progress to HPV-related cancers. This emphasizes the need for HPV vaccination in men to ensure immune protection against new HPV infections and subsequent disease. PMID:26688833

  7. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  8. Chronic ulcerating genital herpes simplex virus infection: A diagnosis mislead by HIV infection

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    Sudip Parajuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of chronic herpes simplex in a 27 year old lady presenting with a history of persistent verrucous ulcer in the natal cleft of nine months duration. The patient was diagnosed and treated initially as a case of Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis (TVC based on the chronicity of the ulcer, negative HIV serological tests and histopathological findings. The diagnosis had to be revised as the lesion was increasing in size and the patient was not responding to treatment even after completing antituberculous treatment for six months. Repeat histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry showed DNA of herpes simplex. Based on this finding a repeat HIV serology was sent which was positive. The ulcer healed after a course of acyclovir. The case is being reported to highlight the importance of considering chronic herpes simplex infection in a case of chronic genital ulcer. In addition this case reminds us the nature of HIV infection to mislead the diagnosis by altering the natural course of the disease process.

  9. Sequential Acquisition of Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Following Genital Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Women: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamnani, Shitaldas J; Nyitray, Alan G; Abrahamsen, Martha; Rollison, Dana E; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Huang, Yangxin; Borenstein, Amy; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of sequential acquisition of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection following a type-specific genital HPV infection for the 9-valent vaccine HPV types and investigate factors associated with sequential infection among men who have sex with women (MSW). Genital and anal specimens were available for 1348 MSW participants, and HPV genotypes were detected using the Roche Linear Array assay. Sequential risk of anal HPV infection was assessed using hazard ratios (HRs) among men with prior genital infection, compared with men with no prior genital infection, in individual HPV type and grouped HPV analyses. In individual analyses, men with prior HPV 16 genital infections had a significantly higher risk of subsequent anal HPV 16 infections (HR, 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-15.23). In grouped analyses, a significantly higher risk of sequential type-specific anal HPV infections was observed for any of the 9 types (adjusted HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.32-5.99), high-risk types (adjusted HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.26, 5.55), and low-risk types (adjusted HR, 5.89; 95% CI, 1.29, 27.01). MSW with prior genital HPV infections had a higher risk of a subsequent type-specific anal infection. The higher risk was not explained by sexual intercourse with female partners. Autoinoculation is a possible mechanism for the observed association. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Marie R. Roger; Anstead, Gregory M.

    2017-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minim...

  11. [Reactive and areactive actinomycosis infection of the female genitals and differentiation of pseudoactinomycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, L C; Bilek, K

    1995-01-01

    Actinomycotic infections of the female genital tract are rare. In relation of clinical symptoms and therapeutical implications, reactive and non-reactive infections can be distinguished. During a period of seven years we observed five reactive infections. All these cases with tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) were seen in women using intrauterine devices (IUD) for 9.8 years on average. 9.1% of all TOA in this period were caused by actinomyces. Ten cases showed a non-reactive infection (colonisation). The frequency was 1.9%. In three cases pseudosulfurgranules (pseudoactinomycotic granules) were identified histologically by PAS-, Grocott-and Kossa-staining). One case showed a bacterial infection of a mucinous cystadenofibroma of the ovary with colonization of microorganisms similar to cases of botryomycosis in lung and other organs. Reactive infections require antibiotic therapy. Reimplantation of IUD should be done after 4 to 8 weeks, even in areactive infections. In specimens with pseudosulfurgranules no therapy is necessary.

  12. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection—an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy. PMID:24885431

  13. Study finds OC users protected against onset of chlamydial PID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Preliminary results from a large case-controlled study on the relationship between oral contraceptives and chlamydial infections refute the suspicion that pills increase the chance of contracting chlamydia, and clearly show that pills inhibit progression of an existing infection into chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The research was conducted in Seattle at Washington University. Subjects recruited from a sexually transmitted disease clinic included 700 patients, 100 with clinically verified PID, classified into those with chlamydia, gonorrhea, neither, and PID or no PID. Compared to 762 controls, oral contraceptive users had 1/8 the risk of chlamydial PID; compared to women using no contraception, their risk was 1/11. Oral contraception was safer than other methods with respect to chlamydial PID. No such pattern was evident when gonorrhea incidence was examined. It should be emphasized that pills do not protect against other types of PID. Nor do they prevent the start of a chlamydia infection.

  14. Clinical characteristics of genital chlamydia infection in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Taek; Lee, Suk Woo; Kim, Min Jeong; Kang, Young Mo; Moon, Hye Min; Rhim, Chae Chun

    2017-01-13

    Chlamydia infection in acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is associated with serious complications including ectopic pregnancy, tubal infertility, Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome and tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). This study compared clinical and laboratory data between PID with and without chlamydia infection. The medical records of 497 women who were admitted with PID between 2002 and 2011 were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups (PID with and without chlamydia infection), which were compared in terms of the patients' characteristics, clinical presentation, and laboratory findings, including inflammatory markers. The chlamydia and non-chlamydia groups comprised 175 and 322 women, respectively. The patients in the chlamydia group were younger and had a higher rate of TOA, a longer mean hospital stay, and had undergone more surgeries than the patients in the non- chlamydia group. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and CA-125 level were higher in the chlamydia group than in the non-chlamydia group, but there was no significant difference in the white blood cell count between the two groups. The CA-125 level was the strongest predictor of chlamydia infection, followed by the ESR and CRP level. The area under the receiving operating curve for CA-125, ESR, and CRP was 0.804, 0.755, and 0.663, respectively. Chlamydia infection in acute PID is associated with increased level of inflammatory markers, such as CA-125, ESR and CRP, incidence of TOA, operation risk, and longer hospitalization.

  15. Chitosan-Based Nanomedicine to Fight Genital Candida Infections: Chitosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Toril; Mishchenko, Ekaterina; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Sollid, Johanna U Ericson; Mattsson, Sofia; Tho, Ingunn; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-03-04

    Vaginal infections are associated with high recurrence, which is often due to a lack of efficient treatment of complex vaginal infections comprised of several types of pathogens, especially fungi and bacteria. Chitosan, a mucoadhesive polymer with known antifungal effect, could offer a great improvement in vaginal therapy; the chitosan-based nanosystem could both provide antifungal effects and simultaneously deliver antibacterial drugs. We prepared chitosan-containing liposomes, chitosomes, where chitosan is both embedded in liposomes and surface-available as a coating layer. For antimicrobial activity, we entrapped metronidazole as a model drug. To prove that mucoadhesivness alone is not sufficient for successful delivery, we used Carbopol-containing liposomes as a control. All vesicles were characterized for their size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release. Chitosan-containing liposomes were able to assure the prolonged release of metronidazole. Their antifungal activity was evaluated in a C. albicans model; chitosan-containing liposomes exhibited a potent ability to inhibit the growth of C. albicans. The presence of chitosan was crucial for the system's antifungal activity. The antifungal efficacy of chitosomes combined with antibacterial potential of the entrapped metronidazole could offer improved efficacy in the treatment of mixed/complex vaginal infections.

  16. Genital prevalence of HPV types and co-infection in men

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    Marcos P. Freire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HPV infection is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted disease and there is evidence of the relationship of HPV infection and the development of genital warts, penile intraepitelial neoplasia, invasive penile carcinoma and cervical cancer. However, there is sparse data regarding the prevalence of HPV types and co-infection of different HPV types among men. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of HPV subtypes infections and rates of co-infection among men. Materials and Methods: 366 men were evaluated from March to October 2010. Men were referred to our institution for HPV diagnostic evaluation based on the following criteria: 1. presence of a genital wart; 2. presence of an atypical genital lesion; 3. absence of symptoms and a partner with a HPV diagnosis; 4. absence of symptoms and a desire to undergo a full STD diagnostic evaluation. Genital samples were collected from the urethra, penile shaft, scrotum and anus with Digene® collection and preservation kit and submitted to HPV genotype microarray detection (Papillocheck®. All men were tested for the low-risk HPV types 6-11-40-42-43-44 and for the high-risk HPV types 16-18-31-33-35-39-45-51-52-53-56-58-59-66-68-70-73-82. Results: Of the 366 men, 11 were tested inconclusive and were excluded from the analysis. 256 men (72.1% of the men from the cohort referred to our institution tested positive with genotype micro-array detection and 99 tested negative. The most prevalent HPV-subtypes in the studied population were 6, 42, 51 and 16. Co-infection was found in 153 men. Of those, 70 (19.7% had a co-infection by 2 types, 37 (10.4% by 3 types; 33 men (9.2% by 4 types; 8 men (2.2% by 5 types; 1 man (0.3% by 6 types; 1 man (0.3% by 7 types; 2 men (0.6% by 8 types and 1 man (0.3% by 9 types. Conclusion: The most frequent HPV types were 6, 16, 42 and 51. Co-infection was found in 59% of our patients. This information is vital to drive future public health policies including massive

  17. Genital ulcers associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection (ulcus vulvae acutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárdy, Miklós; Wollenberg, Andreas; Niedermeier, Andrea; Flaig, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may rarely be associated with genital ulcers (ulcus vulvae acutum), a very painful manifestation. The aetiopathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood. We describe here a case of an adolescent virgin with multiple, deep genital ulcers associated with acute infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis was supported by the clinical symptoms, atypical lymphocytosis, elevated circulating levels of liver enzymes, positive EBV serology, and the detection of EBV in a swab sample and a biopsy specimen by PCR. The virus could not be detected by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization. After a short course of methylprednisolone as a supportive treatment, the ulcers healed within one month. No relapse occurred during the 2-year follow-up. Available data relating to the aetiopathogenesis of this condition are reviewed, and we speculate that it may have been caused by percutaneous autoinoculation through cervicovaginal fluid.

  18. Rapid Diagnosis of Chlamydial Conjunctivitis in Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJX; LiYP

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To evaluate the techniques of rapid and accurate diagnosis of chlamydial conjunctivitis.Methods:Total 100 conjunctivitis patients(200 eyes) were studied.Twenty-tw of 100 cases were diagnosed as chlamydial conjunctivitis.The infected epithelia were scraped from tarsal conjunctive of both eyes and stained separately with Giemsa(100 cases)and immunofluorescnce (anti-chlamydial antigen monoclonal antibody,100 cases)Result:In immunofluorescent staining,38 cases were seen positive staining and 62 were negative.In giemsa staining,29 were positive,and 71 were negative.In 22 cases with clinical diagnosis of chlamydial conjunctivitis,13 cases were confirmed,and 9 were excluded by immunofluorescent staining,Technically,immunofluorescent and Gemsa stain takes 45 and 40 minutes,respectively.Conclusion:Comparing to Giemsa stain,38 of 100 scraping specimens were positive (38%) by immunofluorescent stainign,29 of 100 per cent were psitive by Giemsa staining,Giemsa staining takes 5 minutes less than immunofluorescent stainign (40 versus 45 minutes),however,the positive staining in immunofluorescent staining is much easier to be recognized than Giemsa staining.

  19. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from genital tract of the Arabian mares affected with genital tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivity

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    H. F. AL-Abidy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria presented in the genital tract infectionof the Arabian mares, and shows the anti microbial sensitivity. The study included 75 samples taken from infected maressuffering from genital tract infection diagnosed on the basis of case history and clinical signs which included bloody purulentdischarge ranched from yellow to green in colure, fetid oder with congested and oedematous vagina and from some abortioncases, and from mares suffered from tetanus disease symptoms during the period between October 2007 to April 2008 in studfarms breeding mares in Mosul. The samples were collected by swabs from the clitoris, clitorial fossa and the vagina. Isolationof bacteria was performed using aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques. Results of the present study showed a total ofisolation 75% from all samples taken with a high percentage isolation of Clostridium tetani (16.6%, followed by Archanobacterium pyogenes (10.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, (6.7% for each Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiellapneumonia, Streptococcus dysagalactiae subsp equisimilis, and (5.3% for each bacteria Actinobacillus equilli, Streptococcuszooepidemicus, Staphylococcus aureus, then Proteus vulgaris (2.6%, and Escherichia coli (1.3%. The most bacterial isolateswere resistant to amoxicillin (100%, ampicillin (90.9 %, and erythromycin (65.9%, while the most isolates were sensitive tokanamycin (70.4%. It could be concluted that the most important bacteria causing genital tract infection of mares could beClostridium tetani and Archanobacterium pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most bacterial isolates were resistant toamoxicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin.

  20. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

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    Albero Ginesa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70 years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95, in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC.

  1. Genital HSV Detection among HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women in Labor

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    Janna Patterson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare genital HSV shedding among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Methods. Women with and without known HIV infection who delivered at the University of Washington Medical Center between 1989–1996 had HSV serologies done as part of clinical care. Genital swabs from HSV-2-seropositive women were evaluated by real-time quantitative HSV DNA PCR. Results. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 71% and 30% among 75 HIV-positive and 3051 HIV-negative women, respectively, (P<.001. HSV was detected at delivery in the genital tract of 30.8% of HIV-seropositive versus 9.5% of HIV-negative women (RR=3.2, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.5, P=.001. The number of virion copies shed per mL was similar (log 3.54 for HIV positive versus 3.90 for HIV negative, P=.99. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that HIV-, HSV-2-coinfected women are more likely to shed HSV at delivery.

  2. Etiology of genital ulcer disease in a sexually transmitted infection reference center in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon.

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    Felipe Gomes Naveca

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the etiology and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD among patients presenting to a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil; and to compare a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR assay for the diagnosis of GUD with standard methods. METHODS: Ulcer swabs were collected and used for Tzanck test and processed in an M-PCR to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum, and Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi. Sera were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Multivariable analysis was used to measure the association between clinical aspects and GUD. M-PCR results were compared with syphilis serology and Tzanck tests. RESULTS: Overall, 434 GUD samples were evaluated, 84.8% from men. DNA from HSV-2 was detected in 55.3% of GUD samples, T. pallidum in 8.3%, HSV-1 in 3.2%, and 32.5% of GUD specimens were negative for the DNA of all three pathogens. No cases of H. ducreyi were identified. HIV serology among GUD patients was 3.2%. Treponemal antibodies and Tzanck test positivity for genital herpes was detected in 25 (5.8% and in 125 (30.3% of GUD patients, respectively. In multivariable analysis genital herpes etiology by M-PCR was associated with the vesicular, multiple and recurrent lesions whereas T. pallidum with non-vesicular, non-recurrent lesions. Compared to M-PCR, syphilis serology was 27.8% sensitive and 96.2% specific whereas Tzanck test was 43.8% sensitive and 88.9% specific. CONCLUSIONS: The predominance of genital herpes etiology suggests a revision of existing national syndromic treatment guidelines in Brazil to include antiherpetic treatment for all GUD patients. The use of M-PCR can significantly improve the diagnosis of GUD and provide a greater sensitivity than standard diagnostics.

  3. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

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    Emilienne Verkaeren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Group A Streptococcus (GAS is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner.

  4. Recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infection in a woman: test and treat the partner!

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    Verkaeren, Emilienne; Epelboin, Loïc; Epelboin, Sylvie; Boddaert, Nathalie; Brossier, Florence; Caumes, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a well-known cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubescent girls, but it is rarely described in adult women. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with endometritis revealed by GAS bacteraemia, followed by recurrent vulvovaginitis due to a wild-type strain of GAS. She relapsed twice despite amoxicillin treatment. Her husband was found to be an asymptomatic carrier after GAS was identified in nasal and rectal swabs. She was cured after eradication of carriage in both herself and her husband with amoxicillin and rifampin. When recurrent Streptococcus pyogenes genital infections occur, test and treat the partner.

  5. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women.

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    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A; Genco, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in

  6. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women.

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    Ryan McClure

    Full Text Available Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM. A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of

  7. Innate immunity to infection in the lower female genital tract 

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    Karolina Paulina Gregorczyk

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the contact with the external environment, the lower female genital tract is non-sterile. The innate immune system has evolved many mechanisms to protect vaginal tissues from pathogens at the same time allowing for survival of the comensal flora. Innate immunity in the lower female genital tract undergoes hormonal regulation. Estrogen and progesterone levels also influence the vaginal mucosal epithelium remodeling with the neutrophlis playing a crucial role, as the most numerous leukocytes in the vaginal tissue. Being exposed to the environment, the vaginal epithelium consists a physical barrier for pathogens, but it also shows the presence of MHC class I and pattern recognition receptors. By production of cytokines and chemokines, the vaginal epithelium attracts innate immune cells such as neutrophiles, macrophages, dendritic cells or NK cells. Vaginal comensal flora is another important mechanism of innate immunity by production of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, inhibiting pathogen’s growth. Disturbances of vaginal microflora can result in pathogenic infections such as bacterial vaginosis or candidosis. Together with herpes genitalis, HPV infection, chlamydiosis, trichomatosis and gonorrhoea, vaginal infections increase the risk of acquiring another sexually transmitted disease, includig HIV due to the impaired mucosal integrity, facilitating for tissue penetration by pathogens and development of local inflammation.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology.

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    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16-26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01-8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available.

  9. 253 Use of Transfer Factor in Patients with Persistent Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection

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    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca Maria; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. About 75 to 80% of sexually active Americans will be infected with HPV at some point in their lifetime. The risk of HPV infection seems to be related with age at first intercourse, younger age and number of sexual partners. HPV infection is limited to the basal cells of stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranas. There is a wide latency period, from months to years, before squamous intraepithelial lesions develop. Most HPV infections are cleared within 2 years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women with “high risk” types the infection persists determining a high risk of developing intraepithelial neoplasias, as cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, penile cancer, and/or anal cancer. The gynecological evaluation and Papanicolau smear are the primary screening tools for detecting HPV infection. There is currently no specific treatment for HPV infection. The Transfer Factor (TF) or Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. TF induces the expression of RNAm and IFN-γ and increases CD4+ cells. The IFN-γ activates macrophages, neutrophils, B lymphocytes, NK cells, and favours the differentiation of T cells into Th1 lymphocytes that are requiried for the control of intracellular patho gens. Methods We used TF in a group of patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection. Results We included 12 patients, aged 19 to 45 years old (mean 30), with 14 to 23 years at first intercourse and a mean of 3 sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options (including cervical freezing, cauterizing loop, imiquimod, podophyllin and/or cervical conization). Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and

  10. Herpes simplex and human papillomavirus genital infections: controversy over obstetric management.

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    Osborne, N G; Adelson, M D

    1990-12-01

    Plasma inhibitory factors, high levels of sex hormones, and depression of cell-mediated immunity may interfere with the natural host resistance to viral infections during pregnancy. It is apparent that hormonal, immunologic, and vascular changes in pregnancy may account for increased replication of herpes and for enhanced growth of condylomatous lesions. The challenge is to develop a rational plan of management for pregnant patients with herpes simplex or human papilloma virus infection. There has been a reevaluation of previous recommendations for the management of herpes in pregnancy. Although the consequences of neonatal infection are severe or fatal, the value of routine weekly screening is questionable. This regimen is a poor predictor of neonatal exposure to herpes since only one fourth of women shedding virus at the time of delivery can be identified by routine cultures. The mode of delivery should therefore be based on the presence or absence of lesions at the time of confinement. Cesarean section should be reserved for patients with lesions or with prodromal symptoms of recurrent disease at the time of delivery. Patients with ruptured membranes and active genital lesions should also be delivered by cesarean section. The spectrum of HPV-related diseases in pregnancy is poorly understood. Many questions remain unanswered. It may not be practical to treat very large or extensive genital warts during pregnancy. A cesarean section may be the best choice in these cases. It may be premature to recommend cesarean section for delivery of all pregnant women with symptomatic genital HPV infection. More data are needed. We recommend laser ablation of condylomatous lesions when discovered during pregnancy. Laser vaporization is associated with minimal morbidity when used by experienced surgeons. Trichloroacetic acid is excellent for minimal disease or for treatment of recurrences in pregnancy. Since the immune system seems to play an important role in control of viral

  11. Vaccines against human papillomavirus infections: protection against cancer, genital warts or both?

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    Joura, E A; Pils, S

    2016-12-01

    Since 2006, three vaccines against infections and disease caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) became available in Europe-in 2006 a quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine, in 2007 a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine and in 2015 a nonavalent HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine. HPV 16 and 18 are the most oncogenic HPV strains, causing about 70% of cervical and other HPV-related cancers, HPV 6 and 11 cause 85% of all genital warts. The additional types of the polyvalent vaccine account for about 20% of invasive cervical cancer and >35% of pre-cancer. The potential differences between these vaccines caused some debate. All three vaccines give a robust and long-lasting protection against the strains in the various vaccines. The promise of cross-protection against other types (i.e. HPV 31/33/45) and hence a broader cancer protection was not fulfilled because these observations were confounded by the vaccine efficacy against the vaccine types. Furthermore, cross-protection was not consistent over various studies, not durable and not consistently seen in the real world experience. The protection against disease caused by oncogenic HPV strains was not compromised by the protection against low-risk types causing genital warts. The most effective cancer protection to date can be expected by the nonavalent vaccine, data indicate a 97% efficacy against cervical and vulvovaginal pre-cancer caused by these nine HPV types.

  12. Genital ulcers as initial manifestation of Epstein-Barr virus infection: two new cases and a review of the literature.

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    Halvorsen, Jon Anders; Brevig, Trine; Aas, Torkild; Skar, Anne Grete; Slevolden, Ellen Margrethe; Moi, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Genital ulceration is an uncommon manifestation of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We present here two cases of genital ulcers probably caused by EBV. The first case is a 12-year-old girl with a genital ulcer appearing before specific EBV serology could identify a primary infection. However, serology was positive 13 days after the ulcer appeared. Polymerase chain reaction for EBV was positive in the biopsy from the ulcer as well. The second case is an 18-year-old female in whom the specific EBV serology was positive 8 days after appearance of the ulcer. The ulcers in both cases healed after 21 days. We reviewed the literature and a total of 26 cases of EBV-associated genital ulcers in females are now published. Median age of the 26 cases is 14.5 years of whom only 6 reports previous sexual contact. Mean healing time for the ulcers is 18 days. Our two cases correspond well with clinical reports of 24 EBV-associated genital ulcers in the literature.

  13. The Association between Female Genital Cutting and Spousal HCV Infection in Egypt

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    Chris R. Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the risk factors for HCV infection within married couples in Egypt. Methods. In 2008 Egypt conducted its first nationally representative survey of HCV prevalence. 11126 of the 12780 individuals aged 15–59 year who were sampled agreed to participate and provided information via a questionnaire about demographic and behavioural characteristics and blood for HCV antibody and RNA analysis. We assessed the risk factors for HCV infection in a subsample of 5182 married individuals via multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall HCV antibody prevalence in the married couples was 18.2% (95% CI, 16.8–19.6. HCV antibody prevalence was higher in the husbands (23.7% than the wives (12.1%; P<0.001. Having a spouse who was infected with HCV was an independent risk factor for HCV infection with odds ratios of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.6–2.9 and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6–3.1 for women and men, respectively. Husbands whose wives had experienced female genital cutting (FGC had a higher prevalence of HCV and this relationship was driven by a strong association in urban areas. Amongst the women there was no association between FGC and HCV overall but in urban areas only women who had experienced FGC were HCV infected. Conclusions. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of intrafamilial transmission of HCV in Egypt.

  14. Cross-sectional imaging of complicated urinary infections affecting the lower tract and male genital organs

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    Massimo Tonolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complicated urinary tract infections (C-UTIs are those associated with structural or functional genitourinary abnormalities or with conditions that impair the host defence mechanisms, leading to an increased risk of acquiring infection or failing therapy. C-UTIs occur in patients with risk factors such as neurogenic dysfunction, bladder outlet obstruction, obstructive uropathy, bladder catheterisation, urologic instrumentation or indwelling stent, urinary tract post-surgical modifications, chemotherapy- or radiation-induced damage, renal impairment, diabetes and immunodeficiency. Multidetector CT and MRI allow comprehensive investigation of C-UTIs and systemic infection from an unknown source. Based upon personal experience at a tertiary care hospital focused on the treatment of infectious illnesses, this pictorial essay reviews with examples the clinical features and cross-sectional imaging findings of C-UTIs affecting the lower urinary tract and male genital organs. The disorders presented include acute infectious cystitis, bladder mural abscesses, infections of the prostate and seminal vesicles, acute urethritis and related perineal abscesses, funiculitis, epididymo-orchitis and scrotal abscesses. Emphasis is placed on the possible differential diagnoses of lower C-UTIs. The aim is to provide radiologists greater familiarity with these potentially severe disorders which frequently require intensive in-hospital antibiotic therapy, percutaneous drainage or surgery. Teaching Points • Complicated urinary tract infections occur in patients with structural or functional risk factors. • CT and MRI comprehensively investigate complicated urinary infections and sepsis from unknown sources. • Infections of the urinary bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, urethra and scrotum are presented. • Emphasis is placed on differential diagnoses of complicated lower urogenital infections. • Unsuspected urinary infections may be detected on CT

  15. Inflammatory genital infections mitigate a severe genetic bottleneck in heterosexual transmission of subtype A and C HIV-1.

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    Richard E Haaland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is driven largely by heterosexual transmission of non-subtype B viruses, of which subtypes C and A are predominant. Previous studies of subtype B and subtype C transmission pairs have suggested that a single variant from the chronically infected partner can establish infection in their newly infected partner. However, in subtype A infected individuals from a sex worker cohort and subtype B individuals from STD clinics, infection was frequently established by multiple variants. This study examined over 1750 single-genome amplified viral sequences derived from epidemiologically linked subtype C and subtype A transmission pairs very early after infection. In 90% (18/20 of the pairs, HIV-1 infection is initiated by a single viral variant that is derived from the quasispecies of the transmitting partner. In addition, the virus initiating infection in individuals who were infected by someone other than their spouse was characterized to determine if genital infections mitigated the severe genetic bottleneck observed in a majority of epidemiologically linked heterosexual HIV-1 transmission events. In nearly 50% (3/7 of individuals infected by someone other than their spouse, multiple genetic variants from a single individual established infection. A statistically significant association was observed between infection by multiple genetic variants and an inflammatory genital infection in the newly infected individual. Thus, in the vast majority of HIV-1 transmission events in cohabiting heterosexual couples, a single genetic variant establishes infection. Nevertheless, this severe genetic bottleneck can be mitigated by the presence of inflammatory genital infections in the at risk partner, suggesting that this restriction on genetic diversity is imposed in large part by the mucosal barrier.

  16. HPV16 E6 seropositivity among cancer-free men with oral, anal or genital HPV16 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C; Waterboer, Tim; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Ingles, Donna J; Kuhs, Krystle A Lang; Nyitray, Alan G; Hildesheim, Allan; Pawlita, Michael; Kreimer, Aimée R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-12-01

    Antibodies against the Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 oncoprotein appear years prior to clinical diagnosis of anal and oropharyngeal cancer, but whether they develop around the time of HPV infection is unclear. Serum samples from 173 cancer-free men from the Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men (HIM) Study were tested for HPV antibodies and DNA. HPV16 E6 seropositivity was low among men with oral HPV16-infection (1/28; 3.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-18.4%), anal HPV16-infection (1/61; 1.6%, 95%CI=0.0%-8.8%), and 24-month persistent genital HPV16-infection (1/84; 1.2%, 0.0-6.5%). This suggests E6 seroconversion may not occur around the time of oral, anal, or genital HPV16 acquisition.

  17. Analysis of persistence of human papillomavirus infection in men evaluated by sampling multiple genital sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, G; Nyitray, A G; Lu, B; Perino, A; Marci, R; Schillaci, R; Matranga, D; Firenze, A; Caleca, M; Bellavia, C; Guarneri, F; Giuliano, A; Giovannelli, L

    2015-11-01

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been studied extensively in women, data on male infection are limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate persistence of HPV infection at multiple genital sites in men and to define potential associations with socio-behavioural characteristics. Penile, urethral and seminal specimens were tested by the INNO-LiPA HPV system (Innogenetics) and a PCR assay. Persistence was defined as the detection of same HPV type at ≥ 2 consecutive visits. The Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test were applied to estimate the likelihood of persistence. A total of 50 men (median age: 33 years) were followed for a median of 14.7 months. Altogether, 49%, 36%, 26% and 11% of baseline HPV-positive men had 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month persistent infection with any HPV type, respectively. The 6-, 12- and 18- month persistence was more common for oncogenic HPV infections; 24-month persistence was similar. The median duration of persistence was 21.7 months for any HPV. The median duration of persistence for any HPV type was significantly longer in the penile sample (22.5 months, 95% CI: 18.3-26.7) than the semen sample (15.3 months, 95% CI: 14.5-16.1). Over a third of type-specific HPV infections in men remained persistent over a 24-month period. The median duration of HPV infection was longer in penile samples compared to seminal samples. As being increasing the attention of HPV vaccination as a potential preventive approach also for men, it is imperative to obtain additional insight on natural history of HPV infection in men, particularly as far as incidence and duration are concerned.

  18. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

  19. Chlamydial hemagglutinin identified as lipopolysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, N G; Caldwell, H D; Hackstadt, T

    1987-01-01

    Chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) agglutinated mouse and rabbit erythrocytes but not human, guinea pig, or pronghorn antelope erythrocytes. Hemagglutination was not specific for Chlamydia spp., as rough LPSs from Coxiella burnetii and Escherichia coli also agglutinated erythrocytes from the same animal species. Nonagglutinated and agglutinated erythrocytes bound equivalent amounts of LPS, indicating that hemagglutination was not due to a specific interaction of chlamydial LPS with erythrocy...

  20. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  1. Does HIV Exploit the Inflammatory Milieu of the Male Genital Tract for Successful Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esra, Rachel T.; Olivier, Abraham J.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Jaspan, Heather B.; Harryparsad, Rushil; Gray, Clive M.

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the World, medical male circumcision (MMC) is used as standard prevention of care against HIV infection. This is based on seminal reports made over 10 years ago that removal of the foreskin provides up to 60% protection against HIV infection in males and seems currently the best antiretroviral-free prevention strategy yet against the global epidemic. We explore the potential mechanisms by which MMC protects against HIV-1 acquisition and that one of the oldest, albeit re-invented, rituals of removing a foreskin underscores the exploitative nature of HIV on the anatomy and tissue of the uncircumcised penis. Furthermore, foreskin removal also reveals how males acquire HIV, and in reality, the underlying mechanisms of MMC are not known. We argue that the normal sequelae of inflammation in the male genital tract (MGT) for protection from sexually transmitted infections (STI)-induced pathology represents a perfect immune and microbial ecosystem for HIV acquisition. The accumulation of HIV-1 target cells in foreskin tissue and within the urethra in response to STIs, both during and after resolution of infection, suggests that acquisition of HIV-1, through sexual contact, makes use of the natural immune milieu of the MGT. Understanding immunity in the MGT, the movement of HIV-1 target cells to the urethra and foreskin tissue upon encounter with microbial signals would provide more insight into viral acquisition and lay the foundation for further prevention strategies in males that would be critical to curb the epidemic in all sexual partners at risk of infection. The global female-centric focus of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition research has tended to leave gaps in our knowledge of what determines HIV-1 acquisition in men and such understanding would provide a more balanced and complete view of viral acquisition. PMID:27446076

  2. Prevalence of genital tract infection with Entamoeba gingivalis among copper T 380A intrauterine device users in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ashraf A; El-Malky, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to study the prevalence and potential pathogenicity of E. gingivalis in the genital tracts of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) users. A prospective study conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department and Fertility Care Unit, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. The study was carried out on 87 IUD users and 87 nonusers. The copper T 380A IUD was removed from each woman and washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) pH 7.4; the IUD wash was centrifuged. The sediment was resuspended in 2 ml PBS and divided into two portions. One portion was used for preparation of direct and iron hematoxylin-stained smears. Direct smears and stained smears were examined for detailed morphology. The second portion of the sediment was used for DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA of E. gingivalis. The parasite was found in 12.64% of IUD users and in 6.9% of non users (p>.3). It was found that 90.9% of those harboring E. gingivalis in their genital tract had the parasite in their oral cavity. The percentage of genital infection in IUD users increased with low level of education, rural areas, insertion in primary health-care center and among those not washing hands before checking the strings. In the infected cases, vaginal discharge was more common (81.8%) than in noninfected cases (32.9%), such difference was statistically significant (p<.05). Also, excessive vaginal discharge is more common than backache and menorrhagia in the infected cases. Higher incidence of E. gingivalis infection in IUD users is related to oral cavity infection, residence, the facility where they inserted their IUD and washing hands attitude before checking the strings. We recommend treatment of gingival infection, proper counseling and medical education on oral and genital tract hygiene for IUD users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genital Tract HIV RNA Levels and Their Associations with Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Pre-Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    GHARTEY, Jeny; KOVACS, Andrea; BURK, Robert D.; MASSAD, L. Stewart; MINKOFF, Howard; XIE, Xianhong; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; XUE, Xiaonan; WATTS, D. Heather; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; EINSTEIN, Mark H.; COLIE, Christine; ANASTOS, Kathryn; ELTOUM, Isam-Eldin; HEROLD, Betsy C.; PALEFSKY, Joel M.; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Plasma HIV RNA levels have been associated with risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive women. However, little is known regarding local genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with cervical HPV and neoplasia. Design/Methods In an HIV-seropositive women’s cohort with semi-annual follow-up, we conducted a nested case-control study of genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with incident high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions sub-classified as severe (severe HSIL), as provided for under the Bethesda 2001 classification system. Specifically, 66 incident severe HSIL were matched to 130 controls by age, CD4+ count, HAART use, and other factors. We also studied HPV prevalence, incident detection, and persistence in a random sample of 250 subjects. Results Risk of severe HSIL was associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels (odds ratio comparing HIV RNA ≥ the median among women with detectable levels versus undetectable [ORVL] 2.96; 95% CI: 0.99–8.84; Ptrend=0.03). However, this association became non-significant (Ptrend=0.51) following adjustment for plasma HIV RNA levels. There was also no association between genital tract HIV RNA levels and the prevalence of any HPV or oncogenic HPV. However, the incident detection of any HPV (Ptrend=0.02) and persistence of oncogenic HPV (Ptrend=0.04) were associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels, after controlling plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusion These prospective data suggest that genital tract HIV RNA levels are not a significant independent risk factor for cervical pre-cancer in HIV-seropositive women, but leave open the possibility that they may modestly influence HPV infection, an early stage of cervical tumoriogenesis. PMID:24694931

  4. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the genital tract determined by hybrid capture assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda N. Carestiato

    , allowing analysis of both sexual partners and finally contributing to the control of genital infections associated with a risk for cancer.

  5. Chlamydial partner notification in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) 2011 UK national audit against the BASHH Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Carne, C A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, K W; Ahmed-Jushuf, I

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on chlamydial partner notification (PN) performance in the 2011 BASHH national audit against the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health (MedFASH) Sexually Transmitted Infection Management Standards (STIMS). There was wide regional variation in level 3 clinic PN performance against the current standard of index case-reported chlamydial PN, with 43% (regional range 0-80%) of clinics outside London meeting the ≥0.6 contacts seen per index standard, and 85% of clinics (regional range 82-88%) in London meeting the ≥0.4 standard. For level 2 clinics, 39% (regional range 0-100%) of clinics outside London met the ≥0.6 standard, and 43% (regional range 40-50%) of clinics in London met the ≥0.4 standard. Performance for health-care worker (HCW)-verified contact attendance is also reported. New standards for each of these performance measures are proposed for all level 3 clinics: ≥0.6 contacts seen per index case based on index case report, and ≥0.4 contacts seen per index case based on HCW verification, both within four weeks of the first partner notification interview. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of standards by commissioners of services, relevance to national quality agendas, and the need for development of a national system of PN quality assurance measurement and reporting.

  6. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Marie R; Anstead, Gregory M

    2017-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load) and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement. Based on the previous activity of leflunomide, which has both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections, leflunomide 20 mg orally twice daily was started. The patient received 23 days of foscarnet, 14 days of topical imiquimod, and 11 days of leflunomide with approximately 80% reduction in the size of the perineal lesion. After nine months on leflunomide there was complete regression of the large perineal lesion and only two small ulcerations remained on the scrotum. Pseudotumoral herpes lesions in HIV patients represent an immune reconstitution event and are poorly responsive to the usual anti-herpes agents. This report demonstrates the successful use of leflunomide in the treatment of an HIV patient with pseudotumoral herpes. Thalidomide has also been used with some success.

  7. Genital infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Furuta, Itsuko; Yamaya, Yukie; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Takeda, Mahito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is estimated to infect approximately 1% of the global population. In Japan, the prevalence of amebic dysentery has been increasing, with more than 800 patients newly diagnosed annually. However, genital infection with E. histolytica is uncommon even in endemic areas. We present a case of vaginitis caused by E. histolytica. A 50-year-old Japanese woman without history of overseas travel presented to a nearby clinic with increased vaginal discharge. She had hemorrhagic erosion at the uterine cervix with yellowish vaginal discharge, and was referred to our hospital for exclusion of malignancy. Cervical cytology revealed periodic acid-Schiff-positive protozoa not aggregating around squamous cells, and thus amebic vaginitis was suspected. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and identified E. histolytica. The vaginitis was treated with metronidazole, and the disappearance of amebic protozoa was confirmed by cytology and PCR. Therefore, it may be important to obtain early diagnosis by cervical cytology and PCR.

  8. Leflunomide in the Treatment of a Pseudotumoral Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in an HIV Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie R. Roger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient is a 52-year-old African American man with a past medical history of HIV infection (on antiretroviral therapy, CD4 count 399 cells/µL, and undetectable HIV viral load and recurrent genital herpes. While on valacyclovir, the patient presented with four tumorous lesions on the perineum and scrotum. A biopsy specimen stained positively with HSV-1 and HSV-2 immunostains and displayed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. The patient received foscarnet and imiquimod for two weeks with minimal improvement. Based on the previous activity of leflunomide, which has both antiviral and immunomodulatory properties, in cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex infections, leflunomide 20 mg orally twice daily was started. The patient received 23 days of foscarnet, 14 days of topical imiquimod, and 11 days of leflunomide with approximately 80% reduction in the size of the perineal lesion. After nine months on leflunomide there was complete regression of the large perineal lesion and only two small ulcerations remained on the scrotum. Pseudotumoral herpes lesions in HIV patients represent an immune reconstitution event and are poorly responsive to the usual anti-herpes agents. This report demonstrates the successful use of leflunomide in the treatment of an HIV patient with pseudotumoral herpes. Thalidomide has also been used with some success.

  9. Impact of short-term HAART initiated during the chronic stage or shortly post-exposure on SIV infection of male genital organs.

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    Marina Moreau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The male genital tract is suspected to constitute a viral sanctuary as persistent HIV shedding is found in the semen of a subset of HIV-infected men receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The origin of this persistent shedding is currently unknown. Phylogenetic studies indicated that HIV in semen from untreated men arises from local sources and/or passive diffusion from the blood. We previously demonstrated in human and macaque low levels and localized infection of several semen-producing organs by HIV/SIV. Using a macaque model, this study investigates the impact of short term HAART (2-4 weeks initiated either during the asymptomatic chronic stage or 4 h post-intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 on the infection of male genital organs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Short term HAART during the chronic stage decreased blood viral load. No major impact of HAART was observed on SIV DNA levels in male genital organs using a sensitive nested PCR assay. Using in situ hybridization, SIV RNA+ cells were detected in all male genital tract organs from untreated and treated animals with undetectable blood viral load following HAART. Infected CD68+ myeloid cells and CD3+ T lymphocytes were detected pre- and post-HAART. In contrast, short term HAART initiated 4 h post-SIV exposure led to a drastic decrease of the male genital tissues infection, although it failed to prevent systemic infection. In both cases, HAART tended to decrease the number of CD3+ T cells in the male organs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the established infection of male genital organs is not greatly impacted by short term HAART, whereas the same treatment during pre-acute phase of the infection efficiently impairs viral dissemination to the male genital tract. Further investigations are now needed to determine whether infection of male genital organs is responsible for long term persistent HIV shedding in semen despite HAART.

  10. Reproductive and genital health and risk of cervical human papillomavirus infection: results from the Ludwig-McGill cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eileen; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; El-Zein, Mariam; Silva, Flavia R; Galan, Lenice; Baggio, Maria L; Villa, Luisa L; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-03-08

    There are inconsistencies in the literature on reproductive and genital health determinants of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the primary cause of cervical cancer. We examined these factors in the Ludwig-McGill Cohort Study, a longitudinal, repeated-measurements investigation on the natural history of HPV infection. We analyzed a cohort subset of 1867 women with one complete year of follow-up. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reproductive and genital health characteristics from questionnaire and laboratory data in relation to 1-year period prevalence of HPV infection. Two outcomes were measured; the first based on phylogenetic grouping of HPV types based on tissue tropism and oncogenicity (Alphapapillomavirus Subgenus 1: species 1, 8, 10 and 13; Subgenus 2: species 5, 6, 7, 9, 11; Subgenus 3: species 3, 4 and 14) and the second based on transient or persistent HPV infections. Lifetime (Subgenus 3 OR = 2.00, CI: 1.23-3.24) and current (Subgenus 3 OR =2.00, CI: 1.15-3.47) condom use and use of contraceptive injections (Subgenus 1 OR = 1.96, CI: 1.22-3.16, Subgenus 2 OR = 1.34, CI: 1.00-1.79) were associated with increased risk of HPV infection. Intrauterine device use was protective (Subgenus 1 OR = 0.48, CI: 0.30-0.75, Subgenus 2 OR = 0.78, CI: 0.62-0.98). These factors were not associated with persistence of HPV infection. Tampon use, previous gynecologic infections and cervical inflammation were associated with an overall increased risk of HPV infection. Cervical HPV infection was associated with reproductive and genital health factors. Further studies are necessary to confirm the low to moderate associations observed.

  11. Chlamydial virulence determinants in atherogenesis: the role of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and heat shock protein 60 in macrophage-lipoprotein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayoglu, M V; Indrawati; Morrison, R P; Morrison, S G; Yuan, Y; Byrne, G I

    2000-06-01

    Data from a spectrum of epidemiologic, pathologic, and animal model studies show that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is associated with coronary artery disease, but it is not clear how the organism may initiate or promote atherosclerosis. It is postulated that C. pneumoniae triggers key atherogenic events through specific virulence determinants. C. pneumoniae induces mononuclear phagocyte foam cell formation by chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (cLPS) and low-density lipoprotein oxidation by chlamydial hsp60 (chsp60). Thus, different chlamydial components may promote distinct events implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Data implicating cLPS and chsp60 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis are discussed and novel approaches are presented for attempting to elucidate how these putative virulence determinants signal mononuclear phagocytes to modulate lipoprotein influx and modification.

  12. Polymorphisms in Chlamydia trachomatis tryptophan synthase genes differentiate between genital and ocular isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Harlan D.; Wood, Heidi; Crane, Debbie; Bailey, Robin; Jones, Robert B.; Mabey, David; Maclean, Ian; Mohammed, Zeena; Peeling, Rosanna; Roshick, Christine; Schachter, Julius; Solomon, Anthony W.; Stamm, Walter E.; Suchland, Robert J.; Taylor, Lacey; West, Sheila K.; Quinn, Tom C.; Belland, Robert J.; McClarty, Grant

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that laboratory reference strains of Chlamydia trachomatis differing in infection organotropism correlated with inactivating mutations in the pathogen’s tryptophan synthase (trpBA) genes. Here, we have applied functional genomics to extend this work and find that the paradigm established for reference serovars also applies to clinical isolates — specifically, all ocular trachoma isolates tested have inactivating mutations in the synthase, whereas all genital isolates encode a functional enzyme. Moreover, functional enzyme activity was directly correlated to IFN-γ resistance through an indole rescue mechanism. Hence, a strong selective pressure exists for genital strains to maintain a functional synthase capable of using indole for tryptophan biosynthesis. The fact that ocular serovars (serovar B) isolated from the genital tract were found to possess a functional synthase provided further persuasive evidence of this association. These results argue that there is an important host-parasite relationship between chlamydial genital strains and the human host that determines organotropism of infection and the pathophysiology of disease. We speculate that this relationship involves the production of indole by components of the vaginal microbial flora, allowing chlamydiae to escape IFN-γ–mediated eradication and thus establish persistent infection. PMID:12782678

  13. Human papillomavirus-related basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginori, Alessandro; Barone, Aurora; Santopietro, Rosa; Barbanti, Gabriele; Cecconi, Filippo; Tripodi, Sergio Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a biologically aggressive neoplasm mainly found in the head and neck region. Recently, four cases of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder have been reported, and three of them occurred in patients with neurogenic bladder, repeated catheterizations and human papillomavirus infection of the urinary tract. To the best of our knowledge, none of the patients affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder described in the literature had documented genital involvement by human papillomavirus. Herein, we describe the case of a woman with neurogenic bladder affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and by a concomitant genital tract human papillomavirus infection. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Comparison of lower genital tract microbiota in HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the US.

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    Lorie Benning

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. METHODS: Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected with similar proportions of low (0-3 Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%, Prevotella (56%, Gardnerella (55%, Atopobium (42%, Sneathia (37%, Megasphaera (30%, and Parvimonas (26%, observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p = 0.06. Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p = 0.06 and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.02, and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01 and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01, compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05 in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%, compared to HIV-infected US women (6%, HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9% and US (10% women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p = 0.11, followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p = 0.82, L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p = 0.80, L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p = 0.37 and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.10. DISCUSSION: We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed

  15. [Microbiological study of male genital ulcers. Apropos of 75 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casin, I; Bianchi, A; Ramel, F; Lajoie, C; Chastang, C; Scieux, C; Ferchal, F; Janier, M; Morel, P; Perol, Y

    1990-09-01

    Between November 1986 and June 1987, the microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was assessed in 75 male patients attending the Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic in Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris. Evidence of Haemophilus ducreyi was found in 18 patients (24%), Herpes simplex virus in 19 (25.3%). Syphilis was diagnosed on the basis of dark field microscopy and/or positive serology test in 19 patients (25.3%). Lymphogranuloma venereum was not diagnosed in any patient. Primary pathogens were not identified from the remaining 19 (25.3%) men. Neisseria gonorrhoea was isolated in five patients, from the ulcer in three cases, from the urethra in two. Asymptomatic urethral carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis was culture proven in seven cases. The presence of IgM antibodies to C. trachomatis at a titre greater than 40 found in 17 patients was a indication of a current chlamydial infection. Three patients (4%) were discovered to be HIV-1 positive.

  16. Lower genital tract infections in women: comparison of clinical and epidemiologic findings with microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, J C; Averous, S; Bauriaud, R; Blanc, C; Bertrand, M A; Lareng, M B

    1988-01-01

    We screened 392 women attending the Laboratory of Microbiology of Toulouse Purpan Hospital for symptoms of lower genital tract infection for six microorganisms. Rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida albicans, Mycoplasma hominis, and Gardnerella vaginalis were 1%, 7.7%, 29.8%, 23.8%, and 37.5%, respectively. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by direct examination in specimens from 3.1% of patients. Another goal of this study was to determine the relative prevalence of these microorganisms in relation to clinical and epidemiologic findings. C. trachomatis was isolated significantly more often from patients under 25 year old (P less than 0.001), from those who use oral contraceptives (P less than 0.01), from those who have a male sexual partner with symptoms of sexually transmitted disease (P less than 0.001), and from those who present signs of cervicitis (P less than 0.05). Isolation of C. albicans was significantly associated with vulvar pruritus (P less than 0.01), vulvitis (P less than 0.01), and vaginitis (P less than 0.001). G. vaginalis and M. hominis are significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (P less than 0.001). This syndrome was diagnosed clinically in 27.2% of our study population and was highly correlated with use of an intrauterine device (P less than 0.05).

  17. Liposome delivery of Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein primes a Th1 response that protects against genital chlamydial infection in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Follmann, Frank

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunity to chlamydia is thought to rely on interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting T helper cells type 1 (Th1) with an additional effect of secreted antibodies. A need for Th1-polarizing adjuvants in experimental chlamydia vaccines has been demonstrated, and antigen conformation has also been...

  18. [Natural Outcome of Genital Tract High-risk Human Papillomavirus Infection and Associated Factors among 760 Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Cao, Di; Ma, Qian; Li, Na; Cui, Xu-qin; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the natural outcome of genital tract high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and associated factors among women in Xi'an region. Totally 760 women with primary genital tract HR-HPV infection were enrolled and followed up by HPV-DNA genotyping technology. The cervical cytological techniques and/or colposcopy were used when necessary. Among these subjects,the natural clearance rate of HR-HPV infection was 71.58%,with the median time of 8.10 months. The rate of HPV persistent infection was 22.63%, with the median time of 17.23 months. The rate of progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/cervical cancer (CC) was 5.79%, with the median time of 29.34 months. The natural clearance rate (P=0.000), persistent infection rate (P=0.000) and progression rate (P=0.040) in women older than 50 years were statistically difference from other age groups. The persistent infection rate in multiple infections group was significantly lower than that in single infection group (P=0.010), with the median time statistically longer than that in single infection group (P=0.018). The most easily progressive genotypes were HPV-16,HPV-33, HPV-58,HPV-18,HPV-52, and HPV-68, among which HPV-16 was the most common genotype in CIN 3/CC cases, accounting for 85.00%. Most of HR-HPV infections are naturally cleared within 2 years, and only a few cases progresses to CIN/CC. Women older than 50 years have a lower natural clearance rate and higher persistent and progressive rates. Multiple infections can affect the persistent infection. HPV-16 is the most common carcinogenic genotype in Xi'an region.

  19. Incidence rate of external genital lesions (EGL) caused by human papillomavirus infection in Czech population

    OpenAIRE

    Petráš, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of external genital lesions (EGL) caused by human papillomaviruses in the Czech population Marek Petráš Abstract Genital warts (condyloma acuminate) caused up to 90% cases by two human papillomaviruses of type 6 and 11 are not life-threatening diseases but can cause not only clinical symptoms (burning, itching, bleeding, and pain) but also psychosocial stress, embarrassment, and anxiety making for impaired quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the p...

  20. High level of soluble HLA-G in the female genital tract of Beninese commercial sex workers is associated with HIV-1 infection.

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    Valérie Thibodeau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most HIV infections are transmitted across mucosal epithelium. Understanding the role of innate and specific mucosal immunity in susceptibility or protection against HIV infection, as well as the effect of HIV infection on mucosal immunity, are of fundamental importance. HLA-G is a powerful modulator of the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G expression in the female genital tract is associated with HIV-1 infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genital levels of sHLA-G were determined in 52 HIV-1-uninfected and 44 antiretroviral naïve HIV-1-infected female commercial sex workers (CSWs, as well as 71 HIV-1-uninfected non-CSW women at low risk of exposure, recruited in Cotonou, Benin. HIV-1-infected CSWs had higher genital levels of sHLA-G compared with those in both the HIV-1-uninfected CSW (P = 0.009 and non-CSW groups (P = 0.0006. The presence of bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.008, and HLA-G*01:01:02 genotype (P = 0.002 were associated with higher genital levels of sHLA-G in the HIV-1-infected CSWs, whereas the HLA-G*01:04:04 genotype was also associated with higher genital level of sHLA-G in the overall population (P = 0.038. When adjustment was made for all significant variables, the increased expression of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa remained significantly associated with both HIV-1 infection (P = 0.02 and bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.03. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that high level of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa is independently associated with both HIV-1 infection and bacterial vaginosis.

  1. An investigation of genital ulcers in Jackson, Mississippi, with use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay: high prevalence of chancroid and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, K J; Weiss, J B; Webb, R M; Levine, W C; Lewis, J S; Orle, K A; Totten, P A; Overbaugh, J; Morse, S A; Currier, M M; Fishbein, M; St Louis, M E

    1998-10-01

    In 1994, an apparent outbreak of atypical genital ulcers was noted by clinicians at the sexually transmitted disease clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Of 143 patients with ulcers tested with a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, 56 (39%) were positive for Haemophilus ducreyi, 44 (31%) for herpes simplex virus, and 27 (19%) for Treponema pallidum; 12 (8%) were positive for > 1 organism. Of 136 patients tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by serology, 14 (10%) were HIV-seropositive, compared with none of 200 patients without ulcers (P genital ulcers and HIV infection in this population highlights the urgency of preventing genital ulcers in the southern United States.

  2. Nonoxynol-9 use, genital ulcers, and HIV infection in a cohort of sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, S S; Roddy, R E; Zekeng, L; Feldblum, P J

    1995-04-01

    To determine whether nonoxynol-9 produces disruption of the genital epithelium and, in turn, places users of this spermicide at increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 273 seronegative female commercial sex workers in Cameroon were enrolled in a 12-month cohort study. Subjects were instructed to use condoms and 100 mg nonoxynol-9 suppositories at each act of intercourse and to maintain coital logs. The presence or absence of vaginal and cervical ulcers was recorded at monthly gynecologic examinations; HIV testing was performed every three months. Included in the final analysis were the 191 women with no cervical ulcers at baseline. Of these, 77 (40%) were classified as frequent (15 times/month) nonoxynol-9 users, 84 (44%) as intermediate (11-15 times/month) users, and 30 (16%) as infrequent (10 or fewer times/month) users. 40 women had evidence of cervical ulceration during the observation period and 18 developed vaginal ulcerations. Unexpectedly, nonoxynol-9 use was not associated with an increased risk of ulceration. The incidence rates for cervical and vaginal ulcers, respectively, were 2.7% and 0.6% among frequent users, 2.2% and 0.8% among intermediate users, and 9.0% and 3.0% among infrequent users. Of the 17 women who became infected with HIV during the study, 29% had experienced ulceration compared to a rate of 28% for matched controls (odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.5). It is speculated that nonoxynol-9 provides sufficient lubrication during intercourse to prevent epithelial trauma. It is further plausible that any ulcers caused by nonoxynol-9--as opposed to those of infectious etiology--lack the immunologic cell responses required to increase susceptibility to HIV.

  3. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women of Reproductive Age Attending the Gynecology Clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Amsalu, Anteneh; Shimelis, Techalew

    2016-01-01

    Background Urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis(CT) is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) world-wide, especially in developing nations where routine laboratory diagnosis is unavailable. Little is known about the epidemiology of this infection in Ethiopia where other STIs are prevalent. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CT infection among women of reproductive age. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 322 consecutive women aged between 15–49 years at Hawassa University Referral Hospital from November 2014 to April 2015. Data on socio-demography and potential risk factors for genital infection were collected using structured questionnaires. Moreover, endocervical swabs were collected from all participants, screened for CT antigen using rapid immunochromatography assay, and cultured following the standard bacteriological method to isolate Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Result In this study, the overall prevalence of CT antigen and N. gonorrhoeae infection was 61(18.9%) and 1(0.31%), respectively. Women aged 15–24 years had the highest prevalence of CT infection (24.2%), followed by those aged 25–34 years (16.8%) and those aged 35–49 years (9.6%). CTinfection was associated with women who had unprotected sex within the last six months (aOR = 3.459; 95% CI = 1.459–8.222) and were sexually active for 6–10 years (aOR = 3.076; 95% CI = 1.152–8.209). None of the clinical symptoms and diagnoses was significantly associated with CT antigen positivity. Conclusions The high prevalence of genital CT infection in this study highlights the need for further large-scale studies on the general population. Thus, screening of women regardless of their symptoms should be in place. PMID:28006003

  4. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus with genital human papillomavirus infection in men: the HPV in men study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Papenfuss, Mary R; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G; Giuliano, Anna R

    2013-06-01

    Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serostatus are associated with genital HPV prevalence, an early event in HPV-related pathogenesis. Genital exfoliated cells, first-void urine, and blood from 3971 men recruited in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil were tested for HPV, CT, and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus with 4 HPV outcomes (any, oncogenic, nononcogenic only, and multiple infections). A total of 64 (1.6%) men were CT positive, and 811 (20.4%) men were HSV-2 seropositive. After adjustment for potential confounders, CT was associated with any HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.24), oncogenic HPV (aOR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.53-6.28), and multiple HPV (aOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.69-6.95) prevalence. Herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus was associated with any HPV (aOR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.52), nononcogenic HPV only (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.08-1.75), and multiple HPV (aOR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.06-1.68) prevalence. In analyses stratified by sexual behavior, CT infection was significantly associated with HPV detection among men reporting 2 or more recent sexual partners, whereas HSV-2 serostatus was significantly associated with HPV detection in men reporting 0 to 5 lifetime sexual partners. In this population, CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus were associated with prevalent genital HPV infection. Future prospective studies should investigate whether these infections influence HPV acquisition and/or persistence.

  5. Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in the kidneys and genital tracts of naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, D; Nuvoloni, R; Ebani, V; Pedrini, A; Mani, P; Andreani, E; Farina, R

    1996-04-01

    A bacteriological study was carried out to identify possible renal and/or genital carriers of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. L. hardjo was found at slaughter in the kidneys of three seropositive ewes, but not in uterus or salpinges of these animals.

  6. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding.

  7. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations.

  8. Herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Dhankani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA and singular value decomposition (SVD to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density.

  9. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2015-01-01

    predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system...... in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system......Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good...

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sample of northern Brazilian pregnant women: prevalence and prenatal importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula B. de Borborema-Alfaia

    Full Text Available There are limited data regarding prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among northern Brazilian pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women in their third trimester and to determine the repercussion of this infection on their offspring. METHODS: In the first phase of this study 100 pregnant women receiving prenatal care in a local public university hospital were examined to assess the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction technique. In the second phase, 88 pregnant women were prospectively evaluated for premature rupture of membranes, puerperal consequences associated with chlamydial infection, and neonates were checked for low-birth weight. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was 11%, and 72.7% of the positive participants were predominantly less than 30 years of age (p = 0.1319. A total of 36.4% of the participants had premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.9998. Neither low-birth weight infants nor preterm delivery were observed. A cohort of 16 newborn babies were followedup up to 60 days of life to ascertain outcome: 50% had respiratory symptoms. Neonates born to infected mothers had a higher risk to develop respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. CONCLUSION: The scarcity of data about the effects of chlamydial infection on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justified this study. Diagnosing and treating chlamydial infection during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent neonate infection. Therefore, preventive screening should be seen as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection as part of local public health strategies.

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Status Differentially Associated With Genital and Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Hu, Yifei; Carlucci, James G; Yin, Lu; Li, Xiangwei; Giuliano, Anna R; Li, Dongliang; Gao, Lei; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H

    2017-06-28

    Little is known about human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and genotypes when considering both anatomic site and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status among men who have sex with men (MSM) in low- and middle-income countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. HIV serostatus was determined, and genital and anal HPV genotyping were performed from respective swabs. Of 1155 MSM, 817 (70.7%) had testing for genital (611; 52.9%) and/or anal (671; 58.1%) HPV. Preference for insertive anal sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-4.75) and syphilis (aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.01-2.23) were associated with genital HPV. Inconsistent condom use during receptive anal sex (aOR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.17-2.84), and HIV seropositivity (aOR, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.91-4.42) were associated with anal HPV. Among 465 (40.3%) MSM with specimens from both anatomic sites, anal HPV (68%) was more common than genital HPV (37.8%). Prevalence of anal HPV was higher among HIV-infected than uninfected MSM (P anal site of HIV-infected MSM (P Anal HPV was more common than genital HPV, and HIV seropositivity was associated with oncogenic HPV types at the anal site.

  12. Modulation of cytokines and transcription factors (T-Bet and GATA3 in CD4 enriched cervical cells of Chlamydia trachomatis infected fertile and infertile women upon stimulation with chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins B and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salhan Sudha

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydial Inclusion membrane proteins (Incs, are involved in biochemical interactions with host cells and infecting Chlamydiae. We have previously reported the role of two Chlamydia trachomatis (CT Incs, namely IncB and IncC in generating host immunity in CT infected women. Emerging data shows involvement of Inc stimulated CD4 positive T cells in aiding host immunity in infected fertile and infertile women through the secretion of interferon gamma. However the lack of data on the intra-cytokine interplay to these Incs in infected cell milieu prompted us to investigate further. Methods A total of 14 CT-positive fertile, 18 CT-positive infertile women and 25 uninfected controls were enrolled in this study. CD8 depleted, CD4 enriched cervical cells were isolated and upon stimulation with IncB and IncC, modulation of cytokines (Interleukin (IL-1 Beta, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, Interferon-gamma, IL-12, IL-23, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF and T cell lineage regulating transcription factors T-Bet and GATA3 was determined by real-time reverse-transcriptase (RT-PCR and ELISA. Results Significant higher expression (P Conclusion Overall our data shows that CT IncB and IncC are able to upregulate expression of cytokines, namely interferon-gamma, IL-12, IL-23 and GM-CSF in CT-positive fertile women while expression of IL-1 Beta, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10 were upregulated in CT-positive infertile women. Our study also suggests that Incs are able to modulate expression of T cell lineage determinants indicating their involvement in regulation of immune cells.

  13. Consistent Condom Use Reduces the Genital Human Papillomavirus Burden Among High-Risk Men: The HPV Infection in Men Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Salmerón, Jorge J.; Quiterio, Manuel M.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Data supporting the efficacy of condoms against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in males are limited. Therefore, we examined the effect of consistent condom use on genital HPV acquisition and duration of infection. Methods. A prospective analysis was conducted within the HPV Infection in Men Study, a multinational HPV cohort study. Men who were recently sexually active (n = 3323) were stratified on the basis of sexual risk behaviors and partnerships. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, type-specific incidence of HPV infection and clearance were modeled for each risk group to assess independent associations with condom use. Results. The risk of HPV acquisition was 2-fold lower among men with no steady sex partner who always used condoms, compared with those who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 0.54), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. The probability of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection was 30% higher among nonmonogamous men who always used condoms with nonsteady sex partners, compared with men who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 1.29), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, marital status, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. No protective effects of condom use were observed among monogamous men. Conclusions. Condoms should be promoted in combination with HPV vaccination to prevent HPV infection in men. PMID:23644283

  14. Chlamydia Screening in Ireland: a pilot study of opportunistic screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ireland (2007-2009). Summary Integrated Report

    OpenAIRE

    Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; O'Connell, Emer; Vaughan, Deirdre; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Coleman, Claire; Conroy, Ronán; Cormican, Martin; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Fleming, Catherine; McGee, Hannah; Murphy, Andrew; Ni Fhoghlu, Grainne; O'Neill, Ciaran; Gillespie, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most common curable, bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide [1, 2]. The number of cases notified in Ireland increased from 3,353 in 2005 to 5,781 in 2009 [3]. Notifications have increased since 2004 when legislation requiring laboratory notification came into effect. Chlamydia is usually a ‘silent’ asymptomatic infection, spread without the knowledge of those transmitting and contracting it: most cases remain undetected and...

  15. Genital Warts and Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia: Natural History and Effects of Treatment and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, L. Stewart; Xie, Xianhong; Darragh, Teresa; Minkoff, Howard; Levine, Alexandra M.; Watts, D. Heather; Wright, Rodney L.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the natural history of genital warts and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods A cohort of 2,791 HIV infected and 953 uninfected women followed for up to 13 years had genital examinations at 6-month intervals, with biopsy for lesions suspicious for VIN. Results The prevalence of warts was 4.4% (5.3% for HIV seropositive women and 1.9% for seronegative women, P warts was 33% (95% C.I. 30, 36%) in HIV seropositive and 9% (95% C.I. 6, 12%) in seronegative women (P warts. Among 501 HIV seropositive and 43 seronegative women, warts regressed in 410 (82%) seropositive and 41 (95%) seronegative women (P = 0.02), most in the first year after diagnosis. In multivariable analysis, regression was negatively associated with HIV status and lower CD4 count as well as older age. Incident VIN of any grade occurred more frequently among HIV seropositive than seronegative women: 0.42 (0.33 – 0.53) vs 0.07 (0.02 – 0.18)/100 person-years (P warts and VIN are more common among HIV seropositive than seronegative women, wart regression is common even in women with HIV, and cancers are infrequent. PMID:21934446

  16. Urbanization and baseline prevalence of genital infections including Candida, Trichomonas, and human papillomavirus and of a disturbed vaginal ecology as established in the Dutch Cervical Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; Kok, LP

    OBJECTIVE: An overgrowth of coccoid bacilli in the absence of lactobacilli (bacterial vaginosis) is considered a sign of a "disturbed" vaginal ecologic system. The aim of this study was to establish the baseline prevalence of genital infections and of a disturbed vaginal ecologic system and their

  17. Urbanization and baseline prevalence of genital infections including Candida, Trichomonas, and human papillomavirus and of a disturbed vaginal ecology as established in the Dutch Cervical Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; Kok, LP

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An overgrowth of coccoid bacilli in the absence of lactobacilli (bacterial vaginosis) is considered a sign of a "disturbed" vaginal ecologic system. The aim of this study was to establish the baseline prevalence of genital infections and of a disturbed vaginal ecologic system and their re

  18. Urbanization and baseline prevalence of genital infections including Candida, Trichomonas, and human papillomavirus and of a disturbed vaginal ecology as established in the Dutch Cervical Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Claasen, HHV; Kok, LP

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An overgrowth of coccoid bacilli in the absence of lactobacilli (bacterial vaginosis) is considered a sign of a "disturbed" vaginal ecologic system. The aim of this study was to establish the baseline prevalence of genital infections and of a disturbed vaginal ecologic system and their re

  19. Leptospira interrogans in the genital tract of sheep. Research on ewes and rams experimentally infected with serovar hardjo (hardjobovis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, R; Cerri, D; Renzoni, G; Andreani, E; Mani, P; Ebani, V; Pedrini, A; Nuvoloni, R

    1996-07-01

    To verify if Leptospira hardjo can colonize the male and female genital organs of sheep, 9 animals (6 non pregnant ewes and 3 mature rams) were infected with a strain of L. hardjobovis recently recovered from the kidneys of a seropositive ewe. Postinfection controls (bacteriologic, serologic, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy) failed to disclose the presence of leptospires in the uterus and oviducts, testicles, epididymis, prostate and bulbourethral glands of animals used for the experiment and slaughtered from 37 to 242 postinfection days. All animals showed a renal localization of L. hardjobovis lasting for the entire period of the study (over 8 months). These results emphasize the important role of sheep as maintenance hosts of the serovar.

  20. Raltegravir concentrations in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected women treated with a raltegravir-containing regimen (DIVA 01 study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Cyril; Peytavin, Gilles; Tubiana, Roland; Soulié, Cathia; Crenn-Hebert, Catherine; Heard, Isabelle; Bissuel, François; Ichou, Houria; Ferreira, Claudia; Katlama, Christine; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Mandelbrot, Laurent

    2011-06-01

    We studied the penetration of raltegravir and HIV shedding in the genital tract among 14 HIV-1-infected women receiving a raltegravir-containing regimen who had <40 copies/ml blood plasma (BP) HIV RNA. None of the cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) samples showed detectable HIV RNA. Median raltegravir concentrations were 235 ng/ml in BP and 93 ng/ml in CVF, with a CVF/BP ratio of approximately 2.3. This good penetration of raltegravir may contribute to the control of viral replication in the female genital tract.

  1. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  2. [Place of vulvovaginal candidiasis in the lower genital tract infections and associated risk factors among women in Benin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Adisso, S; Djamal, J; Sanni, R; Amangbegnon, R; Biokou-Bankole, B; Kinde Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the place of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) in the lower genital infections and seek risk factors among women in Benin. The study was conducted in the laboratory of mycology of Hôpital de la Mère et de l'Enfant Lagune (Homel) from 1st March to 31st July, 2013. It involved all the women who were asked a vaginal swab and gave their consent in written form. After administration of a questionnaire, the vaginal samples were collected with sterile cotton swabs for a test with potassium hydroxide, an estimation of vaginal pH, direct microscopic examination, fresh, and after a Gram stain and culture on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol, ordinary agar and fresh blood agar. One hundred and thirty-one women were included in the study period. Clinical signs were dominated by vaginal discharge (74.8%), followed by vulvar pruritus (51.9%) and dyspareunia (36.6%). Culture on Sabouraud was positive in 51 cases or 38.9%. Candida albicans was isolated in 96.1% of cases, against 3.9% of Candida glabrata. The risk factors involved were: pregnancy, antibiotics, synthetic underclothing and frequent wearing tight pants. In addition of Candida, Gardnerella vaginalis was found in 36.6% of samples with an association with C. albicans in 28.2% of cases. This study showed that vulvovaginal candidiasis is the leading cause of lower genital tract infections in women in Benin with involvement of several risk factors which research is needed to develop appropriate preventive measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Health-related quality of life in Indian patients with three viral sexually transmitted infections: herpes simplex virus-2, genital human papilloma virus and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Rama; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Mehta, Manju; Gupta, Somesh

    2011-04-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been studied in Indian patients with viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs): herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and genital human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. Furthermore, there is no reported study that compares HRQOL among these two viral STIs and HIV. All consenting adults with any of the three viral infections attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. HRQOL was evaluated using the WHOQOL-BREF instrument, which evaluates QOL under physical, psychological, social and environmental domains. Data concerning demographic and socioeconomic status were collected. There were 65 (27.3%), 60 (25.2%) and 53 (22.3%) patients with HIV, HSV-2 and HPV, respectively, and 25 (10.5%) patients with mixed infections. The WHOQOL-BREF scores of patients in different STI groups were significantly lower than those of controls. The total HRQOL scores (mean±SD) were 280.1±83.56 (among controls), 196.9±72.41 (genital HPV), 141.0±50.50 (HSV-2), 101.0±75.25 (HIV) and 103.4±47.23(mixed infection groups). Mean HRQOL scores were lowest in the physical and psychological domains. HRQOL scores were least in HIV and mixed infections groups, while patients with genital HPV infection had significantly better HRQOL scores compared to other patient groups. Higher education and socioeconomic status had a positive influence on HRQOL. Viral STIs were associated with a significant reduction in HRQOL scores. Among patient groups, the greatest impact on HRQOL was seen in those with HIV and mixed infections and the least impact seen in those with genital HPV infection. Comprehensive care including counselling services need to be implemented in STI clinics.

  4. A Novel Microbicide/Contraceptive Intravaginal Ring Protects Macaque Genital Mucosa against SHIV-RT Infection Ex Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Villegas

    Full Text Available Women need multipurpose prevention products (MPTs that protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs and provide contraception. The Population Council has developed a prototype intravaginal ring (IVR releasing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI MIV-150 (M, zinc acetate (ZA, carrageenan (CG and levonorgestrel (LNG (MZCL IVR to protect against HIV, HSV-2, HPV and unintended pregnancy. Our objective was to evaluate the anti-SHIV-RT activity of MZCL IVR in genital mucosa. First, macaque vaginal tissues were challenged with SHIV-RT in the presence of (i MIV-150 ± LNG or (ii vaginal fluids (VF; available from studies completed earlier collected at various time points post insertion of MZCL and MZC IVRs. Then, (iii MZCL IVRs (vs. LNG IVRs were inserted in non-Depo Provera-treated macaques for 24h and VF, genital biopsies, and blood were collected and tissues were challenged with SHIV-RT. Infection was monitored with one step SIV gag qRT-PCR or p27 ELISA. MIV-150 (LCMS/MS, RIA, LNG (RIA and CG (ELISA were measured in different compartments. Log-normal generalized mixed linear models were used for analysis. LNG did not affect the anti-SHIV-RT activity of MIV-150 in vitro. MIV-150 in VF from MZC/MZCL IVR-treated macaques inhibited SHIV-RT in vaginal mucosa in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. MIV-150 in vaginal tissue from MZCL IVR-treated animals inhibited ex vivo infection relative to baseline (96%; p<0.0001 and post LNG IVR group (90%, p<0.001. No MIV-150 dose-dependent protection was observed, likely because of high MIV-150 concentrations in all vaginal tissue samples. In cervical tissue, MIV-150 inhibited infection vs. baseline (99%; p<0.05. No cervical tissue was available for MIV-150 measurement. Exposure to LNG IVR did not change tissue infection level. These observations support further development of MZCL IVR as a multipurpose prevention technology to improve women's sexual and reproductive health.

  5. Oral contraceptive use and prevalence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, G R; Waugh, M A

    1981-06-01

    One thousand eight non-pregnant women aged 16-34 years, presenting for the first time at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), were examined and screened for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida species. The respective prevalence rates were 21.1%, 20.7%, 13.4%, and 27.8%. Isolation rates for C trachomatis, either occurring alone or in association with other genital infections, were significantly greater in women using oral contraceptive agents. This was not because oral contraceptive users were more promiscuous. The findings strengthen the case for providing a routine chlamydial culture service for women attending STD clinics. They also indicate that the likelihood of chlamydial infection in women taking oral contraceptives is increased.

  6. [Oral contraceptive use and prevalence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in women (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, G R; Waugh, M A

    1983-05-01

    1080 nonpregnant women ages 16-34 years, presenting for the 1st time at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), were examined and screened for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida species. The respective prevalence rates were 21.1%, 20.7%, 13.4%, and 27.8%. Isolation rates for Chlamydia trachomatis, either occurring alone or in association with other genital infections, were significantly greater in women using oral contraceptives (OCs). This was not because OC users were more promiscuous. The findings strengthen the case for providing a routine chlamydial culture service for women attending STD clinics. They also indicate that the likelihood of chlamydial infection in women taking OCs is greater. (author's)

  7. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis in genital specimens: kerman city, PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes genital disease and the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world. The most frequent risk factors associated with chlamydial infection are related to sexual behavior, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Presenting primarily as urtheritis in men and cervicitis in women, CT a major cause of chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and subsequent infertility in women, eye and lung infection in newborns and other manifestations. Identification of CT-infected patients may prevent its spread and thereby reduce the high morbidity associated with CT infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of small quantity of bacterial DNA in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of C. trachomatis by PCR in genital samples from patients in the city of Kerman.Methods: A total of 130 genital samples including 64 endocervical and 66 urethral swab samples were collected by physicians. Nucleic acid was extracted from each sample using a commercial DNA extraction kit. PCR primers specific for a conserved region of the C. trachomatis omp2 gene, encoding an outer membrane protein, were used for amplification.  Results: A total of 9.2% (6.25% of cervicitis and 12.1% of urethritis of the samples were found positive for CT using this PCR method. Conclusions:  The present study shows a high prevalence of CT infection, especially in men with urethritis. Such patients should be referred to genitourinary clinics for treatment and partner notification. Given its worldwide prevalence, further CT studies on more populations are needed to assess potential public health implications of these infections.

  8. Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections in the Female Genital Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Ault, Kevin A.

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfec...

  9. Temporal proteomic profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected HeLa-229 human cervical epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Grace Min Yi; Lim, Hui Jing; Yeow, Tee Cian; Movahed, Elaheh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Gupta, Rishein; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Abu Bakar, Sazaly; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Chang, Li-Yen; Wong, Won Fen

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading causative agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide which can lead to female pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. A greater understanding of host response during chlamydial infection is essential to design intervention technique to reduce the increasing incidence rate of genital chlamydial infection. In this study, we investigated proteome changes in epithelial cells during C. trachomatis infection by using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technique coupled with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3) ) analysis. C. trachomatis (serovar D, MOI 1)-infected HeLa-229 human cervical carcinoma epithelial cells (at 2, 4 and 8 h) showed profound modifications of proteome profile which involved 606 host proteins. MGST1, SUGP2 and ATXN10 were among the top in the list of the differentially upregulated protein. Through pathway analysis, we suggested the involvement of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in host cells upon C. trachomatis infection. Network analysis underscored the participation of DNA repair mechanism during C. trachomatis infection. In summary, intense modifications of proteome profile in C. trachomatis-infected HeLa-229 cells indicate complex host-pathogen interactions at early phase of chlamydial infection.

  10. Ultrastructure study of the excretory system and the genital primordium of the infective stage of Onchocerca volvulus (Nematoda:Filarioidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strote, G; Bonow, I

    1995-01-01

    The electron microscopic investigation of the anterior part of the infective third-stage juvenile of Onchocerca volvulus provides first insights into the structure of the excretory system of this developmental stage of the parasite. The most anterior part of this system consists of a cell process of the syncytial excretory cells. At this height the excretory cells enclose the cuticle-lined excretory channel. The channel is in the process of elongation in the anterior-posterior direction, indicated by cell division in this region. More posteriad an ampulla-like structure is forming in the cytoplasm of the excretory cells. The inner surface of this ampulla is lined with a small number of single microvilli. In this part of the system the cytoplasm of the excretory cells is rich in Golgi bodies and endocytic vesicles. The ampulla has direct access to the exterior by the excretory duct. The excretory duct is a cuticle-lined structure surrounded by supporting fibres of an additional cell. This duct cell connects the excretory duct to the body-wall cuticle at the excretory pore. Adjacent to the region of the excretory system a cell is found that resembles a gland cell. This cell is in close contact to the ventral nerve cord. The genital primordia of the third-stage juvenile consist of several dividing cells. The female genital primordium is seen at the junction of the muscular with the glandular oesophagus and the male primordium can be found at the junction of the glandular oesophagus with the gut.

  11. A Cross Sectional Analysis of Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infections among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rebe

    Full Text Available Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM are at high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI transmission. Asymptomatic STIs are common in MSM and remain undiagnosed and untreated where syndromic management is advocated. Untreated STIs could be contributing to high HIV rates. This study investigated symptomatic (SSTI and asymptomatic STIs (ASTIs in MSM in Cape Town.MSM, 18 years and above, were enrolled into this study. Participants underwent clinical and microbiological screening for STIs. Urine, oro-pharyngeal and anal swab specimens were collected for STI analysis, and blood for HIV and syphilis screening. A psychosocial and sexual questionnaire was completed. STI specimens were analysed for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection.200 MSM were recruited with a median age of 32 years (IQR 26-39.5. Their median number of sex partners within the last year was 5 (IQR 2-20. 155/200 (78% reported only male sex partners while 45/200 (23% reported sex with men and women. 77/200 (39% reported transactional sex. At enrolment, 88/200 (44% were HIV positive and 8/112 (7% initially HIV-negative participants seroconverted during the study. Overall, 47/200 (24% screened positive for either NG or CT. There were 32 MSM (16% infected with NG and 7 (3.5% of these men had NG infections at two anatomical sites (39 NG positive results in total. Likewise, there were 23 MSM (12% infected with CT and all these men had infections at only one site. Eight of the 47 men (17% were infected with both NG and CT. ASTI was more common than SSTI irrespective of anatomical site, 38 /200 (19% versus 9/200 (5% respectively (p<0.001. The anus was most commonly affected, followed by the oro-pharynx and then urethra. Asymptomatic infection was associated with transgender identity (OR 4.09 CI 1.60-5.62, ≥5 male sex partners in the last year (OR 2.50 CI 1.16-5.62 and transactional sex (OR 2.33 CI 1.13-4.79 but not with HIV infection.Asymptomatic STI was

  12. HIV infection, genital symptoms and sexual risk behavior among Indian truck drivers from a large transportation company in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Dude

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel surveillance conducted in the high Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV prevalent state of Andhra Pradesh includes sub-populations thought to be at high-risk for HIV, but has not included truck drivers. Novel HIV prevention programs targeting this population increasingly adopt public - private partnership models. There have been no targeted studies of HIV prevalence and risk behavior among truck drivers belonging to the private sector in India. Methods: A sample of 189 truck drivers, aged between 15 and 56, were recruited from Gati Limited′s large trucking depot in Hyderabad, India. A quantitative survey instrument was conducted along with blood collection for HIV 1/2 testing. Multivariate regression models were utilized to determine predictors of HIV infection and risk behavior. Results: 2.1% of subjects were infected with HIV. Older age was protective against self-reported genital symptoms (OR = 0.77; P = 0.03, but these were more likely among those truck drivers with greater income (OR = 1.05; P = 0.02, and those who spent more time away from home (OR = 25.7; P = 0.001. Men with higher incomes also reported significantly more sex partners (OLS coefficient = 0.016 more partners / 100 rupees in monthly income, P = 0.04, as did men who spent a great deal of time away from home (OLS coefficient = 1.30, P = 0.002. Drivers were more likely to report condom use with regular partners if they had ever visited a female sex worker (OR = 6.26; P = 0.002, but married drivers exhibited decreased use of condoms with regular partners (OR = 0.14, P = 0.008. Men who had higher levels of knowledge regarding HIV and HIV preventative practices were also more likely to use condoms with regular partners (OR = 1.22, P = 0.03. Conclusion: Time away from home, urban residence, income, and marital status were the strongest correlates of genital symptoms for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI and risk behaviors, although none were consistent

  13. Genital tract infections, bacterial vaginosis, HIV, and reproductive health issues among Lima-based clandestine female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, M E; Ghee, Annette E; Sánchez, Sixto; McClelland, R Scott; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Lama, Javier R; Sánchez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs) were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs) and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%). Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%), but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%). In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.42-0.96). Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.). Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57%) and induced abortion was common (68%). High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended.

  14. Genital Tract Infections, Bacterial Vaginosis, HIV, and Reproductive Health Issues among Lima-Based Clandestine Female Sex Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Perla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%. Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%, but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%. In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR=0.63, 95% CI, 0.42–0.96. Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.. Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57% and induced abortion was common (68%. High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended.

  15. Phosphoethanolamine decoration of Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipid A plays a dual immunostimulatory and protective role during experimental genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packiam, Mathanraj; Yedery, Roshan D; Begum, Afrin A; Carlson, Russell W; Ganguly, Jhuma; Sempowski, Gregory D; Ventevogel, Melissa S; Shafer, William M; Jerse, Ann E

    2014-06-01

    The induction of an intense inflammatory response by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the persistence of this pathogen in the presence of innate effectors is a fascinating aspect of gonorrhea. Phosphoethanolamine (PEA) decoration of lipid A increases gonococcal resistance to complement-mediated bacteriolysis and cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), and recently we reported that wild-type N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 has a survival advantage relative to a PEA transferase A (lptA) mutant in the human urethral-challenge and murine lower genital tract infection models. Here we tested the immunostimulatory role of this lipid A modification. Purified lipooligosaccharide (LOS) containing lipid A devoid of the PEA modification and an lptA mutant of strain FA19 induced significantly lower levels of NF-κB in human embryonic kidney Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) cells and murine embryonic fibroblasts than wild-type LOS of the parent strain. Moreover, vaginal proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were not elevated in female mice infected with the isogenic lptA mutant, in contrast to mice infected with the wild-type and complemented lptA mutant bacteria. We also demonstrated that lptA mutant bacteria were more susceptible to human and murine cathelicidins due to increased binding by these peptides and that the differential induction of NF-κB by wild-type and unmodified lipid A was more pronounced in the presence of CAMPs. This work demonstrates that PEA decoration of lipid A plays both protective and immunostimulatory roles and that host-derived CAMPs may further reduce the capacity of PEA-deficient lipid A to interact with TLR4 during infection.

  16. Nonspecific genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Recent intervention of nonspecific genital ulcers has added refreshing dimensions to genital ulcer disease. It was considered pertinent to dwell on diverse clinical presentation and diagnostic strategies. It seems to possess spectrum. It includes infective causes, Epstein Bar Virus, tuberculosis, Leishmaniasis, HIV/AIDS related ulcers and amoebiasis. Noninfective causes are immunobullous disorders, aphthosis, Behcet's disease (BD), inflammatory bowel disease, lichen planus and lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, drug reactions, premalignant and malignant conditions, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa. The diagnostic features and treatment option of each disorder are succinctly outlined for ready reference.

  17. Prevalência do HPV em mulheres rastreadas para o câncer cervical Prevalence of genital HPV infection among women screened for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Helena Rama

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência da infecção genital por papilomavírus humano (HPV de alto risco por faixa etária e fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra de 2.300 mulheres (15-65 anos que buscaram rastreamento para o câncer cervical entre fevereiro de 2002 e março de 2003 em São Paulo e Campinas, estado de São Paulo. Aplicou-se questionário epidemiológico e realizou-se coleta cervical para citologia oncológica e teste de captura híbrida II. As análises estatísticas empregadas foram teste de qui-quadrado de Pearson e análise multivariada pelo método forward likelihood ratio. RESULTADOS: A prevalência total da infecção genital por HPV de alto risco foi de 17,8%, distribuída nas faixas etárias: 27,1% (OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of high-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV infection by age group and risk factors associated. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a sample of 2,300 women (15-65 years old who self-referred to cervical cancer screening in Sao Paulo and Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, between February 2002 and March 2003. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied and cervical specimens were obtained for cytology and hybrid capture II test (HCII for HPV detection. Statistical analysis included Pearson Chi-square and unconditional multiple logistic regression model (forward likelihood ratio. RESULTS: High-risk genital HPV infection prevalence in this sample was 17.8% and age distribution was as follows: 27.1% (<25 years, 21.3% (25-34 years, 12.1% (35-44 years, 12.0% (45-54 years and 13.9% (55-65 years. Subjects with the highest number of lifetime sexual partners had the highest rates of genital HPV infection. To be living with a partner, aged 35 to 44 years, and former smokers were protective factors. High-risk genital HPV infection was 14.3% in normal cytology, 77.8% in high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and in the two cases (100% of cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: High-risk HPV

  18. B cells enhance antigen-specific CD4 T cell priming and prevent bacteria dissemination following Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    B cells can contribute to acquired immunity against intracellular bacteria, but do not usually participate in primary clearance. Here, we examined the endogenous CD4 T cell response to genital infection with Chlamydia muridarum using MHC class-II tetramers. Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cells expanded rapidly and persisted as a stable memory pool for several months after infection. While most lymph node Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cells expressed T-bet, a small percentage co-expressed Foxp3, and RORγt-expressing T cells were enriched within the reproductive tract. Local Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell priming was markedly reduced in mice lacking B cells, and bacteria were able to disseminate to the peritoneal cavity, initiating a cellular infiltrate and ascites. However, bacterial dissemination also coincided with elevated systemic Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell responses and resolution of primary infection. Together, these data reveal heterogeneity in pathogen-specific CD4 T cell responses within the genital tract and an unexpected requirement for B cells in regulating local T cell activation and bacterial dissemination during genital infection.

  19. Female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees.

  20. High-risk human papilloma virus infection decreases the frequency of dendritic Langerhans' cells in the human female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Mendez-Cruz, Rene; Ojeda-Ortiz, Jorge; Muñoz-Molina, Rebeca; Balderas-Carrillo, Oscar; de la Luz Diaz-Soberanes, Maria; Lebecque, Serge; Saeland, Sem; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Ullrich, Stephen E; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are often arranged in planar layers in tissues with high antigenic exposure, such as skin and mucosae. Providing an en face view, this arrangement optimizes in situ analysis regarding morphology (even of individual dendrites), topographic distribution (regular/clustered) and quantification. The few reports on human genital DC usually utilize single markers and conventional sections, restricting immunolabelling only to cell parts sectioned by the cut. To better assess DC in situ, we labelled epithelial sheets, prepared from fresh cervix biopsies, with antibodies to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-CII, CD1a and Langerin, revealing (with each of these markers) a dense DC network in a planar-like, regular distribution. Using the hybrid capture system to detect the high-risk mucotropic human papilloma virus (HPV) group, 16 positive and five negative women were studied and the results were compared between these groups. DC frequency per area was substantially reduced (to ≈ 50% for the three markers) in samples from all HPV-infected patients compared with samples from controls. Unlike HPV– samples, Langerin+ DC in HPV+ cervix exhibited a highly accentuated dendritic appearance. We believe this to be the first study using these three DC-restricted markers (Langerin, CD1a and MHC-CII) in cervical epithelial sheets from high-risk HPV+ donors and also the first study to demonstrate the morphological and quantitative changes triggered by high-risk HPV infection. Cervical DC reduction in early, premalignant high-risk HPV infection might represent viral subversion strategies interfering with efficient antigen handling by the immune system's peripheral sentinels, the DC, perhaps hampering appropriate recruitment and subsequent development of effector (cytotoxic) T cells. PMID:16423058

  1. Activation of Raf/MEK/ERK/cPLA2 signaling pathway is essential for chlamydial acquisition of host glycerophospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Heng; McClarty, Grant; Dong, Feng; Hatch, Grant M; Pan, Zhixing K; Zhong, Guangming

    2004-03-01

    Chlamydiae, a diverse group of obligate intracellular pathogens replicating within cytoplasmic vacuoles of eukaryotic cells, are able to acquire lipids from host cells. Here we report that activation of the host Raf-MEK-ERK-cPLA2 signaling cascade is required for the chlamydial uptake of host glycerophospholipids. Both the MAP kinase pathway (Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK) and Ca(2+)-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) were activated in chlamydia-infected cells. The inhibition of cPLA2 activity resulted in the blockade of the chlamydial uptake of host glycerophospholipids and impairment in chlamydial growth. Blocking either c-Raf-1 or MEK1/2 activity prevented the chlamydial activation of ERK1/2, leading to the suppression of both chlamydial activation of the host cPLA2 and uptake of glycerophospholipids from the host cells. The chlamydia-induced phosphorylation of cPLA2 was also blocked by a dominant negative ERK2. Furthermore, activation of both ERK1/2 and cPLA2 was dependent on chlamydial growth and restricted within chlamydia-infected cells, suggesting an active manipulation of the host ERK-cPLA2 signaling pathway by chlamydiae.

  2. An atypical CD8 T-cell response to Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infections includes T cells that produce interleukin-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond M; Kerr, Micah S; Slaven, James E

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars D-K are intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate almost exclusively in human reproductive tract epithelium. In the C. muridarum mouse model for human Chlamydia genital tract infections CD4 T helper type 1 cell responses mediate protective immunity while CD8 T-cell responses have been associated with scarring and infertility. Scarring mediated by CD8 T cells requires production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); however, TNF-α is associated with protective immunity mediated by CD4 T cells. The latter result suggests that TNF-α in-and-of itself may not be the sole determining factor in immunopathology. CD8 T cells mediating immunopathology presumably do something in addition to producing TNF-α that is detrimental during resolution of genital tract infections. To investigate the mechanism underlying CD8 immunopathology we attempted to isolate Chlamydia-specific CD8 T-cell clones from mice that self-cleared genital tract infections. They could not be derived with antigen-pulsed irradiated naive splenocytes; instead derivation required use of irradiated immune splenocyte antigen-presenting cells. The Chlamydia-specific CD8 T-cell clones had relatively low cell surface CD8 levels and the majority were not restricted by MHC class Ia molecules. They did not express Plac8, and had varying abilities to terminate Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells. Two of the five CD8 clones produced interleukin-13 (IL-13) in addition to IL-2, TNF-α, IL-10 and interferon-γ. IL-13-producing Chlamydia-specific CD8 T cells may contribute to immunopathology during C. muridarum genital tract infections based on known roles of TNF-α and IL-13 in scar formation.

  3. Characterization of in vitro chlamydial cultures in low-oxygen atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nicolai Stefan; Jensen, Helene; Hvid, Malene;

    2007-01-01

    To mimic in vivo conditions during chlamydial infections, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D and Chlamydia pneumoniae CWL029 were cultured in low-oxygen atmospheres containing 4% O(2), with parallel controls cultured in atmospheric air. Both were enriched with 5% CO(2). The results showed a dramatic...... increase in the growth of C. pneumoniae but not of C. trachomatis....

  4. Local synthesis of IgG antibodies to HIV within the female and male genital tracts during asymptomatic and pre-AIDS stages of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélec, L; Tévi-Bénissan, C; Lu, X S; Prazuck, T; Pillot, J

    1995-06-01

    Paired sera and cervicovaginal secretions or seminal fluids, obtained from HIV-1-infected, clinically asymptomatic women (n = 41) and men (n = 12), were investigated in order to test the hypothesis of a local synthesis of IgG to HIV in the female and male reproductive tracts. Anti-gp41 + p24 IgG was evaluated by an IgG immunocapture assay, and anti-gp160 IgG by an indirect ELISA. Estimation of anti-HIV IgG-specific activities was carried out after ponderal determination of total IgG and evaluation of anti-HIV IgG activity. IgG to gp41 + p24, as well as IgG to gp160, were specifically detected in all sera, cervicovaginal secretions, and seminal fluid samples from all tested HIV-1-infected subjects. The mean specific activities of IgG to gp41 + p24 in cervicovaginal secretions and in seminal fluids were about 33-fold (in women) and 16-fold (in men) that of the corresponding sera; similarly, the mean specific activities of IgG to gp160 in genital secretions were about 17-fold (in women) and 10-fold (in men) that of the corresponding sera. IgGs to HIV are constantly detected in genital secretions from HIV-1-infected subjects, and appear to be largely synthesized in situ within the genital tract of both genders.

  5. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (plactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (plactobacilli toward persistent C. trachomatis forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection. A significant increase in the production of C. trachomatis infectious progeny was observed in C. trachomatis/HSV-2 coinfection in the presence of L. brevis (p=0.01) despite a significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication (p=0.028). Our data suggest that a healthy vaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms.

  6. High Risk Human Papillomavirus genital infections in asymptomatic population: effectiveness of Micro-Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Addonisio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV is the primary cause for the development of various anogenital cancers in females and males. Most infections are either latent or subclinical and the majority occur as asymptomatic. HPV infections are not currently treatable by antiviral compounds. Micro-immunotherapy (MI medications using high dilutions of cytokines and specific nucleotide sequences have been developed to treat targeted viral infections and are currently prescribed in medical practice as immune regulators: 2L®PAPI (Labo’Life is indicated for HPV infection and may represent a new therapeutic approach. Aims: this exploratory study was to assess the effectiveness of 2L®PAPI on HPV infection eradication in HR-HPV infected asymptomatic patients attending an STD Centre in a long-term microbiological follow-up population survey. Methodology: adult patients of both genders, diagnosed with HR-HPV infection, with no evidence of symptomatic HPV or anogenital cancer, were followed during a 2 year-period (2009-2010. Selected patients had not previously been vaccinated for HPV or treated with medications having an impact on the immune system. HPV testing was performed on biological samples using PCR detection (Innogenetics, Italy. In addition, detection of E6/E7 mRNA of five carcinogenic HPV types was performed by EasyQ HPV (BioMerieux, Italy. HPV-positives were requested by their urology specialist to take 2L®PAPI (composition in table 1 during 4 months (1 caps/day by sublingual route. Globally 46 patients were followed: 23 treated with MI medication, and 23 not treated. Results: one third of selected patients were lost at the control visit (15/46. At the end of the study period, HR-HPV negativity was observed in 50% (8/16 of patients under MI medication in comparison with only 7% (1/15 of the non treated patients who were HPV-DNA negative at the follow

  7. Impact of Serum Antibodies to HPV Serotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 to Risks of Subsequent Genital HPV Infections in Men: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamnani, Shitaldas J; Sudenga, Staci L; Viscidi, Raphael; Rollison, Dana E; Torres, B Nelson; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Huang, Yangxin; Borenstein, Amy; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    Naturally induced serum antibodies against human papillomavirus (HPV) may affect risks of subsequent incident genital infections by HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18 in men. In this study, we examined the hypothesis by following 4,123 healthy men every 6 months (median follow-up time, 4.1 years). HPV antibodies were measured at baseline using a virus-like particle-based ELISA assay. Genital HPV genotypes were detected using Roche Linear Array. Incidence proportions and 6-month persistence proportions were calculated at 6-month intervals. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox models were used to assess genotype-specific cumulative incidence and HRs, respectively. HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 seroprevalence was 8.1%, 13.9%, 12.7%, and 10.8%, respectively. Significantly higher rates of incident infections were observed for HPV 16 among baseline-seropositive men [adjusted HR, 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.86], with similar but nonsignificant HRs for 6-month persistent infections. Risk of persistent HPV 18 infection was significantly lower among seropositive men in the unadjusted model (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.06-0.91), but not in the adjusted model (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03-1.37). Incident and 6-month persistent infections for HPV 6 and 11 did not differ by baseline serostatus. Baseline serostatus among men was not associated with a reduction in subsequent incident genital HPV 6, 11, and 16 infections. However, protection against persistent HPV18 infections was observed in unadjusted models. Our research suggests a need of further studies to examine the potentially protective effects of naturally induced HPV18 antibodies in men. Cancer Res; 76(20); 6066-75. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  10. Female Genital Warts: Global Trends and Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Gall, Stanley A.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated conditions such as genital warts in women is a global concern. Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV infection is also strongly associated with cervical cancer, and is prevalent in as many as 99% of cases. The psychological stress of having genital warts is often greater than the morbidi...

  11. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. METHODS: We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set. RESULTS: Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  12. Genital mycotic infections with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pooled analysis of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirjesy, Paul; Sobel, Jack D; Fung, Albert; Mayer, Cristiana; Capuano, George; Ways, Kirk; Usiskin, Keith

    2014-06-01

    To characterize genital mycotic infections with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using pooled data from Phase 3 studies. Genital mycotic infections with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg were evaluated in Population 1 (N = 2313; mean exposure [weeks]: canagliflozin, 24.3; placebo, 23.8), including patients from four placebo-controlled studies, and Population 2 (N = 9439; mean exposure [weeks]: canagliflozin, 68.1; control, 64.4), including patients from eight placebo/active-controlled studies (including older patients and those with renal impairment or high cardiovascular disease risk). ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01081834; NCT01106625; NCT01106677; NCT01106690; NCT01032629; NCT01064414; NCT01106651; NCT00968812. Adverse events suggestive of genital mycotic infections were recorded, with additional information collected using supplemental electronic case report forms. In Population 1, genital mycotic infection incidence was higher with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg than placebo (95% confidence intervals excluded zero) in females (10.4%, 11.4%, 3.2%) and males (4.2%, 3.7%, 0.6%). These were generally mild to moderate in intensity, none were serious, and few led to discontinuation. Most events with canagliflozin were treated with antifungal therapies, and median symptom duration following treatment initiation was similar across groups; few patients had >1 event (females, 2.3%; males, 0.9%). Findings with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus control were similar in Population 2 (females: 14.7%, 13.9%, 3.1%; males: 7.3%, 9.3%, 1.6%); a low proportion of males underwent circumcision across groups. Most events with canagliflozin occurred within the first 4 months in females and first year in males; no consistent evidence of dose dependence was observed. Key limitations included lack of laboratory confirmation for most events and variable treatment methods. Genital mycotic infection incidences

  13. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

  14. Chlamydial Pneumonitis: A Creepy Neonatal Disease

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    Kam Lun Hon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of neonatal chlamydial pneumonitis to illustrate that a high index of suspicion is necessary to make the diagnosis so that treatment can be promptly instituted. The child was afebrile and the only symptom was a cough. The respiratory equations are calculated to understand the respiratory physiology. There was no overt abnormality with ventilation, oxygenation, compliance, resistance, or ventilation-perfusion mismatch despite radiographic abnormality. The literature is searched to review if treatment with a systemic macrolide antibiotic is needed in an otherwise asymptomatic neonate with chlamydial pneumonitis.

  15. Mycoplasma genitalium in Spain: prevalence of genital infection and frequency of resistance to macrolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenjo, Alejandra; Kusters, Johannes G; Severs, Tim T; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2017-03-11

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infection and the resistance to macrolides within a general population in Madrid in 2015. We collected 359 urine samples from a general population with symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). All samples underwent a real-time PCR. For the detection of macrolide resistance, a 283bp fragment of region V of the 23S rRNA gene of M. genitalium was amplified and sequenced. We found a prevalence of 3.34% of M. genitalium and a macrolide resistance rate of 20%. In males, the prevalence was 6.62% and in women 0.96%, being significantly higher in males. The prevalence obtained shows that it is a pathogen to consider in our environment. These findings stress the need for routine testing of M. genitalium infections and would seem to suggest the advisability of resistance testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ... Date reviewed: February 2016 previous 1 • ... Boyfriend Has an STD Before We Have Sex? Telling Your Partner You Have an STD Contact ...

  17. Genital Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital warts are a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh-colored bumps. ... or many of these bumps. In women, the warts usually occur in or around the vagina, on ...

  18. Genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... warts URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000886.htm Genital warts To use the sharing ... They may be found on the penis , vulva , urethra, vagina , cervix , and around ... in the cervix , or to cervical cancer . These are called high-risk types of HPV. ...

  19. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant...... segments from serovars D, E, and F. Adjuvanted with cationic liposomes, this construct promoted strong immune responses to serovar-specific epitopes, the conserved LNPTIAG epitope and neutralized serovars D, E, and F. Vaccinated mice were protected against challenge, with protection defined as reduced...... bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serumand T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4+ T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence...

  20. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandie D Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  1. CORRELATION OF CERVICAL DYSPLASIA WITH SEROLOGICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL TESTS FOR GENITAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS : Prevalence of Sexually transmitted infections (STIs tends to be high which constitutes an important public health problem at present worldwide and in India, being associated with Human Immunodeficiency virus and predisposing to cervical dysplasia and cancer. There is a need to overcome the STI infections throughout the nation by cytological and microbiological screening. SETTING AND DESIGN : The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV 2, Cytomegalovirus (CMV, Hepatitis B (HBV, Hepatitis C virus (HCV, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV and Candidiasis with cervical cytological changes in symptomatic female in West Bengal. METHOD S : Sera and vaginal samples from 431 syndromic female patients with cervico - vaginal discharge were tested for detection of STIs. The study period extended over two years. Concomitantly, study of cervical cytology on Papanicolaou stained smears was performed in all cases. ELISA was performed for detection of CT IgM, HSV2 IgM, CMV IgM, HBsAg and HCV IgM in sera. Candida spp. and TV were identified by culture of vaginal samples. Cytological findings were interpreted according to Bethesda 2001 classification. Statistical analysis was performed using MedCalc for Windows, version 13.3.1.0 (MedCalc Software, Ostend, Belgium. RESULTS: Out of 431 samples, majority of the patients belonged to the age group of 29 to 42 years, however the mean age of patients presenting with HSIL on PAP was 45 ± 7.93 years. CT, HSV2, TV and Candida spp. were associated with cervical cytological changes of ASCUS or worse. Age greater than 40 years and infection with CT emerged independent risk factors associated with cervical dysplasia on univariate and multivariate analysis with p <0.05 in both. CONCLUSION : C. trachomatis is a risk factor for cervical dysplasia. Early detection and treatment will prevent progression of STIs and development of cervical dysplasia and

  2. A survey of genital infections in patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staerfelt, F; Gundersen, T J; Halsos, A M; Barlinn, C; Johansen, A G; Nørregaard, K M; Eng, J

    1983-01-01

    747 consecutive patients, 531 men and 216 women, attending the Division of Dermatovenerology, City Health Dept., Oslo, were screened for N. gonorrhoeae (14.5% and 18.5%), C. trachomatis (19.6% and 20.8%), G. vaginalis (0.2% and 6.5%), and C. albicans (1.1% and 21.3%). The prevalence is given in brackets for men and women, respectively. This study was undertaken in order to determine the relative prevalence of these microorganisms with particular reference to G. vaginalis, to determine the importance of concomitant infections, and the possible effect of contraceptive methods (oral contraceptives and IUD) on the prevalence of these microorganisms.

  3. Identification of rhesus macaque genital microbiota by 16S pyrosequencing shows similarities to human bacterial vaginosis: implications for use as an animal model for HIV vaginal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Gregory T; Gilbert, Douglas; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Doyle, Lara; Green, Linda; Gillevet, Patrick M; Landay, Alan L; Veazey, Ronald S

    2010-02-01

    The composition of the lower genital tract microbiota in women is believed to affect the risk of sexually acquiring HIV. Since macaque genital microbiota could similarly impact vaginal infection with SIV we identified microbiota in 11 rhesus macaques using multitag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiota was polymicrobial with a median of nine distinct bacterial taxa per macaque (range 3-16 taxa, each constituting 1% or more of the sequences). Taxa frequently found included Peptoniphilus, Sneathia, Porphyromonas, Mobiluncus, Atopobacter, Dialister, Thioreductor, Prevotella, and Streptococcus, many of which are also frequently found in women with bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus sequences (mostly L. johnsonii) were found in only four macaques but were not predominant in any (median of 0% of sequences, range 0-39%). All macaques were resampled 6 months after the first time point to determine the stability of the microbiota. The microbiota remained polymicrobial with a median of 10 taxa (range 6-18). Microbial patterns remained similar for six of the macaques, changed substantially in two, and had a mixed pattern in three. Significant sialidase enzyme activity, a marker of bacteria vaginosis in women, was detected in genital fluid from 9/11 and 8/11 macaques from the first and second time points, respectively. These results show that the macaque lower genital microbiota resembled a bacteria vaginosis-type microbiota in women and suggest that the microbiota of macaques in captivity promote rather than protect against vaginal infection with SIV. These results also suggest macaques could be used as an animal model to study some aspects of bacterial vaginosis.

  4. The molecular fingerprint of human papillomavirus infection and its effect on the Langerhans cell population in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Rios-Yuil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information is scarce about the presence of molecular alterations related to human papillomavirus (HPV infection in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin and about the effect of this infection in the number of Langerhans cells present in these tumors. Aims: To determine the presence of HPV in genital skin squamous cell carcinomas and to see the relationship between HPV infection and changes in the expression of Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67, p53 protein (p53, retinoblastoma protein (pRb and E-cadherin and to alterations in Langerhans cell density, if any. Methods: A descriptive, comparative, retrospective and cross-sectional study was performed with all the cases diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin at the Dermatopathology Service from 2001 to 2011. The diagnosis was verified by histopathological examination. The presence of HPV was examined using chromogenic in situ hybridization, and protein expression was studied via immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The 34 cases studied were verified as squamous cell carcinomas and 44.1% were HPV positive. The degree of expression of pRb was 17.50% ±14.11% (mean ± SD in HPV-positive cases and 29.74% ±20.38% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0236. The degree of expression of Ki-67 was 47.67% ±30.64% in HPV-positive cases and 29.87% ±15.95% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0273. Conclusion: HPV infection was related to lower pRb expression and higher Ki-67 expression in comparison with HPV negative samples. We could not find a relationship between HPV infection and the degree of expression of p53 and E-cadherin or with Langerhans cell density.

  5. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-10-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16-29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11-12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69-1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36-2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women Complaining of Genital Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adane Bitew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul’s Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent’s procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were characterized, and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. Results. The overall prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 48.6%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with number of pants used per day (p=0.001 and frequency of vaginal bathing (p=0.045. Of 151 bacterial isolates, 69.5% were Gram-negative and 30.5% were Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-positive bacteria was high against penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Cefoxitin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-negative bacteria was high against tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. Amikacin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high and was affected by individual hygiene. Routine culture of vaginal samples should be performed on patients with vaginitis and the drug susceptibility pattern of each isolate should be determined.

  7. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women Complaining of Genital Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebaw, Yeshiwork; Bekele, Delayehu; Mihret, Amete

    2017-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Objectives To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul's Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent's procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were characterized, and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. Results The overall prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 48.6%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with number of pants used per day (p = 0.001) and frequency of vaginal bathing (p = 0.045). Of 151 bacterial isolates, 69.5% were Gram-negative and 30.5% were Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-positive bacteria was high against penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Cefoxitin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-negative bacteria was high against tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. Amikacin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high and was affected by individual hygiene. Routine culture of vaginal samples should be performed on patients with vaginitis and the drug susceptibility pattern of each isolate should be determined. PMID:28831285

  8. Genital Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Infertile Men and Its Effect on Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Golshani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Male urogenital tract infection plays an important role in men infertility. Asymptomatic bacteriospermia has been paid attention as a major cause of male infertility. The aim of this study was to microbiological investigation of semen sample of infertile men attending to infertility clinic and evaluation of the effects of bacteriospermia on semen quality. Eighty eight infertile men were evaluated by standard bacterial culture method. Standard semen analysis was performed according to WHO guidelines. Among total cases, 35.22% (31 cases showed at least one pathogen: 10.22% E.coli, 9.09% Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (Saprophyticcus, 6.81% Group B Streptococci, 5.88% Entrococci, 5.68% Candida sp., 2.27% Gonococci, 2.27% Staphylococcus aureus, 1.13% Klebsiella sp. and 1.13% Providencia sp. There was a significant relation between the bacteriospermia and the rate of no motile and morphologically abnormal sperms (P0.05. It seems that leukocytospermia is a poor marker to predict bacteriospermia.

  9. Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women Complaining of Genital Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitew, Adane; Abebaw, Yeshiwork; Bekele, Delayehu; Mihret, Amete

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul's Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent's procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were characterized, and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. The overall prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 48.6%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with number of pants used per day (p = 0.001) and frequency of vaginal bathing (p = 0.045). Of 151 bacterial isolates, 69.5% were Gram-negative and 30.5% were Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-positive bacteria was high against penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Cefoxitin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-negative bacteria was high against tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. Amikacin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-negative bacteria. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high and was affected by individual hygiene. Routine culture of vaginal samples should be performed on patients with vaginitis and the drug susceptibility pattern of each isolate should be determined.

  10. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent HSV-2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clarice L; Banasik, Brianne N; Gorder, Summer R; Xia, Jingya; Auclair, Sarah; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-12-01

    Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Although the murine model of HSV-2 infection is useful for understanding immunity following immunization, it is limited by the lack of spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency. Genital infection of guinea pigs with HSV-2 accurately models the disease of humans including the spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency and provides a unique opportunity to examine virus-host interactions during latency. Although the guinea pig represents an accurate model of many human infections, relatively few reagents are available to study the immunological response to infection. To analyze the cell-mediated immune response of guinea pigs at extended periods of time after establishment of HSV-2 latency, we have modified flow-cytometry based proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays to detect and quantify HSV-specific cell-mediated responses during latent infection of guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that a combination of proliferation and ELISPOT assays can be used to quantify and characterize effecter function of virus-specific immune memory responses during HSV-latency.

  11. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria A Burmistrova

    Full Text Available Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh, for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection.

  12. Vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma: a rare mesenchymal tumor of the lower female genital tract and a study of its association with viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Lan; Su, Tzu-Cheng; Shen, Ko-Hung; Lin, Shu-Hui; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Jui-Chang; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2012-06-01

    Superficial myofibroblastoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor in the lower female genital tract. The exact etiology of superficial myofibroblastoma remains unclear. The association of viral infection and mesenchymal tumors has been well established in some particular types of soft tissue tumors. In the lower female genital tract, the intimate correlation of viral infection and tumor pathogenesis has been also proposed. We present a 59-year-old woman with postcoital bleeding for 1 month. The pelvic examination revealed a 2-cm polypoid mass mimicking leiomyoma at the vaginal fornix. Local excision was performed, and the pathological examination revealed a superficial myofibroblastoma. No tumor recurrence was noted during the 12-month follow-up. Pathological differential diagnosis of this tumor from other mesenchymal tumors is essential because of its distinct clinicopathological features. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization of human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), as well as immunohistochemical staining of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), was negative in tumor cells. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first group to study the possible relationship of viral infection and the occurrence of this mesenchymal tumor. Our results suggested no association of vaginal superficial myofibroblastoma and infection with HPV, EBV, or HHV8.

  13. Primary Genital Herpes Diseases in İnfancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gümüş Pekacar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic primary genital herpes infection is very rare in early childhood. Herpes simplex virus 1 type is the infectious agent in 20-50% percent of primery infections. Sexual abuse should be considered when genital herpes is seen in a person before sexual active age. It is mild and self limiting unless the patient is immune compramised. In this paper we discussed a 17 months old patient with genital herpes and approach to genital herpes in children.

  14. A cloudy bag and genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesker, J; van Elsacker-Niele, A M; Blanken, R; Halma, C

    2006-05-01

    A 30-year-old patient treated with CCPD presented with genital ulcers and a culture-negative peritonitis. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was cultured from the effluent and the genital lesions. Primary HSV-2 infection was diagnosed by serology. This is the first documented case of PD peritonitis caused by HSV-2. We speculate that cases of culture-negative PD peritonitis may be due to recurrences of genital herpes.

  15. Utilidade da citologia anal no rastreamento dos homens heterossexuais portadores do HPV genital Anal cytology for screening heterosexual men harboring genital HPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Marianelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPV de alto risco estão fortemente relacionados à etiologia do carcinoma espinocelular (CEC anogenital e suas lesões precursoras. O HPV-16 é o tipo mais freqüente, estando presente em até 87% dos CEC do canal anal HPV-positivo. Apesar de ser relativamente raro, vem sendo cada vez mais diagnosticado, nas últimas décadas, sobretudo em indivíduos do sexo masculino. A incidência é ainda mais elevada nos grupos considerados de risco, particularmente, os homens e as mulheres HIV-positivo e os homens que fazem sexo com homens (HSH. Grande parte das pesquisas direcionadas à infecção anal pelo HPV e sua relação com neoplasia intraepitelial-anal (NIA e com o carcinoma esteve focada nos grupos de risco. Pouco interesse vem sendo destinado à investigação dos homens heterossexuais. Estudos epidemiológicos da prevalência da infecção pelo HPV em homens, mostraram que os heterossexuais masculinos apresentavam infecção anal pelo HPV em até 12%. As Sociedades médicas e os especialistas recomendam o rastreamento dos portadores de imunodepressão e dos HSH com citologia do raspado do canal anal. Entretanto, até o momento, não há recomendação de rastreamento para homens que fazem sexo com mulheres.The oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV are straightly associated with anogenital cancer and dysplasia. The HPV-16 is the most common type, isolated in 87% of the HPV-positive anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Despite being a rare tumor, the incidence of SCC has increased in the last decades, especially in males. Incidence is particularly high amongst men who have sex with men (MSM and among HIV infected men and women. For decades anogenital HPV researches have largely focused risk groups. Poor interest was intended to men who have sex with women (MSW. Prevalence studies of HPV infection in MSW have demonstrated that anal infection was identified in as far as 12%. Medical societies and specialists recommend anal

  16. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Herpes Print A A A What's in this article? Symptoms Contagiousness Treatment Prevention Getting Help Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually ...

  17. Healthcare costs of urinary tract infections and genital mycotic infections among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus initiated on canagliflozin: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Tony B; Montejano, Leslie; Juneau, Paul; Bolge, Susan C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the economic impact of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and genital mycotic infections (GMIs) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) initiated on canagliflozin. Administrative claims data from April 2013 through June 2014 MarketScan(®) databases were extracted. Adults with ≥1 claim for canagliflozin, T2DM diagnosis, and ≥90 days enrollment before and after canagliflozin initiation were propensity score matched to controls with T2DM initiated on other anti-hyperglycemic agents (AHAs). UTI and GMI healthcare costs were evaluated 90-days post-index and reported as cohort means. Rates of UTI claims 90 days post-index were similar in patients receiving canagliflozin for T2DM (n = 31,257) and matched controls (2.7% vs 2.8%, p = .677). More canagliflozin than control patients had GMI claims (1.2% vs 0.6%, p canagliflozin patients vs matched controls ($27.61 vs $37.33, p = .150). GMI treatment costs were higher for the canagliflozin cohort ($3.68 vs $2.44, p = .041). Combined costs to treat either UTI and/or GMI averaged $31.29 per patient for the canagliflozin cohort v $39.77 for controls (p = .211). Rates and costs of UTIs and GMIs were higher for females than males, but the canagliflozin vs control trends observed for the overall sample were similar for both sexes. There were no significant cost differences between the canagliflozin and control cohorts among patients aged 18-64. Among patients aged 65 and above, GMI treatment costs were not significantly different, but costs to treat UTIs and either UTI and/or GMI were significantly lower for canagliflozin patients vs controls. In a real-world setting, the costs to payers of treating UTIs and GMIs are generally similar for patients with T2DM initiated on canagliflozin vs other AHAs.

  18. Intranasal immunization with secretion protein Pgp3enhances protective immunity against mice genital Chlamydia muridarum infection%沙眼衣原体分泌性蛋白Pgp3滴鼻免疫增强小鼠对衣原体生殖道感染的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆春雪; 吴移谋; 彭波; 李忠玉; 胡四海; 钟光明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To validate the immune protective efficacy of Chlamydia secretion protein Pgp3 and to analyze the potential immune mechanisms related to this protection. [Methods] The prokaryotic recombinant protein Pgp3 was purified and evaluated for its protective efficacy in a genital tract infected mouse model. Groups of BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally or intramuscularly with adjuvants plus Pgp3 protein or PBS and GST control. Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated. After Chlamydia muridarum in-travaginal challenge, the chlamydia shedding from the lower genital tract and the chlamy-dia-induced upper genital tract gross pathology and histopathological characterization were also detected. [Results] Adjuvant plus Pgp3 immunization can induce high level of Pgp3 specific antibody as well as IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-5 cytokine production. More importantly, intra-nasal immunization compare with intramuscular route induced more Thl-dominant immunity that significantly reduced the shedding of live organisms from the lower genital tract and attenuated inflammatory pathologies in the oviduct tissues. [Conculsion] These observations have demonstrated that secretion protein Pgp3 intranasal immunization can induce protective immunity against chlamydial infection and pathology in mice.%[目的]探讨不同免疫途径沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia trachomatis,Ct)分泌性蛋白Pgp3的免疫保护效果,分析其可能的保护机制,以确定Pgp3蛋白疫苗在Ct疫苗研制中的应用价值.[方法]分泌性蛋白Pgp3经滴鼻或肌注途径免疫雌性Balb/c小鼠,免疫60 d后,阴道接种鼠沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia muridarum,Cm)建立生殖道感染动物模型,在该模型中评价Pgp3蛋白疫苗抗Cm感染的保护效果,并探讨其机制.[结果]滴鼻或肌注免疫后,小鼠血清及生殖道中检测到了特异性抗体;小鼠脾淋巴细胞产生IFN-γ、IL-17及IL-5水平均明显高于对照组,且滴鼻免疫组IFN-γ水平

  19. Chlamydia genomics: providing novel insights into chlamydial biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Nathan L; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular pathogens that have successfully evolved to colonize a diverse range of hosts. There are currently 11 described species of Chlamydia, most of which have a significant impact on the health of humans or animals. Expanding chlamydial genome sequence information has revolutionized our understanding of chlamydial biology, including aspects of their unique lifecycle, host-pathogen interactions, and genetic differences between Chlamydia strains associated with different host and tissue tropisms. This review summarizes the major highlights of chlamydial genomics and reflects on the considerable impact these have had on understanding the biology of chlamydial pathogens and the changing nature of genomics tools in the 'post-genomics' era.

  20. The novel chlamydial adhesin CPn0473 mediates the lipid raft-dependent uptake of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechtner, Tim; Galle, Jan N; Hegemann, Johannes H

    2016-08-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular pathogens that pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Chlamydial surface molecules are essential for host cell invasion. The first interaction with the host cell is thereby accomplished by the Outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) binding to heparan sulfate moieties on the host cell surface, followed by the interaction of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with host cell receptors. Specifically, the interaction of the Pmp21 adhesin and invasin with its human interaction partner, the epidermal growth factor receptor, results in receptor activation, down-stream signalling and finally internalization of the bacteria. Blocking both, the OmcB and Pmp21 adhesion pathways, did not completely abolish infection, suggesting the presence of additional factors relevant for host cell invasion. Here, we show that the novel surface protein CPn0473 of Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the binding and invasion of infectious chlamydial particles. CPn0473 is expressed late in the infection cycle and located on the infectious chlamydial cell surface. Soluble recombinant CPn0473 as well as rCPn0473-coupled fluorescent latex beads adhere to human epithelial HEp-2 cells. Interestingly, in classical infection blocking experiments pretreatment of HEp-2 cells with rCPn0473 does not attenuate adhesion but promotes dose-dependently internalization by C. pneumoniae suggesting an unusual mode of action for this adhesin. This CPn0473-dependent promotion of infection by C. pneumoniae depends on two different domains within the protein and requires intact lipid rafts. Thus, inhibition of the interaction of CPn0473 with the host cell could provide a way to reduce the virulence of C. pneumoniae.

  1. The novel chlamydial adhesin CPn0473 mediates the lipid raft‐dependent uptake of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechtner, Tim; Galle, Jan N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chlamydiae are Gram‐negative, obligate intracellular pathogens that pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Chlamydial surface molecules are essential for host cell invasion. The first interaction with the host cell is thereby accomplished by the Outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) binding to heparan sulfate moieties on the host cell surface, followed by the interaction of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with host cell receptors. Specifically, the interaction of the Pmp21 adhesin and invasin with its human interaction partner, the epidermal growth factor receptor, results in receptor activation, down‐stream signalling and finally internalization of the bacteria. Blocking both, the OmcB and Pmp21 adhesion pathways, did not completely abolish infection, suggesting the presence of additional factors relevant for host cell invasion. Here, we show that the novel surface protein CPn0473 of Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the binding and invasion of infectious chlamydial particles. CPn0473 is expressed late in the infection cycle and located on the infectious chlamydial cell surface. Soluble recombinant CPn0473 as well as rCPn0473‐coupled fluorescent latex beads adhere to human epithelial HEp‐2 cells. Interestingly, in classical infection blocking experiments pretreatment of HEp‐2 cells with rCPn0473 does not attenuate adhesion but promotes dose‐dependently internalization by C. pneumoniae suggesting an unusual mode of action for this adhesin. This CPn0473‐dependent promotion of infection by C. pneumoniae depends on two different domains within the protein and requires intact lipid rafts. Thus, inhibition of the interaction of CPn0473 with the host cell could provide a way to reduce the virulence of C. pneumoniae. PMID:26780295

  2. Chlamydial genes shed light on the evolution of photoautotrophic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkonian Michael

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria of protists, invertebrates and vertebrates, but have not been found to date in photosynthetic eukaryotes (algae and embryophytes. Genes of putative chlamydial origin, however, are present in significant numbers in sequenced genomes of photosynthetic eukaryotes. It has been suggested that such genes were acquired by an ancient horizontal gene transfer from Chlamydiae to the ancestor of photosynthetic eukaryotes. To further test this hypothesis, an extensive search for proteins of chlamydial origin was performed using several recently sequenced algal genomes and EST databases, and the proteins subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results A total of 39 proteins of chlamydial origin were retrieved from the photosynthetic eukaryotes analyzed and their identity verified through phylogenetic analyses. The distribution of the chlamydial proteins among four groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes (Viridiplantae, Rhodoplantae, Glaucoplantae, Bacillariophyta was complex suggesting multiple acquisitions and losses. Evidence is presented that all except one of the chlamydial genes originated from an ancient endosymbiosis of a chlamydial bacterium into the ancestor of the Plantae before their divergence into Viridiplantae, Rhodoplantae and Glaucoplantae, i.e. more than 1.1 BYA. The chlamydial proteins subsequently spread through secondary plastid endosymbioses to other eukaryotes. Of 20 chlamydial proteins recovered from the genomes of two Bacillariophyta, 10 were of rhodoplant, and 10 of viridiplant origin suggesting that they were acquired by two different secondary endosymbioses. Phylogenetic analyses of concatenated sequences demonstrated that the viridiplant secondary endosymbiosis likely occurred before the divergence of Chlorophyta and Streptophyta. Conclusion We identified 39 proteins of chlamydial origin in photosynthetic eukaryotes signaling an ancient invasion of the ancestor of the

  3. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract: a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yiang; Manna, Pradip; Ou, Joyce J; Kerley, Spencer; Zhang, Cunxian; Sung, C James; Lawrence, W Dwayne; Quddus, M Ruhul

    2015-09-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus infection usually is seen at one anatomic site in an individual. Rarely, infection at multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract in the same individual is encountered either simultaneously and/or at a later date. The current study identifies the various subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in these scenarios and analyzes the potential significance of these findings. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving 22 anatomic sites from 7 individuals was identified after institutional review board approval. Residual paraffin-embedded tissue samples were retrieved, and all 15 high-risk human papillomavirus were identified and viral load quantified using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method. Multiple high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes were identified in 32% of the samples and as many as 5 different subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a single anatomic site. In general, each anatomic site has unique combination of viral subtypes, although one individual showed overlapping subtypes in the vagina, cervix, and vulvar samples. Higher viral load and rare subtypes are more frequent in younger patients and in dysplasia compared with carcinoma. Follow-up ranging from 3 to 84 months revealed persistent high-risk human papillomavirus infection in 60% of cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Targeting of a chlamydial protease impedes intracellular bacterial growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan G Christian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that propagate in a cytosolic vacuole. Recent work has shown that growth of Chlamydia induces the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus (GA into ministacks, which facilitates the acquisition of host lipids into the growing inclusion. GA fragmentation results from infection-associated cleavage of the integral GA protein, golgin-84. Golgin-84-cleavage, GA fragmentation and growth of Chlamydia trachomatis can be blocked by the peptide inhibitor WEHD-fmk. Here we identify the bacterial protease chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF as the factor mediating cleavage of golgin-84 and as the target of WEHD-fmk-inhibition. WEHD-fmk blocked cleavage of golgin-84 as well as cleavage of known CPAF targets during infection with C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. The same effect was seen when active CPAF was expressed in non-infected cells and in a cell-free system. Ectopic expression of active CPAF in non-infected cells was sufficient for GA fragmentation. GA fragmentation required the small GTPases Rab6 and Rab11 downstream of CPAF-activity. These results define CPAF as the first protein that is essential for replication of Chlamydia. We suggest that this role makes CPAF a potential anti-infective therapeutic target.

  5. HPV及生殖道其他病原体感染与宫颈癌临床关系的研究进展%Research Progress of the Correlation between HPV and Other Genital Tract Infections and Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文彩荷

    2012-01-01

    宫颈癌是妇女中常见的恶性肿瘤,生殖道的病原体感染与宫颈癌的发生、发展密切相关.高危型人乳头状瘤病毒的持续感染成为宫颈癌发生的最危险因素,合并感染的病原体在宫颈癌发病过程中起协同作用.因生殖道感染不断增多,宫颈癌及癌前病变的发生率也在不断升高.需加强对生殖道常见病原菌的检测及生殖道感染的预防,从而减少宫颈癌的发生.%Cervical cancer is a common malignant neoplasm in women. The development of cervical cancer is closely related to genital infections. High-risk human papillomavirus infection is the most dangerous factor for cervical cancer, and the other co-infections play a synergistic role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Due to the continuousy increasing genital tract infections,incidence rates of cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesion have increased too. The detection of common genital tract pathogens and precaution of genital tract infections are needed to be enhanced to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer.

  6. Evaluation of a multisubunit recombinant polymorphic membrane protein and major outer membrane protein T cell vaccine against Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in three strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Karunakaran, Karuna P; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Brunham, Robert C

    2014-08-06

    An efficacious vaccine is needed to control Chlamydia trachomatis infection. In the murine model of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection, multifunctional mucosal CD4 T cells are the foundation for protective immunity, with antibody playing a secondary role. We previously identified four Chlamydia outer membrane proteins (PmpE, PmpF, PmpG and PmpH) as CD4 T cell vaccine candidates using a dendritic cell-based immunoproteomic approach. We also demonstrated that these four polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) individually conferred protection as measured by accelerated clearance of Chlamydia infection in the C57BL/6 murine genital tract model. The major outer membrane protein, MOMP is also a well-studied protective vaccine antigen in this system. In the current study, we tested immunogenicity and protection of a multisubunit recombinant protein vaccine consisting of the four Pmps (PmpEFGH) with or without the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) formulated with a Th1 polarizing adjuvant in C57BL/6, Balb/c and C3H mice. We found that C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with PmpEFGH+MOMP elicited more robust cellular immune responses than mice immunized with individual protein antigens. Pmps elicited more variable cellular immune responses than MOMP among the three strains of mice. The combination vaccine accelerated clearance in the three strains of mice although at different rates. We conclude that the recombinant outer membrane protein combination constitutes a promising first generation Chlamydia vaccine construct that should provide broad immunogenicity in an outbred population.

  7. 'Can you recommend any good STI apps?' A review of content, accuracy and comprehensiveness of current mobile medical applications for STIs and related genital infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jo; Gkatzidou, Voula; Tickle, Laura; Manning, Sarah R; Tilakkumar, Tilna; Hone, Kate; Ashcroft, Richard E; Sonnenberg, Pam; Sadiq, S Tariq; Estcourt, Claudia S

    2017-06-01

    Seeking sexual health information online is common, and provision of mobile medical applications (apps) for STIs is increasing. Young people, inherently at higher risk of STIs, are avid users of technology, and apps could be appealing sources of information. We undertook a comprehensive review of content and accuracy of apps for people seeking information about STIs. Search of Google Play and iTunes stores using general and specific search terms for apps regarding STIs and genital infections (except HIV), testing, diagnosis and management, 10 September 2014 to 16 September 2014. We assessed eligible apps against (1) 19 modified Health on The Net (HON) Foundation principles; and (2) comprehensiveness and accuracy of information on STIs/genital infections, and their diagnosis and management, compared with corresponding National Health Service STI information webpage content. 144/6642 apps were eligible. 57 were excluded after downloading. 87 were analysed. Only 29% of apps met ≥6 HON criteria. Content was highly variable: 34/87 (39%) covered one or two infections; 40 (46%) covered multiple STIs; 5 (6%) focused on accessing STI testing. 13 (15%) were fully, 46 (53%) mostly and 28 (32%) partially accurate. 25 (29%) contained ≥1 piece of potentially harmful information. Apps available on both iOS and Android were more accurate than single-platform apps. Only one app provided fully accurate and comprehensive information on chlamydia. Marked variation in content, quality and accuracy of available apps combined with the nearly one-third containing potentially harmful information risks undermining potential benefits of an e-Health approach to sexual health and well-being. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah;

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model...... with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high...

  9. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection.

  10. Eubacterium nodatum mimics Actinomyces in intrauterine device-associated infections and other settings within the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G B

    1992-04-01

    Eubacterium nodatum is an obligately anaerobic, gram-positive, branching rod that markedly resembles Actinomyces, particularly Actinomyces israelii, in its cellular and colonial characteristics. Its isolation from the female genital tract was examined for a study period in which use of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) was common, and additional characteristics of the organism were investigated. Fifteen genital isolates of E nodatum were all associated with the presence of a foreign body, usually an IUD (12 patients). Six of these 12 patients had presented with clinically severe pelvic inflammatory disease. The remaining six had signs and symptoms related to IUD use and/or had a report of probable Actinomyces (five patients) by a Papanicolaou smear, demonstrating that E nodatum can be mistaken for Actinomyces in a Papanicolaou-stained smear. The three other patients had different types of foreign bodies. The frequency of isolation from cultures associated with IUD use during the study period was five (6.4%) of 78 for Actinomyces versus the 12 (15.4%) of 78 for E nodatum. In vitro-prepared E nodatum was not demonstrated to cross-react with A israelii or A naeslundii antisera. Both E nodatum and A israelii were shown to adhere in vitro to an inanimate object, indicating their propensities to colonize a foreign body. The present data, with the previous reports of isolation of E nodatum from cases of lumpy jaw and severe periodontitis, suggest that it is an opportunistic pathogen very much like A israelii.

  11. [Genital ulcers--what's new?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Raya, Bahaa; Bamberger, Ellen; Srugo, Isaac

    2013-08-01

    The most common infectious causes of genital ulcers are herpes simplex virus and syphilis. However, mixed infections can occur and genital ulcer may increase the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus. Although the history and physical examination can narrow the differential diagnosis, there is a need for initial routine laboratory testing for the most common pathogens that includes: for syphilis: serologic screening and dark field examination of the lesion; for herpes simplex virus: serology, vial culture and/or polymerase chain reaction. Human immunodeficiency testing is mandatory. Recently, some clinical laboratories adapted the reverse screening algorithm for syphilis (initial treponemal test, and, if positive, followed by non-treponemal test) that may potentially lead to overtreatment. Early and prompt therapy may decrease the risk of transmission of the infectious agent to others. This article reviews the infectious pathogens causing genital ulcers, their unique clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment.

  12. A test for the relative potency of herpes simplex virus vaccines based upon the female guinea-pig model of HSV 2 genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillpotts, R J; Welch, M J; Ridgeway, P H; Walkland, A C; Melling, J

    1988-04-01

    An ELISA for total herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 antigen content and a test of immunogenicity based upon the female guinea-pig model of HSV 2 genital infection were applied to two samples from batches of HSV 1 subunit ('Skinner') vaccine. The ELISA was reproducible within an approximately threefold limit of error and batches 1 and 2 were indistinguishable in antigen content. The effects of vaccination in the guinea-pig model were assessed by a statistical analysis of scores derived from the principal clinical signs, vaginal oedema and lesions on the external genitalia. The statistical power of the guinea-pig assay was such that reductions in the severity of illness approaching 40% would be significant (P less than 0.05) on 90% of occasions. The ability to make quantitative estimates of immunogenicity will prove useful in the quality control of HSV vaccine batches which are destined for clinical trials in man.

  13. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne

    2015-01-01

    bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serumand T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4+ T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence......The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant...

  14. Determination of Molecular Genotyping of Ureaplasma SPP in Women with Genital Infections by 16S–23S rDNA PCR-RFLP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mirnejad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: So far, despite the wide range of methods such as analytic methods used for differentiation of Mycoplasma, the diagnosis of Mycoplasma species is still difficult. Generally the low-level discriminatory power of serological methods because of the rapid changes in size and phase of the dominant antigens in the immune cell surface of Mycoplasmas greatly limits their applicability to the typing of Mycoplasmas. On the contrary,molecular methods do not suffer from these drawbacks and can be used for typing of Mycoplasmas. The aim of this investigation was molecular identification and genotyping of ureaplasma SPP in women with genital infections by 16S–23S rDNA PCR-RFLP.Materials & Methods: Genital swabs were taken from 210 patients who referred to gynecology clinic of Rasool hospital in Tehran, Iran during December 2007 until June 2008. The swabs suspended in PBS, were immediately transferred to laboratory .Following DNA extraction, PCR assay was performed using a genus specific primer pair. These primer sets amplified a 559 bp fragment for Ureaplasma Spp. Samples containing bands of the expected size for Ureaplasma strains were subjected to digestion with different restriction endonuclease enzymes (AluI, Taq I, CacI8, BbsI, EcoRI. Results: Of the 210 samples, Ureaplasma Spp was isolated from 93 patients (44.3% by PCR and 69 samples by culture. In the present study only Biovar 1 (Ureaplasma parvum was isolated from clinical specimens and the results were confirmed using a cutting enzyme TaqI (enzyme specific species of ureaplasma SPP. The results of this analysis using PCR-RFLP and sequencing showed that all had the same genotype and shared identical sequence with the genome sequence of serovar 3 Ureaplasma parvum.Conclusion: Ureaplasma parvum is generally isolated from the genital samples. In this study all isolates were identical and no difference was found among the enzyme patterns of the bacteria after PCR-RFLP .So

  15. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection.

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    Lauren C Frazer

    Full Text Available Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe: legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeika, M; Hallen, A; Karabanov, L; Chudomirova, K; Gruber, F; Unzeitig, V; Poder, A; Deak, J; Jakobsone, I; Lapinskaite, G; Dajek, Z; Akovbian, V; Gomberg, M; Khryanin, A; Savitcheva, A; Takac, I; Glazkova, L; Vinograd, N; Nedeljkovic, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge concerning genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe is scarce. Data on the legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection have never been collected, summarised, and presented to the international scientific community. The aim of this study was to present the current situation on the main aspects of chlamydial infections in the countries of eastern Europe. Methods: Written questionnaires concerning legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection were distributed among national STI operating administrators as well as researchers who had presented papers at earlier meetings of European chlamydia or STI societies. Results: Most of the countries have not legalised reporting of chlamydial infections and in those who have done so, the quality of the reporting system is poor. Contact tracing is mostly done on a voluntary basis. Reported chlamydia incidence varies from 21 to 276 per 100 000 inhabitants. The most commonly used diagnostic test remains the direct immunofluorescence test; however, some tendencies towards nucleic acid amplification are in evidence. Diagnostic services are paid for by the patient himself, while treatment in many countries is partially or completely covered by public insurance. Conclusions: This is the first report summarising data concerning the situation on C trachomatis infections in eastern Europe. The reporting system and diagnosis of C trachomatis infections remain suboptimal, which allows neither control of the epidemiological situation nor optimal treatment of the patients. The most urgent work currently necessary is the education of professionals and the general population. PMID:12081171

  17. Identification of MHCII variants associated with chlamydial disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus

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    Quintin Lau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiosis, the most common infectious disease in koalas, can cause chronic urogenital tract fibrosis and infertility. High titres of serum immunoglobulin G against 10 kDa and 60 kDa chlamydial heat-shock proteins (c-hsp10 and c-hsp60 are associated with fibrous occlusion of the koala uterus and uterine tube. Murine and human studies have identified associations between specific major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII alleles or genotypes, and higher c-hsp 60 antibody levels or chlamydia-associated disease and infertility. In this study, we characterised partial MHCII DAB and DBB genes in female koalas (n = 94 from a single geographic population, and investigated associations among antibody responses to c-hsp60 quantified by ELISA, susceptibility to chlamydial infection, or age. The identification of three candidate MHCII variants provides additional support for the functional role of MHCII in the koala, and will inform more focused future studies. This is the first study to investigate an association between MHC genes with chlamydial pathogenesis in a non-model, free-ranging species.

  18. Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elisa might be falsely positive at low index values (1.1–3.5). 11 Such low values should be confirmed with another test such as ... for an STD evaluation (especially those with multiple sex partners); Persons with HIV infection; and MSM at ...

  19. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

  20. Female genital warts: global trends and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, S A

    2001-01-01

    The increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated conditions such as genital warts in women is a global concern. Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV infection is also strongly associated with cervical cancer, and is prevalent in as many as 99% of cases. The psychological stress of having genital warts is often greater than the morbidity of the disease, and therefore successful treatment is crucial. Current treatments are patient-applied and provider-administered therapies. Imiquimod 5% cream, a patient-applied therapy, is an efficacious treatment with tolerable side-effects and a low recurrence rate, and has the potential to be an effective strategy for the management of genital warts.

  1. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Regulates HIV-1 Uptake and Transcytosis but Not Replication in Primary Genital Epithelial Cells, Resulting in Enhanced T-Cell Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Victor H; Dizzell, Sara; Nazli, Aisha; Kafka, Jessica K; Mueller, Kristen; Nguyen, Philip V; Tremblay, Michel J; Cochrane, Alan; Kaushic, Charu

    2015-06-01

    Although clinical and experimental evidence indicates that female sex hormones and hormonal contraceptives regulate susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Genital epithelial cells (GECs) are the first cells to encounter HIV during sexual transmission and their interaction with HIV may determine the outcome of exposure. This is the first report that HIV uptake by GECs increased significantly in the presence of the hormonal contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and progesterone and that uptake occurred primarily via endocytosis. No productive infection was detected, but endocytosed virus was released into apical and basolateral compartments. Significantly higher viral transcytosis was observed in the presence of MPA. In GEC and T-cell cocultures, maximum viral replication in T cells was observed in the presence of MPA, which also broadly upregulated chemokine production by GECs. These results suggest that MPA may play a significant role in regulating susceptibility to HIV. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Comparative studies on genital infections and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolates from camels (Camelus dromedarius) and cows (Bos indicus) in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mshelia, Gideon Dauda; Okpaje, Godfrey; Voltaire, Yepmo Andre Casimir; Egwu, Godwin Onyeamaechi

    2014-01-01

    A total of 160 genitalia of Camels and cows were investigated in Maiduguri, north-eastern Nigeria to compare bacterial isolates and the antibacterial susceptibilities of some of the isolates. Streptococcus (Str.) pyogenes (31%), Escherichia (E.) coli (24%) and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (20%) were the most common vaginal bacterial isolates in camels; while E. coli (73%), Str. pyogenes (18%) and S. aureus (11%) were the most frequent isolates in the cows. Of the 78 uterine isolates recovered in this study, E. coli was the most prominent in camels (8%) and cows (54%). The overall weight of genital infection in all camels and cows examined was highest (P E. coli (79%), but there was no difference (P > 0.05) between vaginal and uterine bacterial isolates from camels and cows in this study. The Relative Risk (RR) for an infection of the vagina with E coli (3.04, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.104 to 4.398, P E. coli and S. aureus isolates were highly susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tested. Therefore effective management of reproductive disorders associated with these pathogens can be achieved with proper use of these antimicrobial agents in these animal species.

  3. A Study on the Prevalence of Genital Trichomoniasis among Female Outpatients Attending Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Swapna; Elangovan, Selvi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Women with high-risk sexual behavior accounts for more than half of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees. The prevalence of trichomoniasis is as low as 5% in the general population to as high as 60% in high-risk population. This infection can pave the way to the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus and other STIs, vice versa and is even associated with cancer. Objectives: To identify, isolate and study the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in genital specimens of female outpatients. Materials and Methods: Total number of subjects involved in the study was 130, among them 85 belonged to high-risk group and 45 belonged to low-risk group. Two high vaginal swabs were collected from each patient. Saline wet mount, Giemsa stain, and culture in modified cysteine peptone liver infusion maltose medium were performed. Results were tabulated and analyzed. Results: Saline wet mount was positive for trichomoniasis in seven individuals, Giemsa detected trichomoniasis in five patients, and culture was positive in eight patients. Of these eight culture positive cases, one was wet mount negative and four were Giemsa stain negative. Conclusion: Culture is more sensitive than wet mount and Giemsa stain. PMID:28042211

  4. Is oral contraceptive associated with genital warts?

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between oral contraceptive use and the prevalence of genital warts in women. METHODS: Cross sectional case control study comparing oral contraceptive use in women with and without genital warts attending a city centre genitourinary medicine clinic controlling for recent sexual activity, the presence of other sexually transmitted infections, socio-economic class and history of pregnancy using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: After control...

  5. Diagnosis and management of genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roett, Michelle A; Mayor, Mejebi T; Uduhiri, Kelechi A

    2012-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, including sexual trauma, psoriasis, Behçet syndrome, and fixed drug eruptions, can also lead to genital ulcers. Although initial treatment of genital ulcers is generally based on clinical presentation, the following tests should be considered in all patients: serologic tests for syphilis and darkfield microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody testing for Treponema pallidum, culture or polymerase chain reaction test for herpes simplex virus, and culture for Haemophilus ducreyi in settings with a high prevalence of chancroid. No pathogen is identified in up to 25 percent of patients with genital ulcers. The first episode of herpes simplex virus infection is usually treated with seven to 10 days of oral acyclovir (five days for recurrent episodes). Famciclovir and valacyclovir are alternative therapies. One dose of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is recommended to treat genital ulcers caused by primary syphilis. Treatment options for chancroid include a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone or oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin. Lymphogranuloma venereum and donovanosis are treated with 21 days of oral doxycycline. Treatment of noninfectious causes of genital ulcers varies by etiology, and ranges from topical wound care for ulcers caused by sexual trauma to consideration of subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a for ulcers caused by Behçet syndrome.

  6. Penicillin G-Induced Chlamydial Stress Response in a Porcine Strain of Chlamydia pecorum

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    Cory Ann Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pecorum causes asymptomatic infection and pathology in ruminants, pigs, and koalas. We characterized the antichlamydial effect of the beta lactam penicillin G on Chlamydia pecorum strain 1710S (porcine abortion isolate. Penicillin-exposed and mock-exposed infected host cells showed equivalent inclusions numbers. Penicillin-exposed inclusions contained aberrant bacterial forms and exhibited reduced infectivity, while mock-exposed inclusions contained normal bacterial forms and exhibited robust infectivity. Infectious bacteria production increased upon discontinuation of penicillin exposure, compared to continued exposure. Chlamydia-induced cell death occurred in mock-exposed controls; cell survival was improved in penicillin-exposed infected groups. Similar results were obtained both in the presence and in the absence of the eukaryotic protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide and at different times of initiation of penicillin exposure. These data demonstrate that penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response (persistence and is not bactericidal, for this chlamydial species/strain in vitro, regardless of host cell de novo protein synthesis.

  7. Caveolin-2 associates with intracellular chlamydial inclusions independently of caveolin-1

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    Norkin Leonard C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid raft domains form in plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells by the tight packing of glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Caveolae are invaginated structures that form in lipid raft domains when the protein caveolin-1 is expressed. The Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate entirely within inclusions that develop from the phagocytic vacuoles in which they enter. We recently found that host cell caveolin-1 is associated with the intracellular vacuoles and inclusions of some chlamydial strains and species, and that entry of those strains depends on intact lipid raft domains. Caveolin-2 is another member of the caveolin family of proteins that is present in caveolae, but of unknown function. Methods We utilized a caveolin-1 negative/caveolin-2 positive FRT cell line and laser confocal immunofluorescence techniques to visualize the colocalization of caveolin-2 with the chlamydial inclusions. Results We show here that in infected HeLa cells, caveolin-2, as well as caveolin-1, colocalizes with inclusions of C. pneumoniae (Cp, C. caviae (GPIC, and C. trachomatis serovars E, F and K. In addition, caveolin-2 also associates with C. trachomatis serovars A, B and C, although caveolin-1 did not colocalize with these organisms. Moreover, caveolin-2 appears to be specifically, or indirectly, associated with the pathogens at the inclusion membranes. Using caveolin-1 deficient FRT cells, we show that although caveolin-2 normally is not transported out of the Golgi in the absence of caveolin-1, it nevertheless colocalizes with chlamydial inclusions in these cells. However, our results also show that caveolin-2 did not colocalize with UV-irradiated Chlamydia in FRT cells, suggesting that in these caveolin-1 negative cells, pathogen viability and very likely pathogen gene expression are necessary for the acquisition of caveolin-2 from the Golgi. Conclusion Caveolin-2 associates with the chlamydial

  8. Caveolin-2 associates with intracellular chlamydial inclusions independently of caveolin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, Wilmore C; Norkin, Leonard C; Stuart, Elizabeth S

    2004-07-22

    Lipid raft domains form in plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells by the tight packing of glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Caveolae are invaginated structures that form in lipid raft domains when the protein caveolin-1 is expressed. The Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate entirely within inclusions that develop from the phagocytic vacuoles in which they enter. We recently found that host cell caveolin-1 is associated with the intracellular vacuoles and inclusions of some chlamydial strains and species, and that entry of those strains depends on intact lipid raft domains. Caveolin-2 is another member of the caveolin family of proteins that is present in caveolae, but of unknown function. We utilized a caveolin-1 negative/caveolin-2 positive FRT cell line and laser confocal immunofluorescence techniques to visualize the colocalization of caveolin-2 with the chlamydial inclusions. We show here that in infected HeLa cells, caveolin-2, as well as caveolin-1, colocalizes with inclusions of C. pneumoniae (Cp), C. caviae (GPIC), and C. trachomatis serovars E, F and K. In addition, caveolin-2 also associates with C. trachomatis serovars A, B and C, although caveolin-1 did not colocalize with these organisms. Moreover, caveolin-2 appears to be specifically, or indirectly, associated with the pathogens at the inclusion membranes. Using caveolin-1 deficient FRT cells, we show that although caveolin-2 normally is not transported out of the Golgi in the absence of caveolin-1, it nevertheless colocalizes with chlamydial inclusions in these cells. However, our results also show that caveolin-2 did not colocalize with UV-irradiated Chlamydia in FRT cells, suggesting that in these caveolin-1 negative cells, pathogen viability and very likely pathogen gene expression are necessary for the acquisition of caveolin-2 from the Golgi. Caveolin-2 associates with the chlamydial inclusion independently of caveolin-1. The function of caveolin-2, either

  9. Penicillin kills Chlamydia following the fusion of bacteria with lysosomes and prevents genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoux, Maud; Le Gall, Sylvain M; Habbeddine, Mohamed; Delarbre, Christiane; Hayward, Richard D; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette; Verbeke, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia exists as two distinct forms. Elementary bodies (EBs) are infectious and extra-cellular, whereas reticulate bodies (RBs) replicate within a specialized intracellular compartment termed an 'inclusion'. Alternative persistent intra-cellular forms can be induced in culture by diverse stimuli such as IFNγ or adenosine/EHNA. They do not grow or divide but revive upon withdrawal of the stimulus and are implicated in several widespread human diseases through ill-defined in vivo mechanisms. β-Lactam antibiotics have also been claimed to induce persistence in vitro. The present report shows that upon penicillin G (pG) treatment, inclusions grow as fast as those in infected control cells. After removal of pG, Chlamydia do not revert to RBs. These effects are independent of host cell type, serovar, biovar and species of Chlamydia. Time-course experiments demonstrated that only RBs were susceptible to pG. pG-treated bacteria lost their control over host cell apoptotic pathways and no longer expressed pre-16S rRNA, in contrast to persistent bacteria induced with adenosine/EHNA. Confocal and live-video microscopy showed that bacteria within the inclusion fused with lysosomal compartments in pG-treated cells. That leads to recruitment of cathepsin D as early as 3 h post pG treatment, an event preceding bacterial death by several hours. These data demonstrate that pG treatment of cultured cells infected with Chlamydia results in the degradation of the bacteria. In addition we show that pG is significantly more efficient than doxycycline at preventing genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-C57Bl/6 infected mice. These in vivo results support the physiological relevance of our findings and their potential therapeutic applications.

  10. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-18

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5-11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent.

  11. The spectrum of genital human papillomavirus infection among men attending a Swedish sexually-transmitted infections clinic: human papillomavirus typing and clinical presentation of histopathologically benign lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Arne; Vassilaki, Ismini; Hedblad, Mari-Anne; Syrjänen, Stina

    2013-03-27

    There have been a number of Swedish studies on human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in men, most of which have used less sensitive HPV-typing techniques. The present study included male patients with genital HPV-induced lesions planned for surgery. Samples were prepared for histopathology and PCR. HPV was detected in 233/253 (92%) and HPV 6 or 11 in 89% of the HPV-positive lesions. There were statistically significant differences regarding morphology (p=0.002), location (p=0.000001) and colour (p=0.005) of the lesions for low- vs. mixed or high-risk HPV types. For example, acuminate lesions were mostly found among men with low-risk HPV types, whereas macular lesions were over-represented among them with mixed or high-risk types. The HPV type distribution is similar to that in earlier studies, but we also found correlations with some clinical parameters.

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection in pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission of genital HPV genotypes: a prospective study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albero Ginesa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on HPV infection in pregnant women and HPV transmission to the child have yielded inconsistent results. Methods To estimate mother-to-child HPV transmission we carried out a prospective cohort study that included 66 HPV-positive and 77 HPV-negative pregnant women and their offspring attending a maternity hospital in Barcelona. To estimate HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in pregnancy we also carried out a related screening survey of cervical HPV-DNA detection among 828 pregnant women. Cervical cells from the mother were collected at pregnancy (mean of 31 weeks and at the 6-week post-partum visit. Exfoliated cells from the mouth and external genitalia of the infants were collected around birth, at the 6-week post-partum visit, and around 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. All samples were tested for HPV using PCR. Associations between potential determinants of HPV infection in pregnant women and of HPV positivity in infants were also explored by logistic regression modelling. Results Overall cervical HPV-DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the HPV screening survey was 6.5% (54/828. Sexual behavior-related variables, previous histories of genital warts or sexually transmitted infections, and presence of cytological abnormalities were statistically significantly and positively associated with HPV DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the cohort. At 418 infant visits and a mean follow-up time of 14 months, 19.7% of infants born to HPV-positive mothers and 16.9% of those born to HPV-negative mothers tested HPV positive at some point during infants' follow-up. The most frequently detected genotype both in infants and mothers was HPV-16, after excluding untyped HPV infections. We found a strong and statistically significant association between mother's and child's HPV status at the 6-week post-partum visit. Thus, children of mothers' who were HPV-positive at the post-partum visit were about 5 times more

  13. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Sauerbrei Institute of Virology and Antiviral Therapy, German Consulting Laboratory for Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. Keywords: herpes simplex virus, epidemiology, infection, antiviral therapy, laboratory diagnosis, prevention

  14. Genital herpes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider's instructions for treatment and follow-up.

  15. Detección de VPH en boca y cérvix de pacientes con diagnóstico citológico sugestivo de infección genital HPV detection in the mouth and cervix of patients with histological diagnosis suggestive of genital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. De Guglielmo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evaluó la presencia de VPH en la cavidad bucal (mediante oroscopia y citología oral exfoliativa y su relación con la infección genital en mujeres con diagnóstico citológico sugestivo de infección por VPH. La muestra consistió en 60 pacientes a quienes se les realizó oroscopia, citología y determinación viral en boca y cérvix por PCR, utilizando los iniciadores genéricos MY09/MY11 y MPCR. Se detectó ADN de VPH en las mucosas oral y genital en 48,33 % y 73,3% de las pacientes, respectivamente, obteniéndose una concordancia de 44,2% (k=0,44 indicando grado de acuerdo moderado. Los tipos virales más frecuentes fueron de bajo riesgo, especialmente el tipo 6, encontrado en 86,2% de las muestras bucales y 65,9% de las muestras cervicales, solo o en combinación con otros tipos de bajo (11 o de alto riesgo oncogénico (16, 18, 33, con una concordancia de 10,45% (k=0,1 indicando grado de acuerdo muy bajo; sin embargo, particularmente en relación al tipo 6, hubo una concordancia de 75,86% (k=0,7 indicando grado de acuerdo alto. La citología de la cavidad bucal tuvo una sensibilidad de 3,5 % y especificidad de 93,6 %. Para la oroscopia, la sensibilidad fue de 27,6 % y la especificidad de 74,2 %. Los resultados señalan que la infección por VPH en cavidad bucal de pacientes con infección genital pudiera ser frecuente. La baja concordancia global entre los tipos virales sugiere que la infección por VPH en boca y cérvix presenta un comportamiento biológico diferente.This work evaluated HPV infection in the oral cavity (using oroscopy and exfoliative oral cytology and its relation to genital infection in women with cytological diagnosis suggestive of HPV infection. The sample consisted of 60 patients who underwent oroscopy, cytology and viral determination in mouth and cervix by PCR using generic primers MY09/MY11 and MPCR. HPV DNA was detected in oral and genital mucosa in 48.33% and 73.3% of patients, respectively

  16. Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika A. Brown

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species in the family Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause common human diseases, while Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia suis represent zoonotic threats or are endemic in human food sources. Although chlamydial infections are currently manageable in human populations, chlamydial infections in livestock are endemic and there is significant difficulty achieving effective treatment. To combat the spread of Chlamydiaceae in humans and other hosts, improved methods for treatment and prevention of infection are needed. There exist various studies exploring the potential of natural products for developing new antichlamydial treatment modalities. Polyphenolic compounds can inhibit chlamydial growth by membrane disruption, reestablishment of host cell apoptosis, or improving host immune system detection. Fatty acids, monoglycerides, and lipids can disrupt the cell membranes of infective chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs. Peptides can disrupt the cell membranes of chlamydial EBs, and transferrins can inhibit chlamydial EBs from attachment to and permeation through the membranes of host cells. Cellular metabolites and probiotic bacteria can inhibit chlamydial infection by modulating host immune responses and directly inhibiting chlamydial growth. Finally, early stage clinical trials indicate that polyherbal formulations can be effective in treating chlamydial infections. Herein, we review an important body of literature in the field of antichlamydial research.

  17. Chlamydia infections in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Cervicitis - chlamydia; STI - chlamydia; STD - chlamydia; Sexually transmitted - chlamydia; ... for Disease Control and Prevention. Chlamydial infections in adolescents and adults. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc. ...

  18. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A A A What's in this ... Active Teens en español Verrugas genitales G enital warts are warts that are on or near a ...

  19. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Hernandez Valencia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficultto- treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL. Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral and topical (spray - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student’s t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74% (P<0.001. However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL, treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used

  20. Urinary and genital tract obstruction as a complication of female genital mutilation: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili, Obi Anselm; Chukwudi, Onoh Robinson

    2012-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other deliberate injury to the female genital organs, either for cultural or non-therapeutic reasons. This barbaric act is accompanied by a variety of complications ranging from hemorrhage, fracture, infective complications, gynetresia, with its attendant sexual and obstetric difficulties, and death. A 23-year-old girl, with urinary and genital tract obstruction following female genital mutilation(infibulation) is presented. She was managed by elective defibulation, with a satisfactory outcome. Robust health education strategies are needed for the eradication of FGM.

  1. Limited penetration of lopinavir and ritonavir in the genital tract of men infected with HIV-1 in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Tania R C; Estrela, Rita C E; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; Schechter, Mauro; Cerbino-Neto, José; Barroso, Paulo F

    2006-04-01

    The concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir in seminal and blood plasma and the seminal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load were quantified by HPLC and the Nuclisens assay, respectively, in a cross-sectional study of 16 HIV-1-infected Brazilian men under stable treatment with a lopinavir/ritonavir containing antiretroviral regimen. Semen and blood samples were collected on 2 occasions: at 6 to 60 minutes before ("trough"), and 5 to 6 hours after ("peak") ingestion of regular doses of lopinavir/ritonavir. Median seminal lopinavir levels were 120.6 ng/mL (range, semen were, respectively, 1.9% to 3% and 3.7% to 4.4% of those measured in blood plasma samples collected within 30 minutes. HIV-1 viral load was detectable in the semen of 2 and in the blood of 6 of 16 patients. These results may have implications for drug-resistant HIV-1 evolution and transmission.

  2. Human papillomavirus virus (HPV) genotype- and age-specific analyses of external genital lesions among men in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Donna J; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Messina, Jane A; Stoler, Mark H; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A; O'Keefe, Michael T; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009-2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9-19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The supermarket for women's reproductive health: the burden of genital infections in a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, M.; Kidula, N.; Tyndall, M.; Rukaria-Kaumbutho, R.; Muchiri, L.; Ndinya-Achola, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical dysplasia. RESULTS: RTI pathogens were detected in over 20% of women, the majority being asymptomatic. HIV-1 testing was positive in 10.2%. The diagnosis of cervical dysplasia was made on 12% of the cytology smears (mild in 5.8%, moderate in 3.5%, severe in 1.2%), and 1.5% had invasive cervical cancer. The intervention of case detection of RTI and Papanicolaou smear taking was well received by clients and considered feasible by the staff. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection and treatment of potentially curable cervical lesions and RTI provide a unique opportunity to improve women's health. In Kenya, where the current contraceptive prevalence rate is 33%, family planning clinics are excellent sites to introduce health interventions. 


 PMID:9849556

  4. A pilot study for diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by polymerase chain reaction among symptomatic Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial etiology of sexually transmitted infection. Aim : A pilot study was designed using PCR for amplification and detection of a specific 517 bp sequence of the common endogenous plasmid of C. trachomatis from clinical swab specimens obtained from symptomatic female patients attending STD clinics of AIIMS and Regional STD Teaching, Training & Research Center, Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi. Methods: 97 patients were recruited in the study, and endocervical swabs were collected following standard procedures. The samples were analyzed by PCR and direct fluorescence antibody (DFA for detection of C. trachomatis, and the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of PCR were calculated taking DFA as gold standard. Results: Out of 97 samples tested, 9 were positive for C. trachomatis by PCR. 1 PCR positive patient was negative by DFA although a total of 11 patients were positive by DFA. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of PCR with reference to DFA was 72.73%, 98.84%, 88.89% and 96.59%, respectively. This PCR had high specificity and NPV for detection of C.trachomatis. Conclusions : In light of the introduction of enhanced syndromic approach, which involves the use of laboratory techniques (wherever possible to confirm clinical diagnosis, a diagnostic PCR with high specificity and NPV is particularly valuable for determination of etiological diagnosis and hence contribute to judicious use of antimicrobials in the community.

  5. Warts (non-genital)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), of which there are over 100 types, which probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of natural immunity within months or years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for warts (non-genital)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic, review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intralesional bleomycin; cimetidine; contact immunotherapy; cryotherapy; duct tape occlusion; formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde; homeopathy; photodynamic treatment; pulsed dye laser; surgical procedures; topical salicylic acid; and zinc sulphate. PMID:21726478

  6. 9 CFR 113.43 - Detection of chlamydial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of chlamydial agents. 113.43 Section 113.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF.../ml of each antibiotic shall be used. (2) On the 10th day postinoculation, the yolk sac of...

  7. Intramuscular Immunisation with Chlamydial Proteins Induces Chlamydia trachomatis Specific Ocular Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh

    Full Text Available Ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, which is the leading cause of blindness due to infection worldwide. Despite the large-scale implementation of trachoma control programmes in the majority of countries where trachoma is endemic, there remains a need for a vaccine. Since C. trachomatis infects the conjunctival epithelium and stimulates an immune response in the associated lymphoid tissue, vaccine regimens that enhance local antibody responses could be advantageous. In experimental infections of non-human primates (NHPs, antibody specificity to C. trachomatis antigens was found to change over the course of ocular infection. The appearance of major outer membrane protein (MOMP specific antibodies correlated with a reduction in ocular chlamydial burden, while subsequent generation of antibodies specific for PmpD and Pgp3 correlated with C. trachomatis eradication.We used a range of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with DNA, Adenovirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and protein vaccines based on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP as an antigen, and investigated the effect of vaccine route, antigen and regimen on the induction of anti-chlamydial antibodies detectable in the ocular lavage fluid of mice.Three intramuscular vaccinations with recombinant protein adjuvanted with MF59 induced significantly greater levels of anti-MOMP ocular antibodies than the other regimens tested. Intranasal delivery of vaccines induced less IgG antibody in the eye than intramuscular delivery. The inclusion of the antigens PmpD and Pgp3, singly or in combination, induced ocular antigen-specific IgG antibodies, although the anti-PmpD antibody response was consistently lower and attenuated by combination with other antigens.If translatable to NHPs and/or humans, this investigation of the murine C. trachomatis specific ocular antibody response following vaccination provides a potential mouse model for the rapid and high throughput

  8. Infection risk and intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Francisca; López-Arregui, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    For most women, intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are a safe option. Upper genital tract infections (pelvic inflammatory disease, PID) occur when pathogenic microorganisms ascend from the cervix and invade the endometrium and the fallopian tubes, causing an inflammatory reaction. Evidence-based recommendations regarding intrauterine contraception and risk of infection were presented at the Congress of the European Society of Contraception, in Prague, 2008: A clinical history (including sexual history) should be taken as part of the routine assessment for intrauterine contraception to identify women at high risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI); if appropriate a test should be offered; if symptoms or signs are present, appropriate diagnostic tests should be done, results awaited, necessary treatment completed, and IUCD insertion postponed until resolution. Prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended (evidence level II-3). STI screening is not routinely recommended. PID among IUCD users is most strongly related to the insertion process and to the background risk of STI (evidence level II-2). Conditions which represent an unacceptable health risk if an IUCD is inserted (WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria, MEC, Categories 3-4) are current PID, current purulent cervicitis, chlamydial or gonorrheal infection. For continuation as well as initiation, WHO MEC categories 3-4 are allotted to women with known pelvic tuberculosis, puerperal sepsis and septic abortion.

  9. Genital Tract Interleukin-8 but not Interleukin-1β or Interleukin-6 Concentration is Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis and Its Clearance in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Losikoff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital tract infections and cytokine perturbations are associated with increased HIV acquisition and transmission. We measured the relationship between bacterial vaginosis (BV and concentrations of Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected longitudinally from 16 HIV-infected and 8 HIV-uninfected high-risk women. CVL samples were analyzed when women presented with BV, and at their next visit, after successful treatment, when BV was cleared. A subset of participants had cytokine levels evaluated at three consecutive clinic visits: before developing BV, at the time of BV diagnosis, and after clearing BV. Significantly higher IL-8, but not IL-1β or IL-6 levels were present when women had active BV compared to when BV was absent. Trends in cytokine levels were similar for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. BV in these women was associated with significantly higher concentrations of genital tract IL-8 which decreased 2.4 fold when BV was cleared.

  10. LEPROMATOUS LEPROSY PRESENTING AS GENITAL ULCER

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    Arunkumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium leprae can invade almost any part of the skin but most commonly affects the cooler parts rather than the warmer areas. Involvement of the male external genitalia although not very common due to the relatively higher temperature caused by the occlusive undergarments, can still be affected in leprosy. Most of the genital lesions seen on the leprosy patients are either nodules, patches, plaques, papules and or swelling of external genitalia. Herewith we are presenting a lepromatous leprosy patient presenting as genital ulcers in this era of syndromic management of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI.

  11. Female genital mutilation: medico-legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mswela, Maureen

    2010-12-01

    The rising prevalence and severe impact of HIV/AIDS in relation to women still persists in South Africa. Both economically and socially the HIV/AIDS pandemic strikes women the hardest, with disadvantaged black women mainly at risk of higher infection. The theoretical framework of this paper focuses on the connection between HIV/AIDS, sexual inequalities and sexual violence, and more precisely, female genital mutilation, a cultural practice and custom which amplifies women's exposure to HIV. Pertinent to this focus is inescapably an analysis of apparent threats to precise essential human rights as a result of the continued use of the practice of female genital mutilation in South Africa.

  12. EcPV2 DNA in equine genital squamous cell carcinomas and normal genital mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Lies; Willemsen, Anouk; Vanderstraeten, Eva; Bracho, Maria A; De Baere, Cindy; Bravo, Ignacio G; Martens, Ann

    2012-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common genital malignant tumor in horses. Similar to humans, papillomaviruses (PVs) have been proposed as etiological agents and recently Equine papillomavirus type 2 (EcPV2) has been identified in a subset of genital SCCs. The goals of this study were (1) to determine the prevalence of EcPV2 DNA in tissue samples from equine genital SCCs, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and penile papillomas, using EcPV2-specific PCR, (2) to examine the prevalence of latent EcPV2 infection in healthy genital mucosa and (3) to determine genetic variability within EcPV2 and to disentangle phylogenetic relationships of EcPV2 among PVs. EcPV2 DNA was detected in all but one penile SCC (15/16), in all PIN lesions (8/8) and penile papillomas (4/4). Additionally, EcPV2 DNA was demonstrated in one of two metastasized lymph nodes, one contact metastasis in the mouth, two vaginal and one anal lesion. In healthy horses, EcPV2 DNA was detected in 10% (4/39) of penile swabs but in none of vulvovaginal swabs (0/20). This study confirms the presence of EcPV2 DNA in equine genital SCCs and shows its involvement in anal lesions, a lymph node and contact metastases. Latent EcPV2 presence was also shown in normal male genital mucosa. We found that different EcPV2 variants cocirculate among horses and that EcPV2 is related to the Delta+Zeta PVs and is only a very distant relative of high-risk human PVs causing genital cancer. Thus, similar viral tropism and similar malignant outcome of the infection do not imply close evolutionary relationship.

  13. Genital injuries in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these.

  14. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  15. Rhinovirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  16. Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  17. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  18. Genital/Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience genital itching, burning, and sometimes a "cottage cheese-like" vaginal discharge. Men with genital candidiasis may ... number of Candida organisms are present. A fungal culture may not always be useful because Candida species ...

  19. Immunopathology and histopathology of experimental chlamydial salpingitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, D L

    1985-01-01

    Experimental infection of fallopian tubes was produced in four sexually mature pig-tailed monkeys (Macaca nemestrina) by intratubal inoculation with serovar E or F Chlamydia trachomatis. Infection was confirmed by reisolation of the organism from both the endosalpinx and the endocervix. An antibody response to the infecting strain of C. trachomatis was demonstrated in monkey sera and in cervical secretions by the microimmunofluorescence test. A cellular immune response to C. trachomatis was shown by the in vitro lymphocyte transformation assay. Histopathologic examination of the endosalpinx following infection showed epithelial degeneration and deciliation of ciliated cells. Lymphocytic infiltration into both submucosa and mucosa was present at day 7 and approximated areas of epithelial cell degeneration. Two control monkeys remained unresponsive throughout the study. These results indicate that the pig-tailed macaque should be a suitable model for further studies of the pathogenesis of, immune responses to, and therapy for acute C. trachomatis salpingitis.

  20. Chlamydial genes shed light on the evolution of photoautotrophic eukaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria of protists, invertebrates and vertebrates, but have not been found to date in photosynthetic eukaryotes (algae and embryophytes). Genes of putative chlamydial origin, however, are present in significant numbers in sequenced genomes of photosynthetic eukaryotes. It has been suggested that such genes were acquired by an ancient horizontal gene transfer from Chlamydiae to the ancestor of photosynthetic eukaryotes. To further tes...

  1. The contribution of biomarkers of oxidative stress and female reproductive hormones in genital chlamydia infection to tubal factor infer-tility%生殖道衣原体感染所致的氧化应激中的生物标志物和女性性激素在管性不孕中所起的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文军; 陈丹妮

    2016-01-01

    目的:确定生殖道衣原体感染(GCI)所致氧化应激中的生物标志物和性激素在输卵管阻塞中的作用。方法前瞻性病例对照研究,纳入150例年龄配对的女性,分为三组:衣原体阳性的不孕女性(n =50);衣原体阳性的可孕女性(n =50)以及作为对照的衣原体阴性的可孕女性(n =50)。通过收集高位阴道拭子(HVS)和宫颈拭子(ECS)检测沙眼衣原体抗原;收集血清检测女性性激素[卵泡刺激素( FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(P4)、催乳素(PRL)]以及检测氧化应激的生物标记物[总抗氧化能力(TAC)和8-羟基-2-脱氧鸟苷(8- OHdG)]。结果各组间患者的 FSH、PRL 和 E2水平均无显著差异( P >0.05)。在患有 GCI 的女性中,衣原体阳性的不孕女性较衣原体阳性的可孕女性 LH 和8- OHdG 水平显著升高( P <0.05);不孕的衣原体阳性女性较衣原体阴性的可孕女性,其 LH 和8-OHdG 水平升高而 TAC 水平降低。结论 DNA 氧化损伤和抗氧化能力减弱等机制可能与衣原体引起的输卵管损伤有关。%Objective The purpose of the study was to determine the possible contribution of biomarkers of oxidative stress and female re-productive hormones in genital Chlamydial infection to tubal occlusion. Methods In this prospective case control study,150 age - matched women were grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive women(n = 50),fertile Chlamydia positive women(n = 50)and fertile Chlamydia negative women as controls(n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected for testing Chlamydia trachomatis,Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum,Staphylococcus aureus,and Candida albicans. Sera were collected for testing Chlamydia trachomatis antibody,female repro-ductive hormones Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH),Luteinizing Hormone(LH),Oestradiol(E2),Progesterone(P4),Prolactin(PRL)〗, and testing biomarkers

  2. In vitro rescue of genital strains of Chlamydia trachomatis from interferon-γ and tryptophan depletion with indole-positive, but not indole-negative Prevotella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziklo, Noa; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Taing, Kuong; Katouli, Mohammad; Timms, Peter

    2016-12-03

    The natural course of sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis varies between individuals. In addition to parasite and host effects, the vaginal microbiota might play a key role in the outcome of C. trachomatis infections. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), known for its anti-chlamydial properties, activates the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) in epithelial cells, an enzyme that catabolizes the amino acid L- tryptophan into N-formylkynurenine, depleting the host cell's pool of tryptophan. Although C. trachomatis is a tryptophan auxotroph, urogenital strains (but not ocular strains) have been shown in vitro to have the ability to produce tryptophan from indole using the tryptophan synthase (trpBA) gene. It has been suggested that indole producing bacteria from the vaginal microbiota could influence the outcome of Chlamydia infection. We used two in vitro models (treatment with IFN-γ or direct limitation of tryptophan), to study the effects of direct rescue by the addition of exogenous indole, or by the addition of culture supernatant from indole-positive versus indole-negative Prevotella strains, on the growth and infectivity of C. trachomatis. We found that only supernatants from the indole-positive strains, P. intermedia and P. nigrescens, were able to rescue tryptophan-starved C. trachomatis. In addition, we analyzed vaginal secretion samples to determine physiological indole concentrations. In spite of the complexity of vaginal secretions, we demonstrated that for some vaginal specimens with higher indole levels, there was a link to higher recovery of the Chlamydia under tryptophan-starved conditions, lending preliminary support to the critical role of the IFN-γ-tryptophan-indole axis in vivo. Our data provide evidence for the ability of both exogenous indole as well as supernatant from indole producing bacteria such as Prevotella, to rescue genital C. trachomatis from tryptophan starvation. This adds weight to the hypothesis

  3. Chlamydial Proctitis in a Young Man Who Has Sex with Men: Misdiagnosed as Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Jin; Shin, Dong Hwan; Jung, Jun Oh; Koh, Seokyoung; Kim, Ka Young; Lee, Jae Min

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 20-year-old man with a 2-month history of anal pain and bloody rectal discharge. He was referred to our clinic of gastroenterology for suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The colonoscopy showed mucosal nodularities on the rectum and an anal tag. Because the colonoscopic findings were not consistent with the typical manifestations of IBD, we took an additional sexual history and performed studies for infectious proctitis, including serologic tests for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum. He had homosexual experience, and the serologic tests and PCR of a rectal swab were positive for C. trachomatis infection. Finally he was diagnosed as having chlamydial proctitis and was treated with intramuscular ceftriaxone 250 mg in a single dose and doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days. After 2 months, he had no lower abdominal symptoms and his endoscopic findings were improved. PMID:26730366

  4. Determining oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokluk, Erdem; Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Balahoroglu, Ragip; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Huyut, Zubeyir

    2015-09-01

    Warts are abnormal skin growths caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infections within the skin of patients. Genital warts usually appear in the perianal and perigenital regions. Asymptomatic warts may be activated after years and may damage natural immunity. The inflammation that occurs during this process may lead to an imbalance between the prooxidant and the antioxidant systems. The aim of this study was to investigate erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, serum paraoxonase enzyme levels, and oxidative stress levels in patients with genital warts. In total, 32 patients with genital warts and 35 healthy subjects were included in this study. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum catalase activity, and paraoxonase enzyme, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum MDA levels, and catalase activity were significantly higher in patients with genital warts than in controls (P 0.05). Serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in patients with genital warts than in controls (P 0.05). Our data suggest that oxidative stress is increased in genital warts. Increased oxidative stress levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital warts, and prolonged HPV infection due to chronic inflammation could also affect oxidative stress.

  5. Genital ulcers, other sexually transmitted diseases, and the sexual transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot, P; Laga, M

    1989-03-11

    There is increasing evidence that genital ulceration, including syphilis, chancroid, and herpes simplex type 2, increases susceptibility to HIV infection. It may be that the HIV penetrates more easily through ulcerated membranes or that the lymphocytes associated with the inflammatory response present target cells for HIV infection. There is also evidence that HIV-infected women with genital ulcers are themselves more infective due to shedding of the virus in the genital tract. Nonulcerative sexually-transmitted diseases have also been associated as cofactors of HIV infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases should be strengthened and should focus on eliminating chancroid, which is easily treated with antibiotics. Patients with genital ulcer disease should receive counseling, so that they will know that untreated genital ulcers increase the risk of HIV infection.

  6. Healing of Genital Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  7. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy associated with preterm delivery: A population-based prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); L.R. Arends (Lidia); R. de Groot (Ronald); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); A. Ott (Alewijn); H.F. Willemse; E.A.E. van der Zwaan (Elizabeth); R.P.A.J. Verkooijen (Roel); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChlamydia trachomatis infection is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection and may influence pregnancy outcome. This study was conducted to assess the effect of chlamydial infection during pregnancy on premature delivery and birthweight. Pregnant women attending a

  9. Genital donovanosis with malignant transformation: An interesting case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Navya Sri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Donovanosis is a chronic indolent sexually transmitted granulomatous ulceration of genito-inguinal region, caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. It became uncommon due to indiscriminate use of broad spectrum antibiotics. In recent years, much interest is being focused on this condition because genital ulcers facilitate HIV infection. We report an interesting episode of genital donovanosis complicated with squamous cell carcinoma in a middle aged female for its rarity and clinical interest.

  10. A multi-subunit chlamydial vaccine induces antibody and cell-mediated immunity in immunized koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): comparison of three different adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Alison J; Timms, Peter; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Harris, Jonathon M; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2010-02-01

    Chlamydial infections represent a major threat to the survival of the koala. Infections caused by Chlamydia pecorum cause blindness, infertility, pneumonia and urinary tract infections and represent a threat to the survival of the species. Little is known about the immune response in koalas, or the safety of commonly used adjuvants for induction of protective systemic and mucosal immunity. of study In the present study, we immunized 18 healthy female koalas subcutaneously with a combination of three chlamydial antigens [major outer membrane protein (MOMP), NrdB and TC0512 (Omp85)] mixed with one of three different adjuvants [Alhydrogel, Immunostimulating Complex (ISC) and TiterMax Gold]. All adjuvants induced strong neutralizing IgG responses in plasma against the three antigens with prolonged responses lasting more than 270 days seen in Alhydrogel and ISC immunized animals. Cloacal IgG responses lasting >270 days were also induced in ISC-immunized animals. Chlamydia-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses were elicited by both Alhydrogel and ISC, and these lasted >270 days in the ISC group. The data show that a multi-subunit chlamydial vaccine, given subcutaneously, can elicit Chlamydia-specific cell-mediated and antibody responses in the koala demonstrating that the development of a protective vaccine is feasible.

  11. New approach to managing genital warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. Sources of information The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Main message Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. Conclusion The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations. PMID:23851535

  12. Infección genital por Chlamydia trachomatis y otros microorganismos en dos grupos de mujeres en Cartagena Frequency of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis and other microorganisms in two groups of women in Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pulido

    1992-02-01

    detectada en pacientes con vaginosis bacteriana, en proporción similar en los dos grupos de pacientes

    Diseases associated with Infection with C. trachomatis and the bacterial vaginosis syndrome are Important In sexually active women. In order to establish their frequency In Cartagena, Colombia, we studied 431 women who attended the gynecological service of a University Hospital (167 women and a municipal venereologlcal center (264 women, between may 1988 and may 1990; average age was 28 years. C. trachomatis was searched by an ELISA test and the resulting frequencies ofinfection were: 5.4% in the gynecological patients and 17.4% in the venereological ones (p < 0.005. Concerning other microorganisms the respective rates of infection were (all dlfferences non significant: Gardnerella vaginalis 33.5 and 39%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 0.6 and 2.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis 5.4 and 4.5%, Candida spp. 13.2 and 10.2%. We found a relationship between positivity rate for C. trachomatis and some entitles usually associated with it, nameIy: within the venereological group the frequency of cervicitis was 39% in the infected patients and 11.5% In the non-Infected ones (p < 0.01 ; within the gynecological patients there was a pelvic inflamatory disease In four of the nine infected women (44.4% and in only 11 of 158 non-infected ones (7% (Fisher test p = 0.004. Oral contraception was significantly associated (p < 0.01 with C trachomatis infection in the venereological patients but not in the gynecological ones; in the former group 28.8% of the users and none of the non- users were infected with this bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis was the bacteria most frequently found in patients with bacterial vaginosis and the proportion was similar in both groups of patients.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male foreskin: synergism in HIV-1 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessamine, P G; Plummer, F A; Ndinya Achola, J O; Wainberg, M A; Wamola, I; D'Costa, L J; Cameron, D W; Simonsen, J N; Plourde, P; Ronald, A R

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in Nairobi and elsewhere in Africa, have shown that men infected with HIV-1 more commonly have a history of genital ulcer disease compared to uninfected men. In one study, HIV infected men were three times as likely to have a recent history of genital ulcers. In a prospective study of seronegative men, those presenting with chancroid had a five-fold risk of seroconversion during follow-up compared to men presenting with urethritis. Uncircumcised men had an increased risk of seroconversion which was independent of their risk of genital ulcer disease. Over 95% of attributable risk in men with STD was either genital ulceration or the presence of a foreskin. Genital ulcers are a major risk factor for HIV infection among prostitutes. The increased risk is about 10-fold among prostitutes with ulcers compared to a cohort who did not. We hypothesize from these studies that genital ulcers are the major portals of entry for HIV infection and also increased shedding of virus infected cells into the vaginal secretions. HIV seropositive prostitutes are more susceptible to chancroid with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of genital ulcers as compared to HIV negative women. The use of condoms by their clients prevents both genital ulcer disease and HIV acquisition among prostitutes. Chancroid is more difficult to treat in HIV infected men with one-third of patients failing single dose treatment regimens as compared to less than five percent of men without HIV infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Clinical analysis of male genital warts patients with UU infection%男性尖锐湿疣患者合并解脲支原体感染的临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏学飞; 黄建国; 陈广新; 朱秋玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨男性尖锐湿疣患者合并解脲支原体感染的临床特点分析。方法:选择86例男性尖锐湿疣患者为观察组,86例健康男性为对照组,根据患者主诉记录临床特征,采用醋酸白试验和UU培养基检测判定复发情况。结果:86例CA患者中,共41例患者检出解脲支原体感染,占47.7%。86例对照组中,共9例检出解脲支原体感染,占10.5%;二者检出率比较具有显著性差异(P<0.05);单纯CA组患者复发7例,复发率为15.6%;CA合并UU组患者复发1 6例,复发率为39.0%,二者复发率比较具有显著性差异,合并UU感染更易复发;41例UU阳性患者中,21例患者出现尿道口黏膜明显充血发红,占51.2%;24例患者镜检出现多形核白细胞,占58.5%;5例患者主诉提及尿急、尿频、尿道不适,尿道分泌物等尿道炎症状,占12.2%。结论:尖锐湿疣合并解脲支原体感染是导致尖锐湿疣复发的重要因素,需尽早进行常规检查和化验,并进行规范化治疗。%Objectives:To investigate the clinical features of male genital warts patients with UU infection. Methods:86 male genital warts patients were selected as the observation group,86 healthy male were selected as the control group.According to the clinical features of the patients’complaint,acetic acid white test and UU medi-um detection were used to determine recurrence rate.Results:Among the 86 CA patients,41 patients with UU in-fection were detected,accounting for 47.7%.Among the 86 cases in the control group,9 cases with UU infection were detected,accounting for 1 0. 5%,with significant difference in detection rates between the two group (P<0. 05 );7 cases relapsed in pure CA patients group,a recurrence rate of 1 5. 6%;1 6 cases relapsed in CA combined UU group,a recurrence rate of 39. 0%,with significant difference in recurrence rate between the two group.Among 41 cases UU

  15. Infecções genitais em mulheres atendidas em Unidade Básica de Saúde: prevalência e fatores de risco Genital infections in women attending a Primary Unit of Health: prevalence and risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Rejane Barroso Barcelos

    2008-07-01

    de medidas de prevenção, como o rastreamento de infecções sexualmente transmissíveis e programas de redução de risco em mulheres que procuram o serviço ginecológico de rotina.PURPOSE: to describe the prevalence and behavioral profile of genital infections in women attended at a Primary Health Unit in Vitoria, ES. METHODS: a transversal study including 14 to 49-year-old women attended by the Family Health Program (FHP. Exclusion criteria were: having been submitted to gynecological examination in less than one year before, and history of recent treatment (in the last three months for genital infections. An interview including socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral data was applied. Genital specimens were collected for cytology, GRAM bacterioscopy and culture, and urine sample for molecular biological test for Chlamydia trachomatis. RESULTS: two hundred and ninety-nine women took part in the study. The median age was 30.0 (interquartile interval: 24;38 years old; the average age of the first intercourse was 17.3 (sd=3.6 years old. The first pregnancy average age was 19.2 (3.9 years old. About 70% reported up to 8 years of schooling; 5% reported previous Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD, and 8%, the use of illicit drugs. Only 23.7% reported consistent use of condoms. Clinical complaints were: genital ulcer (3%; dysuria (7.7%; vaginal discharge (46.6%: pruritus (20% and pelvic pain (18%. Prevalence rates were: Chlamydia trachomatis 7.4%; gonorrhea 2%; trichomoniasis 2%; bacterial vaginosis 21.3%; candidiasis 9.3%; and cytological changes suggestive of HPV 3.3%. In the final logistic regression model, the factors independently associated to genital infections were: abnormal cervical mucus, OR=9.7 (CI95%=5.6-13.7, previous HIV testing, OR=6.5 (CI95%=4.0-8.9, having more than one partner during the previous year, OR=3.9 (CI95%=2.7-5.0, and having more than one partner in life, OR=4.7 (CI95%=2.4-6.8. CONCLUSIONS: results show a high rate of genital infections

  16. Mucosal immunity in the female genital tract, HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Miranda Corrêa, Rosana Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  17. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Reis Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs.

  18. Management of oral and genital herpes in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mell, Howard K

    2008-05-01

    The epidemiology of oral and genital herpes has dramatically changed over the past decade. Herpes simplex virus-1, traditionally associated with oral herpes, is now implicated in an increasing percentage of genital herpes cases. The possibility of "autoinoculation" (or self-infection) of anatomic sites other than that of the primary infection has been recognized. New methods of suppression therapy are being examined. These changes have led to a revision in the recommendations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This review discusses herpes infections of the oral and genital mucosa and the suggested approach to the infected patient who presents in the emergency department. Specific attention is given to the CDC's 2006 guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

  19. Genital herpes: Heisenberg revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Goldmeier, D

    1998-01-01

    In the confirmation of recurrences of genital herpes, patient defined disease reactivation and virological data hold the scientific high ground. The influence of the psyche on recurrence rates and perception of recurrences has been largely neglected and marginalised up to the present, possibly because research work in that area has been and continues to be of poor calibre. However, neglected psychological variables may render otherwise relevant clinical trials uninterpretable. Psycholog...

  20. Genitals and ethnicity: the politics of genital modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2010-05-01

    The discrepancy in societal attitudes toward female genital cosmetic surgery for European women and female genital cutting in primarily African girl children and women raises the following fundamental question. How can it be that extensive genital modifications, including reduction of labial and clitoral tissue, are considered acceptable and perfectly legal in many European countries, while those same societies have legislation making female genital cutting illegal, and the World Health Organization bans even the "pricking" of the female genitals? At present, tensions are obvious as regards the modification of female genitalia, and current legislation and medical practice show inconsistencies in relation to women of different ethnic backgrounds. As regards the right to health, it is questionable both whether genital cosmetic surgery is always free of complications and whether female genital cutting always leads to them. Activists, national policymakers and other stakeholders, including cosmetic genital surgeons, need to be aware of these inconsistencies and find ways to resolve them and adopt non-discriminatory policies. This is not necessarily an issue of either permitting or banning all forms of genital cutting, but about identifying a consistent and coherent stance in which key social values - including protection of children, bodily integrity, bodily autonomy, and equality before the law - are upheld. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Short communication: genital tumor growth factor-β1 levels in HIV-infected Indian women are associated with reduced levels of innate antimicrobial products and increased HIV shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakar, Madhuri; Patil, Rahul; Shukre, Subodh; Bichare, Shubhangi; Kadam, Poonam; Khopkar, Priyanka; Ghate, Manisha; Paranjape, Ramesh

    2014-07-01

    Tumor growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a cytokine with potent immunoinhibitory functions and is known to be secreted by vaginal epithelial cells. The present study was designed to determine the association of cervicovaginal levels of TGF- β1 with various innate immune secretions such as cytokines and antimicrobial polypeptides [Trappin-2/Elafin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI)] and cervical HIV shedding in HIV-infected Indian women. TGF- β1, antimicrobial polypeptides, and cytokine levels were estimated in the cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) of 36 age-matched HIV-infected and 31 HIV-uninfected asymptomatic Indian women using an ELISA and Bio-Plex Assay, respectively. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's test were used to compare the levels from both the groups and to determine the association of the TGF-β1 levels with cervical viral shedding and antimicrobial peptides. The levels of Trappin-2/Elafin and SLPI were similar in the CVLs of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, but were significantly associated with a low cervical viral load (r=-0.501, p=0.005 for Trappin-2/Elafin and r=-0.488, p=0.007 for SLPI). Eleven (30.5%) of the 36 HIV-infected women showed 5- to 30-fold higher levels of TGF-β1 as compared to the levels in uninfected women. The TGF-β1 levels were significantly associated with higher cervical viral load (r=0.425, p=0.03) and with lower levels of Trappin-2/Elafin (r=-0.407, p=0.03) and SLPI (r=-0.405, p=0.04). The findings indicate a possible interdependent mechanism driving the identified higher TGF-β1 and lower antimicrobial peptide (Trappin-2/Elafin and SLPI) levels at the genital mucosa surface in HIV-infected women. We postulate that a combination of increased TGF-β1 secretion and altered levels of Trappin-2/Elafin and SLPI contributes to increased HIV shedding. The observation warrants further studies to identify the underlying mechanisms linking increased mucosal TGF-β1 levels and genital HIV shedding

  2. Chlamydial entry involves TARP binding of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Josh Lane

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis attachment to cells induces the secretion of the elementary body-associated protein TARP (Translocated Actin Recruiting Protein. TARP crosses the plasma membrane where it is immediately phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by unknown host kinases. The Rac GTPase is also activated, resulting in WAVE2 and Arp2/3-dependent recruitment of actin to the sites of chlamydia attachment. We show that TARP participates directly in chlamydial invasion activating the Rac-dependent signaling cascade to recruit actin. TARP functions by binding two distinct Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, Sos1 and Vav2, in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner. The tyrosine phosphorylation profile of the sequence YEPISTENIYESI within TARP, as well as the transient activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K, appears to determine which GEF is utilized to activate Rac. The first and second tyrosine residues, when phosphorylated, are utilized by the Sos1/Abi1/Eps8 and Vav2, respectively, with the latter requiring the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Depletion of these critical signaling molecules by siRNA resulted in inhibition of chlamydial invasion to varying degrees, owing to a possible functional redundancy of the two pathways. Collectively, these data implicate TARP in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton remodeling machinery, demonstrating a mechanism by which C.trachomatis invades non-phagocytic cells.

  3. Condilomatosis genital y embarazo asociada a corioamnionitis y parto prematuro Genital condylomatosis and pregnancy associated with chorioamnionitis and premature delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martínez Montero

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Los condilomas genitales están producidos por el virus del papiloma humano. En muchas ocasiones se asocian a otras infecciones genitales (hongos, tricomonas y vaginosis. El embarazo favorece la aparición de condilomas en la región anogenital. A propósito de un caso de condilomatosis genital asociada a corioamnionitis y que desencadenó un parto prematuro realizamos una revisión de la literatura.Genital condylomas are produced by the human papilloma virus. On many occasions they are associated with other genital infections (fungi, trichomonas and vaginosis. Pregnancy favours the appearance of condylomas in the anogenital region. On the occasion of a case of genital condylomatosis associated with chorioamnionitis that resulted in a premature delivery, we carry out a review the literature.

  4. IL-17A synergizes with IFN-γ to upregulate iNOS and NO production and inhibit chlamydial growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongci Zhang

    Full Text Available IFN-γ-mediated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression is critical for controlling chlamydial infection through microbicidal nitric oxide (NO production. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A, as a new proinflammatory cytokine, has been shown to play a protective role in host defense against Chlamydia muridarum (Cm infection. To define the related mechanism, we investigated, in the present study, the effect of IL-17A on IFN-γ induced iNOS expression and NO production during Cm infection in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that IL-17A significantly enhanced IFN-γ-induced iNOS expression and NO production and inhibited Cm growth in Cm-infected murine lung epithelial (TC-1 cells. The synergistic effect of IL-17A and IFN-γ on Chlamydia clearance from TC-1 cells correlated with iNOS induction. Since one of the main antimicrobial mechanisms of activated macrophages is the release of NO, we also examined the inhibitory effect of IL-17A and IFN-γ on Cm growth in peritoneal macrophages. IL-17A (10 ng/ml synergizes with IFN-γ (200 U/ml in macrophages to inhibit Cm growth. This effect was largely reversed by aminoguanidine (AG, an iNOS inhibitor. Finally, neutralization of IL-17A in Cm infected mice resulted in reduced iNOS expression in the lung and higher Cm growth. Taken together, the results indicate that IL-17A and IFN-γ play a synergistic role in inhibiting chlamydial lung infection, at least partially through enhancing iNOS expression and NO production in epithelial cells and macrophages.

  5. Identificação do papilomavírus humano por biologia molecular em mulheres assintomáticas Genital human papillomavirus infection identification by molecular biology among asymptomatic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Nonnenmacher

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação entre fatores epidemiológicos e infecção genital pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal com 975 mulheres atendidas em um serviço público de rastreamento para o câncer cervical, em Porto Alegre, Brasil. As mulheres foram consideradas infectadas pelo HPV quando apresentaram o teste de DNA positivo para esse vírus, tanto pelo método de captura híbrida II (CH II como pelo método de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. Mulheres infectadas pelo HPV foram comparadas com mulheres não infectadas oriundas da mesma população. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 975 mulheres. A prevalência observada de HPV (pela combinação dos métodos de DNA foi de 27%. Quando a análise de cada método de DNA foi feito isoladamente, a prevalência de HPV-DNA foi de 15% para a CH II e de 16% para PCR. Regressão logística múltipla incondicional foi utilizada na identificação dos fatores associados à infecção pelo HPV. Foi encontrada associação positiva com as seguintes variáveis: anos de escolaridade (11 anos: OR=2,05; IC95%=1,31; 3,20; referência: até oito anos de escolaridade; ser casada (OR=1,69; IC95%=0,78; 2,00; referência: ser solteira; parceiros sexuais ao longo da vida (dois parceiros: OR=1,67; IC95%=1,01; 2,77; quatro ou mais: OR=2,18; IC95%=1,15; 4,13; referência: um parceiro; idade da primeira relação sexual (15-16 anos: OR=4,05; IC95%=0,89; 18,29; referência: > ou = 22 anos. CONCLUSÕES: Vários fatores parecem estar associados à presença de infecção genital pelo HPV, especialmente aqueles referentes ao comportamento sexual (idade da primeira relação sexual, número de parceiros sexuais ao longo da vida e estado marital e aqueles relacionados à situação socioeconômica (escolaridade.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether epidemiological factors may be associated to genital human papillomavirus (HPV infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among

  6. Intersexual stages. Ambiguous genitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador G. Carrillo Soriano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that every newborn that presents a confused aspect of external genitalia, that does not permit to define his phenotypic sex, has Ambiguous Genitals. It includes real cases of intersex abnormalities, or those with severe hypospadia and bilateral chryptorchidism. In spite of the large advances in genetic, hormonal regulation and molecular biology studies in intersex abnormalities, today continues being motive of confussion when a doctor found a newborn with ambiguous genitalia. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Intersex and ambiguos genitalia, approved by consensus in the 4th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Las Tunas, Cuba, March, 2005.

  7. Genital herpes: Heisenberg revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmeier, D.

    1998-01-01

    In the confirmation of recurrences of genital herpes, patient defined disease reactivation and virological data hold the scientific high ground. The influence of the psyche on recurrence rates and perception of recurrences has been largely neglected and marginalised up to the present, possibly because research work in that area has been and continues to be of poor calibre. However, neglected psychological variables may render otherwise relevant clinical trials uninterpretable. Psychological aspects of counselling before testing for serum herpes simplex type 2 antibodies are also discussed. 




 PMID:9849561

  8. [Genital actinomycosis. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. Report of three cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, D; Lizee, D S; Van den Akker, M; Gadonneix, P; Tranbaloc, P; Villet, R

    1999-01-01

    Genital actinomycosis is a rare bacterial infection affecting women of child-bearing age, which is sometimes related to the use of an IUD or an intra-vaginal pessary. Nevertheless, this relationship is at best tenous and actinomycosis is not the only bacterial infection caused by IUD use. Genital actinomycosis often occurs as a pelvic tumour which is sometimes difficult to correctly diagnose and consequently treat accordingly. Rapid diagnosis is essential in order to avoid any irreparable tissue damage. Treatment of this condition consists of a combination of antibiotics and surgery to achieve complete recovery. Three cases are described.

  9. Comparison on Different Test Methods Applied in Female Genital Tract Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection%不同检验方法在女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染中的应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小兰

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the quantitative analysis of fluorescent PCR assay and colloidal gold in the female genital tract Chlamydia trachomatis value in the diagnosis of infection.Methods:Gynecological hospital in July 2012 to June 2013 were treated 350 suspected female genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a clinical observation of the object,respecti vely,using fluorescence quantitative PCR assay and colloidal gold pathogens in these patients detection sensitivity of comparing two test methods in the female genital tract Chlamydia trachomatis infection,specificity,false-positive rate,false negative rate,the degree of diagnostic and You den index.Results:The sensitivity and colloidal gold fluorescence quantitative PCR assays were 90.91% and 52.41% (P0.05);false positive rate of 9.09% and were 1.84%(P0.05);diagnosis degree were 94.29% and 73.43% (P<0.01);Yourdon index were 0.89 and 0.50.Conclusion:The two methods have advantages and disadvantages;PCR detection method is applicable to large hospitals,colloidal gold method applied to the primary hospital.%目的:比较分析荧光PCR定量检测法与胶体金法在女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染诊断中的应用价值。方法:选取我院妇科2012年7月~2013年6月收治的350名疑为女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染患者作为临床观察对象,分别采用荧光PCR定量检测法与胶体金法对这些患者进行病原体检测,比较两种检验方法在女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染中的灵敏度,特异性,假阳性率,假阴性率,诊断符合度与Youden指数。结果:荧光PCR定量检测法的与胶体金法的灵敏度分别为90.91%与52.41%(P<0.01);特异性分别为98.16%与97.55%(P>0.05);假阳性率分别为9.09%与1.84%(P<0.01);假阴性率分别为1.84%与2.45%(P>0.05);诊断符合度分别为94.29%与73.43%(P<0.01);Youden指数分别为0.89与0.50。结论:两种检测方法各有利弊,荧光PCR检测方法

  10. STUDY OF GENITAL TUBERCULOSIS IN INFERTILE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM To determine the incidence of female Genital Tuberculosis (GTB and to analyse clinicopathological features for GTB and comparison of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, Acid Fast Bacillus (AFB staining and Histopathology (HPR. STUDY SETTING A prospective study conducted on 50 infertile patients in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at Krishna Hospital, Karad, for a period of 2 years between December 2013 and December 2015. METHODS Patients were investigated for the presence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB on samples collected by endometrial curettage by PCR, AFB and HPR. Additional tests like Hysterosalpingography (HSG Laparoscopic chromopertubation and hysteroscopy were performed if not done earlier. RESULT PCR demonstrated MTB DNA in 9 patients, and 2 were positive with AFB and HPR. Within positive patients HSG findings were suggestive of TB in 3 cases and laparoscopy in 5 cases and hysteroscopy in 4 cases. Two MTB PCR positive patients conceived spontaneously after 6 months of anti-tubercular treatment. CONCLUSION Genital tuberculosis is a diagnostic challenge if untreated it is chronic, progressive and destructive disease. Early diagnosis is crucial because once the infection damages the tubes, reverting tubal patency is very difficult. Molecular tests like DNA PCR have enabled us to detect the organism in its latent stage and initiation of treatment early in the disease can prevent many irreversible changes in the female genital tract.

  11. Married Women of Childbearing Age Genital Tract Infection and Its Level Influence Factors Analysis%已婚育龄妇女生殖道感染及其多水平影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨妮

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the married women of childbearing age epidemiological characteristics of reproductive tract in-fections and its influential factors. Methods Field investigation method, in free medical activities into the physical examination of 492 cases, factor analysis. Results Genital tract infection positive rate of 21.14%, of which 8 cases trichomonas vaginitis, bacterial vaginal disease in 16 cases, 70 cases of vaginal yeast infection, 10 cases of mixed infection, self-knowledge rate is 70.19%, 46.15% symptomatic behavior; Infected and uninfected whether the marriage age, age of first sexual life, birth, educational back-ground, overall health, partner with front whether clean vulva, whether to have period sex, bathhouse number 1 or more times per week, whether sex without contraception and reproductive tract distribution differences statistically significant ( P<0.05); Three lev-els of logistic regression analysis showed that married women of childbearing age RTI happen in marriage age, partner with house cleaning not aggregation, bathhouse number 1 or more times per week were independent factors (P<0.05). Conclusion Married women of childbearing age genital tract infection status is not optimistic, disease rate of self-knowledge is no obvious symptoms;Infection is associated with the formation of the concept of family health, age.%目的:分析已婚育龄妇女生殖道感染流行病学特征,分析其影响因素、层次分布,为疾病预防提供依据。方法采用现场调查方法,在免费体检活动中纳入体检者492例,进行因素分析。结果生殖道感染阳性率21.14%,其中滴虫性阴道炎8例、细菌性阴道病16例、念珠菌性阴道炎70例,混合感染10例,自知率70.19%,有症状表现者46.15%;感染者与未感染者婚龄、初次性生活年龄、是否生育、学历、总体健康水平、伴侣同房前是否清洗外阴、是否有经期性生活、澡堂洗澡次数≥1次/周、性

  12. Epstein-Barr virus-associated genital ulcers: an under-recognized disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Cheryl J; Alió, Alessandra B; Cunningham, Bari B; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2007-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is the best-known syndrome associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Although a variety of cutaneous and mucosal manifestations are recognized in infectious mononucleosis, genital ulcers have only rarely been described. We describe an otherwise healthy 14-year-old girl in whom painful genital ulcers developed during an episode of serologically-confirmed primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. Clinical, serologic, and histopathologic evaluation failed to disclose evidence of any other etiologic explanation for her lesions. The patient remains well, without recurrence. To date, only 13 instances of genital ulceration in females attributable to Epstein-Barr virus infection have been reported.

  13. Acute genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  14. Condiloma Acuminado (Verruga Genital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Andrea Marquina Cabero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paciente femenina de 18 años, internada en el Hospital Materno Infantil German Urquidi con embarazo de 39 semanas, trabajo de parto, condilomatosis genital. Inicio de vida sexual a sus 16 años.Al examen físico: útero grávido, embarazo de 39 semanas, genitales con lesiones vegetantes de 15x10 cm en intravaginal cubierta con secreción grisácea, sésil que sangra fácilmente; el examen de tacto vaginal no selogra realizar. Se realizan cesárea y biopsia con solicitud de histopatología de dicha lesión.

  15. Rehabilitation of patients with chlamydial spondyloarthritis at the health resortv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Sokrut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rehabilitation of patients with chlamy­dial spondyloarthritis (CSA under the conditions of the health resort remains undeveloped, there are not enough data to elucidate the mechanism of natural and preformed physical factors in such category of patients, the criteria for the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures not yet defined. The objective of the study: to evaluate the results of treatment in patients with CSA in a Slaviansk balneological health resort. Materials and methods. The research included 117 patients, who were treated at the rheumatological clinic, and then underwent rehabilitation in health resort, which has continental sulfide lake muds and brines with highly minerali­zed chloride-sodium composition. Among the patients under the study, there were 61 % of males and 39 % of females with an average age of 35 years. Both genders did not differ in the duration of illness (median of 7 years and the degree of activity of the pathological process. Seropositivity for rheumatoid factor is detected in 2 % of patients, and by the presence of antibodies to cyclic citrulline peptide — in 70 %. During the resort stage, in 91 % of cases of СSA, Chlamydia trachomatis was found in prostatic secretions, scrapings from the urethra, cervix, vaginal walls, 83 % reported positive serological tests for chlamydial infection. Results. Analysis of the results showed that in 3 % of cases the effect was absent, in 14 % there was a slight improvement, in 50 % — an improvement and in 33 % — a significant improvement. The effectiveness of sanatorium stage of rehabilitation for women was higher, and due to increasing degree of disease activity, the positive results were getting worse. A significant adverse effect on the efficiency of sanatorium and health resort treatment activity has the presence of sacroiliitis and cardiac pathology in patients. Differences in the effectiveness of rehabilitation of patients depends on the types of the

  16. The conserved Tarp actin binding domain is important for chlamydial invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Jewett

    Full Text Available The translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp is conserved among all pathogenic chlamydial species. Previous reports identified single C. trachomatis Tarp actin binding and proline rich domains required for Tarp mediated actin nucleation. A peptide antiserum specific for the Tarp actin binding domain was generated and inhibited actin polymerization in vitro and C. trachomatis entry in vivo, indicating an essential role for Tarp in chlamydial pathogenesis. Sequence analysis of Tarp orthologs from additional chlamydial species and C. trachomatis serovars indicated multiple putative actin binding sites. In order to determine whether the identified actin binding domains are functionally conserved, GST-Tarp fusions from multiple chlamydial species were examined for their ability to bind and nucleate actin. Chlamydial Tarps harbored variable numbers of actin binding sites and promoted actin nucleation as determined by in vitro polymerization assays. Our findings indicate that Tarp mediated actin binding and nucleation is a conserved feature among diverse chlamydial species and this function plays a critical role in bacterial invasion of host cells.

  17. Cutaneous metastases presenting as genital ulcer disease

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    S Vasuki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous metastasis from an internal organ malignancy is rare and as, the presenting sign of malignancy is an uncommon phenomenon. Their presence, signals a poor prognosis. We report a case of 50-year-old female who was referred to sexually transmitted diseases - out patient department, with complaints of multiple genital ulcers to rule out sexually transmitted infections. After thorough evaluation, she was found to be a case of carcinoma cervix with metastatic squamous cell carcinomatous deposits on external genitalia. This case was unique because of relatively asymptomatic nature of internal malignancy and atypical presentation of carcinoma cervix as cutaneous metastasis.

  18. Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Nawal M

    2008-01-01

    More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC occurs in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into 4 types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. PMID:19015765

  19. Expression, processing, and localization of PmpD of Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar L2 during the chlamydial developmental cycle.

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    Andrey O Kiselev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While families of polymorphic membrane protein (pmp genes have been identified in several Chlamydia species, their function remains mostly unknown. These proteins are of great interest, however, because of their location in the outer membrane and possible role in chlamydial virulence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We analyzed the relative transcription of the pmpD gene, a member of the pmp gene family in C. trachomatis serovar L2, and its protein product translation and processing during the chlamydial developmental cycle. By real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the pmpD gene was found to be upregulated at 16 to 24 four hours after infection. Using polyclonal antibodies generated against the predicted passenger domain of PmpD, we demonstrated that it is initially localized on the surface of reticulate bodies, followed by its secretion outside Chlamydia starting at 24 hours after infection. In elementary bodies, we found a approximately 157 kDa PmpD only inside the cell. Both events, the upregulation of pmpD gene transcription and PmpD protein processing and secretion, are coincidental with the period of replication and differentiation of RBs into EBs. We also demonstrated that, in the presence of penicillin, the cleavage and secretion of the putative passenger domain was suppressed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are in agreement with the general concept that PmpD is an autotransporter protein which is post-translationally processed and secreted in the form of the putative passenger domain outside Chlamydia at mid- to- late point after infection, coinciding with the development of RBs into EBs.

  20. Genital ulcers and transmission of HIV among couples in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A S; Katzenstein, D A; Bassett, M T; Houston, S; Emmanuel, J C; Marowa, E

    1989-08-01

    Seventy-five married men found to be positive for HIV-1 in Harare, Zimbabwe, were interviewed in order to define behaviours associated with acquisition of infection and to determine factors associated with transmission of infection to their wives. The majority of infected men reported sexual intercourse with multiple heterosexual partners and female prostitutes, and gave a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). All subjects denied homosexual activity and parenteral drug abuse. Serological testing of the wives of seropositive men showed that 45 (60%) were HIV-antibody-positive. Wives of men with AIDS and AIDS-related complex (ARC) and wives of men who gave a history of genital ulcer disease were more likely to be seropositive. The study demonstrates that HIV-1 infection in Zimbabwe occurs through heterosexual intercourse and is associated with other STDs. In addition, the study shows that male to female transmission of HIV-1 is facilitated by the presence of genital ulcers in infected men.

  1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  2. Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  3. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  4. Genital Problems in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLADDER INFECTION or URETHRITIS, an inflammation of the urethra.Self CareSee your doctor right away.Start OverDiagnosisYou may have a YEAST INFECTION, HERPES or another type of infection. Sores on the penis may also be a symptom of CANCER.Self CareSee your doctor right away.Start OverDiagnosisThis ...

  5. Genital burns and vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C

    1995-07-01

    Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring.

  6. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed.......A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed....

  7. Genital ulcers associated with Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerdan, Kimberly; Aronson, Iris; Hernandez, Claudia; Fishman, Patricia M; Groth, John V

    2013-06-01

    Genital ulcerations are a rare clinical finding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We present the case of a 16-year-old adolescent girl who reported the onset of diarrhea, headaches, dysuria, and vaginal discharge along with vulvar ulcerations with edema. Laboratory studies revealed a high-quantitative EBV IgG and early antigen as well as a positive IgM antibody for EBV. Although the association between EBV and genital ulcerations is rare, physicians should be aware of this clinical presentation to exclude other infectious entities, to be reassured to accept negative testing, and to quell patient distress or concerns of abuse.

  8. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Anal and Oral Sites Among Patients with Genital Warts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Sand, Carsten; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant...... genital, anal and oral infection is unclear. A total of 201 men and women with genital wart-like lesions were recruited. Swab samples were obtained from the genital warts and the anal canal and an oral rinse was collected. Anal HPV was found in 46.2% and oral HPV in 10.4% of the participants. Concordance...... between anal and genital wart HPV types was 78.1%, while concordance between oral and genital wart types was 60.9%. A lower concordance of 21.7% was observed between anal and oral HPV types. Significantly more women than men had multiple HPV types and anal HPV. In conclusion, extra genital HPV is common...

  9. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce.

  10. Genital-tract infection and disease in nude and immunologically competent mice after inoculation of a human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A fast, human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis was introduced into the uterus of progesterone-treated CBA mice and congenic CBA nude mice through the uterine wall or via the cervical canal. The numbers of inclusions produced by samples taken from the vagina of the nude mice were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than those produced by samples from immunologically competent normal mice. However, the infection was self-limited, lasting about 60 days, and there was no statistical differenc...

  11. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Tanton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. CONCLUSIONS: RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  12. The use of intrauterine contraceptive devices, pelvic inflammatory disease, and Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, D A

    1988-04-01

    With the same epidemiologic approach taken in a recent study that suggested that oral contraceptive use may not protect against chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease, the risks of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease were evaluated for intrauterine contraceptive device users. Compared with women using no method of contraception, intrauterine contraceptive device users were not found to be at any higher risk of cervical chlamydial infection. Whether this places intrauterine contraceptive device users at no increased risk of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease cannot be ascertained from the available data. Further research is needed before any conclusions can be made regarding the risks of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease to users of intrauterine contraceptive devices, oral contraceptives, and other contraceptive methods.

  13. Aspectos virológicos e clínico-patológicos da infecção genital aguda e latente pelo herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2 em bezerras infectadas experimentalmente Virological and clinico-pathological features of acute vulvovaginitis and latent infection by bovine herpesvirus 1.2 in heifers experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Henzel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A infecção genital de vacas pelo herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2 (BoHV-1.2 pode resultar em vulvovaginite e infertilidade temporária. Após a infecção aguda, o BoHV-1 estabelece infecção latente, que pode cursar com episódios periódicos de reativação. O presente trabalho descreve os aspectos virológicos e clínico-patológicos da vulvovaginite aguda e infecção latente resultantes da inoculação de bezerras com uma amostra de BoHV-1.2 isolada de casos de balanopostite em touros. A inoculação do vírus em quatro bezerras pela via genital (10(8.1TCID50/animal resultou em replicação viral na mucosa genital e no desenvolvimento de vulvovaginite moderada a severa. Os animais inoculados excretaram o vírus nas secreções genitais até o dia 10 pós-inoculação (p.i. com título máximo de 10(7.3TCID50/mL. Foram observados congestão e edema da mucosa vulvovestibular, e formação de pequenas vesículas e pústulas. Durante a progressão clínica, as vesículas e pústulas aumentaram de tamanho e eventualmente se tornaram coalescentes e recobertas por um exsudato fino de coloração amarelada. Estes sinais foram observados a partir do dia 2 p.i. e aumentaram progressivamente de severidade até os dias 5-8 p.i. A administração de dexametasona no dia 55 p.i. resultou em excreção viral nas secreções genitais dos quatro animais por até 10 dias. A reativação da infecção latente foi acompanhada de recrudescência clínica, porém com sinais menos severos e com menor duração do que na infecção aguda. O DNA viral latente foi detectado por PCR, aos 36 dias pós-reativação (p.r., nos seguintes tecidos: gânglio sacrais: pudendo (4/4; genitofemoral e retal caudal (3/4 e obturador (4/4 e em alguns linfonodos regionais. Estes resultados demonstram que o isolado SV-56/90 é virulento para fêmeas soronegativas, após inoculação genital, e pode ser utilizado em estudos de patogenia e de desafio vacinal.Venereal infection of heifers

  14. Contribution of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Catalase in Defense Against Toxic Oxygen Radicals and Neutrophils, and Its Role During Experimental Genital Tract Infection of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    volunteers (Jerse et al., 1994). 2) Local pH- Fluctuation in pH is a particularly relevant environmental stress in gonococcal pathogenesis, given that infected...bacteria and phagocytic cells for substrates is a very interesting mechanism of bacterial adaptation to oxidative stress . Regardless of the capacity of...pACYC184) and 3) E. coli UM255 (pAAS184-kat 30). (C) Amido black stained membrane after transfer of gel and (D) Western blot of total protein lysates using

  15. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  16. 1530例女性生殖道支原体感染及药敏试验分析%The analysis on female genital tract specimens mycoplasma infection and drug sensitivity test in 1 530 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱晓芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the positive rate of female genital tract specimens mycoplasma infection and drug susceptibility to assist clinical rational drug use.Methods Mycoplasma culture and drug susceptibility test were performed in 1 530 female outpatients in Women's and Children's Center Hospital of Chengdu City from Nov 2013 to Oct 2014.All cases were divided into different groups on the basis of clinical information, positive rate of mycoplasma infection and drug susceptibility for each group were analyzed.Results In 1 530 cases of female genital tract secretions sample test, mycoplasma infection were positive in 650 cases ( 42.5%) .Sensitive rates of mycoplasma to tetracycline, doxycycline, josamycin, mincycline and clarithromycin were high ( all above 98 %), followed by rom erythromycin (84.6 %), while ofloxacin (19.2 %), azithromycin (18.8 %), sparfloxacin (11.5 %), levofloxacin (4.31 %) were with high drug resistance rate of mycoplasma.In different groups of genital tract secretions samples, the positive rates of mycoplasma detection and the drug resistance rates had statistically differences ( P<0.05 ) .Conclusion Overall positive rate of the mycoplasma infection is high in gynecologic patients, and the positive rate and drug resistance rate differ between groups.For women of childbearing age who have no obvious self-conscious symptoms, mycoplasma screening can be more scientific, more timely to guide the clinical treatment and prenatal care which promotes eugenics.%目的:探讨女性生殖道支原体感染检测的阳性率和药敏情况,以辅助临床合理用药。方法对2013年11月至2014年10月成都市妇女儿童中心医院门诊就诊的1530例女性生殖道分泌物进行支原体培养及体外药敏试验。依据临床信息,将其进行分组,对各组支原体检测阳性率和药敏试验结果进行分析。结果1530例女性生殖道分泌物标本的检测结果中,支原体检测结果阳性650例(42.5

  17. Comparison of Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Incidence Between Women With Infertility and Healthy Women in Iran Using PCR and Immunofluorescence Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Seyed Mahmoud Amin; Moulana, Zahra; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali; Mashhadi Karim, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    For a long time, infertility has been one of the most sequels in medical sciences with microbial agents as one group of its causes. The possible etiological role of Chlamydia trachomatis in infertility was suggested years ago, but it has not yet been proved completely. To decrease the severe involvements of C. trachomatis infections, screening by efficient diagnostic methods are necessary. In this study we attempted to determine the incidence of C. trachomatis in infertile women and compared this with healthy women. This case-control study was performed on 150 infertile women with unknown causes and without physiological deficiency for infertility. The control group consisted of 200 fertile safe and impregnated women. Presence of C. trachomatis in the two groups was examined by direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests and PCR. C. trachomatis was detected by direct immunofluorescence method in 23 (15.3%) infertile women compared and 7 (3.5%) healthy controls. Using indirect immunofluorescence tests, a positive test titer of 1:16 as well as the above results were detected in 34 (22.6%) of the infertile cases and 9 (4.5%) of the controls. C. trachomatis was detected by PCR method in 48 (32%) infertile women and 13 (8.7%) among the controls. The results of our study suggest that there is a significant association between C. trachomatis infection and female infertility.

  18. All subtypes of the Pmp adhesin family are implicated in chlamydial virulence and show species-specific function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Elisabeth; Hegemann, Johannes H

    2014-08-01

    The bacterial pathogens Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae are obligate intracellular parasites, cause a number of serious diseases, and can infect various cell types in humans. Chlamydial infections are probably initiated by binding of the bacterial outer membrane protein OmcB to host cell glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Here, we show that all nine members of the polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) family of C. trachomatis mediate adhesion to human epithelial and endothelial cells. Importantly, exposure of infectious particles to soluble recombinant Pmps blocks subsequent infection, thus implicating an important function of the entire protein family in the infection process. Analogous experiments with pairs of recombinant Pmps or a combination of Pmp and OmcB revealed that all Pmps probably act in an adhesion pathway that is distinct from the OmcB-GAG pathway. Finally, we provide evidence that the Pmps of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae exhibit species and tissue specificity. These findings argue for the involvement of C. trachomatis Pmps in the initial phase of infection and suggest that they may interact with a receptor other than the epidermal growth factor receptor recently identified for their counterparts in C. pneumoniae.

  19. Socioeconomic factors and other sources of variation in the prevalence of genital chlamydia infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Joanna; Hickman, Matthew; Campbell, Rona; Batista-Ferrer, Harriet; Macleod, John

    2015-07-30

    The success of chlamydia screening programmes relies on their ability to effectively target those with greatest need. Young people from disadvantaged backgrounds may be at greater need for chlamydia screening, but existing evidence on the variation of prevalence with social position is inconclusive. We carried out a systematic review to examine variation in chlamydia prevalence in populations and possible sources of this variation. Studies were eligible if they reported chlamydia prevalence derived from population-based samples that included young people aged 15-24 years from Europe, North America or Australia. Systematic searches of the following databases were undertaken from their inception to November 2014: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and PsychINFO. There were no restrictions by language or publication date. Independent screening for eligibility and data extraction were carried out by two reviewers. Where possible, data were pooled in a meta-analysis using a random effects model. Heterogeneity was further investigated using meta-regression techniques. Of 1248 unique titles and abstracts and 263 potentially relevant full texts, 29 studies were eligible for inclusion. There was relatively strong evidence that disadvantaged young people had an increased risk of having a chlamydia infection across multiple measures of disadvantage, including lower educational attainment (OR 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52 to 2.47), lower occupational class (OR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.08) and residence in deprived areas (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.15 to 2.71) with an overall OR of 1.66 (95% CI: 1.37 to 2.02). Socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with chlamydia infection in both men and women. There was weaker evidence that prevalence estimates also varied by gender and age. This review provides evidence of a consistent association between socioeconomic disadvantage and higher risk of Chlamydia infection. This association may reflect a number of factors including social variation in engagement

  20. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  1. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  2. 下生殖道感染对胎膜早破及母婴结局影响的临床分析%Clinical analysis of lower genital tract infection on premature rupture of membranes and maternal and child outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴婵娟; 华莹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨下生殖道感染对胎膜早破及母婴结局的影响。方法选择胎膜早破孕妇413例为研究组。根据是否足月分为足月亚组和未足月亚组。同时选择无胎膜早破孕妇420例为对照组。对所有纳入研究的的对象宫颈分泌物检测衣原体、支原体,阴道分泌物检测假似酵母菌、细菌检测、滴虫,并取胎膜进行病理学检查,分析下生殖道感染对胎膜早破及母婴结局的影响。结果胎膜早破组发生支原体感染、衣原体感染、细菌性阴道病、假丝酵母菌、滴虫感染率显著高于未胎膜早破组(P<0.01或P<0.05)。胎膜早破孕妇,未足月亚组支原体、衣原体、细菌性阴道病、假丝酵母菌、滴虫感染率显著高于足月亚组(P<0.01或P<0.05)。下生殖道感染孕妇早产、产褥感染、绒毛膜羊膜炎、新生热肺炎发生率显著高于未感染孕妇(P<0.01);胎膜早破组早产、产褥感染、绒毛膜羊膜炎、新生热肺炎发生率显著高于未胎膜早破组(P<0.01)。结论下生殖道感染增加胎膜早破几率,也是导致母婴不良结局重要因素。%Objective To study effect of lower genital tract infection on premature rupture of membranes and maternal and child outcomes. Methods Selected 413 cases with lower genital tract infection on premature rupture of membranes and maternal and child outcomes were divided into term subgroup and preterm subgroup. Selected 420 cases without premature rupture of membranes as control group. Cervical secretions were collected to detect Chlamydia and My-coplasma, and vaginal secretions were collected to detect candida yeast, bacteria and trichomoniasis. Membranes were collected for pathological examination. Effect of lower genital tract infection on premature rupture of membranes and maternal and child outcomes was analyzed. Results Mycoplasma infection, chlamydia infection, bacterial vaginosis,candida, trichomonas infection rates of

  3. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against......Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1...

  4. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ+ CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia. PMID:26268662

  5. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ⁺ CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia.

  6. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C.

  7. Developmental disorders of the female genital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genitals: Developmental problems may lead to a swollen clitoris or fused labia (when the folds of tissue ... genital area or a single rectal opening Swollen clitoris The belly area may be swollen or a ...

  8. [Differential diagnosis of papillomas in the area of the genitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, I; Heinrich, J

    1993-01-01

    Infection of the genital organs by human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted disease. Papillomaviruses lead to a contact infection of the epithelium and present with different clinical and histological signs. With the exception of the best known clinical manifestation Condylomata acuminata, subclinical infections can be only diagnosed from a stepwise examination. Physiological results from both men and women may be falsely explained as being caused by viruses, and can lead to an incorrect therapy. Genital papilla (Papillae coronae vulvae et glandis) present as atavistic cutaneous papilla a normal situation but with functional significance. Differences in clinical symptoms as well as the possibilities of further differentiation can be obtained by means of pictures taken during colposcopy.

  9. Protochlamydia induces apoptosis of human HEp-2 cells through mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by chlamydial protease-like activity factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Matsuo

    Full Text Available Obligate amoebal endosymbiotic bacterium Protochlamydia with ancestral pathogenic chlamydial features evolved to survive within protist hosts, such as Acanthamoba, 0.7-1.4 billion years ago, but not within vertebrates including humans. This observation raises the possibility that interactions between Protochlamydia and human cells may result in a novel cytopathic effect, leading to new insights into host-parasite relationships. Previously, we reported that Protochlamydia induces apoptosis of the immortalized human cell line, HEp-2. In this study, we attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this apoptosis. We first confirmed that, upon stimulation with the bacteria, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP was cleaved at an early stage in HEp-2 cells, which was dependent on the amount of bacteria. A pan-caspase inhibitor and both caspase-3 and -9 inhibitors similarly inhibited the apoptosis of HEp-2 cells. A decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential was also confirmed. Furthermore, lactacystin, an inhibitor of chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF, blocked the apoptosis. Cytochalasin D also inhibited the apoptosis, which was dependent on the drug concentration, indicating that bacterial entry into cells was required to induce apoptosis. Interestingly, Yersinia type III inhibitors (ME0052, ME0053, and ME0054 did not have any effect on the apoptosis. We also confirmed that the Protochlamydia used in this study possessed a homologue of the cpaf gene and that two critical residues, histidine-101 and serine-499 of C. trachomatis CPAF in the active center, were conserved. Thus, our results indicate that after entry, Protochlamydia-secreted CPAF induces mitochondrial dysfunction with a decrease of the membrane potential, followed by caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP cleavages for apoptosis. More interestingly, because C. trachomatis infection can block the apoptosis, our finding implies unique features of CPAF between pathogenic

  10. Emollients on the genital area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Miranda A; Warren, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Emollients are known to lubricate, moisturize and soothe the skin. Prior to their incorporation into feminine hygiene pads, thorough premarket toxicological testing is conducted to evaluate their safety and effectiveness via in-use clinical settings. Product testing has been conducted on various body sites proven previously to be valid and reliable, such as the arm and popliteal fossa and, more recently, the genital area. Several clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of emollient-containing feminine hygiene products, which have also been shown to provide dermatological benefits in the genital area. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Male genital trauma in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stanley R; Lishnak, Timothy S; Powers, Andria M; Lisle, David K

    2013-04-01

    Male genital trauma is a rare but potentially serious sports injury. Although such an injury can occur by many different mechanisms, including falls, collisions, straddle injuries, kicks, and equipment malfunction, the clinical presentation is typically homogeneous, characterized by pain and swelling. Almost all sports-related male genital injury comes from blunt force trauma, with involvement of scrotal structures far more common than penile structures. Most injuries can be treated conservatively, but catastrophic testicular injury must first be ruled out. Despite being relatively uncommon compared with other sports injuries, more than half of all testicular injuries are sustained during sports.

  12. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir in patient initiated treatment of recurrent genital herpes: A randomised, double blind clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Bodsworth; R.J. Crooks; S. Borelli; G. Vejlsgaard; J. Paavonen; A.M. Worm; N. Uexkull; J. Esmann; A. Strand; A.J. Ingamells; A. Gibb (A.); S.E. Barton (Simon); C. Beylot (C.); J. Bingham (J.); G. Bojs (G.); D. Cheetham (D.); E. Curless (E.); B. Czarnetzki (B.); S. Davies (S.); A. Eichmann (A.); B. Goh; D. Goldmeir (D.); G. Gross; U.F. Haustein; G. Kinghorn (G.); J. Lauharanta; C. Law; G. Luzzi (G.); A. McMillan (A.); J. Meaden (J.); U. Montemagno (U.); P. Morel; M. Negosanti; J.E. Nielsen (Jorgen); A. Nilsen; E-K. Ong; J.P. Ortonne; R. Patel; J. Patten; D. Petzold; T. Rufli; S. Saari; M. Shahmanesh; A. Simpanen (A.); J. Soltz-Szots; J.P. Stahl; E. Stolz (Ernst); I. Thelin; N. von Uexkull; A. Wikstrom; P. Woolley

    1997-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare the efficacy and safety of twice daily valaciclovir with five times daily aciclovir in the treatment of an episode of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in immunocompetent individuals. Methods: 739 patients with a history of recurrent genital HSV

  13. [Female genital mutilations, forced marriages, and early pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Female genital mutilations, as well as forcible childhood marriage and their correlate adolescent pregnancies are traditional practices which, not only violate the dignity, but also jeopardize the health, and even the life, of women and their children. The complications of genital mutilations are frequent for a number of reasons: the fact that the clitoris is highly vascularized, the nature of the mutilations, excision or infibulation, and the poor conditions of hygiene. The short term complications are pain, hemorrhage, shock, and urinary retention. Medium term complications include gangrene, septicemia, tetanus, pelvic inflammatory disease, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B or C infections. Serious sequelae may occur, including infertility and gynecologic disorders, and sexual life is invariably altered. The main obstetrical complications of genital mutilations are genital lacerations involving the labia minor and the perineum, which can lead to hemorrhage and sequelae such as urinary or anal incontinence, recto-vaginal and vesico-vaginal fistulas. The role of doctors, which is delicate because these customs are entrenched, is to detect genital mutilations, repair them and prevent them, by participating in health education programs. The consequences of forcible childhood marriage are serious, besides the fact that this is a disguised form of rape. The obstetrical risks favored by the underdevelopment of the uterus and the pelvis, include uterine rupture, preeclampsia and eclampsia, and obstetrical hemorrhage. The fetus/neonate are jeopardized by these complications, which can result in perinatal asphyxia and death, as well as the high rates of intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery. The impact of genital mutilations on delivery are compounded in childhood pregnancies for anatomical reasons, but also because these adolescents or children are extremely vulnerable and have poor access to perinatal care. In France, as well as in Africa, non-governmental and

  14. Long-term clinical, microbiological, and immunological observations of a volunteer repeatedly infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, L; Jawetz, E; Dawson, C R; Thygeson, P

    1982-01-01

    A blind volunteer was inoculated in one eye with an isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis in 1961 and followed for 20 years. During this time, many observations were made of his clinical responses to the first inoculation and several subsequent inoculations with the same and other strains, chlamydial shedding, and antibody and cell-mediated immune responses. Evidence is presented that partial resistance to chlamydial eye infection developed during repeated infections and that antibodies, cell-medi...

  15. Detección de VPH en boca y cérvix de pacientes con diagnóstico citológico sugestivo de infección genital HPV detection in the mouth and cervix of patients with histological diagnosis suggestive of genital infection

    OpenAIRE

    Z. De Guglielmo; Ávila,M; D. Veitía; Fernandes, A; Venegas, C.; M. Correnti de Plata

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se evaluó la presencia de VPH en la cavidad bucal (mediante oroscopia y citología oral exfoliativa) y su relación con la infección genital en mujeres con diagnóstico citológico sugestivo de infección por VPH. La muestra consistió en 60 pacientes a quienes se les realizó oroscopia, citología y determinación viral en boca y cérvix por PCR, utilizando los iniciadores genéricos MY09/MY11 y MPCR. Se detectó ADN de VPH en las mucosas oral y genital en 48,33 % y 73,3% de las paciente...

  16. Higher prevalence of sexual transmitted diseases and correlates of genital warts among heterosexual males attending sexually transmitted infection clinics (MSCs in Jiangmen, China: implication for the up-taking of STD related service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Huang

    Full Text Available Increasing burden of STDs is one of China's major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010.The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing.Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone, no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94-15.81, 2.26 (95% CI 1.08-4.74, 1.99 (95% CI 1.00-3.99 and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00-4.04, respectively.Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently.

  17. Higher Prevalence of Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Correlates of Genital Warts among Heterosexual Males Attending Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: Implication for the Up-Taking of STD Related Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing burden of STDs is one of China’s major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. Method The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Results Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94–15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08–4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00–3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00–4.04), respectively. Conclusion Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently. PMID:25811185

  18. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when they're infected. It's important for all teens who have had sex to get screened regularly for STDs so that ... more serious health problems. Getting Help If your teen is thinking of becoming sexually active or already has started having sex, it's important to discuss it. Make sure your ...

  19. [Genital ulcers in French Guyana. Apropos of 231 cases screened in 2 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenn, Y; Zeller, H; Pradinaud, R; Sainte-Marie, D

    1988-01-01

    In fight against Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD), 231 cases of genital ulcers were observed, in 1985 and 1986, in Cayenne (French Guiana) according to a clinical and laboratory study protocol described by the authors. The diagnosis shown, in 146 cases, one STD agent, with a high frequency of chancroid, herpes genitalis and primary syphilis. In addition, 18 cases of mixed genital infections are described: emphasis is laid on the great diversity of these associated diseases. 67 genital ulcers had not been caused by a STD agent, however in each case a complete laboratory investigation was done, and each patient received a treatment according to the diagnosis.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion in women with genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, P J; Pepin, J; Agoki, E; Ronald, A R; Ombette, J; Tyndall, M; Cheang, M; Ndinya-Achola, J O; D'Costa, L J; Plummer, F A

    1994-08-01

    Genital ulcers are implicated as a risk factor enhancing susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. A prospective study to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with acquisition of HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers was done. HIV-1-seronegative women with genital ulcers attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi were followed to HIV-1 seroconversion over a 6-month period. Of 81 women, 10 seroconverted to HIV-1. The crude 6-month incidence of HIV-1 infection was 12%. Risk factors associated with seroconversion included cervical ectopy (rate ratio [RR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-15.6) and pelvic inflammatory disease (RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-20.4). Thus, cervical ectopy and pelvic inflammatory disease may increase susceptibility to HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers.

  1. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoro, Agnes; Batts, Alfreda; Sarria, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  2. Intravenous Foscarnet With Topical Cidofovir for Chronic Refractory Genital Herpes in a Patient With AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Usoro BSN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few case reports have documented the use of topical cidofovir for refractory genital herpes simplex virus (HSV ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. This drug formulation lacks a standardized concentration or even a procedural outline as to how it should be compounded. We aim to discuss the utilization of topical cidofovir in addition to presenting a procedural means of compounding it for treatment of refractory genital HSV ulcers. Our patient completed 21 days of intravenous foscarnet and 13 days of topical cidofovir with clinical improvement in the penile and scrotal ulcers. Genital herpes is a concern in patients with HIV because it generally manifests as a persistent infection. Physicians should be aware that when patients fail to respond to the conventional treatment regimens for genital HSV in a timely manner, other options are available, such as topical cidofovir as an adjuvant to systemic antivirals.

  3. Medications for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  4. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  5. Women of Childbearing Age Genital Tract Infection Status and Influence Factors Analysis%育龄妇女生殖道感染情况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英健

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand women of childbearing age genital tract infection status and influencing factors. Methods 400 cases of women of childbearing age with reproductive health examinations from January 2014 to December 2014 in this unit, on the questionnaire survey, regular gynecological examination and laboratory examination. Results Women of childbearing age preva-lence rate of reproductive tract infections was 46%;The incidence of the top five diseases were: chronic cervicitis, the incidence of 67.75%;candidal vaginitis, incidence of a disease 5.25%;trichomonas vaginitis,The incidence of 13.75%;bacterial vaginal disease, the incidence of 8.25%;candidal vaginitis, the incidence of 5.25%; chronic pelvic inflammatory diseaseand accessory is phlogistic, incidence of a disease 4.25%. Age, educational level, marital status,history of abortion, contraception five factors are independent risk factors of reproductive tract infections. Conclusion The women of childbearing age of reproductive tract infections in the pres-ence have multiple risk factors, should be aimed at these factors to strengthen health education and intervention.%目的:了解育龄妇女生殖道感染现状及影响因素。方法随机选择2014年1月-2014年12月在该院进行生殖健康检查的400例育龄妇女,对其进行问卷调查、常规妇科检查和实验室检查。结果育龄妇女生殖道感染患病率为46.0%。发病率居前五位的疾病依次为:慢性宫颈炎,发病率67.75%;念珠菌性阴道炎,发病率5.25%;滴虫性阴道炎,发病率13.75%;细菌性阴道病,发病率8.25%;念珠菌性阴道炎,发病率5.25%;慢性盆腔炎和附件炎,发病率4.25%。年龄、文化程度、婚姻状况、流产史、避孕方式五个因素是生殖道感染的独立影响因素。结论育龄女性生殖道感染存在多种危险因素,应针对这些因素大力开展健康教育和健康干预。

  6. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  7. Newer trends in the management of genital herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Amiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of genital herpes is complex. Apart from using the standard antivirals, an ideal management protocol also needs to address various aspects of the disease, including the psychological morbidity. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir or famciclovir are recommended for routine use. Long-term suppressive therapy is effective in reducing the number of recurrences and the risk of transmission to others. Severe or disseminated disease may require intravenous therapy. Resistant cases are managed with foscarnet or cidofovir. Genital herpes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals usually needs a longer duration of antiviral therapy along with continuation of highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART. Genital herpes in late pregnancy increases the risk of neonatal herpes. Antiviral therapy and/or cesarean delivery are indicated depending on the clinical circumstance. Acyclovir appears to be safe in pregnancy. But, there is limited data regarding the use of valacyclovir and famciclovir in pregnancy. Neonatal herpes requires a higher dose of acyclovir given intravenously for a longer duration. Management of the sex partner, counseling and prevention advice are equally important in appropriate management of genital herpes. Vaccines till date have been marginally effective. Helicase-primase inhibitors, needle-free mucosal vaccine and a new microbicide product named VivaGel may become promising treatment options in the future.

  8. 治疗女性生殖道解脲支原体感染的临床研究%Clinical analysis on treatment of ureaplasma urealyticum infection in female genital tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娜仁托娅

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions of azithromycin and vaginal gel in the treatment of female genital tract antibacterial ureaplasma urealyticum infection. METHODS:50 patients with ureaplasma urealyticum infection admitted to our hospital from May 201 1 to May 2013 were divided into two groups randomly,the test group and the control group (25 cases in each group).The control group received treatment of Azithromycin,Azithromycin tablet administered (0.25 mg/piece),twice a day for three weeks.We give the test group anti-bacterial gel in the treatment of vaginal along with Azithromycin tablets therapy (the same usage and dosage as the control group). Patients cleaned the vulva before bedtime,and then one pushed vagina antibacterial gel into the vagina,once a day for three weeks.Improvement and adverse reactions of the clinical symp-toms of the situation between the two groups were compared.RE-SULTS:The total effective rate of 25 patients in the control group was 68.0%;The total effective rate of 25 patients in the test group was 92.0%,and the difference was statistically significant (P0.05).CONCLUSION:Clinical effects of Azithromycin and vaginal gel in the treatment of female genital tract antibacterial ureaplasma urealyticum infection are better than the treatment of Azithromycin solely,and the adverse reactions are equal to treatment of Azithromycin solely.Therefore,we recom-mend the clinical use of Azithromycin combined with vaginal anti-bacteria gel.%目的:探讨阿奇霉素联合阴道抑菌凝胶治疗女性生殖道解脲支原体感染的临床疗效及不良反应.方法:选取我院于2011-05/2013-05收治的生殖道解脲支原体感染女性患者共50例,将其随机分为两组,分别为试验组和对照组,每组25例,其中对照组给予阿奇霉素治疗,每天给予阿奇霉素片剂(0.25 mg/片),每次1片,2次/d,连服3周.试验组在给予阿奇霉素片剂治疗的基础上(

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Warts in Kenyan Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Barbara E.; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Jaoko, Walter; Estambale, Benson; Kiarie, James N.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth; Manhart, Lisa E.; Graham, Susan M.; McClelland, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background Our goal in the present study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of genital warts in a population of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Because of the high prevalence of HIV-1 in this population, we were particularly interested in the association between HIV-1 infection and genital warts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence and correlates of genital warts among high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya. Between 2001 and 2007, 1182 women were enrolled, of whom 613 (51.4%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Chi square tests and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between genital warts and potential correlates. Results Genital warts were identified on clinical examination in 27 (2.3%) women. Women who were HIV-1-seropositive were nearly 8 times as likely to have genital warts compared to HIV-1-seronegative women (OR 7.69, 95% CI 2.30–25.6). Conclusion Understanding the prevalence and correlates of genital warts will help to determine whether coverage for the wart-inducing subtypes 6 and 11 in an HPV vaccine is an important consideration in resource-limited countries. PMID:23060082

  10. Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissrin Hoffmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Female Genital Mutilation is widely practiced in Egypt as well as in big sections of the African continent. The tradition of mutilation of the female genital areas has been practiced over the course of many years in the country and has been attributed to being promoted by the Islamic religion in Egypt. The Islamic religion is the most widely practiced religion within Egypt and therefore is linked to being the main reason why the country possesses one of the highest prevalence rates of the practice within Africa, according to many surveys performed by many leading agencies and nongovernmental organizations that advocate for the abolition of the practice within the country. FGM as a social health concern has been realized as not possessing any health benefits for the women and young girls who are taken through the practice.

  11. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    Objectif : Renforcer le cadre national des soins offerts aux adolescentes et aux femmes affectées par l’excision génitale féminine (EGF) au Canada en fournissant aux professionnels de la santé : (1) des renseignements ayant pour but d’approfondir leur compréhension de cette pratique et leurs connaissances à ce sujet; (2) des consignes quant aux aspects légaux liés à cette pratique; (3) des directives cliniques pour la gestion des soins obstétricaux et gynécologiques, y compris la prise en charge des complications liées à l’EGF; et (4) des conseils quant à l’offre de soins compétents au plan culturel aux adolescentes et aux femmes ayant subi une EGF. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en septembre 2010 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « Circumcision », « Female ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « female genital mutilation », « clitoridectomy », « infibulation ») appropriés. Nous avons également mené des recherches dans Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database et ProQuest Dissertations and Theses en 2010 et en 2011. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en décembre 2011. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats a été évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis enters a viable but non-cultivable (persistent) state within herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) co-infected host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Srilekha; Vanover, Jennifer; Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Whittimore, Judy; Howett, Mary K; Wyrick, Priscilla B; Schoborg, Robert V

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that double infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Chlamydia trachomatis occurs in vivo. We hypothesized that co-infection would alter replication of these agents. To test this hypothesis, HeLa cells were infected with C. trachomatis serovar E, followed 24 h later by HSV-2 strain 333. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses indicated that, by 10 h after HSV addition, reticulate bodies (RBs) in co-infected cells were swollen, aberrantly shaped and electron-lucent. In infectious titre assays, HSV-2 co-infection abrogated production of infectious chlamydial progeny. Western blot analyses indicated that accumulation of chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) was decreased by HSV co-infection while accumulation of chlamydial heat-shock protein 60-1 (HSP60-1) was increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments indicated that chlamydial genome copy number was unaltered by HSV-2 superinfection. Semi-quantitative, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) experiments demonstrated that levels of chlamydial groEL, ftsK, ftsW, dnaA and unprocessed 16S rRNA transcripts were not changed by HSV-2 super-infection. These data indicate that HSV-2 superinfection drives chlamydia into a viable but non-cultivable state, which is the hallmark of persistence. Because chlamydial HSP60-1 has been associated with immunopathology in vivo, these results also suggest that disease severity might be increased in co-infected individuals.

  13. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Waugh

    Full Text Available Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive at either urogenital (UGT and/or ocular sites (Oc, but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking, results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  14. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Carver, Scott; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative) at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive) at either urogenital (UGT) and/or ocular sites (Oc), but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking), results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  15. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Helle K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV, are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. Methods To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Results Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. Conclusions The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged

  16. Genital ulcers, stigma, HIV, and STI control in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, N

    2002-04-01

    HIV associated stigma is still prevalent throughout Africa despite the spread of the epidemic. Stigma is also attached to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Despite the importance of STIs, particularly genital ulceration in facilitating heterosexual HIV transmission, policymakers continue to focus mainly on other priorities. It would appear that this lack of public health initiative in tackling genital ulcers is itself an example of stigmatisation. Possible explanations for this include geographical variation in the data and a perception that genital ulcers are not a topic that can be discussed freely and openly. HIV policymakers in countries worst affected by HIV in Africa should examine their own opinions for bias when determining public health priorities for HIV prevention. The importance of genital ulcers should be reassessed and publicised.

  17. Coevolution of female and male genital components to avoid genital size mismatches in sexually dimorphic spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupše, Nik; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-08-17

    In most animal groups, it is unclear how body size variation relates to genital size differences between the sexes. While most morphological features tend to scale with total somatic size, this does not necessarily hold for genitalia because divergent evolution in somatic size between the sexes would cause genital size mismatches. Theory predicts that the interplay of female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and sexual genital size dimorphism (SGD) should adhere to the 'positive genital divergence', the 'constant genital divergence', or the 'negative genital divergence' model, but these models remain largely untested. We test their validity in the spider family Nephilidae known for the highest degrees of SSD among terrestrial animals. Through comparative analyses of sex-specific somatic and genital sizes, we first demonstrate that 99 of the 351 pairs of traits are phylogenetically correlated. Through factor analyses we then group these traits for MCMCglmm analyses that test broader correlation patterns, and these reveal significant correlations in 10 out of the 36 pairwise comparisons. Both types of analyses agree that female somatic and internal genital sizes evolve independently. While sizes of non-intromittent male genital parts coevolve with male body size, the size of the intromittent male genital parts is independent of the male somatic size. Instead, male intromittent genital size coevolves with female (external and, in part, internal) genital size. All analyses also agree that SGD and SSD evolve independently. Internal dimensions of female genitalia evolve independently of female body size in nephilid spiders, and similarly, male intromittent genital size evolves independently of the male body size. The size of the male intromittent organ (the embolus) and the sizes of female internal and external genital components thus seem to respond to selection against genital size mismatches. In accord with these interpretations, we reject the validity of the

  18. Sexual selection and genital evolution: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Rany; el-Sakka, Ahmed; Bella, Anthony J

    2010-05-01

    Genital morphology (especially male) among the animal kingdom is characterized by extensive differences that even members of closely related species with similar general morphology may have remarkably diverse genitalia. To present the sexual medicine specialist with a basic understanding of the current hypotheses on genital evolution with an emphasis on the sexual selection theories. A review of current literature on the theories of genital evolution. Analysis of the supporting evidence for the sexual selection theories of genital evolution. Several theories have been proposed to explain genital evolution. Currently, the sexual selection theories are being considered to present valid and solid evidence explaining genital evolution. However, other theories, including sexual conflict, are still being investigated. All theories of genital evolution have their own weaknesses and strengths. Given that many complex biological mechanisms, mostly unknown yet, are involved in the process of genital evolution, it is thus reasonable to conclude that not one theory can independently explain genital evolution. It is likely that these mechanisms may prove to have synergistic rather than exclusive effects.

  19. Investigação da LMP1 do EBV e a coinfeçcão do HPV em lesões genitais de pacientes infectados ou não pelo HIV Investigation of the LMP1 EBV and co-infection by HPV in genital lesions of patients infected or not by HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Resende Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    main virus associated with both benign and malignant epithelial neoplasias. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the presence of EBV and HPV in genital lesions in HIV-infected patients (group A or HIV non-infected patients (group B from both genders. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We selected 126 patients and 135 anogenital lesions, comprising 67 patients (53% and 75 lesions (56% from group A and 59 patients (47% and 60 lesions (44% from group B, to histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses through latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 monoclonal antibodies and HPV (DAKO®. RESULTS: The analysis showed that the total number of lesions with immunopositivity for HPV and for LMP1 was higher in group A (32 and 35 respectively in comparison with B (16 and six respectively. Statistical analysis (significance level of 5% showed that the proportions for HPV are not statistically significant (z = 1.93; value p = 0.053. However, the difference (47% in group A and 10% in B is significant for LMP1 (z = 4.60; value p = 4.2×10-6. Similarly, the association of HPV and LMP1 (21% in group A and 7% in B also showed a significant statistical difference (z = 2.38; value p = 0.017. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated the possibility of synergism between EBV infection and EBV-HPV co-infection in genital epithelial lesions, mainly among HIV-infected patients. However, further investigations with a more specific and sensitive methodology are required in order to assess the real influence of EBV on the pathogenesis of genital epithelial lesions.

  20. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get genital herpes from oral sex. Genital herpes is caused by the herpes ... Genital herpes is usually caused by HSV-2; oral herpes (cold sores) is usually caused by HSV-1. ...

  1. A microbiological study of genital ulcers in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainah, S; Cheong, Y M; Sinniah, M; Gan, A T; Akbal, K

    1991-09-01

    The microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was studied in 249 patients (241 men and 8 women) attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated in 48 (19.2%) patients, Haemophilus ducreyi from 22 (8.8%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae from seven (2.8%) and Chlamydia trachomatis from four (1.6%). Syphilis was diagnosed in 18 (7.2%) patients on the basis of dark field microscopy. Two (0.8%) patients were found to have both chancroid and syphilis and one (0.5%) had both gonorrhoea and syphilis. No organism was isolated in the remaining 151 (61.5%) patients. Overall, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was 58% for single infection, 67% for herpes, 63% for syphilis, 47% for chancroid and 0% for lymphogranuloma venereum. Therefore, our study confirms the need for laboratory tests to diagnose accurately the aetiology of genital ulcer disease.

  2. Immunohistochemical investigations of genital ulcers caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeck, D; Freinkel, A L; Korting, H C; Szeimis, R M; Ballard, R C

    1997-09-01

    To gain information on the specific composition of the inflammatory infiltrate of genital ulcers caused by Haemophilus ducreyi, biopsies of 6 genital ulcers which were diagnosed as chancroid on clinical and microbiological grounds were subjected to immunohistochemical investigations after conventional haematoxylineosin staining. A variety of antibodies reactive against B- and T-cells, plasma cells and granulocytes were used with each tissue sections. The lymphocytic infiltrate of chancroid ulcers consisted of both B- and T-lymphocytes and showed a cluster-like formation. B-lymphocytes were preferentially localized perivascularly in the middle layer, T-lymphocytes mainly in the deep layer of the inflamed oedematous tissue. Results stress the importance of both B- and T-cell mediated immune responses in Haemophilus ducreyi infection.

  3. Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Poudel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Chlamydia (C. bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8 in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10(-4. Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10(-4 suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10(-4. High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027, indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics.

  4. Comprehensive in silico prediction and analysis of chlamydial outer membrane proteins reflects evolution and life style of the Chlamydiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Garry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria comprising some of the most important bacterial pathogens of animals and humans. Although chlamydial outer membrane proteins play a key role for attachment to and entry into host cells, only few have been described so far. We developed a comprehensive, multiphasic in silico approach, including the calculation of clusters of orthologues, to predict outer membrane proteins using conservative criteria. We tested this approach using Escherichia coli (positive control and Bacillus subtilis (negative control, and applied it to five chlamydial species; Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia muridarum, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila caviae, and Protochlamydia amoebophila. Results In total, 312 chlamydial outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins in 88 orthologous clusters were identified, including 238 proteins not previously recognized to be located in the outer membrane. Analysis of their taxonomic distribution revealed an evolutionary conservation among Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae and Planctomycetes as well as lifestyle-dependent conservation of the chlamydial outer membrane protein composition. Conclusion This analysis suggested a correlation between the outer membrane protein composition and the host range of chlamydiae and revealed a common set of outer membrane proteins shared by these intracellular bacteria. The collection of predicted chlamydial outer membrane proteins is available at the online database pCOMP http://www.microbial-ecology.net/pcomp and might provide future guidance in the quest for anti-chlamydial vaccines.

  5. Leishmaniasis in the genital area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CABELLO Ismery

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients from the gold mines of Bolivar State, Venezuela, presenting cutaneous leishmaniasis in the genital region, an unusual location, are described. The first patient showed an ulcerated lesion of the glans penis. Leishmanin skin test was positive. A biopsy specimen revealed a granulomatous infiltrate containing Leishmania parasites. In the second patient, Leishmanin skin test was positive, HIV and VDRL were negative. Leishmania parasites were present in a biopsy of an ulcerated lesion in the scrotum, with an indurated base, infiltrative borders with an yellowish exudate. Patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate and the lesions healed.

  6. Review of Genital Wart Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Hongqing(田洪清); DU Donghong(杜东红)

    2002-01-01

    Although many traditional therapies areavailable for genital warts(GW), one of the major problemsin the treatment of GW is a high recurrenence rate. Inorder to resolve the problem of recurrence, new theraputicapproaches have been investigated. New approaches beingexplored include 5-fiuorouracil/epinephrine injectablecollagen gel, 5% imiguimod cream and humanpapillomavirus vaccine. Fluorouracil /epinephrine injectable collagen gel achieves high concentration of fiuorouracilat the site of injection. Imiguimod is a novelimmune-respones modifier, giving good clearance rates andtolerable side effects. Although the use of an HPV vaccine isfar away, preliminary studies show that it may be possibleto develop suitable prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines togenital warts.

  7. The Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease among Patients Attending Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in Guangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Jin(谷进); ZENG Zhirong(曾志荣); CHEN Rongzhang(陈荣章); ZHU Huilan(朱慧兰); QIU Xiaoshan(邱晓珊)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the etiology of genital ulcerdisease (GUD) among patients attending sexuallytransmitted disease (STD) clinics in Guangzhou, China.Methods: Between September 8, 1998, and August 9,2001, 267 patients with a genital ulcer were clinicallyassessed. Clinical etiology of GUD was dependent onphysical appearance and microbiologic examination,including the following: dark field microscopy and serologyfor Treponema pallidum (TP), swabs of genital ulcer forHerpes simplex virus (HSV), processed quantitativefluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) forsimultaneous detection of HSV, TP, Haemophilus ducreyi(HD), Human papillomavirus (HPV), and serology for HIVinfection.Results: Two hundred thirty men and thirty-sevenwomen with a median age of 33.4 (range 16-74 years) wereanalyzed. The etiology of GUD was syphilis (26.59%)(71/267), genital herpes (17.60%) (47/267), condylomataacuminata (4.87%) (13/267), candidiasis (3.37%) (9/267),bacterial infection (3.75%) (10/267), and multiple infection(6.74%) (18/267). The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.75%(2/267). No etiology was identified in 50.56% (135/267).Conclusion: The etiology of GUD among STD patients inour area was multifactorial with a predominance of syphilisand genital herpes. Based on this limited data obtained atSTD clinics, HIV infection was not common.

  8. Streptococcal Infections: Not A or B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  9. Molecular identification of chlamydial cause of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Huthaifa Salah; Ababneh, Mustafa Mohammed Kheir; Hananeh, Wael Mahmoud; Alsheyab, Fawzi Mohammad; Jawasreh, Khaleel Ibraheem; Al-Gharaibeh, Moath Ahmad; Ababneh, Mohammed Mahmoud

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydophila abortus (Ch. abortus) is the etiological agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) and one of the most common infectious agents of abortion in small ruminants worldwide. RFLP-PCR analysis of the outer membrane protein gene (OMP2 gene) was used for diagnosis and characterization of chlamydial causes of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan. Sixty-six placental tissues and 15 vaginal swabs were collected from aborted ewes and does to identify cause of abortion in Jordan. Thirty-eight placental samples (58 %) and 13 vaginal swabs (87 %) were positive for chlamydial DNA. Shedding of bacteria in vaginal swabs was detected within 7 days after abortion. The results of this study showed that chlamydiosis is one of the important causes of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan. In addition, vaginal swab is an excellent sample for molecular diagnosis of chlamydiosis. DNA sequencing and RFLP analysis of the OMP2 reveal that all chlamydial cause of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan are due to Ch. abortus. While, Ch. pecorum was not detected in any sample. OMP2 gene of the isolated Jordanian strain was identical (100 %) to Ch. abortus FAS strain. In conclusion, Ch. abortus is an important cause of abortion in Jordan; vaginal swab within 7 days of abortion can be used for molecular diagnosis of chlamydiosis in small ruminants.

  10. Natural selection and genital variation: a role for the environment, parasites and sperm ageing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Male genitalia are more variable between species (and populations) than other organs, and are more morphologically complex in polygamous compared to monogamous species. Therefore, sexual selection has been put forward as the major explanation of genital variation and complexity, in particular cryptic female choice for male copulatory courtship. As cryptic female choice is based on differences between males it is somewhat paradoxical that there is such low within-species variation in male genitalia that they are a prime morphological identification character for animal species. Processes other than sexual selection may also lead to genitalia variation but they have recently become neglected. Here I focus on pleiotropy and natural selection and provide examples how they link genitalia morphology with genital environments. Pleiotropy appears to be important because most studies that specifically tested for pleiotropic effects on genital morphology found them. Natural selection likely favours certain genital morphology over others in various environments, as well as by reducing re-infection with sexually transmitted diseases or reducing the likelihood of fertilisation with aged sperm. Both pleiotropy and natural selection differ locally and between species so may contribute to local variation in genitalia and sometimes variation between monogamous and polygamous species. Furthermore, the multitude of genital environments will lead to a multitude of genital functions via natural selection and pleiotropy, and may also contribute to explaining the complexity of genitalia.

  11. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Moulton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.

  12. Ano-Genital Warts and HIV Status– A Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shimpa; Gulbake, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ano-Genital Warts (AGW) like other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. This study of AGW was done in HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Aim To study the risk factors and clinical presentations of ano-genital warts in HIV positive and negative patients. Materials and Methods A comparative, cross-sectional, descriptive study of 25 HIV positive and 25 HIV negative (n=50) AGW patients between 15-60 years of both sex was conducted in Dr. D. Y. Patil Hospital and Research Centre from July 2014 to July 2016. Results Significant association of HIV positivity (phomosexuality (p0.05). No patient presented with changes of malignancy. Four were adolescents below 19 years. Two patients had atypical presentations of giant condylomata i.e., Buschke-Lowenstein Tumour (BLT). Conclusion HIV positivity was significantly associated with the risk factors of age below 30 years, homo sexuality and multiple sexual partners. Anal warts were significantly common in HIV positive patients. Four adolescents with AGW underline the need for high risk behaviour counselling. No patient had malignant ano-genital warts. Follow up of these patients with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) sub-typing is necessary. PMID:28274028

  13. Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood. PMID:28299217

  14. Reconceptualizing the chlamydial inclusion as a pathogen-specified parasitic organelle: an expanded role for Inc proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elizabeth R; Ouellette, Scot P

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular pathogen that develops in the host cell in a vacuole termed the chlamydial inclusion. The prevailing concept of the chlamydial inclusion is of a parasitophorous vacuole. Here, the inclusion is the recipient of one-way host-pathogen interactions thus draining nutrients from the cell and negatively impacting it. While Chlamydia orchestrates some aspects of cell function, recent data indicate host cells remain healthy up until, and even after, chlamydial egress. Thus, while Chlamydia relies on the host cell for necessary metabolites, the overall function of the host cell, during chlamydial growth and development, is not grossly disturbed. This is consistent with the obligate intracellular organism's interest to maintain viability of its host. To this end, Chlamydia expresses inclusion membrane proteins, Incs, which serve as molecular markers for the inclusion membrane. Incs also contribute to the physical structure of the inclusion membrane and facilitate host-pathogen interactions across it. Given the function of Incs and the dynamic interactions that occur at the inclusion membrane, we propose that the inclusion behaves similarly to an organelle-albeit one that benefits the pathogen. We present the hypothesis that the chlamydial inclusion acts as a pathogen-specified parasitic organelle. This representation integrates the inclusion within existing subcellular trafficking pathways to divert a subset of host-derived metabolites thus maintaining host cell homeostasis. We review the known interactions of the chlamydial inclusion with the host cell and discuss the role of Inc proteins in the context of this model and how this perspective can impact the study of these proteins. Lessons learnt from the chlamydial pathogen-specified parasitic organelle can be applied to other intracellular pathogens. This will increase our understanding of how intracellular pathogens engage the host cell to establish their unique developmental niches.

  15. Lipschutz ulcers: evaluation and management of acute genital ulcers in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Jill S

    2010-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers are painful and distressing to women and perplexing to the providers who care for them. The differential diagnosis includes sexually and nonsexually transmitted infections, autoimmune conditions, drug reactions, and local manifestations of systemic illness. However, in many cases, no causative agent is identified, and lesions are classified as idiopathic aphthosis. In the setting of fever and acute onset of genital ulcers in girls and women, the term Lipschutz ulcers has been used to describe ulcers associated with an immunologic reaction to a distant source of infection or inflammation. The aims of this article are to review the differential diagnosis and pathogenesis of acute genital ulcers, to offer an evaluation and classification scheme, and to discuss treatment options for the dermatologist who cares for women and girls with vulvar ulcers.

  16. Costs and effects of chlamydial screening : Dynamic versus static modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R; Postma, M; Leidl, R; Kretzschmar, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of modeling type on the economic evaluation of screening programs for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Study: We compared a stochastic network simulation model (dynamic model) with a decision analysis model (static model)

  17. Costs and effects of chlamydial screening : Dynamic versus static modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R; Postma, M; Leidl, R; Kretzschmar, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of modeling type on the economic evaluation of screening programs for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Study: We compared a stochastic network simulation model (dynamic model) with a decision analysis model (static model)

  18. Major traumatic and septic genital injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAninch, J W; Kahn, R I; Jeffrey, R B; Laing, F C; Krieger, M J

    1984-04-01

    Major injuries to the testicles, penis, and genital skin from trauma and infection were seen in 62 patients over a 6-year period (1977 to 1983). Urethral injuries were excluded. In the past blunt testicle injuries were infrequently diagnosed and surgically ignored because of large surrounding hematomas. With the use of real-time ultrasound, 17 of 18 cases of testicle rupture were correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Surgical repair resulted in testicle salvage in 16 patients. Penetrating testicle injuries resulted in a high orchiectomy rate secondary to the infrequently described but recognized entity of self-emasculation in transsexuals. Penile rupture from blunt injuries (8) was successfully repaired and complete function was recovered. Penetrating penile injuries (4) were extensive and involved the urethra in two cases; full function returned after reconstruction. Major skin loss of the penis and/or scrotum (19) occurred from necrotizing fasciitis, burns, avulsion and penetrating injuries. Early debridement, bowel and urinary diversion followed by penile skin grafting, thigh pouches to protect testicles, and scrotal reconstruction resulted in acceptable cosmetic and functional results in all cases of major skin loss.

  19. Abdominal sacral colpopexy for massive genital prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell; Joseph

    1998-07-01

    Objective: A retrospective study to determine the success and complications of abdominal sacral colpopexy in correcting massive genital prolapse over an 8-year period between September 1989 and January 1997.Methods: The charts were reviewed for 3 patients with massive procidentia and 15 patients with symptomatic posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse, who desired preservation of sexual function and underwent abdominal sacral colpopexy with Marlex mesh at two community teaching hospitals.Results: In 16 of the 18 patients, one or more concurrent procedures were performed at the same time, including three Burch colpocystourethropexies and one Raz bladder neck suspension, which successfully controlled urinary stress incontinence. In three cases, staging procedures were done for ovarian neoplasia. There were no intraoperative complications. One patient developed a superficial abdominal wound infection, one patient had a deep venous thrombosis in her left leg 7 days postoperatively, and one patient experienced a 1 cm area of graft erosion 10 months postoperative requiring partial resection. Duration of follow-up has varied from 8 months to 5 years. One patient died 43 months after surgery of unrelated causes. No patients developed recurrent prolapse.Conclusions: Abdominal sacral colpopexy is a successful operation for the correction of prolapse. Serious complications are infrequent. Photographs of the technique and a review of the literature are presented.

  20. Female genital cutting: impact on women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Nawal M

    2015-01-01

    More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC is practiced in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into four types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. In December 2012, the UN General Assembly accepted a resolution on the elimination of FGC. Although it is illegal to perform FGC in the United States, women from countries where the practice occurs have been and are still immigrating here. Many enter as refugees from war-torn, famine-stricken, or politically unstable countries. They bring along with them their cultural pride, health complications, and fears of being judged when visiting a health provider. A deeper understanding of the history, cultural beliefs, medical complications, and methods of surgical reconstruction is necessary to provide culturally and linguistically competent care to this unique group of women. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. A novel mucosal orthotopic murine model of human papillomavirus-associated genital cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrausaz, Loane; Gonçalves, Ana-Rita; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Pythoud, Christelle; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Schiller, John; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-05-01

    Cervical cancer results from infection with high-risk type human papillomaviruses (HPV). Therapeutic vaccines aiming at controlling existing genital HPV infections and associated lesions are usually tested in mice with HPV-expressing tumor cells subcutaneously implanted into their flank. However, effective vaccine-induced regression of these ectopic tumors strongly contrasts with the poor clinical results of these vaccines produced in patients with HPV-associated genital neoplasia. To assess HPV therapeutic vaccines in a more relevant setting, we have, here, established an orthotopic mouse model where tumors in the genital mucosa (GM) develop after an intravaginal instillation of HPV16 E6/E7-expressing tumor cells transduced with a luciferase-encoding lentiviral vector for in vivo imaging of tumor growth. Tumor take was 80-90% after nonoxynol-9 induced damage of the epithelium. Tumors remained localized in the genital tract, and histological analysis showed that most tumors grew within the squamous epithelium of the vaginal wall. Those tumors induced (i) E7-specific CD8 T cells restricted to the GM and draining lymph nodes, in agreement with their mucosal location and (ii) high Foxp3+ CD4+ infiltrates, similarly to those found in natural non-regressing HPV lesions. This novel genital HPV-tumor model by requiring GM homing of vaccine-induced immune responses able to overcome local immuno-suppression may be more representative of the situation occurring in patients upon therapeutic vaccination.

  2. Chlamydial bacteriophage: No Role in Acute Coronary Events?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and acute coronary syndromes has not been consistently found in published studies. It has been hypothesized that a bacteriophage-infected subset of C pneumoniae may be uniquely equipped to promote atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes through the expression of phage genes. METHODS: The authors performed a pilot case-control study of acute coronary events. Case and control subjects were characterized demographically and according to recognized coronary risk factors. These subjects also provided serum for the detection of antibody to the elementary bodies of C pneumoniae and antibody to the Vp1 protein coded by the phage. Bivariate and multivariate comparisons were performed using statistics appropriate for paired analyses. RESULTS: Antibodies to C pneumoniae, Vp1 protein or both were not associated with acute coronary events by bivariate or multivariate analysis. As expected, case subjects were significantly more likely to have hypertension, hypercholesterolemia or diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: The present study adds to a growing body of literature that does not support the hypothesized relationship between C pneumoniae (or a phage-infected subset of C pneumoniae and acute coronary syndromes.

  3. Vaccination of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with poly I:C, a host defense peptide and polyphosphazine, elicits strong and long lasting cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Waugh, Courtney; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2014-10-07

    Chlamydial infections are wide spread in koalas across their range and a solution to this debilitating disease has been sought for over a decade. Antibiotics are the currently accepted therapeutic measure, but are not an effective treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of some infections and a low efficacy rate. Thus, a vaccine would be an ideal way to address this infectious disease threat in the wild. Previous vaccine trials have used a three-dose regimen; however this is very difficult to apply in the field as it would require multiple capture events, which are stressful and invasive processes for the koala. In addition, it requires skilled koala handlers and a significant monetary investment. To overcome these challenges, in this study we utilized a polyphosphazine based poly I:C and a host defense peptide adjuvant combined with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) antigen to induce long lasting (54 weeks) cellular and humoral immunity in female koalas with a novel single immunizing dose. Immunized koalas produced a strong IgG response in plasma, as well as at mucosal sites. Moreover, they showed high levels of C. pecorum specific neutralizing antibodies in the plasma as well as vaginal and conjunctival secretions. Lastly, Chlamydia-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses were produced against both whole chlamydial elementary bodies and rMOMP protein, over the 12-month period. The results of this study suggest that a single dose rMOMP vaccine incorporating a poly I:C, host defense peptide and polyphosphazine adjuvant is able to stimulate both arms of the immune system in koalas, thereby providing an alternative to antibiotic treatment and/or a three-dose vaccine regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Genital Human Papillomavirus among Men in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebnes, Julie B; Olesen, Tina B; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest sexually transmitted infection worldwide and causes substantial morbidity in both sexes. Most European countries offer HPV vaccination for girls, but vaccine recommendations for boys are warranted. AIMS: The aims of this study were...... influencing prevalence in general and high-risk male populations in Europe. RESULTS: We included 31 articles that gave the prevalence of genital HPV DNA among men in northern, southern and western Europe; no studies from eastern Europe were identified. The pooled HPV prevalence among 1,863 men representing...

  5. A study on relationship be tween genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection and spontaneous abortion%生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的关系。方法选取我院自然流产患者(自然流产组)及人工流产患者(对照组),各60例。两组均采集宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织进行沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体培养,分析结果。结果自然流产组宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织中沙眼衣原体、解脲支原体、沙眼衣原体+解脲支原体感染率均高于对照组( P<0.01)。结论生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染率与自然流产关系密切,可作为确定自然流产病因的指标。%Objective To explore the corelation of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection with spontaneous abortion,and provide clinical reference for the prevention and control of spontaneous abortion .Methods Patients with spontaneous abortion were selected as spontaneous abortion group ( n =60) and artificial abortion group ( n =60), and cervical se-cretions and decidual tissue of chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum were cultured and the results were analyzed .Results Infection rate of chlamydia trachomatis in cervical secretion of the natural abortion group ,ureaplasma urealyticum,chlamydia trachom-atis infection +UU rates of the natural abortion group were higher than that of the control group ( P <0.01).Conclusion Infection rate of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection rate and spontaneous abortion have a close relationship , which may be one of the causes of spontaneous abortion .

  6. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.; Garcia, Maurice M.

    2016-01-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation i...

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in a modest pro-inflammatory cytokine response and a decrease in T cell chemokine secretion in human polarized endocervical epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Lyndsey R; Lewis, Maria E; Greene, Sheila J; Foster, Timothy P; Quayle, Alison J

    2013-08-01

    The endocervical epithelium is a major reservoir for Chlamydia trachomatis in women, and genital infections are extended in their duration. Epithelial cells act as mucosal sentinels by secreting cytokines and chemokines in response to pathogen challenge and infection. We therefore determined the signature cytokine and chemokine response of primary-like endocervix-derived epithelial cells in response to a common genital serovar (D) of C. trachomatis. For these studies, we used a recently-established polarized, immortalized, endocervical epithelial cell model (polA2EN) that maintains, in vitro, the architectural and functional characteristics of endocervical epithelial cells in vivo including the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PolA2EN cells were susceptible to C. trachomatis infection, and chlamydiae in these cells underwent a normal developmental cycle as determined by a one-step growth curve. IL1α protein levels were increased in both apical and basolateral secretions of C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells, but this response did not occur until 72h after infection. Furthermore, protein levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL6, TNFα and CXCL8 were not significantly different between C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells and mock infected cells at any time during the chlamydial developmental cycle up to 120h post-infection. Intriguingly, C. trachomatis infection resulted in a significant decrease in the constitutive secretion of T cell chemokines IP10 and RANTES, and this required a productive C. trachomatis infection. Examination of anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed a high constitutive apical secretion of IL1ra from polA2EN cells that was not significantly modulated by C. trachomatis infection. IL-11 was induced by C. trachomatis, although only from the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that C. trachomatis can use evasion strategies to circumvent a robust pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response. These evasion

  8. The medicalisation of female genital mutilation

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    Pierre Foldes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ‘medicalisation’ of female genital mutilation should be denounced on two counts.Firstly, it is usually anatomically more damaging and, secondly, it goes against the ethical basis of the medical profession.

  9. Genital ulcers: their diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, S L

    1987-08-01

    THIS ARTICLE OFFERS SOME BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THREE MAJOR CAUSES OF GENITAL ULCERS: syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and chancroid. The author also discusses differential diagnoses and suggests an approach to treatment.

  10. Neonatal genital prolapse: A case report

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    Sindu Saksono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal genital prolapse without congenital spinal abnormality is rare. Several treatment modalities are known to manage this condition. Our management consists of manually reducing the prolapsed mass and applying purse string suture technique.

  11. Self-collected genital swabs compared with cervicovaginal lavage for measuring HIV-1 and HSV-2 and the effect of acyclovir on viral shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholl, Janet M; Leelawiwat, Wanna; Whitehead, Sara; Hanson, Debra L; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Cheng, Chen Y; Chonwattana, Wannee; Mueanpai, Famui; Kittinunvorakoon, Chonticha; Markowitz, Lauri; Dunne, Eileen F

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1 and HSV-2 are frequent genital co-infections in women. To determine how self-collected genital swabs compare to provider-collected cervicovaginal lavage, paired self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage from women co-infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 were evaluated. Women were in an acyclovir clinical trial and their samples were tested for HIV-1 RNA (361 samples) and HSV-2 DNA (378 samples). Virus shedding, quantity and acyclovir effect were compared. HIV-1 and HSV-2 were more frequently detected in self-collected genital swabs: 74.5% of self-collected genital swabs and 63.6% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HIV-1 (p ≤ 0.001, Fisher's exact test) and 29.7% of self-collected genital swabs and 19.3% of cervicovaginal lavage had detectable HSV-2 (p ≤ 0.001) in the placebo month. Cervicovaginal lavage and self-collected genital swabs virus levels were correlated (Spearman's rho, 0.68 for HIV; 0.61 for HSV-2) and self-collected genital swabs levels were generally higher. In multivariate modeling, self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage could equally detect the virus-suppressive effect of acyclovir: for HIV-1, proportional odds ratios were 0.42 and 0.47 and for HSV-2, they were 0.10 and 0.03 for self-collected genital swabs and cervicovaginal lavage, respectively. Self-collected genital swabs should be considered for detection and measurement of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in clinical trials and other studies as they are a sensitive method to detect virus and can be collected in the home with frequent sampling.

  12. Risk factors, healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with genital ulcers in Zambia

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    Makasa Mpundu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital ulcers (GU are associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission. Understanding risk factors for genital ulcers and sexual behaviour patterns after onset of symptoms and health seeking behaviour among GU-patients can provide useful information to aid design effective prevention strategies for genital ulcers. We investigated risk factors of self-reported GUs and care-seeking in the general population, and assessed GU patients regarding past care-seeking, recent sexual behaviour and partner awareness of the disease. Methods We analysed national data on genital ulcers from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, and data from a cross-sectional survey of genital ulcer patients from primary health care facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. Results The prevalence of GU in 2007 in the general population of Lusaka was 3.6%. Important predictors for genital ulcers were age 25–29 years, being widowed/separated/divorced and having a high number of life-time sexual partners. No differences in care-seeking were observed by residence, wealth and gender, and 60% of the respondents sought care from public health facilities. Among patients with GUs in Lusaka, 14% sought care >2 weeks after symptom onset. Forty-two percent were not aware of their HIV status, 57% reported sex after onset of symptoms and only 15% reported consistent condom use. Conclusions Low awareness of HIV status despite high probability of being infected and low condom use after onset of genital ulcer symptoms leads to a high potential for transmission to sexual partners. This, combined with the fact that many patients with GUs delayed seeking care, shows a need for awareness campaigns about GUs and the importance of abstinence or use of condoms when experiencing such symptoms.

  13. Genital trauma during a complicated domiciliary childbirth assisted by a non-expert midwife

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    Ada Arleny Pérez Mayo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the case of a 20-year-old puerpera seen at San Pedro Necta National Hospital of the Department of Huehuetenango, Guatemala, due to a persisting vaginal bleeding and genital tear. The clinical picture was determined as a genital trauma by domiciliary childbirth assisted by a midwife. As there was no abdominal echography and there were signs of hypovolemia, a gynecological checkup was performed at the operating room, having circulatory support with intravenous crystalloid solutions. A careful preoperative preparation was carried out which included local antisepsis with tincture of iodine and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the administration of ceftriaxone as a prophylactic antibiotic for the infection. The surgical intervention consisted in repairing the cervical tears, as well as the traumatic lesions caused by an inadequate manipulation of the external genitals, with absorbable suture material. No complications were reported and the patient progressed satisfactorily, with a 5-day hospital stay.

  14. HIV-1 DNA shedding in genital ulcers and its associated risk factors in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, D A; Quinn, T C; Gangakhedkar, R R; Mehendale, S M; Divekar, A D; Risbud, A R; Chan-Tack, K; Shepherd, M; Gaydos, C; Bollinger, R C

    1998-07-01

    HIV infection status was determined in 302 consecutive patients with genital ulcer disease (GUD) presenting to two sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Pune, India. Of the 71 (24%) individuals with HIV infection, 67 (94%) were HIV antibody-positive, and 4 (6%) were HIV antibody-negative but p24 antigen-positive at the time of presentation. HIV-1 DNA was detected in 24 (34%) specimens. The genital ulcers of all four acutely infected p24-antigenemic subjects were HIV-1 DNA-positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, compared with 20 of 67 (30%) seropositive patients (p = .01). Presence of chancroid, GUD symptoms for > 10 days, and concurrent diagnosis of cervicitis or urethritis were significantly associated risk factors for HIV-1 DNA shedding in ulcers. Early GUD diagnosis and aggressive treatment of HIV-infected patients may significantly reduce secondary transmission of HIV to other sex partners.

  15. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

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    Ozer Birge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About 100 million women a