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Sample records for geniculate body ventral

  1. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

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    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  2. Apoptotic mechanisms after repeated noise trauma in the mouse medial geniculate body and primary auditory cortex.

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    Fröhlich, Felix; Ernst, Arne; Strübing, Ira; Basta, Dietmar; Gröschel, Moritz

    2017-12-01

    A correlation between noise-induced apoptosis and cell loss has previously been shown after a single noise exposure in the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body (MGB) and primary auditory cortex (AI). However, repeated noise exposure is the most common situation in humans and a major risk factor for the induction of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The present investigation measured cell death pathways using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the dorsal, medial and ventral MGB (dMGB, mMGB and vMGB) and six layers of the AI (AI-1 to AI-6) in mice (NMRI strain) after a second noise exposure (double-exposure group). Therefore, a single noise exposure group has been investigated 7 (7-day-group-single) or 14 days (14-day-group-single) after noise exposure (3 h, 5-20 kHz, 115 dB SPL peak-to-peak). The double-exposure group received the same noise trauma for a second time 7 days after the initial exposure and was either TUNEL-stained immediately (7-day-group-double) or 1 week later (14-day-group-double) and data were compared to the corresponding single-trauma group as well as to an unexposed control group. It was shown that TUNEL increased immediately after the second noise exposure in AI-3 and stayed upregulated in the 14-day-group-double. A significant increase in TUNEL was also seen in the 14-day-group-double in vMGB, mMGB and AI-1. The present results show for the first time the influence of a repeated noise trauma on cell death mechanisms in thalamic and cortical structures and might contribute to the understanding of pathophysiological findings and psychoacoustic phenomena accompanying NIHL.

  3. Neuronal apoptosis and neurofilament protein expression in the lateral geniculate body of cats following acute optic nerve injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The visual pathway have 6 parts, involving optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate body, optic radiation and cortical striatum area. Corresponding changes may be found in these 6 parts following optic nerve injury. At present, studies mainly focus on optic nerve and retina, but studies on lateral geniculate body are few.OBJECTIVE: To prepare models of acute optic nerve injury for observing the changes of neurons in lateral geniculate body, expression of neurofilament protein at different time after injury and cell apoptosis under the optical microscope, and for investigating the changes of neurons in lateral geniculate body following acute optic nerve injury.DESIGN: Completely randomized grouping design, controlled animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ji'nan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Twenty-eight adult healthy cats of either gender and common grade, weighing from 2.0 to 3.5 kg, were provided by the Animal Experimental Center of Fudan University. The involved cats were divided into 2 groups according to table of random digit: normal control group (n =3) and model group (n =25). Injury 6 hours, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days five time points were set in model group for later observation, 5 cats at each time point. TUNEL kit (Bohringer-Mannheim company)and NF200& Mr 68 000 mouse monoclonal antibody (NeoMarkers Company) were used in this experiment.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Ji'nan Military Area Command of Chinese PLA between June 2004 and June 2005. ① The cats of model group were developed into cat models of acute intracranial optic nerve injury as follows: The anesthetized cats were placed in lateral position. By imitating operation to human, pterion approach was used. An incision was made at the joint line between outer canthus and tragus, and deepened along cranial base until white optic nerve via optic nerve pore

  4. Time course of cell death due to acoustic overstimulation in the mouse medial geniculate body and primary auditory cortex

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    Felix Frohlich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that acoustic overstimulation induces cell death and extensive cell loss in key structures of the central auditory pathway. A correlation between noise-induced apoptosis and cell loss was hypothesized for the cochlear nucleus and colliculus inferior. To determine the role of cell death in noise-induced cell loss in thalamic and cortical structures, the present mouse study (NMRI strain describes the time course following noise exposure of cell death mechanisms for the ventral medial geniculate body (vMGB, medial MGB (mMGB, and dorsal MGB (dMGB and the six histological layers of the primary auditory cortex (AI 1–6. Therefore, a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dioxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling assay (TUNEL was performed in these structures 24 h, 7 days, and 14 days after noise exposure (3 h, 115 dB sound pressure level, 5–20 kHz, as well as in unexposed controls. In the dMGB, TUNEL was statistically significant elevated 24 h postexposure. AI-1 showed a decrease in TUNEL after 14 days. There was no statistically significant difference between groups for the other brain areas investigated. dMGB’s widespread connection within the central auditory pathway and its nontonotopical organization might explain its prominent increase in TUNEL compared to the other MGB subdivisions and the AI. It is assumed that the onset and peak of noise-induced cell death is delayed in higher areas of the central auditory pathway and takes place between 24 h and 7 days postexposure in thalamic and cortical structures.

  5. The effects of sildenafil ciltrate on the lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus- A histological study

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    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The histological effect of oral administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra, commonly used as an aphrodisiac and for the treatment of erectile dysfunction on one of the visual relay centres namely the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rat was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 202g were randomly assigned into three treatment (n=18 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatment groups ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ received respectively, 0.25mg/kg, 0.70mg/kg and 1.43mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate base dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days, through orogastric feeding tube, while that of the control group D, received equal volume of distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. The rats were fed with growers’ mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day thirty-one of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body (LGB was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. The histological findings after H&E method indicated that the treated section of the lateral geniculate body (LGB showed some varying degree of reduced cellular population based on its sparse distribution, degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma. Varying dosage and long administration of sildenafil citrate may have some deleterious effects on the neurons of the intracranial visual relay centre and this may probably have some adverse effects on visual sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the cells of the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rats. It is therefore recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  6. Development of the ventral body wall in the human embryo

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    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory failure of somitic cells is the commonest explanation for ventral body wall defects. However, the embryo increases ~ 25-fold in volume in the period that the ventral body wall forms, so that differential growth may, instead, account for the observed changes in topography. Human embryos

  7. A unique combination of anatomy and physiology in cells of the rat paralaminar thalamic nuclei adjacent to the medial geniculate body

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    Smith, Philip H.; Bartlett, Edward L.; Kowalkowski, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The medial geniculate body (MGB) has three major subdivisions - ventral (MGV), dorsal (MGD) and medial (MGM). MGM is linked with paralaminar nuclei that are situated medial and ventral to MGV/MGD. Paralaminar nuclei have unique inputs and outputs when compared with MGV and MGD and have been linked to circuitry underlying some important functional roles. We recorded intracellularly from cells in the paralaminar nuclei in vitro. We found that they possess an unusual combination of anatomical and physiological features when compared to those reported for “standard” thalamic neurons seen in the MGV/MGD and elsewhere in the thalamus. Compared to MGV/MGD neurons, anatomically, 1) paralaminar cell dendrites can be long, branch sparingly and encompass a much larger area. 2) their dendrites may be smooth but can have well defined spines and 3) their axons can have collaterals that branch locally within the same or nearby paralaminar nuclei. When compared to MGV/MGD neurons physiologically 1) their spikes are larger in amplitude and can be shorter in duration and 2) can have dual afterhyperpolarizations with fast and slow components and 3) they can have a reduction or complete absence of the low threshold, voltage-sensitive calcium conductance that reduces or eliminates the voltage-dependent burst response. We also recorded from cells in the parafascicular nucleus, a nucleus of the posterior intralaminar nuclear group, because they have unusual anatomical features that are similar to some of our paralaminar cells. Like the labeled paralaminar cells, parafascicular cells had physiological features distinguishing them from typical thalamic neurons. PMID:16566009

  8. Maternal control of the Drosophila dorsal–ventral body axis

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    Stein, David S.; Stevens, Leslie M.

    2016-01-01

    The pathway that generates the dorsal–ventral (DV) axis of the Drosophila embryo has been the subject of intense investigation over the previous three decades. The initial asymmetric signal originates during oogenesis by the movement of the oocyte nucleus to an anterior corner of the oocyte, which establishes DV polarity within the follicle through signaling between Gurken, the Drosophila Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-α homologue secreted from the oocyte, and the Drosophila Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) that is expressed by the follicular epithelium cells that envelop the oocyte. Follicle cells that are not exposed to Gurken follow a ventral fate and express Pipe, a sulfotransferase that enzymatically modifies components of the inner vitelline membrane layer of the eggshell, thereby transferring DV spatial information from the follicle to the egg. These ventrally sulfated eggshell proteins comprise a localized cue that directs the ventrally restricted formation of the active Spätzle ligand within the perivitelline space between the eggshell and the embryonic membrane. Spätzle activates Toll, a transmembrane receptor in the embryonic membrane. Transmission of the Toll signal into the embryo leads to the formation of a ventral-to-dorsal gradient of the transcription factor Dorsal within the nuclei of the syncytial blastoderm stage embryo. Dorsal controls the spatially specific expression of a large constellation of zygotic target genes, the Dorsal gene regulatory network, along the embryonic DV circumference. This article reviews classic studies and integrates them with the details of more recent work that has advanced our understanding of the complex pathway that establishes Drosophila embryo DV polarity. PMID:25124754

  9. Genetic analysis of Hedgehog signaling in ventral body wall development and the onset of omphalocele formation

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    Matsumaru, D.; Haraguchi, R.; Miyagawa, S.; Motoyama, J.; Nakagata, N.; Meijlink, F.; Yamada, G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An omphalocele is one of the major ventral body wall malformations and is characterized by abnormally herniated viscera from the body trunk. It has been frequently found to be associated with other structural malformations, such as genitourinary malformations and digit abnormalities. In

  10. Genetic Analysis of Hedgehog Signaling in Ventral Body Wall Development and the Onset of Omphalocele Formation

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    Matsumaru, Daisuke; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Motoyama, Jun; Nakagata, Naomi; Meijlink, Frits; Yamada, Gen

    2011-01-01

    Background An omphalocele is one of the major ventral body wall malformations and is characterized by abnormally herniated viscera from the body trunk. It has been frequently found to be associated with other structural malformations, such as genitourinary malformations and digit abnormalities. In spite of its clinical importance, the etiology of omphalocele formation is still controversial. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is one of the essential growth factor signaling pathways involved in the formation of the limbs and urogenital system. However, the relationship between Hh signaling and ventral body wall formation remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings To gain insight into the roles of Hh signaling in ventral body wall formation and its malformation, we analyzed phenotypes of mouse mutants of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), GLI-Kruppel family member 3 (Gli3) and Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (Alx4). Introduction of additional Alx4Lst mutations into the Gli3Xt/Xt background resulted in various degrees of severe omphalocele and pubic diastasis. In addition, loss of a single Shh allele restored the omphalocele and pubic symphysis of Gli3Xt/+; Alx4Lst/Lst embryos. We also observed ectopic Hh activity in the ventral body wall region of Gli3Xt/Xt embryos. Moreover, tamoxifen-inducible gain-of-function experiments to induce ectopic Hh signaling revealed Hh signal dose-dependent formation of omphaloceles. Conclusions/Significance We suggest that one of the possible causes of omphalocele and pubic diastasis is ectopically-induced Hh signaling. To our knowledge, this would be the first demonstration of the involvement of Hh signaling in ventral body wall malformation and the genetic rescue of omphalocele phenotypes. PMID:21283718

  11. Genetic analysis of Hedgehog signaling in ventral body wall development and the onset of omphalocele formation.

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    Daisuke Matsumaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An omphalocele is one of the major ventral body wall malformations and is characterized by abnormally herniated viscera from the body trunk. It has been frequently found to be associated with other structural malformations, such as genitourinary malformations and digit abnormalities. In spite of its clinical importance, the etiology of omphalocele formation is still controversial. Hedgehog (Hh signaling is one of the essential growth factor signaling pathways involved in the formation of the limbs and urogenital system. However, the relationship between Hh signaling and ventral body wall formation remains unclear.To gain insight into the roles of Hh signaling in ventral body wall formation and its malformation, we analyzed phenotypes of mouse mutants of Sonic hedgehog (Shh, GLI-Kruppel family member 3 (Gli3 and Aristaless-like homeobox 4 (Alx4. Introduction of additional Alx4(Lst mutations into the Gli3(Xt/Xt background resulted in various degrees of severe omphalocele and pubic diastasis. In addition, loss of a single Shh allele restored the omphalocele and pubic symphysis of Gli3(Xt/+; Alx4(Lst/Lst embryos. We also observed ectopic Hh activity in the ventral body wall region of Gli3(Xt/Xt embryos. Moreover, tamoxifen-inducible gain-of-function experiments to induce ectopic Hh signaling revealed Hh signal dose-dependent formation of omphaloceles.We suggest that one of the possible causes of omphalocele and pubic diastasis is ectopically-induced Hh signaling. To our knowledge, this would be the first demonstration of the involvement of Hh signaling in ventral body wall malformation and the genetic rescue of omphalocele phenotypes.

  12. [Stability of ventral, dorsal and combined spondylodesis in vertebral body prosthesis implantation].

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    Vahldiek, M; Gossè, F; Panjabi, M M

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of short-segment anterior, posterior, and combined instrumentations in lumbar spine vertebral body replacement surgery. Eight fresh frozen human cadaveric thoracolumbar spine specimens (T12-L4) were prepared for biomechanical testing. Pure moments (2.5, 5, and 7.5 Nm) of flexion-extension, left-right axial torsion, and left-right lateral bending were applied to the top vertebra in a flexibility machine and the motions of L1 vertebra with respect to L3 were recorded with an optoelectronic motion measurement system after preconditioning. One anterior, two posterior pedicle screw systems, and two combined instrumentations were tested. Load-displacement curves were recorded and neutral zone (NZ) and range of motion (ROM) were determined. The anterior instrumentation, after vertebral body replacement, showed greater motion than the intact spine, especially in axial torsion. Posterior instrumentation provided greater rigidity than the anterior instrumentation, especially in flexion-extension. The combined instrumentation provided superior rigidity in all directions compared to all other instrumentations.

  13. Development of the human lateral geniculate nucleus: A morphometric and computerized 3D-reconstruction study.

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    Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki

    2018-04-04

    The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is the major relay center of the visual pathway in humans. There are few quantitative data on the morphology of LGN in prenatal infants. In this study, using serial brain sections, the author investigated the morphology of this nucleus during the second half of fetal period. Eleven human brains were obtained at routine autopsy from preterm infants aged 20-39 postmenstrual weeks. After fixation, the brain was embedded en bloc in celloidin and cut serially at 30 μm in the horizontal plane. The sections were stained at regular intervals using the Klüver-Barrera method. At 20-21 weeks, the long axis of LGN declined obliquely from the vertical to horizontal plane, while a deep groove was noted on the ventro-lateral surface of the superior half. At this time, an arcuate cell-sparse zone appeared in the dorso-medial region, indicating the beginning of lamination. From 25 weeks onwards, the magnocellular and parvocellular layers were distinguishable, and the characteristic six-layered structure was recognized. The magnocellular layer covered most of the dorsal surface, and parts of the medial, lateral, and inferior surfaces but not the ventral and superior surfaces. Nuclear volume increased exponentially with age during 20-39 weeks, while the mean neuronal profile area increased linearly during 25-39 weeks. Human LGN develops a deep groove on the ventro-lateral surface at around mid-gestation, when the initial lamination is recognized in the prospective magnocellular layer. Thereafter, the nuclear volume increases with age in an exponential function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ventral hernia repair

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    ... incarcerated) in the hernia and become impossible to push back in. This is usually painful. The blood supply ... you are lying down or that you cannot push back in. Risks The risks of ventral hernia repair ...

  15. Abnormal lateral geniculate nucleus and optic chiasm in human albinism.

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    Mcketton, Larissa; Kelly, Krista R; Schneider, Keith A

    2014-08-01

    Our objective was to measure how the misrouting of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) fibers affects the organization of the optic chiasm and lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN) in human albinism. We compared the chiasmal structures and the LGN in both pigmented controls and patients with albinism by using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied 12 patients with oculocutaneous albinism and 12 age-matched pigmented controls. Using a 3T MRI scanner, we acquired a T1 -weighted three-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) image of the whole brain, oriented so that the optic nerves, chiasm, and tracts were in the same plane. We acquired multiple proton density-weighted images centered on the thalamus and midbrain, and averaged them to increase the signal, enabling precise manual tracing of the anatomical boundaries of the LGN. Albinism patients exhibited significantly smaller diameters of the optic nerves, chiasm and tracts, and optic chiasm and LGN volume compared with controls (P albinism compared with the control group can be attributed to the abnormal crossing of optic fibers and the reduction of RGCs in the central retina. The volume of the LGN devoted to the center of the visual field may be reduced in albinism due to fewer RGCs representing the area where the fovea would normally lie. Our data may be clinically useful in addressing how genetic deficits compromise proper structural and functional development in the brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Morphological differences in the lateral geniculate nucleus associated with dyslexia

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    Mónica Giraldo-Chica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyslexia is a common learning disability characterized by normal intelligence but difficulty in skills associated with reading, writing and spelling. One of the most prominent, albeit controversial, theories of dyslexia is the magnocellular theory, which suggests that malfunction of the magnocellular system in the brain is responsible for the behavioral deficits. We sought to test the basis of this theory by directly measuring the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, the only location in the brain where the magnocellular and parvocellular streams are spatially disjoint. Using high-resolution proton-density weighted MRI scans, we precisely measured the anatomical boundaries of the LGN in 13 subjects with dyslexia (five female and 13 controls (three female, all 22–26 years old. The left LGN was significantly smaller in volume in subjects with dyslexia and also differed in shape; no differences were observed in the right LGN. The functional significance of this asymmetry is unknown, but these results are consistent with the magnocellular theory and support theories of dyslexia that involve differences in the early visual system.

  17. Torakal Ventral Cord Herniation

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    Sermin Tok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Ventral cord herniation is a rare cause of focal myelopathy due to herniation of the thoracic cord through a dural defect.It is also known by a variety of other terms such as spontaneous thoracic cord herniation or idiopathic spinal cord herniation.The key feature is focal distortion and rotation of the cord with no CSF seen between it and the ventral theca.

  18. The enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal: a new CT finding of facial nerve canal fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Ruozhen; Li Yuhua; Gong Wuxian; Wu Lebin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in the diagnosis of facial nerve canal fracture. Methods: Thirty patients with facial nerve canal fracture underwent axial and coronal CT scan. The correlation between the fracture and the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was analyzed. The ability of showing the fracture and enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in axial and coronal imaging were compared. Results: Fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was found in the operation in 30 patients, while the fracture was detected in CT in 18 patients. Enlargement of geniculate ganglion of facial nerve was detected in 30 patients in the operation, while the enlargement of fossa was found in CT in 28 cases. Enlargement and fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal were both detected in CT images in 18 patients. Only the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was shown in 12 patients in CT. Conclusion: Enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was a useful finding in the diagnosis of fracture of geniculate fossa in patients with facial paralysis, even no fracture line was shown on CT images. (authors)

  19. Taxonomic biodiversity of geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from the Macaronesian region: summary and analysis

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    Rosas-Alquicira, Edgar F.; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Neto, Ana I.

    2011-06-01

    A catalog and critical review of species and infraspecific taxa of non-fossil geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) previously reported from the Macaronesian region are presented along with an assessment of species diversity in the region. Published records of geniculate coralline algae are included along with comments relating to type material. Within the catalog, taxa are organized alphabetically by genus and within this by final epithet. From the 31 taxa recorded, 4 are based on type collections from Macaronesian localities. The types of most species and infraspecific taxa reported from the region have yet to be re-examined in a modern context, and most Macaronesian records require verification. The biodiversity of Macaronesian geniculate coralline algae may be lower than current information indicates.

  20. Comparison of neurotrophin and repellent sensitivities of early embryonic geniculate and trigeminal axons

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    Rochlin, M William; O'Connor, R.; Giger, Roman J; Verhaagen, J; Farbman, A I

    2000-01-01

    Geniculate (gustatory) and trigeminal (somatosensory) afferents take different routes to the tongue during rat embryonic development. To learn more about the mechanisms controlling neurite outgrowth and axon guidance, we are studying the roles of diffusible factors. We previously profiled the in

  1. Distinct patterns of corticogeniculate feedback to different layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus

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    Ichida JM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer M Ichida,1 Julia A Mavity-Hudson,2 Vivien A Casagrande1–3 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: In primates, feedforward visual pathways from retina to lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN are segregated to different layers. These layers also receive strong reciprocal feedback pathways from cortex. The degree to which feedforward streams in primates are segregated from feedback streams remains unclear. Here, we asked whether corticogeniculate cells that innervate the magnocellular (M, parvocellular (P, and koniocellular (K layers of the LGN in the prosimian primate bush baby (Otolemur garnettii can be distinguished based on either the laminar distribution or morphological characteristics of their axons and synaptic contacts in LGN, or on their cell body position, size, and dendritic distribution in cortex. Corticogeniculate axons and synapses were labeled anterogradely with biotinylated dextran injections in layer 6 of cortex. Corticogeniculate cell bodies were first labeled with fluorescent dextran injections limited to individual M, P, or K LGN layers and then filled with biotinylated Lucifer yellow. Results showed that feedback to the M or P LGN layers arises from cells with dendrites primarily confined to cortical layer 6 and axons restricted to either M or P LGN layers, but not both. Feedback to K LGN layers arises from cells: 1 whose dendrites distribute rather evenly across cortical layers 5 and 6; 2 whose dendrites always extend into layer 4; and 3 whose axons are never confined to K layers but always overlap with either P or M layers. Corticogeniculate axons also showed distributions that were retinotopically precise based on known receptive field sizes of layer 6 cells, and these axons mainly made synapses with glutamatergic projection neurons in the LGN in all layers. Taken together with prior

  2. Large Ventral Hernia

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    Meryl Abrams, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 46-year-old female presented to the emergency department (ED with diffuse abdominal pain and three days of poor oral intake associated with non-bilious, non-bloody vomiting. Initial vital signs consisted of a mild resting tachycardia of 111 with a temperature of 38.0 degrees Celsius (°C. On examination, the patient had a large pannus extending to the knees, which contained a hernia. She was tender in this region on examination. Laboratory values included normal serum chemistries and mild leukocytosis of 12.2. The patient reports that her abdomen had been enlarging over the previous 8 years but had not been painful until 3 days prior to presentation. The patient had no associated fever, chills, diarrhea, constipation, chest pain or shortness of breath. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT scan with intravenous (IV contrast of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large pannus containing a ventral hernia with abdominal contents extending below the knees (white circle, elongation of mesenteric vessels to accommodate abdominal contents outside of the abdomen (white arrow and air fluid levels (white arrow indicating a small bowel obstruction. Discussion: Hernias are a common chief complaint seen in the emergency department. The estimated lifetime risk of a spontaneous abdominal hernia is 5%.1 The most common type of hernia is inguinal while the next most common type of hernia is femoral, which are more common in women.1 Ventral hernias can be epigastric, incisional, or primary abdominal. An asymptomatic, reducible hernia can be followed up as outpatient with a general surgeon for elective repair.2 Hernias become problematic when they are either incarcerated or strangulated. A hernia is incarcerated when the hernia is irreducible and strangulated when its blood supply is compromised. A complicated hernia, especially strangulated, can have a mortality of greater than 50%.1 It is key to perform a thorough history

  3. Evidence of multisensory plasticity: Asymmetrical medial geniculate body in people with one eye

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    Stefania S. Moro

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: volume asymmetry in the MGB in people with one eye may represent increased interactions between the left MGB and primary auditory cortex. This interaction could contribute to increased auditory and other left hemisphere-dominant processing, including language, as compensation for the loss of one half of visual inputs early in life. The positive correlation between MGB and LGN volume is not due to space constraints but rather indicates increased plasticity in both auditory and visual sensory systems following early eye enucleation.

  4. Orexins excite ventrolateral geniculate nucleus neurons predominantly via OX2 receptors.

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    Chrobok, Lukasz; Palus, Katarzyna; Lewandowski, Marian Henryk

    2016-04-01

    Orexins/hypocretins are two neuropeptides that influence many behaviours, such as feeding, sleep or arousal. Orexin A/hypocretin-1 (OXA) and orexin B/hypocretin-2 (OXB) bind to two metabotropic receptors, named the OX1 and OX2 receptors. The lateral geniculate complex of the thalamus is one of the many targets of orexinergic fibres derived from the lateral hypothalamus, although the impact of orexins on the ventrolateral geniculate nucleus (VLG) is poorly understood. The VLG, an important relay station of the subcortical visual system, is implicated in visuomotor and/or circadian processes. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the effects of orexins on single VLG neurons using a patch-clamp technique in vitro. Surprisingly, orexins depolarised the majority of the recorded neurons regardless of their localisation in the borders of the VLG. In addition, data presented in this article show that neurons synthesising NO were also affected by OXA. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining of OXB revealed the moderate density of orexinergic fibbers in the VLG. Our study using specific orexin receptor antagonists suggests that the OX2 receptor has a dominant role in the observed effects of OXA. To our knowledge, this article is the first to show orexinergic modulation of the VLG. These findings strengthen the postulated link between orexins and the circadian system, and propose a new role of these neuropeptides in the modulation of visuomotor functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of kainic acid lesions in lateral geniculate nucleus: activity dependence of retrograde axonal transport of fluorescent dyes.

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    Woodward, W R; Coull, B M

    1988-06-28

    Kainic acid lesions in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of rats block the retrograde axonal transport of fluorescent dyes in corticogeniculate neurons without affecting the retrograde transport of D-aspartate or the orthograde transport of radiolabelled proteins in these neurons. This blocking of dye transport does not appear to be a consequence of kainic acid-induced damage to axon terminals in the geniculate since retinal ganglion cells are still able to transport dyes retrograde. A more likely explanation for these results is that fluorescent dye transport requires electrical activity in neurons, and elimination of the geniculate afferents to visual cortex reduces impulse traffic in cortical output fibers to a level below that required to support detectable dye transport. This interpretation is supported by the observation that kainic acid lesions also reduce retrograde transport of dyes in cortical neurons which project to the superior colliculus. Electrical stimulation in the subcortical white matter restores the transport of dye compounds in corticogeniculate neurons: evidence consistent with an activity-dependent mechanism of retrograde transport for these substances. These results provide evidence that axon terminals of retinal ganglion cells and corticogeniculate neurons survive in kainate-lesioned geniculates and are capable of normal neuronal function.

  6. Versatility of the ventral approach in bulbar urethroplasty using dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral oral grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Palminteri, Enzo; Berdondini, Elisa; Fusco, Ferdinando; Nunzio, Cosimo De; Giannitsas, Kostas; Shokeir, Ahmed A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the versatility of the ventral urethrotomy approach in bulbar reconstruction with buccal mucosa (BM) grafts placed on the dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral urethral surface. Patients and methods Between 1999 and 2008, 216 patients with bulbar strictures underwent BM graft urethroplasty using the ventral-sagittal urethrotomy approach. Of these patients, 32 (14.8%; mean stricture 3.2?cm, range 1.5?5) had a dorsal graft urethroplasty (DGU), 121 (56%; mean stricture...

  7. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Ventral Foregut Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothová, Michaela; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Livigni, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), the ventral foregut precursor, is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other organs. Here, a method is described for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to definitive...... endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (embryoid body) culture or in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. ESC-derived ADE cells are committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards ventral foregut...

  8. Versatility of the ventral approach in bulbar urethroplasty using dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral oral grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminteri, Enzo; Berdondini, Elisa; Fusco, Ferdinando; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Giannitsas, Kostas; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the versatility of the ventral urethrotomy approach in bulbar reconstruction with buccal mucosa (BM) grafts placed on the dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral urethral surface. Between 1999 and 2008, 216 patients with bulbar strictures underwent BM graft urethroplasty using the ventral-sagittal urethrotomy approach. Of these patients, 32 (14.8%; mean stricture 3.2 cm, range 1.5-5) had a dorsal graft urethroplasty (DGU), 121 (56%; mean stricture 3.7, range 1.5-8) a ventral graft urethroplasty (VGU), and 63 (29.2%; mean stricture 3.4, range 1.5-10) a dorsal plus ventral graft urethroplasty (DVGU). The strictured urethra was opened by a ventral-sagittal urethrotomy and BM graft was inserted dorsally or ventrally or dorsal plus ventral to augment the urethral plate. The median follow-up was 37 months. The overall 5-year actuarial success rate was 91.4%. The 5-year actuarial success rates were 87.8%, 95.5% and 86.3% for the DGU, VGU and DVGU, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups. Success rates decreased significantly only with a stricture length of >4 cm. In BM graft bulbar urethroplasties the ventral urethrotomy access is simple and versatile, allowing an intraoperative choice of dorsal, ventral or combined dorsal and ventral grafting, with comparable success rates.

  9. Sub-threshold cross-modal sensory interaction in the thalamus: lemniscal auditory response in the medial geniculate nucleus is modulated by somatosensory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donishi, T; Kimura, A; Imbe, H; Yokoi, I; Kaneoke, Y

    2011-02-03

    Recent studies have highlighted cross-modal sensory modulations in the primary sensory areas in the cortex, suggesting that cross-modal sensory interactions occur at early stages in the hierarchy of sensory processing. Multi-modal sensory inputs from non-lemniscal thalamic nuclei and cortical inputs from the secondary sensory and association areas are considered responsible for the modulations. On the other hand, there is little evidence of cross-sensory modal sensitivities in lemniscal thalamic nuclei. In the present study, we were interested in a possibility that somatosensory stimulation may affect auditory response in the ventral division (MGV) of the medial geniculate nucleus (MG), a lemniscal thalamic nucleus that is considered to be dedicated to auditory uni-modal processing. Experiments were performed on anesthetized rats. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the hindpaw, which is thought to evoke nociception and seems unrelated to auditory processing, modulated unit discharges in response to auditory stimulation (noise bursts). The modulation was observed in the MGV and non-lemniscal auditory thalamic nuclei such as the dorsal and medial divisions of the MG. The major effect of somatosensory stimulation was suppression. The most robust suppression was induced by electrical stimuli given simultaneously with noise bursts or preceding noise bursts by 10 to 20 ms. The results indicate that the lemniscal (MGV) and non-lemniscal auditory nuclei are subject to somatosensory influence. In everyday experience intense somatosensory stimuli such as pain interrupt our ongoing hearing or interfere with clear recognition of sound. The modulation of lemniscal auditory response by somatosensory stimulation may underlie such cross-modal disturbance of auditory perception as a form of cross-modal switching of attention. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Danish ventral hernia database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The Danish Ventral Hernia Database (DVHD) provides national surveillance of current surgical practice and clinical postoperative outcomes. The intention is to reduce postoperative morbidity and hernia recurrence, evaluate new treatment strategies, and facilitate nationwide implementation of ...... of operations and is an excellent tool for observing changes over time, including adjustment of several confounders. This national database registry has impacted on clinical practice in Denmark and led to a high number of scientific publications in recent years.......Aim: The Danish Ventral Hernia Database (DVHD) provides national surveillance of current surgical practice and clinical postoperative outcomes. The intention is to reduce postoperative morbidity and hernia recurrence, evaluate new treatment strategies, and facilitate nationwide implementation...... to the surgical repair are recorded. Data registration is mandatory. Data may be merged with other Danish health registries and information from patient questionnaires or clinical examinations. Descriptive data: More than 37,000 operations have been registered. Data have demonstrated high agreement with patient...

  11. Ventral pallidum roles in reward and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Tindell, Amy J; Aldridge, J Wayne; Berridge, Kent C

    2009-01-23

    In recent years the ventral pallidum has become a focus of great research interest as a mechanism of reward and incentive motivation. As a major output for limbic signals, the ventral pallidum was once associated primarily with motor functions rather than regarded as a reward structure in its own right. However, ample evidence now suggests that ventral pallidum function is a major mechanism of reward in the brain. We review data indicating that (1) an intact ventral pallidum is necessary for normal reward and motivation, (2) stimulated activation of ventral pallidum is sufficient to cause reward and motivation enhancements, and (3) activation patterns in ventral pallidum neurons specifically encode reward and motivation signals via phasic bursts of excitation to incentive and hedonic stimuli. We conclude that the ventral pallidum may serve as an important 'limbic final common pathway' for mesocorticolimbic processing of many rewards.

  12. NON-GENICULATE CORALLINE ALGAE (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA FROM THE LOWER OLIGOCENE OF POLJŠICA PRI PODNARTU (NORTHERN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUKA GALE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their increasing importance in sedimentology and palaeoecology, non-geniculate coralline algae remain virtually overlooked in Slovenia. Though these plants are present or even abundant in the Cretaceous and Cainozoic strata, they have never been studied in detail with notable exception of corallines from the Lower Oligocene beds in the area of Gornji Grad. Poljšica pri Podnartu is another locality where Lower Oligocene beds are exposed, considered as equivalent to the former. The studied profile consists of pebbly limestone, mudstone, sandstone and limestone. Limestones contain abundant non-geniculate coralline algae. Nine species from six genera of these corallines have been identified: Lithoporella melobesioides (Foslie Foslie, 1909, Neogoniolithon contii (Mastrorilli Quaranta et al., 2007, Spongites sp., Lithothamnion sp. 1, Lithothamnion sp. 2, Mesophyllum sp. 1, Mesophyllum sp. 2, Mesophyllum sp. 3 and Sporolithon sp. Some of these species are described from Slovenia for the first time. 

  13. A new entity in the differential diagnosis of geniculate ganglion tumours: fibrous connective tissue lesion of the facial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba, Alvaro; Lassaletta, Luis; Pérez-Mora, Rosa María; Gavilán, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of geniculate ganglion tumours includes chiefly schwannomas, haemangiomas and meningiomas. We report the case of a patient whose clinical and imaging findings mimicked the presentation of a facial nerve schwannoma.Pathological studies revealed a lesion with nerve bundles unstructured by intense collagenisation. Consequently, it was called fibrous connective tissue lesion of the facial nerve. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Ventral impressions on the hypopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daschner, H.; Hannig, C.

    1991-01-01

    Two impressions can be seen on the ventral aspect of the hypopharynx and upper oesophagus; on static images it is difficult to differentiate these from small tumours. In order to evaluate this region more accurately, we have examined 150 patients by means of rapid rate cinematography. In 52.6% we found a constant irregular or convex impression formed by the cricoid; in the other cases this was not seen or was quite minimal. In 93% a sub-cricoid impression could be demonstrated which was due to lax mucosa. Characteristically this showed a variable appearance during the passage of a bolus. Only the cricoid impression was associated with dysphagia. (orig.) [de

  15. Contrast invariance of orientation tuning in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the feline visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sivaram; Jayakumar, Jaikishan; Vidyasagar, Trichur R

    2015-09-01

    Responses of most neurons in the primary visual cortex of mammals are markedly selective for stimulus orientation and their orientation tuning does not vary with changes in stimulus contrast. The basis of such contrast invariance of orientation tuning has been shown to be the higher variability in the response for low-contrast stimuli. Neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), which provides the major visual input to the cortex, have also been shown to have higher variability in their response to low-contrast stimuli. Parallel studies have also long established mild degrees of orientation selectivity in LGN and retinal cells. In our study, we show that contrast invariance of orientation tuning is already present in the LGN. In addition, we show that the variability of spike responses of LGN neurons increases at lower stimulus contrasts, especially for non-preferred orientations. We suggest that such contrast- and orientation-sensitive variability not only explains the contrast invariance observed in the LGN but can also underlie the contrast-invariant orientation tuning seen at the level of the primary visual cortex. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Hemispheric asymmetries in the orientation and location of the lateral geniculate nucleus in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Chica, Mónica; Schneider, Keith A

    2018-05-01

    Human brain asymmetry reflects normal specialization of functional roles and may derive from evolutionary, hereditary, developmental, experiential, and pathological factors (Toga & Thompson, 2003). Geschwind and Galaburda (1985) suggested that processing difficulties in dyslexia are due to structural differences between hemispheres. Because of its potential significance to the controversial magnocellular theory of dyslexia, we investigated hemispheric differences in the human lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), the primary visual relay and control nucleus in the thalamus, in subjects with dyslexia compared to normal readers. We acquired and averaged multiple high-resolution proton density (PD) weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes to measure in detail the anatomical boundaries of the LGN in each hemisphere. We observed hemispheric asymmetries in the orientation of the nucleus in subjects with dyslexia that were absent in controls. We also found differences in the location of the LGN between hemispheres in controls but not in subjects with dyslexia. Neither the precise anatomical differences in the LGN nor their functional consequences are known, nor is it clear whether the differences might be causes or effects of dyslexia. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Predictive feedback can account for biphasic responses in the lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke F M Jehee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic neural response properties, where the optimal stimulus for driving a neural response changes from one stimulus pattern to the opposite stimulus pattern over short periods of time, have been described in several visual areas, including lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, primary visual cortex (V1, and middle temporal area (MT. We describe a hierarchical model of predictive coding and simulations that capture these temporal variations in neuronal response properties. We focus on the LGN-V1 circuit and find that after training on natural images the model exhibits the brain's LGN-V1 connectivity structure, in which the structure of V1 receptive fields is linked to the spatial alignment and properties of center-surround cells in the LGN. In addition, the spatio-temporal response profile of LGN model neurons is biphasic in structure, resembling the biphasic response structure of neurons in cat LGN. Moreover, the model displays a specific pattern of influence of feedback, where LGN receptive fields that are aligned over a simple cell receptive field zone of the same polarity decrease their responses while neurons of opposite polarity increase their responses with feedback. This phase-reversed pattern of influence was recently observed in neurophysiology. These results corroborate the idea that predictive feedback is a general coding strategy in the brain.

  18. Input from the medial geniculate nucleus modulates amygdala encoding of fear memory discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Nicole C; Cullen, Patrick K; Pullins, Shane P; Rotondo, Elena K; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2017-09-01

    Generalization of fear can involve abnormal responding to cues that signal safety and is common in people diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. Differential auditory fear conditioning can be used as a tool to measure changes in fear discrimination and generalization. Most prior work in this area has focused on elevated amygdala activity as a critical component underlying generalization. The amygdala receives input from auditory cortex as well as the medial geniculate nucleus (MgN) of the thalamus, and these synapses undergo plastic changes in response to fear conditioning and are major contributors to the formation of memory related to both safe and threatening cues. The requirement for MgN protein synthesis during auditory discrimination and generalization, as well as the role of MgN plasticity in amygdala encoding of discrimination or generalization, have not been directly tested. GluR1 and GluR2 containing AMPA receptors are found at synapses throughout the amygdala and their expression is persistently up-regulated after learning. Some of these receptors are postsynaptic to terminals from MgN neurons. We found that protein synthesis-dependent plasticity in MgN is necessary for elevated freezing to both aversive and safe auditory cues, and that this is accompanied by changes in the expressions of AMPA receptor and synaptic scaffolding proteins (e.g., SHANK) at amygdala synapses. This work contributes to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying increased fear to safety signals after stress. © 2017 Ferrara et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Short-term Synaptic Depression in the Feedforward Inhibitory Circuit in the Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinaite, Sigita; Heggelund, Paul

    2018-05-24

    Synaptic short-term plasticity (STP) regulates synaptic transmission in an activity-dependent manner and thereby has important roles in the signal processing in the brain. In some synapses, a presynaptic train of action potentials elicits post-synaptic potentials that gradually increase during the train (facilitation), but in other synapses, these potentials gradually decrease (depression). We studied STP in neurons in the visual thalamic relay, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). The dLGN contains two types of neurons: excitatory thalamocortical (TC) neurons, which transfer signals from retinal afferents to visual cortex, and local inhibitory interneurons, which form an inhibitory feedforward loop that regulates the thalamocortical signal transmission. The overall STP in the retino-thalamic relay is short-term depression, but the distinct kind and characteristics of the plasticity at the different types of synapses are unknown. We studied STP in the excitatory responses of interneurons to stimulation of retinal afferents, in the inhibitory responses of TC neurons to stimulation of afferents from interneurons, and in the disynaptic inhibitory responses of TC neurons to stimulation of retinal afferents. Moreover, we studied STP at the direct excitatory input to TC neurons from retinal afferents. The STP at all types of the synapses showed short-term depression. This depression can accentuate rapid changes in the stream of signals and thereby promote detectability of significant features in the sensory input. In vision, detection of edges and contours is essential for object perception, and the synaptic short-term depression in the early visual pathway provides important contributions to this detection process. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Automatic segmentation of the lateral geniculate nucleus: Application to control and glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Miao, Wen; Li, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhen, Zonglei; Sabel, Bernhard; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2015-11-30

    The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is a key relay center of the visual system. Because the LGN morphology is affected by different diseases, it is of interest to analyze its morphology by segmentation. However, existing LGN segmentation methods are non-automatic, inefficient and prone to experimenters' bias. To address these problems, we proposed an automatic LGN segmentation algorithm based on T1-weighted imaging. First, the prior information of LGN was used to create a prior mask. Then region growing was applied to delineate LGN. We evaluated this automatic LGN segmentation method by (1) comparison with manually segmented LGN, (2) anatomically locating LGN in the visual system via LGN-based tractography, (3) application to control and glaucoma patients. The similarity coefficients of automatic segmented LGN and manually segmented one are 0.72 (0.06) for the left LGN and 0.77 (0.07) for the right LGN. LGN-based tractography shows the subcortical pathway seeding from LGN passes the optic tract and also reaches V1 through the optic radiation, which is consistent with the LGN location in the visual system. In addition, LGN asymmetry as well as LGN atrophy along with age is observed in normal controls. The investigation of glaucoma effects on LGN volumes demonstrates that the bilateral LGN volumes shrink in patients. The automatic LGN segmentation is objective, efficient, valid and applicable. Experiment results proved the validity and applicability of the algorithm. Our method will speed up the research on visual system and greatly enhance studies of different vision-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Repetitive and retinotopically restricted activation of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus with optogenetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Castonguay

    Full Text Available Optogenetics allows the control of cellular activity using focused delivery of light pulses. In neuroscience, optogenetic protocols have been shown to efficiently inhibit or stimulate neuronal activity with a high temporal resolution. Among the technical challenges associated with the use of optogenetics, one is the ability to target a spatially specific population of neurons in a given brain structure. To address this issue, we developed a side-illuminating optical fiber capable of delivering light to specific sites in a target nucleus with added flexibility through rotation and translation of the fiber and by varying the output light power. The designed optical fiber was tested in vivo in visual structures of ChR2-expressing transgenic mice. To assess the spatial extent of neuronal activity modulation, we took advantage of the hallmark of the visual system: its retinotopic organization. Indeed, the relative position of ganglion cells in the retina is transposed in the cellular topography of both the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN in the thalamus and the primary visual cortex (V1. The optical fiber was inserted in the LGN and by rotating it with a motor, it was possible to sequentially activate different neuronal populations within this structure. The activation of V1 neurons by LGN projections was recorded using intrinsic optical imaging. Increasing light intensity (from 1.4 to 8.9 mW/mm² led to increasing activation surfaces in V1. Optogenetic stimulation of the LGN at different translational and rotational positions was associated with different activation maps in V1. The position and/or orientation of the fiber inevitably varied across experiments, thus limiting the capacity to pool data. With the optogenetic design presented here, we demonstrate for the first time a transitory and spatially-concise activation of a deep neuronal structure. The optogenetic design presented here thus opens a promising avenue for studying the function

  2. Burst-time-dependent plasticity robustly guides ON/OFF segregation in the lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijana Gjorgjieva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous retinal activity (known as "waves" remodels synaptic connectivity to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN during development. Analysis of retinal waves recorded with multielectrode arrays in mouse suggested that a cue for the segregation of functionally distinct (ON and OFF retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in the LGN may be a desynchronization in their firing, where ON cells precede OFF cells by one second. Using the recorded retinal waves as input, with two different modeling approaches we explore timing-based plasticity rules for the evolution of synaptic weights to identify key features underlying ON/OFF segregation. First, we analytically derive a linear model for the evolution of ON and OFF weights, to understand how synaptic plasticity rules extract input firing properties to guide segregation. Second, we simulate postsynaptic activity with a nonlinear integrate-and-fire model to compare findings with the linear model. We find that spike-time-dependent plasticity, which modifies synaptic weights based on millisecond-long timing and order of pre- and postsynaptic spikes, fails to segregate ON and OFF retinal inputs in the absence of normalization. Implementing homeostatic mechanisms results in segregation, but only with carefully-tuned parameters. Furthermore, extending spike integration timescales to match the second-long input correlation timescales always leads to ON segregation because ON cells fire before OFF cells. We show that burst-time-dependent plasticity can robustly guide ON/OFF segregation in the LGN without normalization, by integrating pre- and postsynaptic bursts irrespective of their firing order and over second-long timescales. We predict that an LGN neuron will become ON- or OFF-responsive based on a local competition of the firing patterns of neighboring RGCs connecting to it. Finally, we demonstrate consistency with ON/OFF segregation in ferret, despite differences in the firing properties of retinal waves. Our

  3. Primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oma, E; Bay-Nielsen, M; Jensen, K K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence, management, and risk of emergency operation for primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy are unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalences of primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy and the potential risks for elective and emergency repair...... was conducted to identify patients registered with a primary ventral or groin hernia in pregnancy. Follow-up was conducted by review of medical record notes within the Capital Region of Denmark supplemented with structured telephone interviews on indication. RESULTS: In total, 20,714 pregnant women were...... included in the study cohort. Seventeen (0.08%) and 25 (0.12%) women were registered with a primary ventral and groin hernia, respectively. None underwent elective or emergency repair in pregnancy, and all had uncomplicated childbirth. In 10 women, the groin bulge disappeared spontaneously after delivery...

  4. Polyester composite versus PTFE in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Modesto J; Telem, Dana A; Chin, Edward; Weber, Kaare; Divino, Celia M; Nguyen, Scott Q

    2011-01-01

    Both polyester composite (POC) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh are commonly used for laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. However, sparse information exists comparing perioperative and long-term outcome by mesh repair. A prospective database was utilized to identify 116 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral hernia repair at The Mount Sinai Hospital from 2004-2009. Patients were grouped by type of mesh used, PTFE versus POC, and retrospectively compared. Follow-up at a mean of 12 months was achieved by telephone interview and office visit. Of the 116 patients, 66 underwent ventral hernia repair with PTFE and 50 with POC mesh. Patients were well matched by patient demographics. No difference in mean body mass index (BMI) was demonstrated between the PTFE and POC group (31.8 vs. 32.5, respectively; P=NS). Operative time was significantly longer in the PTFE group (136 vs.106 minutes, PPTFE group and none in the POC group (P NS). No other major complications occurred in the immediate postoperative period (30 days). At a mean follow-up of 12 months, no significant difference was demonstrated between the PTFE and POC groups in hernia recurrence (3% vs. 2%), wound complications (1% vs. 0%), mesh infection, requiring removal (3% vs. 0%), bowel obstruction (3% vs. 2%), or persistent pain or discomfort (28% vs. 32%), respectively (P=NS). Our study demonstrated no significant association between types of mesh used and postoperative complications. In the 12-month follow-up, no differences were noted in hernia recurrence.

  5. Vomeronasal inputs to the rodent ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, I; Novejarque, A; Mohedano-Moriano, A; Pro-Sistiaga, P; Insausti, R; Martinez-Garcia, F; Lanuza, E; Martinez-Marcos, A

    2008-03-18

    Vertebrates sense chemical signals through the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. In squamate reptiles, which possess the largest vomeronasal system of all vertebrates, the accessory olfactory bulb projects to the nucleus sphericus, which in turn projects to a portion of the ventral striatum known as olfactostriatum. Characteristically, the olfactostriatum is innervated by neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin immunoreactive fibers. In this study, the possibility that a structure similar to the reptilian olfactostriatum might be present in the mammalian brain has been investigated. Injections of dextran-amines have been aimed at the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus (the putative mammalian homologue of the reptilian nucleus sphericus) of rats and mice. The resulting anterograde labeling includes the olfactory tubercle, the islands of Calleja and sparse terminal fields in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. This projection has been confirmed by injections of retrograde tracers into the ventral striato-pallidum that render retrograde labeling in the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus. The analysis of the distribution of neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and substance P in the ventral striato-pallidum of rats, and the anterograde tracing of the vomeronasal amygdaloid input in the same material confirm that, similar to reptiles, the ventral striatum of mammals includes a specialized vomeronasal structure (olfactory tubercle and islands of Calleja) displaying dense neuropeptide Y-, tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-immunoreactive innervations. The possibility that parts of the accumbens shell and/or ventral pallidum could be included in the mammalian olfactostriatum cannot be discarded.

  6. Ventral aspect of the visual form pathway is not critical for the perception of biological motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the movements of those around us is fundamental for many daily activities, such as recognizing actions, detecting predators, and interacting with others socially. A key question concerns the neurobiological substrates underlying biological motion perception. Although the ventral “form” visual cortex is standardly activated by biologically moving stimuli, whether these activations are functionally critical for biological motion perception or are epiphenomenal remains unknown. To address this question, we examined whether focal damage to regions of the ventral visual cortex, resulting in significant deficits in form perception, adversely affects biological motion perception. Six patients with damage to the ventral cortex were tested with sensitive point-light display paradigms. All patients were able to recognize unmasked point-light displays and their perceptual thresholds were not significantly different from those of three different control groups, one of which comprised brain-damaged patients with spared ventral cortex (n > 50). Importantly, these six patients performed significantly better than patients with damage to regions critical for biological motion perception. To assess the necessary contribution of different regions in the ventral pathway to biological motion perception, we complement the behavioral findings with a fine-grained comparison between the lesion location and extent, and the cortical regions standardly implicated in biological motion processing. This analysis revealed that the ventral aspects of the form pathway (e.g., fusiform regions, ventral extrastriate body area) are not critical for biological motion perception. We hypothesize that the role of these ventral regions is to provide enhanced multiview/posture representations of the moving person rather than to represent biological motion perception per se. PMID:25583504

  7. Postsynaptic potentials recorded in neurons of the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus following electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, S A; Sherman, S M

    1988-12-01

    1. We recorded intracellularly from X and Y cells of the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus and measured the postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) evoked from electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm. We used an in vivo preparation and computer averaged the PSPs to enhance their signal-to-noise ratio. 2. The vast majority (46 of 50) of our sample of X and Y cells responded to stimulation of the optic chiasm with an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) followed by an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP); these were tentatively identified as relay cells. We quantified several parameters of these PSPs, including amplitude, latency, time to peak (i.e., rise time), and duration. 3. Among the relay cells, the latencies of both the EPSP and action potential evoked by optic chiasm stimulation were shorter in Y cells than in X cells. Furthermore, the difference between the latencies of the EPSP and action potential was shorter for Y cells than for X cells. This means that the EPSPs generated in Y cells reached threshold for generation of action potentials faster than did those in X cells. The EPSPs of Y cells also displayed larger amplitudes and faster rise times than did those in X cells, but neither of these distinctions was sufficient to explain the shorter latency difference between the EPSP and action potential for Y cells. 4. The EPSPs recorded in relay Y cells had longer durations than did those in relay X cells. Our data suggest that the subsequent IPSP actively terminates the EPSP, which, in turn, suggests that the time interval between EPSP and IPSP onsets is longer in Y cells than in X cells. Furthermore, we found that, for individual Y cells, the latency and duration of the evoked EPSP were inversely related. These observations lead to the conclusion that the latency of IPSPs activated from the optic chiasm is relatively constant among Y cells and thus independent of the EPSP latencies. Thus the excitation and inhibition produced in individual geniculate Y

  8. Imaging findings in patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of neural tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, A.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M.; Psenner, K.; Hamburger, C.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe clinical and imaging findings in three patients with ventral dural defects and herniation of the spinal cord or cauda equina. The literature is reviewed and the clinical, radiological and operative findings are compared. Three patients with ventral dural defects of different etiologies are presented. One patient gave a longstanding history of ankylosing spondylitis, the second patient presents 37 years after spinal trauma, and the third patient presents with spontaneous spinal cord herniation. All patients had typically slowly progressive neurological symptoms with multiple hospitalizations until diagnosis was made. Characteristic findings in postmyelographic CT included a ventral or ventrolateral displacement with deformation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina. Sagittal MRI showed this abrupt and localized anterior deviation of the spinal cord or the cauda equina to the posterior portions of a vertebral body with or without a bony vertebral defect optimally. Additionally, due to the ventral displacement of the spinal cord, the dorsal subarachnoid space was relatively enlarged without evidence of an arachnoid cyst, in all patients. Magnetic resonance imaging and postmyelographic CT can diagnose ventral dural defects with spinal cord herniation or nerve root entrapment. Dural defects must be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms in cases of longstanding ankylosing spondylitis, late sequelae of fractures of vertebral bodies, and without history of spinal trauma or surgery. (orig.). With 3 figs

  9. Ventral hernia repair with poly-4-hydroxybutyrate mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plymale, Margaret A; Davenport, Daniel L; Dugan, Adam; Zachem, Amanda; Roth, John Scott

    2018-04-01

    Biomaterial research has made available a biologically derived fully resorbable poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) mesh for use in ventral and incisional hernia repair (VIHR). This study evaluates outcomes of patients undergoing VIHR with P4HB mesh. An IRB-approved prospective pilot study was conducted to assess clinical and quality of life (QOL) outcomes for patients undergoing VIHR with P4HB mesh. Perioperative characteristics were defined. Clinical outcomes, employment status, QOL using 12-item short form survey (SF-12), and pain assessments were followed for 24 months postoperatively. 31 patients underwent VIHR with bioresorbable mesh via a Rives-Stoppa approach with retrorectus mesh placement. The median patient age was 52 years, median body mass index was 33 kg/m 2 , and just over half of the patients were female. Surgical site occurrences occurred in 19% of patients, most of which were seroma. Hernia recurrence rate was 0% (median follow-up = 414 days). Patients had significantly improved QOL at 24 months compared to baseline for SF-12 physical component summary and role emotional (p < 0.05). Ventral hernia repair with P4HB bioresorbable mesh results in favorable outcomes. Early hernia recurrence was not identified among the patient cohort. Quality of life improvements were noted at 24 months versus baseline for this cohort of patients with bioresorbable mesh. Use of P4HB mesh for ventral hernia repair was found to be feasible in this patient population. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01863030).

  10. Requirement of Xmsx-1 in the BMP-triggered ventralization of Xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T S; Takagi, C; Ueno, N

    2000-03-01

    Signaling triggered by polypeptide growth factors leads to the activation of their target genes. Several homeobox genes are known to be induced in response to polypeptide growth factors in early Xenopus development. In particular, Xmsx-1, an amphibian homologue of vertebrate Msx-1, is well characterized as a target gene of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Here, using a dominant-negative form of Xmsx-1 (VP-Xmsx-1), which is a fusion protein made with the virus-derived VP16 activation domain, we have examined whether Xmsx-1 activity is required in the endogenous ventralizing pathway. VP-Xmsx-1 induced a secondary body axis, complete with muscle and neural tissues, when overexpressed in ventral blastomeres, suggesting that Xmsx-1 activity is necessary for both mesoderm and ectoderm to be ventralized. We have also examined the epistatic relationship between Xmsx-1 and another ventralizing homeobox protein, Xvent-1, and show that Xmsx-1 is likely to be acting upstream of Xvent-1. We propose that Xmsx-1 is required in the BMP-stimulated ventralization pathway that involves the downstream activation of Xvent-1.

  11. The ventral premammillary nucleus links leptin action and reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose eDonato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of body fat and the energy balance are important factors that influence the timing of puberty and the normal reproductive function. Leptin is a key hormone that conveys to the central nervous system information about the individual energy reserve and modulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis. Recent findings suggest that the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV mediates the effects of leptin as a permissive factor for the onset of puberty and the coordinated secretion of luteinizing hormone during conditions of negative energy balance. Thus, in this review we will summarize the existing literature about the potential role played by PMV neurons in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis.

  12. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  13. Morphology, classification, and distribution of the projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changying Ling

    Full Text Available The morphology of confirmed projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN of the rat was examined by filling these cells retrogradely with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA injected into the visual cortex. BDA-labeled projection neurons varied widely in the shape and size of their cell somas, with mean cross-sectional areas ranging from 60-340 µm(2. Labeled projection neurons supported 7-55 dendrites that spanned up to 300 µm in length and formed dendritic arbors with cross-sectional areas of up to 7.0 × 10(4 µm(2. Primary dendrites emerged from cell somas in three broad patterns. In some dLGN projection neurons, primary dendrites arise from the cell soma at two poles spaced approximately 180° apart. In other projection neurons, dendrites emerge principally from one side of the cell soma, while in a third group of projection neurons primary dendrites emerge from the entire perimeter of the cell soma. Based on these three distinct patterns in the distribution of primary dendrites from cell somas, we have grouped dLGN projection neurons into three classes: bipolar cells, basket cells and radial cells, respectively. The appendages seen on dendrites also can be grouped into three classes according to differences in their structure. Short "tufted" appendages arise mainly from the distal branches of dendrites; "spine-like" appendages, fine stalks with ovoid heads, typically are seen along the middle segments of dendrites; and "grape-like" appendages, short stalks that terminate in a cluster of ovoid bulbs, appear most often along the proximal segments of secondary dendrites of neurons with medium or large cell somas. While morphologically diverse dLGN projection neurons are intermingled uniformly throughout the nucleus, the caudal pole of the dLGN contains more small projection neurons of all classes than the rostral pole.

  14. The subcellular distribution of T-type Ca2+ channels in interneurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allken, Vaneeda; Chepkoech, Joy-Loi; Einevoll, Gaute T; Halnes, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons (INs) in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) provide both axonal and dendritic GABA output to thalamocortical relay cells (TCs). Distal parts of the IN dendrites often enter into complex arrangements known as triadic synapses, where the IN dendrite plays a dual role as postsynaptic to retinal input and presynaptic to TC dendrites. Dendritic GABA release can be triggered by retinal input, in a highly localized process that is functionally isolated from the soma, but can also be triggered by somatically elicited Ca(2+)-spikes and possibly by backpropagating action potentials. Ca(2+)-spikes in INs are predominantly mediated by T-type Ca(2+)-channels (T-channels). Due to the complex nature of the dendritic signalling, the function of the IN is likely to depend critically on how T-channels are distributed over the somatodendritic membrane (T-distribution). To study the relationship between the T-distribution and several IN response properties, we here run a series of simulations where we vary the T-distribution in a multicompartmental IN model with a realistic morphology. We find that the somatic response to somatic current injection is facilitated by a high T-channel density in the soma-region. Conversely, a high T-channel density in the distal dendritic region is found to facilitate dendritic signalling in both the outward direction (increases the response in distal dendrites to somatic input) and the inward direction (the soma responds stronger to distal synaptic input). The real T-distribution is likely to reflect a compromise between several neural functions, involving somatic response patterns and dendritic signalling.

  15. Chromatic summation and receptive field properties of blue-on and blue-off cells in marmoset lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, C D; Pietersen, A N J; Zeater, N; Solomon, S G; Martin, P R

    2017-11-22

    The "blue-on" and "blue-off" receptive fields in retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of diurnal primates combine signals from short-wavelength sensitive (S) cone photoreceptors with signals from medium/long wavelength sensitive (ML) photoreceptors. Three questions about this combination remain unresolved. Firstly, is the combination of S and ML signals in these cells linear or non-linear? Secondly, how does the timing of S and ML inputs to these cells influence their responses? Thirdly, is there spatial antagonism within S and ML subunits of the receptive field of these cells? We measured contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency tuning for four types of drifting sine gratings: S cone isolating, ML cone isolating, achromatic (S + ML), and counterphase chromatic (S - ML), in extracellular recordings from LGN of marmoset monkeys. We found that responses to stimuli which modulate both S and ML cones are well predicted by a linear sum of S and ML signals, followed by a saturating contrast-response relation. Differences in sensitivity and timing (i.e. vector combination) between S and ML inputs are needed to explain the amplitude and phase of responses to achromatic (S + ML) and counterphase chromatic (S - ML) stimuli. Best-fit spatial receptive fields for S and/or ML subunits in most cells (>80%) required antagonistic surrounds, usually in the S subunit. The surrounds were however generally weak and had little influence on spatial tuning. The sensitivity and size of S and ML subunits were correlated on a cell-by-cell basis, adding to evidence that blue-on and blue-off receptive fields are specialised to signal chromatic but not spatial contrast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Suture, synthetic, or biologic in contaminated ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondre, Ioana L; Holihan, Julie L; Askenasy, Erik P; Greenberg, Jacob A; Keith, Jerrod N; Martindale, Robert G; Roth, J Scott; Liang, Mike K

    2016-02-01

    Data are lacking to support the choice between suture, synthetic mesh, or biologic matrix in contaminated ventral hernia repair (VHR). We hypothesize that in contaminated VHR, suture repair is associated with the lowest rate of surgical site infection (SSI). A multicenter database of all open VHR performed at from 2010-2011 was reviewed. All patients with follow-up of 1 mo and longer were included. The primary outcome was SSI as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The secondary outcome was hernia recurrence (assessed clinically or radiographically). Multivariate analysis (stepwise regression for SSI and Cox proportional hazard model for recurrence) was performed. A total of 761 VHR were reviewed for a median (range) follow-up of 15 (1-50) mo: there were 291(38%) suture, 303 (40%) low-density and/or mid-density synthetic mesh, and 167(22%) biologic matrix repair. On univariate analysis, there were differences in the three groups including ethnicity, ASA, body mass index, institution, diabetes, primary versus incisional hernia, wound class, hernia size, prior VHR, fascial release, skin flaps, and acute repair. The unadjusted outcomes for SSI (15.1%; 17.8%; 21.0%; P = 0.280) and recurrence (17.8%; 13.5%; 21.5%; P = 0.074) were not statistically different between groups. On multivariate analysis, biologic matrix was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in both SSI and recurrences, whereas synthetic mesh associated with fewer recurrences compared to suture (hazard ratio = 0.60; P = 0.015) and nonsignificant increase in SSI. Interval estimates favored biologic matrix repair in contaminated VHR; however, these results were not statistically significant. In the absence of higher level evidence, surgeons should carefully balance risk, cost, and benefits in managing contaminated ventral hernia repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Which way is up? Asymmetric spectral input along the dorsal-ventral axis influences postural responses in an amphibious annelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellies, John

    2014-11-01

    Medicinal leeches are predatory annelids that exhibit countershading and reside in aquatic environments where light levels might be variable. They also leave the water and must contend with terrestrial environments. Yet, leeches generally maintain a dorsal upward position despite lacking statocysts. Leeches respond visually to both green and near-ultraviolet (UV) light. I used LEDs to test the hypothesis that ventral, but not dorsal UV would evoke compensatory movements to orient the body. Untethered leeches were tested using LEDs emitting at red (632 nm), green (513 nm), blue (455 nm) and UV (372 nm). UV light evoked responses in 100 % of trials and the leeches often rotated the ventral surface away from it. Visible light evoked no or modest responses (12-15 % of trials) and no body rotation. Electrophysiological recordings showed that ventral sensilla responded best to UV, dorsal sensilla to green. Additionally, a higher order interneuron that is engaged in a variety of parallel networks responded vigorously to UV presented ventrally, and both the visible and UV responses exhibited pronounced light adaptation. These results strongly support the suggestion that a dorsal light reflex in the leech uses spectral comparisons across the dorsal-ventral axis rather than, or in addition to, luminance.

  18. Activation of lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal subjects and in patients with visual disturbance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Atsushi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

    2002-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during visual stimulation can detect regional cerebral blood flow changes that reflect neural activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex, which are major relay points in the human afferent visual system. FMRI has been used in the clinical evaluation of visual disorders such as homonymous hemianopia and unilateral eye diseases (optic neuritis, amblyopia, and so on). Future development in the data acquisition and data analysis may facilitate the use of fMRI for the management of patients with visual deficits and understanding of the visual disorders. (author)

  19. Activation of lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal subjects and in patients with visual disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during visual stimulation can detect regional cerebral blood flow changes that reflect neural activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex, which are major relay points in the human afferent visual system. FMRI has been used in the clinical evaluation of visual disorders such as homonymous hemianopia and unilateral eye diseases (optic neuritis, amblyopia, and so on). Future development in the data acquisition and data analysis may facilitate the use of fMRI for the management of patients with visual deficits and understanding of the visual disorders. (author)

  20. Ventral Slit Scrotal Flap: A New Outpatient Surgical Option for Reconstruction of Adult Buried Penis Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Mary E; Tausch, Timothy J; Zhao, Lee C; Siegel, Jordan A; Starke, Nathan; Klein, Alexandra K; Morey, Allen F

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel technique using ventral slit with scrotal skin flaps (VSSF) for the reconstruction of adult buried penis without skin grafting. An initial ventral slit is made in the phimotic ring, and the penis is exposed. To cover the defect in the ventral shaft skin, local flaps are created by making a ventral midline scrotal incision with horizontal relaxing incisions. The scrotal flaps are rotated to resurface the ventral shaft. Clinical data analyzed included preoperative diagnoses, length of stay, blood loss, and operative outcomes. Complications were also recorded. Fifteen consecutive patients with a penis trapped due to lichen sclerosus (LS) or phimosis underwent repair with VSSF. Each was treated in the outpatient setting with no perioperative complications. Mean age was 51 years (range, 26-75 years), and mean body mass index was 42.6 kg/m(2) (range, 29.8-53.9 kg/m(2)). The majority of patients (13 of 15, 87%) had a pathologic diagnosis of LS. Mean estimated blood loss was 57 cc (range, 25-200 cc), mean operative time was 83 minutes (range, 35-145 minutes), and all patients were discharged on the day of surgery. The majority of patients (11 of 15, 73.3%) remain satisfied with their results and have required no further intervention. Recurrences in 3 of 15 (20.0%) were due to LS, panniculus migration, and concealment by edematous groin tissue; 2 of these patients underwent subsequent successful skin grafting. VSSF is a versatile, safe, and effective reconstructive option in appropriately selected patients with buried penis, which enables reconstruction of penile shaft skin defects without requiring complex skin grafting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The issue of ventral versus dorsal approach in bulbar urethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Palminteri

    From surgical point of view, the Barbagli Dorsal Grafting by Dor- sal approach [8] gives a good support for the graft; Barbagli stated that his technique offers a wider augmentation than ventral or dorsal grafting using the ventral approach. The good spongiosum covering seems reduce the risk of fistula; in reality there is a ...

  2. Morphoquantitative changes in central and intermediate sections of visual analyzer after whole-body x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logvinov, S.V.; Ryzhov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Morphoquantitative estimation of changes in 4 and 5 layers of visual cortex and outer geniculated bodies of the brain of guinea pigs subjected to whole-body X-irradiation with a median lethal doses shows that neurons from the visual analyzer sections under study are differently damaged. The morphogenesis of changes is connected with the original variations in the quantitative structure of a neuron-glial complex displaying and selective alterative and productive reaction of the perivascular glia

  3. Identification of dorsal root synaptic terminals on monkey ventral horn cells by electron microscopic autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralston, H.J.; Ralston, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    The projection of dorsal root fibres to the motor nucleus of the macaque monkey spinal cord has been examined utilizing light and electron microscopic autoradiography. Light microscopy demonstrates a very sparse labelling of primary afferent fibres in the ventral horn. Silver grains overlying radioactive sources are frequently clustered into small groups, often adjacent to dendritic profiles. Under the electron microscope, myelinated axons and a few large synaptic profiles containing rounded synaptic vesicles were overlain by numerous silver grains. These labelled profiles made synaptic contact with dendrites 1 - 3 micrometers in diameter. The labelled profiles did not contact cell bodies or large proximal dendrites of ventral horn neutrons. Frequently, small synaptic profiles containing flattened vesicles were presynaptic to the large labelled terminals and it is suggested that these axoaxonal synapses may mediate presynaptic inhibition of the primary afferent fibres. The relationship of the present findings to previously published physiological and anatomical studies is discussed. (author)

  4. Dorsal free graft urethroplasty for urethral stricture by ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asopa, H S; Garg, M; Singhal, G G; Singh, L; Asopa, J; Nischal, A

    2001-11-01

    To explore the feasibility of applying a dorsal free graft to treat urethral stricture by the ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach without mobilizing the urethra. Twelve patients with long or multiple strictures of the anterior urethra were treated by a dorsal free full-thickness preputial or buccal mucosa graft. The urethra was not separated from the corporal bodies and was opened in the midline over the stricture. The floor of the urethra was incised, and an elliptical raw area was created over the tunica on which a free full-thickness graft of preputial or buccal mucosa was secured. The urethra was retubularized in one stage. After a follow-up of 8 to 40 months, one recurrence developed and required dilation. The ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach for dorsal free graft urethroplasty is not only feasible and successful, but is easy to perform.

  5. Comparison of the Schirmer tear test I values after placement in ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftab, Ghazal; Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Faghihi, Houman

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the Schirmer tear test I values obtained from placement of Schirmer tear test (STT) strips in ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices and to investigate any correlation between age, body weight and STT values in clinically normal cats. Methods Twenty-eight intact adult domestic shorthair and Persian were used in this study. The cats were gently physically restrained in a sternal position, and a Schirmer tear strip was placed on each eye in the ventral conjunctival fornix at one-third of the distance from the temporal to nasal canthus for 60 s. Then, the wetted portion of the strips was measured as mm/min (L-STT I). After 48 h, the same procedure was performed on each eye in the dorsal conjunctival fornix (U-STT I). Results Mean ± SD STT values of the ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices were 20.80 ± 2.25 mm/min (range 14-25 mm/min; 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.92-21.67) and 18.28 ± 2.27 mm/min (range 15-22 mm/min; 95% CI 17.39-19.16) in all of the study population, respectively. A significant difference was found between STT values obtained from the ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices ( P <0.001). There was no correlation between the age and body weight of the animals and STT I values. Conclusions and relevance This study compared the STT I values of the dorsal and ventral conjunctival fornices in cats. The difference was significant between the L-STT I and U-STT I values; however, the L-STT I and U-STT I values were within normal reference intervals. The U-STT I data have diagnostic value that might be of benefit in cases where there is a problem in the ventral conjunctival fornix.

  6. Establishment and initial experiences from the Danish Ventral Hernia Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, F; Rosenberg, J; Bay-Nielsen, M

    2010-01-01

    , use of mesh or no mesh, type of suture material, and placement of the mesh. A total of 5,629 elective and 661 acute ventral hernia repairs were registered. After the first 2 years the registration rate was 70%. CONCLUSION: The first national ventral hernia database has been established. Preliminary...... of the Danish Ventral Hernia Database (DVHD). Furthermore, the first 2-year data from 2007 to 2008 are presented. METHODS: Registrations were based on surgeons' web registrations and validated by cross checking with data from the Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: The DVHD was established in June 2006...... and is based on prospective online web-registration of perioperative data, and individualised tracking of follow up data. During the first 2 years (2007-2008) data showed a large variation in almost all aspects of ventral hernia repair regarding surgical technique, use of open versus laparoscopic technique...

  7. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J

    2010-01-01

    Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... gambling despite losses, known as 'chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method: We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride to measure...... dopamine release in the ventral striatum of 16 PG and 15 HC playing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Results: PG who lost money had significantly increased dopamine release in the left ventral striatum compared with HC. PG and HC who won money did not differ in dopamine release. Conclusion: Our findings...

  8. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  9. Multicenter review of robotic versus laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: is there a role for robotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter A; May, Audriene C; Mo, Jiandi; Cherla, Deepa V; Santillan, Monica Rosales; Kim, Steven; Ryan, Heidi; Shah, Shinil K; Wilson, Erik B; Tsuda, Shawn

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of robotic platforms for general surgery procedures such as hernia repair is growing rapidly in the United States. A limited amount of data are available evaluating operative outcomes in comparison to standard laparoscopic surgery. We completed a retrospective review comparing robotic and laparoscopic ventral hernia repair to provide safety and outcomes data to help design a future prospective trial design. A retrospective review of 215 patients undergoing ventral hernia repair (142 robotic and 73 laparoscopic) was completed at two large academic centers. Primary outcome measure evaluated was recurrence. Secondary outcomes included incidence of primary fascial closure, and surgical site occurrences. Propensity for treatment match comparison demonstrated that robotic repair was associated with a decreased incidence of recurrence (2.1 versus 4.2%, p robotic repair was associated with increased incidence of primary fascial closure (77.1 versus 66.7%, p robotic repairs were completed on patients with lower body mass index (28.1 ± 3.6 versus 34.2 ± 6.4, p robotic repair was associated with decreased recurrence and surgical site occurrence. However, the differences noted in the patient populations limit the interpretability of these results. As adoption of robotic ventral hernia repair increases, prospective trials need to be designed in order to investigate the efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of this evolving technique.

  10. Microsurgical anatomy of the ventral callosal radiations: new destination, correlations with diffusion tensor imaging fiber-tracking, and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Johann; Verclytte, Sébastien; Delmaire, Christine; Deramond, Hervé; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Le Gars, Daniel; Godefroy, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    In the current literature, there is a lack of a detailed map of the origin, course, and connections of the ventral callosal radiations of the human brain. The authors used an older dissection technique based on a freezing process as well as diffusion tensor imaging to investigate this area of the human brain. The authors demonstrated interconnections between areas 11, 12, and 25 for the callosal radiations of the trunk and rostrum of the corpus callosum; between areas 9, 10, and 32 for the genu; and between areas 6, 8, and 9 for the ventral third of the body. The authors identified new ventral callosal connections crossing the rostrum between both temporal poles and coursing within the temporal stem, and they named these connections the "callosal radiations of Peltier." They found that the breadth of the callosal radiations slightly increases along their course from the rostrum to the first third of the body of the corpus callosum. The fiber dissection and diffusion tensor imaging techniques are complementary not only in their application to the study of the commissural system in the human brain, but also in their practical use for diagnosis and surgical planning. Further investigations, neurocognitive tests, and other contributions will permit elucidation of the functional relevance of the newly identified callosal radiations in patients with disease involving the ventral corpus callosum.

  11. Amphioxus mouth after dorso-ventral inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Takao; Reimer, James D; Morov, Arseniy R; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yasui, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Deuterostomes (animals with 'secondary mouths') are generally accepted to develop the mouth independently of the blastopore. However, it remains largely unknown whether mouths are homologous among all deuterostome groups. Unlike other bilaterians, in amphioxus the mouth initially opens on the left lateral side. This peculiar morphology has not been fully explained in the evolutionary developmental context. We studied the developmental process of the amphioxus mouth to understand whether amphioxus acquired a new mouth, and if so, how it is related to or differs from mouths in other deuterostomes. The left first somite in amphioxus produces a coelomic vesicle between the epidermis and pharynx that plays a crucial role in the mouth opening. The vesicle develops in association with the amphioxus-specific Hatschek nephridium, and first opens into the pharynx and then into the exterior as a mouth. This asymmetrical development of the anterior-most somites depends on the Nodal-Pitx signaling unit, and the perturbation of laterality-determining Nodal signaling led to the disappearance of the vesicle, producing a symmetric pair of anterior-most somites that resulted in larvae lacking orobranchial structures. The vesicle expressed bmp2/4, as seen in ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canals, and the mouth did not open when Bmp2/4 signaling was blocked. We conclude that the amphioxus mouth, which uniquely involves a mesodermal coelomic vesicle, shares its evolutionary origins with the ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canal. Our observations suggest that there are at least three types of mouths in deuterostomes, and that the new acquisition of chordate mouths was likely related to the dorso-ventral inversion that occurred in the last common ancestor of chordates.

  12. Reduced activation in ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area during probabilistic decision-making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Franziska; Mier, Daniela; Eifler, Sarah; Esslinger, Christine; Schilling, Claudia; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Englisch, Susanne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2014-07-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from deficits in monitoring and controlling their own thoughts. Within these so-called metacognitive impairments, alterations in probabilistic reasoning might be one cognitive phenomenon disposing to delusions. However, so far little is known about alterations in associated brain functionality. A previously established task for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of stimuli, was applied to 23 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy controls matched for age, gender and educational levels. We compared activation patterns during decision-making under conditions of certainty versus uncertainty and evaluated the process of final decision-making in ventral striatum (VS) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). We replicated a pre-described extended cortical activation pattern during probabilistic reasoning. During final decision-making, activations in several fronto- and parietocortical areas, as well as in VS and VTA became apparent. In both of these regions schizophrenia patients showed a significantly reduced activation. These results further define the network underlying probabilistic decision-making. The observed hypo-activation in regions commonly associated with dopaminergic neurotransmission fits into current concepts of disrupted prediction error signaling in schizophrenia and suggests functional links to reward anticipation. Forthcoming studies with patients at risk for psychosis and drug-naive first episode patients are necessary to elucidate the development of these findings over time and the interplay with associated clinical symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lower Oligocene non-geniculate coralline red algal (Corallinales, Rhodophyta assemblage from Poljšica pri Podnartu (Upper Carniola, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Gale

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Oligocene Gornji Grad beds from Polj{ica pri Podnartu consist of marly limestone, mudstone, several layers of limestones and two layers of sandstones, and were deposited on a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp.Especially the limestones contain rich fossil fauna and non-geniculate coralline red algae. These were systematicallycollected from four horizons and researched in thin sections under an optical microscope. Genera Lithoporella,Neogoniolithon, Spongites, Lithothamnion, Mesophyllum and Spongites were recognized. Surface area for each genus was calculated and the differences in the coralline assemblages in the four horizons were analysed. Thecorallines originate from two source areas: sandy-muddy bottom of a shallow marine environment, and small coral bioherms with its encrusters.

  14. A new model of strabismic amblyopia: Loss of spatial acuity due to increased temporal dispersion of geniculate X-cell afferents on to cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, D P; Crewther, S G

    2015-09-01

    Although the neural locus of strabismic amblyopia has been shown to lie at the first site of binocular integration, first in cat and then in primate, an adequate mechanism is still lacking. Here we hypothesise that increased temporal dispersion of LGN X-cell afferents driven by the deviating eye onto single cortical neurons may provide a neural mechanism for strabismic amblyopia. This idea was investigated via single cell extracellular recordings of 93 X and 50 Y type LGN neurons from strabismic and normal cats. Both X and Y neurons driven by the non-deviating eye showed shorter latencies than those driven by either the strabismic or normal eyes. Also the mean latency difference between X and Y neurons was much greater for the strabismic cells compared with the other two groups. The incidence of lagged X-cells driven by the deviating eye of the strabismic cats was higher than that of LGN X-cells from normal animals. Remarkably, none of the cells recorded from the laminae driven by the non-deviating eye were of the lagged class. A simple computational model was constructed in which a mixture of lagged and non-lagged afferents converge on to single cortical neurons. Model cut-off spatial frequencies to a moving grating stimulus were sensitive to the temporal dispersion of the geniculate afferents. Thus strabismic amblyopia could be viewed as a lack of developmental tuning of geniculate lags for neurons driven by the amblyopic eye. Monocular control of fixation by the non-deviating eye is associated with reduced incidence of lagged neurons, suggesting that in normal vision, lagged neurons might play a role in maintaining binocular connections for cortical neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Financial implications of ventral hernia repair: a hospital cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Drew; Davenport, Daniel L; Korosec, Ryan L; Roth, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    Complicated ventral hernias are often referred to tertiary care centers. Hospital costs associated with these repairs include direct costs (mesh materials, supplies, and nonsurgeon labor costs) and indirect costs (facility fees, equipment depreciation, and unallocated labor). Operative supplies represent a significant component of direct costs, especially in an era of proprietary synthetic meshes and biologic grafts. We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of complex abdominal wall hernia repair at a tertiary care referral facility. Cost data on all consecutive open ventral hernia repairs (CPT codes 49560, 49561, 49565, and 49566) performed between 1 July 2008 and 31 May 2011 were analyzed. Cases were analyzed based upon hospital status (inpatient vs. outpatient) and whether the hernia repair was a primary or secondary procedure. We examined median net revenue, direct costs, contribution margin, indirect costs, and net profit/loss. Among primary hernia repairs, cost data were further analyzed based upon mesh utilization (no mesh, synthetic, or biologic). Four-hundred and fifteen patients underwent ventral hernia repair (353 inpatients and 62 outpatients); 173 inpatients underwent ventral hernia repair as the primary procedure; 180 inpatients underwent hernia repair as a secondary procedure. Median net revenue ($17,310 vs. 10,360, p costs for cases performed without mesh were $5,432; median direct costs for those using synthetic and biologic mesh were $7,590 and 16,970, respectively (p financial loss was $8,370. Outpatient ventral hernia repairs, with and without synthetic mesh, resulted in median net losses of $1,560 and 230, respectively. Ventral hernia repair is associated with overall financial losses. Inpatient synthetic mesh repairs are essentially budget neutral. Outpatient and inpatient repairs without mesh result in net financial losses. Inpatient biologic mesh repairs result in a negative contribution margin and striking net financial losses. Cost

  16. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse P.; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral ‘form’ (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion. PMID:23983030

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans VEM-1, a novel membrane protein, regulates the guidance of ventral nerve cord-associated axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runko, Erik; Kaprielian, Zaven

    2004-10-13

    In the developing CNS, pathfinding growth cones use intermediate target- and pioneer axon-associated guidance cues to navigate along stereotypical trajectories. We previously showed that the novel membrane-associated protein Vema is localized to the floor plate and the optic chiasm, intermediate targets located at the ventral midline of the spinal cord and diencephalon in the developing rodent CNS, respectively. Here, we report that the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of vema, vem-1, is expressed by the AVG pioneer midline neuron and by several neurons that extend longitudinally projecting axons into the ventral nerve cord (VNC). In vem-1 mutants and vem-1 (RNAi) animals, a subset of posteriorly projecting interneuron axons either fail to extend ventrally to the VNC and, instead, assume aberrant lateral positions or are inappropriately located in the left tract of the VNC. In addition, ventral motor neuron axons exhibit pathfinding errors within the VNC and along the dorsoventral body axis. The conserved UNC-40/DCC and SAX-3-/Robo receptors mediate signaling events that regulate axon guidance in a wide variety of systems. Double-mutant analyses reveal that vem-1 genetically interacts with unc-40 and is likely to function in parallel with sax-3 to regulate the guidance of a subset of VNC-associated interneuron and motor neuron axons. Consistent with these genetic data, we also show that VEM-1 is capable of physically interacting with UNC-40 but not SAX-3.

  18. Differential contributions of dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal prefrontal white matter tracts to cognitive control in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Strenziok

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortex mediates cognitive control by means of circuitry organized along dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal axes. Along the dorso-ventral axis, ventrolateral PFC controls semantic information, whereas dorsolateral PFC encodes task rules. Along the rostro-caudal axis, anterior prefrontal cortex encodes complex rules and relationships between stimuli, whereas posterior prefrontal cortex encodes simple relationships between stimuli and behavior. Evidence of these gradients of prefrontal cortex organization has been well documented in fMRI studies, but their functional correlates have not been examined with regard to integrity of underlying white matter tracts. We hypothesized that (a the integrity of specific white matter tracts is related to cognitive functioning in a manner consistent with the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal organization of the prefrontal cortex, and (b this would be particularly evident in healthy older adults. We assessed three cognitive processes that recruit the prefrontal cortex and can distinguish white matter tracts along the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal dimensions -episodic memory, working memory, and reasoning. Correlations between cognition and fractional anisotropy as well as fiber tractography revealed: (a Episodic memory was related to ventral prefrontal cortex-thalamo-hippocampal fiber integrity; (b Working memory was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (c Reasoning was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving rostral and caudal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings confirm the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's role in semantic control and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's role in rule-based processing, in accordance with the dorso-ventral prefrontal cortex gradient. Reasoning-related rostral and caudal superior frontal white matter may facilitate different levels of task rule complexity. This study is the

  19. Differential contributions of dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal prefrontal white matter tracts to cognitive control in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenziok, Maren; Greenwood, Pamela M; Santa Cruz, Sophia A; Thompson, James C; Parasuraman, Raja

    2013-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex mediates cognitive control by means of circuitry organized along dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal axes. Along the dorso-ventral axis, ventrolateral PFC controls semantic information, whereas dorsolateral PFC encodes task rules. Along the rostro-caudal axis, anterior prefrontal cortex encodes complex rules and relationships between stimuli, whereas posterior prefrontal cortex encodes simple relationships between stimuli and behavior. Evidence of these gradients of prefrontal cortex organization has been well documented in fMRI studies, but their functional correlates have not been examined with regard to integrity of underlying white matter tracts. We hypothesized that (a) the integrity of specific white matter tracts is related to cognitive functioning in a manner consistent with the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal organization of the prefrontal cortex, and (b) this would be particularly evident in healthy older adults. We assessed three cognitive processes that recruit the prefrontal cortex and can distinguish white matter tracts along the dorso-ventral and rostro-caudal dimensions -episodic memory, working memory, and reasoning. Correlations between cognition and fractional anisotropy as well as fiber tractography revealed: (a) Episodic memory was related to ventral prefrontal cortex-thalamo-hippocampal fiber integrity; (b) Working memory was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (c) Reasoning was related to integrity of corpus callosum body fibers subserving rostral and caudal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings confirm the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's role in semantic control and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex's role in rule-based processing, in accordance with the dorso-ventral prefrontal cortex gradient. Reasoning-related rostral and caudal superior frontal white matter may facilitate different levels of task rule complexity. This study is the first to

  20. Human V4 and ventral occipital retinotopic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The ventral surface of the human occipital lobe contains multiple retinotopic maps. The most posterior of these maps is considered a potential homolog of macaque V4, and referred to as human V4 (‘hV4’). The location of the hV4 map, its retinotopic organization, its role in visual encoding, and the cortical areas it borders have been the subject of considerable investigation and debate over the last 25 years. We review the history of this map and adjacent maps in ventral occipital cortex, and consider the different hypotheses for how these ventral occipital maps are organized. Advances in neuroimaging, computational modeling, and characterization of the nearby anatomical landmarks and functional brain areas have improved our understanding of where human V4 is and what kind of visual representations it contains. PMID:26241699

  1. Crossmodal recruitment of the ventral visual stream in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Zhi Wang, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform......, inferotemporal (IT), cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv), and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic...

  2. The neural basis of body form and body action agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Valentina; Urgesi, Cosimo; Pernigo, Simone; Lanteri, Paola; Pazzaglia, Mariella; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2008-10-23

    Visual analysis of faces and nonfacial body stimuli brings about neural activity in different cortical areas. Moreover, processing body form and body action relies on distinct neural substrates. Although brain lesion studies show specific face processing deficits, neuropsychological evidence for defective recognition of nonfacial body parts is lacking. By combining psychophysics studies with lesion-mapping techniques, we found that lesions of ventromedial, occipitotemporal areas induce face and body recognition deficits while lesions involving extrastriate body area seem causatively associated with impaired recognition of body but not of face and object stimuli. We also found that body form and body action recognition deficits can be double dissociated and are causatively associated with lesions to extrastriate body area and ventral premotor cortex, respectively. Our study reports two category-specific visual deficits, called body form and body action agnosia, and highlights their neural underpinnings.

  3. Aversive counterconditioning attenuates reward signalling in the ventral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marije Kaag

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive conditioning refers to the process of learning cue-reward associations and is mediated by the mesocorticolimbic system. Appetitive conditioned responses are difficult to extinguish, especially for highly salient rewards such as food and drugs. We investigate whether aversive counterconditioning can alter reward reinstatement in the ventral striatum in healthy volunteers using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. In the initial conditioning phase, two different stimuli were reinforced with a monetary reward. In the subsequent counterconditioning phase, one of these stimuli was paired with an aversive shock to the wrist. In the following extinction phase, none of the stimuli were reinforced. In the final reinstatement phase, reward was reinstated by informing the participants that the monetary gain could be doubled. Our fMRI data revealed that reward signalling in the ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area following reinstatement was smaller for the stimulus that was counterconditioned with an electrical shock, compared to the non-counterconditioned stimulus. A functional connectivity analysis showed that aversive counterconditioning strengthened striatal connectivity with the hippocampus and insula. These results suggest that reward signalling in the ventral striatum can be attenuated through aversive counterconditioning, possibly by concurrent retrieval of the aversive association through enhanced connectivity with hippocampus and insula.

  4. Crossmodal Recruitment of the Ventral Visual Stream in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ptito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional MRI (fMRI to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU. Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus, inferotemporal (IT, cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv, and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic tactile shape discrimination. The activation of LOtv by nonhaptic tactile shape processing in blind and sighted subjects adds further support to the notion that this area subserves an abstract or supramodal representation of shape. Together with our previous findings, our data suggest that the segregation of the efferent projections of the primary visual cortex into a dorsal and ventral visual stream is preserved in individuals blind from birth.

  5. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1) ...

  6. Radiographic identification of the equine ventral conchal bulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, C M; Townsend, N B; Barnett, T P; Barakzai, S Z

    Involvement of the ventral conchal sinus (VCS) is an important diagnostic and prognostic feature in cases of the equine sinus disease. The authors aimed to ascertain if the caudo-dorsal extension of the VCS, the ventral conchal bulla (VCB) is identifiable on plain radiographs of cadaver skulls without sinus disease. Bilateral frontonasal sinus flaps were made in 10 equine cadaver skulls. Plain lateral, lateral oblique and dorso-ventral radiographs were then obtained followed by the same views taken with stainless steel wire outlining the caudal border of the VCB. Plain radiographs were randomised and blindly evaluated by two observers who marked where they believed the VCB to be positioned. This was then correlated with the true position of the VCB using radiographs with wires in place. The ease of identification of the VCB was classified as 'easy' or 'difficult'. The VCB was correctly identified in 70 per cent of lateral radiographs, but only 45 per cent of lateral oblique radiographs and 17 per cent of dorso-ventral radiographs. If a clinician was confident that he or she could identify the VCB, they were usually correct. Conversely if the clinician judged VCB identification as 'difficult', they usually identified it incorrectly. In the authors' clinical experience, the VCB of horses with sinusitis involving this compartment is more radiologically evident than in clinically normal horses. Knowledge of the normal radiographic anatomy of this structure should aid clinicians in identifying horses with sinusitis affecting the VCS.

  7. Opposing Amygdala and Ventral Striatum Connectivity during Emotion Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Overton, Eve; Seubert, Janina; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Loughead, James

    2011-01-01

    Lesion and electrophysiological studies in animals provide evidence of opposing functions for subcortical nuclei such as the amygdala and ventral striatum, but the implications of these findings for emotion identification in humans remain poorly described. Here we report a high-resolution fMRI study in a sample of 39 healthy subjects who performed…

  8. Pelvic ventral hernia repair in a pygopagus conjoint twin | Bhullar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pelvic ventral hernia repair in a surviving conjoint twin with multiple congenital anomalies that make surgery a challenge. Conjoint twins are a rare. The incidence is reported to be in the range of 1/50 000 to 1/100 000 live births. Of the conjoint twins, 40% are stillborn and an additional one-third die within 24 h of birth.

  9. Ventral and Dorsal Striatum Networks in Obesity: Link to Food Craving and Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Martín-Pérez, Cristina; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The food addiction model proposes that obesity overlaps with addiction in terms of neurobiological alterations in the striatum and related clinical manifestations (i.e., craving and persistence of unhealthy habits). Therefore, we aimed to examine the functional connectivity of the striatum in excess-weight versus normal-weight subjects and to determine the extent of the association between striatum connectivity and individual differences in food craving and changes in body mass index (BMI). Forty-two excess-weight participants (BMI > 25) and 39 normal-weight participants enrolled in the study. Functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal striatum was indicated by seed-based analyses on resting-state data. Food craving was indicated with subjective ratings of visual cues of high-calorie food. Changes in BMI between baseline and 12 weeks follow-up were assessed in 28 excess-weight participants. Measures of connectivity in the ventral striatum and dorsal striatum were compared between groups and correlated with craving and BMI change. Participants with excess weight displayed increased functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the medial prefrontal and parietal cortices and between the dorsal striatum and the somatosensory cortex. Dorsal striatum connectivity correlated with food craving and predicted BMI gains. Obesity is linked to alterations in the functional connectivity of dorsal striatal networks relevant to food craving and weight gain. These neural alterations are associated with habit learning and thus compatible with the food addiction model of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Single-Institution Experience With Component Separation for Ventral Hernia Repair: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brian; Kambeyanda, Rohan; Fewell, Donna; Bryant, Stewart; Delaney, Kevin O; Herrera, Fernando A

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we reviewed our institution's experience using component separation for repair of ventral hernias. This was a retrospective review of all component separations for ventral hernia between July 2009 and December 2015. Recorded data included body mass index (BMI), preoperative albumin, smoking history, comorbidities, additional procedures, length of surgery, hospitalization, recurrence, and postoperative complications. One hundred ninety-six component separations were performed in the study period. The average patient age was 56 years, and 65.3% of patients were female. The average BMI was 32.6 kg/m; preoperative albumin was 3.59; 18.4% were current smokers; 28.1% were diabetic; and 14.3% had heart disease. Postoperative complications developed in 16.8% of patients. Recurrence developed in 8.7% of patients. Patients who developed a postoperative complication had a higher BMI (P = 0.025) and lower albumin (P = 0.047) compared with patients who did not develop complications. Current smokers were more likely to develop complications (P = 0.008). More than one third of patients had additional procedures at the time of the ventral hernia repair. The addition of a plastic surgery procedure was not associated with an increased risk of developing a complication (P = 0.25). Patients who developed complications had a significantly longer hospital course (P < 0.001) but no difference in total operative time (P = 0.975). Increased number of comorbidities did not statistically correlate with an increased complication rate (P = 0.65) or length of hospital stay (P = 0.43). We identified risk factors that increase the likelihood of postoperative complications and length of hospital stay. In addition, this study suggests that more comorbidities and additional procedures at the time of the hernia repair may not have as large of impact on complication risk as previously thought.

  11. Simultaneous recordings from the primary visual cortex and lateral geniculate nucleus reveal rhythmic interactions and a cortical source for γ-band oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Andre M; Briggs, Farran; Alitto, Henry J; Mangun, George R; Usrey, W Martin

    2014-05-28

    Oscillatory synchronization of neuronal activity has been proposed as a mechanism to modulate effective connectivity between interacting neuronal populations. In the visual system, oscillations in the gamma-frequency range (30-100 Hz) are thought to subserve corticocortical communication. To test whether a similar mechanism might influence subcortical-cortical communication, we recorded local field potential activity from retinotopically aligned regions in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) of alert macaque monkeys viewing stimuli known to produce strong cortical gamma-band oscillations. As predicted, we found robust gamma-band power in V1. In contrast, visual stimulation did not evoke gamma-band activity in the LGN. Interestingly, an analysis of oscillatory phase synchronization of LGN and V1 activity identified synchronization in the alpha (8-14 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) frequency bands. Further analysis of directed connectivity revealed that alpha-band interactions mediated corticogeniculate feedback processing, whereas beta-band interactions mediated geniculocortical feedforward processing. These results demonstrate that although the LGN and V1 display functional interactions in the lower frequency bands, gamma-band activity in the alert monkey is largely an emergent property of cortex. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347639-06$15.00/0.

  12. Biochemical evidence for. gamma. -aminobutyrate containing fibres from the nucleus accumbens to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I; Fonnum, F

    1980-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase activity, a specific marker for ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing neurons, has been analysed in microdissected samples from rat mesencephalon following unilateral electrocoagulations of the nucleus accumbens. This lesion resulted in a consistent decrease of 50% in the enzyme activity in the rostromedial substantia nigra, and a slight, but insignificant decrease (- 15%) in the medial parts of the caudal pars compacta of the substantia nigra. No change was found in the lateral pars compacta or the central pars reticulata. In the ventral tegmental area, the highest activity was found in the rostromedial part, adjacent to the mammillary body. At this level, a significant decrease of 20% was found in the ventral tegmental area on the lesioned side. In contrast, the activities in the medial accessory optic nucleus and the caudal ventral tegmental area adjacent to the interpenduncular nucleus were unchanged. The results indicate that the nucleus accumbens sends ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing fibres to the rostromedial substantia nigra and to the rostral ventral tegmental area. The caudal ventral tegmental area, the lateral pars compacta and the central pars reticulata do not receive measurable amounts of such fibres.

  13. Origin Level of the Ventral Branches of the Abdominal Aorta in the Rabbit and European Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maženský D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to describe the level of origin of the branches originating from the ventral surface of the abdominal aorta in the rabbit and hare. The study was carried out on ten adult rabbits and ten adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17 was used as a casting medium. After polymerization of the medium, the maceration was carried out in a KOH solution. We found variable levels of the origin of the celiac, cranial mesenteric and caudal mesenteric arteries in both species. In the rabbit, the celiac artery originated in the majority of cases at the cranial end of the first lumbar vertebra and in the hare at the middle part of the vertebral body of the same vertebra. The cranial mesenteric artery in the rabbit originated predominantly at the level of the first lumbar vertebra and in the hare at the level of the second lumbar vertebra. In the rabbit, the caudal mesenteric artery originated mainly at the level of the sixth lumbar vertebra and in the hare, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. We concluded that there were higher variabilities of the origins of the ventral branches of the abdominal aorta in domesticated rabbit in comparison with the European hare.

  14. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    2011-01-01

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1...... abdominal wall. A mechanical peel test was performed for each tissue sample. The secondary outcome parameters were grade and strength of adhesions to the mesh, shrinkage and displacement/folding of the mesh and histological parameters. All nine pigs survived without complications until sacrifice. No meshes...... satisfaction. This issue must have first priority in future ventral hernia repair research. It is now documented, that the simple application of fibrin glue instead of titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR of defects

  15. Pain and convalescence following laparoscopic ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jens Ravn

    Severe pain is usual after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR). Mesh fixation with titanium tacks may play a key role in the development of acute and chronic pain and alternative fixation methods should therefore be investigated. This PhD thesis was based on three studies and aimed too: 1...... abdominal wall. A mechanical peel test was performed for each tissue sample. The secondary outcome parameters were grade and strength of adhesions to the mesh, shrinkage and displacement/folding of the mesh and histological parameters. All nine pigs survived without complications until sacrifice. No meshes...... satisfaction. This issue must have first priority in future ventral hernia repair research. It is now documented, that the simple application of fibrin glue instead of titanium tacks for mesh fixation in LVHR of defects

  16. Dorsal and ventral changes of the occipital vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banki, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Based on his own observation and on the literature, the author discusses various types of calcification in the occipital-cervical region, beginning with those situated dorsally and followed by ventral forms. An attempt is made to classify these changes, depending on their morphology and situation, from an embryological point of view. The pro-atlantal and ante pro-atlanto origin of the occipital vertebrae is discussed. Differentiation depends on appearances. (orig.) [de

  17. Mesh versus non-mesh repair of ventral abdominal hernias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawaid, M.A.; Talpur, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the relative effectiveness of mesh and suture repair of ventral abdominal hernias in terms of clinical outcome, quality of life and rate of recurrence in both the techniques. This is a retrospective descriptive analysis of 236 patients with mesh and non-mesh repair of primary ventral hernias performed between January 2000 to December 2004 at Surgery Department, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro. The record sheets of the patients were analyzed and data retrieved to compare the results of both techniques for short-term and long-term results. The data retrieved is statistically analyzed on SPSS version 11. There were 43 (18.22%) males and 193 (81.77%) females with a mean age of 51.79 years and a range of 59 (81-22). Para-umbilical hernia was the commonest of ventral hernia and accounted for 49.8% (n=118) of the total study population followed by incisional hernia comprising 24% (n=57) of the total number. There was a significant difference in the recurrent rate at 3 years interval with 23/101 (22.77%) recurrences in suture-repaired subjects compared to 10/135 (7.40%) in mesh repair group. Chronic pain lasting up to 1-2 years was noted in 14 patients with suture repair. Wound infection is comparatively more common (8.14%) in mesh group. The other variables such as operative and postoperative complications, total hospital stay and quality of life is also discussed. Mesh repair of ventral hernia is much superior to non-mesh suture repair in terms of recurrence and overall outcome. (author)

  18. Ultrastructural changes of compressed lumbar ventral nerve roots following decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Barrany, Wagih G.; Hamdy, Raid M.; Al-Hayani, Abdulmonem A.; Jalalah, Sawsan M.; Al-Sayyad, Mohammad J.

    2006-01-01

    To study whether there will be permanent lumbar nerve rot scanning or degeneration secondary to continuous compression followed by decompression on the nerve roots, which can account for postlaminectomy leg weakness or back pain. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faulty of Medicine, king Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 2003-2005. Twenty-six adult male New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study. The ventral roots of the left fourth lumbar nerve were clamped for 2 weeks then decompression was allowed by removal of the clips. The left ventral roots of the fourth lumbar nerve were excised for electron microscopic study. One week after nerve root decompression, the ventral root peripheral to the site of compression showed signs of Wallerian degeneration together with signs of regeneration. Schwann cells and myelinated nerve fibers showed severe degenerative changes. Two weeks after decompression, the endoneurium of the ventral root showed extensive edema with an increase in the regenerating myelinated and unmyentilated nerve fibers, and fibroblasts proliferation. Three weeks after decompression, the endoneurium showed an increase in the regenerating myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers with diminution of the endoneurial edema, and number of macrophages and an increase in collagen fibrils. Five and 6 weeks after decompression, the endoneurium showed marked diminution of the edema, macrophages, mast cells and fibroblasts. The enoneurium was filed of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers and collagen fibrils. Decompression of the compressed roots of a spinal nerve is followed by regeneration of the nerve fibers and nerve and nerve recovery without endoneurial scarring. (author)

  19. Binocular depth processing in the ventral visual pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Vogels, Rufin; Janssen, Peter

    2016-06-19

    One of the most powerful forms of depth perception capitalizes on the small relative displacements, or binocular disparities, in the images projected onto each eye. The brain employs these disparities to facilitate various computations, including sensori-motor transformations (reaching, grasping), scene segmentation and object recognition. In accordance with these different functions, disparity activates a large number of regions in the brain of both humans and monkeys. Here, we review how disparity processing evolves along different regions of the ventral visual pathway of macaques, emphasizing research based on both correlational and causal techniques. We will discuss the progression in the ventral pathway from a basic absolute disparity representation to a more complex three-dimensional shape code. We will show that, in the course of this evolution, the underlying neuronal activity becomes progressively more bound to the global perceptual experience. We argue that these observations most probably extend beyond disparity processing per se, and pertain to object processing in the ventral pathway in general. We conclude by posing some important unresolved questions whose answers may significantly advance the field, and broaden its scope.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    the hyperplastic growth phase of the prostate in newborn rats.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Newborn rats were treated for 8 weeks with EGF (150 microg/kg body weight per day), administered as daily subcutaneous injections. Sections of the prostate tissue were examined by a stereological technique to determine tissue......OBJECTIVE: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is expressed in the rat prostate, and growth factors from this system induce proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cell cultures. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible growth-promoting effects of the system during...... of the prostate epithelium, the stroma and the lumen following EGF treatment, in a pattern resembling physiological growth of the ventral prostate. A significant correlation (r = 0.78, p

  1. Cytoskeleton and gravity at work in the establishment of dorso-ventral polarity in the egg of Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubbels, Geertje A.; Brom, Tim G.

    The establishment of polarities during early embryogenesis is essential for normal development. Amphibian eggs are appropriate models for studies on embryonic pattern formation. The animal-vegetal axis of the axially symmetrical amphibian egg originates during oogenesis and foreshadows the main body axis of the embryo. The dorso-ventral polarity is epigenetically established before first cleavage. Recent experiments strongly suggest that in the monospermic eggs of the anuran Xenopus laevis both the cytoskeleton and gravity act in the determination of the dorso-ventral polarity. In order to test the role of gravity in this process, eggs will be fertilized under microgravity conditions during the SL-D1 flight in 1985. In a fully automatic experiment container eggs will be kept under well-defined conditions and artificially fertilized as soon as microgravity is reached; eggs and embryos at different stages will then be fixed for later examination. Back on earth the material will be analysed and we will know whether fertilization under microgravity conditions is possible. If so, the relation of the dorso-ventral axis to the former sperm entry point will be determined on the whole embryos; in addition eggs and embryos will be analysed cytologically.

  2. A multicenter prospective study of patients undergoing open ventral hernia repair with intraperitoneal positioning using the monofilament polyester composite ventral patch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berrevoet, Frederik; Doerhoff, Carl; Muysoms, Filip

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the recurrence rate and other safety and efficacy parameters following ventral hernia repair with a polyester composite prosthesis (Parietex™ Composite Ventral Patch [PCO-VP]). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-arm, multicenter prospective study of 126 patients undergoing...

  3. The lateral somitic frontier: dorso-ventral aspects of anterio-posterior regionalization in avian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Julie L; Takimoto, Ryoko; Burke, Ann Campbell

    2003-02-01

    Patterning events along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis of vertebrate embryos result in the distribution of muscle and bone forming a highly effective functional system. A key aspect of regionalized AP patterning results from variation in the migratory pattern of somite cells along the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis of the body. This occurs as somite cell populations expand around the axis or migrate away from the dorsal midline and cross into the lateral plate. The fate of somitic cells has been intensely studied and many details have been reported about inductive signaling from other tissues that influence somite cell fate and behavior. We are interested in understanding the specific differences between somites in particular AP regions and how these differences contribute to the global pattern of the organism. Using orthotopic transplants of segmental plate between quail and chick embryos, we have mapped the interface of the somitic and lateral plate mesoderm during the formation of the body wall in cervical and thoracic regions. This interface does not change dramatically in the mid-cervical region, but undergoes extensive changes in the thoracic region. Based on this regional mapping and consistent with the extensive literature, we suggest a revised method of classifying regions of the body wall that relies on embryonic cell lineages rather than adult functional criteria.

  4. First human use of hybrid synthetic/biologic mesh in ventral hernia repair: a multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, James G; El-Hayek, Kevin; Strong, Andrew T; LaPinska, Melissa Phillips; Yoo, Jin S; Pauli, Eric M; Kroh, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Mesh options for reinforcement of ventral/incisional hernia (VIH) repair include synthetic or biologic materials. While each material has known advantages and disadvantages, little is understood about outcomes when these materials are used in combination. This multicenter study reports on the first human use of a novel synthetic/biologic hybrid mesh (Zenapro ® Hybrid Hernia Repair Device) for VIH repair. This prospective, multicenter post-market clinical trial enrolled consecutive adults who underwent elective VIH repair with hybrid mesh placed in the intraperitoneal or retromuscular/preperitoneal position. Patients were classified as Ventral Hernia Working Group (VHWG) grades 1-3 and had clean or clean-contaminated wounds. Outcomes of ventral and incisional hernia were compared using appropriate parametric tests. In all, 63 patients underwent VIH repair with hybrid mesh. Most were females (54.0%), had a mean age of 54.8 ± 10.9 years and mean body mass index of 34.5 ± 7.8 kg/m 2 , and classified as VHWG grade 2 (87.3%). Most defects were midline (92.1%) with a mean area of 106 ± 155 cm 2 . Cases were commonly classified as clean (92.1%) and were performed laparoscopically (60.3%). Primary fascial closure was achieved in 82.5% with 28.2% requiring component separation. Mesh location was frequently intraperitoneal (69.8%). Overall, 39% of patients available for follow-up at 12 months suffered surgical site events, which were generally more frequent after incisional hernia repair. Of these, seroma (23.7%) was most common, but few (8.5%) required procedural intervention. Other surgical site events that required procedural intervention included hematoma (1.7%), wound dehiscence (1.7%), and surgical site infection (3.4%). Recurrence rate was 6.8% (95% CI 2.2-16.6%) at 12-months postoperatively. Zenapro ® Hybrid Hernia Repair Device is safe and effective in VHWG grade 1-2 patients with clean wounds out to 12 months. Short-term outcomes and recurrence rate

  5. The ventral nerve cord in Cephalocarida (Crustacea): new insights into the ground pattern of Tetraconata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegner, Martin E J; Brenneis, Georg; Richter, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Cephalocarida are Crustacea with many anatomical features that have been interpreted as plesiomorphic with respect to crustaceans or Tetraconata. While the ventral nerve cord (VNC) has been investigated in many other arthropods to address phylogenetic and evolutionary questions, the few studies that exist on the cephalocarid VNC date back 20 years, and data pertaining to neuroactive substances in particular are too sparse for comparison. We reinvestigated the VNC of adult Hutchinsoniella macracantha in detail, combining immunolabeling (tubulin, serotonin, RFamide, histamine) and nuclear stains with confocal laser microscopy, complemented by 3D-reconstructions based on serial semithin sections. The subesophageal ganglion in Cephalocarida comprises three segmental neuromeres (Md, Mx1, Mx2), while a separate ganglion occurs in all thoracic segments and abdominal segments 1-8. Abdominal segments 9 and 10 and the telson are free of ganglia. The maxillar neuromere and the thoracic ganglia correspond closely in their limb innervation pattern, their pattern of mostly four segmental commissures and in displaying up to six individually identified serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons per body side, which exceeds the number found in most other tetraconates. Only two commissures and two serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons per side are present in abdominal ganglia. The stomatogastric nervous system in H. macracantha corresponds to that in other crustaceans and includes, among other structures, a pair of lateral neurite bundles. These innervate the gut as well as various trunk muscles and are, uniquely, linked to the unpaired median neurite bundle. We propose that most features of the cephalocarid ventral nerve cord (VNC) are plesiomorphic with respect to the tetraconate ground pattern. Further, we suggest that this ground pattern includes more serotonin-like neurons than hitherto assumed, and argue that a sister-group relationship between Cephalocarida and Remipedia, as

  6. Nationwide analysis of prolonged hospital stay and readmission after elective ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Frederik; Rosenberg, Jacob; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Early outcome after elective ventral hernia repair is unsatisfactory, but detailed analyses are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the aetiology of prolonged hospital stay (LOS), readmission and death <30 days after elective ventral hernia repair.......Early outcome after elective ventral hernia repair is unsatisfactory, but detailed analyses are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the aetiology of prolonged hospital stay (LOS), readmission and death

  7. Islet-1 is required for ventral neuron survival in Xenopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yu; Zhao, Shuhua; Li, Jiejing; Mao, Bingyu

    2009-01-01

    Islet-1 is a LIM domain transcription factor involved in several processes of embryonic development. Xenopus Islet-1 (Xisl-1) has been shown to be crucial for proper heart development. Here we show that Xisl-1 and Xisl-2 are differentially expressed in the nervous system in Xenopus embryos. Knock-down of Xisl-1 by specific morpholino leads to severe developmental defects, including eye and heart failure. Staining with the neuronal markers N-tubulin and Xisl-1 itself reveals that the motor neurons and a group of ventral interneurons are lost in the Xisl-1 morphants. Terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis shows that Xisl-1 morpholino injection induces extensive apoptosis in the ventral neural plate, which can be largely inhibited by the apoptosis inhibitor M50054. We also find that over-expression of Xisl-1 is able to promote cell proliferation and induce Xstat3 expression in the injected side, suggesting a potential role for Xisl-1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in co-operation with the Jak-Stat pathway.

  8. Effective Connectivity between Ventral Occipito-Temporal and Ventral Inferior Frontal Cortex during Lexico-Semantic Processing. A Dynamic Causal Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Perrone-Bertolotti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that dorsal and ventral pathways support distinct aspects of language processing. Yet, the full extent of their involvement and their inter-regional connectivity in visual word recognition is still unknown. Studies suggest that they might reflect the dual-route model of reading, with the dorsal pathway more involved in grapho-phonological conversion during phonological tasks, and the ventral pathway performing lexico-semantic access during semantic tasks. Furthermore, this subdivision is also suggested at the level of the inferior frontal cortex, involving ventral and dorsal parts for lexico-semantic and phonological processing, respectively. In the present study, we assessed inter-regional brain connectivity and task-induced modulations of brain activity during a phoneme detection and semantic categorization tasks, using fMRI in healthy subject. We used a dynamic causal modeling approach to assess inter-regional connectivity and task demand modulation within the dorsal and ventral pathways, including the following network components: the ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOTC; dorsal and ventral, the superior temporal gyrus (STG; dorsal, the dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (dIFG; dorsal, and the ventral IFG (vIFG; ventral. We report three distinct inter-regional interactions supporting orthographic information transfer from vOTC to other language regions (vOTC -> STG, vOTC -> vIFG and vOTC -> dIFG regardless of task demands. Moreover, we found that (a during semantic processing (direct ventral pathway the vOTC -> vIFG connection strength specifically increased and (b a lack of modulation of the vOTC -> dIFG connection strength by the task that could suggest a more general involvement of the dorsal pathway during visual word recognition. Results are discussed in terms of anatomo-functional connectivity of visual word recognition network.

  9. Ofd1 controls dorso-ventral patterning and axoneme elongation during embryonic brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D'Angelo

    Full Text Available Oral-facial-digital type I syndrome (OFDI is a human X-linked dominant-male-lethal developmental disorder caused by mutations in the OFD1 gene. Similar to other inherited disorders associated to ciliary dysfunction OFD type I patients display neurological abnormalities. We characterized the neuronal phenotype that results from Ofd1 inactivation in early phases of mouse embryonic development and at post-natal stages. We determined that Ofd1 plays a crucial role in forebrain development, and in particular, in the control of dorso-ventral patterning and early corticogenesis. We observed abnormal activation of Sonic hedgehog (Shh, a major pathway modulating brain development. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated that early Ofd1 inactivation results in the absence of ciliary axonemes despite the presence of mature basal bodies that are correctly orientated and docked. Ofd1 inducible-mediated inactivation at birth does not affect ciliogenesis in the cortex, suggesting a developmental stage-dependent role for a basal body protein in ciliogenesis. Moreover, we showed defects in cytoskeletal organization and apical-basal polarity in Ofd1 mutant embryos, most likely due to lack of ciliary axonemes. Thus, the present study identifies Ofd1 as a developmental disease gene that is critical for forebrain development and ciliogenesis in embryonic life, and indicates that Ofd1 functions after docking and before elaboration of the axoneme in vivo.

  10. Amygdala and ventral striatum make distinct contributions to reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vincent D.; Monte, Olga Dal; Lucas, Daniel R.; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task. When learning was characterized with a RL model relative to controls, amygdala lesions caused general decreases in learning from positive feedback and choice consistency. By comparison, VS lesions only affected learning in the stochastic task. Moreover, the VS lesions hastened the monkeys’ choice reaction times, which emphasized a speed-accuracy tradeoff that accounted for errors in deterministic learning. These results update standard accounts of RL by emphasizing distinct contributions of the amygdala and VS to RL. PMID:27720488

  11. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamkar, Niki H; Lewis, Daniel J; van den Bos, Wouter; Morton, J Bruce

    2017-08-01

    Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain's sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Ventral striatal activity links adversity and reward processing in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki H. Kamkar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adversity impacts many aspects of psychological and physical development including reward-based learning and decision-making. Mechanisms relating adversity and reward processing in children, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that adversity is associated with potentiated learning from positive outcomes and impulsive decision-making, but unrelated to learning from negative outcomes. We then show via functional magnetic resonance imaging that the link between adversity and reward processing is partially mediated by differences in ventral striatal response to rewards. The findings suggest that early-life adversity is associated with alterations in the brain’s sensitivity to rewards accounting, in part, for the link between adversity and altered reward processing in children.

  13. Art for reward's sake: visual art recruits the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Hagtvedt, Henrik; Patrick, Vanessa M; Anderson, Amy; Stilla, Randall; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; Sato, João R; Reddy, Srinivas; Sathian, K

    2011-03-01

    A recent study showed that people evaluate products more positively when they are physically associated with art images than similar non-art images. Neuroimaging studies of visual art have investigated artistic style and esthetic preference but not brain responses attributable specifically to the artistic status of images. Here we tested the hypothesis that the artistic status of images engages reward circuitry, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during viewing of art and non-art images matched for content. Subjects made animacy judgments in response to each image. Relative to non-art images, art images activated, on both subject- and item-wise analyses, reward-related regions: the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and orbitofrontal cortex. Neither response times nor ratings of familiarity or esthetic preference for art images correlated significantly with activity that was selective for art images, suggesting that these variables were not responsible for the art-selective activations. Investigation of effective connectivity, using time-varying, wavelet-based, correlation-purged Granger causality analyses, further showed that the ventral striatum was driven by visual cortical regions when viewing art images but not non-art images, and was not driven by regions that correlated with esthetic preference for either art or non-art images. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis, leading us to propose that the appeal of visual art involves activation of reward circuitry based on artistic status alone and independently of its hedonic value. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral, intestinal, and skin bacteria in ventral hernia mesh implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Langbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In ventral hernia surgery, mesh implants are used to reduce recurrence. Infection after mesh implantation can be a problem and rates around 6–10% have been reported. Bacterial colonization of mesh implants in patients without clinical signs of infection has not been thoroughly investigated. Molecular techniques have proven effective in demonstrating bacterial diversity in various environments and are able to identify bacteria on a gene-specific level. Objective: The purpose of this study was to detect bacterial biofilm in mesh implants, analyze its bacterial diversity, and look for possible resemblance with bacterial biofilm from the periodontal pocket. Methods: Thirty patients referred to our hospital for recurrence after former ventral hernia mesh repair, were examined for periodontitis in advance of new surgical hernia repair. Oral examination included periapical radiographs, periodontal probing, and subgingival plaque collection. A piece of mesh (1×1 cm from the abdominal wall was harvested during the new surgical hernia repair and analyzed for bacteria by PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From patients with positive PCR mesh samples, subgingival plaque samples were analyzed with the same techniques. Results: A great variety of taxa were detected in 20 (66.7% mesh samples, including typical oral commensals and periodontopathogens, enterics, and skin bacteria. Mesh and periodontal bacteria were further analyzed for similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences. In 17 sequences, the level of resemblance between mesh and subgingival bacterial colonization was 98–100% suggesting, but not proving, a transfer of oral bacteria to the mesh. Conclusion: The results show great bacterial diversity on mesh implants from the anterior abdominal wall including oral commensals and periodontopathogens. Mesh can be reached by bacteria in several ways including hematogenous spread from an oral site. However, other sites such as gut and skin may also

  15. Functional Dissociations within the Ventral Object Processing Pathway: Cognitive Modules or a Hierarchical Continuum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Rosemary A.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Saksida, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the organization and function of the ventral object processing pathway. The prevailing theoretical approach in this field holds that the ventral object processing stream has a modular organization, in which visual perception is carried out in posterior regions and visual memory is carried out, independently, in the anterior temporal…

  16. Prey selection of a captive Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus hammering Mussels Mytilus edulis from the ventral side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, Bruno J.; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    We studied prey choice of a captive Oystercatcher:hat hammered Mussels from the ventral side. The results replicate previous findings that ventral hammerers select Mussels of intermediate size, select against thick-shelled Mussels, abandon an increasing proportion of Mussels with increasing size and

  17. Hippocampal projections to the ventral striatum: from spatial memory to motivated behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, M.M.A; Ito, R.; Lansink, C.S.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Derdikman, D.; Knierim, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple regions of the hippocampal formation project to the ventral striatum, a central node in brain circuits that subserve aspects of motivation. These projections emphasize information flow from the ventral (temporal) pole of the hippocampus and interact with converging projections and

  18. Environmental enrichment increases transcriptional and epigenetic differentiation between mouse dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Keown, Christopher L; Wen, Xianglan; Li, Junhao; Vousden, Dulcie A; Anacker, Christoph; Bhattacharyya, Urvashi; Ryan, Richard; Diorio, Josie; O'Toole, Nicholas; Lerch, Jason P; Mukamel, Eran A; Meaney, Michael J

    2018-01-19

    Early life experience influences stress reactivity and mental health through effects on cognitive-emotional functions that are, in part, linked to gene expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a major site for experience-dependent plasticity associated with sustained transcriptional alterations, potentially mediated by epigenetic modifications. Here, we report comprehensive DNA methylome, hydroxymethylome and transcriptome data sets from mouse dorsal and ventral DG. We find genome-wide transcriptional and methylation differences between dorsal and ventral DG, including at key developmental transcriptional factors. Peripubertal environmental enrichment increases hippocampal volume and enhances dorsal DG-specific differences in gene expression. Enrichment also enhances dorsal-ventral differences in DNA methylation, including at binding sites of the transcription factor NeuroD1, a regulator of adult neurogenesis. These results indicate a dorsal-ventral asymmetry in transcription and methylation that parallels well-known functional and anatomical differences, and that may be enhanced by environmental enrichment.

  19. [Effectiveness of penile ventral scrotum cohesion place wedge cutting and improved Brisson technique for congenital buried penis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huafeng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of the penile ventral scrotum cohesion place wedge cutting and improved Brisson technique for congenital buried penis. Between March 2010 and June 2012, 68 boys with congenital buried penis were treated by the penile ventral scrotum cohesion place wedge cutting and improved Brisson technique, with a median age of 4 years and 10 months (range, 3 months-13 years). Of 68 cases, 14 were classified as phimosis type, 14 as rope belt type, 20 as moderate type, and 20 as severe type. The body of penis developed well and had no deformity. After operation, complications were observed, and the effectiveness was evaluated by the designed questionnaire. Early postoperative complications occurred in 11 cases, including obvious adhesion of the outside wrapping mouth in 4 cases, scrotal skin bloat in 5 cases, and distal foreskin necrosis in 2 cases; long-term complications occurred in 9 cases, including abdominal incision scar formation in 4 cases, wrapping mouth scar stricture in 3 cases, and short penis in 2 cases. Primary healing of incision was obtained in the other boys. Fifty-four cases were followed up 6-12 months (mean, 8 months). According to the designed questionnaire, satisfaction rate with the overall view in parents was 77.78% (42/54); the clinical improvement rate was 85.19% (46/54); exposure of the penis was satisfactory in parents of 50 cases; and the parents had no psychological burden of penis exposure in 46 cases, which were significantly improved when compared with preoperative ones (P penis exposure in 29 cases (53.70%) after operation, showing no significant difference when compared with preoperative one (18 cases, 33.33%) (chi2 = 1.22, P = 0.31). Application of the penile ventral scrotum cohesion place wedge cutting and improved Brisson technique can effectively correct congenital buried penis.

  20. The role of the ventral dentate gyrus in olfactory pattern separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Christy S S; Hu, Nathan J; Ho, Liana U N; Kesner, Raymond P

    2014-05-01

    Dorsoventral lesion studies of the hippocampus have indicated that the dorsal axis of the hippocampus is important for spatial processing and the ventral axis of the hippocampus is important for olfactory learning and memory and anxiety. There is some evidence to suggest that the ventral CA3 and ventral CA1 conduct parallel processes for pattern completion and temporal processing, respectively. Studies have indicated that the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) is importantly involved in processes reflecting underlying pattern separation activity for spatial information. However, the ventral DG is less understood. The current study investigated the less-understood role of the ventral DG in olfactory pattern separation. A series of odor stimuli that varied on only one level, number of carbon chains (methyl groups), was used in a matching-to-sample paradigm in order to investigate ventral DG involvement in working memory for similar and less similar odors. Rats with ventral DG lesions were impaired at delays of 60 sec, but not at delays of 15 sec. A memory-based pattern separation effect was observed performance was poorest with only one carbon chain separation between trial odors and was highest for trials with four separations. The present study indicates that the ventral DG plays an important role in olfactory learning and memory processes for highly similar odors. The results also indicate a role for the ventral DG in pattern separation for odor information, which may have further implications for parallel processing across the dorsoventral axis for the DG in spatial (dorsal) and olfactory (ventral) pattern separation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Penetrating Osseous Spicules Causing High-Flow Ventral CSF Leaks in the Setting of Relatively Low BMI : A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrock, Richard E; Diehn, Felix E; Luetmer, Patrick H; Wald, John T; Lane, John I; Morris, Jonathan M; Lehman, Vance T; Carr, Carrie M; Mokri, Bahram; Thielen, Kent R

    2017-05-16

    We have anecdotally observed patients with high-flow ventral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks resulting from penetrating osseous spicules or calcified discs to be relatively thin. The purpose of this study was to explore the validity of this observation and determine if a potential association exists between low body mass index (BMI) and high-flow spinal ventral CSF leaks resulting from such dura-penetrating lesions. Sixteen consecutive patients with precisely localized high-flow ventral spinal CSF leaks on dynamic myelography were identified. The cause of the CSF leak was determined. The BMI on the date nearest to and within 2 weeks of myelography was recorded. Utilizing exact sign test, the body mass index was compared to the average BMI from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (Centers for Disease Control), matched to sex and age-range. The cohort consisted of 10 males (63%) and 6 females with a mean age of 54 years (range 37-72 years). In all patients, a spiculated osteophyte/calcified disc was identified at the site of the leak. Fourteen patients (88%) had a BMI below the matched national average, while only two patients (13%) had values above the national average (p = 0.004). Patients with high-flow ventral CSF leaks resulting from spiculated osteophyte or calcified disc as identified by dynamic myelography are more likely to have a BMI below the U.S. national average, matched for gender and age-range. This exploratory analysis requires confirmation as well as further characterization of potential pathophysiologic mechanisms and impact on radiographic and clinical assessments.

  2. Dual Coding of Frequency Modulation in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraouty, Nihaad; Stasiak, Arkadiusz; Lorenzi, Christian; Varnet, Léo; Winter, Ian M

    2018-04-25

    Frequency modulation (FM) is a common acoustic feature of natural sounds and is known to play a role in robust sound source recognition. Auditory neurons show precise stimulus-synchronized discharge patterns that may be used for the representation of low-rate FM. However, it remains unclear whether this representation is based on synchronization to slow temporal envelope (ENV) cues resulting from cochlear filtering or phase locking to faster temporal fine structure (TFS) cues. To investigate the plausibility of those encoding schemes, single units of the ventral cochlear nucleus of guinea pigs of either sex were recorded in response to sine FM tones centered at the unit's best frequency (BF). The results show that, in contrast to high-BF units, for modulation depths within the receptive field, low-BF units (modulation depths extending beyond the receptive field, the discharge patterns follow the ENV and fluctuate at the modulation rate. The receptive field proved to be a good predictor of the ENV responses for most primary-like and chopper units. The current in vivo data also reveal a high level of diversity in responses across unit types. TFS cues are mainly conveyed by low-frequency and primary-like units and ENV cues by chopper and onset units. The diversity of responses exhibited by cochlear nucleus neurons provides a neural basis for a dual-coding scheme of FM in the brainstem based on both ENV and TFS cues. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Natural sounds, including speech, convey informative temporal modulations in frequency. Understanding how the auditory system represents those frequency modulations (FM) has important implications as robust sound source recognition depends crucially on the reception of low-rate FM cues. Here, we recorded 115 single-unit responses from the ventral cochlear nucleus in response to FM and provide the first physiological evidence of a dual-coding mechanism of FM via synchronization to temporal envelope cues and phase locking to temporal

  3. Fuxianhuiid ventral nerve cord and early nervous system evolution in Panarthropoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Ortega-Hernández, Javier; Butterfield, Nicholas J; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George S; Hou, Jin-Bo; Lan, Tian; Zhang, Xi-Guang

    2016-03-15

    Panarthropods are typified by disparate grades of neurological organization reflecting a complex evolutionary history. The fossil record offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct early character evolution of the nervous system via exceptional preservation in extinct representatives. Here we describe the neurological architecture of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) in the upper-stem group euarthropod Chengjiangocaris kunmingensis from the early Cambrian Xiaoshiba Lagerstätte (South China). The VNC of C. kunmingensis comprises a homonymous series of condensed ganglia that extend throughout the body, each associated with a pair of biramous limbs. Submillimetric preservation reveals numerous segmental and intersegmental nerve roots emerging from both sides of the VNC, which correspond topologically to the peripheral nerves of extant Priapulida and Onychophora. The fuxianhuiid VNC indicates that ancestral neurological features of Ecdysozoa persisted into derived members of stem-group Euarthropoda but were later lost in crown-group representatives. These findings illuminate the VNC ground pattern in Panarthropoda and suggest the independent secondary loss of cycloneuralian-like neurological characters in Tardigrada and Euarthropoda.

  4. Whole mount preparation of the adult Drosophila ventral nerve cord for giant fiber dye injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Jana; Godenschwege, Tanja A

    2011-06-04

    To analyze the axonal and dendritic morphology of neurons, it is essential to obtain accurate labeling of neuronal structures. Preparing well labeled samples with little to no tissue damage enables us to analyze cell morphology and to compare individual samples to each other, hence allowing the identification of mutant anomalies. In the demonstrated dissection method the nervous system remains mostly inside the adult fly. Through a dorsal incision, the abdomen and thorax are opened and most of the internal organs are removed. Only the dorsal side of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) and the cervical connective (CvC) containing the big axons of the giant fibers (GFs) are exposed, while the brain containing the GF cell body and dendrites remains in the intact head. In this preparation most nerves of the VNC should remain attached to their muscles. Following the dissection, the intracellular filling of the giant fiber (GF) with a fluorescent dye is demonstrated. In the CvC the GF axons are located at the dorsal surface and thus can be easily visualized under a microscope with differential interference contrast (DIC) optics. This allows the injection of the GF axons with dye at this site to label the entire GF including the axons and their terminals in the VNC. This method results in reliable and strong staining of the GFs allowing the neurons to be imaged immediately after filling with an epifluorescent microscope. Alternatively, the fluorescent signal can be enhanced using standard immunohistochemistry procedures suitable for high resolution confocal microscopy.

  5. The ventralizing activity of Radar, a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein, reveals complex bone morphogenetic protein interactions controlling dorso-ventral patterning in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutel, C; Kishimoto, Y; Schulte-Merker, S; Rosa, F

    2000-12-01

    In Xenopus and zebrafish, BMP2, 4 and 7 have been implicated, after the onset of zygotic expression, in inducing and maintaining ventro-lateral cell fate during early development. We provide evidence here that a maternally expressed bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Radar, may control early ventral specification in zebrafish. We show that Radar ventralizes zebrafish embryos and induces the early expression of bmp2b and bmp4. The analysis of Radar overexpression in both swirl/bmp2b mutants and embryos expressing truncated BMP receptors shows that Radar-induced ventralization is dependent on functional BMP2/4 pathways, and may initially rely on an Alk6-related signaling pathway. Finally, we show that while radar-injected swirl embryos still exhibit a strongly dorsalized phenotype, the overexpression of Radar into swirl/bmp2b mutant embryos restores ventral marker expression, including bmp4 expression. Our results suggest that a complex regulation of different BMP pathways controls dorso-ventral (DV) patterning from early cleavage stages until somitogenesis.

  6. Single-minded and the evolution of the ventral midline in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Viktoria; Eriksson, Bo Joakim; Stollewerk, Angelika

    2012-04-01

    In insects and crustaceans, ventral midline cells are present that subdivide the CNS into bilateral symmetric halves. In both arthropod groups unpaired midline neurons and glial cells have been identified that contribute to the embryonic patterning mechanisms. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, for example, the midline cells are involved in neural cell fate specification along the dorso-ventral axis but also in axonal pathfinding and organisation of the axonal scaffold. Both in insects and malacostracan crustaceans, the bHLH-PAS transcription factor single-minded is the master regulator of ventral midline development and homology has been suggested for individual midline precursors in these groups. The conserved arrangement of the axonal scaffold as well as the regular pattern of neural precursors in all euarthropod groups raises the question whether the ventral midline system is conserved in this phylum. In the remaining euarthropod groups, the chelicerates and myriapods, a single-minded homologue has been identified in the spider Achaearanea tepidariorum (chelicerate), however, the gene is not expressed in the ventral midline but in the median area of the ventral neuroectoderm. Here we show that At-sim is not required for ventral midline development. Furthermore, we identify sim homologues in representatives of arthropods that have not yet been analysed: the myriapod Strigamia maritima and a representative of an outgroup to the euarthropods, the onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis. We compare the expression patterns to the A. tepidariorum sim homologue expression and furthermore analyse the nature of the arthropod midline cells. Our data suggest that in arthropods unpaired midline precursors evolved from the bilateral median domain of the ventral neuroectoderm in the last common ancestor of Mandibulata (insects, crustaceans, myriapods). We hypothesize that sim was expressed in this domain and recruited to ventral midline development. Subsequently, sim

  7. A Fate Map of the Murine Pancreas Buds Reveals a Multipotent Ventral Foregut Organ Progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Jesse R.; Guerrero-Zayas, Mara-Isel; Tremblay, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    The definitive endoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas as well as the remainder of the gut tube. DiI fate mapping and whole embryo culture were used to determine the endodermal origin of the 9.5 days post coitum (dpc) dorsal and ventral pancreas buds. Our results demonstrate that the progenitors of each bud occupy distinct endodermal territories. Dorsal bud progenitors are located in the medial endoderm overlying somites 2–4 between the 2 and 11 somite stage (SS). The endoderm forming the ventral pancreas bud is found in 2 distinct regions. One territory originates from the left and right lateral endoderm caudal to the anterior intestinal portal by the 6 SS and the second domain is derived from the ventral midline of the endoderm lip (VMEL). Unlike the laterally located ventral foregut progenitors, the VMEL population harbors a multipotent progenitor that contributes to the thyroid bud, the rostral cap of the liver bud, ventral midline of the liver bud and the midline of the ventral pancreas bud in a temporally restricted manner. This data suggests that the midline of the 9.5 dpc thyroid, liver and ventral pancreas buds originates from the same progenitor population, demonstrating a developmental link between all three ventral foregut buds. Taken together, these data define the location of the dorsal and ventral pancreas progenitors in the prespecified endodermal sheet and should lead to insights into the inductive events required for pancreas specification. PMID:22815796

  8. Seroma in ventral incisional herniorrhaphy: incidence, predictors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Hur, Kwan; Hirter, Angie; Kim, Lawrence T; Thomas, Anthony; Berger, David H; Reda, Domenic; Itani, Kamal M F

    2009-11-01

    Factors leading to seroma following ventral incisional herniorrhaphy (VIH) are poorly understood. Between 2004 and 2006, patients were prospectively randomized at 4 Veterans Affairs hospitals to undergo laparoscopic or open VIH. Patients who developed seromas within 8 weeks postoperatively were compared with those who did not. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of seroma. Of 145 patients who underwent VIH, 24 (16.6%) developed seromas. Patients who underwent open VIH had more seromas than those who underwent laparoscopic VIH (23.3% vs 6.8%, P = .011). Seroma patients had hernias that were never spontaneously reducible (0% vs 21%, P = .015), had more abdominal incisions preoperatively (mean, 2.4 vs 1.8; P = .037), and were less likely to have drain catheters placed than those without seromas (30.0% vs 63.1%, P = .011). In multivariate analyses, open VIH predicted seroma (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-18.8), as well as the specific hospital at which the procedure was performed. Spontaneous resolution occurred in 71% of seromas; 29% required aspiration. Procedural characteristics and hernia characteristics rather than patient comorbidities predicted seroma in VIH.

  9. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Jeff J; Dickerson, Kathryn C; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-03-16

    Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants' motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ventral tegmental area GABA neurons and opiate motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Perez, Hector; Mabey, Jennifer K.; Shin, Samuel I.; Steffensen, Scott C.; van der Kooy, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Rational Past research has demonstrated that when an animal changes from a previously drug-naive to an opiate-dependent and withdrawn state, morphine’s motivational effects are switched from a tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (TPP)-dependent to a dopamine-dependent pathway. Interestingly, a corresponding change is observed in ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABAA receptors, which change from mediating hyperpolarization of VTA GABA neurons to mediating depolarization. Objectives The present study investigated whether pharmacological manipulation of VTA GABAA receptor activity could directly influence the mechanisms underlying opiate motivation. Results Using an unbiased place conditioning procedure, we demonstrated that in Wistar rats, intra-VTA administration of furosemide, a Cl− cotransporter inhibitor, was able to promote a switch in the mechanisms underlying morphine’s motivational properties, one which is normally observed only after chronic opiate exposure. This behavioral switch was prevented by intra-VTA administration of acetazolamide, an inhibitor of the bicarbonate ion-producing carbonic anhydrase enzyme. Electrophysiological recordings of mouse VTA showed that furosemide reduced the sensitivity of VTA GABA neurons to inhibition by the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol, instead increasing the firing rate of a significant subset of these GABA neurons. Conclusion Our results suggest that the carbonic anhydrase enzyme may constitute part of a common VTA GABA neuron-based biological pathway responsible for controlling the mechanisms underlying opiate motivation, supporting the hypothesis that VTA GABAA receptor hyperpolarization or depolarization is responsible for selecting TPP- or dopamine-dependent motivational outputs, respectively. PMID:23392354

  11. Contingency learning in human fear conditioning involves the ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucken, Tim; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Merz, Christian Josef; Kagerer, Sabine; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2009-11-01

    The ability to detect and learn contingencies between fearful stimuli and their predictive cues is an important capacity to cope with the environment. Contingency awareness refers to the ability to verbalize the relationships between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Although there is a heated debate about the influence of contingency awareness on conditioned fear responses, neural correlates behind the formation process of contingency awareness have gained only little attention in human fear conditioning. Recent animal studies indicate that the ventral striatum (VS) could be involved in this process, but in human studies the VS is mostly associated with positive emotions. To examine this question, we reanalyzed four recently published classical fear conditioning studies (n = 117) with respect to the VS at three distinct levels of contingency awareness: subjects, who did not learn the contingencies (unaware), subjects, who learned the contingencies during the experiment (learned aware) and subjects, who were informed about the contingencies in advance (instructed aware). The results showed significantly increased activations in the left and right VS in learned aware compared to unaware subjects. Interestingly, this activation pattern was only found in learned but not in instructed aware subjects. We assume that the VS is not involved when contingency awareness does not develop during conditioning or when contingency awareness is unambiguously induced already prior to conditioning. VS involvement seems to be important for the transition from a contingency unaware to a contingency aware state. Implications for fear conditioning models as well as for the contingency awareness debate are discussed.

  12. Surfing a spike wave down the ventral stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanRullen, Rufin; Thorpe, Simon J

    2002-10-01

    Numerous theories of neural processing, often motivated by experimental observations, have explored the computational properties of neural codes based on the absolute or relative timing of spikes in spike trains. Spiking neuron models and theories however, as well as their experimental counterparts, have generally been limited to the simulation or observation of isolated neurons, isolated spike trains, or reduced neural populations. Such theories would therefore seem inappropriate to capture the properties of a neural code relying on temporal spike patterns distributed across large neuronal populations. Here we report a range of computer simulations and theoretical considerations that were designed to explore the possibilities of one such code and its relevance for visual processing. In a unified framework where the relation between stimulus saliency and spike relative timing plays the central role, we describe how the ventral stream of the visual system could process natural input scenes and extract meaningful information, both rapidly and reliably. The first wave of spikes generated in the retina in response to a visual stimulation carries information explicitly in its spatio-temporal structure: the most salient information is represented by the first spikes over the population. This spike wave, propagating through a hierarchy of visual areas, is regenerated at each processing stage, where its temporal structure can be modified by (i). the selectivity of the cortical neurons, (ii). lateral interactions and (iii). top-down attentional influences from higher order cortical areas. The resulting model could account for the remarkable efficiency and rapidity of processing observed in the primate visual system.

  13. Multiplexed Neurochemical Signaling by Neurons of the Ventral Tegmental Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, David J.; Root, David H.; Zhang, Shiliang; Morales, Marisela

    2016-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is an evolutionarily conserved structure that has roles in reward-seeking, safety-seeking, learning, motivation, and neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction and depression. The involvement of the VTA in these various behaviors and disorders is paralleled by its diverse signaling mechanisms. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of neuronal diversity in the VTA with a focus on cell phenotypes that participate in ‘multiplexed’ neurotransmission involving distinct signaling mechanisms. First, we describe the cellular diversity within the VTA, including neurons capable of transmitting dopamine, glutamate or GABA as well as neurons capable of multiplexing combinations of these neurotransmitters. Next, we describe the complex synaptic architecture used by VTA neurons in order to accommodate the transmission of multiple transmitters. We specifically cover recent findings showing that VTA multiplexed neurotransmission may be mediated by either the segregation of dopamine and glutamate into distinct microdomains within a single axon or by the integration of glutamate and GABA into a single axon terminal. In addition, we discuss our current understanding of the functional role that these multiplexed signaling pathways have in the lateral habenula and the nucleus accumbens. Finally, we consider the putative roles of VTA multiplexed neurotransmission in synaptic plasticity and discuss how changes in VTA multiplexed neurons may relate to various psychopathologies including drug addiction and depression. PMID:26763116

  14. The kinesin-3 family motor KLP-4 regulates anterograde trafficking of GLR-1 glutamate receptors in the ventral nerve cord of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Michael I; Ahlawat, Shikha; Kowalski, Jennifer R; Malkin, Emily; Koushika, Sandhya P; Juo, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The transport of glutamate receptors from the cell body to synapses is essential during neuronal development and may contribute to the regulation of synaptic strength in the mature nervous system. We previously showed that cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK-5) positively regulates the abundance of GLR-1 glutamate receptors at synapses in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we identify a kinesin-3 family motor klp-4/KIF13 in a cdk-5 suppressor screen for genes that regulate GLR-1 trafficking. klp-4 mutants have decreased abundance of GLR-1 in the VNC. Genetic analysis of klp-4 and the clathrin adaptin unc-11/AP180 suggests that klp-4 functions before endocytosis in the ventral cord. Time-lapse microscopy indicates that klp-4 mutants exhibit decreased anterograde flux of GLR-1. Genetic analysis of cdk-5 and klp-4 suggests that they function in the same pathway to regulate GLR-1 in the VNC. Interestingly, GLR-1 accumulates in cell bodies of cdk-5 but not klp-4 mutants. However, GLR-1 does accumulate in klp-4-mutant cell bodies if receptor degradation in the multivesicular body/lysosome pathway is blocked. This study identifies kinesin KLP-4 as a novel regulator of anterograde glutamate receptor trafficking and reveals a cellular control mechanism by which receptor cargo is targeted for degradation in the absence of its motor.

  15. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    of the prostate epithelium, the stroma and the lumen following EGF treatment, in a pattern resembling physiological growth of the ventral prostate. A significant correlation (r = 0.78, p testosterone...

  16. 'Batman excision' of ventral skin in hypospadias repair, clue to aesthetic repair (point of technique).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebeke, P B; De Kuyper, P; Van Laecke, E

    2002-11-01

    In the hypospadiac penis the ventral skin is poorly developed, while dorsal skin is redundant. The classical Byars' flaps are a way to use the excess dorsal skin to cover the penile shaft. The appearance after Byars' flaps however is not natural. We use a more natural looking skin allocation with superior aesthetic results. The clue in this reconstruction is an inverted triangle shaped excision of ventral skin expanding over the edges of the hooded prepuce (which makes it look like Batman). After excision of the ventral skin it is possible to close the penile skin in the midline, thus mimicking the natural raphe. In case of preputial reconstruction the excised ventral skin makes the prepuce look more natural. The trend of further refining aesthetic appearance of the hypospadiac penis often neglects the penile skin reconstruction. A technique is presented by which the total penile appearances after surgery ameliorates due to better skin reconstruction.

  17. Deep Neural Networks Reveal a Gradient in the Complexity of Neural Representations across the Ventral Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Umut; van Gerven, Marcel A J

    2015-07-08

    Converging evidence suggests that the primate ventral visual pathway encodes increasingly complex stimulus features in downstream areas. We quantitatively show that there indeed exists an explicit gradient for feature complexity in the ventral pathway of the human brain. This was achieved by mapping thousands of stimulus features of increasing complexity across the cortical sheet using a deep neural network. Our approach also revealed a fine-grained functional specialization of downstream areas of the ventral stream. Furthermore, it allowed decoding of representations from human brain activity at an unsurpassed degree of accuracy, confirming the quality of the developed approach. Stimulus features that successfully explained neural responses indicate that population receptive fields were explicitly tuned for object categorization. This provides strong support for the hypothesis that object categorization is a guiding principle in the functional organization of the primate ventral stream. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510005-10$15.00/0.

  18. The ventral visual pathway: an expanded neural framework for the processing of object quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Dwight J; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Baker, Chris I; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2013-01-01

    Since the original characterization of the ventral visual pathway, our knowledge of its neuroanatomy, functional properties, and extrinsic targets has grown considerably. Here we synthesize this recent evidence and propose that the ventral pathway is best understood as a recurrent occipitotemporal network containing neural representations of object quality both utilized and constrained by at least six distinct cortical and subcortical systems. Each system serves its own specialized behavioral, cognitive, or affective function, collectively providing the raison d'être for the ventral visual pathway. This expanded framework contrasts with the depiction of the ventral visual pathway as a largely serial staged hierarchy culminating in singular object representations and more parsimoniously incorporates attentional, contextual, and feedback effects. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. High-grade hemorrhoids requiring surgical treatment are common after laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, J. J.; Formijne Jonkers, H. A.; Verheijen, P. M.; Draaisma, W. A.; Consten, E. C J; Broeders, I. A M J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe patients developing grade III and IV hemorrhoids requiring surgery after laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy (LVMR) and to explore the relationship between developing such hemorrhoids and recurrence of rectal prolapse after LVMR. Methods: All consecutive patients receiving LVMR

  20. Functional organization and visual representations in human ventral lateral prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Wai Yiu Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies in both human and non-human primates have identified face selective activation in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex even in the absence of working memory demands. Further, research has suggested that this face-selective response is largely driven by the presence of the eyes. However, the nature and origin of visual category responses in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex remain unclear. Further, in a broader sense, how do these findings relate to our current understandings of lateral prefrontal cortex? What do these findings tell us about the underlying function and organization principles of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex? What is the future direction for investigating visual representations in this cortex? This review focuses on the function, topography, and circuitry of the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex to enhance our understanding of the evolution and development of this cortex.

  1. Endocannabinoids shape accumbal encoding of cue-motivated behavior via CB1 receptor activation in the ventral tegmentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Erik B; Beckert, Michael V; Morra, Joshua T; Lansink, Carien S; Cachope, Roger; Abdullah, Rehab A; Loriaux, Amy L; Schetters, Dustin; Pattij, Tommy; Roitman, Mitchell F; Lichtman, Aron H; Cheer, Joseph F

    2012-01-26

    Transient increases in nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine concentration are observed when animals are presented with motivationally salient stimuli and are theorized to energize reward seeking. They arise from high-frequency firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which also results in the release of endocannabinoids from dopamine cell bodies. In this context, endocannabinoids are thought to regulate reward seeking by modulating dopamine signaling, although a direct link has never been demonstrated. To test this, we pharmacologically manipulated endocannabinoid neurotransmission in the VTA while measuring transient changes in dopamine concentration in the NAc during reward seeking. Disrupting endocannabinoid signaling dramatically reduced, whereas augmenting levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) increased, cue-evoked dopamine concentrations and reward seeking. These data suggest that 2AG in the VTA regulates reward seeking by sculpting ethologically relevant patterns of dopamine release during reward-directed behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Photodynamic damage of glial cells in crayfish ventral nerve cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, M. S.; Duz, E.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising method for treatment of brain tumors, the most of which are of glial origin. In the present work we studied PDT-mediated injury of glial cells in nerve tissue, specifically, in abdominal connectives in the crayfish ventral nerve cord. The preparation was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine Photosens and irradiated 30 min with the diode laser (670 nm, 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2). After following incubation in the darkness during 1- 10 hours it was fluorochromed with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide to reveal nuclei of living, necrotic and apoptotic cells. The chain-like location of the glial nuclei allowed visualization of those enveloping giant axons and blood vessels. The level of glial necrosis in control preparations was about 2-5 %. Apoptosis was not observed in control preparations. PDT significantly increased necrosis of glial cells to 52 or 67 % just after irradiation with 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2, respectively. Apoptosis of glial cells was observed only at 10 hours after light exposure. Upper layers of the glial envelope of the connectives were injured stronger comparing to deep ones: the level of glial necrosis decreased from 100 to 30 % upon moving from the connective surface to the plane of the giant axon inside the connective. Survival of glial cells was also high in the vicinity of blood vessels. One can suggest that giant axons and blood vessels protect neighboring glial cells from photodynamic damage. The mechanism of such protective action remains to be elucidated.

  3. Context Dependent Effects of Ventral Tegmental Area Inactivation on Spatial Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Martig, Adria K.; Jones, Graham L.; Smith, Kelsey E.; Mizumori, Sheri J.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Rats were tested on a hippocampus dependent win-shift working memory task in familiar or novel environments after receiving bilateral ventral tegmental area infusions of baclofen. Baclofen infusion disrupted working memory performance in both familiar and novel environments. In addition, baclofen infusion selectively disrupted short-term working memory in the novel environment. This experiment confirms selective ventral tegmental area support of accurate performance during a context dependent...

  4. Preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Amilal; Gandhi, Ajay; Saxena, Gajendra; Choudhary, Gautam Ram

    2010-01-01

    Aims : Objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in patients of proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature. Materials and Methods : Twenty-seven patients of proximal hypospadias who underwent preputioplasty with TIP were evaluated retrospectively. Ventral curvature was corrected by mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the proximal urethra; dorsal plica...

  5. Novel structural components of the ventral disc and lateral crest in Giardia intestinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari D Hagen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia intestinalis is a ubiquitous parasitic protist that is the causative agent of giardiasis, one of the most common protozoan diarrheal diseases in the world. Giardia trophozoites attach to the intestinal epithelium using a specialized and elaborate microtubule structure, the ventral disc. Surrounding the ventral disc is a less characterized putatively contractile structure, the lateral crest, which forms a continuous perimeter seal with the substrate. A better understanding of ventral disc and lateral crest structure, conformational dynamics, and biogenesis is critical for understanding the mechanism of giardial attachment to the host. To determine the components comprising the ventral disc and lateral crest, we used shotgun proteomics to identify proteins in a preparation of isolated ventral discs. Candidate disc-associated proteins, or DAPs, were GFP-tagged using a ligation-independent high-throughput cloning method. Based on disc localization, we identified eighteen novel DAPs, which more than doubles the number of known disc-associated proteins. Ten of the novel DAPs are associated with the lateral crest or outer edge of the disc, and are the first confirmed components of this structure. Using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP with representative novel DAP::GFP strains we found that the newly identified DAPs tested did not recover after photobleaching and are therefore structural components of the ventral disc or lateral crest. Functional analyses of the novel DAPs will be central toward understanding the mechanism of ventral disc-mediated attachment and the mechanism of disc biogenesis during cell division. Since attachment of Giardia to the intestine via the ventral disc is essential for pathogenesis, it is possible that some proteins comprising the disc could be potential drug targets if their loss or disruption interfered with disc biogenesis or function, preventing attachment.

  6. Slits Are Chemorepellents Endogenous to Hypothalamus and Steer Thalamocortical Axons into Ventral Telencephalon

    OpenAIRE

    Braisted, Janet E.; Ringstedt, Thomas; O'Leary, Dennis D. M.

    2009-01-01

    Thalamocortical axons (TCAs) originate in dorsal thalamus, extend ventrally along the lateral thalamic surface, and as they approach hypothalamus make a lateral turn into ventral telencephalon. In vitro studies show that hypothalamus releases a chemorepellent for TCAs, and analyses of knockout mice indicate that Slit chemorepellents and their receptor Robo2 influence TCA pathfinding. We show that Slit chemorepellents are the hypothalamic chemorepellent and act through Robos to steer TCAs into...

  7. Ventral striatum activity when watching preferred pornographic pictures is correlated with symptoms of Internet pornography addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Snagowski, Jan; Laier, Christian; Maderwald, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    One type of Internet addiction is excessive pornography consumption, also referred to as cybersex or Internet pornography addiction. Neuroimaging studies found ventral striatum activity when participants watched explicit sexual stimuli compared to non-explicit sexual/erotic material. We now hypothesized that the ventral striatum should respond to preferred pornographic compared to non-preferred pornographic pictures and that the ventral striatum activity in this contrast should be correlated with subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. We studied 19 heterosexual male participants with a picture paradigm including preferred and non-preferred pornographic materials. Subjects had to evaluate each picture with respect to arousal, unpleasantness, and closeness to ideal. Pictures from the preferred category were rated as more arousing, less unpleasant, and closer to ideal. Ventral striatum response was stronger for the preferred condition compared to non-preferred pictures. Ventral striatum activity in this contrast was correlated with the self-reported symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. The subjective symptom severity was also the only significant predictor in a regression analysis with ventral striatum response as dependent variable and subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction, general sexual excitability, hypersexual behavior, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and sexual behavior in the last days as predictors. The results support the role for the ventral striatum in processing reward anticipation and gratification linked to subjectively preferred pornographic material. Mechanisms for reward anticipation in ventral striatum may contribute to a neural explanation of why individuals with certain preferences and sexual fantasies are at-risk for losing their control over Internet pornography consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mapping a lateralisation gradient within the ventral stream for auditory speech perception

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten eSpecht

    2013-01-01

    Recent models on speech perception propose a dual stream processing network, with a dorsal stream, extending from the posterior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere through inferior parietal areas into the left inferior frontal gyrus, and a ventral stream that is assumed to originate in the primary auditory cortex in the upper posterior part of the temporal lobe and to extend towards the anterior part of the temporal lobe, where it may connect to the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus...

  9. Mapping a lateralization gradient within the ventral stream for auditory speech perception

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Recent models on speech perception propose a dual-stream processing network, with a dorsal stream, extending from the posterior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere through inferior parietal areas into the left inferior frontal gyrus, and a ventral stream that is assumed to originate in the primary auditory cortex in the upper posterior part of the temporal lobe and to extend toward the anterior part of the temporal lobe, where it may connect to the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus....

  10. Correction of distal hypospadias: ventral adaption of the prepuce and meatal advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson-Jünemann, C; Seemann, O; Köhrmann, K U; Potempa, D; Jünemann, K P; Alken, P

    1993-01-01

    In distal hypospadias without chordee, surgical correction has a purely cosmetic character. In contrast to standard techniques focusing on meatal position, parents often regard the redundant dorsal prepuce and its missing ventral fusion as the essential constituent of this malformation. The operative technique, presented in detail, emphasizes on foreskin reconstruction. The ventral adaption of the prepuce (VAP procedure) results in a penis with normal appearance. Complications presented reveal the importance of proper patient selection.

  11. Modified semitendinosus muscle transposition to repair ventral perineal hernia in 14 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, E; Martano, M; Zabarino, S; Piras, L A; Nicoli, S; Bussadori, R; Buracco, P

    2015-06-01

    To describe a modified technique of semitendinosus muscle transposition for the repair of ventral perineal hernia. Retrospective review of case records of dogs with ventral perineal hernia that were treated by transposing the medial half of the longitudinally split semitendinosus muscle of one limb. The transposition of the internal obturator muscle was used when uni- or bilateral rectal sacculation was also present in addition to ventral perineal hernia; colopexy and vas deferens pexy were also performed. Fourteen dogs were included. In addition to ventral perineal hernia, unilateral and bilateral perineal hernia was also present in five and six of the dogs, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 890 days. Ventral perineal hernia was successfully managed by the modified semitendinosus muscle transposition with minor complications in all the dogs included in the study. Despite the small number of dogs included, the unilateral transposition of the medial half of the longitudinally split semitendinosus muscle consistently supported the ventral rectal enlargement in perineal hernia without obvious adverse effects. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Comparative analysis of open and robotic transversus abdominis release for ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, James G; Alrefai, Sameer; Vy, Michelle; Mabe, Micah; Del Prado, Paul A R; Clingempeel, Natasha L

    2018-02-01

    Transversus abdominis release (TAR) is a safe, effective strategy to repair complex ventral incisional hernia (VIH); however, open TAR (o-TAR) often necessitates prolonged hospitalization. Robot-assisted TAR (r-TAR) may benefit short-term outcomes and shorten convalescence. This study compares 90-day outcomes of o-TAR and r-TAR for VIH repair. A single-center, retrospective review of patients who underwent o-TAR or r-TAR for VIH from 2015 to 2016 was conducted. Patient and hernia characteristics, operative data, and 90-day outcomes were compared. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay, and secondary metrics were morbidity, surgical site events, and readmission. Overall, 102 patients were identified (76 o-TAR and 26 r-TAR). Patients were comparable regarding age, gender, body mass index, and the presence of co-morbidities. Diabetes was more common in the open group (22.3 vs. 0%, P = 0.01). Most VIH defects were midline (89.5 vs. 83%, P = 0.47) and recurrent (52.6 vs. 58.3%, P = 0.65). Hernia characteristics were similar regarding mean defect size (260 ± 209 vs. 235 ± 107 cm 2 , P = 0.55), mesh removal, and type/size mesh implanted. Average operative time was longer in the r-TAR cohort (287 ± 121 vs. 365 ± 78 min, P VIH offers the short-term benefits of low morbidity and decreased hospital length of stay compared to open TAR.

  13. Spontaneous and Evoked Activity from Murine Ventral Horn Cultures on Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J. Black

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor neurons are the site of action for several neurological disorders and paralytic toxins, with cell bodies located in the ventral horn (VH of the spinal cord along with interneurons and support cells. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs have emerged as a high content assay platform for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. Here, we explored the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of VH cultures derived from embryonic mouse spinal cord on multi-well plates of MEAs. Primary VH cultures from embryonic day 15–16 mice were characterized by expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT by immunocytochemistry. Well resolved, all-or-nothing spontaneous spikes with profiles consistent with extracellular action potentials were observed after 3 days in vitro, persisting with consistent firing rates until at least day in vitro 19. The majority of the spontaneous activity consisted of tonic firing interspersed with coordinated bursting across the network. After 5 days in vitro, spike activity was readily evoked by voltage pulses where a minimum amplitude and duration required for excitation was 300 mV and 100 μs/phase, respectively. We characterized the sensitivity of spontaneous and evoked activity to a host of pharmacological agents including AP5, CNQX, strychnine, ω-agatoxin IVA, and botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A. These experiments revealed sensitivity of the cultured VH to both agonist and antagonist compounds in a manner consistent with mature tissue derived from slices. In the case of BoNT/A, we also demonstrated intoxication persistence over an 18-day period, followed by partial intoxication recovery induced by N- and P/Q-type calcium channel agonist GV-58. In total, our findings suggest that VH cultures on multi-well MEA plates may represent a moderate throughput, high content assay for performing mechanistic studies and for screening potential therapeutics pertaining to paralytic toxins and neurological disorders.

  14. Amylin receptor activation in the ventral tegmental area reduces motivated ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; McGrath, Lauren E; Koch-Laskowski, Kieran; Krawczyk, Joanna; Reiner, David J; Pham, Tram; Nguyen, Chan Tran N; Turner, Christopher A; Olivos, Diana R; Wimmer, Mathieu E; Schmidt, Heath D; Hayes, Matthew R

    2017-09-01

    Amylin is produced in the pancreas and the brain, and acts centrally to reduce feeding and body weight. Recent data show that amylin can act in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to reduce palatable food intake and promote negative energy balance, but the behavioral mechanisms by which these effects occur are not fully understood. The ability of VTA amylin signaling to reduce intake of specific palatable macronutrients (fat or carbohydrate) was tested in rats in several paradigms, including one-bottle acceptance tests, two-bottle choice tests, and a free-choice diet. Data show that VTA amylin receptor activation with the amylin receptor agonist salmon calcitonin (sCT) preferentially and potently reduces intake of fat, with more variable suppression of sucrose intake. Intake of a non-nutritive sweetener is also decreased by intra-VTA administration of sCT. As several feeding-related signals that act in the mesolimbic system also impact motivated behaviors besides feeding, we tested the hypothesis that the suppressive effects of amylin signaling in the VTA extend to other motivationally relevant stimuli. Results show that intra-VTA sCT reduces water intake in response to central administration of the dipsogenic peptide angiotensin II, but has no effect on ad libitum water intake in the absence of food. Importantly, open field and social interaction studies show that VTA amylin signaling does not produce anxiety-like behaviors. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel ability of VTA amylin receptor activation to alter palatable macronutrient intake, and also demonstrate a broader role of VTA amylin signaling for the control of motivated ingestive behaviors beyond feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ventral inlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty: a novel surgical technique for the management of urethral stricture disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovell, Robert Caleb; Terlecki, Ryan Patrick

    2015-02-01

    To describe the novel technique of ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty for the management of male anterior urethral stricture disease. A 58-year-old gentleman with multifocal bulbar stricture disease measuring 7 cm in length was treated using a ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty. A dorsal urethrotomy was created, and the ventral urethral plated was incised. The edges of the urethral plate were mobilized without violation of the ventral corpus spongiosum. A buccal mucosa graft was harvested and affixed as a ventral inlay to augment the caliber of the urethra. The dorsal urethrotomy was closed over a foley catheter. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. Postoperative imaging demonstrated a widely patent urethra. After three years of follow-up, the patient continues to do well with no voiding complaints and low postvoid residuals. Ventral inlay substitution urethroplasty appears to be a safe and feasible technique for the management of bulbar urethral strictures.

  16. Cocaine exposure shifts the balance of associative encoding from ventral to dorsolateral striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Takahashi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Both dorsal and ventral striatum are implicated in the "habitization" of behavior that occurs in addiction. Here we examined the effect of cocaine exposure on associative encoding in these two regions. Neural activity was recorded during go/no-go discrimination learning and reversal. Activity in ventral striatum developed and reversed rapidly, tracking the valence of the predicted outcome, whereas activity in dorsolateral striatum developed and reversed more slowly, tracking discriminative responding. This difference is consistent with the putative roles of these two areas in promoting habit-like behavior. Dorsolateral striatum has been directly implicated in habit or stimulus response learning, whereas ventral striatum appears to be involved indirectly by allowing cues associated with reward to exert a general motivational influence on responding. Interestingly cocaine exposure did not uniformly enhance processing across both regions. Instead cocaine reduced the degree and flexibility of cue-evoked firing in ventral striatum while marginally enhanced cue-selective firing in dorsolateral striatum. Thus cocaine exposure causes regionally specific effects on neural processing in striatum; these effects may promote the habitization of behavior by shifting control from ventral to dorsolateral regions.

  17. Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumichi Itoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed tomography revealed absence of dens and atlanto-occipital overlapping. Magnetic resonance imaging showed compression of the spinal cord and indentation of caudal cerebellum. The diagnosis was Chiari-like malformation, atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral displacement of C2, atlanto-occipital overlapping, and syringomyelia. The dog underwent foramen magnum decompression, dorsal laminectomy of C1, and ventral fixation of the atlantoaxial joint. Soon after the operation, voluntary movements of the legs were recovered. Finally, the dog could stand and walk without assistance. The dog had complicated malformations at the craniocervical junction but foramen magnum decompression and dorsal laminectomy for Chiari-like malformation, and ventral fixation for atlantoaxial subluxation resulted in an excellent clinical outcome.

  18. Opposing dorsal/ventral stream dynamics during figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokke, Martijn E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-02-01

    The visual system has been commonly subdivided into two segregated visual processing streams: The dorsal pathway processes mainly spatial information, and the ventral pathway specializes in object perception. Recent findings, however, indicate that different forms of interaction (cross-talk) exist between the dorsal and the ventral stream. Here, we used TMS and concurrent EEG recordings to explore these interactions between the dorsal and ventral stream during figure-ground segregation. In two separate experiments, we used repetitive TMS and single-pulse TMS to disrupt processing in the dorsal (V5/HMT⁺) and the ventral (lateral occipital area) stream during a motion-defined figure discrimination task. We presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between relatively low-level (figure boundary detection) from higher-level (surface segregation) processing steps during figure-ground segregation. Results show that disruption of V5/HMT⁺ impaired performance related to surface segregation; this effect was mainly found when V5/HMT⁺ was perturbed in an early time window (100 msec) after stimulus presentation. Surprisingly, disruption of the lateral occipital area resulted in increased performance scores and enhanced neural correlates of surface segregation. This facilitatory effect was also mainly found in an early time window (100 msec) after stimulus presentation. These results suggest a "push-pull" interaction in which dorsal and ventral extrastriate areas are being recruited or inhibited depending on stimulus category and task demands.

  19. Sizzled controls dorso-ventral polarity by repressing cleavage of the Chordin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Osamu; Shimizu, Takashi; Yabe, Taijiro; Nojima, Hideaki; Bae, Young-Ki; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Hibi, Masahiko

    2006-04-01

    The Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signalling gradient has a major function in the formation of the dorso-ventral axis. The zebrafish ventralized mutant, ogon, encodes Secreted Frizzled (Sizzled). sizzled is ventrally expressed in a Bmp-dependent manner and is required for the suppression of Bmp signalling on the ventral side of zebrafish embryos. However, it remains unclear how Sizzled inhibits Bmp signalling and controls ventro-lateral cell fate. We found that Sizzled stabilizes Chordin, a Bmp antagonist, by binding and inhibiting the Tolloid-family metalloproteinase, Bmp1a, which cleaves and inactivates Chordin. The cysteine-rich domain of Sizzled is required for inhibition of Bmp1a activity. Loss of both Bmp1a and Tolloid-like1 (Tll1; another Tolloid-family metalloproteinase) function leads to a complete suppression and reversal of the ogon mutant phenotype. These results indicate that Sizzled represses the activities of Tolloid-family proteins, thereby creating the Chordin-Bmp activity gradient along the dorso-ventral axis. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized role for a secreted Frizzled-related protein.

  20. Gastric dilatation volvulus: a retrospective study of 203 dogs with ventral midline gastropexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, B; Seehaus, N; Hungerbühler, S; Meyer-Lindenberg, A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the recurrence rate of gastric dilatation volvulus and the incidence of complications in subsequent coeliotomies following ventral midline gastropexy. The medical records of dogs treated for gastric dilatation volvulus by ventral midline gastropexy were retrospectively reviewed. Owners were contacted and invited to complete a questionnaire and to return to the clinic for ultrasonographic and radiographic follow-up. The questionnaire was completed by 203 owners 2 to 123 months postoperatively, 24 of whom attended the follow-up examination. Of the 203 dogs, 13 (6 · 4%) underwent subsequent ventral midline coeliotomy and none developed complications related to the gastropexy site. In 23 of the 24 re-evaluated dogs, the stomach was closely associated with the abdominal on radiography and/or ultrasound. The recurrence rate for clinical signs of gastric dilatation or gastric dilatation volvulus after ventral midline gastropexy was 6 · 4%. This study shows that the recurrence of gastric dilatation volvulus after ventral midline gastropexy is low and adhesion of the stomach to the abdominal wall is persistent in almost all dogs that were re-examined. The gastropexy site did not appear to interfere with subsequent coeliotomy. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Risk-Assessment Score and Patient Optimization as Cost Predictors for Ventral Hernia Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Sherif; Plymale, Margaret A; Davenport, Daniel L; Roth, John Scott

    2018-04-01

    Ventral hernia repair (VHR) is associated with complications that significantly increase healthcare costs. This study explores the associations between hospital costs for VHR and surgical complication risk-assessment scores, need for cardiac or pulmonary evaluation, and smoking or obesity counseling. An IRB-approved retrospective study of patients having undergone open VHR over 3 years was performed. Ventral Hernia Risk Score (VHRS) for surgical site occurrence and surgical site infection, and the Ventral Hernia Working Group grade were calculated for each case. Also recorded were preoperative cardiology or pulmonary evaluations, smoking cessation and weight reduction counseling, and patient goal achievement. Hospital costs were obtained from the cost accounting system for the VHR hospitalization stratified by major clinical cost drivers. Univariate regression analyses were used to compare the predictive power of the risk scores. Multivariable analysis was performed to develop a cost prediction model. The mean cost of index VHR hospitalization was $20,700. Total and operating room costs correlated with increasing CDC wound class, VHRS surgical site infection score, VHRS surgical site occurrence score, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and Ventral Hernia Working Group (all p variance in costs (p optimization significantly reduced direct and operating room costs (p < 0.05). Cardiac evaluation was associated with increased costs. Ventral hernia repair hospital costs are more accurately predicted by CDC wound class than VHR risk scores. A straightforward 6-factor model predicted most cost variation for VHR. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective increase of in vivo firing frequencies in DA SN neurons after proteasome inhibition in the ventral midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mahalakshmi; Kern, Beatrice; Vogel, Simone; Klose, Verena; Schneider, Gaby; Roeper, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    The impairment of protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), and might play a key role in selective degeneration of vulnerable dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). Further evidence for a causal role of dysfunctional UPS in familial PD comes from mutations in parkin, which results in a loss of function of an E3-ubiquitin-ligase. In a mouse model, genetic inactivation of an essential component of the 26S proteasome lead to widespread neuronal degeneration including DA midbrain neurons and the formation of alpha-synuclein-positive inclusion bodies, another hallmark of PD. Studies using pharmacological UPS inhibition in vivo had more mixed results, varying from extensive degeneration to no loss of DA SN neurons. However, it is currently unknown whether UPS impairment will affect the neurophysiological functions of DA midbrain neurons. To answer this question, we infused a selective proteasome inhibitor into the ventral midbrain in vivo and recorded single DA midbrain neurons 2 weeks after the proteasome challenge. We found a selective increase in the mean in vivo firing frequencies of identified DA SN neurons in anesthetized mice, while those in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were unaffected. Our results demonstrate that a single-hit UPS inhibition is sufficient to induce a stable and selective hyperexcitability phenotype in surviving DA SN neurons in vivo. This might imply that UPS dysfunction sensitizes DA SN neurons by enhancing 'stressful pacemaking'. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Framework for Understanding the Emerging Role of Corticolimbic-Ventral Striatal Networks in OCD-Associated Repetitive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jesse; Ahmari, Susanne E

    2015-01-01

    Significant interest in the mechanistic underpinnings of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has fueled research on the neural origins of compulsive behaviors. Converging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that abnormal repetitive behaviors are driven by dysfunction in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuits. These findings suggest that compulsive behaviors arise, in part, from aberrant communication between lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsal striatum. An important body of work focused on the role of this network in OCD has been instrumental to progress in the field. Disease models focused primarily on these regions, however, fail to capture an important aspect of the disorder: affective dysregulation. High levels of anxiety are extremely prevalent in OCD, as is comorbidity with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, deficits in processing rewards and abnormalities in processing emotional stimuli are suggestive of aberrant encoding of affective information. Accordingly, OCD can be partially characterized as a disease in which behavioral selection is corrupted by exaggerated or dysregulated emotional states. This suggests that the networks producing OCD symptoms likely expand beyond traditional lateral OFC and dorsal striatum circuit models, and highlights the need to cast a wider net in our investigation of the circuits involved in generating and sustaining OCD symptoms. Here, we address the emerging role of medial OFC, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area projections to the ventral striatum (VS) in OCD pathophysiology. The VS receives strong innervation from these affect and reward processing regions, and is therefore poised to integrate information crucial to the generation of compulsive behaviors. Though it complements functions of dorsal striatum and lateral OFC, this corticolimbic-VS network is less commonly explored as a potential source of the pathology underlying OCD. In this review, we discuss this network's potential role as

  4. Transcriptome differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis in laser-captured microdissected rat hippocampal granular cell layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Bisgaard, C.F.; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    Several findings suggest a functional and anatomical differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus. Lesion studies in rats have indicated that the dorsal hippocampus preferentially plays a role in spatial learning and memory, while the ventral hippocampus is involved in anxiety...... and ventral granular cell layer with a false discovery rate below 5% and with a relative change in gene expression level of 20% or more. From this pool of genes 45 genes were more than two-fold regulated, 13 genes being dorsally enriched and 32 genes being ventrally enriched. Moreover, cluster analysis based...

  5. Predictors of surgical site infection in laparoscopic and open ventral incisional herniorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Kaufman, Derrick; Reda, Domenic; Itani, Kamal M F

    2010-10-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) after ventral incisional hernia repair (VIH) can result in serious consequences. We sought to identify patient, procedure, and/or hernia characteristics that are associated with SSI in VIH. Between 2004 and 2006, patients were randomized in four Veteran Affairs (VA) hospitals to undergo laparoscopic or open VIH. Patients who developed SSI within eight weeks postoperatively were compared to those who did not. A bivariate analysis for each factor and a multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to determine factors associated with SSI. The variables studied included patient characteristics and co-morbidities (e.g., age, gender, race, ethnicity, body mass index, ASA classification, diabetes, steroid use), hernia characteristics (e.g., size, duration, number of previous incisions), procedure characteristics (e.g., open versus laparoscopic, blood loss, use of postoperative drains, operating room temperature) and surgeons' experience (resident training level, number of open VIH previously performed by the attending surgeon). Antibiotic prophylaxis, anticoagulation protocols, preparation of the skin, draping of the wound, body temperature control, and closure of the surgical site were all standardized and monitored throughout the study period. Out of 145 patients who underwent VIH, 21 developed a SSI (14.5%). Patients who underwent open VIH had significantly more SSIs than those who underwent laparoscopic VIH (22.1% versus 3.4%; P = 0.002). Among patients who underwent open VIH, those who developed SSI had a recorded intraoperative blood loss greater than 25 mL (68.4% versus 40.3%; P = 0.030), were more likely to have a drain placed (79.0% versus 49.3%; P = 0.021) and were more likey to be operated on by surgeons with less than 75 open VIH case experience (52.6% versus 28.4%; P = 0.048). Patient and hernia characteristics were similar between the two groups. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the open surgical technique was

  6. Involvement of serotonin in the ventral tegmental area in thermoregulation of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwata, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Greenwood, Benjamin N

    2017-07-13

    We have recently reported that the serotonin (5-HT) projections from the midbrain's raphe nuclei that contains 5-HT cell bodies may play a role both in heat production and in heat loss. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the involvement of 5-HT in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), where 5-HT is suggested to participate in thermoregulation, using the combined methods of telemetry, microdialysis, and high performance liquid chromatography, with a special emphasis on regulation of the body temperature (T b ) in freely moving rats. First, we measured changes in T b , tail skin temperature (T tail ; an index of heat loss), heart rate (HR; an index of heat production), locomotor activity (Act), and levels of extracellular monoamines in the VTA during cold (5°C) or heat (35°C) exposure. Subsequently, we perfused citalopram (5-HT re-uptake inhibitor) into the VTA and measured the thermoregulatory parameters and monoamines release. Although T b , T tail , and HR changed during both exposures, significant changes in extracellular level of 5-HT (138.7±12.7% baseline, p<0.01), but not dopamine (DA) or noradrenaline (NA) were noted in the VTA only during heat exposure. In addition, perfusion of citalopram into the VTA increased extracellular 5-HT levels (221.0±52.2% baseline, p<0.01), but not DA or NA, while T b decreased from 37.4±0.1°C to 36.8±0.2°C (p<0.001),T tail increased from 26.3±0.4°C to 28.4±0.4°C (p<0.001), and HR and Act remained unchanged. Our results suggest that the VTA is a key area for thermoregulation, and 5-HT, but not DA or NA, modulates the heat loss system through action in the VTA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Concurrent TMS-fMRI Reveals Interactions between Dorsal and Ventral Attentional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leitao, Joana; Thielscher, Axel; Tuennerhoff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    interactively in this process. This fMRI study used concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a causal perturbation approach to investigate the interactions between dorsal and ventral attentional systems and sensory processing areas. In a sustained spatial attention paradigm, human participants......Adaptive behavior relies on combining bottom-up sensory inputs with top-down control signals to guide responses in line with current goals and task demands. Over the past decade, accumulating evidence has suggested that the dorsal and ventral frontoparietal attentional systems are recruited......-TMS relative to Sham-TMS increased activation in the parietal cortex regardless of sensory stimulation, confirming the neural effectiveness of TMS stimulation. Visual targets increased activations in the anterior insula, a component of the ventral attentional system responsible for salience detection...

  8. Radiographic and ultrasonographic characteristics of ventral abdominal hernia in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mohammed S; Hassan, Elham A; Torad, Faisal A

    2018-02-20

    Five female egg-laying pigeons presented with painless, reducible, ventral abdominal swellings located between the keel and the pubis, or close to the cloaca. Based on clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic examination, these pigeons were diagnosed with ventral abdominal hernia requiring surgical interference. Reduction was successfully performed under general anesthesia. Radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial for confirming the diagnosis and visualizing the hernial content for surgical planning. Lateral radiographs were more helpful than ventrodorsal radiographs for identification of the hernial content and its continuation with the abdominal muscles. Ultrasonographic examination offered a non-invasive diagnostic tool that allowed for the differentiation of hernia from other abdominal swellings. In addition, it played a beneficial role in identification of the hernial content and follow up after surgical interference. In conclusion, radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial in the diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow up after surgical interference of ventral abdominal hernia in pigeons.

  9. Correlation between early surgical complications and readmission rate after ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, D; Sjølander, H; Gögenur, I

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Postoperative surgical complications arising from ventral hernia repair have been assessed by a variety of outcome measures. The objective of this study was to correlate the Clavien Dindo Classification (CDC) graded complications with the 30-day readmission rate as early outcome measures...... in ventral hernia repair. Secondarily, we wanted to investigate whether the risk factors for Clavien Dindo class ≥1 and 30-day readmission were comparable. METHODS: Single-centre retrospective study including all patients (≥18 years) who underwent ventral hernia repair between January 1, 2009 and September 1......). There was a significant association between a complication graded by the CDC ≥1 and 30-day readmission for both incisional and umbilical/epigastric hernia repair (p readmission. Recurrent...

  10. Orbitofrontal lesions eliminate signalling of biological significance in cue-responsive ventral striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooch, Nisha K; Stalnaker, Thomas A; Wied, Heather M; Bali-Chaudhary, Sheena; McDannald, Michael A; Liu, Tzu-Lan; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2015-05-21

    The ventral striatum has long been proposed as an integrator of biologically significant associative information to drive actions. Although inputs from the amygdala and hippocampus have been much studied, the role of prominent inputs from orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are less well understood. Here, we recorded single-unit activity from ventral striatum core in rats with sham or ipsilateral neurotoxic lesions of lateral OFC, as they performed an odour-guided spatial choice task. Consistent with prior reports, we found that spiking activity recorded in sham rats during cue sampling was related to both reward magnitude and reward identity, with higher firing rates observed for cues that predicted more reward. Lesioned rats also showed differential activity to the cues, but this activity was unbiased towards larger rewards. These data support a role for OFC in shaping activity in the ventral striatum to represent the biological significance of associative information in the environment.

  11. Lateralization and gender differences in the dopaminergic response to unpredictable reward in the human ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Soelch, Chantal; Szczepanik, Joanna; Nugent, Allison; Barhaghi, Krystle; Rallis, Denise; Herscovitch, Peter; Carson, Richard E; Drevets, Wayne C

    2011-05-01

    Electrophysiological studies have shown that mesostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons increase activity in response to unpredicted rewards. With respect to other functions of the mesostriatal dopaminergic system, dopamine's actions show prominent laterality effects. Whether changes in DA transmission elicited by rewards also are lateralized, however, has not been investigated. Using [¹¹C]raclopride-PET to assess the striatal DA response to unpredictable monetary rewards, we hypothesized that such rewards would induce an asymmetric reduction in [¹¹C]raclopride binding in the ventral striatum, reflecting lateralization of endogenous dopamine release. In 24 healthy volunteers, differences in the regional D₂/₃ receptor binding potential (ΔBP) between an unpredictable reward condition and a sensorimotor control condition were measured using the bolus-plus-constant-infusion [¹¹C]raclopride method. During the reward condition subjects randomly received monetary awards while performing a 'slot-machine' task. The ΔBP between conditions was assessed in striatal regions-of-interest and compared between left and right sides. We found a significant condition × lateralization interaction in the ventral striatum. A significant reduction in binding potential (BP(ND) ) in the reward condition vs. the control condition was found only in the right ventral striatum, and the ΔBP was greater in the right than the left ventral striatum. Unexpectedly, these laterality effects appeared to be partly accounted for by gender differences, as our data showed a significant bilateral BP(ND) reduction in women while in men the reduction reached significance only in the right ventral striatum. These data suggest that DA release in response to unpredictable reward is lateralized in the human ventral striatum, particularly in males. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Radiographic appearance of the middle ear after ventral bulla osteotomy in five dogs with otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, D.E.; Walker, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographs of the middle ear were made in five dogs 60 to 78 months after ventral bulla osteotomy was performed to treat otitis media. The clinical results of surgery were considered satisfactory in four dogs and unsatisfactory in one. In 4 dogs with satisfactory results, radiographs demonstrated complete reformation of the bulla in 3 operated middle ears (3 dogs), with partial bulla reformation in the three middle ears (3 dogs). Radiographs in one dog with unsatisfactory results showed complete bulla reformation with no increase in lumen opacity. The proliferative bony response obliterating the middle ear previously reported in normal dogs after ventral bulla osteotomy was not seen in any of these patients

  13. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the healing of ventral midline abdominal incisions in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D A; Badertscher, R R; Boero, M J; Baker, G J; Foreman, J H

    1989-06-01

    Ultrasonography was used to evaluate the ventral midline incisions of 21 ponies following exploratory laparotomy. The incisions were evaluated before surgery and at weekly intervals from one to seven weeks after surgery. Both 5.0 and 7.5 MHz linear array and 7.5 MHz sector transducers were used for the evaluations. The incisional complications observed were drainage, oedema, suture sinus formation, suture abscess, superficial dehiscence and incisional hernia. Ultrasonographic imaging of the ventral midline incision was an easy, reliable and objective method for detecting and monitoring the progression of incisional complications in a non-invasive manner.

  14. Cephalad-renal ectopia: Bilateral subdiaphragmatic kidneys in a patient of omphalocele with ventral hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Parmar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly. Thoracic ectopic kidney was being considered as rarest, however no case of bilateral subdiaphragmatic kidneys in omphalocele patients presented with ventral hernia has been reported yet, as per our best of knowledge. This is a report of a 5- year-old male patient who presented with ventral hernia after omphalocele. A thorough examination, laboratory, and radiological investigations including ultrasonography, plain abdominal x-ray, intravenous urogram, and computerized tomography revealed bilateral subdiaphragmatic ectopic kidneys with azygos continuation of inferior vena cava, retro-aortic left renal vein and spina bifida

  15. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelides, M.; Wang, G.; Michaelides, M.; Thanos, P.K.; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Ananth, M.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  16. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  17. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  18. Reduced activation in the ventral striatum during probabilistic decision-making in patients in an at-risk mental state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rausch, Franziska; Mier, Daniela; Eifler, Sarah; Fenske, Sabrina; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Englisch, Susanne; Schilling, Claudia; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia display metacognitive impairments, such as hasty decision-making during probabilistic reasoning - the "jumping to conclusion" bias (JTC). Our recent fMRI study revealed reduced activations in the right ventral striatum (VS) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to be

  19. Ventral Tegmental Area and Substantia Nigra Neural Correlates of Spatial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K.; Mizumori, Sheri J. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) may provide modulatory signals that, respectively, influence hippocampal (HPC)- and striatal-dependent memory. Electrophysiological studies investigating neural correlates of learning and memory of dopamine (DA) neurons during classical conditioning tasks have found DA…

  20. FETAL PORCINE VENTRAL MESENCEPHALON GRAFTS - DISSECTION PROCEDURE AND CELLULAR CHARACTERIZATION IN CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANROON, WMC; COPRAY, JCVM; HOGENESCH, RI; KEMA, [No Value; MEYER, EM; MOLENAAR, G; LUGARD, C; STAAL, MJ; GO, KG

    The objective of this study was to develop an optimal dissection procedure for fetal porcine ventral mesencephalon (VM) grafts and to characterize the cellular composition of such an explant, in particular with respect to the dopaminergic and GABAergic components. We have used a monolayer cell

  1. Blindness alters the microstructure of the ventral but not the dorsal visual stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reislev, Nina L; Kupers, Ron; Siebner, Hartwig R; Ptito, Maurice; Dyrby, Tim B

    2016-07-01

    Visual deprivation from birth leads to reorganisation of the brain through cross-modal plasticity. Although there is a general agreement that the primary afferent visual pathways are altered in congenitally blind individuals, our knowledge about microstructural changes within the higher-order visual streams, and how this is affected by onset of blindness, remains scant. We used diffusion tensor imaging and tractography to investigate microstructural features in the dorsal (superior longitudinal fasciculus) and ventral (inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi) visual pathways in 12 congenitally blind, 15 late blind and 15 normal sighted controls. We also studied six prematurely born individuals with normal vision to control for the effects of prematurity on brain connectivity. Our data revealed a reduction in fractional anisotropy in the ventral but not the dorsal visual stream for both congenitally and late blind individuals. Prematurely born individuals, with normal vision, did not differ from normal sighted controls, born at term. Our data suggest that although the visual streams are structurally developing without normal visual input from the eyes, blindness selectively affects the microstructure of the ventral visual stream regardless of the time of onset. We suggest that the decreased fractional anisotropy of the ventral stream in the two groups of blind subjects is the combined result of both degenerative and cross-modal compensatory processes, affecting normal white matter development.

  2. Laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for external rectal prolapse improves constipation and avoids de novo constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, P; Collinson, R; Cunningham, C; Lindsey, I

    2010-06-01

    Abdominal rectopexy is ideal for otherwise healthy patients with rectal prolapse because of low recurrence, yet after posterior rectopexy, half of the patients complain of severe constipation. Resection mitigates this dysfunction but risks a pelvic anastomosis. The novel nerve-sparing ventral rectopexy appears to avoid postero-lateral rectal dissection denervation and thus postoperative constipation. We aimed to evaluate our functional results with laparoscopic ventral rectopexy. Consecutive rectal prolapse patients undergoing laparoscopic ventral rectopexy were prospectively assessed (Wexner Constipation and Faecal Incontinence Severity Index scores) pre-, 3 months postoperatively, and late (> 12 months). Sixty-five consecutive patients with external rectal prolapse (median age 72 years, 34% > 80 years, median follow up 19 months) underwent laparoscopic ventral rectopexy. There was one recurrence (2%) and one conversion. Morbidity (17%) and mortality (0%) were low. Median operating time was 140 min and median length of stay 2 days. At 3 months, constipation was improved in 72% and mildly induced in 2% (median pre-and postoperative Wexner scores 9 vs 4, P constipation and incontinence (P constipation and avoidance of de novo constipation appear superior to historical functional results of posterior rectopexy. A laparoscopic approach allows low morbidity and short hospital stay, even in those patients over 80 years of age in whom a perineal approach is usually preferred for safety.

  3. Fetal porcine ventral mesencephalon graft. Determination of the optimal gestational age for implantation in Parkinsonian patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HogenEsch, RI; Koopmans, J; Copray, JCVM; van Roon, WMC; Kema, [No Value; Molenaar, G; Go, KG; Staal, MJ

    Human fetal ventral mesencephalon tissue has been used as dopaminergic striatal implants in Parkinsonian patients, so far with variable effects. Fetuses from animals that breed in large litters, e.g., pigs, have been considered as alternative donors of dopaminergic tissue. The optimal gestational

  4. Cryopreservation of porcine fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue for intrastriatal transplantation in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, J.; Hogenesch, I.; Copray, S.; Middel, B.; van Dijk, H.; Go, K-G.; Staal, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we examined the efficacy of cryopreserving porcine fetal mesencephalic tissue. After microscopical dissection of the ventral mesencephalon (VM) from E28 pig fetuses, the collection of explants was randomly divided into two equal parts. One part was directly prepared as cell suspension.

  5. Cell cycle regulator E2F4 is essential for the development of the ventral telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhynsky, Vladimir A; McClellan, Kelly A; Vanderluit, Jacqueline L; Jeong, Yongsu; Furimsky, Marosh; Park, David S; Epstein, Douglas J; Wallace, Valerie A; Slack, Ruth S

    2007-05-30

    Early forebrain development is characterized by extensive proliferation of neural precursors coupled with complex structural transformations; however, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which these processes are integrated. Here, we show that deficiency of the cell cycle regulatory protein, E2F4, results in the loss of ventral telencephalic structures and impaired self-renewal of neural precursor cells. The mechanism underlying aberrant ventral patterning lies in a dramatic loss of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression specifically in this region. The E2F4-deficient phenotype can be recapitulated by interbreeding mice heterozygous for E2F4 with those lacking one allele of Shh, suggesting a genetic interaction between these pathways. Treatment of E2F4-deficient cells with a Hh agonist rescues stem cell self-renewal and cells expressing the homeodomain proteins that specify the ventral telencephalic structures. Finally, we show that E2F4 deficiency results in impaired activity of Shh forebrain-specific enhancers. In conclusion, these studies establish a novel requirement for the cell cycle regulatory protein, E2F4, in the development of the ventral telencephalon.

  6. Opposing dorsal/ventral stream dynamics during figure-ground segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wokke, M.E.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The visual system has been commonly subdivided into two segregated visual processing streams: The dorsal pathway processes mainly spatial information, and the ventral pathway specializes in object perception. Recent findings, however, indicate that different forms of interaction (cross-talk) exist

  7. GENE ARRAY ANALYSIS OF THE VENTRAL PROSTATE IN RATS EXPOSED TO EITHER VINCLOZOLIN OR PROCYMIDONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENE ARRAY ANALYSIS OF THE VENTRAL PROSTATE IN RATS EXPOSED TO EITHER VINCLOZOLIN OR PROCYMIDONE. MB Rosen, VS Wilson, JE Schmid, and LE Gray Jr. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC.Vinclozolin (Vi) and procymidone (Pr) are antiandrogenic fungicides. While changes in gene expr...

  8. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holz, N.E.; Boecker-Schlier, R.; Buchmann, A.F.; Blomeyer, D.; Jennen-Steinmetz, C.; Baumeister, S.; Plichta, M.M.; Cattrell, A.; Schumann, G.; Esser, G.; Schmidt, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Meyer-Lindenberg, A.; Banaschewski, T.; Brandeis, D.; Laucht, M.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At

  9. Watchful waiting as a treatment strategy for patients with a ventral hernia appears to be safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, D; Sjølander, H; Gögenur, I

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Due to risks of postoperative morbidity and recurrence some patients with a ventral hernia are not offered surgical repair. There is limited data on the rate and consequences of a watchful waiting (WW) strategy for these patients. The objective of this cohort study was to analyse outcome...

  10. Inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked superoxide dismutase in ventral horns, liver, and kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, P.A.; Bergemalm, D.; Andersen, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mutant superoxide dismutases type 1 (SOD1s) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by an unidentified toxic property. In a patient carrying the G127X truncation mutation, minute amounts of SOD1 were found in ventral horns using a mutant-specific antibody. Still, both absolute levels and ratios versus...

  11. Visualization of nitric oxide production in the earthworm ventral nerve cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Y; Naganoma, Y; Horita, H; Tsuji, N; Shimizu, R; Ogawa, H; Oka, K

    2001-06-01

    Distribution of nitric oxide (NO)-producible neurons in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of the earthworm was investigated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry. Some neurons (20-30 microm in diameter) were intensely stained and were localized in areas between the 1st and 2nd lateral nerves in the ventral side of VNC. In contrast, no neurons including giant fibers were stained in the dorsal side. Endogenous NO production from VNC was visualized using a fluorescent dye, diaminofluorescein-2 diacethyl (DAF-2 DA). When VNC was incubated in a saline, a relative high level of NO was produced from the ventral side, especially from NADPH-d-positive neurons. Under high-K+ stimulation, NO was also detected in the giant fibers in the dorsal side of VNC. Our results suggest that the earthworm VNC constantly and relative highly produces NO as a neuromodulator, and that NO produced from the ventral side sometimes reaches and affects the giant fibers. In conclusion, we successfully visualized NO in the earthworm VNC by clarifying both the distribution of NO-producible neurons and the endogenous NO production.

  12. The ventral stream offers more affordance and the dorsal stream more memory than believed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Albert; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Zuidhoek, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Opposed to Norman's proposal, processing of affordance is likely to occur not solely in the dorsal stream but also in the ventral stream. Moreover, the dorsal stream might do more than just serve an important role in motor actions. It supports egocentric location coding as well. As such, it would

  13. Feasibility and outcome after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using Proceed mesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J.; Burcharth, J.

    2008-01-01

    laparoscopic ventral hernia repair using the Proceed mesh secured with tackers with a double crown technique. Patients were discharged according to standard discharge criteria, and follow-up was performed with a search in the national patient database and with manual search in the patients' files. RESULTS: Our...

  14. Drumming with dopamine neurons : Resonance and synchronization in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, L.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a dopaminergic nucleus in the midbrain with the propensity to exhibit spontaneous intrinsic rhythmic activity in the 1-5 Hz frequency range (ex vivo). Here, we combine in-vitro simultaneous action potential recording from a 60 channel multi-electro-array with

  15. Morphine withdrawal enhances constitutive μ-opioid receptor activity in the ventral tegmental area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meye, F.J.; van Zessen, R.; Smidt, M.P.; Adan, R.A.H.; Ramakers, G.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    μ-opioid receptors (MORs) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are pivotally involved in addictive behavior. While MORs are typically activated by opioids, they can also become constitutively active in the absence of any agonist. In the current study, we present evidence that MOR constitutive

  16. Reduced amygdala and ventral striatal activity to happy faces in PTSD is associated with emotional numbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L Felmingham

    Full Text Available There has been a growing recognition of the importance of reward processing in PTSD, yet little is known of the underlying neural networks. This study tested the predictions that (1 individuals with PTSD would display reduced responses to happy facial expressions in ventral striatal reward networks, and (2 that this reduction would be associated with emotional numbing symptoms. 23 treatment-seeking patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder were recruited from the treatment clinic at the Centre for Traumatic Stress Studies, Westmead Hospital, and 20 trauma-exposed controls were recruited from a community sample. We examined functional magnetic resonance imaging responses during the presentation of happy and neutral facial expressions in a passive viewing task. PTSD participants rated happy facial expression as less intense than trauma-exposed controls. Relative to controls, PTSD participants revealed lower activation to happy (-neutral faces in ventral striatum and and a trend for reduced activation in left amygdala. A significant negative correlation was found between emotional numbing symptoms in PTSD and right ventral striatal regions after controlling for depression, anxiety and PTSD severity. This study provides initial evidence that individuals with PTSD have lower reactivity to happy facial expressions, and that lower activation in ventral striatal-limbic reward networks may be associated with symptoms of emotional numbing.

  17. Characterization of organotypic ventral mesencephalic cultures from embryonic mice and protection against MPP toxicity by GDNF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, B; Gramsbergen, J B; Møller Dall, A

    2005-01-01

    We characterized organotypic ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures derived from embryonic day 12 (E12) mice (CBL57/bL6) in terms of number of dopaminergic neurons, cell soma size and dopamine production in relation to time in vitro and tested the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and ...

  18. Early White-Matter Abnormalities of the Ventral Frontostriatal Pathway in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W.; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Lightbody, Amy A.; Patnaik, Swetapadma S.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Hazlett, Heather; Piven, Joseph; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Fragile X syndrome is associated with cognitive deficits in inhibitory control and with abnormal neuronal morphology and development. Method: In this study, we used a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography approach to reconstruct white-matter fibers in the ventral frontostriatal pathway in young males with fragile X syndrome (n = 17;…

  19. The Neural Representation of Goal-Directed Actions and Outcomes in the Ventral Striatum's Olfactory Tubercle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    2016-01-01

    The ventral striatum is critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. The many cellular, afferent, and efferent similarities between the ventral striatum's nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle (OT) suggests the distributed involvement of neurons within the ventral striatopallidal complex in motivated behaviors. Although the nucleus accumbens has an established role in representing goal-directed actions and their outcomes, it is not known whether this function is localized within the nucleus accumbens or distributed also within the OT. Answering such a fundamental question will expand our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying motivated behaviors. Here we address whether the OT encodes natural reinforcers and serves as a substrate for motivational information processing. In recordings from mice engaged in a novel water-motivated instrumental task, we report that OT neurons modulate their firing rate during initiation and progression of the instrumental licking behavior, with some activity being internally generated and preceding the first lick. We further found that as motivational drive decreases throughout a session, the activity of OT neurons is enhanced earlier relative to the behavioral action. Additionally, OT neurons discriminate the types and magnitudes of fluid reinforcers. Together, these data suggest that the processing of reward information and the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors is a global principle of the ventral striatum and have important implications for understanding the neural systems subserving addiction and mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed behaviors are widespread among animals and underlie complex behaviors ranging from food intake, social behavior, and even pathological conditions, such as gambling and drug addiction. The ventral striatum is a neural system critical for evaluating reward information and the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. Here we

  20. Face-infringement space: the frame of reference of the ventral intraparietal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Gin; Klam, François; Graf, Werner

    2012-07-01

    Experimental studies have shown that responses of ventral intraparietal area (VIP) neurons specialize in head movements and the environment near the head. VIP neurons respond to visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli, smooth pursuit eye movements, and passive and active movements of the head. This study demonstrates mathematical structure on a higher organizational level created within VIP by the integration of a complete set of variables covering face-infringement. Rather than positing dynamics in an a priori defined coordinate system such as those of physical space, we assemble neuronal receptive fields to find out what space of variables VIP neurons together cover. Section 1 presents a view of neurons as multidimensional mathematical objects. Each VIP neuron occupies or is responsive to a region in a sensorimotor phase space, thus unifying variables relevant to the disparate sensory modalities and movements. Convergence on one neuron joins variables functionally, as space and time are joined in relativistic physics to form a unified spacetime. The space of position and motion together forms a neuronal phase space, bridging neurophysiology and the physics of face-infringement. After a brief review of the experimental literature, the neuronal phase space natural to VIP is sequentially characterized, based on experimental data. Responses of neurons indicate variables that may serve as axes of neural reference frames, and neuronal responses have been so used in this study. The space of sensory and movement variables covered by VIP receptive fields joins visual and auditory space to body-bound sensory modalities: somatosensation and the inertial senses. This joining of allocentric and egocentric modalities is in keeping with the known relationship of the parietal lobe to the sense of self in space and to hemineglect, in both humans and monkeys. Following this inductive step, variables are formalized in terms of the mathematics of graph theory to deduce which

  1. Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, M.D.; Madigan, J.E.; Lichtensteiger, C.A.; Large, S.M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical signs, laboratory data, results of nuclear scintigraphy and radiographic examination of five horses with vertebral body osteomyelitis are described together with response to treatment. Three horses were less than five months of age. Four horses demonstrated hindlimb paresis and in three a focus of pain in the thoracolumbar region could be identified. An umbilical abscess, a caudal lobe lung abscess and a patent urachus were considered primary niduses of infection in each of three horses. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia, anaemia and elevated fibrinogen were the most consistent laboratory abnormalities. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed in three horses and identified the site of the vertebral lesion which was subsequently evaluated radiographically. In the other two horses radiographic examination in the region of areas of focal pain identified a lesion. Radiographic abnormalities included compression fractures of vertebral bodies (two), proliferative new bone (three) and soft tissue swelling ventral to a vertebral body (one). Two horses, including one with a compression fracture of the second lumbar vertebra, received parenteral antimicrobial therapy for 40 and 74 days, respectively. When re-examined six months later they showed no neurological abnormalities. The other three horses failed to respond to antimicrobial treatment and were humanely destroyed. The horse with a lung abscess also had an abscess cranial to the right tuber coxae which extended into the vertebral bodies of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae from which Streptococcus zooepidemicus was cultured. A horse with proliferative new bone on the ventral aspect of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae had a mediastinal mass associated with these vertebrae and fungal granulomas, from which Aspergillus species was cultured, in the heart and aorta, trachea, spleen and kidney. The horse with a patent urachus and soft tissue swelling ventral to the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra

  2. Representation of Gravity-Aligned Scene Structure in Ventral Pathway Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Siavash; Connor, Charles E

    2016-03-21

    The ventral visual pathway in humans and non-human primates is known to represent object information, including shape and identity [1]. Here, we show the ventral pathway also represents scene structure aligned with the gravitational reference frame in which objects move and interact. We analyzed shape tuning of recently described macaque monkey ventral pathway neurons that prefer scene-like stimuli to objects [2]. Individual neurons did not respond to a single shape class, but to a variety of scene elements that are typically aligned with gravity: large planes in the orientation range of ground surfaces under natural viewing conditions, planes in the orientation range of ceilings, and extended convex and concave edges in the orientation range of wall/floor/ceiling junctions. For a given neuron, these elements tended to share a common alignment in eye-centered coordinates. Thus, each neuron integrated information about multiple gravity-aligned structures as they would be seen from a specific eye and head orientation. This eclectic coding strategy provides only ambiguous information about individual structures but explicit information about the environmental reference frame and the orientation of gravity in egocentric coordinates. In the ventral pathway, this could support perceiving and/or predicting physical events involving objects subject to gravity, recognizing object attributes like animacy based on movement not caused by gravity, and/or stabilizing perception of the world against changes in head orientation [3-5]. Our results, like the recent discovery of object weight representation [6], imply that the ventral pathway is involved not just in recognition, but also in physical understanding of objects and scenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential activation of amygdala, dorsal and ventral hippocampus following an exposure to a reminder ofunderwater trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad eRitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recollection of emotional memories is attributed in part to the activation of the amygdala and the hippocampus. Recent hypothesis suggest a pivotal role for the ventral hippocampus in traumatic stress processing and emotional memory retrieval. Persistent re-experiencing and intrusive recollections are core symptoms in acute and posttraumatic stress disorders (ASD; PTSD. Such intrusive recollections are often triggered by reminders associated with the trauma.We examined the impact of exposure to a trauma reminder (under water trauma on the activation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA, dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Rats were exposed to underwater trauma and 24 hours later were re-exposed to the context of the trauma. Phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK was used as a marker for level of activation of these regions. Significant increase in ERK activation was found in the ventral hippocampus and BLA. Such pattern of activation was not found in animals exposed only to the trauma or in animals exposed only to the trauma reminder. Additionally, the dissociative pattern of activation of the ventral hippocampus sub-regions positively correlated with the activation of the BLA.Our findings suggest a specific pattern of neural activation during recollection of a trauma reminder, with a unique contribution of the ventral hippocampus. Measured 24 hrs after the exposure to the traumatic experience, the current findings relate to relatively early stages of traumatic memory consolidation. Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying these initial stages may contribute to developing intervention strategies that could reduce the risk of eventually developing PTSD.

  4. Expression and Function of Xmsx-2B in Dorso-Ventral Axis Formation in Gastrula Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, I; Takeda, M; Maéno, M

    2000-11-01

    Msx is a homeodomain-containing transcriptional factor that plays an essential role in pattern formation in vertebrata and invertebrata embryos. In Xenopus laevis, two msx genes have been identified (Xmsx-1 and Xmsx-2). In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the expression and function of Xmsx-2B (formerly designated as Xhox7.1') in early embryogenesis. Whole mount in situ hybridization analyses showed that the expression pattern of Xmsx-2B at gastrula and neurula stages was very similar to that of Xmsx-1: the transcript of Xmsx-2B was observed in ventral and lateral sides of the embryo. At the tailbud stage, however, the expression pattern of Xmsx-2B in neural tissues was distinct from that of Xmsx-1. An RNA injection experiment revealed that, like BMP-4, Xmsx-2B has a strong ventralizing activity. In the Xmsx-2B -injected embryos, differentiation of axial structures such as the notochord, muscle, and neural tissue was completely suppressed, whereas alpha-globin mRNA, a blood cell marker, was highly expressed. Simultaneous injection of Xmsx-1 and Xmsx-2B RNAs showed that they function in an additive manner. It was also shown that coinjection of Xmsx-2B with a dominant-negative BMP-4 receptor (tBR), which can induce formation of secondary axis when injected alone in ventral blastomeres, suppressed secondary axis formation. Furthermore, Xmsx-2B also suppressed secondary axis formation, which was induced by a dominant-negative form of Xmsx-1 (VP16/msx-1). Therefore, like Xmsx-1, Xmsx-2B is a downstream nuclear factor of the BMP-4-derived ventralizing signal, and these two factors probably share the same target molecules. In conclusion, Xmsx-1 and Xmsx-2B function in dorso-ventral axis formation in early Xenopus laevis development.

  5. Interaction of Instrumental and Goal-Directed Learning Modulates Prediction Error Representations in the Ventral Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rong; Böhmer, Wendelin; Hebart, Martin; Chien, Samson; Sommer, Tobias; Obermayer, Klaus; Gläscher, Jan

    2016-12-14

    Goal-directed and instrumental learning are both important controllers of human behavior. Learning about which stimulus event occurs in the environment and the reward associated with them allows humans to seek out the most valuable stimulus and move through the environment in a goal-directed manner. Stimulus-response associations are characteristic of instrumental learning, whereas response-outcome associations are the hallmark of goal-directed learning. Here we provide behavioral, computational, and neuroimaging results from a novel task in which stimulus-response and response-outcome associations are learned simultaneously but dominate behavior at different stages of the experiment. We found that prediction error representations in the ventral striatum depend on which type of learning dominates. Furthermore, the amygdala tracks the time-dependent weighting of stimulus-response versus response-outcome learning. Our findings suggest that the goal-directed and instrumental controllers dynamically engage the ventral striatum in representing prediction errors whenever one of them is dominating choice behavior. Converging evidence in human neuroimaging studies has shown that the reward prediction errors are correlated with activity in the ventral striatum. Our results demonstrate that this region is simultaneously correlated with a stimulus prediction error. Furthermore, the learning system that is currently dominating behavioral choice dynamically engages the ventral striatum for computing its prediction errors. This demonstrates that the prediction error representations are highly dynamic and influenced by various experimental context. This finding points to a general role of the ventral striatum in detecting expectancy violations and encoding error signals regardless of the specific nature of the reinforcer itself. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/3612650-11$15.00/0.

  6. Clarifying tetrapod embryogenesis by a dorso-ventral analysis of the tissue flows during early stages of chicken development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Vincent

    2012-09-01

    The formation of an animal body remains largely a mystery. It is still not clear whether anything like an organization plan or an "archetype" as coined by Darwin himself, actually exists, or whether animals are organized by a succession of stop-and-go genetic, non-linear, instructions with no global pattern. Nevertheless, it was recognized long ago that the early stages of amniote development consist of large scale rotatory movements over a discoidal blastula (Wetzel, 1924). Such rotatory movements reshuffle a mass inside a finite volume, and thus may have to bear physical conservation laws which contribute to establish the plan of animals in a global fashion. In this article I use dual dorso-ventral imaging of the chicken blastula, to show experimentally that the global movement of early vertebrate embryogenesis is organized with a very simple topology, around and away of a series of hyperbolic points in the vector flow of movement. At the first hyperbolic point, a layer of tissue (the mesoderm) ingresses and moves as a viscous sheet radially. It is found that the sheet flows away with a scaling law for the radius R(t)∼exp(t/τ). Also, the movement of this mesoderm changes the flow on the other layer (the ectoderm) by the principle of action and reaction. By mesoderm wetting the ectoderm, the first hyperbolic point migrates from the anal region, to the umbilical region. The final location of the hyperbolic point defines eventually the central part of the body (the umbilical region). Thus, the formation of the vertebrate body is fixed, as a global movement, by the dynamics of singular points in the visco-elastic flow, governed by mechanical forces within the tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  8. Biomimetic collagen/elastin meshes for ventral hernia repair in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardi, Silvia; Taraballi, Francesca; Wang, Xin; Cabrera, Fernando J; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Robbins, Andrew B; Sandri, Monica; Moreno, Michael R; Weiner, Bradley K; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2017-03-01

    Ventral hernia repair remains a major clinical need. Herein, we formulated a type I collagen/elastin crosslinked blend (CollE) for the fabrication of biomimetic meshes for ventral hernia repair. To evaluate the effect of architecture on the performance of the implants, CollE was formulated both as flat sheets (CollE Sheets) and porous scaffolds (CollE Scaffolds). The morphology, hydrophylicity and in vitro degradation were assessed by SEM, water contact angle and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The stiffness of the meshes was determined using a constant stretch rate uniaxial tensile test, and compared to that of native tissue. CollE Sheets and Scaffolds were tested in vitro with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (h-BM-MSC), and finally implanted in a rat ventral hernia model. Neovascularization and tissue regeneration within the implants was evaluated at 6weeks, by histology, immunofluorescence, and q-PCR. It was found that CollE Sheets and Scaffolds were not only biomechanically sturdy enough to provide immediate repair of the hernia defect, but also promoted tissue restoration in only 6weeks. In fact, the presence of elastin enhanced the neovascularization in both sheets and scaffolds. Overall, CollE Scaffolds displayed mechanical properties more closely resembling those of native tissue, and induced higher gene expression of the entire marker genes tested, associated with de novo matrix deposition, angiogenesis, adipogenesis and skeletal muscles, compared to CollE Sheets. Altogether, this data suggests that the improved mechanical properties and bioactivity of CollE Sheets and Scaffolds make them valuable candidates for applications of ventral hernia repair. Due to the elevated annual number of ventral hernia repair in the US, the lack of successful grafts, the design of innovative biomimetic meshes has become a prime focus in tissue engineering, to promote the repair of the abdominal wall, avoid recurrence. Our meshes (Coll

  9. Differences between Dorsal and Ventral Striatum in the Sensitivity of Tonically Active Neurons to Rewarding Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marche

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the striatum, cholinergic interneurons, electrophysiologically identified as tonically active neurons (TANs, represent a relatively homogeneous group in terms of their functional properties. They display typical pause in tonic firing in response to rewarding events which are of crucial importance for reinforcement learning. These responses are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (i.e., motor and associative striatum, but it is unknown, at least in monkeys, whether differences in the modulation of TAN activity exist in the ventral striatum (i.e., limbic striatum, a region specialized for processing of motivational information. To address this issue, we examined the activity of dorsal and ventral TANs in two monkeys trained on a Pavlovian conditioning task in which a visual stimulus preceded the delivery of liquid reward by a fixed time interval. We found that the proportion of TANs responding to the stimulus predictive of reward did not vary significantly across regions (58%–80%, whereas the fraction of TANs responding to reward was higher in the limbic striatum (100% compared to the motor (65% and associative striatum (52%. By examining TAN modulation at the level of both the population and the individual neurons, we showed that the duration of pause responses to the stimulus and reward was longer in the ventral than in the dorsal striatal regions. Also, the magnitude of the pause was greater in ventral than dorsal striatum for the stimulus predictive of reward but not for the reward itself. We found similar region-specific differences in pause response duration to the stimulus when the timing of reward was less predictable (fixed replaced by variable time interval. Regional variations in the duration and magnitude of the pause response were transferred from the stimulus to reward when reward was delivered in the absence of any predictive stimulus. It therefore appears that ventral TANs exhibit stronger responses to

  10. Reward Expectancy Strengthens CA1 Theta and Beta Band Synchronization and Hippocampal-Ventral Striatal Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Carien S; Meijer, Guido T; Lankelma, Jan V; Vinck, Martin A; Jackson, Jadin C; Pennartz, Cyriel M A

    2016-10-12

    The use of information from the hippocampal memory system in motivated behavior depends on its communication with the ventral striatum. When an animal encounters cues that signal subsequent reward, its reward expectancy is raised. It is unknown, however, how this process affects hippocampal dynamics and their influence on target structures, such as ventral striatum. We show that, in rats, reward-predictive cues result in enhanced hippocampal theta and beta band rhythmic activity during subsequent action, compared with uncued goal-directed navigation. The beta band component, also labeled theta's harmonic, involves selective hippocampal CA1 cell groups showing frequency doubling of firing periodicity relative to theta rhythmicity and it partitions the theta cycle into segments showing clear versus poor spike timing organization. We found that theta phase precession occurred over a wider range than previously reported. This was apparent from spikes emitted near the peak of the theta cycle exhibiting large "phase precessing jumps" relative to spikes in foregoing cycles. Neither this phenomenon nor the regular manifestation of theta phase precession was affected by reward expectancy. Ventral striatal neuronal firing phase-locked not only to hippocampal theta, but also to beta band activity. Both hippocampus and ventral striatum showed increased synchronization between neuronal firing and local field potential activity during cued compared with uncued goal approaches. These results suggest that cue-triggered reward expectancy intensifies hippocampal output to target structures, such as the ventral striatum, by which the hippocampus may gain prioritized access to systems modulating motivated behaviors. Here we show that temporally discrete cues raising reward expectancy enhance both theta and beta band activity in the hippocampus once goal-directed navigation has been initiated. These rhythmic activities are associated with increased synchronization of neuronal firing

  11. Presynaptic Regulation of Leptin in a Defined Lateral Hypothalamus-Ventral Tegmental Area Neurocircuitry Depends on Energy State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Bello, Nicholas T; Pang, Zhiping P

    2017-12-06

    Synaptic transmission controls brain activity and behaviors, including food intake. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, acts on neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to maintain energy homeostasis and regulate food intake behavior. The specific synaptic mechanisms, cell types, and neural projections mediating this effect remain unclear. In male mice, using pathway-specific retrograde tracing, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and post hoc cell type identification, we found that leptin reduces excitatory synaptic strength onto both melanin-concentrating hormone- and orexin-expressing neurons projecting from the LHA to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which may affect dopamine signaling and motivation for feeding. A presynaptic mechanism mediated by distinct intracellular signaling mechanisms may account for this regulation by leptin. The regulatory effects of leptin depend on intact leptin receptor signaling. Interestingly, the synaptic regulatory function of leptin in the LHA-to-VTA neuronal pathway is highly sensitive to energy states: both energy deficiency (acute fasting) and excessive energy storage (high-fat diet-induced obesity) blunt the effect of leptin. These data revealed that leptin may regulate synaptic transmission in the LHA-to-VTA neurocircuitry in an inverted "U-shape" fashion dependent on plasma glucose levels and related to metabolic states. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to ventral tegmental area (VTA) projection is an important neural pathway involved in balancing whole-body energy states and reward. We found that the excitatory synaptic inputs to both orexin- and melanin-concentrating hormone expressing LHA neurons projecting to the VTA were suppressed by leptin, a peptide hormone derived from adipocytes that signals peripheral energy status to the brain. Interestingly, energy states seem to affect how leptin regulates synaptic transmission since both the depletion of energy induced by acute food

  12. Effects of Forskolin on Trefoil factor 1 expression in cultured ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia; Ducray, A D; Widmer, H R

    2015-01-01

    shown that TFF1 is expressed in developing and adult rat ventral mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons. Here, we investigated the expression of TFF1 in rat ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons (embryonic day 14) grown in culture for 5, 7 or 10days......, suggesting that Forskolin induced TFF1 expression through diverse signaling pathways. In conclusion, distinct populations of cultured dopaminergic neurons express TFF1, and their numbers can be increased by factors known to influence survival and differentiation of dopaminergic cells....... to neuronal cells, and the percentage of TH/TFF1 co-expressing cells was increased to the same extent in GDNF and Forskolin-treated cultures (4-fold) as compared to controls. Interestingly, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin resulted in a significantly increased co-expression (8-fold) of TH/TFF1, which...

  13. The clinical effects of closure of the hernia gap after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Westen, Mikkel; Assadzadeh, Sami

    2014-01-01

    randomised controlled trials. The primary purpose of this paper is to compare early post-operative activity-related pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic ventral hernia repair with closure of the gap with patients undergoing standard laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (non-closure of the gap). Secondary...... outcomes are patient-rated cosmesis and hernia-specific quality of life. METHODS: A randomised, controlled, double-blinded study is planned. Based on power calculation, we will include 40 patients in each arm. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic umbilical, epigastric or umbilical trocar-site hernia...... repair at Hvidovre Hospital and Herlev Hospital, Denmark, are invited to participate. CONCLUSION: The gap closure technique may induce more post-operative pain than the non-closure repair, but it may also be superior with regard to other important surgical outcomes. No studies have previously...

  14. Novel insights into the interplay between ventral neck muscles in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gunnel; Nilsson, David; Trygg, Johan; Falla, Deborah; Dedering, Åsa; Wallman, Thorne; Peolsson, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) is common after whiplash injury, with considerable personal, social, and economic burden. Despite decades of research, factors responsible for continuing pain and disability are largely unknown, and diagnostic tools are lacking. Here, we report a novel model of mechanical ventral neck muscle function recorded from non-invasive, real-time, ultrasound measurements. We calculated the deformation area and deformation rate in 23 individuals with persistent WAD and compared them to 23 sex- and age-matched controls. Multivariate statistics were used to analyse interactions between ventral neck muscles, revealing different interplay between muscles in individuals with WAD and healthy controls. Although the cause and effect relation cannot be established from this data, for the first time, we reveal a novel method capable of detecting different neck muscle interplay in people with WAD. This non-invasive method stands to make a major breakthrough in the assessment and diagnosis of people following a whiplash trauma. PMID:26472599

  15. Mucoceles en Cara Ventral de Lengua: Reporte de 6 casos y manejo quirúrgico

    OpenAIRE

    Del Valle, Sol C.

    2002-01-01

    El "Mucocele" como todos sabemos es un término clínico que corresponde histopatológicamente a un fenómeno de retención o extravasación de moco, causado por obstrucción o ruptura del ducto de una glándula salival menor. La localización más frecuente es la mucosa del labio inferior seguida de mucosa bucal, paladar, y pocas veces en cara ventral de lengua. (1-2) Se estudiaron 6 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de mucocele en cara ventral de lengua que acudieron el Servicio de Patología Clínica ...

  16. Blindness alters the microstructure of the ventral but not the dorsal visual stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reislev, Nina L; Kupers, Ron; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-01-01

    Visual deprivation from birth leads to reorganisation of the brain through cross-modal plasticity. Although there is a general agreement that the primary afferent visual pathways are altered in congenitally blind individuals, our knowledge about microstructural changes within the higher...... pathways in 12 congenitally blind, 15 late blind and 15 normal sighted controls. We also studied six prematurely born individuals with normal vision to control for the effects of prematurity on brain connectivity. Our data revealed a reduction in fractional anisotropy in the ventral but not the dorsal......-order visual streams, and how this is affected by onset of blindness, remains scant. We used diffusion tensor imaging and tractography to investigate microstructural features in the dorsal (superior longitudinal fasciculus) and ventral (inferior longitudinal and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi) visual...

  17. Ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts longitudinal declines in adolescent risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of intensified emotions and an increase in motivated behaviors and passions. Evidence from developmental neuroscience suggests that this heightened emotionality occurs, in part, due to a peak in functional reactivity to rewarding stimuli, which renders adolescents more oriented toward reward-seeking behaviors. Most prior work has focused on how reward sensitivity may create vulnerabilities, leading to increases in risk taking. Here, we test whether heightened reward sensitivity may potentially be an asset for adolescents when engaged in prosocial activities. Thirty-two adolescents were followed over a one-year period to examine whether ventral striatum activation to prosocial rewards predicts decreases in risk taking over a year. Results show that heightened ventral striatum activation to prosocial stimuli relates to longitudinal declines in risk taking. Therefore, the very same neural region that has conferred vulnerability for adolescent risk taking may also be protective against risk taking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reelin signaling in the migration of ventral brain stem and spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBlaess

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix protein Reelin is an important orchestrator of neuronal migration during the development of the central nervous system. While its role and mechanism of action have been extensively studied and reviewed in the formation of dorsal laminar brain structures like the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, its functions during the neuronal migration events that result in the nuclear organization of the ventral central nervous system are less well understood. In an attempt to delineate an underlying pattern of Reelin action in the formation of neuronal cell clusters, this review highlights the role of Reelin signaling in the migration of neuronal populations that originate in the ventral brain stem and the spinal cord.

  19. Surgical retrieval of a metallic foreign body from the spleen of a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Shashi K; Anand, Arun; Sangwan, Vandana; Mohindroo, Jitender; Singh, Kiranjit

    2012-04-01

    This is the first report of a metallic foreign body in the spleen of a dog. The animal had abdominal discomfort with a tucked-up abdomen and occasional vomition. Radiography and ultrasonography were used to identify a splenic foreign body which was surgically removed through a ventral midline celiotomy. Migration of the foreign body through the stomach wall was suspected as the most likely cause.

  20. Surgical retrieval of a metallic foreign body from the spleen of a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Shashi K.; Anand, Arun; Sangwan, Vandana; Mohindroo, Jitender; Singh, Kiranjit

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report of a metallic foreign body in the spleen of a dog. The animal had abdominal discomfort with a tucked-up abdomen and occasional vomition. Radiography and ultrasonography were used to identify a splenic foreign body which was surgically removed through a ventral midline celiotomy. Migration of the foreign body through the stomach wall was suspected as the most likely cause.

  1. REGENERATIVE GROWTH OF CORTICOSPINAL TRACT AXONS VIA THE VENTRAL COLUMN AFTER SPINAL CORD INJURY IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Steward, Oswald; Zheng, Binhai; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Hofstadter, Maura; Sharp, Kelli; Yee, Kelly Matsudaira

    2008-01-01

    Studies that have assessed regeneration of corticospinal tract (CST) axons in mice following genetic modifications or other treatments have tacitly assumed that there is little if any regeneration of CST axons in normal mice in the absence of some intervention. Here, we document a previously unrecognized capability for regenerative growth of CST axons in normal mice that involves growth past the lesion via the ventral column. Mice received dorsal hemisection injuries at thoracic level 6–7, wh...

  2. Xenopus msx-1 regulates dorso-ventral axis formation by suppressing the expression of organizer genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, M; Saito, Y; Sekine, R; Onitsuka, I; Maeda, R; Maéno, M

    2000-06-01

    We demonstrated previously that Xmsx-1 is involved in mesoderm patterning along the dorso-ventral axis, under the regulation of BMP-4 signaling. When Xmsx-1 RNA was injected into the dorsal blastomeres, a mass of muscle tissue formed instead of notochord. This activity was similar to that of Xwnt-8 reported previously. In this study, we investigated whether the activity of Xmsx-1 is related to the ventralizing signal and myogenesis promoting factor, Xwnt-8. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that Xmsx-1, Xwnt-8, and XmyoD were expressed in overlapping areas, including the ventro-lateral marginal zone at mid-gastrula stage. The expression of XmyoD was induced by the ectopic expression of either Xmsx-1 or Xwnt-8 in dorsal blastomeres, and Xwnt-8 was induced by the ectopic expression of Xmsx-1. On the other hand, the expression of Xmsx-1 was not affected by the loading of pCSKA-Xwnt-8 or dominant-negative Xwnt-8 (DN-Xwnt-8) RNA. In addition, Xmsx-1 RNA did not abrogate the formation of notochord if coinjected with DN-Xwnt-8 RNA. These results suggest that Xmsx-1 functions upstream of the Xwnt-8 signal. Furthermore, the antagonistic function of Xmsx-1 to the expression of organizer genes, such as Xlim-1 and goosecoid, was shown by in situ hybridization analysis and luciferase reporter assay using the goosecoid promoter construct. Finally if Xmsx-1/VP-16 fusion RNA, which was expected to function as a dominant-negative Xmsx-1, was injected into ventral blastomeres, a partial secondary axis formed in a significant number of embryos. In such embryos, the activity of luciferase, under the control of goosecoid promoter sequence, was significantly elevated at gastrula stage. These results led us to conclude that Xmsx-1 plays a central role in establishing dorso-ventral axis in gastrulating embryo, by suppressing the expression of organizer genes.

  3. Ventral striatal regulation of CREM mediates impulsive action and drug addiction vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Michael L.; Ren, Yanhua; Szutorisz, Henrietta; Warren, Noël A.; Tessereau, Chloé; Egervári, Gábor; Mlodnicka, Agnieszka; Kapoor, Manav; Chaarani, Bader; Morris, Claudia V.; Schumann, Gunter; Garavan, Hugh; Goate, Alison M.; Bannon, Michael J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity, a multifaceted behavioral hallmark of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), strongly influences addiction vulnerability and other psychiatric disorders that incur enormous medical and societal burdens yet the neurobiological underpinnings linking impulsivity to disease remain poorly understood. Here we report the critical role of ventral striatal cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) in mediating impulsivity relevant to drug abuse vulnerability. Using an ADHD rat mode...

  4. Correlation between early surgical complications and readmission rate after ventral hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokotovic, D; Sjølander, H; Gögenur, I; Helgstrand, F

    2017-08-01

    Postoperative surgical complications arising from ventral hernia repair have been assessed by a variety of outcome measures. The objective of this study was to correlate the Clavien Dindo Classification (CDC) graded complications with the 30-day readmission rate as early outcome measures in ventral hernia repair. Secondarily, we wanted to investigate whether the risk factors for Clavien Dindo class ≥1 and 30-day readmission were comparable. Single-centre retrospective study including all patients (≥18 years) who underwent ventral hernia repair between January 1, 2009 and September 1, 2014 at Zealand University Hospital. Data were obtained from hospital files and the Danish National Patient Registry. A 100% follow-up was obtained. In total, the study included 700 patients (261 patients with incisional hernia repair and 439 patients with umbilical or epigastric hernia repair). There was a significant association between a complication graded by the CDC ≥1 and 30-day readmission for both incisional and umbilical/epigastric hernia repair (p readmission. Recurrent (vs. primary) hernia repair was an independent risk factors for both CDC ≥1 and 30-day readmission in umbilical/epigastric hernia repair. Furthermore, hernia size 2-7 cm (vs. >2 cm) was a risk factor for CDC ≥1 but not for 30-day readmission in umbilical/epigastric hernia repair. Reports on 30-day readmission can be used as a general outcome measure in ventral hernia repair, however CDC provides a more precise and detailed registration of postoperative complications.

  5. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhu; Xiao Chen; Zhan Liu; Yu-Ping Peng; Yi-Hua Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson?s disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h pr...

  6. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Herbort, Maike C.; Soch, Joram; W?stenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, J?rgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Bj?rn H.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BP...

  7. DORSAL ROOT REGENERATION INTO TRANSPLANTS OF DORSAL OR VENTRAL HALF OF EMBRYONIC SPINAL CORD

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta, Tohru; Itoh, Yasunobu; Tessler, Alan; Mizoi, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Adult cut dorsal root axons regenerate into the transplants of embryonic spinal cord (ESC) and form functional synapses within the transplants. It is unknown whether the growth is specific to transplants of dorsal half of ESC, a normal target of most dorsal root axons, or whether it is due to properties shared by transplants of ventral half of ESC. We used calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunohistochemistry to label to the subpopulations of regenerated adult dorsal root axons, quantit...

  8. Neuropsychiatric effects of neurodegeneration of the medial vs. lateral ventral prefrontal cortex in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Huey, Edward D.; Lee, Seonjoo; Brickman, Adam M.; Manoochehri, Masood; Griffith, Erica; Devanand, D.P.; Stern, Yaakov; Grafman, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Animal evidence suggests that a brain network involving the medial and rostral ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC) is central for threat response and arousal and a network involving the lateral and caudal PFC plays an important role in reward learning and behavioral control. In this study, we contrasted the neuropsychiatric effects of degeneration of the medial versus lateral PFC in 43 patients with Frontotemporal dementia and 11 patients with Corticobasal Syndrome using MRI, the Neuropsychiatric...

  9. Dorsal-ventral patterning in amphioxus: current understanding, unresolved issues, and future directions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozmiková, Iryna; Yu, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 10-12 (2017), s. 601-610 ISSN 0214-6282 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-21285J Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : dorsal-ventral patterning * organizer * signaling pathway * chordate * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2016

  10. Hyporeactivity of ventral striatum towards incentive stimuli in unmedicated depressed patients normalizes after treatment with escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoy, Meline; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Sterzer, Philipp; Bermpohl, Felix; Hägele, Claudia; Suchotzki, Kristina; Schmack, Katharina; Wrase, Jana; Ricken, Roland; Knutson, Brian; Adli, Mazda; Bauer, Michael; Heinz, Andreas; Ströhle, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) involves deficits in the reward system. While neuroimaging studies have focused on affective stimulus processing, few investigations have directly addressed deficits in the anticipation of incentives. We examined neural responses during gain and loss anticipation in patients with MDD before and after treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Fifteen adults with MDD and 15 healthy participants, matched for age, verbal IQ and smoking habits, were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a monetary incentive delay task. Patients were scanned drug-free and after 6 weeks of open-label treatment with escitalopram; controls were scanned twice at corresponding time points. We compared the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response during the anticipation of gain and loss with a neutral condition. A repeated measures ANOVA was calculated to identify effects of group (MDD vs. controls), time (first vs. second scan) and group-by-time interaction. Severity of depression was measured with the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression and the Beck Depression Inventory. MDD patients showed significantly less ventral striatal activation during anticipation of gain and loss compared with controls before, but not after, treatment. There was a significant group-by-time interaction during anticipation of loss in the left ventral striatum due to a signal increase in patients after treatment. Ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness was associated with the severity of depression and in particular anhedonic symptoms. These findings suggest that MDD patients show ventral striatal hyporesponsiveness during incentive cue processing, which normalizes after successful treatment.

  11. Asymmetric development of dorsal and ventral attention networks in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristafor Farrant

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two neural systems for goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention have been described in the adult human brain; the dorsal attention network (DAN centered in the frontal eye fields (FEF and intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and the ventral attention network (VAN anchored in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ and ventral frontal cortex (VFC. Little is known regarding the processes governing typical development of these attention networks in the brain. Here we use resting state functional MRI data collected from thirty 7 to 12 year-old children and thirty 18 to 31 year-old adults to examine two key regions of interest from the dorsal and ventral attention networks. We found that for the DAN nodes (IPS and FEF, children showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with adults, whereas adults showed greater functional connectivity between the FEF and extra-network regions including the posterior cingulate cortex. For the VAN nodes (TPJ and VFC, adults showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with children. Children showed greater functional connectivity between VFC and nodes of the salience network. This asymmetric pattern of development of attention networks may be a neural signature of the shift from over-representation of bottom-up attention mechanisms to greater top-down attentional capacities with development.

  12. Long-term Results of Ventral Penile Curvature Repair in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Dor; Sivan, Bezalel; Livne, Pinhas M; Nevo, Amihay; Ben-Meir, David

    2018-02-01

    To assess the postpubertal outcome of ventral penile curvature repaired in infancy in terms of recurrence and aesthetics. Postpubertal patients treated for hypospadias and ventral penile curvature in infancy at a tertiary medical center were invited to undergo assessment of the quality of the repair. Findings were compared between patients with a straight penis after skin release and patients who required dorsal plication. The cohort included 27 patients of mean age 16.5 years who were reported with straight penis after surgery. Postpubertal curvature was found in 6 of 14 patients (43%) successfully treated by skin release and 10 of 13 patients (77%) who underwent dorsal plication (P = .087). Significant curvature (≥30 degrees) was found in 1 of 14 patients in the skin-release group and 4 of 13 in the dorsal plication group (P = .16). Rates of redo urethroplasty were 2 of 14 (14%) and 5 of 10 (50%), respectively. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of the penis did not differ significantly. Ventral penile curvature repaired in infancy often recurs after puberty. The need for dorsal plication has a trend-level association with recurrence of penile curvature in puberty. It might also be related to the degree of postpubertal penile curvature and the need for redo urethroplasty. Procedure type does not affect patient satisfaction with the postpubertal appearance of the penis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of neonatal excitotoxic lesions in ventral thalamus on social interaction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Rainer; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Nullmeier, Sven; Bogerts, Bernhard; Schwegler, Herbert

    2017-03-30

    The role of the thalamus in schizophrenia has increasingly been studied in recent years. Deficits in the ventral thalamus have been described in only few postmortem and neuroimaging studies. We utilised our previously introduced neurodevelopmental animal model, the neonatal excitotoxic lesion of the ventral thalamus of Sprague-Dawley rats (Wolf et al., Pharmacopsychiatry 43:99-109, 22). At postnatal day (PD7), male pubs received bilateral thalamic infusions with ibotenic acid (IBA) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control). In adulthood, social interaction of two animals not familiar to each other was studied by a computerised video tracking system. This study displays clear lesion effects on social interaction of adult male rats. The significant reduction of total contact time and the significant increase in distance between the animals in the IBA group compared to controls can be interpreted as social withdrawal modelling a negative symptom of schizophrenia. The significant increase of total distance travelled in the IBA group can be hypothesised as agitation modelling a positive symptom of schizophrenia. Using a triple concept of social interaction, the percentage of no social interaction (Non-SI%) was significantly larger, and inversely, the percentage of passive social interaction (SI-passive%) was significantly smaller in the IBA group when compared to controls. In conclusion, on the background of findings in schizophrenic patients, the effects of neonatal ventral thalamic IBA lesions in adult male rats support the hypothesis of face and construct validity as animal model of schizophrenia.

  14. Lateral and medial ventral occipitotemporal regions interact during the recognition of images revealed from noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eNordhjem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest different functional roles for the medial and the lateral ventral sections in object recognition. Texture and surface information is processed in medial regions, while shape information is processed in lateral sections. This begs the question whether and how these functionally specialized sections interact with each other and with early visual cortex to facilitate object recognition. In the current research, we set out to answer this question. In an fMRI study, thirteen subjects viewed and recognized images of objects and animals that were gradually revealed from noise while their brains were being scanned. We applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM – a method to characterize network interactions – to determine the modulatory effect of object recognition on a network comprising the primary visual cortex (V1, the lingual gyrus (LG in medial ventral cortex and the lateral occipital cortex (LO. We found that object recognition modulated the bilateral connectivity between LG and LO. Moreover, the feed-forward connectivity from V1 to LG and LO was modulated, while there was no evidence for feedback from these regions to V1 during object recognition. In particular, the interaction between medial and lateral areas supports a framework in which visual recognition of objects is achieved by networked regions that integrate information on image statistics, scene content and shape – rather than by a single categorically specialized region – within the ventral visual cortex.

  15. A biomechanical analysis of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Conte

    Full Text Available The article provides a biomechanical analysis of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. Ventral furrow formation is the first large-scale morphogenetic movement in the fly embryo. It involves deformation of a uniform cellular monolayer formed following cellularisation, and has therefore long been used as a simple system in which to explore the role of mechanics in force generation. Here we use a quantitative framework to carry out a systematic perturbation analysis to determine the role of each of the active forces observed. The analysis confirms that ventral furrow invagination arises from a combination of apical constriction and apical-basal shortening forces in the mesoderm, together with a combination of ectodermal forces. We show that the mesodermal forces are crucial for invagination: the loss of apical constriction leads to a loss of the furrow, while the mesodermal radial shortening forces are the primary cause of the internalisation of the future mesoderm as the furrow rises. Ectodermal forces play a minor but significant role in furrow formation: without ectodermal forces the furrow is slower to form, does not close properly and has an aberrant morphology. Nevertheless, despite changes in the active mesodermal and ectodermal forces lead to changes in the timing and extent of furrow, invagination is eventually achieved in most cases, implying that the system is robust to perturbation and therefore over-determined.

  16. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Maike C; Soch, Joram; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, Jürgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BPD patients and 23 age-matched female healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants performed a delayed monetary incentive task in which three categories of objects predicted a potential gain, loss, or neutral outcome. Impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients exhibited significantly reduced fMRI responses of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAcc) to both reward-predicting and loss-predicting cues. BIS-11 scores showed a significant positive correlation with the VS/NAcc reward anticipation responses in healthy controls, and this correlation, while also nominally positive, failed to reach significance in BPD patients. BPD patients, on the other hand, exhibited a significantly negative correlation between ventral striatal loss anticipation responses and BIS-11 scores, whereas this correlation was significantly positive in healthy controls. Our results suggest that patients with BPD show attenuated anticipation responses in the VS/NAcc and, furthermore, that higher impulsivity in BPD patients might be related to impaired prediction of aversive outcomes.

  17. Mapping a lateralisation gradient within the ventral stream for auditory speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten eSpecht

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent models on speech perception propose a dual stream processing network, with a dorsal stream, extending from the posterior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere through inferior parietal areas into the left inferior frontal gyrus, and a ventral stream that is assumed to originate in the primary auditory cortex in the upper posterior part of the temporal lobe and to extend towards the anterior part of the temporal lobe, where it may connect to the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. This article describes and reviews the results from a series of complementary functional magnetic imaging (fMRI studies that aimed to trace the hierarchical processing network for speech comprehension within the left and right hemisphere with a particular focus on the temporal lobe and the ventral stream. As hypothesised, the results demonstrate a bilateral involvement of the temporal lobes in the processing of speech signals. However, an increasing leftward asymmetry was detected from auditory-phonetic to lexico-semantic processing and along the posterior-anterior axis, thus forming a lateralisation gradient. This increasing leftward lateralisation was particularly evident for the left superior temporal sulcus (STS and more anterior parts of the temporal lobe.

  18. Mapping a lateralization gradient within the ventral stream for auditory speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Recent models on speech perception propose a dual-stream processing network, with a dorsal stream, extending from the posterior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere through inferior parietal areas into the left inferior frontal gyrus, and a ventral stream that is assumed to originate in the primary auditory cortex in the upper posterior part of the temporal lobe and to extend toward the anterior part of the temporal lobe, where it may connect to the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. This article describes and reviews the results from a series of complementary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that aimed to trace the hierarchical processing network for speech comprehension within the left and right hemisphere with a particular focus on the temporal lobe and the ventral stream. As hypothesized, the results demonstrate a bilateral involvement of the temporal lobes in the processing of speech signals. However, an increasing leftward asymmetry was detected from auditory-phonetic to lexico-semantic processing and along the posterior-anterior axis, thus forming a "lateralization" gradient. This increasing leftward lateralization was particularly evident for the left superior temporal sulcus and more anterior parts of the temporal lobe.

  19. Attention supports verbal short-term memory via competition between dorsal and ventral attention networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Attout, Lucie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Degueldre, Christian; Fias, Wim; Maquet, Pierre; Martinez Perez, Trecy; Stawarczyk, David; Salmon, Eric; Van der Linden, Martial; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne

    2012-05-01

    Interactions between the neural correlates of short-term memory (STM) and attention have been actively studied in the visual STM domain but much less in the verbal STM domain. Here we show that the same attention mechanisms that have been shown to shape the neural networks of visual STM also shape those of verbal STM. Based on previous research in visual STM, we contrasted the involvement of a dorsal attention network centered on the intraparietal sulcus supporting task-related attention and a ventral attention network centered on the temporoparietal junction supporting stimulus-related attention. We observed that, with increasing STM load, the dorsal attention network was activated while the ventral attention network was deactivated, especially during early maintenance. Importantly, activation in the ventral attention network increased in response to task-irrelevant stimuli briefly presented during the maintenance phase of the STM trials but only during low-load STM conditions, which were associated with the lowest levels of activity in the dorsal attention network during encoding and early maintenance. By demonstrating a trade-off between task-related and stimulus-related attention networks during verbal STM, this study highlights the dynamics of attentional processes involved in verbal STM.

  20. The functional anatomy of speech perception: Dorsal and ventral processing pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory

    2003-04-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the cortical organization of vision, and on data from a variety of sources, Hickok and Poeppel (2000) have proposed a new model of the functional anatomy of speech perception. The model posits that early cortical stages of speech perception involve auditory fields in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally (although asymmetrically). This cortical processing system then diverges into two broad processing streams, a ventral stream, involved in mapping sound onto meaning, and a dorsal stream, involved in mapping sound onto articulatory-based representations. The ventral stream projects ventrolaterally toward inferior posterior temporal cortex which serves as an interface between sound and meaning. The dorsal stream projects dorsoposteriorly toward the parietal lobe and ultimately to frontal regions. This network provides a mechanism for the development and maintenance of ``parity'' between auditory and motor representations of speech. Although the dorsal stream represents a tight connection between speech perception and speech production, it is not a critical component of the speech perception process under ecologically natural listening conditions. Some degree of bi-directionality in both the dorsal and ventral pathways is also proposed. A variety of recent empirical tests of this model have provided further support for the proposal.

  1. Boolean modelling reveals new regulatory connections between transcription factors orchestrating the development of the ventral spinal cord.

    KAUST Repository

    Lovrics, Anna; Gao, Yu; Juhá sz, Bianka; Bock, Istvá n; Byrne, Helen M; Dinnyé s, Andrá s; Ková cs, Krisztiá n A

    2014-01-01

    with the five known progenitor cell types located in the ventral spinal cord. The revised gene regulatory network reproduced previously observed cell state switches between progenitor cells observed in knock-out animal models or in experiments where

  2. Chronic alcohol intake abolishes the relationship between dopamine synthesis capacity and learning signals in the ventral striatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deserno, Lorenz; Beck, Anne; Huys, Quentin J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse elicit dopamine release in the ventral striatum, possibly biasing dopamine-driven reinforcement learning towards drug-related reward at the expense of non-drug-related reward. Indeed, in alcohol-dependent patients, reactivity in dopaminergic target areas is shifted from non-drug......-related stimuli towards drug-related stimuli. Such ‘hijacked’ dopamine signals may impair flexible learning from non-drug-related rewards, and thus promote craving for the drug of abuse. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure ventral striatal activation by reward prediction errors (RPEs......) during a probabilistic reversal learning task in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls (N = 27). All participants also underwent 6-[18F]fluoro-DOPA positron emission tomography to assess ventral striatal dopamine synthesis capacity. Neither ventral striatal activation...

  3. The outcome of A. Double mesh intraperitoneal repair for complex ventral hernia: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Raafat Y; Hamood, Mokhtar; Hassan, Maged

    2018-05-01

    Complex ventral hernia is a challenging surgical entity, commonly attended with huge defect, loss of domain and possible soft tissue infection. It is difficult to repair, especially with multiple recurrences. Numerous methods of repair have been described with no evidence-based data available to prefer one method over the other. The purpose of this study is to determine the long-term outcome of the proposed new modification of intraperitoneal mesh repair procedure in complex ventral hernia. This is a single-center retrospective analysis utilizing the prospectively-maintained dataset in our institution during the study period between January 2003 and June 2017. Patients who fit the inclusion criteria of having a complex ventral hernia, whether de-novo or recurrent and were subjected to A. Double Mesh Intraperitoneal Repair (ADMIR) procedure were included in the study. Patients were followed up till recurrence or lost to follow through a period ranging from 6 to 174 months (mean: 142.96 ± SE: 11.91). Forty-nine cases were included in this study (38 females and 11 males) with a female to male ratio of 3.5:1. The age range was from 28 to 81 years (mean 49 ± 12.4). BMI range from 25 to 42 (mean 33.6 ± 5.42). The ratio between the hernia sac volume and abdominal cavity volume was more than 20% in 12 patients (24.5%), who were subjected to preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum (PPP) for an average period of two weeks. Hernias were recurrent in 28 cases (57%) and associated comorbidities were observed in 29 patients (63%). Postoperative complications occurred in 19 patients (38.7%), among them only 2 patients developed recurrence (4%) after a mean follow up period of 142 months. Five patients were lost to follow and were included in the Kaplan and Meier survival analysis. ADMIR procedure is successful for the repair of complex ventral hernias as it is applicable to all sites of ventral hernias. The mesh is tension free hidden within the abdomen allowing

  4. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D. K.; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as ...

  5. Adhesive F-actin Waves: A Novel Integrin-Mediated Adhesion Complex Coupled to Ventral Actin Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Case, Lindsay B.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2011-01-01

    At the leading lamellipodium of migrating cells, protrusion of an Arp2/3-nucleated actin network is coupled to formation of integrin-based adhesions, suggesting that Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and integrin-dependent adhesion may be mechanistically linked. Arp2/3 also mediates actin polymerization in structures distinct from the lamellipodium, in "ventral F-actin waves" that propagate as spots and wavefronts along the ventral plasma membrane. Here we show that integrins engage the ex...

  6. Pipe-dependent ventral processing of Easter by Snake is the defining step in Drosophila embryo DV axis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Suk; Stevens, Leslie M; Stein, David

    2010-06-22

    The establishment of Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral (DV) polarity relies on serine proteolytic activity in the perivitelline space between the embryonic membrane and the eggshell. Gastrulation Defective cleaves and activates Snake, which processes and activates Easter, which cleaves Spätzle to form the activating ligand for the Toll receptor. Ventral restriction of ligand formation depends on the Pipe sulfotransferase, which is expressed in ventral cells of the follicular epithelium surrounding the developing oocyte. Pipe modifies components of the developing eggshell to produce a ventral cue embedded in the vitelline membrane. This ventral cue is believed to promote one or more of the proteolysis steps in the perivitelline space. By examining the processing of transgenic, tagged versions of the perivitelline proteins during DV patterning, we find that the proteolysis of Easter by Snake is the first Pipe-dependent step and therefore the key ventrally restricted event in the protease cascade. We also find that Snake and Easter associate together in a complex in both wild-type and pipe mutant-derived embryos. This observation suggests a mechanism in which the sulfated target of Pipe promotes a productive interaction between Snake and Easter, perhaps by facilitating conformational changes in a complex containing the two proteins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Brainstem Pathologies of Parkinson's Disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, Kay; Mahlke, Josefine; Siswanto, Sonny; Krueger, Reijko; Heinsen, Helmut; Auburger, Georg; Bouzrou, Mohamed; Grinberg, Lea T.; Wicht, Helmut; Korf, Horst-Werner; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Rueb, Udo

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are among the human synucleinopathies, which show alpha-synuclein immunoreactive neuronal and/or glial aggregations and progressive neuronal loss in selected brain regions (eg, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, pedunculopontine

  8. Body maps on the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, Christopher; Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul

    2013-12-20

    Chromosomes have territories, or preferred locales, in the cell nucleus. When these sites are taken into account, some large-scale structure of the human genome emerges. The synoptic picture is that genes highly expressed in particular topologically compact tissues are not randomly distributed on the genome. Rather, such tissue-specific genes tend to map somatotopically onto the complete chromosome set. They seem to form a "genome homunculus": a multi-dimensional, genome-wide body representation extending across chromosome territories of the entire spermcell nucleus. The antero-posterior axis of the body significantly corresponds to the head-tail axis of the nucleus, and the dorso-ventral body axis to the central-peripheral nucleus axis. This large-scale genomic structure includes thousands of genes. One rationale for a homuncular genome structure would be to minimize connection costs in genetic networks. Somatotopic maps in cerebral cortex have been reported for over a century.

  9. Body Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are body lice? Body lice (also called clothes lice) are tiny insects which live and lay nits (lice eggs) on clothing. They are parasites, ... usually only move to the skin to feed. Body lice are one of the three types of ...

  10. Preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Amilal; Gandhi, Ajay; Saxena, Gajendra; Choudhary, Gautam Ram

    2010-10-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in patients of proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature. Twenty-seven patients of proximal hypospadias who underwent preputioplasty with TIP were evaluated retrospectively. Ventral curvature was corrected by mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the proximal urethra; dorsal plication was added according to the severity of curvature. Feasibility of preputial reconstruction was assessed by applying 3 stay sutures-the first to fix the skin at the corona, the second at the junction of the inner and outer preputial skin for pulling up the skin over the glans, and the third stay on penile skin at the level of the corona for retracting the skin. Preputial reconstruction consisted of a standard 3 layered re-approximation of the margins of the dorsal hood. Age of the patients varied from 10 months to 21 years with an average of 6 years and 4 months. Ventral curvature (mild 10, moderate 13, and severe 4 cases) was corrected by the mobilization of the urethral plate and spongiosum in 14 patients, 11 cases had mobilization of the proximal urethra in addition and 2 patients required single stitch dorsal plication with the above-mentioned steps. Two patients developed urethral fistula and 1 had preputial dehiscence. Preputioplasty with TIP is feasible in proximal hypospadias with curvature without increasing the complication rate. Postoperative phimosis can be prevented by on-table testing of the adequacy of preputial skin by 3 stay sutures.

  11. Neural sources of visual working memory maintenance in human parietal and ventral extrastriate visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becke, Andreas; Müller, Notger; Vellage, Anne; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2015-04-15

    Maintaining information in visual working memory is reliably indexed by the contralateral delay activity (CDA) - a sustained modulation of the event-related potential (ERP) with a topographical maximum over posterior scalp regions contralateral to the memorized input. Based on scalp topography, it is hypothesized that the CDA reflects neural activity in the parietal cortex, but the precise cortical origin of underlying electric activity was never determined. Here we combine ERP recordings with magnetoencephalography based source localization to characterize the cortical current sources generating the CDA. Observers performed a cued delayed match to sample task where either the color or the relative position of colored dots had to be maintained in memory. A detailed source-localization analysis of the magnetic activity in the retention interval revealed that the magnetic analog of the CDA (mCDA) is generated by current sources in the parietal cortex. Importantly, we find that the mCDA also receives contribution from current sources in the ventral extrastriate cortex that display a time-course similar to the parietal sources. On the basis of the magnetic responses, forward modeling of ERP data reveals that the ventral sources have non-optimal projections and that these sources are therefore concealed in the ERP by overlapping fields with parietal projections. The present observations indicate that visual working memory maintenance, as indexed by the CDA, involves the parietal cortical regions as well as the ventral extrastriate regions, which code the sensory representation of the memorized content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of actions and habits by ventral hippocampal trkB and adolescent corticosteroid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Elizabeth T; Gerber, Kyle J; Zimmermann, Kelsey S; Ressler, Kerry J; Parsons, Ryan G; Gourley, Shannon L

    2017-11-01

    In humans and rodents, stress promotes habit-based behaviors that can interfere with action-outcome decision-making. Further, developmental stressor exposure confers long-term habit biases across rodent-primate species. Despite these homologies, mechanisms remain unclear. We first report that exposure to the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) in adolescent mice recapitulates multiple neurobehavioral consequences of stressor exposure, including long-lasting biases towards habit-based responding in a food-reinforced operant conditioning task. In both adolescents and adults, CORT also caused a shift in the balance between full-length tyrosine kinase receptor B (trkB) and a truncated form of this neurotrophin receptor, favoring the inactive form throughout multiple corticolimbic brain regions. In adolescents, phosphorylation of the trkB substrate extracellular signal-regulated kinase 42/44 (ERK42/44) in the ventral hippocampus was also diminished, a long-term effect that persisted for at least 12 wk. Administration of the trkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) during adolescence at doses that stimulated ERK42/44 corrected long-lasting corticosterone-induced behavioral abnormalities. Meanwhile, viral-mediated overexpression of truncated trkB in the ventral hippocampus reduced local ERK42/44 phosphorylation and was sufficient to induce habit-based and depression-like behaviors. Together, our findings indicate that ventral hippocampal trkB is essential to goal-directed action selection, countering habit-based behavior otherwise facilitated by developmental stress hormone exposure. They also reveal an early-life sensitive period during which trkB-ERK42/44 tone determines long-term behavioral outcomes.

  13. Dopamine system dysregulation by the ventral subiculum as the common pathophysiological basis for schizophrenia psychosis, psychostimulant abuse, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Anthony A

    2010-11-01

    The dopamine system is under multiple forms of regulation, and in turn provides effective modulation of system responses. Dopamine neurons are known to exist in several states of activity. The population activity, or the proportion of dopamine neurons firing spontaneously, is controlled by the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus. In contrast, burst firing, which is proposed to be the behaviorally salient output of the dopamine system, is driven by the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg). When an animal is exposed to a behaviorally salient stimulus, the PPTg elicits a burst of action potentials in the dopamine neurons. However, this bursting only occurs in the portion of the dopamine neuron population that is firing spontaneously. This proportion is regulated by the ventral subiculum. Therefore, the ventral subiculum provides the gain, or the amplification factor, for the behaviorally salient stimulus. The ventral subiculum itself is proposed to carry information related to the environmental context. Thus, the ventral subiculum will adjust the responsivity of the dopamine system based on the needs of the organism and the characteristics of the environment. However, this finely tuned system can be disrupted in disease states. In schizophrenia, a disruption of interneuronal regulation of the ventral subiculum is proposed to lead to an overdrive of the dopamine system, rendering the system in a constant hypervigilant state. Moreover, amphetamine sensitization and stressors also appear to cause an abnormal dopaminergic drive. Such an interaction could underlie the risk factors of drug abuse and stress in the precipitation of a psychotic event. On the other hand, this could point to the ventral subiculum as an effective site of therapeutic intervention in the treatment or even the prevention of schizophrenia.

  14. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF DOPAMINERGIC AND NONDOPAMINERGIC NEURONS IN ORGANOTYPIC SLICE CULTURES OF THE RAT VENTRAL MESENCEPHALON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEENSEN, BH; NEDERGAARD, S; OSTERGAARD, K

    1995-01-01

    -old organotypic slice cultures of the ventral mesencephalon prepared from newborn rats. Dopaminergic neurones were distinguished from non-dopaminergic neurones by staining with the autofluorescent serotonin analogue 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine and briefly viewing the preparation with short exposures to ultraviolet...... 81 M Omega), were silent or fired spontaneously at a low frequency (0-9 Hz), and no spontaneous GABA(A)-ergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials or inward rectification were present. In contrast, non-dopaminergic neurones had fast action potentials (0.6-3.2 ms), low input resistance (mean 32 M Omega...

  15. Separate populations of neurons in ventral striatum encode value and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, Gregory B; Burton, Amanda C; Gentry, Ronny N; Goldstein, Brandon L; Hearn, Taylor N; Barnett, Brian R; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Roesch, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Neurons in the ventral striatum (VS) fire to cues that predict differently valued rewards. It is unclear whether this activity represents the value associated with the expected reward or the level of motivation induced by reward anticipation. To distinguish between the two, we trained rats on a task in which we varied value independently from motivation by manipulating the size of the reward expected on correct trials and the threat of punishment expected upon errors. We found that separate populations of neurons in VS encode expected value and motivation.

  16. Laparoscopic ventral rectopexy in an elderly population with external rectal prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerke, Trine; Mynster, Tommie

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We report the clinical and anal manometric results of elderly patients treated with laparoscopic ventral rectopexy (LVR) for full-thickness rectal prolapse. METHOD: From March 2009 to June 2012, patients were consecutively included. A modified laparoscopic Orr-Loygue procedure with posterior...... mobilisation was used. The patients were evaluated preoperatively, 2 months postoperatively and after 1 year. We registered Wexner incontinence scores and laxative uses by a questionnaire and performed simple anal manometry. RESULTS: A total of 46 patients underwent operation, all women. The median age was 83...

  17. Transvaginal Repair of a Large Chronic Porcine Ventral Hernia with Synthetic Mesh Using NOTES

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Ben; Whang, Susan H.; Bachman, Sharon L.; Andres Astudillo, J.; Sporn, Emanuel; Miedema, Brent W.; Thaler, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ventral incisional hernias still remain a common surgical problem. We tested the feasibility of transvaginal placement of a large synthetic mesh to repair a porcine hernia. Methods: Seven pigs were used in this survival model. Each animal had creation of a 5-cm hernia defect and underwent a transvaginal repair of the defect with synthetic mesh. A single colpotomy was made using a 12-cm trocar for an overtube. The mesh was cut to size and placed through the trocar. A single-channel...

  18. Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in echinoderms: insights into the evolution of the BMP-chordin signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Lapraz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo relies on cell interactions initiated by the TGFbeta Nodal. Intriguingly, although nodal expression is restricted to the ventral side of the embryo, Nodal function is required for specification of both the ventral and the dorsal territories and is able to restore both ventral and dorsal regions in nodal morpholino injected embryos. The molecular basis for the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is not understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo. We identified this relay molecule as BMP2/4 based on the following arguments. First, blocking BMP2/4 function eliminated the long-range organizing activity of an activated Nodal receptor in an axis rescue assay. Second, we demonstrate that BMP2/4 and the corresponding type I receptor Alk3/6 functions are both essential for specification of the dorsal region of the embryo. Third, using anti-phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunostaining, we show that, despite its ventral transcription, the BMP2/4 ligand triggers receptor mediated signaling exclusively on the dorsal side of the embryo, one of the most extreme cases of BMP translocation described so far. We further report that the pattern of pSmad1/5/8 is graded along the dorsal-ventral axis and that two BMP2/4 target genes are expressed in nested patterns centered on the region with highest levels of pSmad1/5/8, strongly suggesting that BMP2/4 is acting as a morphogen. We also describe the very unusual ventral co-expression of chordin and bmp2/4 downstream of Nodal and demonstrate that Chordin is largely responsible for the spatial restriction of BMP2/4 signaling to the dorsal side. Thus, unlike in most organisms, in the sea urchin, a single ventral signaling centre is responsible for induction of ventral and dorsal cell fates. Finally

  19. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Pahwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6–24 months. Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.

  20. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D K; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6-24 months). Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.

  1. Reciprocal neural response within lateral and ventral medial prefrontal cortex during hot and cold reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod; Dolan, Raymond J

    2003-12-01

    Logic is widely considered the basis of rationality. Logical choices, however, are often influenced by emotional responses, sometimes to our detriment, sometimes to our advantage. To understand the neural basis of emotionally neutral ("cold") and emotionally salient ("hot") reasoning we studied 19 volunteers using event-related fMRI, as they made logical judgments about arguments that varied in emotional saliency. Despite identical logical form and content categories across "hot" and "cold" reasoning conditions, lateral and ventral medial prefrontal cortex showed reciprocal response patterns as a function of emotional saliency of content. "Cold" reasoning trials resulted in enhanced activity in lateral/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (L/DLPFC) and suppression of activity in ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). By contrast, "hot" reasoning trials resulted in enhanced activation in VMPFC and suppression of activation in L/DLPFC. This reciprocal engagement of L/DLPFC and VMPFC provides evidence for a dynamic neural system for reasoning, the configuration of which is strongly influenced by emotional saliency.

  2. Dorsal and ventral working memory-related brain areas support distinct processes in contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginelli, Angela A; Baumgartner, Florian; Pollmann, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    Behavioral evidence suggests that the use of implicitly learned spatial contexts for improved visual search may depend on visual working memory resources. Working memory may be involved in contextual cueing in different ways: (1) for keeping implicitly learned working memory contents available during search or (2) for the capture of attention by contexts retrieved from memory. We mapped brain areas that were modulated by working memory capacity. Within these areas, activation was modulated by contextual cueing along the descending segment of the intraparietal sulcus, an area that has previously been related to maintenance of explicit memories. Increased activation for learned displays, but not modulated by the size of contextual cueing, was observed in the temporo-parietal junction area, previously associated with the capture of attention by explicitly retrieved memory items, and in the ventral visual cortex. This pattern of activation extends previous research on dorsal versus ventral stream functions in memory guidance of attention to the realm of attentional guidance by implicit memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Org-1-dependent lineage reprogramming generates the ventral longitudinal musculature of the Drosophila heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Christoph; März, Johannes; Reim, Ingolf; Frasch, Manfred

    2015-02-16

    Only few examples of transdifferentiation, which denotes the conversion of one differentiated cell type to another, are known to occur during normal development, and more often, it is associated with regeneration processes. With respect to muscles, dedifferentiation/redifferentiation processes have been documented during post-traumatic muscle regeneration in blastema of newts as well as during myocardial regeneration. As shown herein, the ventral longitudinal muscles of the adult Drosophila heart arise from specific larval alary muscles in a process that represents the first known example of syncytial muscle transdifferentiation via dedifferentiation into mononucleate myoblasts during normal development. We demonstrate that this unique process depends on the reinitiation of a transcriptional program previously employed for embryonic alary muscle development, in which the factors Org-1 (Drosophila Tbx1) and Tailup (Drosophila Islet1) are key components. During metamorphosis, the action of these factors is combined with cell-autonomous inputs from the ecdysone steroid and the Hox gene Ultrabithorax, which provide temporal and spatial specificity to the transdifferentiation events. Following muscle dedifferentiation, inductive cues, particularly from the remodeling heart tube, are required for the redifferentiation of myoblasts into ventral longitudinal muscles. Our results provide new insights into mechanisms of lineage commitment and cell-fate plasticity during development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interest in politics modulates neural activity in the amygdala and ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, Marta; Zamboni, Giovanna; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-11-01

    Studies on political participation have found that a person's interest in politics contributes to the likelihood that he or she will be involved in the political process. Here, we looked at whether or not interest in politics affects patterns of brain activity when individuals think about political matters. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned individuals (either interested or uninterested in politics based on a self-report questionnaire) while they were expressing their agreement or disagreement with political opinions. After scanning, participants were asked to rate each political opinion presented in the scanner for emotional valence and emotional intensity. Behavioral results showed that those political opinions participants agreed with were perceived as more emotionally intense and more positive by individuals interested in politics relative to individuals uninterested in politics. In addition, individuals interested in politics showed greater activation in the amygdala and the ventral striatum (ventral putamen) relative to individuals uninterested in politics when reading political opinions in accordance with their own views. This study shows that having an interest in politics elicits activations in emotion- and reward-related brain areas even when simply agreeing with written political opinions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Fox (forkhead) genes are involved in the dorso-ventral patterning of the Xenopus mesoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hodiri, H; Bhatia-Dey, N; Kenyon, K; Ault, K; Dirksen, M; Jamrich, M

    2001-01-01

    Fox (forkhead/winged helix) genes encode a family of transcription factors that are involved in embryonic pattern formation, regulation of tissue specific gene expression and tumorigenesis. Several of them are transcribed during Xenopus embryogenesis and are important for the patterning of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. We have isolated three forkhead genes that are activated during gastrulation and play an important role in the dorso-ventral patterning of the mesoderm. XFKH1 (FoxA4b), the first vertebrate forkhead gene to be implicated in embryonic pattern formation, is expressed in the Spemann-Mangold organizer region and later in the embryonic notochord. XFKH7, the Xenopus orthologue of the murine Mfh1(Foxc2), is expressed in the presomitic mesoderm, but not in the notochord or lateral plate mesoderm. Finally, XFD-13'(FoxF1b)1 is expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm, but not in the notochord or presomitic mesoderm. Expression pattern and functional experiments indicate that these three forkhead genes are involved in the dorso-ventral patterning of the mesoderm.

  6. Neural dynamics of event segmentation in music: converging evidence for dissociable ventral and dorsal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Levitin, Daniel J; Chafe, Chris H; Berger, Jonathan; Menon, Vinod

    2007-08-02

    The real world presents our sensory systems with a continuous stream of undifferentiated information. Segmentation of this stream at event boundaries is necessary for object identification and feature extraction. Here, we investigate the neural dynamics of event segmentation in entire musical symphonies under natural listening conditions. We isolated time-dependent sequences of brain responses in a 10 s window surrounding transitions between movements of symphonic works. A strikingly right-lateralized network of brain regions showed peak response during the movement transitions when, paradoxically, there was no physical stimulus. Model-dependent and model-free analysis techniques provided converging evidence for activity in two distinct functional networks at the movement transition: a ventral fronto-temporal network associated with detecting salient events, followed in time by a dorsal fronto-parietal network associated with maintaining attention and updating working memory. Our study provides direct experimental evidence for dissociable and causally linked ventral and dorsal networks during event segmentation of ecologically valid auditory stimuli.

  7. Enhanced haemolymph circulation by insect ventral nerve cord: hormonal control by Pseudaletia unipuncta allatotropin and serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koladich, P M; Tobe, S S; McNeil, J N

    2002-10-01

    The ventral diaphragm (VD) in many insects is a muscular membrane that essentially partitions a perineural sinus from the rest of the abdomen. In the true armyworm moth Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) we describe how the VD is characterized by a series of aliform muscles inserted into a tissue matrix that is fused to the dorsal surface of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) itself. Because of this arrangement, the abdominal VNC can attain high rates of lateral oscillation, and is capable of directing haemolymph flow. We have previously demonstrated Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT)-like immunoreactivity throughout the central nervous system (CNS) in P. unipuncta, and that both Manse-AT and serotonin (5-HT) are dose-dependent stimulators of the dorsal vessel. Here we describe both Manse-AT- and 5-HT-like immunoreactivity associated with the VD. Furthermore, both Manse-AT and 5-HT are dose-dependent stimulators of the rates of VNC oscillation, and together are capable of maintaining highly elevated rates of VNC oscillation for extended periods of time. These data indicate that both the dorsal vessel and the VD/VNC are similarly modulated by both Manse-AT and 5-HT, and that VNC oscillations play a more active role in overall haemolymph circulation than previously recognized.

  8. Serotonin-induced nitric oxide production in the ventral nerve cord of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Y; Naganoma, Y; Horita, H; Ogawa, H; Oka, K

    2001-10-01

    Effect of serotonin on nitric oxide (NO) production in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was investigated by a bio-imaging and an electrochemical technique. In the bio-imaging, the spatial pattern of NO production in VNC was visualized using an NO-specific fluorescent dye, diaminofluorescein-2 diacethyl (DAF-2 DA). Application of serotonin (100 microM) increased NO production in VNC by about 65% (PVNC. In the electrochemical technique, real-time basal and serotonin-induced NO production was estimated with an NO-specific electrode. On the ventral surface of VNC, the estimated basal NO production was stable at 200+/-52 nM, and was transiently augmented to 840+/-193 nM by the addition of 10 microM serotonin. In conclusion, the estimated basal NO production in the earthworm VNC is relatively high compared with other nervous systems earlier reported, and transiently augmented by serotonin. Our results suggest that NO signaling in VNC is involved in neuromodulation by serotonin.

  9. Optogenetic Activation of a Lateral Hypothalamic-Ventral Tegmental Drive-Reward Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Eduardo D; Benaliouad, Faiza; Zamora-Olivencia, Veronica; Wise, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus can motivate feeding or can serve as a reward in its own right. It remains unclear whether the same or independent but anatomically overlapping circuitries mediate the two effects. Electrical stimulation findings implicate medial forebrain bundle (MFB) fibers of passage in both effects, and optogenetic studies confirm a contribution from fibers originating in the lateral hypothalamic area and projecting to or through the ventral tegmental area. Here we report that optogenetic activation of ventral tegmental fibers from cells of origin in more anterior or posterior portions of the MFB failed to induce either reward or feeding. The feeding and reward induced by optogenetic activation of fibers from the lateral hypothalamic cells of origin were influenced similarly by variations in stimulation pulse width and pulse frequency, consistent with the hypothesis of a common substrate for the two effects. There were, however, several cases where feeding but not self-stimulation or self-stimulation but not feeding were induced, consistent with the hypothesis that distinct but anatomically overlapping systems mediate the two effects. Thus while optogenetic stimulation provides a more selective tool for characterizing the mechanisms of stimulation-induced feeding and reward, it does not yet resolve the question of common or independent substrates.

  10. Role of the Astroglial Glutamate Exchanger xCT in Ventral Hippocampus in Resilience to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, Carla; Bigio, Benedetta; Zelli, Danielle; de Angelis, Paolo; Lau, Timothy; Okamoto, Masahiro; Soya, Hideyo; Ni, Jason; Brichta, Lars; Greengard, Paul; Neve, Rachael L; Lee, Francis S; McEwen, Bruce S

    2017-10-11

    We demonstrate that stress differentially regulates glutamate homeostasis in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and identify a role for the astroglial xCT in ventral dentate gyrus (vDG) in stress and antidepressant responses. We provide an RNA-seq roadmap for the stress-sensitive vDG. The transcription factor REST binds to xCT promoter in co-occupancy with the epigenetic marker H3K27ac to regulate expression of xCT, which is also reduced in a genetic mouse model of inherent susceptibility to depressive-like behavior. Pharmacologically, modulating histone acetylation with acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC) or acetyl-N-cysteine (NAC) rapidly increases xCT and activates a network with mGlu2 receptors to prime an enhanced glutamate homeostasis that promotes both pro-resilient and antidepressant-like responses. Pharmacological xCT blockage counteracts NAC prophylactic effects. GFAP + -Cre-dependent overexpression of xCT in vDG mimics pharmacological actions in promoting resilience. This work establishes a mechanism by which vDG protection leads to stress resilience and antidepressant responses via epigenetic programming of an xCT-mGlu2 network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoperiod and aggression induce changes in ventral gland compounds exclusively in male Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Nikki M; Soini, Helena A; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Weigel, Ellen R; Novotny, Milos V; Demas, Gregory E

    2016-05-01

    Chemical communication is a critical component of social behavior as it facilitates social encounters, allows for evaluation of the social partner, defines territories and resources, and advertises information such as sex and physiological state of an animal. Odors provide a key source of information about the social environment to rodents; however, studies identifying chemical compounds have thus far focused primarily on few species, particularly the house mouse. Moreover, considerably less attention has been focused on how environmental factors, reproductive phenotype, and behavioral context alter these compounds outside of reproduction. We examined the effects of photoperiod, sex, and social context on chemical communication in the seasonally breeding Siberian hamster. We sampled ventral gland secretions in both male and female hamsters before and after an aggressive encounter and identified changes in a range of volatile compounds. Next, we investigated how photoperiod, reproductive phenotype, and aggression altered ventral gland volatile compound composition across the sexes. Males exhibited a more diverse chemical composition, more sex-specific volatiles, and showed higher levels of excretion compared to females. Individual volatiles were also differentially excreted across photoperiod and reproductive phenotype, as well as differentially altered in response to an aggressive encounter. Female volatile compound composition, in contrast, did not differ across photoperiods or in response to aggression. Collectively, these data contribute to a greater understanding of context-dependent changes in chemical communication in a seasonally breeding rodent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ventral dermatitis in rowi (Apteryx rowi) due to cutaneous larval migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, B D; Argilla, L; Finlayson, S; Gedye, K; Gonzalez Argandona, A K; Graham, I; Howe, L; Hunter, S; Lenting, B; Makan, T; McInnes, K; Michael, S; Morgan, K J; Scott, I; Sijbranda, D; van Zyl, N; Ward, J M

    2015-04-01

    The rowi is a critically endangered species of kiwi. Young birds on a crèche island showed loss of feathers from the ventral abdomen and a scurfy dermatitis of the abdominal skin and vent margin. Histology of skin biopsies identified cutaneous larval migrans, which was shown by molecular sequencing to be possibly from a species of Trichostrongylus as a cause of ventral dermatitis and occasional ulcerative vent dermatitis. The predisposing factors that led to this disease are suspected to be the novel exposure of the rowi to parasites from seabirds or marine mammals due to the island crèche and the limited management of roost boxes. This is the first instance of cutaneous larval migrans to be recorded in birds. Severe and fatal complications of the investigation resulted in the death of eight birds of aspergillosis and pulmonary complications associated with the use of bark as a substrate in hospital. Another bird died of renal failure during the period of hospitalisation despite oral and intravenous fluid therapy. The initiating cause of the renal failure was not determined. These complications have the potential to undermine the working relationship between wildlife veterinarians and conservation managers. This case highlights that intensive conservation management can result in increased opportunities for novel routes of cross-species pathogen transmission.

  13. Word meaning in the ventral visual path: a perceptual to conceptual gradient of semantic coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesani, Valentina; Pedregosa, Fabian; Buiatti, Marco; Amadon, Alexis; Eger, Evelyn; Piazza, Manuela

    2016-12-01

    The meaning of words referring to concrete items is thought of as a multidimensional representation that includes both perceptual (e.g., average size, prototypical color) and conceptual (e.g., taxonomic class) dimensions. Are these different dimensions coded in different brain regions? In healthy human subjects, we tested the presence of a mapping between the implied real object size (a perceptual dimension) and the taxonomic categories at different levels of specificity (conceptual dimensions) of a series of words, and the patterns of brain activity recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging in six areas along the ventral occipito-temporal cortical path. Combining multivariate pattern classification and representational similarity analysis, we found that the real object size implied by a word appears to be primarily encoded in early visual regions, while the taxonomic category and sub-categorical cluster in more anterior temporal regions. This anteroposterior gradient of information content indicates that different areas along the ventral stream encode complementary dimensions of the semantic space. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ventral medullary neurones excited from the hypothalamic and mid-brain defence areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, S M; Smith, P R

    1984-07-01

    In cats anaesthetised with chloralose, the ventral medulla was explored in and around the strip previously identified as the location of the efferent pathway from the hypothalamic and mid-brain defence areas to the spinal cord, in a search for neurones excited by electrical stimulation of the defence areas. Such units were found mostly in the caudal part of this strip, at a depth of not more than 500 microns from the surface. Nearly all were located in the ventral part of nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis (PGL) at the level of the rostral pole of the inferior olive. There was evidence of temporal and spatial facilitation, indicating a convergent excitatory input from the defence areas onto neurones in PGL. This is consistent with earlier evidence of a synaptic relay in the efferent pathway at this site. When the pathway is blocked at this site, arterial blood pressure falls profoundly, so activity in these neurones may be essential for the normal level of sympathetic nerve activity.

  15. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species.

  16. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  17. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  18. Effect of naltrexone and ondansetron on alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum in alcohol-dependent people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Hugh; Anton, Raymond F; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Randall, Patrick K; Voronin, Konstantin

    2008-04-01

    Medication for the treatment of alcoholism is currently not particularly robust. Neuroimaging techniques might predict which medications could be useful in the treatment of alcohol dependence. To explore the effect of naltrexone, ondansetron hydrochloride, or the combination of these medications on cue-induced craving and ventral striatum activation. Functional brain imaging was conducted during alcohol cue presentation. Participants were recruited from the general community following media advertisement. Experimental procedures were performed in the magnetic resonance imaging suite of a major training hospital and medical research institute. Ninety non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (by DSM-IV criteria) and 17 social drinking (analysis but intermediate in a region-specific analysis. Consistent with animal data that suggest that both naltrexone and ondansetron reduce alcohol-stimulated dopamine output in the ventral striatum, the current study found evidence that these medications, alone or in combination, could decrease alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum, consistent with their putative treatment efficacy.

  19. Arteriosclerosis in the ventral aorta and epicarditis in the bulbus arteriosus of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, A S; Kristthorsdottir, K H; Griffiths, D J; Bjørklund, K; Poppe, T T

    2017-06-01

    Spontaneous mortality of seemingly healthy, farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) is an increasing problem in Norwegian aquaculture. In this study, we present a morphological study of the previously undescribed syndrome of arteriosclerosis of the ventral aorta and epicarditis of the adjacent bulbus arteriosus found in farmed Atlantic salmon, with wild-captured fish as a control group. Both the ventral aorta and epicardium are vital for correct arterial compliance and vascular resistance in the respiratory capillaries of the gills. We discuss the possible implications of ventral aorta arteriosclerosis and epicarditis for blood vascular health and in particular for the increasing frequency of spontaneous gill bleeding in farmed salmon. As both these conditions primarily occur in farmed salmon, we suggest that they should be considered pathological. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ventral striatal activity correlates with memory confidence for old- and new-responses in a difficult recognition test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schwarze

    Full Text Available Activity in the ventral striatum has frequently been associated with retrieval success, i.e., it is higher for hits than correct rejections. Based on the prominent role of the ventral striatum in the reward circuit, its activity has been interpreted to reflect the higher subjective value of hits compared to correct rejections in standard recognition tests. This hypothesis was supported by a recent study showing that ventral striatal activity is higher for correct rejections than hits when the value of rejections is increased by external incentives. These findings imply that the striatal response during recognition is context-sensitive and modulated by the adaptive significance of "oldness" or "newness" to the current goals. The present study is based on the idea that not only external incentives, but also other deviations from standard recognition tests which affect the subjective value of specific response types should modulate striatal activity. Therefore, we explored ventral striatal activity in an unusually difficult recognition test that was characterized by low levels of confidence and accuracy. Based on the human uncertainty aversion, in such a recognition context, the subjective value of all high confident decisions is expected to be higher than usual, i.e., also rejecting items with high certainty is deemed rewarding. In an accompanying behavioural experiment, participants rated the pleasantness of each recognition response. As hypothesized, ventral striatal activity correlated in the current unusually difficult recognition test not only with retrieval success, but also with confidence. Moreover, participants indicated that they were more satisfied by higher confidence in addition to perceived oldness of an item. Taken together, the results are in line with the hypothesis that ventral striatal activity during recognition codes the subjective value of different response types that is modulated by the context of the recognition test.

  1. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael; Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas; Braus, Dieter F.; Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl; Roesch, Frank; Cumming, Paul; Gruender, Gerhard; Bartenstein, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [ 18 F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [ 18 F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [ 18 F]DOPA net influx constant K in app /[ 18 F]DMFP-binding potential (BP N D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  2. Ratio of dopamine synthesis capacity to D2 receptor availability in ventral striatum correlates with central processing of affective stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienast, Thorsten; Rapp, Michael [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Siessmeier, Thomas; Buchholz, Hans G.; Schreckenberger, Mathias [University of Mainz, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Wrase, Jana; Heinz, Andreas [Charite Campus Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charite University Medical Center, Berlin (Germany); Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Braus, Dieter F. [University of Hamburg, Neuroimage Nord, Department of Psychiatry, Hamburg (Germany); Smolka, Michael N.; Mann, Karl [Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim (Germany); Roesch, Frank [University of Mainz, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Mainz (Germany); Cumming, Paul [PET Center and Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus (Denmark); Gruender, Gerhard [Aachen University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry of the RWTH, Mainz (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral striatum may interact with limbic processing of affective stimuli, whereas dorsal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission can affect habitual processing of emotionally salient stimuli in the pre-frontal cortex. We investigated the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the ventral and dorsal striatum with respect to central processing of affective stimuli in healthy subjects. Subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]DOPA for measurements of dopamine synthesis capacity and [{sup 18}F]DMFP for estimation of dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to affective pictures, which was correlated with the ratio of [{sup 18}F]DOPA net influx constant K{sub in}{sup app} /[{sup 18}F]DMFP-binding potential (BP{sub N}D) in the ventral and dorsal striatum. The magnitude of the ratio in the ventral striatum was positively correlated with BOLD signal increases elicited by negative versus neutral pictures in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA10), right inferior parietal lobe and left post-central gyrus. In the dorsal striatum, the ratio was positively correlated with BOLD signal activation elicited by negative versus neutral stimuli in the left post-central gyrus. The BOLD signal elicited by positive versus neutral stimuli in the superior parietal gyrus was positively correlated with the dorsal and ventral striatal ratio. The correlations of the ratio in the ventral and dorsal striatum with processing of affective stimuli in the named cortical regions support the hypothesis that dopamine transmission in functional divisions of the striatum modulates processing of affective stimuli in specific cortical areas. (orig.)

  3. Circadian rhythms in the pineal organ persist in zebrafish larvae that lack ventral brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein-Kral Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, located in the ventral hypothalamus, is a major regulator of circadian rhythms in mammals and birds. However, the role of the SCN in lower vertebrates remains poorly understood. Zebrafish cyclops (cyc mutants lack ventral brain, including the region that gives rise to the SCN. We have used cyc embryos to define the function of the zebrafish SCN in regulating circadian rhythms in the developing pineal organ. The pineal organ is the major source of the circadian hormone melatonin, which regulates rhythms such as daily rest/activity cycles. Mammalian pineal rhythms are controlled almost exclusively by the SCN. In zebrafish and many other lower vertebrates, the pineal has an endogenous clock that is responsible in part for cyclic melatonin biosynthesis and gene expression. Results We find that pineal rhythms are present in cyc mutants despite the absence of an SCN. The arginine vasopressin-like protein (Avpl, formerly called Vasotocin is a peptide hormone expressed in and around the SCN. We find avpl mRNA is absent in cyc mutants, supporting previous work suggesting the SCN is missing. In contrast, expression of the putative circadian clock genes, cryptochrome 1b (cry1b and cryptochrome 3 (cry3, in the brain of the developing fish is unaltered. Expression of two pineal rhythmic genes, exo-rhodopsin (exorh and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (aanat2, involved in photoreception and melatonin synthesis, respectively, is also similar between cyc embryos and their wildtype (WT siblings. The timing of the peaks and troughs of expression are the same, although the amplitude of expression is slightly decreased in the mutants. Cyclic gene expression persists for two days in cyc embryos transferred to constant light or constant dark, suggesting a circadian clock is driving the rhythms. However, the amplitude of rhythms in cyc mutants kept in constant conditions decreased more quickly than in their

  4. Preoperative Botulinum toxin A enabling defect closure and laparoscopic repair of complex ventral hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Acevedo, Omar; Elstner, Kristen E; Jacombs, Anita S W; Read, John W; Martins, Rodrigo Tomazini; Arduini, Fernando; Wehrhahm, Michael; Craft, Colette; Cosman, Peter H; Dardano, Anthony N; Ibrahim, Nabeel

    2018-02-01

    Operative management of complex ventral hernia still remains a significant challenge for surgeons. Closure of large defects in the unprepared abdomen has serious pathophysiological consequences due to chronic contraction and retraction of the lateral abdominal wall muscles. We report outcomes of 56 consecutive patients who had preoperative Botulinum toxin A (BTA) abdominal wall relaxation facilitating closure and repair. This was a prospective observational study of 56 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided BTA into the lateral abdominal oblique muscles prior to elective ventral hernia repair between November 2012 and January 2017. Serial non-contrast abdominal CT imaging was performed to evaluate changes in lateral oblique muscle length and thickness. All hernias were repaired laparoscopically, or laparoscopic-open-laparoscopic (LOL) using intraperitoneal onlay mesh. 56 patients received BTA injections at predetermined sites to the lateral oblique muscles, which were well tolerated. Mean patient age was 59.7 years, and mean BMI was 30.9 kg/m 2 (range 21.8-54.0). Maximum defect size was 24 × 27 cm. A subset of 18 patients underwent preoperative pneumoperitoneum as an adjunct procedure. A comparison of pre-BTA to post-BTA imaging demonstrated an increase in mean lateral abdominal wall length from 16.1 cm to 20.1 cm per side, a mean gain of 4.0 cm/side (range 1.0-11.7 cm/side) (p LOL primary closure was achieved in all cases, with no clinical evidence of raised intra-abdominal pressures. One patient presented with a new fascial defect 26 months post-operative. Preoperative BTA to the lateral abdominal wall muscles is a safe and effective technique for the preparation of patients prior to operative management of complex ventral hernias. BTA temporary flaccid paralysis relaxes, elongates and thins the chronically contracted abdominal musculature. This in turn reduces lateral traction forces facilitating laparoscopic repair and fascial closure of large

  5. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...

  6. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century...... the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  7. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    African antelope have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of meat production when compared with domestic .... Because juveniles can be differentiated from adults using BW, age differences in body ..... Meat and carcass by-products.

  8. Mere Exposure: Preference Change for Novel Drinks Reflected in Human Ventral Tegmental Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Ian C; Hennigan, Kelly; McClure, Samuel M

    2017-05-01

    Preferences for novel stimuli tend to develop slowly over many exposures. Psychological accounts of this effect suggest that it depends on changes in the brain's valuation system. Participants consumed a novel fluid daily for 10 days and underwent fMRI on the first and last days. We hypothesized that changes in activation in areas associated with the dopamine system would accompany changes in preference. The change in activation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) between sessions scaled with preference change. Furthermore, a network comprising the sensory thalamus, posterior insula, and ventrolateral striatum showed differential connectivity with the VTA that correlated with individual changes in preference. Our results suggest that the VTA is centrally involved in both assigning value to sensory stimuli and influencing downstream regions to translate these value signals into subjective preference. These results have important implications for models of dopaminergic function and behavioral addiction.

  9. Dissociating frontal regions that co-lateralize with different ventral occipitotemporal regions during word processing☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L.; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    The ventral occipitotemporal sulcus (vOT) sustains strong interactions with the inferior frontal cortex during word processing. Consequently, activation in both regions co-lateralize towards the same hemisphere in healthy subjects. Because the determinants of lateralisation differ across posterior, middle and anterior vOT subregions, we investigated whether lateralisation in different inferior frontal regions would co-vary with lateralisation in the three different vOT subregions. A whole brain analysis found that, during semantic decisions on written words, laterality covaried in (1) posterior vOT and the precentral gyrus; (2) middle vOT and the pars opercularis, pars triangularis, and supramarginal gyrus; and (3) anterior vOT and the pars orbitalis, middle frontal gyrus and thalamus. These findings increase the spatial resolution of our understanding of how vOT interacts with other brain areas during semantic categorisation on words. PMID:23728081

  10. Generation and properties of a new human ventral mesencephalic neural stem cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Ana; Liste, Isabel; Courtois, Elise T

    2009-01-01

    . Here we report the generation of a new stable cell line of human neural stem cells derived from ventral mesencephalon (hVM1) based on v-myc immortalization. The cells expressed neural stem cell and radial glia markers like nestin, vimentin and 3CB2 under proliferation conditions. After withdrawal......Neural stem cells (NSCs) are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. Several epigenetic and genetic strategies have been tested for long-term maintenance and expansion of these cells in vitro...... derivatives may constitute good candidates for the study of development and physiology of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro, and to develop tools for Parkinson's disease cell replacement preclinical research and drug testing....

  11. Hippocampal and ventral medial prefrontal activation during retrieval-mediated learning supports novel inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Dominick, April L; Preston, Alison R

    2012-07-12

    Memory enables flexible use of past experience to inform new behaviors. Although leading theories hypothesize that this fundamental flexibility results from the formation of integrated memory networks relating multiple experiences, the neural mechanisms that support memory integration are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that retrieval-mediated learning, whereby prior event details are reinstated during encoding of related experiences, supports participants' ability to infer relationships between distinct events that share content. Furthermore, we show that activation changes in a functionally coupled hippocampal and ventral medial prefrontal cortical circuit track the formation of integrated memories and successful inferential memory performance. These findings characterize the respective roles of these regions in retrieval-mediated learning processes that support relational memory network formation and inferential memory in the human brain. More broadly, these data reveal fundamental mechanisms through which memory representations are constructed into prospectively useful formats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Duration of inhibition of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons encodes a level of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileykovskiy, Boris; Morales, Marisela

    2011-05-18

    It is widely accepted that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons encode actual and expected reward values by phasic alterations in firing rate. However, how DA neurons encode negative events in the environment is still unclear because some DA neurons appear to be depressed and others excited by aversive stimuli. Here, we show that exposing fear-conditioned rats to stimuli predicting electrical shock elicited three types of biphasic responses, each of which contained an inhibitory pause, in neurochemically identified ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. The duration of the inhibitory pause in these responses of VTA DA neurons was in direct proportion to the increase in respiratory rate reflecting the level of conditioned fear. Our results suggest that the duration of inhibition of VTA DA neurons encodes negative emotional values of signals predicting aversive events in the environment.

  13. A computational exploration of complementary learning mechanisms in the primate ventral visual pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerer, Courtney J; Eguchi, Akihiro; Stringer, Simon M

    2016-02-01

    In order to develop transformation invariant representations of objects, the visual system must make use of constraints placed upon object transformation by the environment. For example, objects transform continuously from one point to another in both space and time. These two constraints have been exploited separately in order to develop translation and view invariance in a hierarchical multilayer model of the primate ventral visual pathway in the form of continuous transformation learning and temporal trace learning. We show for the first time that these two learning rules can work cooperatively in the model. Using these two learning rules together can support the development of invariance in cells and help maintain object selectivity when stimuli are presented over a large number of locations or when trained separately over a large number of viewing angles. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute Portomesenteric Venous Thrombosis following Laparoscopic Small Bowel Resection and Ventral Hernia Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhradeev Sivasambu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute portomesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare but life-threatening complication of laparoscopic surgery that has been described in literature. Prompt diagnosis and early initiation of treatment are vital to prevent life-threatening complications such as mesenteric ischemia and infarction. A 51-year-old lady had laparoscopic small bowel resection and primary anastomosis with ventral hernia repair 4 weeks earlier for partial small bowel obstruction. Her postoperative period was uneventful and she was discharged home. Four weeks after surgery she developed watery diarrhea and generalized abdominal pain for four-day duration. A computed tomography of the abdomen revealed portomesenteric venous thrombosis although a computed tomography of abdomen before surgery 4 weeks back did not show any portomesenteric venous thrombosis. We are reporting a case of acute portomesenteric venous thrombosis as a complication of laparoscopic surgery.

  15. The visual neuroscience of robotic grasping achieving sensorimotor skills through dorsal-ventral stream integration

    CERN Document Server

    Chinellato, Eris

    2016-01-01

    This book presents interdisciplinary research that pursues the mutual enrichment of neuroscience and robotics. Building on experimental work, and on the wealth of literature regarding the two cortical pathways of visual processing - the dorsal and ventral streams - we define and implement, computationally and on a real robot, a functional model of the brain areas involved in vision-based grasping actions. Grasping in robotics is largely an unsolved problem, and we show how the bio-inspired approach is successful in dealing with some fundamental issues of the task. Our robotic system can safely perform grasping actions on different unmodeled objects, denoting especially reliable visual and visuomotor skills. The computational model and the robotic experiments help in validating theories on the mechanisms employed by the brain areas more directly involved in grasping actions. This book offers new insights and research hypotheses regarding such mechanisms, especially for what concerns the interaction between the...

  16. Lasting Differential Effects on Plasticity Induced by Prenatal Stress in Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Grigoryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversaries have a profound impact on the developing brain structure and functions that persist long after the original traumatic experience has vanished. One of the extensively studied brain structures in relation to early life stress has been the hippocampus because of its unique association with cognitive processes of the brain. While the entire hippocampus shares the same intrinsic organization, it assumes different functions in its dorsal and ventral sectors (DH and VH, resp., based on different connectivity with other brain structures. In the present review, we summarize the differences between DH and VH and discuss functional and structural effects of prenatal stress in the two sectors, with the realization that much is yet to be explored in understanding the opposite reactivity of the DH and VH to stressful stimulation.

  17. Ventral tegmental area dopamine revisited: effects of acute and repeated stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Elizabeth N.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2015-01-01

    Aversive events rapidly and potently excite certain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), promoting phasic increases in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. This is in apparent contradiction to a wealth of literature demonstrating that most VTA dopamine neurons are strongly activated by reward and reward-predictive cues while inhibited by aversive stimuli. How can these divergent processes both be mediated by VTA dopamine neurons? The answer may lie within the functional and anatomical heterogeneity of the VTA. We focus on VTA heterogeneity in anatomy, neurochemistry, electrophysiology, and afferent/efferent connectivity. Second, recent evidence for a critical role of VTA dopamine neurons in response to both acute and repeated stress will be discussed. Understanding which dopamine neurons are activated by stress, the neural mechanisms driving the activation, and where these neurons project will provide valuable insight into how stress can promote psychiatric disorders associated with the dopamine system, such as addiction and depression. PMID:26676983

  18. Computational Modelling of the Neural Representation of Object Shape in the Primate Ventral Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro eEguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in successive stages of the primate ventral visual pathway encode the spatial structure of visual objects. In this paper, we investigate through computer simulation how these cell firing properties may develop through unsupervised visually-guided learning. Individual neurons in the model are shown to exploit statistical regularity and temporal continuity of the visual inputs during training to learn firing properties that are similar to neurons in V4 and TEO. Neurons in V4 encode the conformation of boundary contour elements at a particular position within an object regardless of the location of the object on the retina, while neurons in TEO integrate information from multiple boundary contour elements. This representation goes beyond mere object recognition, in which neurons simply respond to the presence of a whole object, but provides an essential foundation from which the brain is subsequently able to recognise the whole object.

  19. Intracerebral stimulation of left and right ventral temporal cortex during object naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédos Ulvin, Line; Jonas, Jacques; Brissart, Hélène; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Thiriaux, Anne; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Maillard, Louis

    2017-12-01

    While object naming is traditionally considered asa left hemisphere function, neuroimaging studies have reported activations related to naming in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) bilaterally. Our aim was to use intracerebral electrical stimulation to specifically compare left and right VTC in naming. In twenty-three epileptic patients tested for visual object naming during stimulation, the proportion of naming impairments was significantly higher in the left than in the right VTC (31.3% vs 13.6%). The highest proportions of positive naming sites were found in the left fusiform gyrus and occipito-temporal sulcus (47.5% and 31.8%). For 17 positive left naming sites, an additional semantic picture matching was carried out, always successfully performed. Our results showed the enhanced role of the left compared to the right VTC in naming and suggest that it may be involved in lexical retrieval rather than in semantic processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Left-right functional asymmetry of ventral hippocampus depends on aversiveness of situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yukitoshi; Sakurai, Yoshio

    2017-05-15

    Many studies suggest that animals exhibit lateralized behaviors during aversive situations, and almost all animals exhibit right hemisphere-dominant behaviors associated with fear or anxiety. However, which brain structure in each hemisphere underlies such lateralized function is unclear. In this study, we focused on the hippocampus and investigated the effects of bilateral and unilateral lesions of the ventral hippocampus (VH) on anxiety-like behavior using the successive alleys test. We also examined the expression of c-fos in the VH, which was induced by an aversive situation. Results revealed that consistent right VH dominance trended with the anxiety level. Weaker anxiety induced both right and left VH functions, whereas stronger anxiety induced right VH function. From these results, we conclude that animals are able to adaptively regulate their behaviors to avoid aversive stimuli by changing the functional dominance of their left and right VH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrophysiological characterization of male goldfish (Carassius auratus ventral preoptic area neurons receiving olfactory inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wudu E. Lado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication via sex pheromones is critical for successful reproduction but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well-understood. The goldfish is a tractable model because sex pheromones have been well-characterized in this species. We used male goldfish forebrain explants in vitro and performed whole-cell current clamp recordings from single neurons in the ventral preoptic area (vPOA to characterize their membrane properties and synaptic inputs from the olfactory bulbs (OB. Principle component and cluster analyses based on intrinsic membrane properties of vPOA neurons (N = 107 revealed five (I-V distinct cell groups. These cells displayed differences in their input resistance (Rinput: I II = IV > III = V. Evidence from electrical stimulation of the OB and application of receptor antagonists suggests that vPOA neurons receive monosynaptic glutamatergic inputs via the medial olfactory tract, with connectivity varying among neuronal groups [I (24%, II (40%, III (0%, IV (34% and V (2%].

  2. Endoscopic diagnosis and management of an unusual nasal foreign body in a mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turke M. Shawaf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of intra-nasal foreign bodies is uncommon in horses. This report describes -for the first time- a case of a 4-year-old Arabian-cross mare with unilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, epistaxis and exercise intolerance due to intra-nasal foreign body. Clinical signs, radiography and endoscopic examination confirmed the presence of a tooth fragment (foreign body embedded in the ventral valve of the left nasal cavity. The foreign body was successfully removed using alligator forceps under endoscopic guidance.

  3. Fast and automatic activation of an abstract representation of money in the human ventral visual pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tallon-Baudry

    Full Text Available Money, when used as an incentive, activates the same neural circuits as rewards associated with physiological needs. However, unlike physiological rewards, monetary stimuli are cultural artifacts: how are monetary stimuli identified in the first place? How and when does the brain identify a valid coin, i.e. a disc of metal that is, by social agreement, endowed with monetary properties? We took advantage of the changes in the Euro area in 2002 to compare neural responses to valid coins (Euros, Australian Dollars with neural responses to invalid coins that have lost all monetary properties (French Francs, Finnish Marks. We show in magneto-encephalographic recordings, that the ventral visual pathway automatically distinguishes between valid and invalid coins, within only ∼150 ms. This automatic categorization operates as well on coins subjects were familiar with as on unfamiliar coins. No difference between neural responses to scrambled controls could be detected. These results could suggest the existence of a generic, all-purpose neural representation of money that is independent of experience. This finding is reminiscent of a central assumption in economics, money fungibility, or the fact that a unit of money is substitutable to another. From a neural point of view, our findings may indicate that the ventral visual pathway, a system previously thought to analyze visual features such as shape or color and to be influenced by daily experience, could also able to use conceptual attributes such as monetary validity to categorize familiar as well as unfamiliar visual objects. The symbolic abilities of the posterior fusiform region suggested here could constitute an efficient neural substrate to deal with culturally defined symbols, independently of experience, which probably fostered money's cultural emergence and success.

  4. Sleep deprivation impairs object-selective attention: a view from the ventral visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Julian; Tan, Jiat Chow; Parimal, Sarayu; Dinges, David F; Chee, Michael W L

    2010-02-05

    Most prior studies on selective attention in the setting of total sleep deprivation (SD) have focused on behavior or activation within fronto-parietal cognitive control areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of SD on the top-down biasing of activation of ventral visual cortex and on functional connectivity between cognitive control and other brain regions. Twenty-three healthy young adult volunteers underwent fMRI after a normal night of sleep (RW) and after sleep deprivation in a counterbalanced manner while performing a selective attention task. During this task, pictures of houses or faces were randomly interleaved among scrambled images. Across different blocks, volunteers responded to house but not face pictures, face but not house pictures, or passively viewed pictures without responding. The appearance of task-relevant pictures was unpredictable in this paradigm. SD resulted in less accurate detection of target pictures without affecting the mean false alarm rate or response time. In addition to a reduction of fronto-parietal activation, attending to houses strongly modulated parahippocampal place area (PPA) activation during RW, but this attention-driven biasing of PPA activation was abolished following SD. Additionally, SD resulted in a significant decrement in functional connectivity between the PPA and two cognitive control areas, the left intraparietal sulcus and the left inferior frontal lobe. SD impairs selective attention as evidenced by reduced selectivity in PPA activation. Further, reduction in fronto-parietal and ventral visual task-related activation suggests that it also affects sustained attention. Reductions in functional connectivity may be an important additional imaging parameter to consider in characterizing the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

  5. Sleep deprivation impairs object-selective attention: a view from the ventral visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most prior studies on selective attention in the setting of total sleep deprivation (SD have focused on behavior or activation within fronto-parietal cognitive control areas. Here, we evaluated the effects of SD on the top-down biasing of activation of ventral visual cortex and on functional connectivity between cognitive control and other brain regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty-three healthy young adult volunteers underwent fMRI after a normal night of sleep (RW and after sleep deprivation in a counterbalanced manner while performing a selective attention task. During this task, pictures of houses or faces were randomly interleaved among scrambled images. Across different blocks, volunteers responded to house but not face pictures, face but not house pictures, or passively viewed pictures without responding. The appearance of task-relevant pictures was unpredictable in this paradigm. SD resulted in less accurate detection of target pictures without affecting the mean false alarm rate or response time. In addition to a reduction of fronto-parietal activation, attending to houses strongly modulated parahippocampal place area (PPA activation during RW, but this attention-driven biasing of PPA activation was abolished following SD. Additionally, SD resulted in a significant decrement in functional connectivity between the PPA and two cognitive control areas, the left intraparietal sulcus and the left inferior frontal lobe. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SD impairs selective attention as evidenced by reduced selectivity in PPA activation. Further, reduction in fronto-parietal and ventral visual task-related activation suggests that it also affects sustained attention. Reductions in functional connectivity may be an important additional imaging parameter to consider in characterizing the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

  6. Focal inflammation in the embryological ventral pancreas: assessment using CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, S.; Suzuki, K.; Kawai, H.; Naganawa, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To identify the characteristic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of nonuniform inflammation between the posterior aspect of the head and the remainder of the pancreas. Materials and methods: Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated images of 19 patients in whom the degree of attenuation in the CT images and/or the signal intensity in the MRI images differed between the posterior aspect of the head (ventral primordium) and the remainder of the pancreas (dorsal primordium) due to benign disorders other than uneven fatty replacement. Multiphase, contrast-enhanced CT examinations were performed in 17 patients. In five, T1- and T2-weighted images with and without fat suppression were obtained using a 1.5 T superconducting MRI system. Results: The lesions were localized in the posterior aspect of the head in 17 patients. In two patients, the lesions occupied the posterior aspect of the head and extended to the neck. The lesions exhibited the following findings: inhomogeneous hypoattenuation (with spotty areas of relatively well-maintained contrast enhancement) during the pancreatic phase (17/17) and no intense peripheral enhancement or central necrotic areas (17/17) in CT images, hypointensity in T1-weighed images (5/5), hyperintensity in T2-weighed images (4/5), no vascular invasion (19/19), failure to depict the entire course of Wirsung's duct (17/19), and calcification (13/19). Santorini's ducts were depicted in all but three patients. Conclusion: Focal inflammation in the embryological ventral pancreas exhibits a unique anatomical distribution and characteristic findings

  7. Concomitant release of ventral tegmental acetylcholine and accumbal dopamine by ghrelin in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Jerlhag

    Full Text Available Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, regulates energy balance specifically via hypothalamic circuits. Growing evidence suggest that ghrelin increases the incentive value of motivated behaviours via activation of the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link. It encompasses the cholinergic afferent projection from the laterodorsal tegmental area (LDTg to the dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the mesolimbic dopamine system projecting from the VTA to nucleus accumbens (N.Acc.. Ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A are expressed in these reward nodes and ghrelin administration into the LDTg increases accumbal dopamine, an effect involving nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the VTA. The present series of experiments were undertaken directly to test this hypothesis. Here we show that ghrelin, administered peripherally or locally into the LDTg concomitantly increases ventral tegmental acetylcholine as well as accumbal dopamine release. A GHS-R1A antagonist blocks this synchronous neurotransmitter release induced by peripheral ghrelin. In addition, local perfusion of the unselective nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine into the VTA blocks the ability of ghrelin (administered into the LDTg to increase N.Acc.-dopamine, but not VTA-acetylcholine. Collectively our data indicate that ghrelin activates the LDTg causing a release of acetylcholine in the VTA, which in turn activates local nicotinic acetylcholine receptors causing a release of accumbal dopamine. Given that a dysfunction in the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward system is involved in addictive behaviours, including compulsive overeating and alcohol use disorder, and that hyperghrelinemia is associated with such addictive behaviours, ghrelin-responsive circuits may serve as a novel pharmacological target for treatment of alcohol use disorder as well as binge eating.

  8. Investigation of Financial Conflict of Interest among Published Ventral Hernia Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherla, Deepa V; Olavarria, Oscar A; Bernardi, Karla; Viso, Cristina P; Moses, Maya L; Holihan, Julie L; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Liang, Mike K

    2018-03-01

    Discordance exists between author self-disclosure and the Open Payments Database in various surgical fields, but the effects of this discordance on study design and presentation are unknown. We hypothesized that, among ventral hernia publications, discordance exists between industry and physician self-reported conflicts of interest (COIs); authors disclose relevant COIs; and disclosure and relevant COIs affect study favorability. We conducted a double-blinded, prospective, observational study of published articles. PubMed was searched in reverse chronological order for clinical articles pertaining to ventral hernias. Authors' self-disclosed conflicts were compared with those on the Open Payments Database. Two reviewers blinded to article disclosure status determined jointly whether the COIs were relevant to the article. Three blinded referees independently voted whether each article was favorable to discussed subject matter. The primary end point was study favorability. Secondary outcomes included disclosure status and relevance. One hundred articles were included. Compared with authors with no COIs, authors with a COI, self-disclosed or not, were twice as likely to write results favorable to industry. Of those with a COI, most of the articles had a relevant COI (37 of 45 [82.2%]), and 25% of relevant COIs were not disclosed by authors. Among authors with a relevant COI, study favorability remained unchanged at 68.5% (control: no COI 33.3%; p reporting of COI is discordant in 63% of articles. Twenty-five percent of relevant COI are not disclosed. Having a COI increases the chances that an article will cast a favorable impression on the company paying the authors by 200%. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Abnormal Ventral and Dorsal Attention Network Activity During Single and Dual Target Detection in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Jimenez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Early visual perception and attention are impaired in schizophrenia, and these deficits can be observed on target detection tasks. These tasks activate distinct ventral and dorsal brain networks which support stimulus-driven and goal-directed attention, respectively. We used single and dual target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP tasks during fMRI with an ROI approach to examine regions within these networks associated with target detection and the attentional blink (AB in 21 schizophrenia outpatients and 25 healthy controls. In both tasks, letters were targets and numbers were distractors. For the dual target task, the second target (T2 was presented at 3 different lags after the first target (T1 (lag1=100ms, lag3=300ms, lag7=700ms. For both single and dual target tasks, patients identified fewer targets than controls. For the dual target task, both groups showed the expected AB effect with poorer performance at lag 3 than at lags 1 or 7, and there was no group by lag interaction. During the single target task, patients showed abnormally increased deactivation of the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, a key region of the ventral network. When attention demands were increased during the dual target task, patients showed overactivation of the posterior intraparietal cortex, a key dorsal network region, along with failure to deactivate TPJ. Results suggest inefficient and faulty suppression of salience-oriented processing regions, resulting in increased sensitivity to stimuli in general, and difficulty distinguishing targets from non-targets.

  10. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Fowler J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi F.

    2012-03-23

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([{sup 11}C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [{sup 11}C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  11. First-Pass Processing of Value Cues in the Ventral Visual Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Dennis; Emeric, Erik; Stuphorn, Veit; Connor, Charles E

    2018-02-19

    Real-world value often depends on subtle, continuously variable visual cues specific to particular object categories, like the tailoring of a suit, the condition of an automobile, or the construction of a house. Here, we used microelectrode recording in behaving monkeys to test two possible mechanisms for category-specific value-cue processing: (1) previous findings suggest that prefrontal cortex (PFC) identifies object categories, and based on category identity, PFC could use top-down attentional modulation to enhance visual processing of category-specific value cues, providing signals to PFC for calculating value, and (2) a faster mechanism would be first-pass visual processing of category-specific value cues, immediately providing the necessary visual information to PFC. This, however, would require learned mechanisms for processing the appropriate cues in a given object category. To test these hypotheses, we trained monkeys to discriminate value in four letter-like stimulus categories. Each category had a different, continuously variable shape cue that signified value (liquid reward amount) as well as other cues that were irrelevant. Monkeys chose between stimuli of different reward values. Consistent with the first-pass hypothesis, we found early signals for category-specific value cues in area TE (the final stage in monkey ventral visual pathway) beginning 81 ms after stimulus onset-essentially at the start of TE responses. Task-related activity emerged in lateral PFC approximately 40 ms later and consisted mainly of category-invariant value tuning. Our results show that, for familiar, behaviorally relevant object categories, high-level ventral pathway cortex can implement rapid, first-pass processing of category-specific value cues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of exogenous testosterone on the ventral striatal BOLD response during reward anticipation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Erno J; Bos, Peter A; Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Ramsey, Nick F; Fernández, Guillén; van Honk, Jack

    2010-08-01

    Correlational evidence in humans shows that levels of the androgen hormone testosterone are positively related to reinforcement sensitivity and competitive drive. Structurally similar anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are moreover widely abused, and animal studies show that rodents self-administer testosterone. These observations suggest that testosterone exerts activational effects on mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways involved in incentive processing and reinforcement regulation. However, there are no data on humans supporting this hypothesis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effects of testosterone administration on neural activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic pathway. In a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover design, 12 healthy women received a single sublingual administration of .5 mg of testosterone. During MRI scanning, participants performed a monetary incentive delay task, which is known to elicit robust activation of the ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Results show a positive main effect of testosterone on the differential response in the ventral striatum to cues signaling potential reward versus nonreward. Notably, this effect interacted with levels self-reported intrinsic appetitive motivation: individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation exhibited larger testosterone-induced increases but had smaller differential responses after placebo. Thus, the present study lends support to the hypothesis that testosterone affects activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system but suggests that such effects may be specific to individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation. By showing a potential mechanism underlying central reinforcement of androgen use, the present findings may moreover have implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of AAS dependency. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radio-anatomical analysis of the pericranial flap "money box approach" for ventral skull base reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Alfonso; Langdon, Cristóbal; López-Chacon, Mauricio; Cordero, Arturo; Enseñat, Joaquim; Carrau, Ricardo; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Alobid, Isam

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the versatility of the pericranial flap (PCF) to reconstruct the ventral skull base, using the frontal sinus as a gate for its passage into the sinonasal corridor "money box approach." Anatomic-radiological study and case series. Various approaches and their respective defects (cribriform, transtuberculum, clival, and craniovertebral junction) were completed in 10 injected specimens. The PCF was introduced into the nose through the uppermost portion of the frontal sinus (money box approach). Computed tomography (CT) scans (n = 50) were used to measure the dimensions of the PCF and the skull base defects. The vertical projection of the external ear canal was used as the reference point to standardize the incisions for the PCF. The surface area and maximum length of the PCF were 121.5 ± 19.4 cm 2 and 18.3 ± 1.3 cm, respectively. Using CT scans, we determined that to reconstruct defects secondary to transcribriform, transtuberculum, clival, and craniovertebral approaches, the PCF distal incision must be placed respectively at -3.7 ± 2.0 cm (angle -17.4 ± 8.5°), -0.2 ± 2.0 cm (angle -1.0 ± 9.3°), +5.5 ± 2.3 cm (angle +24.4 ± 9.7°), +8.4 ± 2.4 cm (angle +36.6 ± 11.5°), as related to the reference point. Skull base defects in our clinical cohort (n = 6) were completely reconstructed uneventfully with the PCF. The PCF renders enough surface area to reconstruct all possible defects in the ventral and median skull base. Using the uppermost frontal sinus as a gateway into the nose (money box approach) is feasible and simple. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:2482-2489, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Weak surround suppression of the attentional focus characterizes visual selection in the ventral stream in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronconi

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological findings in the typical population demonstrate that spatial scrutiny for visual selection determines a center-surround profile of the attentional focus, which is the result of recurrent processing in the visual system. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD manifest several anomalies in their visual selection, with strengths in detail-oriented tasks, but also difficulties in distractor inhibition tasks. Here, we asked whether contradictory aspects of perception in ASD might be due to a different center-surround profile of their attentional focus. In two experiments, we tested two independent samples of children with ASD, comparing them with typically developing (TD peers. In Experiment 1, we used a psychophysical task that mapped the entire spatial profile of the attentional focus. In Experiment 2, we used dense-array electroencephalography (EEG to explore its neurophysiological underpinnings. Experiment 1 results showed that the suppression, surrounding the attentional focus, was markedly reduced in children with ASD. Experiment 2 showed that the center-surround profile in TD children resulted in a modulation of the posterior N2 ERP component, with cortical sources in the lateral-occipital and medial/inferior temporal areas. In contrast, children with ASD did not show modulation of the N2 and related activations in the ventral visual stream. Furthermore, behavioural and neurophysiological measures of weaker suppression predicted more severe autistic symptomatology. The present findings, showing an altered center-surround profile during attentional selection, give an important insight to understand superior visual processing in autism as well as the experiencing of sensory overload. Keywords: EEG, Source analysis, Ventral visual stream, Perception, Rehabilitation

  15. Honeybees' speed depends on dorsal as well as lateral, ventral and frontal optic flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Portelli

    Full Text Available Flying insects use the optic flow to navigate safely in unfamiliar environments, especially by adjusting their speed and their clearance from surrounding objects. It has not yet been established, however, which specific parts of the optical flow field insects use to control their speed. With a view to answering this question, freely flying honeybees were trained to fly along a specially designed tunnel including two successive tapering parts: the first part was tapered in the vertical plane and the second one, in the horizontal plane. The honeybees were found to adjust their speed on the basis of the optic flow they perceived not only in the lateral and ventral parts of their visual field, but also in the dorsal part. More specifically, the honeybees' speed varied monotonically, depending on the minimum cross-section of the tunnel, regardless of whether the narrowing occurred in the horizontal or vertical plane. The honeybees' speed decreased or increased whenever the minimum cross-section decreased or increased. In other words, the larger sum of the two opposite optic flows in the horizontal and vertical planes was kept practically constant thanks to the speed control performed by the honeybees upon encountering a narrowing of the tunnel. The previously described ALIS ("AutopiLot using an Insect-based vision System" model nicely matches the present behavioral findings. The ALIS model is based on a feedback control scheme that explains how honeybees may keep their speed proportional to the minimum local cross-section of a tunnel, based solely on optic flow processing, without any need for speedometers or rangefinders. The present behavioral findings suggest how flying insects may succeed in adjusting their speed in their complex foraging environments, while at the same time adjusting their distance not only from lateral and ventral objects but also from those located in their dorsal visual field.

  16. Evidence That Sleep Deprivation Downregulates Dopamine D2R in Ventral Striatum in the Human Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Benveniste, H.; Kin, R.; Thanos, P.K.; Sergi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors are involved with wakefulness, but their role in the decreased alertness associated with sleep deprivation is unclear. We had shown that sleep deprivation reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability (measured with PET and [ 11 C]raclopride in controls) in striatum, but could not determine whether this reflected dopamine increases ([ 11 C]raclopride competes with dopamine for D2/D3 receptor binding) or receptor downregulation. To clarify this, we compared the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (a drug that increases dopamine by blocking dopamine transporters) during sleep deprivation versus rested sleep, with the assumption that methylphenidate's effects would be greater if, indeed, dopamine release was increased during sleep deprivation. We scanned 20 controls with [ 11 C]raclopride after rested sleep and after 1 night of sleep deprivation; both after placebo and after methylphenidate. We corroborated a decrease in D2/D3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum with sleep deprivation (compared with rested sleep) that was associated with reduced alertness and increased sleepiness. However, the dopamine increases induced by methylphenidate (measured as decreases in D2/D3 receptor availability compared with placebo) did not differ between rested sleep and sleep deprivation, and were associated with the increased alertness and reduced sleepiness when methylphenidate was administered after sleep deprivation. Similar findings were obtained by microdialysis in rodents subjected to 1 night of paradoxical sleep deprivation. These findings are consistent with a downregulation of D2/D3 receptors in ventral striatum with sleep deprivation that may contribute to the associated decreased wakefulness and also corroborate an enhancement of D2 receptor signaling in the arousing effects of methylphenidate in humans.

  17. Behavior-driven arc expression is reduced in all ventral hippocampal subfields compared to CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus in rat dorsal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, M K; Sutherland, V L; Olson, K; McNaughton, B L; Barnes, C A

    2018-02-01

    Anatomical connectivity and lesion studies reveal distinct functional heterogeneity along the dorsal-ventral axis of the hippocampus. The immediate early gene Arc is known to be involved in neural plasticity and memory and can be used as a marker for cell activity that occurs, for example, when hippocampal place cells fire. We report here, that Arc is expressed in a greater proportion of cells in dorsal CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG), following spatial behavioral experiences compared to ventral hippocampal subregions (dorsal CA1 = 33%; ventral CA1 = 13%; dorsal CA3 = 23%; ventral CA3 = 8%; and dorsal DG = 2.5%; ventral DG = 1.2%). The technique used here to obtain estimates of numbers of behavior-driven cells across the dorsal-ventral axis, however, corresponds quite well with samples from available single unit recording studies. Several explanations for the two- to-threefold reduction in spatial behavior-driven cell activity in the ventral hippocampus can be offered. These include anatomical connectivity differences, differential gain of the self-motion signals that appear to alter the scale of place fields and the proportion of active cells, and possibly variations in the neuronal responses to non-spatial information within the hippocampus along its dorso-ventral axis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Steroidogenic factor 1 directs programs regulating diet-induced thermogenesis and leptin action in the ventral medial hypothalamic nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is exclusively expressed in the brain in the ventral medial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and is required for the development of this nucleus. However, the physiological importance of transcriptional programs regulated by SF-1 in the VMH is not wel...

  19. Catecholaminergic development of fetal rat ventral mesencephalon : Characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomasini, R; Kema, IP; Muskiet, FAJ; Meiborg, G; Staal, MJ; Go, KG

    We determined dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and adrenaline (A), as well as immunohistochemically stained tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA in dissected rat ventral mesencephalon (VM) tissue from Embryonic Day (ED) 14 to Postnatal Day (P) 17. Whole VM tissue DA, NA, and A contents increased with

  20. Treatment for Alexia with Agraphia Following Left Ventral Occipito-Temporal Damage: Strengthening Orthographic Representations Common to Reading and Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther S.; Rising, Kindle; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Beeson, Pélagie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Damage to left ventral occipito-temporal cortex can give rise to written language impairment characterized by pure alexia/letter-by-letter (LBL) reading, as well as surface alexia and agraphia. The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of a combined treatment approach to address concurrent LBL reading with surface…

  1. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Nathan; Gani, Johan; Chee, Justin

    2016-07-01

    To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS) by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula.

  2. [EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVANCED SKIN FLAP AND V-SHAPED VENTRAL INCISION ALONG THE ROOT OF PENILE SHAFT FOR CONCEALED PENIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junshan; Li, Dumiao; Zhang, Jianxing; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Yali; Lin, Li

    2015-09-01

    To investigate effectiveness of advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft for concealed penis in children. Between July 2007 and January 2015, 121 boys with concealed penis were treated with advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft. The age varied from 18 months to 13 years (mean, 7.2 years). Repair was based on a vertical incision in median raphe, complete degloving of penis and tacking its base to the dermis of the skin. Advanced skin flap and a V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft were used to cover the penile shaft. The operation time ranged from 60 to 100 minutes (mean, 75 minutes). Disruption of wound occurred in 1 case, and was cured after dressing change; and primary healing of incision was obtained in the others. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 7 years (median, 24 months). All patients achieved good to excellent cosmetic results with a low incidence of complications. The results were satisfactory in exposure of penis and prepuce appearance. No obvious scar was observed. The penis had similar appearance to that after prepuce circumcision. A combination of advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft is a simple, safe, and effective procedure for concealed penis with a similar appearance result to the prepuce circumcision.

  3. Investigating the dynamics of the brain response to music: A central role of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Fritz, Thomas; Mildner, Toralf; Richter, Maxi; Schulze, Katrin; Lepsien, Jöran; Schroeter, Matthias L; Möller, Harald E

    2015-08-01

    Ventral striatal activity has been previously shown to correspond well to reward value mediated by music. Here, we investigate the dynamic brain response to music and manipulated counterparts using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Counterparts of musical excerpts were produced by either manipulating the consonance/dissonance of the musical fragments or playing them backwards (or both). Results show a greater involvement of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens both when contrasting listening to music that is perceived as pleasant and listening to a manipulated version perceived as unpleasant (backward dissonant), as well as in a parametric analysis for increasing pleasantness. Notably, both analyses yielded a ventral striatal response that was strongest during an early phase of stimulus presentation. A hippocampal response to the musical stimuli was also observed, and was largely mediated by processing differences between listening to forward and backward music. This hippocampal involvement was again strongest during the early response to the music. Auditory cortex activity was more strongly evoked by the original (pleasant) music compared to its manipulated counterparts, but did not display a similar decline of activation over time as subcortical activity. These findings rather suggest that the ventral striatal/nucleus accumbens response during music listening is strongest in the first seconds and then declines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wnt5a regulates ventral midbrain morphogenesis and the development of A9-A10 dopaminergic cells in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andersson, E.R.; Prakash, N.; Čajánek, L.; Minina, E.; Bryja, Vítězslav; Bryjová, Lenka; Yamaguchi, T.P.; Hall, A.C.; Wurst, W.; Arenas, E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 10 (2008), s. 1-14 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : Wnt 5a deficient mouse * ventral midbrain * planar cell polarity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  5. The Pathogenesis of Ventral Idiopathic Herniation of the Spinal Cord: A Hypothesis Based on the Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Brunner, H.G.; Hosman, A.J.; Alfen, N. van; Grotenhuis, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic ventral herniation of the spinal cord (SC) is not often encountered in daily practice. Its clinical prevalence, however, will increase through increasing awareness and more frequent use of MRI. A clear explanation of its pathophysiology has never been formulated. It was hypothesized that

  6. Effects of sustained serotonin reuptake inhibition on the firing of dopamine neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre

    Background: Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are efficacious in depression because of their ability to increase 5-HT neurotransmission. However, owing to a purported inhibitory effect of 5- HT on dopamine (DA) neuronal activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), this increase

  7. Dietary zinc deficiency effects dorso-lateral and ventral prostate of Wistar rats: histological, biochemical and trace element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sangeeta; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, R S

    2014-10-01

    Zinc deficiency has become a global problem affecting the developed and developing countries due to inhibitors in the diet which prevents its absorption or due to a very low concentration of bioavailable zinc in the diet. Being present in high concentration in the prostate and having diverse biological function, we investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency for 2 and 4 weeks on dorso-lateral and ventral prostate. Sixty prepubertal rats were divided into three groups: zinc control (ZC), pair fed (PF) and zinc deficient (ZD) and fed on 100 μg/g (zinc control and pair fed groups) and 1 μg/g (zinc deficient) diet. Zinc deficiency was associated with degenerative changes in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as made evident by karyolysis, karyorhexis, cytoplasmolysis, loss of cellularisation, decreased intraluminar secretion and degeneration of fibromuscular stroma. In response, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, acid phosphatase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase increased, exhibiting variable level of significance. Total protein and total zinc concentration in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as well as in serum decreased (P dorso-lateral and ventral prostate after dietary zinc deficiency as well as impairment of metabolic and secretory activity, reduced gonadotropin levels by hypothalamus -hypophysial system which is indicative of a critical role of zinc in maintaining the prostate integrity.

  8. Lateral prefrontal cortex is organized into parallel dorsal and ventral streams along the rostro-caudal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Robert S; Nomura, Emi M; Gratton, Caterina; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Anatomical connectivity differences between the dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the non-human primate strongly suggests that these regions support different functions. However, after years of study, it remains unclear whether these regions are functionally distinct. In contrast, there has been a groundswell of recent studies providing evidence for a rostro-caudal functional organization, along the lateral as well as dorsomedial frontal cortex. Thus, it is not known whether dorsal and ventral regions of lateral PFC form distinct functional networks and how to reconcile any dorso-ventral organization with the medio-lateral and rostro-caudal axes. Here, we used resting-state connectivity data to identify parallel dorsolateral and ventrolateral streams of intrinsic connectivity with the dorsomedial frontal cortex. Moreover, we show that this connectivity follows a rostro-caudal gradient. Our results provide evidence for a novel framework for the intrinsic organization of the frontal cortex that incorporates connections between medio-lateral, dorso-ventral, and rostro-caudal axes.

  9. The improbability of dorso-ventral axis inversion during animal evolution, as presumed by Geoffroy Saint Hilaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggelaar, van den J.A.M.; Edsinger-Gonzales, E.; Schram, F.R.

    2002-01-01

    Recent discoveries in the field of developmental genetics have lead to the resurrection of the old idea, first proposed in the early 19th century, that the dorso-ventral axis of deuterostomes, such as vertebrates, has been inverted during the course of evolution from that noted in protostomes, i.e.,

  10. Increased ventral-striatal activity during monetary decision making is a marker of problem poker gambling severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; He, Qinghua; Melrose, James A; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different neural systems on monetary decision making in frequent poker gamblers, who vary in their degree of problem gambling. Fifteen frequent poker players, ranging from non-problem to high-problem gambling, and 15 non-gambler controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). During IGT deck selection, between-group fMRI analyses showed that frequent poker gamblers exhibited higher ventral-striatal but lower dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal activations as compared with controls. Moreover, using functional connectivity analyses, we observed higher ventral-striatal connectivity in poker players, and in regions involved in attentional/motor control (posterior cingulate), visual (occipital gyrus) and auditory (temporal gyrus) processing. In poker gamblers, scores of problem gambling severity were positively associated with ventral-striatal activations and with the connectivity between the ventral-striatum seed and the occipital fusiform gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. Present results are consistent with findings from recent brain imaging studies showing that gambling disorder is associated with heightened motivational-reward processes during monetary decision making, which may hamper one's ability to moderate his level of monetary risk taking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Mirror System Activity for Action and Language Is Embedded in the Integration of Dorsal and Ventral Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We develop the view that the involvement of mirror neurons in embodied experience grounds brain structures that underlie language, but that many other brain regions are involved. We stress the cooperation between the dorsal and ventral streams in praxis and language. Both have perceptual and motor schemas but the perceptual schemas in the dorsal…

  12. Reflectivity of the gyroid biophotonic crystals in the ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a comparison of the computer simulation data of gyroid nanostructures with optical measurements (reflectivity spectra and scattering diagrams) of ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi. We demonstrate that the omnidirectional green colour arises from the

  13. Endogenous Opioid-Induced Neuroplasticity of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area Influences Natural and Opiate Reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitchers, Kyle K.; Coppens, Caroline M.; Beloate, Lauren N.; Fuller, Jonathan; Van, Sandy; Frohmader, Karla S.; Laviolette, Steven R.; Lehman, Michael N.; Coolen, Lique M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural reward and drugs of abuse converge on the mesolimbic pathway and activate common mechanism of neural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Chronic exposure to opiates induces plasticity in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which regulates morphine reward tolerance.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the ventral midbrain-nucleus accumbens pathway: A role in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisch, A.J.; Bolanos, C.A.; de Wit, J.; Simonak, R.D.; Pudiak, C.M.; Barrot, M.; Verhaagen, J.; Nestler, E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous work has shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), are involved in appetitive behavior. Here we show that BDNF in the ventral tegmental area-nucleus accumbens (VTA-NAc) pathway is also involved in the development of

  15. GDNF family ligands display distinct action profiles on cultured GABAergic and serotonergic neurons of rat ventral mesencephalon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducray, Angélique; Krebs, Sandra H:; Schaller, Benoft

    2006-01-01

    Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NRTN), artemin (ARTN) and persephin (PSPN), known as the GDNF family ligands (GFLs), influence the development, survival and differentiation of cultured dopaminergic neurons from ventral mesencephalon (VM). Detailed knowledge about...... factors for VM GABAergic and serotonergic neurons, demonstrating characteristic individual action profiles emphasizing their important and distinct roles during brain development....

  16. Gene expression patterns in the ventral tegmental area relate to oestrus behaviour in high-producing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyszynska-Koko, J.; Wit, de A.A.C.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2011-01-01

    Reduced oestrus behaviour expression or its absence (silent oestrus) results in subfertility in high-producing dairy cows. Insight into the genomic regulation of oestrus behaviour is likely to help alleviate reproduction problems. Here, gene expression was recorded in the ventral tegmental area

  17. Altered gravity affects ventral root activity during fictive swimming and the static vestibuloocular reflex in young tadpoles (Xenopus laevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böser, S; Dournon, C; Gualandris-Parisot, L; Horn, E

    2008-03-01

    During early periods of life, modifications of the gravitational environment affect the development of sensory, neuronal and motor systems. The vestibular system exerts significant effects on motor networks that control eye and body posture as well as swimming. The objective of the present study was to study whether altered gravity (AG) affects vestibuloocular and spinal motor systems in a correlated manner. During the French Soyuz taxi flight Andromède to the International Space Station ISS (launch: October 21, 2001; landing: October 31, 2001) Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed for 10 days to microgravity (microg). In addition, a similar experiment with 3g-hypergravity (3g) was performed in the laboratory. At onset of AG, embryos had reached developmental stages 24 to 27. After exposure to AG, each tadpole was tested for its roll-induced vestibuloocular reflex (rVOR) and 3 hours later it was tested for the neuronal activity recorded from the ventral roots (VR) during fictive swimming. During the post-AG recording periods tadpoles had reached developmental stages 45 to 47. It was observed that microgravity affected VR activity during fictive swimming and rVOR. In particular, VR activity changes included a significant decrease of the rostrocaudal delay and a significant increase of episode duration. The rVOR-amplitude was transiently depressed. Hypergravity was less effective on the locomotor pattern; occurring effects on fictive swimming were the opposite of microg effects. As after microgravity, the rVOR was depressed after 3g-exposure. All modifications of the rVOR and VR-activity recovered to normal levels within 4 to 7 days after termination of AG. Significant correlations between the rVOR amplitude and VR activity of respective tadpoles during the recording period have been observed in both tadpoles with or without AG experience. The data are consistent with the assumptions that during this period of life which is characterized by a progressive development

  18. Initiation and slow propagation of epileptiform activity from ventral to dorsal medial entorhinal cortex is constrained by an inhibitory gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, Thomas; Matthews, Peter; Phillips, Keith G; Randall, Andrew D; Brown, Jonathan T

    2018-03-31

    The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) has an important role in initiation and propagation of seizure activity. Several anatomical relationships exist in neurophysiological properties of mEC neurons; however, in the context of hyperexcitability, previous studies often considered it as a homogeneous structure. Using multi-site extracellular recording techniques, ictal-like activity was observed along the dorso-ventral axis of the mEC in vitro in response to various ictogenic stimuli. This originated predominantly from ventral areas, spreading to dorsal mEC with a surprisingly slow velocity. Modulation of inhibitory tone was capable of changing the slope of ictal initiation, suggesting seizure propagation behaviours are highly dependent on levels of GABAergic function in this region. A distinct disinhibition model also showed, in the absence of inhibition, a prevalence for interictal-like initiation in ventral mEC, reflecting the intrinsic differences in mEC neurons. These findings suggest the ventral mEC is more prone to hyperexcitable discharge than the dorsal mEC, which may be relevant under pathological conditions. The medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) has an important role in the generation and propagation of seizure activity. The organization of the mEC is such that a number of dorso-ventral relationships exist in neurophysiological properties of neurons. These range from intrinsic and synaptic properties to density of inhibitory connectivity. We examined the influence of these gradients on generation and propagation of epileptiform activity in the mEC. Using a 16-shank silicon probe array to record along the dorso-ventral axis of the mEC in vitro, we found 4-aminopyridine application produces ictal-like activity originating predominantly in ventral areas. This activity spreads to dorsal mEC at a surprisingly slow velocity (138 μm s -1 ), while cross-site interictal-like activity appeared relatively synchronous. We propose that ictal propagation is constrained by

  19. Effect of paddock vs. stall housing on 24 hour gastric pH within the proximal and ventral equine stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, L; Sanchez, L C; Olsen, S N; Baptiste, K E; Merritt, A M

    2008-06-01

    Stall housing has been suggested as a risk factor for ulcer development in the equine stomach; however, the exact pathogenesis for this has not been established. To investigate the effect of 3 environmental situations (grass paddock, stall alone or stall with adjacent companion) on pH in the proximal and the ventral stomach. Six horses with permanently implanted gastric cannulae were used in a randomised, cross-over, block design. Each horse rotated through each of three 24 h environmental situations. Horses remained on their normal diet (grass hay ad libitum and grain b.i.d.) throughout the study. Intragastric pH was measured continuously for 72 h just inside the lower oesophageal sphincter (proximal stomach) and via a pH probe in the gastric cannula (ventral stomach). Neither proximal nor ventral 24 h gastric pH changed significantly between the 3 environmental situations. Mean hourly proximal gastric pH decreased significantly in the interval from 01.00-09.00 h compared to the interval from 13.00-20.00 h, regardless of environmental situation. Median hourly proximal pH only differed in the interval from 06.00-07.00 h compared to the interval 14.00-19.00 h. Neither mean nor median hourly ventral gastric pH varied significantly with the time of day. The change in housing status used in the current study did not affect acid exposure within either region of the equine stomach. The pH in the ventral stomach was uniformly stable throughout the study, while the proximal pH demonstrated a 24 h circadian pattern.

  20. Association of contextual cues with morphine reward increases neural and synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvandi, Mina Sadighi; Bourmpoula, Maria; Homberg, Judith R; Fathollahi, Yaghoub

    2017-11-01

    Drug addiction is associated with aberrant memory and permanent functional changes in neural circuits. It is known that exposure to drugs like morphine is associated with positive emotional states and reward-related memory. However, the underlying mechanisms in terms of neural plasticity in the ventral hippocampus, a region involved in associative memory and emotional behaviors, are not fully understood. Therefore, we measured adult neurogenesis, dendritic spine density and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TrkB mRNA expression as parameters for synaptic plasticity in the ventral hippocampus. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to the CPP (conditioned place preference) paradigm and received 10 mg/kg morphine. Half of the rats were used to evaluate neurogenesis by immunohistochemical markers Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX). The other half was used for Golgi staining to measure spine density and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to assess BDNF/TrkB expression levels. We found that morphine-treated rats exhibited more place conditioning as compared with saline-treated rats and animals that were exposed to the CPP without any injections. Locomotor activity did not change significantly. Morphine-induced CPP significantly increased the number of Ki67 and DCX-labeled cells in the ventral dentate gyrus. Additionally, we found increased dendritic spine density in both CA1 and dentate gyrus and an enhancement of BDNF/TrkB mRNA levels in the whole ventral hippocampus. Ki67, DCX and spine density were significantly correlated with CPP scores. In conclusion, we show that morphine-induced reward-related memory is associated with neural and synaptic plasticity changes in the ventral hippocampus. Such neural changes could underlie context-induced drug relapse. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Histamine H3 Receptors Decrease Dopamine Release in the Ventral Striatum by Reducing the Activity of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael Koerich; Osterstock, Guillaume; Ducrot, Charles; Leino, Sakari; Bourque, Marie-Josée; Prado, Marco A M; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Salminen, Outi; Rannanpää Née Nuutinen, Saara; Trudeau, Louis-Eric

    2018-04-15

    Histamine H 3 receptors are widely distributed G i -coupled receptors whose activation reduces neuronal activity and inhibits release of numerous neurotransmitters. Although these receptors are abundantly expressed in the striatum, their modulatory role on activity-dependent dopamine release is not well understood. Here, we observed that histamine H 3 receptor activation indirectly diminishes dopamine overflow in the ventral striatum by reducing cholinergic interneuron activity. Acute brain slices from C57BL/6 or channelrhodopsin-2-transfected DAT-cre mice were obtained, and dopamine transients evoked either electrically or optogenetically were measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. The H 3 agonist α-methylhistamine significantly reduced electrically- evoked dopamine overflow, an effect blocked by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine, suggesting involvement of cholinergic interneurons. None of the drug treatments targeting H 3 receptors affected optogenetically evoked dopamine overflow, indicating that direct H 3 -modulation of dopaminergic axons is unlikely. Next, we used qPCR and confirmed the expression of histamine H 3 receptor mRNA in cholinergic interneurons, both in ventral and dorsal striatum. Activation of H 3 receptors by α-methylhistamine reduced spontaneous firing of cholinergic interneurons in the ventral, but not in the dorsal striatum. Resting membrane potential and number of spontaneous action potentials in ventral-striatal cholinergic interneurons were significantly reduced by α-methylhistamine. Acetylcholine release from isolated striatal synaptosomes, however, was not altered by α-methylhistamine. Together, these results indicate that histamine H 3 receptors are important modulators of dopamine release, specifically in the ventral striatum, and that they do so by decreasing the firing rate of cholinergic neurons and, consequently, reducing cholinergic tone on dopaminergic axons. Copyright © 2018 IBRO

  2. Clinical analysis on the treatment of 24 cases of severe traumatic brain injury with non ventral intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei WANG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the clinical treatment for severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI with non ventral intestinal obstruction. Methods A total of 48 patients with sTBI were enrolled in this study, including 24 with (observation group and 24 without (control group non ventral intestinal obstruction. Among 24 patients with non ventral intestinal obstruction, 3 cases (12.50% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma, 5 cases (20.83% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma and decompressive craniectomy, and 16 cases (66.67% were treated by conservative treatment. They were all treated by gastrointestinal decompression and parenteral nutrition. Among 24 patients without non ventral intestinal obstruction, 4 cases (16.67% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma, 6 cases (25% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma and decompressive craniectomy, and 14 cases (58.33% were treated by conservative treatment. They were all treated by enteral nutrition. Hemoglobin (Hb, albumin (ALB and prealbumin (PA were detected 10 and 20 d after treatment. Results Compared with control group, the level of Hb (P = 0.008, ALB (P = 0.002 and PA (P = 0.031 were significantly reduced in observation group. Compared with 10 d after treatment, the level of Hb (P = 0.003, ALB (P = 0.000 and PA (P = 0.005 were significantly reduced 20 d after treatment. Conclusions Early diagnosis and timely treatment for non ventral intestinal obstruction in patients with severe traumatic brain injury could effectively relieve the symptoms of intestinal obstruction, and is favorable to early enteral nutrition, so as to enhance the patients' recovery. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.01.012

  3. Regulator of G protein signaling-12 modulates the dopamine transporter in ventral striatum and locomotor responses to psychostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Joshua D; Kaski, Shane W; Schroer, Adam B; Wix, Kimberley A; Siderovski, David P; Setola, Vincent

    2018-02-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling are proteins that accelerate the termination of effector stimulation after G protein-coupled receptor activation. Many regulators of G protein signaling proteins are highly expressed in the brain and therefore considered potential drug discovery targets for central nervous system pathologies; for example, here we show that RGS12 is highly expressed in microdissected mouse ventral striatum. Given a role for the ventral striatum in psychostimulant-induced locomotor activity, we tested whether Rgs12 genetic ablation affected behavioral responses to amphetamine and cocaine. RGS12 loss significantly decreased hyperlocomotion to lower doses of both amphetamine and cocaine; however, other outcomes of administration (sensitization and conditioned place preference) were unaffected, suggesting that RGS12 does not function in support of the rewarding properties of these psychostimulants. To test whether observed response changes upon RGS12 loss were caused by changes to dopamine transporter expression and/or function, we prepared crude membranes from the brains of wild-type and RGS12-null mice and measured dopamine transporter-selective [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, revealing an increase in dopamine transporter levels in the ventral-but not dorsal-striatum of RGS12-null mice. To address dopamine transporter function, we prepared striatal synaptosomes and measured [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. Consistent with increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding, dopamine transporter-specific [ 3 H]dopamine uptake in RGS12-null ventral striatal synaptosomes was found to be increased. Decreased amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and increased [ 3 H]WIN 35428 binding were recapitulated with an independent RGS12-null mouse strain. Thus, we propose that RGS12 regulates dopamine transporter expression and function in the ventral striatum, affecting amphetamine- and cocaine-induced increases in dopamine levels that specifically elicit acute hyperlocomotor responses.

  4. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda) are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneis, Georg; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i) immunolabeling, (ii) histology and (iii) scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida), the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult) replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two transient posterior

  5. The 'ventral organs' of Pycnogonida (Arthropoda are neurogenic niches of late embryonic and post-embryonic nervous system development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Brenneis

    Full Text Available Early neurogenesis in arthropods has been in the focus of numerous studies, its cellular basis, spatio-temporal dynamics and underlying genetic network being by now comparably well characterized for representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods and crustaceans. By contrast, neurogenesis during late embryonic and/or post-embryonic development has received less attention, especially in myriapods and chelicerates. Here, we apply (i immunolabeling, (ii histology and (iii scanning electron microscopy to study post-embryonic ventral nerve cord development in Pseudopallene sp., a representative of the sea spiders (Pycnogonida, the presumable sister group of the remaining chelicerates. During early post-embryonic development, large neural stem cells give rise to additional ganglion cell material in segmentally paired invaginations in the ventral ectoderm. These ectodermal cell regions - traditionally designated as 'ventral organs' - detach from the surface into the interior and persist as apical cell clusters on the ventral ganglion side. Each cluster is a post-embryonic neurogenic niche that features a tiny central cavity and initially still houses larger neural stem cells. The cluster stays connected to the underlying ganglionic somata cortex via an anterior and a posterior cell stream. Cell proliferation remains restricted to the cluster and streams, and migration of newly produced cells along the streams seems to account for increasing ganglion cell numbers in the cortex. The pycnogonid cluster-stream-systems show striking similarities to the life-long neurogenic system of decapod crustaceans, and due to their close vicinity to glomerulus-like neuropils, we consider their possible involvement in post-embryonic (perhaps even adult replenishment of olfactory neurons - as in decapods. An instance of a potentially similar post-embryonic/adult neurogenic system in the arthropod outgroup Onychophora is discussed. Additionally, we document two

  6. HDAC I inhibition in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus differentially modulates predator-odor fear learning and generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Robin K; Hebert, Jenna C; Thomas, Arthur S; Wann, Ellen G; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2015-01-01

    Although predator odors are ethologically relevant stimuli for rodents, the molecular pathways and contribution of some brain regions involved in predator odor conditioning remain elusive. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the dorsal hippocampus has been shown to enhance shock-induced contextual fear learning, but it is unknown if HDACs have differential effects along the dorso-ventral hippocampal axis during predator odor fear learning. We injected MS-275, a class I HDAC inhibitor, bilaterally in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus of mice and found that it had no effects on innate anxiety in either region. We then assessed the effects of MS-275 at different stages of fear learning along the longitudinal hippocampal axis. Animals were injected with MS-275 or vehicle after context pre-exposure (pre-conditioning injections), when a representation of the context is first formed, or after exposure to coyote urine (post-conditioning injections), when the context becomes associated with predator odor. When MS-275 was administered after context pre-exposure, dorsally injected animals showed enhanced fear in the training context but were able to discriminate it from a neutral environment. Conversely, ventrally injected animals did not display enhanced learning in the training context but generalized the fear response to a neutral context. However, when MS-275 was administered after conditioning, there were no differences between the MS-275 and vehicle control groups in either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus. Surprisingly, all groups displayed generalization to a neutral context, suggesting that predator odor exposure followed by a mild stressor such as restraint leads to fear generalization. These results may elucidate distinct functions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor-induced fear conditioning as well as some of the molecular mechanisms underlying fear generalization.

  7. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  8. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  9. Body / Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Schehr

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Unique object in the exchange-system, the gay body occupies a locus where a phantom identity and an imagined reciprocity define the poles of the subject-object relation. Made of the right stuff, it is an object circulating in a system that tends to reproduce the concept of identity in its search for mirror images of itself. Often rejected by the world, it has recently become a cynosure equated with sickness, pestilence, and death in the age of AIDS. The representations of that object change: no longer perceived as a part of libidinal economy, it has become a mass of symptoms, having changed from being an index of sexuality into being the visible dissipation of the flesh. The gay body in the age of AIDS is the mark of a pariah with the abject nature of the outcast. The body with AIDS takes the form of a text made of many signs and with many ways of reading the checkerboard pattern of the flesh. And the AIDS-narrative turns the body into the limit of the representable.

  10. Body Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses how the use of body language in Chinese fiction strikes most Westerners as unusual, if not strange. Considers that, although this may be the result of differences in gestures or different conventions in fiction, it is a problem for translators, who handle the differences by various strategies, e.g., omission or expansion. (NKA)

  11. Region-specific roles of the prelimbic cortex, the dorsal CA1, the ventral DG and ventral CA1 of the hippocampus in the fear return evoked by a sub-conditioning procedure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juan; Xing, Xiaoli; Han, Mengfi; Xu, Na; Piao, Chengji; Zhang, Yue; Zheng, Xigeng

    2016-02-01

    The return of learned fear is an important issue in anxiety disorder research since an analogous process may contribute to long-term fear maintenance or clinical relapse. A number of studies demonstrate that mPFC and hippocampus are important in the modulation of post-extinction re-expression of fear memory. However, the region-specific role of these structures in the fear return evoked by a sub-threshold conditioning (SC) is not known. In the present experiments, we first examined specific roles of the prelimbic cortex (PL), the dorsal hippocampus (DH, the dorsal CA1 area in particular), the ventral hippocampus (the ventral dentate gyrus (vDG) and the ventral CA1 area in particular) in this fear return process. Then we examined the role of connections between PL and vCA1 with this behavioral approach. Rats were subjected to five tone-shock pairings (1.0-mA shock) to induce conditioned fear (freezing), followed by three fear extinction sessions (25 tone-alone trials each session). After a post-test for extinction memory, some rats were retrained with the SC procedure to reinstate tone-evoked freezing. Rat groups were injected with low doses of the GABAA agonist muscimol to selectively inactivate PL, DH, vDG, or vCA1 120 min before the fear return test. A disconnection paradigm with ipsilateral or contralateral muscimol injection of the PL and the vCA1 was used to examine the role of this pathway in the fear return. We found that transient inactivation of these areas significantly impaired fear return (freezing): inactivation of the prelimbic cortex blocked SC-evoked fear return in particular but did not influence fear expression in general; inactivation of the DH area impaired fear return, but had no effect on the extinction retrieval process; both ventral DG and ventral CA1 are required for the return of extinguished fear whereas only ventral DG is required for the extinction retrieval. These findings suggest that PL, DH, vDG, and vCA1 all contribute to the fear

  12. A probabilistic map of the human ventral sensorimotor cortex using electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, Jonathan D; Molinaro, Annette M; Chang, Edward F

    2015-08-01

    The human ventral sensorimotor cortex (vSMC) is involved in facial expression, mastication, and swallowing, as well as the dynamic and highly coordinated movements of human speech production. However, vSMC organization remains poorly understood, and previously published population-driven maps of its somatotopy do not accurately reflect the variability across individuals in a quantitative, probabilistic fashion. The goal of this study was to describe the responses to electrical stimulation of the vSMC, generate probabilistic maps of function in the vSMC, and quantify the variability across individuals. Photographic, video, and stereotactic MRI data of intraoperative electrical stimulation of the vSMC were collected for 33 patients undergoing awake craniotomy. Stimulation sites were converted to a 2D coordinate system based on anatomical landmarks. Motor, sensory, and speech stimulation responses were reviewed and classified. Probabilistic maps of stimulation responses were generated, and spatial variance was quantified. In 33 patients, the authors identified 194 motor, 212 sensory, 61 speech-arrest, and 27 mixed responses. Responses were complex, stereotyped, and mostly nonphysiological movements, involving hand, orofacial, and laryngeal musculature. Within individuals, the presence of oral movement representations varied; however, the dorsal-ventral order was always preserved. The most robust motor responses were jaw (probability 0.85), tongue (0.64), lips (0.58), and throat (0.52). Vocalizations were seen in 6 patients (0.18), more dorsally near lip and dorsal throat areas. Sensory responses were spatially dispersed; however, patients' subjective reports were highly precise in localization within the mouth. The most robust responses included tongue (0.82) and lips (0.42). The probability of speech arrest was 0.85, highest 15-20 mm anterior to the central sulcus and just dorsal to the sylvian fissure, in the anterior precentral gyrus or pars opercularis. The

  13. Optogenetic Inhibition of Ventral Pallidum Neurons Impairs Context-Driven Salt Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E; Smedley, Elizabeth B; Stansfield, Katherine J; Stott, Jeffrey J; Smith, Kyle S

    2017-06-07

    Salt appetite, in which animals can immediately seek out salt when under a novel state of sodium deprivation, is a classic example of how homeostatic systems interface with learned associations to produce an on-the-fly updating of motivated behavior. Neural activity in the ventral pallidum (VP) has been shown to encode changes in the value of salt under such conditions, both the value of salt itself (Tindell et al., 2006) and the motivational value of its predictive cues (Tindell et al., 2009; Robinson and Berridge, 2013). However, it is not known whether the VP is necessary for salt appetite in terms of seeking out salt or consuming salt following sodium depletion. Here, we used a conditioned place-preference procedure to investigate the effects of optogenetically inhibiting the VP on context-driven salt seeking and the consumption of salt following deprivation. Male rats learned to associate one context with sucrose and another context with less-desirable salt. Following sodium depletion, and in the absence of either sucrose or salt, we found that inhibiting the VP selectively reduced the elevation in time spent in the salt-paired context. VP inhibition had minimal effects on the consumption of salt once it was made available. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that the VP or any brain region is necessary for the ability to use contextual cues to guide salt seeking. These results highlight a dissociation between deficit-driven reward seeking and reward consumption to replenish those deficits, with the former process being particularly sensitive to on-line VP activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Salt appetite, in which rats will immediately seek out a once-undesirable concentrated salt solution after being depleted of bodily sodium despite never having tasted salt as a positive reward, is a phenomenon showing how animals can update their motivational goals without any new learning or conditioning. This salt-seeking behavior is also observed when the animal

  14. Functional μ-Opioid-Galanin Receptor Heteromers in the Ventral Tegmental Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Estefanía; Quiroz, César; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent; Ferré, Sergi

    2017-02-01

    The neuropeptide galanin has been shown to interact with the opioid system. More specifically, galanin counteracts the behavioral effects of the systemic administration of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists. Yet the mechanism responsible for this galanin-opioid interaction has remained elusive. Using biophysical techniques in mammalian transfected cells, we found evidence for selective heteromerization of MOR and the galanin receptor subtype Gal1 (Gal1R). Also in transfected cells, a synthetic peptide selectively disrupted MOR-Gal1R heteromerization as well as specific interactions between MOR and Gal1R ligands: a negative cross talk, by which galanin counteracted MAPK activation induced by the endogenous MOR agonist endomorphin-1, and a cross-antagonism, by which a MOR antagonist counteracted MAPK activation induced by galanin. These specific interactions, which represented biochemical properties of the MOR-Gal1R heteromer, could then be identified in situ in slices of rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) with MAPK activation and two additional cell signaling pathways, AKT and CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, in vivo microdialysis experiments showed that the disruptive peptide selectively counteracted the ability of galanin to block the dendritic dopamine release in the rat VTA induced by local infusion of endomorphin-1, demonstrating a key role of MOR-Gal1R heteromers localized in the VTA in the direct control of dopamine cell function and their ability to mediate antagonistic interactions between MOR and Gal1R ligands. The results also indicate that MOR-Gal1R heteromers should be viewed as targets for the treatment of opioid use disorders. The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) localized in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a key role in the reinforcing and addictive properties of opioids. With parallel in vitro experiments in mammalian transfected cells and in situ and in vivo experiments in rat VTA, we demonstrate that a significant population of these MORs form

  15. Impaired communication between the dorsal and ventral stream: indications from apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carys eEvans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with apraxia perform poorly when demonstrating how an object is used, particularly when pantomiming the action. However, these patients are able to accurately identify, and to pick up and move objects, demonstrating intact ventral and dorsal stream visuomotor processing. Appropriate object manipulation for skilled use is thought to rely on integration of known and visible object properties associated with ‘ventro-dorsal’ stream neural processes. In apraxia, it has been suggested that stored object knowledge from the ventral stream may be less readily available to incorporate into the action plan, leading to an over-reliance on the objects’ visual affordances in object-directed motor behaviour. The current study examined grasping performance in left hemisphere stroke patients with (N = 3 and without (N = 9 apraxia, and in age-matched healthy control participants (N = 14, where participants repeatedly grasped novel cylindrical objects of varying weight distribution. Across two conditions, object weight distribution was indicated by either a memory-associated cue (object colour or visual-spatial cue (visible dot over the weighted end. Participants were required to incorporate object-weight associations to effectively grasp and balance each object. Control groups appropriately adjusted their grasp according to each object’s weight distribution across each condition, whereas throughout the task two of the three apraxic patients performed poorly on both the memory-associated and visual-spatial cue conditions. A third apraxic patient seemed to compensate for these difficulties but still performed differently to control groups. Patients with apraxia performed normally on the neutral control condition when grasping the evenly weighted version. The pattern of behaviour in apraxic patients suggests impaired integration of visible and known object properties attributed to the ventro-dorsal stream: in learning to grasp the weighted object

  16. Correction of Residual Ventral Penile Curvature After Division of the Urethral Plate in the First Stage of a 2-Stage Proximal Hypospadias Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlomer, Bruce J

    2017-02-01

    The first stage of a 2-stage proximal hypospadias repair involves division of the urethral plate and correction of any residual ventral penile curvature (VPC). Options to correct residual VPC include dorsal corporal shortening or ventral corporal lengthening techniques. This review discusses these options and suggests an approach to management. Recent reports of 2-stage proximal hypospadias repairs indicate low rates of recurrent VPC with either dorsal corporal shortening or ventral corporal lengthening. Dorsal corporal shortening with dorsal plication may be preferentially used for mild to moderate residual VPC after division of urethral plate and ventral corporal lengthening reserved for severe residual VPC. Ventral corporal lengthening with grafts has been associated with urethroplasty complications after the second stage hypospadias surgery. Ventral corporal lengthening with relaxing incisions of corpora has been reported, but concerns about adverse effects require longer term studies. Little guidance exists to choose the best technique for VPC correction during first stage hypospadias repair after division of urethral plate. Reported literature suggests good results with dorsal plication techniques and ventral corporal lengthening. A practical approach is to use dorsal plication techniques for mild to moderate residual VPC after division of urethral plate (lengthening for severe residual VPC (>45°).

  17. Immunolocalization of androgen and oestrogen receptors in the ventral lobe of rat (Rattus norvegicus) prostate after long-term treatment with ethanol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fávaro, W J; Cagnon, V H A

    2008-12-01

    Nicotine and alcohol adversely affect prostate gland function. In this work, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the immunoreactivity and distribution of androgen and alpha, beta-oestrogen receptors following chronic treatment with alcohol, nicotine or a combination of both substances, as well as to relate these results to the development of possible prostatic pathologies. Forty male rats were divided into four groups: the Control group received tap water; the Alcoholic group received diluted 10% Gay Lussac ethanol; the Nicotine group received a 0.125 mg/100 g body weight dose of nicotine injected subcutaneously on a daily basis (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, MO, USA); the Nicotine-Alcohol group received simultaneous alcohol and nicotine treatment. After 90 days of treatment, samples of the ventral lobe of the prostate were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry, light microscopy and the quantification of serum hormonal concentrations. The results showed significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased serum oestrogen levels in the animals from the nicotine-alcohol, the alcoholic and the nicotine groups, as well as their hormonal receptor levels. Then, it was concluded that ethanol and nicotine compromised the prostatic hormonal balance, which is a crucial factor to maintain the morphological and physiological features of this organ.

  18. Investigating N-Butanol and Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Nigella Sativa on Motoneurons’ Density of Spinal Cord Ventral Horn in Rats with Compressived Injury of Sciatic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ferdosi makan

    2015-02-01

    Methods: In this study, 24 Wistar male rats with average body weight of 250gr to 300gr were divided into four groups of six: control, compression, A(compression + n-butanol fraction 75mg/kg and B(compression+ethyl acetate fraction75mg/kg. In compression and treatment groups, sciatic nerve of the right leg underwent compression (30sec. In fact, the extract was injected intraperitoneally twice after the compression. After 28days, lumbar segments of spinal cord L2-L4 were sampled under perfusion method. After going through tissue processes, they were cut in serial sections (7µ, and stained with toluidine blue. Then, the density of alpha-motoneurons of spinal cord ventral horn was measured by using dissector method. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that n-butanol fraction of Nigella sativa caused an increase in neuronal density which posesses neuroprotective effects. This could be due to antioxidant and anti inflammatory effects of this herb. However, increases in neuronal density in ethyl acetate fraction didn’t prove to be significant.

  19. Neuronal responses to tactile stimuli and tactile sensations evoked by microstimulation in the human thalamic principal somatic sensory nucleus (ventral caudal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Anne-Christine; Chien, Jui-Hong; Greenspan, Joel D; Garonzik, Ira; Weiss, Nirit; Ohara, Shinji; Lenz, Frederick Arthur

    2016-06-01

    The normal organization and plasticity of the cutaneous core of the thalamic principal somatosensory nucleus (ventral caudal, Vc) have been studied by single-neuron recordings and microstimulation in patients undergoing awake stereotactic operations for essential tremor (ET) without apparent somatic sensory abnormality and in patients with dystonia or chronic pain secondary to major nervous system injury. In patients with ET, most Vc neurons responded to one of the four stimuli, each of which optimally activates one mechanoreceptor type. Sensations evoked by microstimulation were similar to those evoked by the optimal stimulus only among rapidly adapting neurons. In patients with ET, Vc was highly segmented somatotopically, and vibration, movement, pressure, and sharp sensations were usually evoked by microstimulation at separate sites in Vc. In patients with conditions including spinal cord transection, amputation, or dystonia, RFs were mismatched with projected fields more commonly than in patients with ET. The representation of the border of the anesthetic area (e.g., stump) or of the dystonic limb was much larger than that of the same part of the body in patients with ET. This review describes the organization and reorganization of human Vc neuronal activity in nervous system injury and dystonia and then proposes basic mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Ketamine attenuates the glutamatergic neurotransmission in the ventral posteromedial nucleus slices of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bao; Liu, Chengxi; Zhang, Yajun; Fu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Tian

    2017-08-23

    Ketamine is a frequently used intravenous anesthetic, which can reversibly induce loss of consciousness (LOC). Previous studies have demonstrated that thalamocortical system is critical for information transmission and integration in the brain. The ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) is a critical component of thalamocortical system. Glutamate is an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and may be involved in ketamine-induced LOC. The study used whole-cell patch-clamp to observe the effect of ketamine (30 μM-1000 μM) on glutamatergic neurotransmission in VPM slices. Ketamine significantly decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs), but only higher concentration of ketamine (300 μM and 1000 μM) suppressed the frequency of sEPSCs. Ketamine (100 μM-1000 μM) also decreased the amplitude of glutamatergic miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), without altering the frequency. In VPM neurons, ketamine attenuates the glutamatergic neurotransmission mainly through postsynaptic mechanism and action potential may be involved in the process.

  1. Effects of prefrontal cortical inactivation on neural activity in the ventral tegmental area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Sang; Lee, Jane; Mizumori, Sheri J.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) cells have been suggested to signal discrepancies between expected and actual rewards in reinforcement learning. DA cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) receive direct projections from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a structure that is known as one of the brain areas that represent expected future rewards. To investigate whether the mPFC contributes to generating reward prediction error signals of DA cells, we recorded VTA cells from rats foraging for different amounts of reward in a spatial working memory task. Our results showed that DA cells initially responded after the acquisition of rewards, but over training, they exhibited phasic responses when rats detected sensory cues originating from the rewards before obtaining them. We also observed two separate groups of non-DA cells that were activated in expectation of upcoming rewards or during reward consumption. Bilateral injections of muscimol, a GABAA agonist, into the mPFC significantly decreased the non-DA activity that encoded reward expectation. By contrast, the same manipulation of the mPFC elevated DA responses to reward-predicting cues. However, neither DA nor non-DA responses that were elicited after reward acquisition were affected by mPFC inactivation. These results suggest that the mPFC provides the information about expected rewards to the VTA, and its functional loss elevates DA responses to reward-predicting cues by altering expectations about forthcoming rewards. PMID:23658156

  2. Functional specialization of the left ventral parietal cortex in working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lou Langel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The function of the ventral parietal cortex (VPC is subject to much debate. Many studies suggest a lateralization of function in the VPC, with the left hemisphere facilitating verbal working memory and the right subserving stimulus-driven attention. However, many attentional tasks elicit activity in the VPC bilaterally. To elucidate the potential divides across the VPC in function, we assessed the pattern of activity in the VPC bilaterally across two tasks that require different demands, an oddball attentional task with low working memory demands and a working memory task. An anterior region of the VPC was bilaterally active during novel targets in the oddball task and during retrieval in WM, while more posterior regions of the VPC displayed dissociable functions in the left and right hemisphere, with the left being active during the encoding and retrieval of WM, but not during the oddball task and the right showing the reverse pattern. These results suggest that bilateral regions of the anterior VPC subserve non-mnemonic processes, such as stimulus-driven attention during WM retrieval and oddball detection. The left posterior VPC may be important for speech-related processing important for both working memory and perception, while the right hemisphere is more lateralized for attention.

  3. A Ventral Visual Stream Reading Center Independent of Sensory Modality and Visual Experience

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    Lior Reich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Visual Word Form Area (VWFA is a ventral-temporal-visual area that develops expertise for visual reading. It encodes letter-strings irrespective of case, font, or location in the visual-field, with striking anatomical reproducibility across individuals. In the blind, reading can be achieved using Braille, with a comparable level-of-expertise to that of sighted readers. We investigated which area plays the role of the VWFA in the blind. One would expect it to be at either parietal or bilateral occipital cortex, reflecting the tactile nature of the task and crossmodal plasticity, respectively. However, according to the notion that brain areas are task specific rather than sensory-modality specific, we predicted recruitment of the left-hemispheric VWFA, identically to the sighted and independent of visual experience. Using fMRI we showed that activation during Braille reading in congenitally blind individuals peaked in the VWFA, with striking anatomical consistency within and between blind and sighted. The VWFA was reading-selective when contrasted to high-level language and low-level sensory controls. Further preliminary results show that the VWFA is selectively activated also when people learn to read in a new language or using a different modality. Thus, the VWFA is a mutlisensory area specialized for reading regardless of visual experience.

  4. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M.; Cattrell, Anna; Schumann, Gunter; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Buitelaar, Jan; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At age 25 years, functional MRI data during two affective tasks, i.e. a reward (N = 171) and a face-matching paradigm (N = 181) and anatomical scans (N = 181) were acquired in right-handed currently healthy participants of an epidemiological study followed since birth. CFA during childhood was determined using a standardized parent interview. Disruptive behaviors and CD diagnoses during childhood and adolescence were obtained by diagnostic interview (2–19 years), temperamental reward dependence was assessed by questionnaire (15 and 19 years). CFA predicted increased CD and amygdala volume. Both exposure to CFA and CD were associated with a decreased VS response during reward anticipation and blunted amygdala activity during face-matching. CD mediated the effect of CFA on brain activity. Temperamental reward dependence was negatively correlated with CFA and CD and positively with VS activity. These findings underline the detrimental effects of CFA on the offspring's affective processing and support the importance of early postnatal intervention programs aiming to reduce childhood adversity factors. PMID:27694318

  5. Computed Tomographic Analysis of Ventral Atlantoaxial Optimal Safe Implantation Corridors in 27 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Guillaume; Gaitero, Luis; Moens, Noel M M; Zur Linden, Alex; James, Fiona M K; Monteith, Gabrielle J; Runciman, John

    2017-11-01

    Objectives  Ventral atlantoaxial stabilization techniques are challenging surgical procedures in dogs. Available surgical guidelines are based upon subjective anatomical landmarks, and limited radiographic and computed tomographic data. The aims of this study were (1) to provide detailed anatomical descriptions of atlantoaxial optimal safe implantation corridors to generate objective recommendations for optimal implant placements and (2) to compare anatomical data obtained in non-affected Toy breed dogs, affected Toy breed dogs suffering from atlantoaxial instability and non-affected Beagle dogs. Methods  Anatomical data were collected from a prospectively recruited population of 27 dogs using a previously validated method of optimal safe implantation corridor analysis using computed tomographic images. Results  Optimal implant positions and three-dimensional numerical data were generated successfully in all cases. Anatomical landmarks could be used to generate objective definitions of optimal insertion points which were applicable across all three groups. Overall the geometrical distribution of all implant sites was similar in all three groups with a few exceptions. Clinical Significance  This study provides extensive anatomical data available to facilitate surgical planning of implant placement for atlantoaxial stabilization. Our data suggest that non-affected Toy breed dogs and non-affected Beagle dogs constitute reasonable research models to study atlantoaxial stabilization constructs. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  6. Electrical Stimulation of the Ventral Tegmental Area Induces Reanimation from General Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ken; Van Dort, Christa J.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Taylor, Norman E.; Kenny, Jonathan D.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Methylphenidate or a D1 dopamine receptor agonist induce reanimation (active emergence) from general anesthesia. We tested whether electrical stimulation of dopaminergic nuclei also induces reanimation from general anesthesia. METHODS In adult rats, a bipolar insulated stainless steel electrode was placed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA, n = 5) or substantia nigra (SN, n = 5). After a minimum 7-day recovery period, the isoflurane dose sufficient to maintain loss of righting was established. Electrical stimulation was initiated and increased in intensity every 3 min to a maximum of 120μA. If stimulation restored the righting reflex, an additional experiment was performed at least 3 days later during continuous propofol anesthesia. Histological analysis was conducted to identify the location of the electrode tip. In separate experiments, stimulation was performed in the prone position during general anesthesia with isoflurane or propofol, and the electroencephalogram was recorded. RESULTS To maintain loss of righting, the dose of isoflurane was 0.9% ± 0.1 vol%, and the target plasma dose of propofol was 4.4 μg/ml ± 1.1 μg/ml (mean ± SD). In all rats with VTA electrodes, electrical stimulation induced a graded arousal response including righting that increased with current intensity. VTA stimulation induced a shift in electroencephalogram peak power from δ (anesthesia with isoflurane or propofol. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that dopamine release by VTA, but not SN, neurons induces reanimation from general anesthesia. PMID:24398816

  7. Different role of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex on modulation of innate and associative learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, S F; Stecchini, M F; Corrêa, F M A; Guimarães, F S; Resstel, L B M

    2010-12-15

    Reversible inactivation of the ventral portion of medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) of the rat brain has been shown to induce anxiolytic-like effects in animal models based on associative learning. The role of this brain region in situations involving innate fear, however, is still poorly understood, with several contradictory results in the literature. The objective of the present work was to verify in male Wistar rats the effects of vMPFC administration of cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)), a selective inhibitor of synaptic activity, in rats submitted to two models based on innate fear, the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB), comparing the results with those obtained in two models involving associative learning, the contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and Vogel conflict (VCT) tests. The results showed that, whereas CoCl(2) induced anxiolytic-like effects in the CFC and VCT tests, it enhanced anxiety in rats submitted to the EPM and LDB. Together these results indicate that the vMPFC plays an important but complex role in the modulation of defensive-related behaviors, which seems to depend on the nature of the anxiety/fear inducing stimuli. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Observations at the CNS-PNS border of ventral roots connected to a neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sten Remahl

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that numerous sprouts originating from a neuroma, after nerve injury in neonatal animals, can invade spinal nerve roots. In this study the border between the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS-PNS border of ventral roots in kittens was examined with both light and electron microscopy after early postnatal sciatic nerve resection. A transient ingrowth of substance P positive axons was observed into the CNS, but no spouts remained 6 weeks after the injury. Using serial sections and electron microscopy it was possible to identify small bundles of unmyelinated axons that penetrated from the root fascicles for a short distance into the CNS. These axons ended blindly, sometimes with a growth cone-like terminal swelling filled with vesicles. The axon bundles were accompanied by p75 positive cells in both the root fascicles and the pia mater, but not in the CNS. It may thus be suggested that neurotrophin presenting p75 positive cells could facilitate axonal growth into the pia mater and that the lack of such cells in the CNS compartment might contribute to the failure of growth into the CNS. A maldevelopment of myelin sheaths at the CNS-PNS border of motor axons was observed and it seems possible that this could have consequences for the propagation of action potential across this region after neonatal nerve injury.

  9. Differential coding of conspecific vocalizations in the ventral auditory cortical stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Leopold, David A; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2014-03-26

    The mammalian auditory cortex integrates spectral and temporal acoustic features to support the perception of complex sounds, including conspecific vocalizations. Here we investigate coding of vocal stimuli in different subfields in macaque auditory cortex. We simultaneously measured auditory evoked potentials over a large swath of primary and higher order auditory cortex along the supratemporal plane in three animals chronically using high-density microelectrocorticographic arrays. To evaluate the capacity of neural activity to discriminate individual stimuli in these high-dimensional datasets, we applied a regularized multivariate classifier to evoked potentials to conspecific vocalizations. We found a gradual decrease in the level of overall classification performance along the caudal to rostral axis. Furthermore, the performance in the caudal sectors was similar across individual stimuli, whereas the performance in the rostral sectors significantly differed for different stimuli. Moreover, the information about vocalizations in the caudal sectors was similar to the information about synthetic stimuli that contained only the spectral or temporal features of the original vocalizations. In the rostral sectors, however, the classification for vocalizations was significantly better than that for the synthetic stimuli, suggesting that conjoined spectral and temporal features were necessary to explain differential coding of vocalizations in the rostral areas. We also found that this coding in the rostral sector was carried primarily in the theta frequency band of the response. These findings illustrate a progression in neural coding of conspecific vocalizations along the ventral auditory pathway.

  10. Ventral striatum and amygdala activity as convergence sites for early adversity and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Cattrell, Anna; Schumann, Gunter; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Buitelaar, Jan; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At age 25 years, functional MRI data during two affective tasks, i.e. a reward (N = 171) and a face-matching paradigm (N = 181) and anatomical scans (N = 181) were acquired in right-handed currently healthy participants of an epidemiological study followed since birth. CFA during childhood was determined using a standardized parent interview. Disruptive behaviors and CD diagnoses during childhood and adolescence were obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years), temperamental reward dependence was assessed by questionnaire (15 and 19 years).CFA predicted increased CD and amygdala volume. Both exposure to CFA and CD were associated with a decreased VS response during reward anticipation and blunted amygdala activity during face-matching. CD mediated the effect of CFA on brain activity. Temperamental reward dependence was negatively correlated with CFA and CD and positively with VS activity. These findings underline the detrimental effects of CFA on the offspring's affective processing and support the importance of early postnatal intervention programs aiming to reduce childhood adversity factors. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. History of childhood adversity is positively associated with ventral striatal dopamine responses to amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Lynn M; Wand, Gary S; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Wong, Dean F; Zhu, Shijun; Brasic, James R

    2014-06-01

    Childhood exposure to severe or chronic trauma is an important risk factor for the later development of adult mental health problems, such as substance abuse. Even in nonclinical samples of healthy adults, persons with a history of significant childhood adversity seem to experience greater psychological distress than those without this history. Evidence from rodent studies suggests that early life stress may impair dopamine function in ways that increase risks for drug abuse. However, the degree to which these findings translate to other species remains unclear. This study was conducted to examine associations between childhood adversity and dopamine and subjective responses to amphetamine in humans. Following intake assessment, 28 healthy male and female adults, aged 18-29 years, underwent two consecutive 90-min positron emission tomography studies with high specific activity [(11)C]raclopride. The first scan was preceded by intravenous saline; the second by amphetamine (AMPH 0.3 mg/kg). Consistent with prior literature, findings showed positive associations between childhood trauma and current levels of perceived stress. Moreover, greater number of traumatic events and higher levels of perceived stress were each associated with higher ventral striatal dopamine responses to AMPH. Findings of mediation analyses further showed that a portion of the relationship between childhood trauma and dopamine release may be mediated by perceived stress. Overall, results are consistent with preclinical findings suggesting that early trauma may lead to enhanced sensitivity to psychostimulants and that this mechanism may underlie increased vulnerability for drug abuse.

  12. Evidence for respiratory neuromodulator interdependence after cholinergic disruption in the ventral respiratory column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muere, Clarissa; Neumueller, Suzanne; Miller, Justin; Olesiak, Samantha; Hodges, Matthew R; Pan, Lawrence; Forster, Hubert V

    2015-01-01

    Reverse dialysis of the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (ATR, 50 mM), into the pre-Bötzinger Complex region of the ventral respiratory column (VRC) of awake and sleeping goats increases breathing frequency and serotonin (5-HT), substance P (SP), glycine, and GABA concentrations in the effluent dialysate. Herein, we report data from goats in which we reverse dialyzed 5 mM ATR or specific antagonists of M2 or M3 muscarinic receptors into the VRC. The effects on frequency of all three antagonists were not significantly different from time control studies. 5 mM ATR and the M3 antagonist increased SP sevenfold less than 50 mM ATR. The antagonists had no effect on 5-HT, glycine, and/or GABA, suggesting that the increases in glycine and GABA with 50 mM ATR were secondary to the larger increases in 5-HT and/or SP. These data are suggestive of neuromodulator interdependence, whereby attenuation of one neuromodulator is compensated for by local changes in other neuromodulators to stabilize breathing. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Generation and properties of a new human ventral mesencephalic neural stem cell line

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    Villa, Ana; Liste, Isabel; Courtois, Elise T.; Seiz, Emma G.; Ramos, Milagros [Center of Molecular Biology ' Severo Ochoa' , Autonomous University of Madrid-C.S.I.C., Campus Cantoblanco 28049-Madrid (Spain); Meyer, Morten [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Medical Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Winslowparken 21,st, DK-500, Odense C (Denmark); Juliusson, Bengt; Kusk, Philip [NsGene A/S, Ballerup (Denmark); Martinez-Serrano, Alberto, E-mail: amserrano@cbm.uam.es [Center of Molecular Biology ' Severo Ochoa' , Autonomous University of Madrid-C.S.I.C., Campus Cantoblanco 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are powerful research tools for the design and discovery of new approaches to cell therapy in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. Several epigenetic and genetic strategies have been tested for long-term maintenance and expansion of these cells in vitro. Here we report the generation of a new stable cell line of human neural stem cells derived from ventral mesencephalon (hVM1) based on v-myc immortalization. The cells expressed neural stem cell and radial glia markers like nestin, vimentin and 3CB2 under proliferation conditions. After withdrawal of growth factors, proliferation and expression of v-myc were dramatically reduced and the cells differentiated into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. hVM1 cells yield a large number of dopaminergic neurons (about 12% of total cells are TH{sup +}) after differentiation, which also produce dopamine. In addition to proneural genes (NGN2, MASH1), differentiated cells show expression of several genuine mesencephalic dopaminergic markers such as: LMX1A, LMX1B, GIRK2, ADH2, NURR1, PITX3, VMAT2 and DAT, indicating that they retain their regional identity. Our data indicate that this cell line and its clonal derivatives may constitute good candidates for the study of development and physiology of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro, and to develop tools for Parkinson's disease cell replacement preclinical research and drug testing.

  14. Mapping face categorization in the human ventral occipitotemporal cortex with direct neural intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossion, Bruno; Jacques, Corentin; Jonas, Jacques

    2018-02-26

    The neural basis of face categorization has been widely investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), identifying a set of face-selective local regions in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC). However, indirect recording of neural activity with fMRI is associated with large fluctuations of signal across regions, often underestimating face-selective responses in the anterior VOTC. While direct recording of neural activity with subdural grids of electrodes (electrocorticography, ECoG) or depth electrodes (stereotactic electroencephalography, SEEG) offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap in knowledge, these studies rather reveal widely distributed face-selective responses. Moreover, intracranial recordings are complicated by interindividual variability in neuroanatomy, ambiguity in definition, and quantification of responses of interest, as well as limited access to sulci with ECoG. Here, we propose to combine SEEG in large samples of individuals with fast periodic visual stimulation to objectively define, quantify, and characterize face categorization across the whole VOTC. This approach reconciles the wide distribution of neural face categorization responses with their (right) hemispheric and regional specialization, and reveals several face-selective regions in anterior VOTC sulci. We outline the challenges of this research program to understand the neural basis of face categorization and high-level visual recognition in general. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Orexin–Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor Heteromers in the Ventral Tegmental Area as Targets for Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Quiroz, César; Moreno-Delgado, David; Sierakowiak, Adam; McDowell, Kimberly; Moreno, Estefanía; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Aguinaga, David; Howell, Lesley A.; Hausch, Felix; Cortés, Antonio; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I.

    2015-01-01

    Release of the neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and orexin-A in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. We provide evidence for pharmacologically significant interactions between CRF and orexin-A that depend on oligomerization of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) and orexin OX1 receptors (OX1R). CRF1R–OX1R heteromers are the conduits of a negative crosstalk between orexin-A and CRF as demonstrated in transfected cells and rat VTA, in which they significantly modulate dendritic dopamine release. The cocaine target σ1 receptor (σ1R) also associates with the CRF1R–OX1R heteromer. Cocaine binding to the σ1R–CRF1R–OX1R complex promotes a long-term disruption of the orexin-A–CRF negative crosstalk. Through this mechanism, cocaine sensitizes VTA cells to the excitatory effects of both CRF and orexin-A, thus providing a mechanism by which stress induces cocaine seeking. PMID:25926444

  16. Orexin-corticotropin-releasing factor receptor heteromers in the ventral tegmental area as targets for cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Quiroz, César; Moreno-Delgado, David; Sierakowiak, Adam; McDowell, Kimberly; Moreno, Estefanía; Rea, William; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Aguinaga, David; Howell, Lesley A; Hausch, Felix; Cortés, Antonio; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Ferré, Sergi; McCormick, Peter J

    2015-04-29

    Release of the neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and orexin-A in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in stress-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. We provide evidence for pharmacologically significant interactions between CRF and orexin-A that depend on oligomerization of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) and orexin OX1 receptors (OX1R). CRF1R-OX1R heteromers are the conduits of a negative crosstalk between orexin-A and CRF as demonstrated in transfected cells and rat VTA, in which they significantly modulate dendritic dopamine release. The cocaine target σ1 receptor (σ1R) also associates with the CRF1R-OX1R heteromer. Cocaine binding to the σ1R-CRF1R-OX1R complex promotes a long-term disruption of the orexin-A-CRF negative crosstalk. Through this mechanism, cocaine sensitizes VTA cells to the excitatory effects of both CRF and orexin-A, thus providing a mechanism by which stress induces cocaine seeking. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356639-15$15.00/0.

  17. Multiple roles for apoptosis facilitating condensation of the Drosophila ventral nerve cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Damon T; Olofsson, Birgitta

    2008-02-01

    At the end of embryogenesis, the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of Drosophila undergoes a shape change, termed condensation. During condensation the length of the VNC shortens by 25%, a process dependent on extracellular matrix deposited by hemocytes, an intact cytoskeleton of glia and neurons and neural activity. Here we show that cell death contributes to nerve cord shortening. Firstly, apoptosis occurs at the interface of the epidermis and the nerve cord where it plays a role in the separation of these two tissues. Separation precedes condensation and in conditions where separation is prevented, condensation fails. Secondly, many cells undergo apoptosis within VNC during condensation. This cell death is localized mainly to the posterior part of the nerve cord where more than half of all cell death occurs. Preventing apoptosis either in neurons or glia partially inhibits VNC shortening during condensation. Despite the importance of midline glia in axon tract development, preventing midline glia cell death results in normal hatching and adult formation. We find that undead midline glia are eliminated from the midline and become mispositioned or expelled from the nervous system. We suggest that this represent a form of pattern repair that operates to reduce the impact of the additional cells. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Interdependence of macrophage migration and ventral nerve cord development in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Iwan R; Hu, Nan; Skaer, Helen; Wood, Will

    2010-05-01

    During embryonic development, Drosophila macrophages (haemocytes) undergo a series of stereotypical migrations to disperse throughout the embryo. One major migratory route is along the ventral nerve cord (VNC), where haemocytes are required for the correct development of this tissue. We show, for the first time, that a reciprocal relationship exists between haemocytes and the VNC and that defects in nerve cord development prevent haemocyte migration along this structure. Using live imaging, we demonstrate that the axonal guidance cue Slit and its receptor Robo are both required for haemocyte migration, but signalling is not autonomously required in haemocytes. We show that the failure of haemocyte migration along the VNC in slit mutants is not due to a lack of chemotactic signals within this structure, but rather to a failure in its detachment from the overlying epithelium, creating a physical barrier to haemocyte migration. This block of haemocyte migration in turn disrupts the formation of the dorsoventral channels within the VNC, further highlighting the importance of haemocyte migration for correct neural development. This study illustrates the important role played by the three-dimensional environment in directing cell migration in vivo and reveals an intriguing interplay between the developing nervous system and the blood cells within the fly, demonstrating that their development is both closely coupled and interdependent.

  19. Focal lesions within the ventral striato-pallidum abolish attraction for male chemosignals in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    In rodents, socio-sexual behaviour is largely mediated by chemosensory cues, some of which are rewarding stimuli. Female mice display an innate attraction towards male chemosignals, dependent on the vomeronasal system. This behaviour likely reflects the hedonic value of sexual chemosignals. The anteromedial aspect of the olfactory tubercle, along with its associated islands of Calleja, receives vomeronasal inputs and sexually-dimorphic vasopressinergic innervation. Thus, we hypothesised that this portion of the ventral striato-pallidum, known to be involved in reward processing, might be important for sexual odorant-guided behaviours. In this study, we demonstrate that lesions of this region, but not of regions in the posterolateral striato-pallidum, abolish the attraction of female mice for male chemosignals, without affecting significantly their preference for a different natural reward (a sucrose solution). These results show that, at least in female mice, the integrity of the anterior aspect of the medioventral striato-pallidum, comprising a portion of the olfactory tubercle and associated islands of Calleja, is necessary for the attraction for male chemosignals. We suggest that this region contributes to the processing of the hedonic properties of biologically significant odorants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Temporal Pole Top-Down Modulates the Ventral Visual Stream During Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrs, Corinna; Zaki, Jamil; Schlochtermeier, Lorna H; Jacobs, Arthur M; Kuchinke, Lars; Koelsch, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The temporal pole (TP) has been associated with diverse functions of social cognition and emotion processing. Although the underlying mechanism remains elusive, one possibility is that TP acts as domain-general hub integrating socioemotional information. To test this, 26 participants were presented with 60 empathy-evoking film clips during fMRI scanning. The film clips were preceded by a linguistic sad or neutral context and half of the clips were accompanied by sad music. In line with its hypothesized role, TP was involved in the processing of sad context and furthermore tracked participants' empathic concern. To examine the neuromodulatory impact of TP, we applied nonlinear dynamic causal modeling to a multisensory integration network from previous work consisting of superior temporal gyrus (STG), fusiform gyrus (FG), and amygdala, which was extended by an additional node in the TP. Bayesian model comparison revealed a gating of STG and TP on fusiform-amygdalar coupling and an increase of TP to FG connectivity during the integration of contextual information. Moreover, these backward projections were strengthened by emotional music. The findings indicate that during social cognition, TP integrates information from different modalities and top-down modulates lower-level perceptual areas in the ventral visual stream as a function of integration demands. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Muscarinic receptor blockade in ventral hippocampus and prelimbic cortex impairs memory for socially transmitted food preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Márquez, Anna; Vale-Martínez, Anna; Guillazo-Blanch, Gemma; Martí-Nicolovius, Margarita

    2009-05-01

    Acetylcholine is involved in learning and memory and, particularly, in olfactory tasks, but reports on its specific role in consolidation processes are somewhat controversial. The present experiment sought to determine the effects of blocking muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) and the prelimbic cortex (PLC) on the consolidation of social transmission of food preference, an odor-guided relational task that depends on such brain areas. Adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally infused with scopolamine (20 microg/site) immediately after social training and showed impairment, relative to vehicle-injected controls, in the expression of the task measured 24 h after learning. Results indicated that scopolamine in the PLC completely abolished memory, suggesting that muscarinic transmission in this cortical region is crucial for consolidation of recent socially acquired information. Muscarinic receptors in the vHPC contribute in some way to task consolidation, as the rats injected with scopolamine in the vHPC showed significantly lower trained food preference than control rats, but higher than both chance level and that of the PLC-injected rats. Behavioral measures such as social interaction, motivation to eat, neophobia, or exploration did not differ between rats infused with scopolamine or vehicle. Such data suggest a possible differential role of muscarinic receptors in the PLC and the vHPC in the initial consolidation of a naturalistic form of nonspatial relational memory. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Development of Tool Representations in the Dorsal and Ventral Visual Object Processing Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; Clark, Tyia S.; Lussier, Courtney A.; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

    2016-01-01

    Tools represent a special class of objects, because they are processed across both the dorsal and ventral visual object processing pathways. Three core regions are known to be involved in tool processing: the left posterior middle temporal gyrus, the medial fusiform gyrus (bilaterally), and the left inferior parietal lobule. A critical and relatively unexplored issue concerns whether, in development, tool preferences emerge at the same time and to a similar degree across all regions of the tool-processing network. To test this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the neural amplitude, peak location, and the dispersion of tool-related neural responses in the youngest sample of children tested to date in this domain (ages 4–8 years). We show that children recruit overlapping regions of the adult tool-processing network and also exhibit similar patterns of co-activation across the network to adults. The amplitude and co-activation data show that the core components of the tool-processing network are established by age 4. Our findings on the distributions of peak location and dispersion of activation indicate that the tool network undergoes refinement between ages 4 and 8 years. PMID:26108614

  3. Transvaginal Repair of a Large Chronic Porcine Ventral Hernia with Synthetic Mesh Using NOTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ben; Whang, Susan H.; Bachman, Sharon L.; Andres Astudillo, J.; Sporn, Emanuel; Miedema, Brent W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ventral incisional hernias still remain a common surgical problem. We tested the feasibility of transvaginal placement of a large synthetic mesh to repair a porcine hernia. Methods: Seven pigs were used in this survival model. Each animal had creation of a 5-cm hernia defect and underwent a transvaginal repair of the defect with synthetic mesh. A single colpotomy was made using a 12-cm trocar for an overtube. The mesh was cut to size and placed through the trocar. A single-channel gastroscope with an endoscopic atraumatic grasper was used for grasping sutures. Further fascial sutures were placed every 5cm. Results: Mesh repair was feasible in all 7 animals. Mean operative time was 133 minutes. Technical difficulties were encountered. No gross contamination was seen at the time of necropsy. However, 5 animals had positive mesh cultures; 7 had positive cultures in the rectouterine space in enrichment broth or on direct culture. Conclusion: Transvaginal placement of synthetic mesh to repair a large porcine hernia using NOTES is challenging but feasible. Future studies need to be conducted to develop better techniques and determine the significance of mesh contamination. PMID:20932375

  4. Ventral medial prefrontal functional connectivity and emotion regulation in chronic schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Mei Fan; Shu-Ping Tan; Fu-De Yang; Yun-Long Tan; Yan-Li Zhao; Nan Chen; Bin-Bin Li

    2013-01-01

    People with schizophrenia exhibit impaired social cognitive functions,particularly emotion regulation.Abnormal activations of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) during emotional tasks have been demonstrated in schizophrenia,suggesting its important role in emotion processing in patients.We used the resting-state functional connectivity approach,setting a functionally relevant region,the vMPFC,as a seed region to examine the intrinsic functional interactions and communication between the vMPFC and other brain regions in schizophrenic patients.We found hypo-connectivity between the vMPFC and the medial frontal cortex,right middle temporal lobe (MTL),right hippocampus,parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and amygdala.Further,there was a decreased strength of the negative connectivity (or anticorrelation) between the vMPFC and the bilateral dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and pre-supplementary motor areas.Among these connectivity alterations,reduced vMPFCDLPFC connectivity was positively correlated with positive symptoms on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale,while vMPFC-right MTL/PHC/amygdala functional connectivity was positively correlated with the performance of emotional regulation in patients.These findings imply that communication and coordination throughout the brain networks are disrupted in schizophrenia.The emotional correlates of vMPFC connectivity suggest a role of the hypo-connectivity between these regions in the neuropathology of abnormal social cognition in chronic schizophrenia.

  5. Morphine withdrawal enhances constitutive μ-opioid receptor activity in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meye, Frank J; van Zessen, Ruud; Smidt, Marten P; Adan, Roger A H; Ramakers, Geert M J

    2012-11-14

    μ-Opioid receptors (MORs) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are pivotally involved in addictive behavior. While MORs are typically activated by opioids, they can also become constitutively active in the absence of any agonist. In the current study, we present evidence that MOR constitutive activity is highly relevant in the mouse VTA, as it regulates GABAergic input to dopamine neurons. Specifically, suppression of MOR constitutive activity with the inverse agonist KC-2-009 enhanced GABAergic neurotransmission onto VTA dopamine neurons. This inverse agonistic effect was fully blocked by the specific MOR neutral antagonist CTOP, which had no effect on GABAergic transmission itself. We next show that withdrawal from chronic morphine further increases the magnitude of inverse agonistic effects at the MOR, suggesting enhanced MOR constitutive activity. We demonstrate that this increase can be an adaptive response to the detrimental elevation in cAMP levels known to occur during morphine withdrawal. These findings offer important insights in the physiological occurrence and function of MOR constitutive activity, and have important implications for therapeutic strategies aimed at normalizing MOR signaling during addiction and opioid overdose.

  6. BOLD repetition decreases in object-responsive ventral visual areas depend on spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, E; Henson, R N A; Driver, J; Dolan, R J

    2004-08-01

    Functional imaging studies of priming-related repetition phenomena have become widely used to study neural object representation. Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) repetition decreases can sometimes be observed without awareness of repetition, any role for spatial attention in BOLD repetition effects remains largely unknown. We used fMRI in 13 healthy subjects to test whether BOLD repetition decreases for repeated objects in ventral visual cortices depend on allocation of spatial attention to the prime. Subjects performed a size-judgment task on a probe object that had been attended or ignored in a preceding prime display of 2 lateralized objects. Reaction times showed faster responses when the probe was the same object as the attended prime, independent of the view tested (identical vs. mirror image). No behavioral effect was evident from unattended primes. BOLD repetition decreases for attended primes were found in lateral occipital and fusiform regions bilaterally, which generalized across identical and mirror-image repeats. No repetition decreases were observed for ignored primes. Our results suggest a critical role for attention in achieving visual representations of objects that lead to both BOLD signal decreases and behavioral priming on repeated presentation.

  7. [Clinical Neuropsychology of Dementia with Lewy Bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) shows lesser memory impairment and more severe visuospatial disability than Alzheimer disease (AD). Although deficits in both consolidation and retrieval underlie the memory impairment, retrieval deficit is predominant in DLB. Visuospatial dysfunctions in DLB are related to the impairments in both ventral and dorsal streams of higher visual information processing, and lower visual processing in V1/V2 may also be impaired. Attention and executive functions are more widely disturbed in DLB than in AD. Imitation of finger gestures is impaired more frequently in DLB than in other mild dementia, and provides additional information for diagnosis of mild dementia, especially for DLB. Pareidolia, which lies between hallucination and visual misperception, is found frequently in DLB, but its mechanism is still under investigation.

  8. A Domino Effect? The Spread of Implantation of Penile Foreign Bodies in the Prison System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Malloy Flynn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous penile insertion of foreign bodies is a practice performed globally but has mostly been reported outside of the United States. An incarcerated 29-year-old Caucasian male in a midwestern prison whittled a domino into a dog bone shape and placed it into his ventral penile subcutaneous tissue. He presented to our facility with erosion of the corners of the foreign body through his skin without evidence of infection. Self-insertion of foreign bodies into penile subcutaneous tissue by incarcerated American men for sexual enhancement is more widespread than previously reported. Erosion is a novel presentation.

  9. Change of body height is regulated by thyroid hormone during metamorphosis in flatfishes and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Ke, Zhonghe; Xia, Jianhong; He, Fang; Bao, Baolong

    2016-09-15

    Flatfishes with more body height after metamorphosis should be better adapted to a benthic lifestyle. In this study, we quantified the changes in body height during metamorphosis in two flatfish species, Paralichthys olivaceus and Platichthys stellatus. The specific pattern of cell proliferation along the dorsal and ventral edge of the body to allow fast growth along the dorsal/ventral axis might be related to the change of body height. Thyroid hormone (T4 and T3) and its receptors showed distribution or gene expression patterns similar to those seen for the cell proliferation. 2-Mercapto-1-methylimidazole, an inhibitor of endogenous thyroid hormone synthesis, inhibited cell proliferation and decreased body height, suggesting that the change in body shape was dependent on the local concentration of thyroid hormone to induce cell proliferation. In addition, after treatment with 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole, zebrafish larvae were also shown to develop a slimmer body shape. These findings enrich our knowledge of the role of thyroid hormone during flatfish metamorphosis, and the role of thyroid hormone during the change of body height during post-hatching development should help us to understand better the biology of metamorphosis in fishes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Rare Case of Strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum in an Incarcerated Ventral Incisional Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kilic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Incisional or postoperative hernia, one of the most common surgical procedure in general surgery practice, mostly occurs in the first years following abdominal operations. Incarceration or strangulation is a serious complication of these hernias, and mostly requires emergent surgery. Meckel%u2019s diverticulum, the most frequent congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, is rarely found within a hernial sac and this unusual condition is called as Littre%u2019s hernia. In addition, preoperative diagnosis of this unusual condition is rather difficult and it is almost always first discovered during operation. A small number of cases of strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum in an incarcerated ventral incisional hernia have been reported in the literature. Herein, we report a strangulated Meckel%u2019s Diverticulum through a ventral incisional hernia in a 65 year-old woman who presented with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction.

  11. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Venâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and 21-day sleep restriction (SR on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR.

  12. Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2011-01-01

    Aims Gambling excitement is believed to be associated with biological measures of pathological gambling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that dopamine release would be associated with increased excitement levels in Pathological Gamblers compared with Healthy Controls. Design Pathological Gamblers...... and Healthy Controlswere experimentally compared in a non-gambling (baseline) and gambling condition. Measurements We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with the tracer raclopride to measure dopamine D 2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum during a non-gambling and gambling condition...... of the Iowa GamblingTask (IGT). After each condition participants rated their excitement level. Setting Laboratory experiment. Participants 18 Pathological Gamblers and 16 Healthy Controls. Findings Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had significantly higher excitement levels...

  13. A functional difference in information processing between orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum during decision-making behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Jeffrey J; Redish, A David

    2014-11-05

    Both orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (vStr) have been identified as key structures that represent information about value in decision-making tasks. However, the dynamics of how this information is processed are not yet understood. We recorded ensembles of cells from OFC and vStr in rats engaged in the spatial adjusting delay-discounting task, a decision-making task that involves a trade-off between delay to and magnitude of reward. Ventral striatal neural activity signalled information about reward before the rat's decision, whereas such reward-related signals were absent in OFC until after the animal had committed to its decision. These data support models in which vStr is directly involved in action selection, but OFC processes decision-related information afterwards that can be used to compare the predicted and actual consequences of behaviour. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Daniel P.; Andersen, Monica L.; Vilamaior, Patricia S. L.; Santos, Fernanda C.; Zager, Adriano; Tufik, Sérgio; Taboga, Sebastião R.; De Mello, Marco T.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and 21-day sleep restriction (SR) on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR. PMID:22927719

  15. Neural correlates of consciousness: a definition of the dorsal and ventral streams and their relation to phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalopoulos, Costa

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a hypothesis for a neural correlate of consciousness. A proposal is made that both the dorsal and ventral streams must be concurrently active to generate conscious awareness and that V1 (striate cortex) provides a serial link between them. An argument is presented against a true extrastriate communication between the dorsal and ventral streams. Secondly, a detailed theory is developed for the structure of the visual hierarchy. Premotor theory states that each organism-object interaction can be described by the two quantitative measures of torque and change in joint position served by the basal ganglia and cerebellum, respectively. This leads to a component theory of motor efference copy providing a fundamental tool for categorizing dorsal and ventral stream networks. The rationale for this is that the dorsal stream specifies spatial coordinates of the external world, which can be coded by the reafference of changes in joint position. The ventral stream is concerned with object recognition and is coded for by forces exerted on the world during a developmental exploratory phase of the organism. The proposed pathways for a component motor efference copy from both the cerebellum and basal ganglia converge on the thalamus and modulate thalamocortical projections via the thalamic reticular nucleus. The origin of the corticopontine projections, which are a massive pathway for cortical information to reach the cerebellum, coincides with the area typically considered as part of the dorsal stream, whereas the entire cortex projects to the striatum. This adds empirical support for a new conceptualization of the visual streams. The model also presents a solution to the binding problem of a neural correlate of consciousness, that is, how a distributed neural network synchronizes its activity during a cognitive event. It represents a reinterpretation of the current status of the visual hierarchy.

  16. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Hoag

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. Materials and Methods: We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. Results: The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. Conclusions: This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula.

  17. Direct monitoring of dopamine and 5-HT release in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, M E; Richards, C D; Nedergaard, S

    1994-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with carbon fibre microelectrodes was used to detect endogenous dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from three distinct regions of guinea-pig mid-brain in vitro: rostral and caudal substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Previous...... these regions with in situ electrodes and demonstrates the utility of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to investigate the mechanisms and possible non-classical functions of somato-dendritic DA release....

  18. The homeobox gene mirror links EGF signalling to embryonic dorso-ventral axis formation through notch activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K C; Clegg, N J; Blasi, J A; Morimoto, A M; Sen, J; Stein, D; McNeill, H; Deng, W M; Tworoger, M; Ruohola-Baker, H

    2000-04-01

    Recent studies in vertebrates and Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that Fringe-mediated activation of the Notch pathway has a role in patterning cell layers during organogenesis. In these processes, a homeobox-containing transcription factor is responsible for spatially regulating fringe (fng) expression and thus directing activation of the Notch pathway along the fng expression border. Here we show that this may be a general mechanism for patterning epithelial cell layers. At three stages in Drosophila oogenesis, mirror (mirr) and fng have complementary expression patterns in the follicle-cell epithelial layer, and at all three stages loss of mirr enlarges, and ectopic expression of mirr restricts, fng expression, with consequences for follicle-cell patterning. These morphological changes are similar to those caused by Notch mutations. Ectopic expression of mirr in the posterior follicle cells induces a stripe of rhomboid (rho) expression and represses pipe (pip), a gene with a role in the establishment of the dorsal-ventral axis, at a distance. Ectopic Notch activation has a similar long-range effect on pip. Our results suggest that Mirror and Notch induce secretion of diffusible morphogens and we have identified TGF-beta (encoded by dpp) as such a molecule in germarium. We also found that mirr expression in dorsal follicle cells is induced by the EGF-receptor (EGFR) pathway and that mirr then represses pip expression in all but the ventral follicle cells, connecting EGFR activation in the dorsal follicle cells to repression of pip in the dorsal and lateral follicle cells. Our results suggest that the differentiation of ventral follicle cells is not a direct consequence of germline signalling, but depends on long-range signals from dorsal follicle cells, and provide a link between early and late events in Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral axis formation.

  19. Notch and PKC Are Involved in Formation of the Lateral Region of the Dorso-Ventral Axis in Drosophila Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Tremmel, Daniel M.; Resad, Sedat; Little, Christopher J.; Wesley, Cedric S.

    2013-01-01

    The Notch gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved cell surface receptor that generates regulatory signals based on interactions between neighboring cells. In Drosophila embryos it is normally expressed at a low level due to strong negative regulation. When this negative regulation is abrogated neurogenesis in the ventral region is suppressed, the development of lateral epidermis is severely disrupted, and the dorsal aminoserosa is expanded. Of these phenotypes only the anti-neurogenic phenot...

  20. Wingless, decapentaplegic and EGF receptor signaling pathways interact to specify dorso-ventral pattern in the adult abdomen of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, A; Blackman, R K; Duncan, I

    1999-08-01

    Adult abdominal segments of Drosophila are subdivided along the dorso-ventral axis into a dorsal tergite, a ventral sternite and ventro-lateral pleural cuticle. We report that this pattern is largely specified during the pupal stage by Wingless (Wg), Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Drosophila EGF Receptor (DER) signaling. Expression of wg and dpp is activated at the posterior edge of the anterior compartment by Hedgehog signaling. Within this region, wg and dpp are expressed in domains that are mutually exclusive along the dorso-ventral axis: wg is expressed in the sternite and medio-lateral tergite, whereas dpp expression is confined to the pleura and the dorsal midline. Neither gene is expressed in the lateral tergite. Shirras and Couso (1996, Dev. Biol. 175, 24-36) have shown that tergite and sternite cell fates are specified by Wg signaling. We find that DER acts synergistically with Wg to promote tergite and sternite identities, and that Wg and DER activities are opposed by Dpp signaling, which promotes pleural identity. Wg and Dpp interact antagonistically at two levels. First, their expression is confined to complementary domains by mutual transcriptional repression. Second, Wg and Dpp compete directly with one another by exerting opposite effects on cell fate. DER signaling does not affect the expression of wg or dpp, indicating that it interacts with Wg and Dpp at the level of cell fate determination. Within the tergite, the requirements for Wg and DER function are roughly complementary: Wg is required mainly in the medial region, whereas DER is most important laterally. Finally, we show that Dpp signaling at the dorsal midline controls dorso-ventral patterning within the tergite by promoting pigmentation in the medial region.

  1. Dynamic anticipatory processing of hierarchical sequential events: a common role for Broca's area and ventral premotor cortex across domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebach, Christian J; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2006-05-01

    This paper proposes a domain-general model for the functional contribution of ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and adjacent Broca's area to perceptual, cognitive, and motor processing. We propose to understand this frontal region as a highly flexible sequence processor, with the PMv mapping sequential events onto stored structural templates and Broca's Area involved in more complex, hierarchical or hypersequential processing. This proposal is supported by reference to previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating abstract sequence processing and syntactic processing.

  2. The ventral hippocampus, but not the dorsal hippocampus is critical for learned approach-avoidance decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Anett; Vlassov, Ekaterina; Ito, Rutsuko

    2016-04-01

    The resolution of an approach-avoidance conflict induced by ambivalent information involves the appraisal of the incentive value of the outcomes and associated stimuli to orchestrate an appropriate behavioral response. Much research has been directed at delineating the neural circuitry underlying approach motivation and avoidance motivation separately. Very little research, however, has examined the neural substrates engaged at the point of decision making when opposing incentive motivations are experienced simultaneously. We hereby examine the role of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus (HPC) in a novel approach-avoidance decision making paradigm, revisiting a once popular theory of HPC function, which posited the HPC to be the driving force of a behavioral inhibition system that is activated in situations of imminent threat. Rats received pre-training excitotoxic lesions of the dorsal or ventral HPC, and were trained to associate different non-spatial cues with appetitive, aversive and neutral outcomes in three separate arms of the radial maze. On the final day of testing, a state of approach-avoidance conflict was induced by simultaneously presenting two cues of opposite valences, and comparing the time the rats spent interacting with the superimposed 'conflict' cue, and the neutral cue. The ventral HPC-lesioned group showed significant preference for the conflict cue over the neutral cue, compared to the dorsal HPC-lesioned, and control groups. Thus, we provide evidence that the ventral, but not dorsal HPC, is a crucial component of the neural circuitry concerned with exerting inhibitory control over approach tendencies under circumstances in which motivational conflict is experienced. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Amygdaloid projections to the ventral striatum in mice: direct and indirect chemosensory inputs to the brain reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novejarque, Amparo; Gutiérrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Rodents constitute good models for studying the neural basis of sociosexual behavior. Recent findings in mice have revealed the molecular identity of the some pheromonal molecules triggering intersexual attraction. However, the neural pathways mediating this basic sociosexual behavior remain elusive. Since previous work indicates that the dopaminergic tegmento-striatal pathway is not involved in pheromone reward, the present report explores alternative pathways linking the vomeronasal system with the tegmento-striatal system (the limbic basal ganglia) by means of tract-tracing experiments studying direct and indirect projections from the chemosensory amygdala to the ventral striato-pallidum. Amygdaloid projections to the nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and adjoining structures are studied by analyzing the retrograde transport in the amygdala from dextran amine and fluorogold injections in the ventral striatum, as well as the anterograde labeling found in the ventral striato-pallidum after dextran amine injections in the amygdala. This combination of anterograde and retrograde tracing experiments reveals direct projections from the vomeronasal cortex to the ventral striato-pallidum, as well as indirect projections through different nuclei of the basolateral amygdala. Direct projections innervate mainly the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja, whereas indirect projections are more widespread and reach the same structures and the shell and core of nucleus accumbens. These pathways are likely to mediate innate responses to pheromones (direct projections) and conditioned responses to associated chemosensory and non-chemosensory stimuli (indirect projections). Comparative studies indicate that similar connections are present in all the studied amniote vertebrates and might constitute the basic circuitry for emotional responses to conspecifics in most vertebrates, including humans.

  4. Projections from the posterolateral olfactory amygdala to the ventral striatum: neural basis for reinforcing properties of chemical stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanuza Enrique

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates sense chemical stimuli through the olfactory receptor neurons whose axons project to the main olfactory bulb. The main projections of the olfactory bulb are directed to the olfactory cortex and olfactory amygdala (the anterior and posterolateral cortical amygdalae. The posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus mainly projects to other amygdaloid nuclei; other seemingly minor outputs are directed to the ventral striatum, in particular to the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja. Results Although the olfactory projections have been previously described in the literature, injection of dextran-amines into the rat main olfactory bulb was performed with the aim of delimiting the olfactory tubercle and posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus in our own material. Injection of dextran-amines into the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus of rats resulted in anterograde labeling in the ventral striatum, in particular in the core of the nucleus accumbens, and in the medial olfactory tubercle including some islands of Calleja and the cell bridges across the ventral pallidum. Injections of Fluoro-Gold into the ventral striatum were performed to allow retrograde confirmation of these projections. Conclusion The present results extend previous descriptions of the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus efferent projections, which are mainly directed to the core of the nucleus accumbens and the medial olfactory tubercle. Our data indicate that the projection to the core of the nucleus accumbens arises from layer III; the projection to the olfactory tubercle arises from layer II and is much more robust than previously thought. This latter projection is directed to the medial olfactory tubercle including the corresponding islands of Calleja, an area recently described as critical node for the neural circuit of addiction to some stimulant drugs of abuse.

  5. Reflectivity of the gyroid biophotonic crystals in the ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi

    OpenAIRE

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comparison of the computer simulation data of gyroid nanostructures with optical measurements (reflectivity spectra and scattering diagrams) of ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi. We demonstrate that the omnidirectional green colour arises from the gyroid cuticular structure grown in the domains of different orientation. We also show that this three-dimensional structure, operating as a biophotonic crystal, gives rise to various polarization ef...

  6. The AP2 clathrin adaptor protein complex regulates the abundance of GLR-1 glutamate receptors in the ventral nerve cord of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garafalo, Steven D; Luth, Eric S; Moss, Benjamin J; Monteiro, Michael I; Malkin, Emily; Juo, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Regulation of glutamate receptor (GluR) abundance at synapses by clathrin-mediated endocytosis can control synaptic strength and plasticity. We take advantage of viable, null mutations in subunits of the clathrin adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complex in Caenorhabditis elegans to characterize the in vivo role of AP2 in GluR trafficking. In contrast to our predictions for an endocytic adaptor, we found that levels of the GluR GLR-1 are decreased at synapses in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of animals with mutations in the AP2 subunits APM-2/μ2, APA-2/α, or APS-2/σ2. Rescue experiments indicate that APM-2/μ2 functions in glr-1-expressing interneurons and the mature nervous system to promote GLR-1 levels in the VNC. Genetic analyses suggest that APM-2/μ2 acts upstream of GLR-1 endocytosis in the VNC. Consistent with this, GLR-1 accumulates in cell bodies of apm-2 mutants. However, GLR-1 does not appear to accumulate at the plasma membrane of the cell body as expected, but instead accumulates in intracellular compartments including Syntaxin-13- and RAB-14-labeled endosomes. This study reveals a novel role for the AP2 clathrin adaptor in promoting the abundance of GluRs at synapses in vivo, and implicates AP2 in the regulation of GluR trafficking at an early step in the secretory pathway. © 2015 Garafalo et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Effects of electrical stimulation of ventral septal area on firing rates of pyrogen-treated thermosensitive neurons in preoptic anterior hypothalamus from rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Xie, Xin-Hua; Lu, Da-Xiang; Fu, Yong-Mei

    2007-01-09

    Although there is considerable evidence supporting that fever evolved as a host defense response, it is important that the rise in body temperature would not be too high. Many endogenous cryogens or antipyretics that limit the rise in body temperature have been identified. Endogenous antipyretics attenuate fever by influencing the thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic anterior hypothalamus (POAH) and in adjacent septal areas including ventral septal area (VSA). Our previous study showed that intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) injection of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) affected electrophysiological activities of thermosensitive neurons in VSA regions, and electrical stimulation of POAH reversed the effect of IL-1beta. To further investigate the functional electrophysiological connection between POAH and VSA and its mechanisms in thermoregulation, the firing rates of thermosensitive neurons in POAH of forty-seven unit discharge were recorded by using extracellular microelectrode technique in New Zealand white rabbits. Our results show that the firing rates of the warm-sensitive neurons decreased significantly and those of the cold-sensitive neurons increased in POAH when the pyrogen (IL-1beta) was injected I.C.V. The effects of IL-1beta on firing rates in thermosensitive neurons of POAH were reversed by electrical stimulation of VSA. An arginine vasopressin (AVP) V1 antagonist abolished the regulatory effects of VSA on the firing rates in thermosensitive neurons of POAH evoked by IL-1beta. However, an AVP V2 antagonist had no effects. These data indicated that VSA regulates the activities of the thermosensitive neurons of POAH through AVP V1 but not AVP V2 receptor.

  8. Prenatal MRI evaluation of limb-body wall complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre-Pascual, Elisa [Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Epelman, Monica [Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Johnson, Ann M.; Chauvin, Nancy A.; Coleman, Beverly G.; Victoria, Teresa [Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The sonographic (US) features of limb-body wall complex have been well documented; however the literature regarding the findings on MRI in limb-body wall complex is scant. To characterize the prenatal MRI features of limb-body wall complex. We performed a retrospective review of all MRI scans of fetuses diagnosed with limb-body wall complex at our institution from 2001 to 2011. Fetuses without correlating US scans or follow-up information were excluded. Three pediatric radiologists blinded to the specific US findings reviewed the prenatal MRIs. Images were evaluated for the organ location and attachment, the body part affected, characterization of the body wall defect, and spinal, limb and umbilical cord abnormalities. Ten subjects met inclusion criteria. MRI was able to detect and characterize the body part affected and associated abnormalities. All fetuses had ventral wall defects, a small thorax and herniated liver and bowel. The kidneys were extracorporeal in three cases. The extruded organs were attached to the placenta or the uterine wall in all cases. Abnormal spinal curvatures of various degrees of severity were present in all cases. Eight cases had a short, uncoiled cord. Limb anomalies were present in 6 of the 10 cases. We illustrate the common fetal MRI findings of limb-body wall complex. The prenatal diagnosis of limb-body wall complex and the differentiation of this defect from treatable abdominal wall defects are crucial to providing appropriate guidance for patient counseling and management. (orig.)

  9. Impossible body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusero, L

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY This play tells the story of one woman coming to terms with her "poly" identity through a journey into the multiple layers of love, race, sex, appearance and Otherness. The one-woman show Impossible Body was first performed for a reading series sponsored by "Onstage" at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in February 1997. A revised version was developed and staged at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington in April 1997. The current script, from which these excerpts are taken, was first presented at the Queer Studies Conference in Boulder, Colorado.

  10. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.

    1975-01-01

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47 Ca and 85 Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51 Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK) [de

  11. [Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudu pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer-Delaunoy, W

    1997-06-01

    Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow. A comparison using the corrosion method was made between Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) ventral brain arteries and those of the cow. The Pudú's Rete mirabile epidurale rostrale (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 1994) is ventrally formed by branches of the A. maxillaris, and caudally formed by the A. vertebralis. The Hypophysis is surrounded by the Rete mirabile rostrale. The lateral parts are rostrally joined to that gland by a thin vascular bridge and caudally by thick arteries. The Pudú's Circulus arteriosus cerebri asymmetrical, that is, on the right side the A. cerebri rostralis ends in the A. cerebri media. The left-side A. cerebri rostralis irrigates every rostral portion of the encephalon. In the cow, practically the same arteries come out of the Circulus arteriosus cerebri, which is not asymmetrical. The A. cerebri caudalis comes first out of the A. communicans caudalis and then the branches for the Pons, and finally the A. cerebelli rostralis. In this species, there are arterial blocks that are not present in Pudú.

  12. Sirenomelia in Bmp7 and Tsg compound mutant mice: requirement for Bmp signaling in the development of ventral posterior mesoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakin, Lise; Reversade, Bruno; Kuroda, Hiroki; Lyons, Karen M; De Robertis, Eddy M

    2005-05-01

    Sirenomelia or mermaid-like phenotype is one of the principal human congenital malformations that can be traced back to the stage of gastrulation. Sirenomelia is characterized by the fusion of the two hindlimbs into a single one. In the mouse, sirens have been observed in crosses between specific strains and as the consequence of mutations that increase retinoic acid levels. We report that the loss of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7) in combination with a half dose or complete loss of twisted gastrulation (Tsg) causes sirenomelia in the mouse. Tsg is a Bmp- and chordin-binding protein that has multiple effects on Bmp metabolism in the extracellular space; Bmp7 is one of many Bmps and is shown here to bind to Tsg. In Xenopus, co-injection of Tsg and Bmp7 morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) has a synergistic effect, greatly inhibiting formation of ventral mesoderm and ventral fin tissue. In the mouse, molecular marker studies indicate that the sirenomelia phenotype is associated with a defect in the formation of ventroposterior mesoderm. These experiments demonstrate that dorsoventral patterning of the mouse posterior mesoderm is regulated by Bmp signaling, as is the case in other vertebrates. Sirens result from a fusion of the hindlimb buds caused by a defect in the formation of ventral mesoderm.

  13. Ventral Striatum Functional Connectivity as a Predictor of Adolescent Depressive Disorder in a Longitudinal Community-Based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pedro Mario; Sato, João R; Salum, Giovanni A; Rohde, Luis A; Gadelha, Ary; Zugman, Andre; Mari, Jair; Jackowski, Andrea; Picon, Felipe; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Stringaris, Argyris

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have implicated aberrant reward processing in the pathogenesis of adolescent depression. However, no study has used functional connectivity within a distributed reward network, assessed using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI), to predict the onset of depression in adolescents. This study used reward network-based functional connectivity at baseline to predict depressive disorder at follow-up in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 637 children 6-12 years old underwent resting-state fMRI. Discovery and replication analyses tested intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) among nodes of a putative reward network. Logistic regression tested whether striatal node strength, a measure of reward-related iFC, predicted onset of a depressive disorder at 3-year follow-up. Further analyses investigated the specificity of this prediction. Increased left ventral striatum node strength predicted increased risk for future depressive disorder (odds ratio=1.54, 95% CI=1.09-2.18), even after excluding participants who had depressive disorders at baseline (odds ratio=1.52, 95% CI=1.05-2.20). Among 11 reward-network nodes, only the left ventral striatum significantly predicted depression. Striatal node strength did not predict other common adolescent psychopathology, such as anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and substance use. Aberrant ventral striatum functional connectivity specifically predicts future risk for depressive disorder. This finding further emphasizes the need to understand how brain reward networks contribute to youth depression.

  14. Increased functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams during retrieval of novel words in professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Valizadeh, Seyed Abolfazl; Jäncke, Lutz; Besson, Mireille; Elmer, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Current models of speech and language processing postulate the involvement of two parallel processing streams (the dual stream model): a ventral stream involved in mapping sensory and phonological representations onto lexical and conceptual representations and a dorsal stream contributing to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, and to how verbal information is encoded and manipulated in memory. Based on previous evidence showing that music training has an influence on language processing, cognitive functions, and word learning, we examined EEG-based intracranial functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams while musicians and nonmusicians learned the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations. In accordance with the dual stream model, word learning was generally associated with increased beta functional connectivity in the ventral stream compared to the dorsal stream. In addition, in the linguistically most demanding "semantic task," musicians outperformed nonmusicians, and this behavioral advantage was accompanied by increased left-hemispheric theta connectivity in both streams. Moreover, theta coherence in the left dorsal pathway was positively correlated with the number of years of music training. These results provide evidence for a complex interplay within a network of brain regions involved in semantic processing and verbal memory functions, and suggest that intensive music training can modify its functional architecture leading to advantages in novel word learning. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Investigating category- and shape-selective neural processing in ventral and dorsal visual stream under interocular suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Karin; Kathmann, Norbert; Sterzer, Philipp; Hesselmann, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies using continuous flash suppression (CFS) have suggested that action-related processing in the dorsal visual stream might be independent of perceptual awareness, in line with the "vision-for-perception" versus "vision-for-action" distinction of the influential dual-stream theory. It remains controversial if evidence suggesting exclusive dorsal stream processing of tool stimuli under CFS can be explained by their elongated shape alone or by action-relevant category representations in dorsal visual cortex. To approach this question, we investigated category- and shape-selective functional magnetic resonance imaging-blood-oxygen level-dependent responses in both visual streams using images of faces and tools. Multivariate pattern analysis showed enhanced decoding of elongated relative to non-elongated tools, both in the ventral and dorsal visual stream. The second aim of our study was to investigate whether the depth of interocular suppression might differentially affect processing in dorsal and ventral areas. However, parametric modulation of suppression depth by varying the CFS mask contrast did not yield any evidence for differential modulation of category-selective activity. Together, our data provide evidence for shape-selective processing under CFS in both dorsal and ventral stream areas and, therefore, do not support the notion that dorsal "vision-for-action" processing is exclusively preserved under interocular suppression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Boolean modelling reveals new regulatory connections between transcription factors orchestrating the development of the ventral spinal cord.

    KAUST Repository

    Lovrics, Anna

    2014-11-14

    We have assembled a network of cell-fate determining transcription factors that play a key role in the specification of the ventral neuronal subtypes of the spinal cord on the basis of published transcriptional interactions. Asynchronous Boolean modelling of the network was used to compare simulation results with reported experimental observations. Such comparison highlighted the need to include additional regulatory connections in order to obtain the fixed point attractors of the model associated with the five known progenitor cell types located in the ventral spinal cord. The revised gene regulatory network reproduced previously observed cell state switches between progenitor cells observed in knock-out animal models or in experiments where the transcription factors were overexpressed. Furthermore the network predicted the inhibition of Irx3 by Nkx2.2 and this prediction was tested experimentally. Our results provide evidence for the existence of an as yet undescribed inhibitory connection which could potentially have significance beyond the ventral spinal cord. The work presented in this paper demonstrates the strength of Boolean modelling for identifying gene regulatory networks.

  17. The dorsal striatum and ventral striatum play different roles in the programming of social behaviour: a tribute to Lex Cools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-02-01

    Early work by Lex Cools suggested that the caudate nucleus (dorsal striatum) plays a role in programming social behaviour: enhanced activity in the caudate nucleus increased the extent to which ongoing behaviour is controlled by the individual's own behaviour (internal control) rather than by that of its partners (external control). Interestingly, later studies by others have indicated that the ventral striatum plays a role in external rather than internal control. Here, I discuss the role of these different striatal areas - and the emotional (ventral striatum) and cognitive control (dorsal striatum) system in which they are embedded - in the organization of social behaviour in the context of locus of control. Following on from this discussion, I will pay particular attention to individual differences in social behaviour (individuals with more internal or external control), focusing on the role of dopamine, serotonin and the effects of stress-related challenges in relation to their different position in a dominance hierarchy. I will subsequently allude to potential psychological and behavioural problems in the social domain following on from these differences in locus of control ['social obliviousness' (dorsal stratum) and 'social impulsivity' (ventral striatum)]. In doing so, I provide as a tribute a historical account of the early research by Lex Cools.

  18. Gudden's Ventral Tegmental Nucleus Is Vital for Memory: Re-Evaluating Diencephalic Inputs for Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Seralynne D.

    2009-01-01

    Mammillary body atrophy is present in a number of neurological conditions and recent clinical findings highlight the importance of these nuclei for memory. While most accounts of diencephalic amnesia emphasize the functional importance of the hippocampal projections to the mammillary bodies, the present study tested the importance of the other…

  19. Passive Avoidance Training and Recall are Associated With Increased Glutamate Levels in the Intermediate Medial Hyperstriatum Ventrale of the Day-Old Chick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan N. Daisley

    1998-01-01

    glutamate levels in the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale accompany pecking at either the water- or the methylanthranylate-bead. The taste of the aversant may be responsible for the greater increases found in methylanthranylate-trained birds.

  20. Transient inactivation of the ventral hippocampus in neonatal rats impairs the mesolimbic regulation of prefrontal glutamate release in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortz, D M; Jørgensen, Christinna Vangsgaard; Mikkelsen, J D

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) reflect maturational disruptions within a neural system that includes the ventral hippocampus (VH), nucleus accumbens (NAc), basal forebrain, and prefrontal cortex (PFC). A better understanding of these changes may reveal drug targets for more efficacious ...

  1. Occipitalization of the ventral part and the vertebralization of the dorsal part of the atlas with insufficiency of the transverse ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1982-01-01

    Occipitalization and vertebralization of the atlas are well known. We observed the first case of ventral occipitalization associated with dorsal vertebralization of the atlas in a 15-year-old female. (orig.)

  2. Classification and valuation of postoperative complications in a randomized trial of open versus laparoscopic ventral herniorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaafarani, H M A; Hur, K; Campasano, M; Reda, D J; Itani, K M F

    2010-06-01

    Generic instruments used for the valuation of health states (e.g., EuroQol) often lack sensitivity to notable differences that are relevant to particular diseases or interventions. We developed a valuation methodology specifically for complications following ventral incisional herniorrhaphy (VIH). Between 2004 and 2006, 146 patients were prospectively randomized to undergo laparoscopic (n = 73) or open (n = 73) VIH. The primary outcome of the trial was complications at 8 weeks. A three-step methodology was used to assign severity weights to complications. First, each complication was graded using the Clavien classification. Second, five reviewers were asked to independently and directly rate their perception of the severity of each class using a non-categorized visual analog scale. Zero represented an uncomplicated postoperative course, while 100 represented postoperative death. Third, the median, lowest, and highest values assigned to each class of complications were used to derive weighted complication scores for open and laparoscopic VIH. Open VIH had more complications than laparoscopic VIH (47.9 vs. 31.5%, respectively; P = 0.026). However, complications of laparoscopic VIH were more severe than those of open VIH. Non-parametric analysis revealed a statistically higher weighted complication score for open VIH (interquartile range: 0-20 for open vs. 0-10 for laparoscopic; P = 0.049). In the sensitivity analysis, similar results were obtained using the median, highest, and lowest weights. We describe a new methodology for the valuation of complications following VIH that allows a direct outcome comparison of procedures with different complication profiles. Further testing of the validity, reliability, and generalizability of this method is warranted.

  3. Evaluation of GABA Receptors of Ventral Tegmental Area in Cardiovascular Responses in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Rasoulpanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ventral tegmental area (VTA is well known for its role in cardiovascular control. It is demonstrated that about 20-30% of the VTA neurons are GABAergic though their role in cardiovascular control is not yet understood. This study is carried out to find the effects of GABA A and GABA B receptors on cardiovascular response of the VTA. Methods: Experiments were performed on urethane anesthetized male Wistar rats. Drugs were microinjected unilaterally into the VTA. The average changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were compared between the case and the control groups using t test and with the pre-injection values using paired t test. Results: Microinjection of muscimol, a GABAA agonist (500, 1500 and 2500 pmol/100nl into the VTA had no significant effect on MAP and HR compared with the saline group and pre-injection values. Injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI, 100 and 200 pmol/100 nl, a GABAA antagonist, caused a significant increase in the MAP (11.1±1.95mmHg, P<0.5 and a decrease in HR (-32.07±10.2, P<0.01. Microinjection of baclofen a GABAB receptor agonist (500 or 1000 pmole/100 nl and phaclofen a GABAB receptor antagonist (500 or 1000 pmole/100 nl had no significant effects on MAP and HR. Conclusion: For the first time it was demonstrated that GABA system of the VTA inhibits the cardiovascular system through the activation of GABAA but not the GABAB receptors.

  4. Disrupted functional connectivity in dorsal and ventral attention networks during attention orienting in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jacqueline; Johnson, Katherine; Kehoe, Elizabeth; Bokde, Arun L W; Garavan, Hugh; Gallagher, Louise; McGrath, Jane

    2015-04-01

    Attention orienting is a cognitive process that facilitates the movement of attention focus from one location to another: this may be impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN and VAN) sub-serve the process of attention orienting. This study investigated the functional connectivity of attention orienting in these networks in ASD using the Posner Cueing Task. Twenty-one adolescents with ASD and 21 age and IQ matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. A psychophysical interaction (PPI) analysis was implemented to investigate task-dependent functional connectivity, measuring synchronicity of brain regions during the task. Regions of interest (ROI) were selected to explore functional connectivity in the DAN during cue-only conditions and in the VAN during invalid and valid trials. Behaviourally, the ASD and control groups performed the task in a similar manner. Functional MRI results indicated that the ASD and control groups activated similar brain regions. During invalid trials (VAN), the ASD group showed significant positive functional connectivity to multiple brain regions, whilst the control group demonstrated negative connectivity. During valid trials (VAN), the two groups also showed contrasting patterns of connectivity. In the cue-only conditions (DAN), the ASD group showed weaker functional connectivity. The DAN analysis suggests that the ASD group has weaker coherence between brain areas involved in goal-driven, endogenous attention control. The strong positive functional connectivity exhibited by the ASD group in the VAN during the invalid trials suggests that individuals with ASD may generate compensatory mechanisms to achieve neurotypical behaviour. These results support the theory of abnormal cortical connectivity in autism. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Organization of GABAergic synaptic circuits in the rat ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Alessandro; Calza, Arianna; Panzanelli, Patrizia; Concas, Alessandra; Giustetto, Maurizio; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is widely implicated in drug addiction and other psychiatric disorders. This brain region is densely populated by dopaminergic (DA) neurons and also contains a sparse population of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic cells that regulate the activity of the principal neurons. Therefore, an in-depth knowledge of the organization of VTA GABAergic circuits and of the plasticity induced by drug consumption is essential for understanding the mechanisms by which drugs induce stable changes in brain reward circuits. Using immunohistochemistry, we provide a detailed description of the localization of major GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor subunits in the rat VTA. We show that DA and GABAergic cells express both GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors. However VTA neurons differ considerably in the expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits, as the α1 subunit is associated predominantly with non-DA cells, whereas the α3 subunit is present at low levels in both types of VTA neurons. Using an unbiased stereological method, we then demonstrate that α1-positive elements represent only a fraction of non-DA neurons and that the ratio of DA and non-DA cells is quite variable throughout the rostro-caudal extent of the VTA. Interestingly, DA and non-DA cells receive a similar density of perisomatic synapses, whereas axo-dendritic synapses are significantly more abundant in non-DA cells, indicating that local interneurons receive prominent GABAergic inhibition. These findings reveal a differential expression of GABA receptor subtypes in the two major categories of VTA neurons and provide an anatomical basis for interpreting the plasticity of inhibitory circuits induced by drug exposure.

  6. Organization of GABAergic synaptic circuits in the rat ventral tegmental area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ciccarelli

    Full Text Available The ventral tegmental area (VTA is widely implicated in drug addiction and other psychiatric disorders. This brain region is densely populated by dopaminergic (DA neurons and also contains a sparse population of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic cells that regulate the activity of the principal neurons. Therefore, an in-depth knowledge of the organization of VTA GABAergic circuits and of the plasticity induced by drug consumption is essential for understanding the mechanisms by which drugs induce stable changes in brain reward circuits. Using immunohistochemistry, we provide a detailed description of the localization of major GABA(A and GABA(B receptor subunits in the rat VTA. We show that DA and GABAergic cells express both GABA(A and GABA(B receptors. However VTA neurons differ considerably in the expression of GABA(A receptor subunits, as the α1 subunit is associated predominantly with non-DA cells, whereas the α3 subunit is present at low levels in both types of VTA neurons. Using an unbiased stereological method, we then demonstrate that α1-positive elements represent only a fraction of non-DA neurons and that the ratio of DA and non-DA cells is quite variable throughout the rostro-caudal extent of the VTA. Interestingly, DA and non-DA cells receive a similar density of perisomatic synapses, whereas axo-dendritic synapses are significantly more abundant in non-DA cells, indicating that local interneurons receive prominent GABAergic inhibition. These findings reveal a differential expression of GABA receptor subtypes in the two major categories of VTA neurons and provide an anatomical basis for interpreting the plasticity of inhibitory circuits induced by drug exposure.

  7. Opposite modulation of brain stimulation reward by NMDA and AMPA receptors in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Charles; Fortier, Emmanuel; Bouchard, Claude; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that blockade of ventral tegmental area (VTA) glutamate N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors induces reward, stimulates forward locomotion and enhances brain stimulation reward. Glutamate induces two types of excitatory response on VTA neurons, a fast and short lasting depolarization mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptors and a longer lasting depolarization mediated by NMDA receptors. A role for the two glutamate receptors in modulation of VTA neuronal activity is evidenced by the functional change in AMPA and NMDA synaptic responses that result from repeated exposure to reward. Since both receptors contribute to the action of glutamate on VTA neuronal activity, we studied the effects of VTA AMPA and NMDA receptor blockade on reward induced by electrical brain stimulation. Experiments were performed on rats trained to self-administer electrical pulses in the medial posterior mesencephalon. Reward thresholds were measured with the curve-shift paradigm before and for 2 h after bilateral VTA microinjections of the AMPA antagonist, NBQX (2,3,-Dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo(f)quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide, 0, 80, and 800 pmol/0.5 μl/side) and of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5 μl/side) of the NMDA antagonist, PPPA (2R,4S)-4-(3-Phosphonopropyl)-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid). NBQX produced a dose-dependent increase in reward threshold with no significant change in maximum rate of responding. Whereas PPPA injected at the same VTA sites produced a significant time dependent decrease in reward threshold and increase in maximum rate of responding. We found a negative correlation between the magnitude of the attenuation effect of NBQX and the enhancement effect of PPPA; moreover, NBQX and PPPA were most effective when injected, respectively, into the anterior and posterior VTA. These results suggest that glutamate acts on different receptor sub-types, most likely located on different VTA neurons, to

  8. Oleic Acid in the Ventral Tegmental Area Inhibits Feeding, Food Reward, and Dopamine Tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryhorczuk, Cecile; Sheng, Zhenyu; Décarie-Spain, Léa; Giguère, Nicolas; Ducrot, Charles; Trudeau, Louis-Éric; Routh, Vanessa H; Alquier, Thierry; Fulton, Stephanie

    2018-02-01

    Long-chain fatty acids (FAs) act centrally to decrease food intake and hepatic glucose production and alter hypothalamic neuronal activity in a manner that depends on FA type and cellular transport proteins. However, it is not known whether FAs are sensed by ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons to control food-motivated behavior and DA neurotransmission. We investigated the impact of the monounsaturated FA oleate in the VTA on feeding, locomotion, food reward, and DA neuronal activity and DA neuron expression of FA-handling proteins and FA uptake. A single intra-VTA injection of oleate, but not of the saturated FA palmitate, decreased food intake and increased locomotor activity. Furthermore, intra-VTA oleate blunted the rewarding effects of high-fat/sugar food in an operant task and inhibited DA neuronal firing. Using sorted DA neuron preparations from TH-eGFP mice we found that DA neurons express FA transporter and binding proteins, and are capable of intracellular transport of long-chain FA. Finally, we demonstrate that a transporter blocker attenuates FA uptake into DA neurons and blocks the effects of intra-VTA oleate to decrease food-seeking and DA neuronal activity. Together, these results suggest that DA neurons detect FA and that oleate has actions in the VTA to suppress DA neuronal activity and food seeking following cellular incorporation. These findings highlight the capacity of DA neurons to act as metabolic sensors by responding not only to hormones but also to FA nutrient signals to modulate food-directed behavior.

  9. Activity of the anterior cingulate cortex and ventral hippocampus underlie increases in contextual fear generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Patrick K; Gilman, T Lee; Winiecki, Patrick; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Memories for context become less specific with time resulting in animals generalizing fear from training contexts to novel contexts. Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of a context fear memory, very little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the increase in fear generalization that occurs as the memory ages. Here, we examine the neural pattern of activation underlying the expression of a generalized context fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. Animals were context fear conditioned and tested for fear in either the training context or a novel context at recent and remote time points. Animals were sacrificed and fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed to assay neural activation. Our results demonstrate activity of the prelimbic, infralimbic, and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices as well as the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) underlie expression of a generalized fear memory. To verify the involvement of the ACC and vHPC in the expression of a generalized fear memory, animals were context fear conditioned and infused with 4% lidocaine into the ACC, dHPC, or vHPC prior to retrieval to temporarily inactivate these structures. The results demonstrate that activity of the ACC and vHPC is required for the expression of a generalized fear memory, as inactivation of these regions returned the memory to a contextually precise form. Current theories of time-dependent generalization of contextual memories do not predict involvement of the vHPC. Our data suggest a novel role of this region in generalized memory, which should be incorporated into current theories of time-dependent memory generalization. We also show that the dorsal hippocampus plays a prolonged role in contextually precise memories. Our findings suggest a possible interaction between the ACC and vHPC controls the expression of fear generalization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemogenetic manipulation of ventral pallidal neurons impairs acquisition of sign-tracking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E; Todd, Travis P; Bucci, David J; Smith, Kyle S

    2015-12-01

    Cues associated with rewarding events acquire value themselves as a result of the incentive value of the reward being transferred to the cue. Consequently, presentation of a reward-paired cue can trigger reward-seeking behaviours towards the cue itself (i.e. sign-tracking). The ventral pallidum (VP) has been demonstrated to be involved in a number of motivated behaviours, both conditioned and unconditioned. However, its contribution to the acquisition of incentive value is unknown. Using a discriminative autoshaping procedure with levers, the effects of disrupting VP activity in rats on the emergence of sign-tracking was investigated using chemogenetics, i.e. Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs). Transient disruption of VP neurons [activation of the inhibitory hM4D(Gi) DREADD through systemic injections of clozapine N-oxide (CNO) prior to each autoshaping session] impaired acquisition of sign-tracking (lever press rate) without having any effect on approach to the site of reward delivery (i.e. goal-tracking) or on the expression of sign-tracking after it was acquired. In addition, electrophysiological recordings were conducted in freely behaving rats following VP DREADD activation. The majority of VP units that were responsive to CNO injections exhibited rapid inhibition relative to baseline, a subset of CNO-responsive units showed delayed excitation, and a smaller subset displayed a mixed response of inhibition and excitation following CNO injections. It is argued that disruption of VP during autoshaping specifically disrupted the transfer of incentive value that was attributed to the lever cue, suggesting a surprisingly fundamental role for the VP in acquiring, compared with expressing, Pavlovian incentive values. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Neurotrophins in the ventral tegmental area: Role in social stress, mood disorders and drug abuse.

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    Nikulina, E M; Johnston, C E; Wang, J; Hammer, R P

    2014-12-12

    This review discusses the impact of neurotrophins and other trophic factors, including fibroblast growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, on mood disorders, weight regulation and drug abuse, with an emphasis on stress- and drug-induced changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Neurotrophins, comprising nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophins 3 and 4/5 play important roles in neuronal plasticity and the development of different psychopathologies. In the VTA, most research has focused on the role of BDNF, because other neurotrophins are not found there in significant quantities. BDNF originating in the VTA provides trophic support to dopamine neurons. The diverse intracellular signaling pathways activated by BDNF may underlie precise physiological functions specific to the VTA. In general, VTA BDNF expression increases after psychostimulant exposures, and enhanced BDNF level in the VTA facilitates psychostimulant effects. The impact of VTA BDNF on the behavioral effects of psychostimulants relies primarily on its action within the mesocorticolimbic circuit. In the case of opiates, VTA BDNF expression and effects seem to be dependent on whether an animal is drug-naïve or has a history of drug use, only the latter of which is related to dopamine mechanisms. Social defeat stress that is continuous in mice or intermittent in rats increases VTA BDNF expression, and is associated with depressive and social avoidance behaviors. Intermittent social defeat stress induces persistent VTA BDNF expression that triggers psychostimulant cross-sensitization. Understanding the cellular and molecular substrates of neurotrophin effects may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of substance use and mood disorders. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of the main generator source of longitudinal muscle contraction in the earthworm ventral nerve cord

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    Chang Y.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The main generator source of a longitudinal muscle contraction was identified as an M (mechanical-stimulus-sensitive circuit composed of a presynaptic M-1 neuron and a postsynaptic M-2 neuron in the ventral nerve cord of the earthworm, Amynthas hawayanus, by simultaneous intracellular response recording and Lucifer Yellow-CH injection with two microelectrodes. Five-peaked responses were evoked in both neurons by a mechanical, but not by an electrical, stimulus to the mechanoreceptor in the shaft of a seta at the opposite side of an epidermis-muscle-nerve-cord preparation. This response was correlated to 84% of the amplitude, 73% of the rising rate and 81% of the duration of a longitudinal muscle contraction recorded by a mechano-electrical transducer after eliminating the other possible generator sources by partitioning the epidermis-muscle piece of this preparation. The pre- and postsynaptic relationship between these two neurons was determined by alternately stimulating and recording with two microelectrodes. Images of the Lucifer Yellow-CH-filled M-1 and M-2 neurons showed that both of them are composed of bundles of longitudinal processes situated on the side of the nerve cord opposite to stimulation. The M-1 neuron has an afferent process (A1 in the first nerve at the stimulated side of this preparation and the M-2 neuron has two efferent processes (E1 and E3 in the first and third nerves at the recording side where their effector muscle cell was identified by a third microelectrode.

  13. Cocaine Dysregulates Opioid Gating of GABA Neurotransmission in the Ventral Pallidum

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    Scofield, Michael D.; Rice, Kenner C.; Cheng, Kejun; Roques, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is a target of dense nucleus accumbens projections. Many of these projections coexpress GABA and the neuropeptide enkephalin, a δ and μ opioid receptor (MOR) ligand. Of these two, the MOR in the VP is known to be involved in reward-related behaviors, such as hedonic responses to palatable food, alcohol intake, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Stimulating MORs in the VP decreases extracellular GABA, indicating that the effects of MORs in the VP on cocaine seeking are via modulating GABA neurotransmission. Here, we use whole-cell patch-clamp on a rat model of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration to test the hypothesis that MORs presynaptically regulate GABA transmission in the VP and that cocaine withdrawal changes the interaction between MORs and GABA. We found that in cocaine-extinguished rats pharmacological activation of MORs no longer presynaptically inhibited GABA release, whereas blocking the MORs disinhibited GABA release. Moreover, MOR-dependent long-term depression of GABA neurotransmission in the VP was lost in cocaine-extinguished rats. Last, GABA neurotransmission was found to be tonically suppressed in cocaine-extinguished rats. These substantial synaptic changes indicated that cocaine was increasing tone on MOR receptors. Accordingly, increasing endogenous tone by blocking the enzymatic degradation of enkephalin inhibited GABA neurotransmission in yoked saline rats but not in cocaine-extinguished rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that following withdrawal from cocaine self-administration enkephalin levels in the VP are elevated and the opioid modulation of GABA neurotransmission is impaired. This may contribute to the difficulties withdrawn addicts experience when trying to resist relapse. PMID:24431463

  14. Contribution of ventral tegmental GABA receptors to cocaine self-administration in rats.

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    Backes, E N; Hemby, S E

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that compounds affecting GABAergic transmission may provide useful pharmacological tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Using a rat model of self-administration, the present study examined the effects of GABA agonists and antagonists injected directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on cocaine intake in rats trained to self-administer cocaine (0, 125, 250 and 500 microg/infusion) under an FR5 schedule of reinforcement. Separate groups of rats received bilateral intra-VTA injections of the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin (34 ng/side, n = 7; 68 ng/side, n = 8), GABA-A agonist muscimol (14 ng/side, n = 8), GABA-B agonist baclofen (56 ng/side, n = 7; 100 ng/side, n = 6), picrotoxin (68 ng/side) co-injected with the GABA-B antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (100 ng/side, n = 7; 2 microg/side, n = 8) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF, n = 6) to assess the effects of the various compounds on the cocaine self-administration dose-response curve. Both picrotoxin and baclofen reduced responding maintained by cocaine, whereas muscimol had no effect on responding. In contrast, neither picrotoxin (n = 6) nor baclofen (n = 8) affected responding maintained by food. Interestingly, 2-hydroxysaclofen effectively blocked the suppression of responding produced by picrotoxin, suggesting that both picrotoxin and baclofen exert their effects via activation of GABA-B receptors. Additionally, these effects appear to be specific to cocaine reinforcement, supporting current investigation of baclofen as a treatment for cocaine addiction.

  15. Estradiol increases the sensitivity of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons to dopamine and ethanol.

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    Bertha J Vandegrift

    Full Text Available Gender differences in psychiatric disorders such as addiction may be modulated by the steroid hormone estrogen. For instance, 17β-estradiol (E2, the predominant form of circulating estrogen in pre-menopausal females, increases ethanol consumption, suggesting that E2 may affect the rewarding properties of ethanol and thus the development of alcohol use disorder in females. The ventral tegmental area (VTA is critically involved in the rewarding and reinforcing effects of ethanol. In order to determine the role of E2 in VTA physiology, gonadally intact female mice were sacrificed during diestrus II (high E2 or estrus (low E2 for electrophysiology recordings. We measured the excitation by ethanol and inhibition by dopamine (DA of VTA DA neurons and found that both excitation by ethanol and inhibition by dopamine were greater in diestrus II compared with estrus. Treatment of VTA slices from mice in diestrus II with an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780 reduced ethanol-stimulated neuronal firing, but had no effect on ethanol-stimulated firing of neurons in slices from mice in estrus. Surprisingly, ICI 182,780 did not affect the inhibition by DA, indicating different mechanisms of action of estrogen receptors in altering ethanol and DA responses. We also examined the responses of VTA DA neurons to ethanol and DA in ovariectomized mice treated with E2 and found that E2 treatment enhanced the responses to ethanol and DA in a manner similar to what we observed in mice in diestrus II. Our data indicate that E2 modulates VTA neuron physiology, which may contribute to both the enhanced reinforcing and rewarding effects of alcohol and the development of other psychiatric disorders in females that involve alterations in DA neurotransmission.

  16. Accessing orthographic representations from speech: the role of left ventral occipitotemporal cortex in spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The present fMRI study used a spelling task to investigate the hypothesis that the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) hosts neuronal representations of whole written words. Such an orthographic word lexicon is posited by cognitive dual-route theories of reading and spelling. In the scanner, participants performed a spelling task in which they had to indicate if a visually presented letter is present in the written form of an auditorily presented word. The main experimental manipulation distinguished between an orthographic word spelling condition in which correct spelling decisions had to be based on orthographic whole-word representations, a word spelling condition in which reliance on orthographic whole-word representations was optional and a phonological pseudoword spelling condition in which no reliance on such representations was possible. To evaluate spelling-specific activations the spelling conditions were contrasted with control conditions that also presented auditory words and pseudowords, but participants had to indicate if a visually presented letter corresponded to the gender of the speaker. We identified a left vOT cluster activated for the critical orthographic word spelling condition relative to both the control condition and the phonological pseudoword spelling condition. Our results suggest that activation of left vOT during spelling can be attributed to the retrieval of orthographic whole-word representations and, thus, support the position that the left vOT potentially represents the neuronal equivalent of the cognitive orthographic word lexicon. © 2014 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Craving behavioral intervention for internet gaming disorder: remediation of functional connectivity of the ventral striatum.

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    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Psychobehavioral intervention is an effective treatment of Internet addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying its efficacy remain unclear. Cortical-ventral striatum (VS) circuitry is a common target of psychobehavioral interventions in drug addiction, and cortical-VS dysfunction has been reported in IGD; hence, the primary aim of the study was to investigate how the VS circuitry responds to psychobehavioral interventions in IGD. In a cross-sectional study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity of the VS in 74 IGD subjects (IGDs) and 41 healthy controls (HCs). In a follow-up craving behavioral intervention (CBI) study, of the 74 IGD subjects, 20 IGD subjects received CBI (CBI+) and 16 IGD subjects did not (CBI-). All participants were scanned twice with similar time interval to assess the effects of CBI. IGD subjects showed greater resting-state functional connectivity of the VS to left inferior parietal lobule (lIPL), right inferior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus, in positive association with the severity of IGD. Moreover, compared with CBI-, CBI+ showed significantly greater decrease in VS-lIPL connectivity, along with amelioration in addiction severity following the intervention. These findings demonstrated that functional connectivity between VS and lIPL, each presumably mediating gaming craving and attentional bias, may be a potential biomarker of the efficacy of psychobehavioral intervention. These results also suggested that non-invasive techniques such as transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation targeting the VS-IPL circuitry may be used in the treatment of Internet gaming disorders. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures

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    Yan Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammatory Parkinson’s disease (PD cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL 1 h prior to LPS (50 ng/mL treatment. LPS induced dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neuronal loss in VM cultures, VM neuron-enriched cultures, and neuron-microglia co-cultures, but not in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. IL-10 reduced LPS-induced neuronal loss particularly in single VM neuron cultures. Pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 were upregulated in both neuron-microglia and neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. In contrast, neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor were downregulated in neuron-microglia co-cultures, but upregulated in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. IL-10 reduced both the increase in production of the pro-inflammatory mediators and the decrease in production of the neurotrophic factors induced by LPS. These results suggest that astrocytes can balance LPS neurotoxicity by releasing more neurotrophic factors and that IL-10 exerts neuroprotective property by an extensive action including direct on neurons and indirect via inhibiting microglial activation.

  19. Inhibitory stimulation of the ventral premotor cortex temporarily interferes with musical beat rate preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornysheva, Katja; von Anshelm-Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2011-08-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that preference for a beat rate (tempo) in auditory sequences is tightly linked to the motor system. However, from a neuroscientific perspective the contribution of motor-related brain regions to tempo preference in the auditory domain remains unclear. A recent fMRI study (Kornysheva et al. [2010]: Hum Brain Mapp 31:48-64) revealed that the activity increase in the left ventral premotor cortex (PMv) is associated with the preference for a tempo of a musical rhythm. The activity increase correlated with how strongly the subjects preferred a tempo. Despite this evidence, it remains uncertain whether an interference with activity in the left PMv affects tempo preference strength. Consequently, we conducted an offline repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) study, in which the cortical excitability in the left PMv was temporarily reduced. As hypothesized, 0.9 Hz rTMS over the left PMv temporarily affected individual tempo preference strength depending on the individual strength of tempo preference in the control session. Moreover, PMv stimulation temporarily interfered with the stability of individual tempo preference strength within and across sessions. These effects were specific to the preference for tempo in contrast to the preference for timbre, bound to the first half of the experiment following PMv stimulation and could not be explained by an impairment of tempo recognition. Our results corroborate preceding fMRI findings and suggest that activity in the left PMv is part of a network that affects the strength of beat rate preference. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Comparison of visual receptive fields in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral intraparietal area in macaques.

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    Viswanathan, Pooja; Nieder, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    The concept of receptive field (RF) describes the responsiveness of neurons to sensory space. Neurons in the primate association cortices have long been known to be spatially selective but a detailed characterisation and direct comparison of RFs between frontal and parietal association cortices are missing. We sampled the RFs of a large number of neurons from two interconnected areas of the frontal and parietal lobes, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and ventral intraparietal area (VIP), of rhesus monkeys by systematically presenting a moving bar during passive fixation. We found that more than half of neurons in both areas showed spatial selectivity. Single neurons in both areas could be assigned to five classes according to the spatial response patterns: few non-uniform RFs with multiple discrete response maxima could be dissociated from the vast majority of uniform RFs showing a single maximum; the latter were further classified into full-field and confined foveal, contralateral and ipsilateral RFs. Neurons in dlPFC showed a preference for the contralateral visual space and collectively encoded the contralateral visual hemi-field. In contrast, VIP neurons preferred central locations, predominantly covering the foveal visual space. Putative pyramidal cells with broad-spiking waveforms in PFC had smaller RFs than putative interneurons showing narrow-spiking waveforms, but distributed similarly across the visual field. In VIP, however, both putative pyramidal cells and interneurons had similar RFs at similar eccentricities. We provide a first, thorough characterisation of visual RFs in two reciprocally connected areas of a fronto-parietal cortical network. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Synaptic neurotransmission depression in ventral tegmental dopamine neurons and cannabinoid-associated addictive learning.

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    Liu, Zhiqiang; Han, Jing; Jia, Lintao; Maillet, Jean-Christian; Bai, Guang; Xu, Lin; Jia, Zhengping; Zheng, Qiaohua; Zhang, Wandong; Monette, Robert; Merali, Zul; Zhu, Zhou; Wang, Wei; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Xia

    2010-12-20

    Drug addiction is an association of compulsive drug use with long-term associative learning/memory. Multiple forms of learning/memory are primarily subserved by activity- or experience-dependent synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent studies suggest LTP expression in locally activated glutamate synapses onto dopamine neurons (local Glu-DA synapses) of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) following a single or chronic exposure to many drugs of abuse, whereas a single exposure to cannabinoid did not significantly affect synaptic plasticity at these synapses. It is unknown whether chronic exposure of cannabis (marijuana or cannabinoids), the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, induce LTP or LTD at these synapses. More importantly, whether such alterations in VTA synaptic plasticity causatively contribute to drug addictive behavior has not previously been addressed. Here we show in rats that chronic cannabinoid exposure activates VTA cannabinoid CB1 receptors to induce transient neurotransmission depression at VTA local Glu-DA synapses through activation of NMDA receptors and subsequent endocytosis of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunits. A GluR2-derived peptide blocks cannabinoid-induced VTA synaptic depression and conditioned place preference, i.e., learning to associate drug exposure with environmental cues. These data not only provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic depression at VTA dopamine circuitry requires GluR2 endocytosis, but also suggest an essential contribution of such synaptic depression to cannabinoid-associated addictive learning, in addition to pointing to novel pharmacological strategies for the treatment of cannabis addiction.

  2. Resting-state functional connectivity of ventral parietal regions associated with attention reorienting and episodic recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander M Daselaar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In functional neuroimaging studies, ventral parietal cortex (VPC is recruited by very different cognitive tasks. Explaining the contributions VPC to these tasks has become a topic of intense study and lively debate. Perception studies frequently find VPC activations during tasks involving attention-reorienting, and memory studies frequently find them during tasks involving episodic recollection. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM model, both phenomena can be explained by the same VPC function: bottom-up attention. Yet, a recent functional MRI (fMRI meta-analysis suggested that attention-reorienting activations are more frequent in anterior VPC, whereas recollection activations are more frequent in posterior VPC. Also, there is evidence that anterior and posterior VPC regions have different functional connectivity patterns. To investigate these issues, we conducted a resting-state functional connectivity analysis using as seeds the center-of-mass of attention-reorienting and recollection activations in the meta-analysis, which were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG, around the temporo-parietal junction—TPJ and in the angular gyrus (AG, respectively. The SMG seed showed stronger connectivity with ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC and occipito-temporal cortex, whereas the AG seed showed stronger connectivity with the hippocampus and default network regions. To investigate whether these connectivity differences were graded or sharp, VLPFC and hippocampal connectivity was measured in VPC regions traversing through the SMG and AG seeds. The results showed a graded pattern: VLPFC connectivity gradually decreases from SMG to AG, whereas hippocampal connectivity gradually increases from SMG to AG. Importantly, both gradients showed an abrupt break when extended beyond VPC borders. This finding suggests that functional differences between SMG and AG are more subtle than previously thought. These connectivity differences can be

  3. Abnormal ventral tegmental area-anterior cingulate cortex connectivity in Parkinson's disease with depression.

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    Wei, Luqing; Hu, Xiao; Yuan, Yonggui; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Hong

    2018-07-16

    Neuropathology suggests that Parkinson's disease (PD) with depression may involve a progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have shown that dopamine changes in individual brain regions constituting the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic circuits are associated with depression in PD. However, few studies have been conducted on the circuit-level alterations in this disease. The present study used resting-state fMRI and seed-based functional connectivity of putative dopaminergic midbrain regions (i.e., substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA)) to investigate the circuit-related abnormalities in PD with depression. The results showed that depressed PD (DPD) patients relative to healthy controls (HC) and non-depressed PD (NDPD) patients had increased functional connectivity between VTA and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), demonstrating that dysfunctional mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic neurotransmission may be associated with depression in PD. Compared with HC, DPD and NDPD patients showed increased functional connectivity from SN to sensorimotor cortex, validating that alterations in the nigrostriatal circuitry could be responsible for cardinal motor features in PD. In addition, aberrant connectivity between VTA and ACC was correlated with the severity of depression in PD patients, further supporting that abnormal mesocorticolimbic system may account for depressive symptoms in PD. These results have provided potential circuit-level biomarkers of depression in PD, and suggested that resting state functional connectivity of midbrain dopaminergic nuclei may be useful for understanding the underlying pathology in PD with depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Monetary discounting and ventral striatal dopamine receptor availability in nontreatment-seeking alcoholics and social drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Brandon G; Albrecht, Daniel S; Herring, Christine M; Walters, James W; Hile, Karen L; Kareken, David A; Yoder, Karmen K

    2015-06-01

    Dopamine (DA) in the ventral striatum (VST) has long been implicated in addiction pathologies, yet its role in temporal decision-making is not well-understood. To determine if VST DA D2 receptor availability corresponds with greater impulsive choice in both nontreatment-seeking alcoholics (NTS) and social drinkers (SD). NTS subjects (n = 10) and SD (n = 13) received PET scans at baseline with the D2/D3 radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC). Outside the scanner, subjects performed a delay discounting procedure with monetary rewards. RAC binding potential (BPND) was estimated voxelwise, and correlations were performed to test for relationships between VST BPND and delay discounting performance. Self-reported impulsivity was also tested for correlations with BPND. Across all subjects, greater impulsive choice for $20 correlated with lower BPND in the right VST. NTS showed greater impulsive choice than SD and were more impulsive by self-report. Across all subjects, the capacity of larger rewards to reduce impulsive choice (the magnitude effect) correlated negatively (p = 0.028) with problematic alcohol use (AUDIT) scores. Self-reported impulsivity did not correlate with BPND in VST. Preference for immediate reinforcement may reflect greater endogenous striatal DA or lower D2 number, or both. Alcoholic status did not mediate significant effects on VST BPND, suggesting minimal effects from alcohol exposure. The apparent lack of BPND correlation with self-reported impulsivity highlights the need for objective behavioral assays in the study of the neurochemical substrates of behavior. Finally, our results suggest that the magnitude effect may be more sensitive to alcohol-induced problems than single discounting measures.

  5. High-grade hemorrhoids requiring surgical treatment are common after laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iersel, J J; Formijne Jonkers, H A; Verheijen, P M; Draaisma, W A; Consten, E C J; Broeders, I A M J

    2016-04-01

    To describe patients developing grade III and IV hemorrhoids requiring surgery after laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy (LVMR) and to explore the relationship between developing such hemorrhoids and recurrence of rectal prolapse after LVMR. All consecutive patients receiving LVMR at the Meander Medical Centre, Amersfoort, the Netherlands, between 2004 and 2013 were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated for recurrences. A total of 420 patients underwent LVMR. Sixty-five of these patients (actuarial 5-year incidence 24.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 18.6-30.0) developed symptomatic grade III/IV hemorrhoids requiring stapled or excisional hemorrhoidectomy. Re-do surgery for recurrent grade III/IV hemorrhoids was required for 15 of the 65 patients (actuarial 5-year recurrence rate 40.6, 95 % CI 23.2-58.0) after the primary hemorrhoidectomy. Three of the 65 patients developed an external rectal prolapse (ERP) recurrence and eight an internal rectal prolapse (IRP) recurrence. This generated a 5-year recurrence rate of 25.3 % (95 % CI 0-53.9) for ERP recurrence and 24.4 % (95 % CI 9.1-39.7) for IRP recurrence. The rest of the LVMR cohort not receiving additional surgery for hemorrhoids (n = 355) showed significantly lower actuarial 5-year ERP (0.8 %, p = 0.011) and IRP (11 %, p = 0.020) recurrence rates. High-grade hemorrhoids requiring surgery may be common after LVMR. The development of high-grade hemorrhoids after LVMR might be considered a predictor of rectal prolapse recurrence.

  6. Laparoscopic ventral rectopexy is effective for solitary rectal ulcer syndrome when associated with rectal prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C; Ong, E; Jones, O M; Cunningham, C; Lindsey, I

    2014-03-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is uncommon and its management is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with SRUS who underwent laparoscopic ventral rectopexy (LVR). A review was performed of a prospective database at the Oxford Pelvic Floor Centre to identify patients between 2004 and 2012 with a histological diagnosis of SRUS. All were initially treated conservatively and surgical treatment was indicated only for patients with significant symptoms after failed conservative management. The primary end-point was healing of the ulcer. Secondary end-points included changes in the Wexner Constipation Score and Faecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI). Thirty-six patients with SRUS were identified (31 women), with a median age of 44 (15–81) years. The commonest symptoms were rectal bleeding (75%) and obstructed defaecation (64%). The underlying anatomical diagnosis was internal rectal prolapse (n = 20), external rectal prolapse (n = 14) or anismus (n = 2). Twenty-nine patients underwent LVR and one a stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) procedure. Nine (30%) required a further operation, six required posterior STARR for persistent SRUS and two a per-anal stricturoplasty for a narrowing at the healed SRUS site. Healing of the SRU was seen in 27 (90%) of the 30 patients and was associated with significant improvements in Wexner and FISI scores at a 3-year follow-up. Almost all cases of SRUS in the present series were associated with rectal prolapse. LVR resulted in successful healing of the SRUS with good function in almost all patients, but a significant number will require further surgery such as STARR for persistent obstructed defaecation.

  7. Different implications of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus on contextual memory retrieval after stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, C; Dorey, R; Henkous, N; Mons, N; Béracochéa, D

    2017-09-01

    This study assessed the relative contributions of dorsal (dHPC) and ventral (vHPC) hippocampus regions in mediating the rapid effects of an acute stress on contextual memory retrieval. Indeed, we previously showed that an acute stress (3 electric footschocks; 0.9 mA each) delivered 15 min before the 24 h-test inversed the memory retrieval pattern in a contextual discrimination task. Specifically, mice learned in a four-hole board two successive discriminations (D1 and D2) varying by the color and texture of the floor. Twenty-four hours later, nonstressed animals remembered accurately D1 but not D2 whereas stressed mice showed an opposite memory retrieval pattern, D2 being more accurately remembered than D1. We showed here that, at the time of memory testing in that task, stressed animals exhibited no significant changes neither in pCREB activity nor in the time-course evolution of corticosterone into the vHPC; in contrast, a significant decrease in pCREB activity and a significant increase in corticosterone were observed in the dHPC as compared to nonstressed mice. Moreover, local infusion of the anesthetic lidocaine into the vHPC 15 min before the onset of the stressor did not modify the memory retrieval pattern in nonstress and stress conditions whereas lidocaine infusion into the dHPC induced in nonstressed mice an memory retrieval pattern similar to that observed in stressed animals. The overall set of data shows that memory retrieval in nonstress condition involved primarily the dHPC and that the inversion of memory retrieval pattern after stress is linked to a dHPC but not vHPC dysfunction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Interleukin-10 Protection against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuro-Inflammation and Neurotoxicity in Ventral Mesencephalic Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Zhan; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-12-28

    Interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in the brain and can inhibit microglial activation. Herein, we utilized lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory Parkinson's disease (PD) cell model to determine whether microglia and astrocytes are necessary targets for IL-10 neuroprotection. Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cultures with different composition of neurons, microglia and astrocytes were prepared. The cells were exposed to IL-10 (15, 50 or 150 ng/mL) 1 h prior to LPS (50 ng/mL) treatment. LPS induced dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neuronal loss in VM cultures, VM neuron-enriched cultures, and neuron-microglia co-cultures, but not in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. IL-10 reduced LPS-induced neuronal loss particularly in single VM neuron cultures. Pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) were upregulated in both neuron-microglia and neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. In contrast, neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1 or glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) were downregulated in neuron-microglia co-cultures, but upregulated in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures by LPS. IL-10 reduced both the increase in production of the pro-inflammatory mediators and the decrease in production of the neurotrophic factors induced by LPS. These results suggest that astrocytes can balance LPS neurotoxicity by releasing more neurotrophic factors and that IL-10 exerts neuroprotective property by an extensive action including direct on neurons and indirect via inhibiting microglial activation.

  9. Opposite modulation of brain stimulation reward by NMDA and AMPA receptors in the ventral tegmental area.

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    Charles eDucrot

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that blockade of ventral midbrain (VM glutamate N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA receptors induces reward, stimulates forward locomotion and enhances brain stimulation reward. Glutamate induces two types of excitatory response on VM neurons, a fast and short lasting depolarisation mediated by a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA receptors and a longer lasting depolarization mediated by NMDA receptors. A role for the two glutamate receptors in modulation of VM neuronal activity is evidenced by the functional change in AMPA and NMDA synaptic responses that result from repeated exposure to reward. Since both receptors contribute to the action of glutamate on VM neuronal activity, we studied the effects of VM AMPA and NMDA receptor blockade on reward induced by electrical brain stimulation. Experiments were performed on rats trained to self-administer electrical pulses in the medial posterior mesencephalon. Reward thresholds were measured with the curve-shift paradigm before and for two hours after bilateral VM microinjections of the AMPA antagonist, NBQX (2,3,-Dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo(fquinoxaline-7-sulfonamide, 0, 80, and 800 pmol/0.5ul/side and of a single dose (0.825 nmol/0.5ul/side of the NMDA antagonist, PPPA (2R,4S-4-(3-Phosphonopropyl-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid. NBQX produced a dose-dependent increase in reward threshold with no significant change in maximum rate of responding. Whereas PPPA injected at the same VM sites produced a significant time dependent decrease in reward threshold and increase in maximum rate of responding. We found a negative correlation between the magnitude of the attenuation effect of NBQX and the enhancement effect of PPPA; moreover, NBQX and PPPA were most effective when injected respectively into the anterior and posterior VM. These results suggest that glutamate acts on different receptor sub-types, most likely located on different VM neurons, to modulate

  10. Human left ventral premotor cortex mediates matching of hand posture to object use.

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    Guy Vingerhoets

    Full Text Available Visuomotor transformations for grasping have been associated with a fronto-parietal network in the monkey brain. The human homologue of the parietal monkey region (AIP has been identified as the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, whereas the putative human equivalent of the monkey frontal region (F5 is located in the ventral part of the premotor cortex (vPMC. Results from animal studies suggest that monkey F5 is involved in the selection of appropriate hand postures relative to the constraints of the task. In humans, the functional roles of aIPS and vPMC appear to be more complex and the relative contribution of each region to grasp selection remains uncertain. The present study aimed to identify modulation in brain areas sensitive to the difficulty level of tool object - hand posture matching. Seventeen healthy right handed participants underwent fMRI while observing pictures of familiar tool objects followed by pictures of hand postures. The task was to decide whether the hand posture matched the functional use of the previously shown object. Conditions were manipulated for level of difficulty. Compared to a picture matching control task, the tool object - hand posture matching conditions conjointly showed increased modulation in several left hemispheric regions of the superior and inferior parietal lobules (including aIPS, the middle occipital gyrus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. Comparison of hard versus easy conditions selectively modulated the left inferior frontal gyrus with peak activity located in its opercular part (Brodmann area (BA 44. We suggest that in the human brain, vPMC/BA44 is involved in the matching of hand posture configurations in accordance with visual and functional demands.

  11. S175. AMOTIVATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH SMALLER VENTRAL STRIATUM VOLUMES IN OLDER PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Iwata, Yusuke; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mar, Wanna; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Chakravarty, Mallar; Mulsant, Benoit; Pollock, Bruce; Mamo, David; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, persist despite antipsychotic treatment, and predict long‐term outcomes. Evidence suggests that patients with greater amotivation have smaller ventral striatum (VS) volumes. We wished to replicate this finding in a sample of older, chronically medicated patients with schizophrenia. Using structural imaging and positron emission tomography, we examined whether amotivation uniquely predicted VS volumes beyond the effects of striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) blockade by antipsychotics. Methods Data from 41 older schizophrenia patients (mean age: 60.2 ± 6.7; 11 female) were reanalysed from previously published imaging data. We constructed multivariate linear stepwise regression models with VS volumes as the dependent variable and various sociodemographic and clinical variables as the initial predictors: age, gender, total brain volume, and antipsychotic striatal D2/3R occupancy. Amotivation was included as a subsequent step to determine any unique relationships with VS volumes beyond the contribution of the covariates. In a reduced sample (n = 36), general cognition was also included as a covariate. Results Amotivation uniquely explained 8% and 6% of the variance in right and left VS volumes, respectively (right: β = -.38, t = -2.48, P = .01; left: β = -.31, t = -2.17, P = .03). Considering cognition, amotivation levels uniquely explained 9% of the variance in right VS volumes (β = -.43, t = -0.26, P = .03). Discussion We replicate and extend the finding of reduced VS volumes with greater amotivation. We demonstrate this relationship uniquely beyond the potential contributions of striatal D2/3R blockade by antipsychotics. Elucidating the structural correlates of amotivation in schizophrenia may help develop treatments for this presently irremediable deficit.

  12. Amotivation is associated with smaller ventral striatum volumes in older patients with schizophrenia.

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    Caravaggio, Fernando; Fervaha, Gagan; Iwata, Yusuke; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Mar, Wanna; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Mulsant, Benoit; Pollock, Bruce; Mamo, David; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2018-03-01

    Motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, persist despite antipsychotic treatment, and predict long-term outcomes. Evidence suggests that patients with greater amotivation have smaller ventral striatum (VS) volumes. We wished to replicate this finding in a sample of older, chronically medicated patients with schizophrenia. Using structural imaging and positron emission tomography, we examined whether amotivation uniquely predicted VS volumes beyond the effects of striatal dopamine D 2/3 receptor (D 2/3 R) blockade by antipsychotics. Data from 41 older schizophrenia patients (mean age: 60.2 ± 6.7; 11 female) were reanalysed from previously published imaging data. We constructed multivariate linear stepwise regression models with VS volumes as the dependent variable and various sociodemographic and clinical variables as the initial predictors: age, gender, total brain volume, and antipsychotic striatal D 2/3 R occupancy. Amotivation was included as a subsequent step to determine any unique relationships with VS volumes beyond the contribution of the covariates. In a reduced sample (n = 36), general cognition was also included as a covariate. Amotivation uniquely explained 8% and 6% of the variance in right and left VS volumes, respectively (right: β = -.38, t = -2.48, P = .01; left: β = -.31, t = -2.17, P = .03). Considering cognition, amotivation levels uniquely explained 9% of the variance in right VS volumes (β = -.43, t = -0.26, P = .03). We replicate and extend the finding of reduced VS volumes with greater amotivation. We demonstrate this relationship uniquely beyond the potential contributions of striatal D 2/3 R blockade by antipsychotics. Elucidating the structural correlates of amotivation in schizophrenia may help develop treatments for this presently irremediable deficit. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Stress-related anhedonia is associated with ventral striatum reactivity to reward and transdiagnostic psychiatric symptomatology

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    Corral-Frías, Nadia S.; Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Michalski, Lindsay J.; Baranger, David A.A.; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Bogdan, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life stress (ELS) is consistently associated with increased risk for subsequent psychopathology. Individual differences in neural response to reward may confer vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Using data from the ongoing Duke Neurogenetics Study, the present study examined whether reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity moderates the relationship between retrospectively reported ELS and anhedonic symptomatology. We further assessed whether individual differences in reward-related VS reactivity were associated with other depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use via stress-related anhedonic symptoms and substance use-associated coping. Method Blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was collected while participants (n = 906) completed a card-guessing task, which robustly elicits VS reactivity. ELS, anhedonic symptoms, other depressive symptoms, coping behavior, and alcohol use behavior were assessed with self-report questionnaires. Linear regressions were run to examine whether VS reactivity moderated the relationship between ELS and anhedonic symptoms. Structural equation models examined whether this moderation was indirectly associated with other depression symptoms and problematic alcohol use through its association with anhedonia. Results Analyses of data from 820 participants passing quality control procedures revealed that the VS × ELS interaction was associated with anhedonic symptoms (p = 0.011). Moreover, structural equation models indirectly linked this interaction to non-anhedonic depression symptoms and problematic alcohol use through anhedonic symptoms and substance-related coping. Conclusions These findings suggest that reduced VS reactivity to reward is associated with increased risk for anhedonia in individuals exposed to ELS. Such stress-related anhedonia is further associated with other depressive symptoms and problematic alcohol use through substance-related coping

  14. Modulating central gain in tinnitus: changes in nitric oxide synthase in the ventral cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomber, Ben; Kowalkowski, Victoria L; Berger, Joel I; Palmer, Alan Richard; Wallace, Mark Nelson

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in tinnitus research lies in explaining how acoustic insult leads to tinnitus in some individuals, but not others. One possibility is genetic variability in the expression and function of neuromodulators - components of neural signaling that alter the balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits. An example is nitric oxide (NO) - a free radical and potent neuromodulator in the mammalian brain - that regulates plasticity via both pre-synaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Changes in NO have previously been implicated in tinnitus generation, specifically in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). Here, we examined nitric oxide synthase (NOS) - the enzyme responsible for NO production - in the guinea pig VCN following acoustic trauma. NOS was present in most cell types - including spherical and globular bushy cells, small, medium, and large multipolar cells, and octopus cells - spanning the entire extent of the VCN. The staining pattern was symmetrical in control animals. Unilateral acoustic over-exposure (AOE) resulted in marked asymmetries between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the VCN in terms of the distribution of NOS across the cochlear nuclei in animals with behavioral evidence of tinnitus: fewer NOS-positive cells and a reduced level of NOS staining was present across the whole extent of the contralateral VCN, relative to the ipsilateral VCN. The asymmetric pattern of NOS-containing cells was observed as early as 1 day after AOE and was also present in some animals at 3, 7, and 21 days after AOE. However, it was not until 8 weeks after AOE, when tinnitus had developed, that asymmetries were significant overall, compared with control animals. Asymmetrical NOS expression was not correlated with shifts in the threshold hearing levels. Variability in NOS expression between animals may represent one underlying difference that can be linked to whether or not tinnitus develops after noise exposure.

  15. Neuronal hyperexcitability in the ventral posterior thalamus of neuropathic rats: modality selective effects of pregabalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ryan; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2016-07-01

    Neuropathic pain represents a substantial clinical challenge; understanding the underlying neural mechanisms and back-translation of therapeutics could aid targeting of treatments more effectively. The ventral posterior thalamus (VP) is the major termination site for the spinothalamic tract and relays nociceptive activity to the somatosensory cortex; however, under neuropathic conditions, it is unclear how hyperexcitability of spinal neurons converges onto thalamic relays. This study aimed to identify neural substrates of hypersensitivity and the influence of pregabalin on central processing. In vivo electrophysiology was performed to record from VP wide dynamic range (WDR) and nociceptive-specific (NS) neurons in anesthetized spinal nerve-ligated (SNL), sham-operated, and naive rats. In neuropathic rats, WDR neurons had elevated evoked responses to low- and high-intensity punctate mechanical stimuli, dynamic brushing, and innocuous and noxious cooling, but less so to heat stimulation, of the receptive field. NS neurons in SNL rats also displayed increased responses to noxious punctate mechanical stimulation, dynamic brushing, noxious cooling, and noxious heat. Additionally, WDR, but not NS, neurons in SNL rats exhibited substantially higher rates of spontaneous firing, which may correlate with ongoing pain. The ratio of WDR-to-NS neurons was comparable between SNL and naive/sham groups, suggesting relatively few NS neurons gain sensitivity to low-intensity stimuli leading to a "WDR phenotype." After neuropathy was induced, the proportion of cold-sensitive WDR and NS neurons increased, supporting the suggestion that changes in frequency-dependent firing and population coding underlie cold hypersensitivity. In SNL rats, pregabalin inhibited mechanical and heat responses but not cold-evoked or elevated spontaneous activity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Synaptic neurotransmission depression in ventral tegmental dopamine neurons and cannabinoid-associated addictive learning.

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    Zhiqiang Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is an association of compulsive drug use with long-term associative learning/memory. Multiple forms of learning/memory are primarily subserved by activity- or experience-dependent synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. Recent studies suggest LTP expression in locally activated glutamate synapses onto dopamine neurons (local Glu-DA synapses of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA following a single or chronic exposure to many drugs of abuse, whereas a single exposure to cannabinoid did not significantly affect synaptic plasticity at these synapses. It is unknown whether chronic exposure of cannabis (marijuana or cannabinoids, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, induce LTP or LTD at these synapses. More importantly, whether such alterations in VTA synaptic plasticity causatively contribute to drug addictive behavior has not previously been addressed. Here we show in rats that chronic cannabinoid exposure activates VTA cannabinoid CB1 receptors to induce transient neurotransmission depression at VTA local Glu-DA synapses through activation of NMDA receptors and subsequent endocytosis of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunits. A GluR2-derived peptide blocks cannabinoid-induced VTA synaptic depression and conditioned place preference, i.e., learning to associate drug exposure with environmental cues. These data not only provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic depression at VTA dopamine circuitry requires GluR2 endocytosis, but also suggest an essential contribution of such synaptic depression to cannabinoid-associated addictive learning, in addition to pointing to novel pharmacological strategies for the treatment of cannabis addiction.

  17. Ventral tegmental area orexin 1 receptors promote palatable food intake and oppose postingestive negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Sarah J; Hyde, Kellie M; Kay, Kristen E; Greene, Hayden E; Maske, Calyn B; Knierim, Amanda E; Davis, Jon F; Williams, Diana L

    2016-09-01

    Hypothalamic orexin neurons project to numerous brain areas, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is involved in motivation and food-seeking behavior. Here we address how exogenously administered orexin-A and endogenous orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) activation in the VTA affects feeding behavior. We hypothesized that orexin-A and OX1R antagonist SB334867 delivered to the VTA, at doses that were subthreshold for effect when injected into the ventricle, would affect intake of palatable foods in multiple test situations. We first used a hedonic feeding model in which satiated rats selectively consume a high-fat diet (HFD). Intra-VTA orexin-A stimulated additional consumption of chow and increased HFD intake in this model. In ad libitum-fed rats given daily 30-min test sessions, intra-VTA orexin-A also increased intake of HFD and 0.1 M sucrose. Further analysis of licking patterns revealed that that VTA orexin-A increased meal size and licking burst size only toward the end of the meal. Consistent with this finding, a subthreshold dose of VTA orexin-A prevented intake suppression induced by gastrointestinal nutrient infusion. Surprisingly, intra-VTA orexin-A had no effect on operant responding for sucrose pellets on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. A role for endogenous VTA OX1R stimulation is supported by our finding that bilateral VTA injection of the selective OX1R antagonist SB334867 suppressed 0.1 M sucrose intake. Together, our data suggest that OX1R activity in the VTA facilitates food intake, potentially by counteracting postingestive negative feedback that would normally suppress feeding later in a meal. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Morphological identification and development of neurite in Drosophila ventral nerve cord neuropil.

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    Guangming Gan

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, ventral nerve cord (VNC occupies most of the larval central nervous system (CNS. However, there is little literature elaborating upon the specific types and growth of neurites as defined by their structural appearance in Drosophila larval VNC neuropil. Here we report the ultrastructural development of different types VNC neurites in ten selected time points in embryonic and larval stages utilizing transmission electron microscopy. There are four types of axonal neurites as classified by the type of vesicular content: clear vesicle (CV neurites have clear vesicles and some T-bar structures; Dense-core vesicle (DV neurites have dense-core vesicles and without T-bar structures; Mixed vesicle (MV neurites have mixed vesicles and some T-bar structures; Large vesicle (LV neurites are dominated by large, translucent spherical vesicles but rarely display T-bar structures. We found dramatic remodeling in CV neurites which can be divided into five developmental phases. The neurite is vacuolated in primary (P phase, they have mitochondria, microtubules or big dark vesicles in the second (S phase, and they contain immature synaptic features in the third (T phase. The subsequent bifurcate (B phase appears to undergo major remodeling with the appearance of the bifurcation or dendritic growth. In the final mature (M phase, high density of commensurate synaptic vesicles are distributed around T-bar structures. There are four kinds of morphological elaboration of the CVI neurite sub-types. First, new neurite produces at the end of axon. Second, new neurite bubbles along the axon. Third, the preexisting neurite buds and develops into several neurites. The last, the bundled axons form irregularly shape neurites. Most CVI neurites in M phase have about 1.5-3 µm diameter, they could be suitable to analyze their morphology and subcellular localization of specific proteins by light microscopy, and they could serve as a potential model in CNS in vivo

  19. Morphological identification and development of neurite in Drosophila ventral nerve cord neuropil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Guangming; Lv, Huihui; Xie, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila, ventral nerve cord (VNC) occupies most of the larval central nervous system (CNS). However, there is little literature elaborating upon the specific types and growth of neurites as defined by their structural appearance in Drosophila larval VNC neuropil. Here we report the ultrastructural development of different types VNC neurites in ten selected time points in embryonic and larval stages utilizing transmission electron microscopy. There are four types of axonal neurites as classified by the type of vesicular content: clear vesicle (CV) neurites have clear vesicles and some T-bar structures; Dense-core vesicle (DV) neurites have dense-core vesicles and without T-bar structures; Mixed vesicle (MV) neurites have mixed vesicles and some T-bar structures; Large vesicle (LV) neurites are dominated by large, translucent spherical vesicles but rarely display T-bar structures. We found dramatic remodeling in CV neurites which can be divided into five developmental phases. The neurite is vacuolated in primary (P) phase, they have mitochondria, microtubules or big dark vesicles in the second (S) phase, and they contain immature synaptic features in the third (T) phase. The subsequent bifurcate (B) phase appears to undergo major remodeling with the appearance of the bifurcation or dendritic growth. In the final mature (M) phase, high density of commensurate synaptic vesicles are distributed around T-bar structures. There are four kinds of morphological elaboration of the CVI neurite sub-types. First, new neurite produces at the end of axon. Second, new neurite bubbles along the axon. Third, the preexisting neurite buds and develops into several neurites. The last, the bundled axons form irregularly shape neurites. Most CVI neurites in M phase have about 1.5-3 µm diameter, they could be suitable to analyze their morphology and subcellular localization of specific proteins by light microscopy, and they could serve as a potential model in CNS in vivo development.

  20. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) detection of endogenous octopamine in Drosophila melanogaster ventral nerve cord

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    Pyakurel, Poojan; Privman, Eve; Venton, B. Jill

    2016-01-01

    Octopamine is an endogenous biogenic amine neurotransmitter, neurohormone, and neuromodulator in invertebrates, and has functional analogy with norepinephrine in vertebrates. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) can detect rapid changes in neurotransmitters, but FSCV has not been optimized for octopamine detection in situ. The goal of this study was to characterize octopamine release in the ventral nerve cord of Drosophila larvae for the first time. An FSCV waveform was optimized so that the potential for octopamine oxidation would not be near the switching potential where interferences can occur. Endogenous octopamine release was stimulated by genetically inserting either the ATP sensitive channel, P2X2, or the red-light sensitive channelrhodopsin, CsChrimson, into cells expressing tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC), an octopamine synthesis enzyme. To ensure that release is due to octopamine and not the precursor tyramine, the octopamine synthesis inhibitor disulfiram was applied, and the signal decreased by 80%. Stimulated release was vesicular and a 2 s continuous light stimulation of CsChrimson evoked 0.22 ± 0.03 μM of octopamine release in the larval VNC. Repeated stimulations were stable with 2 or 5 minutes interstimulation times. With pulsed stimulations, the release was dependent on the frequency of applied light pulse. An octopamine transporter has not been identified, and blockers of the dopamine transporter and serotonin transporter had no significant effect on the clearance time of octopamine, suggesting they do not take up octopamine. This study shows that octopamine can be monitored in Drosophila, facilitating future studies of how octopamine release functions in the insect brain. PMID:27326831

  1. Neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion alters the dopamine content in the limbic regions in postpubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquicer, Glenda; Silva-Gómez, Adriana B; Peralta, Fernando; Flores, Gonzalo

    2004-04-01

    The neonatal ventral Hippocampus (nVH) lesion in rats has been used as a model to test the hypothesis that early neurodevelopmental abnormalities lead to behavioral changes putatively linked to schizophrenia. The schizophrenic patients tend to social isolation. In addition, considerable evidence from behavioral and neurochemistry studies strongly implicate the dopamine (DA) system and the medial part of the prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the pathophysiology of the social isolation syndrome. In order to assess effects of the postweaning social isolation (pwSI) on the DA system of the nVH lesions, we investigated the DA content and its metabolite, DOPAC in different limbic subregions in rats postpubertally at postnatal day (P) 78 following nVH lesions at P7 with and without pwSI for 8 weeks. The DA and DOPAC were measured by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The nVH lesion induces increase in the DA content in the hippocampus with no effect in the mPFC, nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen, while the pwSI induces major increase in the DA content in limbic subregions such as the mPFC, nucleus accumbens and hipocampus with opposite effect in the caudate-putamen. These results suggest that while pwSI has an effect in the postpubertal content of DA in both sham and nVH lesions in rats, the nVH-lesioned rats appear to be affected to a greater extent than the sham animals underscoring the influence of pwSI differences in the development of behaviors in the nVH-lesioned animals.

  2. Decision-making in the ventral premotor cortex harbinger of action

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    José L. ePardo-Vázquez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the premotor cortex (PM was once viewed as the substrate of pure motor functions, soon it was realized that it was involved in higher brain functions. By this it is meant that the PM cortex functions would better be explained as motor set, preparation for limb movement or sensory guidance of movement rather than solely by a fixed link to motor performance. These findings, together with a better knowledge of the PM cortex histology and hodology in human and non-human primates prompted quantitative studies of this area combining behavioral tasks with electrophysiological recordings. In addition, the exploration of the PM cortex neurons with qualitative methods also suggested its participation in higher functions. Behavioral choices frequently depend on temporal cues, which together with knowledge of previous outcomes and expectancies are combined to decide and choose a behavioral action. In decision-making the knowledge about the consequences of decisions, either correct or incorrect, is fundamental because they can be used to adapt future behavior. The neuronal correlates of a decision process have been described in several cortical areas of primates. Among them, there is evidence that the monkey ventral premotor cortex (PMv, an anatomical and physiological well-differentiated area of the PM cortex, supports both perceptual decisions and performance monitoring. Here we review the evidence that the steps in a decision making process are encoded in the firing rate of the PMv neurons. This provides compelling evidence suggesting that the PMv is involved in the use of recent and long-term sensory memory to decide, execute and evaluate the outcomes of the subjects’ choices.

  3. Pilot study on objective measurement of abdominal wall strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael; Goldberg, Ross F; Dinkins, Maryane M; Asbun, Horacio J; Daniel Smith, C; Preissler, Susanne; Bowers, Steven P

    2011-11-01

    Outcomes after ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair are measured by recurrence rate and subjective measures. No objective metrics evaluate functional outcomes after abdominal wall reconstruction. This study aimed to develop testing of abdominal wall strength (AWS) that could be validated as a useful metric. Data were prospectively collected during 9 months from 35 patients. A total of 10 patients were evaluated before and after VIH repair, for a total of 45 encounters. The patients were tested simultaneously or in succession by two of three examiners. Data were collected for three tests: double leg lowering (DLL), trunk raising (TR), and supine reaching (SR). Raw data were compared and tested for validity, and continuous data were transformed to categorical data. Agreement was measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for DLL and using kappa for the ordinal measures. Simultaneous testing yielded the following interobserver reliability: DLL (0.96 and 0.87), TR (1.00 and 0.95), and SR (0.76). Reproducibility was assessed by consecutive tests, with correlation as follows: DLL (0.81), TR (0.81), and RCH (0.21). Due to poor interobserver reliability for the SR test compared with the DLL and TR tests, the SR test was excluded from calculation of an overall score. Based on raw data distribution from the DLL and TR tests, the DLL data were categorized into 10º increments, allowing construction of a 10-point score. The median AWS score was 5 (interquartile range [IQR], 4-7), and there was agreement within 1 point for 42 of the 45 encounters (93%). The findings from this study demonstrate that the 10-point AWS score may measure AWS in an accurate and reproducible fashion, with potential for objective description of abdominal wall function of VIH patients. This score may help to identify patients suited for abdominal wall reconstruction while measuring progress after VIH repair. Further longitudinal outcomes studies are needed.

  4. Activation of midbrain and ventral striatal regions implicates salience processing during a modified beads task.

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    Christine Esslinger

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metacognition, i.e. critically reflecting on and monitoring one's own reasoning, has been linked behaviorally to the emergence of delusions and is a focus of cognitive therapy in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the neural processing underlying metacognitive function. To address this issue, we studied brain activity during a modified beads task which has been used to measure a "Jumping to Conclusions" (JTC bias in schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify neural systems active in twenty-five healthy subjects when solving a modified version of the "beads task", which requires a probabilistic decision after a variable amount of data has been requested by the participants. We assessed brain activation over the duration of a trial and at the time point of decision making. RESULTS: Analysis of activation during the whole process of probabilistic reasoning showed an extended network including the prefronto-parietal executive functioning network as well as medial parieto-occipital regions. During the decision process alone, activity in midbrain and ventral striatum was detected, as well as in thalamus, medial occipital cortex and anterior insula. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that probabilistic reasoning shares neural substrates with executive functions. In addition, our finding that brain regions commonly associated with salience processing are active during probabilistic reasoning identifies a candidate mechanism that could underlie the behavioral link between dopamine-dependent aberrant salience and JTC in schizophrenia. Further studies with delusional schizophrenia patients will have to be performed to substantiate this link.

  5. Decision-Making in the Ventral Premotor Cortex Harbinger of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Vazquez, Jose L.; Padron, Isabel; Fernandez-Rey, Jose; Acuña, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Although the premotor (PM) cortex was once viewed as the substrate of pure motor functions, soon it was realized that it was involved in higher brain functions. By this it is meant that the PM cortex functions would better be explained as motor set, preparation for limb movement, or sensory guidance of movement rather than solely by a fixed link to motor performance. These findings, together with a better knowledge of the PM cortex histology and hodology in human and non-human primates prompted quantitative studies of this area combining behavioral tasks with electrophysiological recordings. In addition, the exploration of the PM cortex neurons with qualitative methods also suggested its participation in higher functions. Behavioral choices frequently depend on temporal cues, which together with knowledge of previous outcomes and expectancies are combined to decide and choose a behavioral action. In decision-making the knowledge about the consequences of decisions, either correct or incorrect, is fundamental because they can be used to adapt future behavior. The neuronal correlates of a decision process have been described in several cortical areas of primates. Among them, there is evidence that the monkey ventral premotor (PMv) cortex, an anatomical and physiological well-differentiated area of the PM cortex, supports both perceptual decisions and performance monitoring. Here we review the evidence that the steps in a decision-making process are encoded in the firing rate of the PMv neurons. This provides compelling evidence suggesting that the PMv is involved in the use of recent and long-term sensory memory to decide, execute, and evaluate the outcomes of the subjects’ choices. PMID:21991249

  6. Decoding Speech With Integrated Hybrid Signals Recorded From the Human Ventral Motor Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ibayashi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of speech communication for locked-in patients by means of brain computer interfaces (BCIs is currently an important area of active research. Among the neural signals obtained from intracranial recordings, single/multi-unit activity (SUA/MUA, local field potential (LFP, and electrocorticography (ECoG are good candidates for an input signal for BCIs. However, the question of which signal or which combination of the three signal modalities is best suited for decoding speech production remains unverified. In order to record SUA, LFP, and ECoG simultaneously from a highly localized area of human ventral sensorimotor cortex (vSMC, we fabricated an electrode the size of which was 7 by 13 mm containing sparsely arranged microneedle and conventional macro contacts. We determined which signal modality is the most capable of decoding speech production, and tested if the combination of these signals could improve the decoding accuracy of spoken phonemes. Feature vectors were constructed from spike frequency obtained from SUAs and event-related spectral perturbation derived from ECoG and LFP signals, then input to the decoder. The results showed that the decoding accuracy for five spoken vowels was highest when features from multiple signals were combined and optimized for each subject, and reached 59% when averaged across all six subjects. This result suggests that multi-scale signals convey complementary information for speech articulation. The current study demonstrated that simultaneous recording of multi-scale neuronal activities could raise decoding accuracy even though the recording area is limited to a small portion of cortex, which is advantageous for future implementation of speech-assisting BCIs.

  7. GABAA receptor drugs and neuronal plasticity in reward and aversion: focus on the ventral tegmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eVashchinkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available GABAA receptors are the main fast inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the mammalian brain, and targets for many clinically important drugs widely used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia and in anesthesia. Nonetheless, there are significant risks associated with the long-term use of these drugs particularly related to development of tolerance and addiction. Addictive mechanisms of GABAA receptor drugs are poorly known, but recent findings suggest that those drugs may induce aberrant neuroadaptations in the brain reward circuitry. Recently, benzodiazepines, acting on synaptic GABAA receptors, and modulators of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (THIP and neurosteroids have been found to induce plasticity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA dopamine neurons and their main target projections. Furthermore, depending whether synaptic or extrasynaptic GABAA receptor populations are activated, the behavioral outcome of repeated administration seems to correlate with rewarding or aversive behavioral responses, respectively. The VTA dopamine neurons project to forebrain centers such as the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, and receive afferent projections from these brain regions and especially from the extended amygdala and lateral habenula, forming the major part of the reward and aversion circuitry. Both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA drugs inhibit the VTA GABAergic interneurons, thus activating the VTA DA neurons by disinhibition and this way inducing glutamatergic synaptic plasticity. However, the GABAA drugs failed to alter synaptic spine numbers as studied from Golgi-Cox-stained VTA dendrites. Since the GABAergic drugs are known to depress the brain metabolism and gene expression, their likely way of inducing neuroplasticity in mature neurons is by disinhibiting the principal neurons, which remains to be rigorously tested for a number of clinically important anxiolytics, sedatives and anesthetics in different parts of

  8. Salsolinol facilitates glutamatergic transmission to dopamine neurons in the posterior ventral tegmental area of rats.

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    Guiqin Xie

    Full Text Available Although in vivo evidence indicates that salsolinol, the condensation product of acetaldehyde and dopamine, has properties that may contribute to alcohol abuse, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We have reported previously that salsolinol stimulates dopamine neurons in the posterior ventral tegmental area (p-VTA partly by reducing inhibitory GABAergic transmission, and that ethanol increases glutamatergic transmission to VTA-dopamine neurons via the activation of dopamine D(1 receptors (D(1Rs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that salsolinol stimulates dopamine neurons involving activation of D(1Rs. By using whole-cell recordings on p-VTA-dopamine neurons in acute brain slices of rats, we found that salsolinol-induced increase in spike frequency of dopamine neurons was substantially attenuated by DL-2-amino-5-phosphono-valeric acid and 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione, the antagonists of glutamatergic N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Moreover, salsolinol increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs. Additionally, SKF83566, a D(1R antagonist attenuated the salsolinol-induced facilitation of EPSCs and of spontaneous firing of dopamine neurons. Our data reveal that salsolinol enhances glutamatergic transmission onto dopamine neurons via activation of D(1Rs at the glutamatergic afferents in dopamine neurons, which contributes to salsolinol's stimulating effect on p-VTA dopamine neurons. This appears to be a novel mechanism which contributes toward rewarding properties of salsolinol.

  9. Modulating central gain in tinnitus: Changes in nitric oxide synthase in the ventral cochlear nucleus

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    Ben eCoomber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant challenge in tinnitus research lies in explaining how acoustic insult leads to tinnitus in some individuals, but not others. One possibility is genetic variability in the expression and function of neuromodulators – components of neural signalling that alter the balance of excitation and inhibition in neural circuits. An example is nitric oxide (NO – a free radical and potent neuromodulator in the mammalian brain – that regulates plasticity via both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Changes in NO have previously been implicated in tinnitus generation, specifically in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN. Here, we examined nitric oxide synthase (NOS – the enzyme responsible for NO production – in the guinea pig VCN following acoustic trauma. NOS was present in most cell types – including spherical and globular bushy cells, small, medium and large multipolar cells, and octopus cells – spanning the entire extent of the VCN. The staining pattern was symmetrical in control animals. Unilateral acoustic over-exposure (AOE resulted in marked asymmetries between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the VCN in terms of the distribution of NOS across the cochlear nuclei in animals with behavioural evidence of tinnitus: fewer NOS-positive cells and a reduced level of NOS staining was present across the whole extent of the contralateral VCN, relative to the ipsilateral VCN. The asymmetric pattern of NOS-containing cells was observed as early as one day after AOE and was also present in some animals at 3, 7 and 21 days after AOE. However it was not until eight weeks after AOE, when tinnitus had developed, that asymmetries were significant overall, compared with control animals. Asymmetrical NOS expression was not correlated with shifts in the threshold hearing levels. Variability in NOS expression between animals may represent one underlying difference that can be linked to whether or not tinnitus develops after noise

  10. HIV Distal Neuropathic Pain Is Associated with Smaller Ventral Posterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, John R; Connolly, Colm G; Vaida, Florin; Jenkinson, Mark; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah; Akkari, Cherine; Schlein, Alexandra; Lee, Jisu; Wang, Dongzhe; Kim, Sung; Li, Han; Rennels, Austin; Miller, David J; Kesidis, George; Franklin, Donald R; Sanders, Chelsea; Corkran, Stephanie; Grant, Igor; Brown, Gregory G; Atkinson, J Hampton; Ellis, Ronald J

    2017-03-01

    . Despite modern antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neuropathy is one of the most prevalent, disabling and treatment-resistant complications of HIV disease. The presence and intensity of distal neuropathic pain is not fully explained by the degree of peripheral nerve damage. A better understanding of brain structure in HIV distal neuropathic pain may help explain why some patients with HIV neuropathy report pain while the majority does not. Previously, we reported that more intense distal neuropathic pain was associated with smaller total cerebral cortical gray matter volumes. The objective of this study was to determine which parts of the cortex are smaller. . HIV positive individuals with and without distal neuropathic pain enrolled in the multisite (N = 233) CNS HIV Antiretroviral Treatment Effects (CHARTER) study underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate regional brain volumes in these structural brain images. . Left ventral posterior cingulate cortex was smaller for HIV positive individuals with versus without distal neuropathic pain (peak P  = 0.017; peak t = 5.15; MNI coordinates x = -6, y = -54, z = 20). Regional brain volumes within cortical gray matter structures typically associated with pain processing were also smaller for HIV positive individuals having higher intensity ratings of distal neuropathic pain. . The posterior cingulate is thought to be involved in inhibiting the perception of painful stimuli. Mechanistically a smaller posterior cingulate cortex structure may be related to reduced anti-nociception contributing to increased distal neuropathic pain. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Assessment of cytochrome C oxidase dysfunction in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area in schizophrenia.

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    Matthew W Rice

    Full Text Available Perturbations in metabolism are a well-documented but complex facet of schizophrenia pathology. Optimal cellular performance requires the proper functioning of the electron transport chain, which is constituted by four enzymes located within the inner membrane of mitochondria. These enzymes create a proton gradient that is used to power the enzyme ATP synthase, producing ATP, which is crucial for the maintenance of cellular functioning. Anomalies in a single enzyme of the electron transport chain are sufficient to cause disruption of cellular metabolism. The last of these complexes is the cytochrome c oxidase (COX enzyme, which is composed of thirteen different subunits. COX is a major site for oxidative phosphorylation, and anomalies in this enzyme are one of the most frequent causes of mitochondrial pathology. The objective of the present report was to assess if metabolic anomalies linked to COX dysfunction may contribute to substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA pathology in schizophrenia. We tested COX activity in postmortem SN/VTA from schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. We also tested the protein expression of key subunits for the assembly and activity of the enzyme, and the effect of antipsychotic medication on subunit expression. COX activity was not significantly different between schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. However, we found significant decreases in the expression of subunits II and IV-I of COX in schizophrenia. Interestingly, these decreases were observed in samples containing the entire rostro-caudal extent of the SN/VTA, while no significant differences were observed for samples containing only mid-caudal regions of the SN/VTA. Finally, rats chronically treated with antipsychotic drugs did not show significant changes in COX subunit expression. These findings suggest that COX subunit expression may be compromised in specific sub-regions of the SN/VTA (i.e. rostral regions, which may lead to a faulty

  12. Effect of ouabain on intracellular Na+ and K+ in the ventral epidermis of the larval bullfrog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.H.; Mills, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The ventral skin of the tadpole has a high affinity receptor for ouabain that is distributed throughout the epithelium. However, the short-circuit current (SCC) is inhibited by only 50% after 2 hrs of treatment with 10 -2 M ouabain. They investigated if the incomplete inhibition could be explained by a prolonged time of Na + gain and K + loss. After 1 hr of treatment with 5 x 10 -4 M ouabain, the Na + , in epidermis that had been separated from the dermis with collagenase and hydrostatic pressure, increased from 48.8 +/- 3.3 mM to 66.2 +/- 4.9 mM (P + decreased from 115 +/- 7 mM to 104 +/- 9 mM (P + was from 41.4 +/- 2.4 mM to 73.3 +/- 4.3 mM (P + changed from 113 +/- 10 mM to 85.9 +/- 5.3 mM (P + curve (14.7 mM/hr) not significantly different from the absolute value of the slope of the K + curve (-13.8 mM/hr). Cell volume, determined by use of 14 C-urea and expressed as μl/mg dry weight, is unchanged from 4.83 +/- 0.40 for the control, 5.08 +/- 0.60 after 1 hr and 4.38 +/- 0.29 after 2 hrs of ouabain. They propose that the slow decline of SCC after exposure to ouabain is due to a low Na + permeability which results in a slow gain of Na + across the apical membrane, and a concurrent loss of K + across the basolateral membrane

  13. Right ventral frontal hypometabolism and abnormal sense of self in a case of disproportionate retrograde amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolino, Pascale; Hannequin, Didier; Desgranges, Beatrice; Girard, Carole; Beaunieux, Helene; Giffard, Benedicte; Lebreton, Karine; Eustache, Francis

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old man (patient CL) who developed a particular profile of amnesia with two dates of onset. At the first onset, the patient suffered a mild/lmoderate injury that accounts for an initial anterograde and mild retrograde memory impairment. At the second onset, 8 months later, he suffered a sudden and persistent loss of personal identity and severe retrograde amnesia. We report an extensive neuropsychological investigation of his memory systems carried out 18 months after the second onset. Results indicated mild executive dysfunction (primary memory), intact procedural skills and perceptual representational system. In accordance with Kopelman's methodological recommendations, we have reliably compared post- and pre-onset semantic and episodic memory using strict matched procedures. We found that post-onset, though not pre-onset semantic (autobiographical and nonautobiographical) memory was entirely preserved. Post-onset episodic autobiographical memory was not intact, however, although it was clearly less affected compared with the total absence of the pre-onset memory. Moreover, a novel and high standard investigation of the subjective states of consciousness, which accompanied retrieval of autobiographical memories via the Remember/lKnow (R/lK) paradigm with a long time interval from the present, demonstrated a deterioration of R responses compared to matched controls. Interestingly, this result showed deficient autonoetic consciousness and suggested an underlying accelerated forgetting rate for post-onset autobiographical episodic memories. Last, a [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose resting PET study revealed a significant right-sided ventral frontal lobe hypometabolism in the absence of overt structural lesions. The involvement of this region is consistent with CL's autobiographical retrograde amnesia and his inability to re-experience information concerning the self across time. In our particular case, characterised by two dates of onset, the

  14. Role of dopamine receptors in the ventral tegmental area in conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro; Reimer, Adriano Edgar; Brandão, Marcus Lira

    2009-05-16

    The increased startle reflex in the presence of a stimulus that has been previously paired with footshock has been termed fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and is considered a reliable index of anxiety. Some studies have suggested an association between stressful situations and alterations in dopaminergic (DA) transmission. Many studies converge on the hypothesis that the mesocorticolimbic pathway, originating from DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), is particularly sensitive to fear-arousing stimuli. The present study explored the involvement of VTA DA receptors in the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear to a light conditioned stimulus (CS). We evaluated the effects of intra-VTA administration of SKF 38393 (D(1) agonist), SCH 23390 (D(1) antagonist), quinpirole (D(2) agonist), and sulpiride (D(2) antagonist) on FPS. All drugs were administered bilaterally into the VTA (1.0 microg/0.2 microl/site). Locomotor activity/exploration and motor coordination were evaluated in the open-field and rotarod tests. None of the drugs produced significant effects on FPS when injected before conditioning, indicating that VTA DA receptors are not involved in the acquisition of conditioned fear to a light-CS. In contrast, when injected before the test session, quinpirole significantly reduced FPS, whereas the other drugs had no effect. Quinpirole's ability to decrease FPS may be the result of an action on VTA D(2) presynaptic autoreceptors that decrease dopamine levels in terminal fields of the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Altogether, the present results suggest the importance of VTA DA neurons in the fear-activating effects of Pavlovian conditioning. In addition to demonstrating the importance of dopaminergic mechanisms in the motivational consequences of footshock, the present findings also indicate that these neural circuits are mainly involved in the expression, rather than acquisition, of conditioned fear.

  15. Synaptic Neurotransmission Depression in Ventral Tegmental Dopamine Neurons and Cannabinoid-Associated Addictive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Han, Jing; Jia, Lintao; Maillet, Jean-Christian; Bai, Guang; Xu, Lin; Jia, Zhengping; Zheng, Qiaohua; Zhang, Wandong; Monette, Robert; Merali, Zul; Zhu, Zhou; Wang, Wei; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Drug addiction is an association of compulsive drug use with long-term associative learning/memory. Multiple forms of learning/memory are primarily subserved by activity- or experience-dependent synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Recent studies suggest LTP expression in locally activated glutamate synapses onto dopamine neurons (local Glu-DA synapses) of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) following a single or chronic exposure to many drugs of abuse, whereas a single exposure to cannabinoid did not significantly affect synaptic plasticity at these synapses. It is unknown whether chronic exposure of cannabis (marijuana or cannabinoids), the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, induce LTP or LTD at these synapses. More importantly, whether such alterations in VTA synaptic plasticity causatively contribute to drug addictive behavior has not previously been addressed. Here we show in rats that chronic cannabinoid exposure activates VTA cannabinoid CB1 receptors to induce transient neurotransmission depression at VTA local Glu-DA synapses through activation of NMDA receptors and subsequent endocytosis of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunits. A GluR2-derived peptide blocks cannabinoid-induced VTA synaptic depression and conditioned place preference, i.e., learning to associate drug exposure with environmental cues. These data not only provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic depression at VTA dopamine circuitry requires GluR2 endocytosis, but also suggest an essential contribution of such synaptic depression to cannabinoid-associated addictive learning, in addition to pointing to novel pharmacological strategies for the treatment of cannabis addiction. PMID:21187978

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  17. A new look at the ventral nerve centre of Sagitta: implications for the phylogenetic position of Chaetognatha (arrow worms and the evolution of the bilaterian nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Carsten HG

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chaetognatha (arrow worms are a group of marine carnivores whose phylogenetic relationships are still vigorously debated. Molecular studies have as yet failed to come up with a stable hypothesis on their phylogenetic position. In a wide range of metazoans, the nervous system has proven to provide a wealth of characters for analysing phylogenetic relationships (neurophylogeny. Therefore, in the present study we explored the structure of the ventral nerve centre ("ventral ganglion" in Sagitta setosa with a set of histochemical and immunohistochemical markers. Results In specimens that were immunolabeled for acetylated-alpha tubulin the ventral nerve centre appeared to be a condensed continuation of the peripheral intraepidermal nerve plexus. Yet, synapsin immunolocalization showed that the ventral nerve centre is organized into a highly ordered array of ca. 80 serially arranged microcompartments. Immunohistochemistry against RFamide revealed a set of serially arranged individually identifiable neurons in the ventral nerve centre that we charted in detail. Conclusion The new information on the structure of the chaetognath nervous system is compared to previous descriptions of the ventral nerve centre which are critically evaluated. Our findings are discussed with regard to the debate on nervous system organisation in the last common bilaterian ancestor and with regard to the phylogenetic affinities of this Chaetognatha. We suggest to place the Chaetognatha within the Protostomia and argue against hypotheses which propose a deuterostome affinity of Chaetognatha or a sister-group relationship to all other Bilateria.

  18. A double dissociation of dorsal and ventral hippocampal function on a learning and memory task mediated by the dorso-lateral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert J; Jones, Jana; Richards, Blake; Hong, Nancy S

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to further delineate the neural circuits subserving proposed memory-based behavioural subsystems in the hippocampal formation. These studies were guided by anatomical evidence showing a topographical organization of the hippocampal formation. Briefly, perpendicular to the medial/lateral entorhinal cortex division there is a second system of parallel circuits that separates the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Recent work from this laboratory has provided evidence that the hippocampus incidentally encodes a context-specific inhibitory association during acquisition of a visual discrimination task. One question that emerges from this dataset is whether the dorsal or ventral hippocampus makes a unique contribution to this newly described function. Rats with neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal or ventral hippocampus were assessed on the acquisition of the visual discrimination task. Following asymptotic performance they were given reversal training in either the same or a different context from the original training. The results showed that the context-specific inhibition effect is mediated by a circuit that includes the ventral but not the dorsal hippocampus. Results from a control procedure showed that rats with either dorso-lateral striatum damage or dorsal hippocampal lesions were impaired on a tactile/spatial discrimination. Taken together, the results represent a double dissociation of learning and memory function between the ventral and dorsal hippocampus. The formation of an incidental inhibitory association was dependent on ventral but not dorsal hippocampal circuitry, and the opposite dependence was found for the spatial component of a tactile/spatial discrimination.

  19. A preliminary study of the sensory distribution of the penile dorsal and ventral nerves: implications for effective penile block for circumcision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Long, Ronan M

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensory innervation of the penis, as regional anaesthesia is often used either for postoperative analgesia or as the sole anaesthetic technique for circumcision. Since first described in 1978 the dorsal penile nerve block has become the standard technique, but some blocks are ineffective; a better understanding of the sensory innervation of the penis might improve the efficacy of the dorsal penile block technique. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 13 men undergoing circumcision with local anaesthetic, cutaneous sensation was tested before and after infiltration of the dorsal aspect of the penis, and then again after infiltration of the ventral aspect. The area of anaesthesia was mapped using pin-prick sensation. RESULTS: Ten of the 13 patients showed a similar pattern of sensory distribution. After the dorsal block, the dorsal aspect of the shaft of the penis and glans penis became insensate. The ventral aspect of the shaft remained sensate up to and including the frenulum. After successful ventral infiltration all sensate areas became insensate and circumcision proceeded. In one case the frenulum and distal ventral foreskin was anaesthetized after the dorsal block and ventral infiltration was not required. No patient experienced pain during circumcision. CONCLUSION: For consistently successful regional anaesthesia of the foreskin in circumcision, a dorsal block must be used. This should be combined with ventral infiltration at the site of incision. This method will avoid inconsistencies and allow pain-free circumcision using local anaesthesia in most men.

  20. Analgesic effects of tramadol, carprofen or multimodal analgesia in rats undergoing ventral laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegre Cannon, Coralie; Kissling, Grace E; Goulding, David R; King-Herbert, Angela P; Blankenship-Paris, Terry

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the analgesic efficacy of tramadol (an opioid-like analgesic), carprofen (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) and a combination of both drugs (multimodal therapy) in a rat laparotomy model. The authors randomly assigned rats to undergo either surgery (abdominal laparotomy with visceral manipulation and anesthesia) or anesthesia only. Rats in each group were treated with tramadol (12.5 mg per kg body weight), carprofen (5 mg per kg body weight), a combination of tramadol and carprofen (12.5 mg per kg body weight and 5 mg per kg body weight, respectively) or saline (anesthesia control group only; 5 mg per kg body weight). The authors administered analgesia 10 min before anesthesia, 4 h after surgery or (for the rats that received anesthesia only) anesthesia and 24 h after surgery or anesthesia. They measured locomotor activity, running wheel activity, feed and water consumption, body weight and fecal corticosterone concentration of each animal before and after surgery. Clinical observations were made after surgery or anesthesia to evaluate signs of pain and distress. The authors found that carprofen, tramadol and a combination of carprofen and tramadol were all acceptable analgesia regimens for a rat laparotomy model.

  1. Temporal lobe epilepsy and surgery selectively alter the dorsal, not the ventral, default-mode network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Eve Doucet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The default-mode network (DMN is a major resting-state network. It can be divided in 2 distinct networks: one is composed of dorsal and anterior regions (referred to as the dorsal DMN, dDMN, while the other involves the more posterior regions (referred to as the ventral DMN, vDMN. To date, no studies have investigated the potentially distinct impact of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE on these networks. In this context, we explored the effect of TLE and anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL on the dDMN and vDMN. We utilized 2 resting-state fMRI sessions from left, right TLE patients (pre-/post-surgery and normal controls (NCs, sessions 1/2. Using independent component analysis, we identified the 2 networks. We then evaluated for differences in spatial extent for each network between the groups, and across the scanning sessions. The results revealed that, pre-surgery, the dDMN showed larger differences between the three groups than the vDMN, and more particularly between right and left TLE than between the TLE patients and controls. In terms of change post-surgery, in both TLE groups, the dDMN also demonstrated larger changes than the vDMN. For the vDMN, the only changes involved the resected temporal lobe for each ATL group. For the dDMN, the left ATL group showed post-surgical increases in several regions outside the ictal temporal lobe. In contrast, the right ATL group displayed a large reduction in the frontal cortex. The results highlight that the 2 DMNs are not impacted by TLE and ATL in an equivalent fashion. Importantly, the dDMN was the more affected, with right ATL having a more deleterious effects on the dDMN than left ATL. We are the first to highlight that the dDMN more strongly bears the negative impact of TLE than the vDMN, suggesting there is an interaction between the side of pathology and DM subnetwork activity. Our findings have implications for understanding the impact TLE and subsequent ATL on the functions implemented by the distinct

  2. Predictors of outpatient resource utilization following ventral and incisional hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alex; Plymale, Margaret A; Davenport, Daniel L; Johnson, Sara E; Madabhushi, Vashisht V; Mastoroudis, Erica; Tancula, Charlie; Roth, John Scott

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about the predictors of increased ambulatory costs following open ventral and incisional hernia repair (VIHR); however, postoperative complications would be expected to be associated with an increased burden on outpatient resources. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of perioperative factors on outpatient resource utilization following VIHR. With IRB approval, the surgery scheduling system was queried to identify all cases of VIHR done at our institution over 3 years. Cases with other procedures done at time of VIHR were excluded. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program clinical data, physician billing data which included market and payor across cases, and medical record review data were combined and evaluated in order to quantify care and predictors of usage during the 6 months postoperatively. Data were analyzed for 308 patients. Median patient age was 52 years (SD = 13.3), and over half were female. The number of outpatient visits to the surgical office varied from 0 to 18 [median = 2; interquartile range (IQR) = 1-3]. CDC Wound Class >1 was associated with increase of mean 1.4 visits (IQR: 0.5-2.3); p = 0.003. Component separation, longer duration of operation, and increased mesh size were also predictive of increased number of office visits (p < 0.01). Postoperative infected seroma/seroma requiring drainage added a mean 2.3 visits (IQR: 1.3-3.3), (p < 0.001); and deep wound infection added a mean 3.9 visits (IQR: 1.9-5.9) (p < 0.001). Postoperative complications confer a significant burden for patients and to the outpatient surgical office. In an era in which improved quality and cost-efficiency has become imperative, measures to decrease risk of postoperative complications particularly for more complex VIHR would be expected to decrease resource utilization and increase value of care.

  3. Pelvic floor function following ventral rectopexy versus STARR in the treatment of obstructed defecation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, D F; Picciariello, A; Memeo, R; Fanelli, M; Digennaro, R; Chetta, N; De Fazio, M

    2018-04-01

    Obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS), most commonly found in females, can be treated by a transanal or abdominal approach with good success rate. Nevertheless, patients may experience de novo or persisting pelvic floor dysfunctions after surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcome of stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) and ventral rectopexy (VRP) in a series of ODS patients. Forty-nine female patients who had surgery for ODS between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively evaluated: 28 (median age 60 years, IQR 54-69 years) had VRP and 21 (median age 58 years, IQR 51-66 years) had STARR. ODS was scored with the ODS score while the overall pelvic floor function was assessed with the three axial perineal evaluation (TAPE) score. Quality-of-life was evaluated by the patient assessment of constipation quality-of-life (PAC-Qol) questionnaire administered preoperatively and after 1 year of follow-up. The preoperative median ODS score and TAPE score were comparable in both groups. After a median follow-up of 12 months (range 12-18 months), the median ODS score was 12 (range 10-20) in the STARR group and 9 (range 3-15) in the VRP one (p = 0.02), while the median TAPE score was 70.5 (IQR 60.6-77.3) in the former and 76.8 (IQR 70.2-89.7) in the latter (p = 0.01). Postoperatively the physical domain of the PAC-QoL score had a median value of 2.74 (IQR 1.7-3.75) in the STARR group compared to 1.5 (IQR 1-2.5) in the VRP group (p = 0.03). No major complications were recorded in either group. VRP and STARR can improve defecation in patients with ODS with minimal complications, but the overall pelvic wellness evaluated by the TAPE score improves significantly only after VRP, suggesting a better performance of VRP than STARR when overall pelvic floor function is concerned.

  4. Inflammation and vascular remodeling in the ventral hippocampus contributes to vulnerability to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Leary, J; Eacret, D; Chen, R; Takano, H; Nicholas, B; Bhatnagar, S

    2017-06-27

    During exposure to chronic stress, some individuals engage in active coping behaviors that promote resiliency to stress. Other individuals engage in passive coping that is associated with vulnerability to stress and with anxiety and depression. In an effort to identify novel molecular mechanisms that underlie vulnerability or resilience to stress, we used nonbiased analyses of microRNAs in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) to identify those miRNAs differentially expressed in active (long-latency (LL)/resilient) or passive (short-latency (SL)/vulnerable) rats following chronic social defeat. In the vHPC of active coping rats, miR-455-3p level was increased, while miR-30e-3p level was increased in the vHPC of passive coping rats. Pathway analyses identified inflammatory and vascular remodeling pathways as enriched by genes targeted by these microRNAs. Utilizing several independent markers for blood vessels, inflammatory processes and neural activity in the vHPC, we found that SL/vulnerable rats exhibit increased neural activity, vascular remodeling and inflammatory processes that include both increased blood-brain barrier permeability and increased number of microglia in the vHPC relative to control and resilient rats. To test the relevance of these changes for the development of the vulnerable phenotype, we used pharmacological approaches to determine the contribution of inflammatory processes in mediating vulnerability and resiliency. Administration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor-164 increased vulnerability to stress, while the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam attenuated vulnerability. Collectively, these results show that vulnerability to stress is determined by a re-designed neurovascular unit characterized by increased neural activity, vascular remodeling and pro-inflammatory mechanisms in the vHPC. These results suggest that dampening inflammatory processes by administering anti-inflammatory agents reduces

  5. Activity in ventral premotor cortex is modulated by vision of own hand in action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fadiga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Parietal and premotor cortices of the macaque monkey contain distinct populations of neurons which, in addition to their motor discharge, are also activated by visual stimulation. Among these visuomotor neurons, a population of grasping neurons located in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP shows discharge modulation when the own hand is visible during object grasping. Given the dense connections between AIP and inferior frontal regions, we aimed at investigating whether two hand-related frontal areas, ventral premotor area F5 and primary motor cortex (area F1, contain neurons with similar properties. Two macaques were involved in a grasping task executed in various light/dark conditions in which the to-be-grasped object was kept visible by a dim retro-illumination. Approximately 62% of F5 and 55% of F1 motor neurons showed light/dark modulations. To better isolate the effect of hand-related visual input, we introduced two further conditions characterized by kinematic features similar to the dark condition. The scene was briefly illuminated (i during hand preshaping (pre-touch flash, PT-flash and (ii at hand-object contact (touch flash, T-flash. Approximately 48% of F5 and 44% of F1 motor neurons showed a flash-related modulation. Considering flash-modulated neurons in the two flash conditions, ∼40% from F5 and ∼52% from F1 showed stronger activity in PT- than T-flash (PT-flash-dominant, whereas ∼60% from F5 and ∼48% from F1 showed stronger activity in T- than PT-flash (T-flash-dominant. Furthermore, F5, but not F1, flash-dominant neurons were characterized by a higher peak and mean discharge in the preferred flash condition as compared to light and dark conditions. Still considering F5, the distribution of the time of peak discharge was similar in light and preferred flash conditions. This study shows that the frontal cortex contains neurons, previously classified as motor neurons, which are sensitive to the observation of meaningful

  6. Postoperative analgesic efficiency of transversus abdominis plane block after ventral hernia repair: a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesov, Ion; Belîi, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    Effective postoperative analgesia is a key element in reducing postoperative morbidity, accelerating recovery and avoiding chronic postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP) block, performed before surgical incision, in providing postoperative analgesia for patients undergoing open ventral hernia repair under general anaesthesia. Seventy elective patients scheduled for open ventral hernia repair surgery under general anaesthesia were divided randomly into two equal groups: Group I received bilateral TAP block performed before surgical incision (n = 35); Group II received systemic postoperative analgesia with parenteral opioid (morphine) alone (n = 35). Postoperatively pain scores at rest and with movement, total morphine consumption and opioid related side effects were recorded. Postoperative pain scores at rest and mobilization/cough were significantly higher in patients without TAP block (p consumption was comparable between the two groups: 0.75 ± 0.31 mg in group I (TAP) and 0.86 ± 0.29 mg in group II (MO), p = 0.1299. Patients undergoing preincisional TAP block had reduced morphine requirements during the first 24 hours after surgery, compared to patients from group II, without TAP block (p = 0.0001). There was no difference in the incidence of opioid related side effects (nausea, vomiting) in the both groups during the first 24 postoperative hours. The use of preincisional ultrasound guided TAP block reduced the pain scores at rest and with movement/cough, opioid consumption and opioid-related side effects after ventral hernia repair when compared with opioid-only analgesia.

  7. Delayed action does not always require the ventral stream: a study on a patient with visual form agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Constanze; Schenk, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    It has been suggested that while movements directed at visible targets are processed within the dorsal stream, movements executed after delay rely on the visual representations of the ventral stream (Milner & Goodale, 2006). This interpretation is supported by the observation that a patient with ventral stream damage (D.F.) has trouble performing accurate movements after a delay, but performs normally when the target is visible during movement programming. We tested D.F.'s visuomotor performance in a letter-posting task whilst varying the amount of visual feedback available. Additionally, we also varied whether D.F. received tactile feedback at the end of each trial (posting through a letter box vs posting on a screen) and whether environmental cues were available during the delay period (removing the target only vs suppressing vision completely with shutter glasses). We found that in the absence of environmental cues patient D.F. was unaffected by the introduction of delay and performed as accurately as healthy controls. However, when environmental cues and vision of the moving hand were available during and after the delay period, D.F.'s visuomotor performance was impaired. Thus, while healthy controls benefit from the availability of environmental landmarks and/or visual feedback of the moving hand, such cues seem less beneficial to D.F. Taken together our findings suggest that ventral stream damage does not always impact the ability to make delayed movements but compromises the ability to use environmental landmarks and visual feedback efficiently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-