WorldWideScience

Sample records for genetically modified parthenocarpic

  1. Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM. Results Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82 transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher β-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC, when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. Conclusion The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment.

  2. Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy, or fruit development in the absence of fertilization, has been genetically engineered in eggplant and in other horticultural species by using the DefH9-iaaM gene. The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta. A previous greenhouse trial for winter production of genetically engineered (GM parthenocarpic eggplants demonstrated a significant increase (an average of 33% increase in fruit production concomitant with a reduction in cultivation costs. Results GM parthenocarpic eggplants have been evaluated in three field trials. Two greenhouse spring trials have shown that these plants outyielded the corresponding untransformed genotypes, while a summer trial has shown that improved fruit productivity in GM eggplants can also be achieved in open field cultivation. Since the fruits were always seedless, the quality of GM eggplant fruits was improved as well. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed during late stages of fruit development. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM parthenocarpic gene is a biotechnological tool that enhances the agronomic value of all eggplant genotypes tested. The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i improved fruit productivity (at least 30–35% under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii production of good quality (marketable fruits during different types of cultivation; iii seedless fruit with improved quality. Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.

  3. Role of gibberellins in parthenocarpic fruit development induced by the genetic system pat-3/pat-4 in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2001-04-01

    The role of gibberellins (GAs) in the induction of parthenocarpic fruit-set and growth by the pat-3/pat-4 genetic system in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated using wild type (WT; Cuarenteno) and a near-isogenic line derived from the German line RP75/59 (the source of pat-3/pat-4 parthenocarpy). Unpollinated WT ovaries degenerated but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of pat-3/pat-4 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone treatment, was not affected by applied GA3. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 fruit growth was negated by paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of ent-kaurene oxidase, and this inhibitory effect was negated by GA3. The quantification of the main GAs of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29 and GA44) in unpollinated ovaries at 3 developmental stages (flower bud, FB; pre-anthesis, PR; and anthesis, AN), by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring, showed that the concentration of most of them was higher in pat-3/pat-4 than in WT ovaries at PR and AN stages. The concentration of GA1, suggested previously to be the active GA in tomate, was 2-4 times higher. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 ovaries at FB, PR and AN stages also contained relatively high amounts (5-12 ng g-1) of GA3, a GA found at less than 0.5 ng g-1 in WT ovaries. It is concluded that the mutations pat-3/pat-4 may induce natural facultative parthenocarpy capacity in tomato by increasing the concentration of GA1 and GA3 in the ovaries before pollination.

  4. Genetically Modified Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claro Llaguno

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have brought to public attention concerns about Bt corn and genetically modified organisms (GMO in general. The timing, it seems, is most appropriate considering two related developments early this year: the final approval of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal on January 29, 2001, and the OECD Edinburgh Conference on GM food safety last February 28- March 1, 2001. The protocol makes clear that GMOs include all living modified organisms (LMO defined as "any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology". This includes seeds, live fish, and other organisms intentionally obtained for release to the environment. It would seem that the common understanding about GMOs as referring to farm-to-table products is perforce expanded to embrace genetically modified farm animals and aquatic resources. Being a trade agreement, the Montreal accord primarily deals with the safety issues related to the transboundary movement of LMOs around the globe. The OECD conference on the other hand, called for an international body "to address all sides of the GM debate" in response to the public outcry, particularly in Western Europe, regarding the risks the new products pose to human health and the environment. Some points of contention, which remain unresolved, include issues such as whether countries should be allowed to develop their own GM food based on their needs, and whether a global moratorium on GMOs and mandatory labeling should be enforced worldwide.

  5. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  6. Genetically Modified Agrifood Trade: Necessity Or Concerns?

    OpenAIRE

    Nurliza, Nurliza

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified agri-foods are genetically modified using biotechnology. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) advantages are the focus of much attention in world food markets. Genetically modified crop technology is claimed also to have great potential for the world€™s farmers and ultimately consumers, following initial success with genetically modified cotton varieties. Benefits for farmers could include greater productivity and less occupational health and environmental damage (e.g., ...

  7. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Simó

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  8. Metabolomics of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-10-20

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade.

  9. Metabolomics of Genetically Modified Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Carolina; Ibáñez, Clara; Valdés, Alberto; Cifuentes, Alejandro; García-Cañas, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomic-based approaches are increasingly applied to analyse genetically modified organisms (GMOs) making it possible to obtain broader and deeper information on the composition of GMOs compared to that obtained from traditional analytical approaches. The combination in metabolomics of advanced analytical methods and bioinformatics tools provides wide chemical compositional data that contributes to corroborate (or not) the substantial equivalence and occurrence of unintended changes resulting from genetic transformation. This review provides insight into recent progress in metabolomics studies on transgenic crops focusing mainly in papers published in the last decade. PMID:25334064

  10. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis provides insights into molecular mechanisms for parthenocarpic fruit development in eggplant (Solanum melongena L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Chen

    Full Text Available Genetic control of parthenocarpy, a desirable trait in edible fruit with hard seeds, has been extensively studied. However, the molecular mechanism of parthenocarpic fruit development in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is still unclear. To provide insights into eggplant parthenocarpy, the transcriptomic profiles of a natural parthenocarpic (PP05 and two non-parthenocarpic (PnP05 and GnP05 eggplant lines were analyzed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq technology. These sequences were assembled into 38925 unigenes, of which 22683 had an annotated function and 3419 were predicted as novel genes or from alternative splicing. 4864 and 1592 unigenes that were identified as DEGs between comparison groups PP05 vs PnP05 and PP05 vs GnP05, respectively. 506 common DEGs were found contained in both comparison groups, including 258 up-regulated and 248 down-regulated genes. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene set potentially associated with plant development. The most pronounced findings are that differentially regulated genes potentially-related with auxin signaling between parthenocarpic and non-parthenocarpic eggplants, e.g. calcium-binding protein PBP1 and transcription factor E2FB, which mediate the auxin distribution and auxin-dependent cell division, respectively, are up-regulated in the PP05; whereas homologs of GH3.1 and AUX/IAA, which are involved in inactivation of IAA and interference of auxin signaling, respectively, are down-regulated in PP05. Furthermore, gibberellin and cytokinin signaling genes and genes related to flower development were found differentially regulated between these eggplant lines. The present study provides comprehensive transcriptomic profiles of eggplants with or without parthenocarpic capacity. The information will deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of eggplant parthenocarpy. The DEGs, especially these filtered from PP05 vs PnP05 + GnP05, will be

  12. Genetically Modified Foods and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reci MESERI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To consume a balanced diet may prevent many illnesses. After the Second World War the “Green Revolution” was conducted to increase efficiency in agriculture. After its harmful effects on environment were understood genetically modified foods (GMO were served to combat hunger in the world. Today insufficiency in food product is not the main problem; imbalanced food distribution is the problem. In addition, GMO’s might be harmful for health and environment. Moreover economical dependency to industrialized countries will carry on. If the community tends to use up all the sources and the population increases steadily hunger will not be the only scarcity that the human population would face. There will also be shortage in energy and clean water resources. In conclusion combating just with hunger using high technology will only postpone the problems for a short period of time. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 455-460

  13. UNDERSTANDING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last sixteen years biotechnology, genetic engineering, transgenic organisms or genetically modified organisms (GMOs have been raising numerous controversies. In the scientific sphere, genetic engineering and GMOs represent a special challenge for geneticists, breeders and physicians, in philosophy it is a topic of interest for bioethicists and agricultural ethicists, environmentalists are interested in the interconnectictions between new technology and environment protection, for multinational companies this is a potential source of huge profits, and for certain governments they represent an instrument for strategic control of food production within their countries as well as internationally. By taking into account the views of both advocates and opponents of this "revolutionary" method, authors believe that we should not a priori reject new and insufficiently studied technologies, but that in this particular it is necessary to be extremely cautious, in other words that from (bioethical point of view only those GMO investigations limited to scientific purposes are justified, provided that all required precautions have been taken. Also, authors are of the opinion that in this region as well as in Europe as a whole, at this moment, transgenic organisms are not necessery, neither in agricultural production nor in the food chain. Arguments for such a statement are found primarily in the potential issues that intentional breeding of GMOs might inflict upon the human health and environment. Namely, if borders of individual species are not overstepped and if their endogenous traits are made stronger, the potential risk of causing irreparable damage for both present and future generations which may be brought by changed biological succession will be reduced, i.e. one of the four fundamental bioethical principles will be applied and that is the nonmaleficence. Further intentional decreasing of biodiversity should not be allowed, which means

  14. UNDERSTANDING OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last sixteen years biotechnology, genetic engineering, transgenic organisms or genetically modified organisms (GMOs have been raising numerous controversies. In the scientific sphere, genetic engineering and GMOs represent a special challenge for geneticists, breeders and physicians, in philosophy it is a topic of interest for bioethicists and agricultural ethicists, environmentalists are interested in the interconnectictions between new technology and environment protection, for multinational companies this is a potential source of huge profits, and for certain governments they represent an instrument for strategic control of food production within their countries as well as internationally. By taking into account the views of both advocates and opponents of this "revolutionary" method, authors believe that we should not a priori reject new and insufficiently studied technologies, but that in this particular it is necessary to be extremely cautious, in other words that from (bioethical point of view only those GMO investigations limited to scientific purposes are justified, provided that all required precautions have been taken. Also, authors are of the opinion that in this region as well as in Europe as a whole, at this moment, transgenic organisms are not necessery, neither in agricultural production nor in the food chain. Arguments for such a statement are found primarily in the potential issues that intentional breeding of GMOs might inflict upon the human health and environment. Namely, if borders of individual species are not overstepped and if their endogenous traits are made stronger, the potential risk of causing irreparable damage for both present and future generations which may be brought by changed biological succession will be reduced, i.e. one of the four fundamental bioethical principles will be applied and that is the nonmaleficence. Further intentional decreasing of biodiversity should not be allowed, which means

  15. Genetically Modified Products – Contradictions and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Pamfilie; Lavinia-Alexandra Cristescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the perception that consumers have about GM products, also taking into consideration the evolution of consumption and production of products based on genetically modified organisms. Therefore, the paper presents both aspects to clarify the concept of genetically modified organism (GMO issues such as typology, national or international regulations regarding this area) and global market development of genetically modified organisms, evolution which is presented by st...

  16. [Therapeutic approaches using genetically modified cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anliker, Brigitte; Renner, Matthias; Schweizer, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Medicinal products containing genetically modified cells are, in most cases, classified as gene therapy and cell therapy medicinal products. Although no medicinal product containing genetically modified cells has been licensed in Europe yet, a variety of therapeutic strategies using genetically modified cells are in different stages of clinical development for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. In this chapter, several examples of promising approaches are presented, with an emphasis on gene therapy for inherited immunodeficiencies and on tumour immunotherapy with genetically modified T-cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor or a recombinant T-cell receptor.

  17. Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: extension personnel's awareness of stewardship requirements and dissemination practices.

  18. Traceability of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Henk J M; van Rie, Jean-Paul P F; Kok, Esther J

    2002-01-01

    EU regulations stipulate the labeling of food products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) unless the GMO content is due to adventitious and unintended 'contamination' and not exceeding the 1% level at ingredient basis. In addition, member states have to ensure full traceability at all stages of the placing on the market of GMOs. Both requirements ensure consumers 'right to know', facilitate enforcement of regulatory requirements and are of importance for environmental monitoring and postmarket surveillance. Besides administrative procedures, such as used in quality certification systems, the significance of adequate molecular methods becomes more and more apparent. During the last decade a considerable number of molecular methods have been developed and validated that enable the detection, identification and quantification of GMO impurities. Most of them rely on the PCR technology and can only detect one specific stretch of DNA. It can, however, be anticipated that in the near future the situation will become more complex. The number of GMO varieties, including 'stacked-gene' varieties, which will enter the European Market will increase and it is likely that these varieties will harbor more variable constructs. New tools will be necessary to keep up with these developments. One of the most promising techniques is microarray analysis. This technique enables the screening for a large number of different GMOs within a single experiment.

  19. Detection of Genetically Modified Food: Has Your Food Been Genetically Modified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Diana L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the benefits and risks of genetically-modified foods and describes methods for genetically modifying food. Presents a laboratory experiment using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect foreign DNA in genetically-modified food. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  20. Public attitudes towards genetically-modified food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Ueland, O.; Frewer, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - This study aimed to investigate the impact of information about traceability and new detection methods for identifying genetically-modified organisms in food, on consumer attitudes towards genetically-modified food and consumer trust in regulators in Italy, Norway and England. It

  1. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    unselected for family history : a combined analysis of 22 studies. Am J Hum Genet 72:1117–1130. Antoniou AC, Beesley J, McGuffog L, Sinilnikova OM, Healey S...unselected for family history : a combined analysis of 22 studies. Am J Hum Genet 72: 1117–1130. 2. Antoniou AC, Chenevix-Trench G (2010) Common genetic ...variants and cancer risk in Mendelian cancer syndromes. Curr Opin Genet Dev 20: 299–307. S0959-437X(10)00044-4 [pii];10.1016/j.gde.2010.03.010 [doi]. 3

  2. AquAdvantage Salmon Genetically modified organism

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Saurí, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Póster AquAdvantage Salmon is a genetically modified organism developed by AquBounty Technologies. The objective of this transgenic organism is to increase the growth rate to obtain the same of conventional salmon faster.

  3. Philosophical Research on Genetically Modified Food

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study mainly analyzes the essential features of transgenic technology from the angle of philosophy, explaining the essential characteristics of transgenic technology, so as to promote the better development of genetically modified food. With the technical improvement, genetically modified food is no longer strange, which has been applied in the production of our life. Compared with the traditional biological breeding, transgenic food has changed significantly in nature. Trying to meet th...

  4. Consumer Perceptions of Genetically Modified Food

    OpenAIRE

    Hallman, William K.; Aquino, Helen L.

    2003-01-01

    Phone surveys were conducted with 1200 American adults in 2001 and in 2003 designed to track the strength, extent and persistence of consumers' attitudes toward genetically modified food. The results suggest that most Americans remain largely uninformed about GM foods and the topic is not often the subject of social discourse. Only 20% of Americans report having had more than one or two conversations about genetically modified foods. However, the results also suggest that support for GM foods...

  5. Genetically modified soybean plants and their ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants are developed by introgressing new genes using methods of molecular genetics and genetic engineering. The presence of these genes in plant genome is identified on the basis of specific oligonucleotides primers, and the use of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA fragments multiplication. Genetically modified plants such as soybean constitute a newly created bioenergetic potential whose gene expression can cause disturbance of the biological balance ecosystem, soil structure and soil microbiological activity. Genetically modified plants may acquire monogenic or polygenic traits causing genetic and physiological changes in these plants, which may elicit a certain reaction of the environment including changes of microbiological composition of soil rhizosphere. The aim of introgressing genes for certain traits into a cultivated plant is to enhance its yield and intensify food production. There are more and more genetically modified plant species such as soybean, corn, potato, rice and others and there is a pressure to use them as human food and animal feed. Genetically modified soybean plants with introgressed gene for resistance to total herbicides, such as Round-up, are more productive than non-modified herbicide-sensitive soybeans.

  6. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  7. Genetic Modifiers of Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Martin H.; Sebastiani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is associated with unusual clinical heterogeneity for a Mendelian disorder. Fetal hemoglobin concentration and coincident ∝ thalassemia, both which directly affect the sickle erythrocyte, are the major modulators of the phenotype of disease. Understanding the genetics underlying the heritable subphenotypes of sickle cell anemia would be prognostically useful, could inform personalized therapeutics, and might help the discovery of new “druggable” pathophysiologic targets. Genotype-phenotype association studies have been used to identify novel genetic modifiers. In the future, whole genome sequencing with its promise of discovering hitherto unsuspected variants could add to our understanding of the genetic modifiers of this disease. PMID:22641398

  8. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Athens, Greece (Yannoukakos, Fostira); Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia (Torres); Molecular Genetics of...education support from Succinct Health Communications and Janssen Pharmaceuticals . Dr Davidson reported having received funding from from Cancer

  9. Modifying Knowledge, Emotions, and Attitudes Regarding Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddy, Benjamin C.; Danielson, Robert W.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Graham, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether conceptual change predicted emotional and attitudinal change while learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). Participants were 322 college students; half read a refutation text designed to shift conceptual knowledge, emotions, and attitudes, while the other half served as a control group.…

  10. [Genetically modified food--unnecessary controversy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchórz, Michał; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Lewandowska-Stanek, Hanna; Szponar, Elzbieta; Szponar, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of genetic engineering and biotechnology allows use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) more and more in different branches of science and economy. Every year we can see an increase of food amount produced with the use of modification of genetic material. In our supermarkets we can find brand new types of plants, products including genetically modified ingredients or meat from animals fed with food containing GMO. This article presents general information about genetically modified organisms, it also explains the range of genetic manipulation, use of newly developed products and current field area for GMO in the world. Based on scientific data the article presents benefits from development of biotechnology in reference to modified food. It also presents the voice of skeptics who are extremely concerned about the impact of those organisms on human health and natural environment. Problems that appear or can appear as a result of an increase of GMO are very important not only from a toxicologist's or a doctor's point of view but first of all from the point of view of ordinary consumers--all of us.

  11. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved.

  12. Genetically Modified Foods and Consumer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Flavio; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified food is able to oppose the world's hunger and preserve the environment, even if the patents in this matter are symptomatic of several doubts. And also, transgenic consumption causes problems and skepticism among consumers in several European countries, but above all in Italy, where there is a strong opposition over recent years. So, the present study conducted a research to study the consumption of genetically modified food products by Italian young generation. This research presented the following purposes: firstly, to analyze genetically modified products' consumption among a particular category of consumers; secondly, to implement a quantitative model to understand behaviour about this particular kind of consumption and identify the factors that determine their purchase. The proposed model shows that transgenic consumption is especially linked to knowledge and impact on environment and mankind's health.

  13. Societal aspects of genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, L.J.; Lassen, J.; Kettlitz, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods......, and indeed the emerging biosciences more generally, is considered in the context of risk perceptions and attitudes, public trust in regulatory institutions, scientists and industry, and the need to develop communication strategies that explicitly include public concerns rather than exclude them. Increased...

  14. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Genetically modified plants: the stakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, G; Chupeau, Y

    2001-12-01

    Generically modified plants (GMP) are massively used on the American continent in Australia and in China, since they represent an unquestionable potential for progress. New attributes are therefore devoted to the human and animal diet, to the facilitating of culture management, to the reducing of the chemical fertilizer and pesticide usage, and to the conquest of new cultural spaces. Considering itself to be flawed by a too hasty plunge into the market, concomitant with sagging evaluations of other innovations, Europe is confronted by a strong societal debate which blocks GMP cultures and orientates the research towards an evaluation of the environmental and public health risks and an evaluation of their economical and sociological impacts. The authors encourage this societal debate in order to arbitrate the presence of transgenes in conventional productions and products, to define the accepted rules of responsibility, to decide what is not acceptable, and to involve the more upstream actors and operators of the innovation process, all that keeping in mind the agronomical, ecological and economical repercussions of their decisions.

  16. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Noordam, M.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has steadily increased since their introduction to the market in the mid-1990s. Before these crops can be grown and sold they have to obtain regulatory approval in many countries, the process of which includes a pre-market safety assessment. The

  17. Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the experiences...

  18. Addressing the Socioeconomic Impacts of Genetically Modified ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Mercosur (Mercado Común del Sur) countries of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay rank fifth in cotton production after China, India, the United Sates and Pakistan. But despite rapid diffusion of genetically modified (GM) cotton - and subsequent yield increases - most small-scale farmers continue to live in poverty. This is ...

  19. Genetically Modified Organisms : Public Knowledge, Attitudes and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While proponents argue that genetically modified crops can contribute to food security in developing countries, opponents maintain that their social and economic impacts are unknown and their long-term safety is not fully understood. ... Connaissances, attitudes et perceptions de la population à l'égard des OGM en Inde.

  20. Unpacking attitudes towards genetically modified food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liver, Y. de; Pligt, J. van der; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the structure of attitudes towards genetically modified (GM) food. A total of 431 respondents completed a questionnaire measuring their overall attitude, cognition and affect towards GM food. A model with distinct positive and negative, affective and cognitive

  1. Genetically modified plants: Decade of commercial cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2005 marks the beginning of the 10th consecutive year of commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants all around the world. The first GM variety of crops appeared on market during 1995 year and from that global area of biotech crops increased to 81 mil hectares in 2004. Genetically modified plant tolerant to herbicides, resistant to insects, improved quality have been developed. The use of GMO, their release into environment cultivation, utilization as food and feed is regulated in the EU by set of directives: 90/220, 2001/18, 2002/53, 1830/2003. Informer Yugoslavia the low about GMO was adopted in may 2001. That law consist of common regulation and it is in accordinance with EU regulation. Detection of genetic modification in seed and food could be done by PCR or ELISA methods.

  2. [Genetically modified food--great unknown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

    2012-08-01

    Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food.

  3. Genetically Modified Crops and Food Security

    OpenAIRE

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the firs...

  4. Globalisation, Powerty and Genetically Modified Agricultural Product

    OpenAIRE

    Aktas, Erkan

    2006-01-01

    Poverty and income equality have become to stand in the forefront of the world that globalised through neo-classical policies after 1980. Besides technological dependence, globalisation wave has also led to a commercial dependence of surrounding countries to the central countries as well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate globalisation process in the world through its results of technological development and poverty. Production of genetically modified products which were justified as a...

  5. Genetically modified foods and social concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghari, Behrokh Mohajer; Ardekani, Ali M

    2011-07-01

    Biotechnology is providing us with a wide range of options for how we can use agricultural and commercial forestry lands. The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops on millions of hectares of lands and their injection into our food chain is a huge global genetic experiment involving all living beings. Considering the fast pace of new advances in production of genetically modified crops, consumers, farmers and policymakers worldwide are challenged to reach a consensus on a clear vision for the future of world food supply. The current food biotechnology debate illustrates the serious conflict between two groups: 1) Agri-biotech investors and their affiliated scientists who consider agricultural biotechnology as a solution to food shortage, the scarcity of environmental resources and weeds and pests infestations; and 2) independent scientists, environmentalists, farmers and consumers who warn that genetically modified food introduces new risks to food security, the environment and human health such as loss of biodiversity; the emergence of superweeds and superpests; the increase of antibiotic resistance, food allergies and other unintended effects. This article reviews major viewpoints which are currently debated in the food biotechnology sector in the world. It also lays the ground-work for deep debate on benefits and risks of Biotech-crops for human health, ecosystems and biodiversity. In this context, although some regulations exist, there is a need for continuous vigilance for all countries involved in producing genetically engineered food to follow the international scientific bio-safety testing guidelines containing reliable pre-release experiments and post-release track of transgenic plants to protect public health and avoid future environmental harm.

  6. Genetically Modified Products in Lithuania: Situational Analysis and Consumers’ Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Dainora Grundey; Indre Rimkiene

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyses the genetically modified organism products (GMP) in relation to genetically modified organisms (GMO) from two perspectives: 1) from the theoretical standpoint, discussing the GMO and GMP trade conditions and 2) from the practical perspective, namely analysing the availability of GMP in the Lithuanian market. With the growing of genetically modified products (GMP) levels, it becomes important to examine the situation of genetically modified products. According to various stu...

  7. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Safety assessment of genetically modified crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Keith T.

    2002-01-01

    The development of genetically modified (GM) crops has prompted widespread debate regarding both human safety and environmental issues. Food crops produced by modern biotechnology using recombinant techniques usually differ from their conventional counterparts only in respect of one or a few desirable genes, as opposed to the use of traditional breeding methods which mix thousands of genes and require considerable efforts to select acceptable and robust hybrid offspring. The difficulties of applying traditional toxicological testing and risk assessment procedures to whole foods are discussed along with the evaluation strategies that are used for these new food products to ensure the safety of these products for the consumer

  9. Legal regulation of the disposal of genetically modified organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Podubníčková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Legislation of genetically modified organisms treatment This thesis deals with the problems of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), especially with the legislation that governs handling them, including international conventions, community law as well as Czech law. At first, an outline of the term GMO is sketched, continued by the description of its use, possible risks and their mitigation. A genetically modified organism (GMO) is a viable organism whose genetic material has been altered usi...

  10. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CROPS AND PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The progress made in plant biotechnology has provided an opportunity to new food crops being developed having desirable traits for improving crop yield, reducing the use of agrochemicals and adding nutritional properties to staple crops. However, genetically modified (GM crops have become a subject of intense debate in which opponents argue that GM crops represent a threat to individual freedom, the environment, public health and traditional economies. Despite the advances in food crop agriculture, the current world situation is still characterised by massive hunger and chronic malnutrition, representing a major public health problem. Biofortified GM crops have been considered an important and complementary strategy for delivering naturally-fortified staple foods to malnourished populations. Expert advice and public concern have led to designing strategies for assessing the potential risks involved in cultivating and consuming GM crops. The present critical review was aimed at expressing some conflicting points of view about the potential risks of GM crops for public health. It was concluded that GM food crops are no more risky than those genetically modified by conventional methods and that these GM crops might contribute towards reducing the amount of malnourished people around the world. However, all this needs to be complemented by effective political action aimed at increasing the income of people living below the poverty-line.

  11. Biotechnology: Two Decades of Experimentation with Genetically Modified Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Ajami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Over the recent years, genetically modified food in varieties of corn, soybeans, canola and cotton have been introduced to the global market. This study reviews the health and nutritional value of genetically modified foods in the past two decades.Results and Conclusions: Contrary to the present biotechnological claims, transgenic products did not prove to be so flawless, and actually failed to maintain social satisfaction. Genetically modified foods could not gain an increase in the yield potential. Planting natural products and genetically modified products in parallel lines will absolutely result in genetic infection from the side of genetically modified foods. One of the major anxieties of the anti- genetically modified foods activism is the claim that genetically modified crops would alter the consumable parts of the plant quality and safety. Genetically modified foods have shown to have inadequate efficiency and potential adverse effects in both fields of health and biodiversity. This review has presented studies of genetically modified foods performances in the past two decades, and concludes that the wide application and the over generalization of genetically modified foods are not fundamentally recommended.Conflict of interest: Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  12. Medical Doctors Perceptions of Genetically Modified Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Savas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Recombinant DNA and with similar technical changes made on genes or transferred isolated gene the living organisms have been named genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Thanks to advances in genetic technology, the advancement of enzyme and fermentation techniques result obtained by the use of GMOs in food industry products of genetically modified (GM foods are named. In this study, GM foods about the possible harmful effects have information and community advice on this matter to be medical doctors on this issue perceptions, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors aimed to measure.Material and Method: The study was made on including 200 medical doctors aged 23-65, 118 men (59%, 82 women (41%. In the statistical analysis based on the responses of medical doctors, against GM food risk perception, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed. Results: 80.5% of the participants’ think that GM foods are harmful. 22% of the participants were expressed that their knowledge are ‘’good’’ and ‘’very good’’ about GM food. While 38% of the participants use internet and 23.5% of the participants  use media, only 4.5% of the participants use medical schools as a source of sufficient information about GM foods. Discussion: While the risk perception of medical doctors about GM foods is high, the knowledge on this issue is observed low. Though the consumption and the prevelance of GM foods are increasing, medical doctors should have more information about this issue to enlighten and guide the community.

  13. Do European Union Farmers Reject Genetically Modified Maize? Farmer preferences for Genetically Modified Maize in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Kikulwe, E.M.; Papadopoulou, E.; Skevas, I.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2012-01-01

    The new EU proposal (IP/10/921) states that bans on genetically modified (GM) crops should not be based on environmental and health grounds, and it proposes a set of alternative reasons—including public order and morals—that can be cited by member states. This reveals the increasing importance of

  14. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  15. We tasted a genetically modified cheese - and we like it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish consumers´ preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across countries....... In general, the genetically modified cheese was rejected, but this was modified somewhat by health and taste benefits....

  16. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  17. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Rachul, Christen

    2012-06-08

    Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People's Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  18. ENZYME RESISTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED STARCH POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Mannapova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to

  19. Genetically modified plants for law enforcement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C. Neal, Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Plants are ubiquitous in the environment and have the unique ability to respond to their environment physiologically and through altered gene expression profiles (they cannot walk away). In addition, plant genetic transformation techniques and genomic information in plants are becoming increasingly advanced. We have been performing research to express the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants. GFP emits green light when excited by blue or UV light. In addition, my group and collaborators have developed methods to detect GFP in plants by contact instruments and at a standoff. There are several law enforcement applications for this technology. One involves using tagging and perhaps modifying drug plants genetically. In one instance, we could tag them for destruction. In another, we could adulterate them directly. Another application is one that falls into the chemical terrorism and bioterrorism countermeasures category. We are developing plants to sense toxins and whole organisms covertly. Plants are well adapted to monitor large geographic areas; biosurveillance. Some examples of research being performed focus on plants with plant pathogen inducible promoters fused to GFP for disease sensing, and algae biosensors for chemicals.

  20. [Nutrition and health--genetically modified food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Kok, E J

    2003-01-11

    The genetically modified (GM) crops cultivated at present have new properties of benefit to agriculture. It is expected that in the future GM crops will also be cultivated with more complex genetic modifications that are aimed at improving the nutritional and health value to the consumer. The safety assessment of GM foods before market approval is based on a comparison of the characteristics of the GM food with those of the conventional counterpart. Identified differences are thoroughly tested for their toxicological and nutritional consequences. Supplementary modern analytical techniques are being developed for the assessment of future complex GM foods. No cases of adverse health or nutritional effects in consumers have been reported for the existing generation of GM foods. The feasibility of post-market surveillance of (GM) foods, in order to identify small or chronic effects that have not been noticed in the pre-market phase, is being investigated, yet its value should not be overestimated. Surveillance can be informative in case of specific questions concerning certain products as long as the consumer intake is well documented. To this end traceability and labelling systems must be set up.

  1. Genetically modified microorganisms having improved tolerance towards l-serine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the microbiological industry, and specifically to the production of L-serine or L-serine derivatives using genetically modified bacteria. The present invention provides genetically modified microorganisms, such as bacteria, wherein the expression of genes...... tolerant towards higher concentrations of serine. The present invention also provides methods for the production of L-serine or L-serine derivative using such genetically modified microorganisms....

  2. II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  3. Genetically modified and non-genetically modified food supply chains : co-existence and traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Bertheau, Yves

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union nations, and other countries including Japan, Australia and Malaysia, it is a legal requirement that food products containing genetically modified organism (GMO) materials are labelled as such in order that customers may make informed purchasing decisions. For manufacturers and consumers to be confident about these assertions, systems must be in place along the entire food chain which support the co-existence of GM and non GM materials whilst maintaining a strict segrega...

  4. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  5. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  6. Genetically modified crops and food security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matin Qaim

    Full Text Available The role of genetically modified (GM crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.

  7. Genetically modified plants and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal MW

    2008-01-01

    Summary Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt ‘health campaigns’, the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly – through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production – but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion. PMID:18515776

  8. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAHID eALI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniases namely cutaneous (CL, mucocutaneous (ML and visceral (VL, caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  9. Genetically modified foods as global public goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Herrero Olarte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available "Genetically modified (GM food has become very important in the field of research, as a result of its expansion in recent decades. As the right to food is a human right, it cannot be left in the hands of private sector developments exclusively, due to the capacity of the public sector to limit or drive it, and in any case, contributing to food safety. To achieve this, and for its cross-border development, GM needs to be treated as Global Public Goods (GPG, defined as pure or impure public goods that cannot be provided or regulated from a national or regional level, but from a global perspective. Its definition as GPG, and the fact of being public goods, assumes greater involvement by the public sector for its supply or regulation. It is therefore necessary to analyze the positive and negative externalities generated by transgenic foods becoming public goods, but from a global perspective. The difficulty is, that according to the author, GMs are positive or negative, so that there is no consensus to restrict and even prevent them or encourage them. But, there is a consensus on some key issues of GM food, such as improving productivity, contributing to the reduction of the species, the dependence of farmers, or monopoly companies with the patent. Identifying these issues can serve to initiate the appropriate regulation."

  10. Prospects of genetic modified maize crop in Africa | Mwamahonje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic modified maize crop increases annually as a result of food insecurity and limited land caused by rapid population increase of over seven billion in the world. Scientists have been playing their role to address this food insecurity problem. The use of genetically modified (GM) maize crop to feed people is one of the ...

  11. Proposal for a Test Protocol for Genetically Modified Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, B.; Kjær, C.

    1999-01-01

    The report contains the proceedings from the conference Genetically Modified Organisms in Nordic Habitats - Sustainable Use or Loss of Diversity? in Helsinki, 1998......The report contains the proceedings from the conference Genetically Modified Organisms in Nordic Habitats - Sustainable Use or Loss of Diversity? in Helsinki, 1998...

  12. Screening for genetically modified organisms sequences in food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used the Allin 2.0 GMO screening system from Biosmart, Switzerland to screen for the presence of genetically modified food sequences in maize meal samples, fresh fruit and vegetables from some retailers around Gaborone, Botswana. The Allin 2.0 is a multiplex PCR system for the detection of genetically modified ...

  13. Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

    2014-07-07

    In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities.

  14. Genetic modifiers of Duchenne and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightower, Rylie M; Alexander, Matthew S

    2018-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is defined as the progressive wasting of skeletal muscles that is caused by inherited or spontaneous genetic mutations. Next-generation sequencing has greatly improved the accuracy and speed of diagnosis for different types of muscular dystrophy. Advancements in depth of coverage, convenience, and overall reduced cost have led to the identification of genetic modifiers that are responsible for phenotypic variability in affected patients. These genetic modifiers have been postulated to explain key differences in disease phenotypes, including age of loss of ambulation, steroid responsiveness, and the presence or absence of cardiac defects in patients with the same form of muscular dystrophy. This review highlights recent findings on genetic modifiers of Duchenne and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophies based on animal and clinical studies. These genetic modifiers hold great promise to be developed into novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. Muscle Nerve 57: 6-15, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified food crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauzu, M; Pöting, A; Rubin, D; Lampen, A

    2012-03-01

    The placing on the European Union's market of genetically modified crops requires authorization by the European Commission which is based on the proof that the derived foods are as safe as their conventional counterparts. The assessment of potential allergenicity is part of the necessary investigations recommended in the updated Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. All genetically modified crops which so far have been authorized in the European Union were evaluated by the EFSA GMO Panel which considered it unlikely that their overall allergenicity has been altered.

  16. Risks and benefits of genetically modified foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... modified food (GMF) related issues available in an online database. In order to achieve this, ... However, the production of gene- tically modified foods (GMF) and crops has also raised ethical questions. Opposing parties question the possible ... local journalists on the issue of agricultural biotechnology.

  17. GENETICALLY MODIFIED ATHLETES: BIOMEDICAL ETHICS, GENE DOPING AND SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Miah

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses the extremely important issue of modifying athletes genetically in order to develop elite sportsmen. He sheds light on various aspects of bioethics and their implications for the practices and management of sport in general.

  18. GENETICALLY MODIFIED ATHLETES: BIOMEDICAL ETHICS, GENE DOPING AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Miah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extremely important issue of modifying athletes genetically in order to develop elite sportsmen. He sheds light on various aspects of bioethics and their implications for the practices and management of sport in general.

  19. Parthenocarpic Fruit Growth Reduces Yield Fluctuations and Blossom-end Rot in Sweet Pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Körner, O.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether parthenocarpic fruit growth could avoid flushing, i.e. an irregular yield pattern, in sweet pepper. Plants were grown in a greenhouse compartment from April until August. Half of the plants were grown without a fruit set treatment (control), whereas

  20. [Monitoring of food products from genetically modified sources in Moscow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutel'ian, V A; Filatov, N N; Sorokina, E Iu; Chernysheva, O N; Salova, N Ia; Sizykh, E V; Anisimova, O V

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results of a detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food from the shops of Moscow. The screening methods and event-specific assay based on the polymerase chain reaction is used. Transgenic DNA from genetically modified soybeans line 40-3-2 is detected in 17.2% samples of studied foods. Soybeans line 40-3-2 is allowed in Russian food supply.

  1. Ecological aspects for application of genetically modified mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Scott, T.W.; Rogers, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    The idea of using genetically modified mosquitoes (GMM) to reduce vector-borne diseases is founded on the notion that genetic constructs that will render mosquitoes incapable of pathogen transmission can be driven into vector populations. Conceptually, this is an exciting and novel approach to

  2. Stress-induced evolution and the biosafety of genetically modified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    This article is focused on the problems of reduction of the risk associated with the deliberate release of genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) into the environment. Special attention is given to overview the most probable physiological and genetic processes which could be induced in the released GMMs by adverse.

  3. Stress-induced evolution and the biosafety of genetically modified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) into the environment. Special attention is given to overview the most probable physiological and genetic processes which could be induced in the released GMMs by adverse environmental conditions, namely: activation of quorum sensing and the functions associated with it, ...

  4. Prospects of genetic modified maize crop in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-13

    Apr 13, 2016 ... Farmers have rapidly adopted genetically modified organism (GMO) technology including GM maize crops. (Lawson et al., 2009). GMO technology involves the incorporation of genetic engineering to improve crop productivity since over one billion people in the world face starvation and two billion people ...

  5. Stress-induced evolution and the biosafety of genetically modified

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article is focused on the problems of reduction of the risk associated with the deliberate release of genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) into the environment. Special attention is given to overview the most probable physiological and genetic processes which could be induced in the released GMMs by adverse ...

  6. ASPECTS ON CONSUMERS ATTITUDE TOWARD GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS AMONG YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina, SÎRBU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in food biotechnology and food science in the early 1990s have opened the gates of new markets for genetically modified foods. A broad dispute over the use of foods derived from genetically modified organisms and other uses of genetic engineering in food production in terms of key scientific researches, their impact on health and eco-systems, food safety and food security, labelling and regulations, traceability is still lasting. Beside the scientifically, technical, ethical and regulators arguments, the economical aspects of the genetically modified food market is influenced by the social acceptance of it. Consumers' perception and their attitudes are different and depending on many factors. A survey of youth as undergraduate students of Constantin Brancoveanu University from Romania revealed certain differences in attitudes regarding the genetically modified foods that may be partially explained by the consumers' information. Referring the consumer behaviour, this study showed rather a tacit attitude of acceptance of the genetically modified food goods than a vehement rejection.

  7. Thumbs down for genetically modified foodstuffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    1999-01-01

    GM food products is causedlargely by a general concern regarding health and environmental consequences. Genetic modification is to a much higher degree linked with risks than with advantages. Risks are not perceived only as risks to oneself but also to close family and future generations....... The perceived risks also influence how possible advantages that have been built into the products by means of genetic modification, are perceived. In general, advantages therefore cannot counterbalance risks in the mind of consumers. Consumers' aversion towards GM food products can also be explained through...... picture is the same, but there are some differences. For instance the aversion towards GM food products is most pronounced in Denmark and Germany. The importance of perceived risks is lower in Italy than in the other three countries....

  8. Genetically Modified GMDH Method with Cloning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, - (2007), s. 29-37 ISSN 1870-4069. [NNAM 2007. International Conference on Neural Networks and Associative Memories /2./. Mexico City, 04.11.2007-09.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : GMDH neural network * genetic selection * cloning * Machine Learning Repository Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  9. Cross-fertilization between genetically modified and non-genetically modified maize crops in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Debat, Claudio Martínez; Ruibal, Fabiana; Fraguas, Laura Franco; Galván, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified (GM) Bt maize (Zea mays L.) events MON810 and Bt11 is permitted in Uruguay. Local regulations specify that 10% of the crop should be a non-GM cultivar as refuge area for biodiversity, and the distance from other non-GM maize crops should be more than 250 m in order to avoid cross-pollination. However, the degree of cross-fertilization between maize crops in Uruguay is unknown. The level of adventitious presence of GM material in non-GM crops is a relevant issue for organic farming, in situ conservation of genetic resources and seed production. In the research reported here, the occurrence and frequency of cross-fertilization between commercial GM and non-GM maize crops in Uruguay was assessed. The methodology comprised field sampling and detection using DAS-ELISA and PCR. Five field-pair cases where GM maize crops were grown near non-GM maize crops were identified. These cases had the potential to cross-fertilize considering the distance between crops and the similarity of the sowing dates. Adventitious presence of GM material in the offspring of non-GM crops was found in three of the five cases. Adventitious presence of event MON810 or Bt11 in non-GM maize, which were distinguished using specific primers, matched the events in the putative sources of transgenic pollen. Percentages of transgenic seedlings in the offspring of the non-GM crops were estimated as 0.56%, 0.83% and 0.13% for three sampling sites with distances of respectively 40, 100 and 330 m from the GM crops. This is a first indication that adventitious presence of transgenes in non-GM maize crops will occur in Uruguay if isolation by distance and/or time is not provided. These findings contribute to the evaluation of the applicability of the "regulated coexistence policy" in Uruguay. © ISBR, EDP Sciences, 2011.

  10. Presence of genetically modified soya in products on the market

    OpenAIRE

    Spanish Agency for Consumer Affairs, Food Safety and Nutrition

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of events of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) authorised in the European Union to be used as food or feed has notably increased, particularly in the case of genetically modified soya. The number has grown from September 2008, when t here was only one authorisation, Mons anto Company's Roundup Ready® soya, to seven different events currently authorised: 40- 3-2 soya, MON89788 soya, MON87701 soya, A2704-12 soya, A5547-127 soya,...

  11. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.

  12. MS-based analytical methodologies to characterize genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-10-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

  14. Genetically modified organisms in light of domestic and world regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić Zorica; Milošević Mirjana; Vujaković Milka; Ignjatov Maja

    2007-01-01

    At the same time as development and registration of new genetic modification of plant species have intensified, the number of countries in which they are grown has also increased considerably. Genetically modified crops were grown in 22 countries in 2006, six of which were in European Union. Protocol on Biosafety, known as Cartagena protocol was adopted at the international level in February, 2000. Presence, but not growing of GMO in food is allowed in many countries, while in some others lab...

  15. Genetically modified bacteriophages in applied microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárdy, P; Pantůček, R; Benešík, M; Doškař, J

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Insertion of active depolymerase genes to their genomes can enforce the biofilm disposal. They can also be engineered to transfer various compounds to the eukaryotic organisms and the bacterial culture, applicable for the vaccine, drug or gene delivery. Phage recombinant lytic enzymes can be applied as enzybiotics in medicine as well as in biotechnology for pathogen detection or programmed cell death in bacterial expression strains. Besides, modified bacteriophages with high specificity can be applied as bioprobes in detection tools to estimate the presence of pathogens in food industry, or utilized in the control of food-borne pathogens as part of the constructed phage-based biosorbents. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Genetically Modified Crops: Risks and Promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Conway

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available GM foods have the potential to provide significant benefits for developing countries. Over 800 million people are chronically undernourished, and 180 million children are severely underweight for their age. By 2020, there will be an extra two billion mouths to feed. Ecological approaches that underpin sustainable agriculture (e.g., integrated pest management and participatory approaches that strengthen farmers' own experimentation and decision making are key. Biotechnology will be an essential partner, if yield ceilings are to be raised, if crops are to be grown without excessive reliance on pesticides, and if farmers on less favored lands are to be provided with crops that are resistant to drought and salinity, and that can use nitrogen and other nutrients more efficiently. Over the past 10 years, in addition supporting ecological approaches, the Rockefeller Foundation has funded the training of some 400 developing-country scientists in the techniques of biotechnology. Most of the new crop varieties are the result of tissue culture and marker-aided selection. The Foundation also supports the production of genetically engineered rices, including a new rice engineered for beta carotene (the precursor of Vitamin A in the grain. Some specific steps can be taken by Monsanto that would improve acceptance of plant biotechnology in both the developing and the industrialized worlds: label; disavow gene protection (terminator systems; phase out the use of antibiotic resistance markers; agree (with big seed companies to use the plant variety protection system, rather than patents, in developing countries; establish an independently administered fellowship program to train developing-country scientists in crop biotechnology, biosafety, and intellectual property; donate useful technologies to developing countries; agree to share financial rewards from intellectual property rights on varieties such as basmati or jasmine rice with the countries of origin; and

  17. Huntingtin interacting proteins are genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S Kaltenbach

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a fatal neurodegenerative condition caused by expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin (Htt protein. Neuronal toxicity in HD is thought to be, at least in part, a consequence of protein interactions involving mutant Htt. We therefore hypothesized that genetic modifiers of HD neurodegeneration should be enriched among Htt protein interactors. To test this idea, we identified a comprehensive set of Htt interactors using two complementary approaches: high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening and affinity pull down followed by mass spectrometry. This effort led to the identification of 234 high-confidence Htt-associated proteins, 104 of which were found with the yeast method and 130 with the pull downs. We then tested an arbitrary set of 60 genes encoding interacting proteins for their ability to behave as genetic modifiers of neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of HD. This high-content validation assay showed that 27 of 60 orthologs tested were high-confidence genetic modifiers, as modification was observed with more than one allele. The 45% hit rate for genetic modifiers seen among the interactors is an order of magnitude higher than the 1%-4% typically observed in unbiased genetic screens. Genetic modifiers were similarly represented among proteins discovered using yeast two-hybrid and pull-down/mass spectrometry methods, supporting the notion that these complementary technologies are equally useful in identifying biologically relevant proteins. Interacting proteins confirmed as modifiers of the neurodegeneration phenotype represent a diverse array of biological functions, including synaptic transmission, cytoskeletal organization, signal transduction, and transcription. Among the modifiers were 17 loss-of-function suppressors of neurodegeneration, which can be considered potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Finally, we show that seven interacting proteins from among 11 tested were able to

  18. Extraction, partial purification and characterization of amylase from parthenocarpic date (Phoenix dactylifera): effect on cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abed, Hanen; Khemakhem, Bassem; Fendri, Imen; Chakroun, Mouna; Triki, Mehdi; Drira, Noureddine; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2017-08-01

    Phoenix dactylifera L. plays an important role in social, economic and ecological Tunisian sectors. Some date palms produce parthenocarpic fruit named Sish. The objective of the present study was to extract biomolecules from parthenocarpic fruit by producing value-added products from the fruits. The extraction of amylolytic activity from parthenocarpic fruit (AmyPF) was optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD). Partial purification of about 250-fold with an activity yield of 47% was achieved. The amylase exhibited a specific activity of 80 U mg -1 protein. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 5 and 55 °C respectively. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH (5-10), and significant stabilization was observed at 60 °C. The purified enzyme belongs to the exo type of amylases. Given the economic and industrial relevance of amylases used in the food industry, three different concentrations of AmyPF (0.007, 0.014 and 0.018 U g -1 ) were incorporated into a cake formulation, resulting in a decrease in density, moisture retention and water activity and an increase in hardness. The beneficial effect of AmyPF on the technological characteristics of cakes was confirmed by sensory evaluation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Consumer Preference for Genetically Modified Halal Yogurt Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hasnah Hassan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumers worldwide have reacted negatively to food products made from genetically modified (GM ingredients. This study strives to understand the importance placed by consumers on the features of a product when purchasing halal yogurt drinks with GM or non GM ingredient along with the level of antioxidants, price, flavor and Halal certification from JAKIM. In addition, their attitudes towards genetically modified foods, in general, and their purchase intention towards genetically modified yo- gurt drinks, in particular, were also determined. Experimental design using a convenience sampling was used; 120 eligible responses were received from the study using three types of yogurt drinks. The research findings showed that nutrition was deemed as being the most important product feature that influenced the decision in purchasing yogurt drinks, followed by freshness, price, flavor, variety, and origin. Furthermore, it was found that respondents presented a neutral attitude and purchase intention towards genetically modified yogurt drinks. The recommendations to market practitioners, research limitations, as well as suggestions for future studies are also discussed.

  20. Regulation of Genetically Modified Organisms in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.R.; Bryan Endres, A.

    2000-01-01

    To be successful, laws that regulate genetically modified organisms (GMOs) must help society decide rationally when to pause and when to proceed in adopting new biotechnological developments. In the context of European Union (EU) institutions and lawmaking procedures, this article examines European

  1. Inadvertent presence of genetically modified elements in maize food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kenya has a biosafety law and has tested genetically modified (GM) maize under confinement and containment, but has neither released nor commercialized any GM crop. This study assessed various maize food products from the Kenyan farms and markets for the inadvertent presence of GMOs. It assessed the possibility ...

  2. The Environmental Benefits and Costs of Genetically Modified (GM) Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Scatasta, S.; Fall, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    The widespread introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops may change the effect of agriculture on the environment. The magnitude and direction of expected effects are still being hotly debated, and the interests served in this discussion arena are often far from those of science and social

  3. The Coexistence of Genetically Modified, Organic and Conventional Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Phillips, P.W.B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Smyth, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been adopted by farmers around the world at impressive rates. In 2011, 180 million hectares of GM crops were cultivated by more than 15 million farmers in 29 countries. In the next decade, global adoption is expected

  4. Investigating an Ethical Approach to Genetically Modified Crops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetically modified (GM) crops gained attention in southern Africa in the context of broader debates about the struggle for food security and poverty alleviation to achieve sustainable development. The prospects of GM crops as a technological innovation have provoked numerous debates and environmental concern ...

  5. Inadvertent presence of genetically modified elements in maize food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... such as corn flakes, corn puffs and corn syrup. These results suggest that high temperatures or other factors involved in the processing of the cornflakes degraded the. cry1Ab DNA. PCR is very efficient in detecting genetically modified genes in Bt maize seed and grains because it was able to amplify the ...

  6. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boxtel, R.; Gould, M.; Cuppen, E.; Smits, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach

  7. Identification of Genetically Modified Foods - problems and unsolved questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jan W.; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted

    2007-01-01

    One of the points in the discussion of genetically modified organisms (GMO) is the consumers’ right to choose between foods from GMO (GM-foods) and traditionally produced foods. This discussion has led to the EU regulation requiring labelling of GM food products made from GM plants. However, since...

  8. Competition with mandatory labeling of genetically modified products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In April 2004, the European Union adopted a new legislative framework for genetically modified (GM) organisms. This framework regulates the placing on the market of GM products, and demands these products to be labeled as such. We present a duopoly model with vertical differentiation and mandatory

  9. An analytical approach to the implementation of genetically modified crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Rasmussen, B.

    2000-01-01

    Public scepticism towards genetically modified (GM) crops is increasing. To address this, the risks and benefits of GM crops must be examined across scientific disciplines, and be discussed with the authorities, the agricultural industry and the consumers. In a feasibility study we have...

  10. Competition with mandatory labeling of genetically modified products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    A vertical differentiation model is analyzed to study the placing on the market of genetically modified (GM) products in a context where labeling of such products is mandatory, as it is in the European Union. The model has two stages: firms first choose their technology (either GM or conventional)

  11. Investigating an Ethical Approach to Genetically Modified Crops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4carolinebell@gmail.com

    Genetically modified (GM) crops gained attention in southern Africa in the context of broader debates about the struggle for food security and poverty alleviation to achieve sustainable development. The prospects of GM crops as a technological innovation have provoked numerous debates and environmental concern.

  12. Risks and benefits of genetically modified foods | Amin | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are claims that fear towards new technology has been caused by the lack of information and education on the subject to the public. Modern biotechnology and its applications have been receiving the same criticism. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the trends and coverage of genetically modified food ...

  13. Class Teacher Candidates' Opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural Keles, Pinar; Aydin, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Class teacher candidates' opinions on Genetically Modified Organisms. The study was carried out with 101 teacher candidates who were studying in the 3rd grade of Agri Ibrahim Çeçen University Classroom Teacher Department in 2016-2017 academic year. Of the students who participated in the survey, 56 were…

  14. Biosafety Management of Genetically Modified Crops (China) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since 1990, China's agricultural biotechnology sector has experienced tremendous growth. A recent survey shows that the country is developing the largest plant biotechnology capacity outside North America. Public investment in the sector, as well as the number of genetically modified (GM) crops commercialized, ...

  15. Detection of genetically modified maize ( Zea mays L.) in seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize is the second major cereal in Nepal; its food biosafety and ecological conservation is an important concern. To address this issue, it is necessary to detect genetically modified (GM) maize and establish a monitoring and regulatory system in Nepal. Currently, Nepal does not have legal regulations or labeling directives ...

  16. Techniques for detecting genetically modified crops and products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cultivation of genetically modified crops is becoming increasingly important; more traits are emerging and more acres than ever before are being planted with GM varieties. The release of GM crops and products in the markets worldwide has increased the regulatory need to monitor and verify the presence and the ...

  17. Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) rice on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Effects of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant. (GMHT) rice on biodiversity of weed in paddy fields. Xianbin Jiang1,2,3, Xingrong Wu4 and Guoying Xiao1*. 1Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, Hunan, China. 2Rice Research Institute, Guangxi Academy ...

  18. Field testing genetically modified organisms: framework for decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1989-01-01

    ... on Scientific Evaluation of the Introduction of Genetically Modified Microoganisms and Plants into the Environment Board on Biology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1989 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-s...

  19. What we should know about genetically modified foods | Akromah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All we care about is that our food should be wholesome, nutritious and tasty. Critics of crop biotechnology are of the opinion that potential ecological and food safety disasters are looming on the horizon because genetically modified (GM) crops have entered the food chain. Alarmists have introduced emotionally charged ...

  20. Safety aspects of genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, C.; Prins, T.W.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Kok, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress, such as drought, salinity, and temperature extremes, significantly reduce crop yields. Hence, development of abiotic stress-tolerant crops by modern biotechnology may contribute to global food security. Prior to introducing genetically modified crops with abiotic stress tolerance to

  1. Attitudes towards genetically modified animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

  2. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and

  3. Assessing ecological risks and benefits of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    Bošković Jelena V.; Isajev Vasilije V.; Prijić Željana S.; Zečević Veselinka M.; Hojka Zdravko M.; Dozet Gordana K.

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and biotechnology are providing new opportunities for increasing crop productivity and tackling agriculture problems, such as diseases, pests and weeds, abiotic stress and nutritional limitations of staple food crops. As GM crops are being adopted in various locations with different ecosystems, a scientifically based understanding of the environmental effects of cultivations of GM crops would assist decision makers worldwide ...

  4. Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk assessment is a procedure normally carried out prior to decision-making on the release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment. ... biosafety laws of more developed countries and to ensure adequate level of protection for the Malaysian people against any adverse effects of GMOs and products.

  5. Review: Genetically modified plants for the promotion of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Saito, Kazuki

    2006-12-01

    Plants are attractive biological resources because of their ability to produce a huge variety of chemical compounds, and the familiarity of production in even the most rural settings. Genetic engineering gives plants additional characteristics and value for cultivation and post-harvest. Genetically modified (GM) plants of the "first generation" were conferred with traits beneficial to producers, whereas GM plants in subsequent "generations" are intended to provide beneficial traits for consumers. Golden Rice is a promising example of a GM plant in the second generation, and has overcome a number of obstacles for practical use. Furthermore, consumer-acceptable plants with health-promoting properties that are genetically modified using native genes are being developed. The emerging technology of metabolomics will also support the commercial realization of GM plants by providing comprehensive analyzes of plant biochemical components.

  6. [Genetically modified organisms in food--production, detection and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljezić, Davor

    2004-11-01

    The first genetically modified plant (GMP) was a tobacco resistant to antibiotics in 1983. In 1996, the first genetically altered crop, a delayed-ripening tomato was commercially released. In the year 2003, the estimated global area of GM crops for was 67.7 million hectares. To produce such a plant a gene of interest has to be isolated from the donor. Together with a promoter, terminator sequence and marker gene it has to be introduced into the plant cell which is then stimulated to generate a whole GMP expressing new characteristics (herbicide/insect resistance, delayed ripening). The last few months have seen a strong public debate over genetically modified organisms which has raised scientific, economic, political, and ethical issues. Some questions concerning the safety of GMPs are still to be answered, and decisions about their future should be based on scientifically validated information.

  7. Somatic cell reprogramming-free generation of genetically modified pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihara, Fuminori; Takemoto, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Eri; Rao, Shengbin; Do, Lanh Thi Kim; Onishi, Akira; Yamashita, Yukiko; Kosugi, Chisato; Suzuki, Hitomi; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Nakai, Michiko; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yasue, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide; Noji, Sumihare; Fujimura, Tatsuya; Fuchimoto, Dai-Ichiro; Otoi, Takeshige

    2016-09-01

    Genetically modified pigs for biomedical applications have been mainly generated using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique; however, this approach requires complex micromanipulation techniques and sometimes increases the risks of both prenatal and postnatal death by faulty epigenetic reprogramming of a donor somatic cell nucleus. As a result, the production of genetically modified pigs has not been widely applied. We provide a simple method for CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 gene editing in pigs that involves the introduction of Cas9 protein and single-guide RNA into in vitro fertilized zygotes by electroporation. The use of gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) resulted in highly efficient targeted gene disruption and was validated by the efficient production of Myostatin mutant pigs. Because GEEP does not require the complex methods associated with micromanipulation for somatic reprogramming, it has the potential for facilitating the genetic modification of pigs.

  8. HYBRIDIZATION STUDY BETWEEN GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA NAPUS AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED B. NAPUS AND B. RAPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene exchange between cultivated crops and wild species has gained significance in recent years because of concerns regarding the potential for gene flow between genetically modified (GM) crops and their domesticated and wild relatives. As part of our ecological effects of gene ...

  9. [Advances in tumor-therapy using genetically modified Salmonella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kang; Zhao, Xinxin; Yi, Jie; Liu, Qiong; Liu, Qing; Kong, Qingke

    2016-05-25

    Tumor is a neoplasm formed by the abnormal proliferation of local tissue cells under the effects of different tumorigenic factors. Tumor-therapy has always been a difficult clinical issue, while regular cancer treatments, such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery, have obvious limitations. Earlier studies have shown that some obligate anaerobes or facultative anaerobes have anti-tumor effects, for example, Salmonella typhymurium as facultative anaerobic bacteria can selectively colonize tumors and inhibit their growth. Besides, Salmonella has many advantages in tumor-therapy. In the past decade or two, many researchers have carried out genetic manipulation to attenuate the virulence of Salmonella, to improve their specificity of tumor colonization and specially to use attenuated Salmonella as carriers to deliver a variety of anti-tumor therapeutic molecules, and these genetically modified Salmonella have shown good anti-tumor effects in many animal experiments. Along with further research of Salmonella-mediated antitumor treatment, applications of genetically modified Salmonella for more effective tumor-therapy are promising. We reviewed the anti-tumor mechanisms of Salmonella, the research progress in tumor-therapy using genetically modified Salmonella, and current problems and possible solutions.

  10. Use of genetically modified viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines: environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivian S W

    2006-11-01

    Despite major therapeutic advances, infectious diseases remain highly problematic. Recent advancements in technology in producing DNA-based vaccines, together with the growing knowledge of the immune system, have provided new insights into the identification of the epitopes needed to target the development of highly targeted vaccines. Genetically modified (GM) viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines possess significant unpredictability and a number of inherent harmful potential hazards. For all these vaccines, safety assessment concerning unintended and unwanted side effects with regard to targeted vaccinees has always been the main focus. Important questions concerning effects on nontargeted individuals within the same species or other species remain unknown. Horizontal transfer of genes, though lacking supportive experimental or epidemiological investigations, is well established. New hybrid virus progenies resulting from genetic recombination between genetically engineered vaccine viruses and their naturally occurring relatives may possess totally unpredictable characteristics with regard to host preferences and disease-causing potentials. Furthermore, when genetically modified or engineered virus particles break down in the environment, their nuclei acids are released. Appropriate risk management is the key to minimizing any potential risks to humans and environment resulting from the use of these GM vaccines. There is inadequate knowledge to define either the probability of unintended events or the consequences of genetic modifications. The objective of this article is to highlight the limitations in environmental risk assessment and raise awareness of the potential risks involving the use of genetically modified viruses and genetically engineered virus-vector vaccines.

  11. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, Detlef; Chueca, Cristina; De-Schrijver, Adinda

    relatives, including plant-to-plant gene transfer ; (2) plant-to-micro-organism gene transfer; (3) interaction of the GM plant with target organisms and (4) interaction of the GM plant with non-target organisms, including criteria for selection of appropriate species and relevant functional groups for risk......This document provides guidance for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) plants submitted within the framework of Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003 on GM food and feed or under Directive 2001/18/EC on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified...... organisms (GMOs). This document provides guidance for assessing potential effects of GM plants on the environment and the rationales for the data requirements for a comprehensive ERA of GM plants. The ERA should be carried out on a case-by-case basis, following a step-by-step assessment approach...

  12. Detection of genetically modified organisms by electrochemiluminescence PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Zhu, Debin

    2004-10-15

    With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. In this study, electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction (ECL-PCR) combined with hybridization technique was applied to detect the GMOs in genetically modified (GM) soybeans and papayas for the first time. Whether the soybeans and the papayas contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter. The experiment results show that the detection limit for CaMV35S promoter is 100 fmol, and the GM components can be clearly identified in GM soybeans and papayas. The technique may provide a new means in GMOs detection due to its simplicity and high efficiency.

  13. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  14. Regulatory science requirements of labeling of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, A Alan; Jaeger, Lisa M; Shafei, Dania; Bloom, Lindsey L

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the evolution of food labeling in the USA. It briefly describes the three phases of agricultural development consisting of naturally occurring, cross-bred, and genetically engineered, edited or modified crops, otherwise known as Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). It uses the Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC) to evaluate the scientific validity of claims applicable to GMO and the Best Available Public Information (BAPI) to evaluate the pronouncements by public media and others. Subsequently claims on health risk, ecological risk, consumer choice, and corporate greed are evaluated based on BARS/MERSC and BAPI. The paper concludes by suggesting that labeling of food containing GMO should consider the consumer's choice, such as the food used by those who desire kosher and halal food. Furthermore, the consumer choice is already met by the exclusion of GMO in organic food.

  15. Acceptability of genetically modified cheese presented as real product alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Ueland, Øydis

    2002-01-01

    European consumers, in general, have negative attitudes towards the use of gene technology in food production. The objective of this study was to examine whether taste and health benefits influence the acceptability of genetically modified (gm) products when they are presented as real product....... Labelling decreased consumers' intentions to buy the originally preferred gm-labelled cheese, but still the intentions were at the same level with the conventionally labelled buy gm cheese could best be explained by respondents' attitudes towards gene technology and perceived taste benefits. General health...... alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as genetically modified (preferred in an earlier product test) and the other as conventional (neutral in an ealier product test). A smaller control group received two cheeses with blind codes...

  16. Will Genetically Modified Canola be Adopted in WA?

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Bronwyn; Pluske, Johanna M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite approval being given by the Gene Technology Regulator to plant genetically modified (GM) canola varieties in Australia, the question as to whether farmers would be prepared to grow GM canola is still being explored. The purpose of this paper is to establish not only if producers would grow GM canola in south Western Australia but how they make this decision. Results from a survey aimed at canola producers found that adoption of GM canola will ultimately depend upon price premiums for ...

  17. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    George Frisvold; Jeanne Reeves

    2015-01-01

    Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM) crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to) conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only thro...

  18. Global Status of Genetically Modified Crops: Current Trends and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Hautea, Randy A.

    2002-01-01

    Modern biotechnology-facilitated crop improvement is undoubtedly one of the most significant technological developments in agriculture. The first wave of genetically-modified (GM) or transgenic crops include cultivars with important input traits such as herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. Future products are expected to provide benefits that could include tolerance to environmental stresses and enhanced nutritional content, which can be particularly valuable in crops that are important...

  19. A survey of genetically modified maize in the Portuguese market

    OpenAIRE

    Mafra, I.; Amaral, J.S.; Costa, J.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the development of biotechnology has revolutionised agriculture by the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMO) with characteristics of agronomic interest. Despite the controversies surrounding GMO, the production of transgenic crops is increasing, especially in developing countries [1]. Maize, the second most important GM crop, has the highest number of authorised transgenic events for food and feed in EU. Since the GMO entered the food chain, the EU has d...

  20. Stakeholders' Attitude to Genetically Modified Foods and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Latifah; Md Jahi, Jamaluddin; Md Nor, Abd Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders'...

  1. Rejecting New Technology: The Case of Genetically Modified Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Berwald; Colin A. Carter; Guillaume P. Gruère

    2006-01-01

    Canada has stringent regulations covering the release of new wheat varieties, but the United States has virtually no regulations in this area. Monsanto Co. developed genetically modified (GM) spring wheat for North America, and made a commitment to the U.S. industry to release this new technology simultaneously in both Canada and the United States, or not at all. The Canadian regulatory bias against new varieties acted as a veto against GM wheat and caused Monsanto to shelve the technology in...

  2. A particular case of novel food: Genetically modified organisms

    OpenAIRE

    García-Cañas, Virginia; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The rapid progress of recombinant DNA technology has opened up new prospects in the development of novel foods and food ingredients, including those containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs). These new transgenic products have brought about a considerable demand for analytical methods able to detect, characterize, and/or quantify GMOs along the food chain. The current status and future challenges in the development, characterization, and detection of GMOs in foods are discussed in this...

  3. GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: CONSUMERS' ATTITUDES AND LABELING ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Veeman, Michele M.; Adamowicz, Wiktor L.

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' attitudes to genetically modified (GM) food ingredients and their reactions to and preferences for labeling of GM food are topical issues for Canadian food policy and are the subjects of this study. This project included several components. The first of these was an assessment of public attitudes to biotechnology and to GM food based on evidence from polls and other studies. These show increasing awareness and some increase in wariness of GM food, in Canada and elsewhere. In the se...

  4. Genetically modified products from feed in livers of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    BUCKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this thesis is to manage detection of genetically modified products (GMP) from feed in liver of chicken, which diet contained GMP feed. Two GMO crops were used for feed, insect-resistant Bt-maize and herbicide - tolerant Roundup Ready soybean . Both crops are important components of chicken feed. The detection will be practise by molecular biological methods. The possible dangers for consument should by evaluated in conclusion.

  5. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Michaela; Mount, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR) or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies. PMID:26035842

  6. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Sharpe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies.

  7. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2017-09-12

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  8. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2016-08-09

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  9. Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

    2011-05-17

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  10. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

    2014-01-07

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  11. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  12. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  13. The Case of the "Tainted" Taco Shells: A Case Study on Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann T. S.

    2004-01-01

    This case study introduces students to the use of genetically modified foods. Students learn how genetically modified plants are made, and then they read primary literature papers to evaluate the environmental, economic, and health issues. (Contains 2 figures.)

  14. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miraglia, M.; Berdal, K.G.; Brera, C.; Corbisier, P.; Holst - Jensen, A.; Kok, E.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Schimmel, H.; Rentsch, J.; Rie, van J.P.P.F.; Zagon, J.

    2004-01-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend

  15. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-genetically modified crops in the era of expansion of genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-09-18

    Despite heated debates over the safety of genetically modified (GM) food, GM crops have been expanding rapidly. Much research has focused on the expansion of GM crops. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of non-genetically modified (non-GM) crops are not clear, although they may have significant environmental and agronomic impacts and important policy implications. To understand the dynamics of non-GM crops and to inform the debates among relevant stakeholders, we conducted spatiotemporal analyses of China's major non-GM soybean production region, the Heilongjiang Province. Even though the total soybean planting area decreased from 2005 to 2010, surprisingly, there were hotspots of increase. The results also showed hotspots of loss as well as a large decline in the number and continuity of soybean plots. Since China is the largest non-GM soybean producer in the world, the decline of its major production region may signal the continual decline of global non-GM soybeans.

  16. Polyamine Metabolism Is Altered in Unpollinated Parthenocarpic pat-2 Tomato Ovaries1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L.

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of α-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or α-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. α-Difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA3, whereas that of α-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA3 but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries. PMID:12529543

  17. Polyamine metabolism is altered in unpollinated parthenocarpic pat-2 tomato ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of alpha-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. Alpha-difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA(3), whereas that of alpha-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA(3) but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries.

  18. [Detection of the genetically modified organisms in genetically modified soybean and maize by polymerase chain reaction method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Deqian; Mu, Weipeng; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2002-06-01

    A method for the detection of the (genetically modified organism GMOs) in genetically modified soybean (Round-up Ready soybean, RR soybean) and maize(Bt-176 maize) is described. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is discussed with the genetically modified soybean and maize whose contents are known. The detection limit can be 0.1%, that is to say, we can detect the GMO in the food whose content is only 0.1%, the detection method is just a screening method. The procedure includes: (1) extraction of genomic DNA of maize and soybean, (2) amplification of the inserted genes, CaMV35S promoter and the NOS terminator inserted by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, (3) amplification of the specific genes of maize and soybean in order to determine that the samples are maize and soybean, (4) characterization and confirmation of the PCR products by restriction enzyme analysis and the electrophoresis on agarose gel. The RR soybean contains CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator, and the Bt-176 maize contains only CaMV35S promoter. Due to the high content of the starch in maize, the effect of the electrophororesis is not so good as of the soybean's.

  19. Current perspectives on genetically modified crops and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Madhu; Kumar, Pradeep; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important. In addition, several countries have established threshold levels for GM content which trigger legally binding labeling schemes. The labeling of GM crops is mandatory in many countries (such as China, EU, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Chile, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), whereas in Canada, Hong Kong, USA, South Africa, and Argentina voluntary labeling schemes operate. The rapid adoption of GM crops has increased controversies, and mitigating these issues pertaining to the implementation of effective regulatory measures for the detection of GM crops is essential. DNA-based detection methods have been successfully employed, while the whole genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides an advanced means for detecting genetically modified organisms and foods/feeds in GM crops. This review article describes the current status of GM crop commercialization and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of common and advanced detection systems for GMs in foods and animal feeds.

  20. Genetic Evidence for Modifying Oceanic Boundaries Relative to Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Gerhard P; Taylor, Diana A; N'Yeurt, Antoine D R; Tyagi, Anand; Tiwari, Geetanjali; Redd, Alan J

    2016-07-01

    We present the most comprehensive genetic characterization to date of five Fijian island populations: Viti Levu, Vanua Levu, Kadavu, the Lau Islands, and Rotuma, including nonrecombinant Y (NRY) chromosome and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and haplogroups. As a whole, Fijians are genetically intermediate between Melanesians and Polynesians, but the individual Fijian island populations exhibit significant genetic structure reflecting different settlement experiences in which the Rotumans and the Lau Islanders were more influenced by Polynesians, and the other Fijian island populations were more influenced by Melanesians. In particular, Rotuman and Lau Islander NRY chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and Rotuman mtDNA hypervariable segment 1 region haplotypes more closely resemble those of Polynesians, while genetic markers of the other populations more closely resemble those of the Near Oceanic Melanesians. Our findings provide genetic evidence supportive of modifying regional boundaries relative to Fiji, as has been suggested by others based on a variety of nongenetic evidence. Specifically, for the traditional Melanesia/Polynesia/Micronesia scheme, our findings support moving the Melanesia-Polynesia boundary to include Rotuma and the Lau Islands in Polynesia. For the newer Near/Remote Oceania scheme, our findings support keeping Rotuma and the Lau Islands in Remote Oceania and locating the other Fijian island populations in an intermediate or "Central Oceania" region to better reflect the great diversity of Oceania.

  1. Modified AFLP technique for rapid genetic characterization in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, D G; Kane, M E; Guy, C L; Li, Q B

    2000-10-01

    The standard amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was modified to develop a convenient and reliable technique for rapid genetic characterization of plants. Modifications included (i) using one restriction enzyme, one adapter molecule and primer, (ii) incorporating formamide to generate more intense and uniform bands and (iii) using agarose gel electrophoresis. Sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.), pickerel-weed (Pontederia cordata L.), Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) and Penstemon heterophyllus Lindl. were used to determine the ability to generate adequate resolution power with both self- and cross-pollinated plant species including cultivars, ecotypes and individuals within populations. Reproducibility of bands was higher in all the AFLP experiments compared to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Formamide with or without bovine serum albumin improved band intensities compared to dimethyl sulfoxide and the standard reaction mixture with no organic solvents. Comparison between RAPD and modified AFLP using sea-oats population samples proved that modified AFLP exhibits (i) a low number of faint bands with increased specificity of amplified bands, (ii) a significantly higher number of polymorphic loci per primer, (iii) less primer screening time, (iv) easy scoring associated with fewer faint bands and (v) greatly enhanced reproducibility. The technique described here can be applied with a high degree of accuracy for plant genetic characterization.

  2. Hypothetical link between infertility and genetically modified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingxia; Li, Bin; Yuan, Wenzhen; Zhao, Lihui; Zhang, Xuehong

    2014-01-01

    It is speculated that genetically modified food (GMF)/genetically modified organism (GMO) is responsible for infertility development. The risk linked with a wide use of GMFs/GMOs offers the basic elements for social criticism. However, to date, it has not been justified whether the bad effects are directly resulted from products of genetic modifications or trans-genesis process. Extensive experience with the risk assessment of whole foods has been applied recently on the safety and nutritional testing of GMFs/GMOs. Investigations have tested the safety of GMFs including sub-acute, chronic, reproductive, multi-generation and carcinogenicity studies. We extrapolated the potential risks associated with GMFs/GMOs on reproduction, and analyzed the multi-aspect linked between infertility and GMFs/GMOs. It could be conjectured that GMFs/GMOs could be potential hazard on reproduction, linking to the development of infertility through influencing the endocrine metabolism, endometriosis. However, little evidence shows the impaction on embryo or reproductive related tumor due to the limited literatures, and needs further research. The article presents some related patents on GMFs/GMOs, and some methods for tracking GMOs.

  3. Automated DNA extraction from genetically modified maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Hiroyuki; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2006-09-18

    A novel, automated system, PNE-1080, equipped with eight automated pestle units and a spectrophotometer was developed for genomic DNA extraction from maize using aminosilane-modified bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs). The use of aminosilane-modified BMPs allowed highly accurate DNA recovery. The (A(260)-A(320)):(A(280)-A(320)) ratio of the extracted DNA was 1.9+/-0.1. The DNA quality was sufficiently pure for PCR analysis. The PNE-1080 offered rapid assay completion (30 min) with high accuracy. Furthermore, the results of real-time PCR confirmed that our proposed method permitted the accurate determination of genetically modified DNA composition and correlated well with results obtained by conventional cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based methods.

  4. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled “Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants” was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 s...

  5. Genetically Modified Foods: Promises, Challenges and Safety Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Dadgarnejad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Application of genetically modified organisms in the agriculture sector and food industry began since last years of 20th century. Since then this technology has become a central part of the broader public controversy about the advantages and safety of these products. This article has tried to review aspects of these types of organisms and foods.Results and Conclusion: Genetically modified technology has potential to overcome agricultural problems, such as biotic and abiotic issues by enhancing pests and herbicides resistance, drought tolerance, fast ripening, and finally enhancing yield and nutritional quality. Besides these revolutionary advantages, during the last decades some potential human, animal and environmental risks have been taken in account for these organisms or foods. However, no scientific evidence exists adequately about their harmful human or animal effects, and also, some new scientific and management methodologies (new technologies and regulations have been developed to mitigate the environmental risks. Some challenges such as pest adaptation are being solved by refuge technology, gene pyramiding and insertion of best-coupled primers through the known conditions reducing unintended outcomes including silencing, activation or rearrangement of non-target genome pieces. However, it does not mean that no harmful effect will happen in the future. Therefore, it is required that before release of any genetically modified crop, all requested risk assessments be performed, and then post release monitoring be done to follow the possible gene flow and prevent any potential disastrous contaminations to the food chain. Finally, it could be concluded that the safe usage of this technology, by considering all nationally and internationally accepted environmental and health safety assessment protocols, can help us to use advantages of this technology in agriculture, medicine and industry. However, more safety

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of tomato carpel development reveals alterations in ethylene and gibberellin synthesis during pat3/pat4 parthenocarpic fruit set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Laura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato fruit set is a key process that has a great economic impact on crop production. We employed the Affymetrix GeneChip Tomato Genome Array to compare the transcriptome of a non-parthenocarpic line, UC82, with that of the parthenocarpic line RP75/59 (pat3/pat4 mutant. We analyzed the transcriptome under normal conditions as well as with forced parthenocarpic development in RP75/59, emasculating the flowers 2 days before anthesis. This analysis helps to understand the fruit set in tomato. Results Differentially expressed genes were extracted with maSigPro, which is designed for the analysis of single and multiseries time course microarray experiments. 2842 genes showed changes throughout normal carpel development and fruit set. Most of them showed a change of expression at or after anthesis. The main differences between lines were concentrated at the anthesis stage. We found 758 genes differentially expressed in parthenocarpic fruit set. Among these genes we detected cell cycle-related genes that were still activated at anthesis in the parthenocarpic line, which shows the lack of arrest in the parthenocarpic line at anthesis. Key genes for the synthesis of gibberellins and ethylene, which were up-regulated in the parthenocarpic line were also detected. Conclusion Comparisons between array experiments determined that anthesis was the most different stage and the key point at which most of the genes were modulated. In the parthenocarpic line, anthesis seemed to be a short transitional stage to fruit set. In this line, the high GAs contends leads to the development of a parthenocarpic fruit, and ethylene may mimic pollination signals, inducing auxin synthesis in the ovary and the development of a jelly fruit.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of tomato carpel development reveals alterations in ethylene and gibberellin synthesis during pat3/pat4 parthenocarpic fruit set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Laura; Blanca, Jose M; Cañizares, Joaquin; Nuez, Fernado

    2009-05-29

    Tomato fruit set is a key process that has a great economic impact on crop production. We employed the Affymetrix GeneChip Tomato Genome Array to compare the transcriptome of a non-parthenocarpic line, UC82, with that of the parthenocarpic line RP75/59 (pat3/pat4 mutant). We analyzed the transcriptome under normal conditions as well as with forced parthenocarpic development in RP75/59, emasculating the flowers 2 days before anthesis. This analysis helps to understand the fruit set in tomato. Differentially expressed genes were extracted with maSigPro, which is designed for the analysis of single and multiseries time course microarray experiments. 2842 genes showed changes throughout normal carpel development and fruit set. Most of them showed a change of expression at or after anthesis. The main differences between lines were concentrated at the anthesis stage. We found 758 genes differentially expressed in parthenocarpic fruit set. Among these genes we detected cell cycle-related genes that were still activated at anthesis in the parthenocarpic line, which shows the lack of arrest in the parthenocarpic line at anthesis. Key genes for the synthesis of gibberellins and ethylene, which were up-regulated in the parthenocarpic line were also detected. Comparisons between array experiments determined that anthesis was the most different stage and the key point at which most of the genes were modulated. In the parthenocarpic line, anthesis seemed to be a short transitional stage to fruit set. In this line, the high GAs contends leads to the development of a parthenocarpic fruit, and ethylene may mimic pollination signals, inducing auxin synthesis in the ovary and the development of a jelly fruit.

  8. [The lack of information on genetically modified organisms in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabelle Geoffroy; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society.

  9. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  10. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoke-Kqueen, Cheah; Radu, Son

    2006-12-15

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to analyzed 78 samples comprises of certified reference materials (soya and maize powder), raw seeds (soybean and maize), processed food and animal feed. Combination assay of two arbitrary primers in the RAPD analysis enable to distinguish genetically modified organism (GMO) reference materials from the samples tested. Dendrogram analysis revealed 13 clusters at 45% similarity from the RAPD. RAPD analysis showed that the maize and soybean samples were clustered differently besides the GMO and non-GMO products.

  11. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kramkowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed ‘modified organisms’, which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  12. Benefits and risks associated with genetically modified food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowska, Marta; Grzelak, Teresa; Czyżewska, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    Scientists employing methods of genetic engineering have developed a new group of living organisms, termed 'modified organisms', which found application in, among others, medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and food distribution. The introduction of transgenic products to the food market resulted in them becoming a controversial topic, with their proponents and contestants. The presented study aims to systematize objective data on the potential benefits and risks resulting from the consumption of transgenic food. Genetic modifications of plants and animals are justified by the potential for improvement of the food situation worldwide, an increase in yield crops, an increase in the nutritional value of food, and the development of pharmaceutical preparations of proven clinical significance. In the opinions of critics, however, transgenic food may unfavourably affect the health of consumers. Therefore, particular attention was devoted to the short- and long-lasting undesirable effects, such as alimentary allergies, synthesis of toxic agents or resistance to antibiotics. Examples arguing for the justified character of genetic modifications and cases proving that their use can be dangerous are innumerable. In view of the presented facts, however, complex studies are indispensable which, in a reliable way, evaluate effects linked to the consumption of food produced with the application of genetic engineering techniques. Whether one backs up or negates transgenic products, the choice between traditional and non-conventional food remains to be decided exclusively by the consumers.

  13. Emotional attitudes of young people completing secondary schools towards genetic modification of organisms (GMO) and genetically modified foods (GMF)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Jurkiewicz; Jerzy Zagórski; Franciszek Bujak; Stanisław Lachowski; Magdalena Florek - Łuszczki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of the study was recognition of the opinions of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms and genetically modified food, especially the respondents’ emotional attitude towards scientific achievements in the area of live genetically modified organisms. Material and method. The study covered a group of 500 school adolescents completing secondary school at the level of maturity examination. The study was conducted by the method...

  14. Transcriptome profiling reveals the regulatory mechanism underlying pollination dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set mainly mediated by auxin and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Deng, Wei; Hu, Guojian; Hu, Nan; Li, Zhengguo

    2015-01-01

    Fruit set is a key process for crop production in tomato which occurs after successful pollination and fertilization naturally. However, parthenocarpic fruit development can be uncoupled from fertilization triggered by exogenous auxin or gibberellins (GAs). Global transcriptome knowledge during fruit initiation would help to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which these two hormones regulate pollination-dependent and -independent fruit set. In this work, digital gene expression tag profiling (DGE) technology was applied to compare the transcriptomes from pollinated and 2, 4-D/GA3-treated ovaries. Activation of carbohydrate metabolism, cell division and expansion as well as the down-regulation of MADS-box is a comprehensive regulatory pathway during pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set. The signaling cascades of auxin and GA are significantly modulated. The feedback regulations of Aux/IAAs and DELLA genes which functioned to fine-tune auxin and GA response respectively play fundamental roles in triggering fruit initiation. In addition, auxin regulates GA synthesis via up-regulation of GA20ox1 and down-regulation of KNOX. Accordingly, the effect of auxin on fruit set is mediated by GA via ARF2 and IAA9 down-regulation, suggesting that both pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set depend on the crosstalk between auxin and GA. This study characterizes the transcriptomic features of ovary development and more importantly unravels the integral roles of auxin and GA on pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set.

  15. Transcriptome profiling reveals the regulatory mechanism underlying pollination dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set mainly mediated by auxin and gibberellin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tang

    Full Text Available Fruit set is a key process for crop production in tomato which occurs after successful pollination and fertilization naturally. However, parthenocarpic fruit development can be uncoupled from fertilization triggered by exogenous auxin or gibberellins (GAs. Global transcriptome knowledge during fruit initiation would help to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which these two hormones regulate pollination-dependent and -independent fruit set.In this work, digital gene expression tag profiling (DGE technology was applied to compare the transcriptomes from pollinated and 2, 4-D/GA3-treated ovaries. Activation of carbohydrate metabolism, cell division and expansion as well as the down-regulation of MADS-box is a comprehensive regulatory pathway during pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set. The signaling cascades of auxin and GA are significantly modulated. The feedback regulations of Aux/IAAs and DELLA genes which functioned to fine-tune auxin and GA response respectively play fundamental roles in triggering fruit initiation. In addition, auxin regulates GA synthesis via up-regulation of GA20ox1 and down-regulation of KNOX. Accordingly, the effect of auxin on fruit set is mediated by GA via ARF2 and IAA9 down-regulation, suggesting that both pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set depend on the crosstalk between auxin and GA.This study characterizes the transcriptomic features of ovary development and more importantly unravels the integral roles of auxin and GA on pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set.

  16. Tanaman Genetically Modified Organism (GMO dan Perspektif Hukumnya di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwono Prianto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Genetically modified organism (GMO merupakan organisme yang gen-gennya telah diubah dengan menggunakan teknik rekayasa genetika. Produk rekayasa genetika diklasifikasikan menjadi 4 macam, yaitu generasi pertama: satu sifat; generasi kedua: kumpulan sifat; generasi ketiga dan keempat: near-intragenic, intragenic, dan cisgenic. Adapun produk rekayasa genetika pada tanaman di Indonesia di antaranya adalah padi, tomat, tebu, singkong, dan kentang. Regulasi tanaman hasil rekayasa genetika diatur oleh beberapa lembaga, di antaranya Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup, Kementerian Pertanian, Komisi Keamanan Hayati, Tim Teknis Keamanan Hayati, dan Biosafety Clearing House, berdasarkan peraturan pemerintah No. 21 tahun 2005. Pengujian yang dilakukan pada produk rekayasa genetika meliputi analisis sumber gen penyebab alergi, sekuens homolog asam amino, resistensi pepsin, skrining serum, serta penggunaan hewan uji. Berbagai produk GMO di Indonesia sejauh ini merupakan produk yang dibutuhkan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan hidup sehari-hari, yang perlu diawasi secara ketat dari segi dampaknya terhadap lingkungan melalui ketentuan hukum yang berlaku, yang diwakili oleh instansi-instansi terkait tersebut.Abstract Genetically modified organism (GMO is an organism whose genes that have been altered by using genetic engineering techniques. Genetic engineering products are classified into 4 types, which are the first generation: one trait; the second generation: a collection of properties; the third and fourth generation: near-intragenic, intragenic, and cisgenic. The genetic engineering products in plants in Indonesia include rice, tomatoes, sugar cane, cassava, and potatoes. The application of the genetically engineered crops is regulated by several institutions, including the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Biosafety Commission, the Biosafety Technical Team and the Biosafety Clearing House, under government regulation No. 21 of the year

  17. Bee genera, diversity and abundance in genetically modified canola fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Colton; Arathi, H S

    2018-03-12

    Intensive agricultural practices resulting in large scale habitat loss ranks as the top contributing factors in the global bee decline. Growing Genetically Modified Herbicide Tolerant (GMHT) crops as large monocultures has resulted extensive applications of herbicides leading to the degradation of natural habitats surrounding farmlands. Herbicide tolerance trait is beneficial for crops such as Canola (Brassica napus) that are extremely vulnerable to weed competition. While the trait in itself does not harm pollinators, growing genetically modified herbicide tolerant cultivars indirectly contributes towards pollinator declines through habitat loss. Canola, a mass-flowering crop is highly attractive to bee pollinators and the extensive adoption of the herbicide tolerant trait has led to depletion of non-crop floral resources. Extensive use of herbicide in and near fields with herbicide tolerant cultivars systematically eliminates semi-natural habitats around agricultural fields which consist of non-crop flowering plants. Planting pollinator strips provides floral resources for bees after crop flowering. We document the bee genera in canola and the adjoining pollinator strip. The overlap in bee genera reinforces the importance of pollinator habitats in agricultural landscape.

  18. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrospun fiber membranes enable proliferation of genetically modified cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Mandula; Eskridge, Chris; Niamat, Rohina; Strouse, Bryan; Bialk, Pawel; Kmiec, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) and its blended composites (chitosan, gelatin, and lecithin) are well-established biomaterials that can enrich cell growth and enable tissue engineering. However, their application in the recovery and proliferation of genetically modified cells has not been studied. In the study reported here, we fabricated PCL-biomaterial blended fiber membranes, characterized them using physicochemical techniques, and used them as templates for the growth of genetically modified HCT116-19 colon cancer cells. Our data show that the blended polymers are highly miscible and form homogenous electrospun fiber membranes of uniform texture. The aligned PCL nanofibers support robust cell growth, yielding a 2.5-fold higher proliferation rate than cells plated on standard plastic plate surfaces. PCL-lecithin fiber membranes yielded a 2.7-fold higher rate of proliferation, while PCL-chitosan supported a more modest growth rate (1.5-fold higher). Surprisingly, PCL-gelatin did not enhance cell proliferation when compared to the rate of cell growth on plastic surfaces. PMID:23467983

  20. EVALUATION OF LITHUANIAN CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Lukošiut&#

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to present the results obtained during the survey of Lithuanian consumers in order to identify their attitudes towards food with genetically modified organisms (GMO. Investigating the consumers approach to genetically modified (GM food, the following were considered: consumers’ opinions on GMO were analyzed, their knowledge about the presence of food containing GMO on the Lithuanian market, the mandatory GM food labelling, the behavior to a transgenic product while shopping, as well as consumers’ willingness to purchase such products. Data were gathered through a survey of 1000 Lithuanian residents. The empirical results indicated that the majority of the respondents’ attitudes towards food containing GMO are negative. The older consumers with less income are more against GM food compared to younger, wealthier households. 72% of consumers know that if the food contains GMO it must be indicated on the label. However, many consumers who oppose GMO do not try to avoid paying attention to the components of the product listed on its label. Only about a quarter of consumers while buying a product look for such information. This indicates that consumers are not really interested in whether or not the product contains GMO

  1. Genetic modifiers of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype. Objective: We investigated the extent to which modifier genes influence nutrition in children with CF. Design: BMI data were longitudinally collected from the CF Twin-Sibling Study and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry for twins and siblings from 2000 to 2010. A nutritional phenotype was derived for 1124 subjects by calculating the average BMI z score from 5–10 y of age (BMI-z5to10). The genetic contribution to the variation in BMI-z5to10 (ie, heritability) was estimated by comparing the similarity of the phenotype in monozygous twins to that in dizygous twins and siblings. Linkage analysis identified potential modifier-gene loci. Results: The median BMI-z5to10 was −0.07 (range: −3.89 to 2.30), which corresponded to the 47th CDC percentile. BMI-z5to10 was negatively correlated with pancreatic insufficiency, history of meconium ileus, and female sex but positively correlated with later birth cohorts and lung function. Monozygous twins showed greater concordance for BMI-z5to10 than did dizygous twins and siblings; heritability estimates from same-sex twin-only analyses ranged from 0.54 to 0.82. For 1010 subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosomes 1p36.1 [log of odds (LOD): 5.3] and 5q14 (LOD: 5.1). These loci explained ≥16% and ≥15%, respectively, of the BMI variance. Conclusions: The analysis of twins and siblings with CF indicates a prominent role for genes other than CFTR to BMI variation. Specifically, regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 appear to harbor genetic modifiers of substantial effect. PMID:23134884

  2. Genetic modifiers of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Gia M; Blackman, Scott M; Watson, Christopher P; Doshi, Vishal K; Cutting, Garry R

    2012-12-01

    Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype. We investigated the extent to which modifier genes influence nutrition in children with CF. BMI data were longitudinally collected from the CF Twin-Sibling Study and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry for twins and siblings from 2000 to 2010. A nutritional phenotype was derived for 1124 subjects by calculating the average BMI z score from 5-10 y of age (BMI-z(5to10)). The genetic contribution to the variation in BMI-z(5to10) (ie, heritability) was estimated by comparing the similarity of the phenotype in monozygous twins to that in dizygous twins and siblings. Linkage analysis identified potential modifier-gene loci. The median BMI-z(5to10) was -0.07 (range: -3.89 to 2.30), which corresponded to the 47th CDC percentile. BMI-z(5to10) was negatively correlated with pancreatic insufficiency, history of meconium ileus, and female sex but positively correlated with later birth cohorts and lung function. Monozygous twins showed greater concordance for BMI-z(5to10) than did dizygous twins and siblings; heritability estimates from same-sex twin-only analyses ranged from 0.54 to 0.82. For 1010 subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosomes 1p36.1 [log of odds (LOD): 5.3] and 5q14 (LOD: 5.1). These loci explained ≥16% and ≥15%, respectively, of the BMI variance. The analysis of twins and siblings with CF indicates a prominent role for genes other than CFTR to BMI variation. Specifically, regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 appear to harbor genetic modifiers of substantial effect.

  3. Genetic Modifiers of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Barp

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is a major complication and leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. DCM onset is variable, suggesting modifier effects of genetic or environmental factors. We aimed to determine if polymorphisms previously associated with age at loss of independent ambulation (LoA in DMD (rs28357094 in the SPP1 promoter, rs10880 and the VTTT/IAAM haplotype in LTBP4 also modify DCM onset.A multicentric cohort of 178 DMD patients was genotyped by TaqMan assays. We performed a time-to-event analysis of DCM onset, with age as time variable, and finding of left ventricular ejection fraction 70 mL/m2 as event (confirmed by a previous normal exam < 12 months prior; DCM-free patients were censored at the age of last echocardiographic follow-up.Patients were followed up to an average age of 15.9 ± 6.7 years. Seventy-one/178 patients developed DCM, and median age at onset was 20.0 years. Glucocorticoid corticosteroid treatment (n = 88 untreated; n = 75 treated; n = 15 unknown did not have a significant independent effect on DCM onset. Cardiological medications were not administered before DCM onset in this population. We observed trends towards a protective effect of the dominant G allele at SPP1 rs28357094 and recessive T allele at LTBP4 rs10880, which was statistically significant in steroid-treated patients for LTBP4 rs10880 (< 50% T/T patients developing DCM during follow-up [n = 13]; median DCM onset 17.6 years for C/C-C/T, log-rank p = 0.027.We report a putative protective effect of DMD genetic modifiers on the development of cardiac complications, that might aid in risk stratification if confirmed in independent cohorts.

  4. Parthenocarpic potential in Capsicum annuum L. is enhanced by carpelloid structures and controlled by a single recessive gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Lin B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy is a desirable trait in Capsicum annuum production because it improves fruit quality and results in a more regular fruit set. Previously, we identified several C. annuum genotypes that already show a certain level of parthenocarpy, and the seedless fruits obtained from these genotypes often contain carpel-like structures. In the Arabidopsis bel1 mutant ovule integuments are transformed into carpels, and we therefore carefully studied ovule development in C. annuum and correlated aberrant ovule development and carpelloid transformation with parthenocarpic fruit set. Results We identified several additional C. annuum genotypes with a certain level of parthenocarpy, and confirmed a positive correlation between parthenocarpic potential and the development of carpelloid structures. Investigations into the source of these carpel-like structures showed that while the majority of the ovules in C. annuum gynoecia are unitegmic and anatropous, several abnormal ovules were observed, abundant at the top and base of the placenta, with altered integument growth. Abnormal ovule primordia arose from the placenta and most likely transformed into carpelloid structures in analogy to the Arabidopsis bel1 mutant. When pollination was present fruit weight was positively correlated with seed number, but in the absence of seeds, fruit weight proportionally increased with the carpelloid mass and number. Capsicum genotypes with high parthenocarpic potential always showed stronger carpelloid development. The parthenocarpic potential appeared to be controlled by a single recessive gene, but no variation in coding sequence was observed in a candidate gene CaARF8. Conclusions Our results suggest that in the absence of fertilization most C. annuum genotypes, have parthenocarpic potential and carpelloid growth, which can substitute developing seeds in promoting fruit development.

  5. Proliferation of Genetically Modified Human Cells on Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandula Borjigin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene editing is a process by which single base mutations can be corrected, in the context of the chromosome, using single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs. The survival and proliferation of the corrected cells bearing modified genes, however, are impeded by a phenomenon known as reduced proliferation phenotype (RPP; this is a barrier to practical implementation. To overcome the RPP problem, we utilized nanofiber scaffolds as templates on which modified cells were allowed to recover, grow, and expand after gene editing. Here, we present evidence that some HCT116-19, bearing an integrated, mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP gene and corrected by gene editing, proliferate on polylysine or fibronectin-coated polycaprolactone (PCL nanofiber scaffolds. In contrast, no cells from the same reaction protocol plated on both regular dish surfaces and polylysine (or fibronectin-coated dish surfaces proliferate. Therefore, growing genetically modified (edited cells on electrospun nanofiber scaffolds promotes the reversal of the RPP and increases the potential of gene editing as an ex vivo gene therapy application.

  6. Production and characterization of genetically modified human IL-11 variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Emiko; Takei, Toshiaki; Ueda, Takuya; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2017-02-01

    Interleukin-11 (IL-11) has been expected as a drug on severe thrombocytopenia caused by myelo-suppressive chemotherapy. Whereas, development of IL-11 inhibitor is also expected for a treatment against IL-11 related cancer progression. Here, we will demonstrate the creation of various kinds of genetically modified hIL-11s. Modified vectors were constructed by introducing N- or O-glycosylation site on the region of hIL-11 that does not belong to the core α-helical motif based on the predicted secondary structure. N-terminal (N: between 22 to 23 aa), the first loop (M1:70 to 71 aa), the second loop (M2:114-115 aa), the third loop (M3:160-161 aa) and C-terminal (C: 200- aa) were selected for modification. A large scale production system was established and the characteristics of modified hIL-11s were evaluated. The structure was analyzed by amino acid sequence and composition analysis and CD-spectra. Glycan was assessed by monosaccharide composition analysis. Growth promoting activity and biological stability were analyzed by proliferation of T1165 cells. N-terminal modified proteins were well glycosylated and produced. Growth activity of 3NN with NASNASNAS sequence on N-terminal was about tenfold higher than wild type (WT). Structural and biological stabilities of 3NN were also better than WT and residence time in mouse blood was longer than WT. M1 variants lacked growth activity though they are well glycosylated and secondary structure is very stable. Both of 3NN and OM1 with AAATPAPG on M1 associated with hIL-11R strongly. These results indicate N-terminal and M1 variants will be expected for practical use as potent agonists or antagonists of hIL-11. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of genetically modified maize and soybean in feed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriç, S; Cakır, O; Turgut-Kara, N; Arı, S

    2014-02-25

    Despite the controversy about genetically modified (GM) plants, they are still incrementally cultivated. In recent years, many food and feed products produced by genetic engineering technology have appeared on store shelves. Controlling the production and legal presentation of GM crops are very important for the environment and human health, especially in terms of long-term consumption. In this study, 11 kinds of feed obtained from different regions of Turkey were used for genetic analysis based on foreign gene determination. All samples were screened by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for widely used genetic elements; cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S promoter), and nopaline synthase terminator (T-NOS) sequences for GM plants. After determination of GM plant-containing samples, nested PCR and conventional PCR analysis were performed to find out whether the samples contained Bt176 or GTS-40-3-2 for maize and soy, respectively. As a result of PCR-based GM plant analysis, all samples were found to be transgenic. Both 35S- and NOS-containing feed samples or potentially Bt176-containing samples, in other words, were analyzed with Bt176 insect resistant cryIAb gene-specific primers via nested PCR. Eventually, none of them were found Bt176-positive. On the other hand, when we applied conventional PCR to the same samples with the herbicide resistance CTP4-EPSPS construct-specific primers for transgenic soy variety GTS-40-3-2, we found that all samples were positive for GTS-40-3-2.

  8. Outcrossing and coexistence of genetically modified with (genetically) unmodified crops: a case study of the situation in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops the EU has demanded that individual member states enact measures to prevent inadvertent admixture ¿ through outcrossing ¿ of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) with products from conventional and organic farming. A literature review on

  9. Optimal control strategy of malaria vector using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, M; Bevilacqua, L; Wyse, A P P

    2009-06-07

    The development of transgenic mosquitoes that are resistant to diseases may provide a new and effective weapon of diseases control. Such an approach relies on transgenic mosquitoes being able to survive and compete with wild-type populations. These transgenic mosquitoes carry a specific code that inhibits the plasmodium evolution in its organism. It is said that this characteristic is hereditary and consequently the disease fades away after some time. Once transgenic mosquitoes are released, interactions between the two populations and inter-specific mating between the two types of mosquitoes take place. We present a mathematical model that considers the generation overlapping and variable environment factors. Based on this continuous model, the malaria vector control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how genetically modified mosquitoes should be introduced in the environment. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  10. DNA enrichment approaches to identify unauthorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulandhu, Alfred J; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Dobnik, David; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana; Kok, Esther J

    2016-07-01

    With the increased global production of different genetically modified (GM) plant varieties, chances increase that unauthorized GM organisms (UGMOs) may enter the food chain. At the same time, the detection of UGMOs is a challenging task because of the limited sequence information that will generally be available. PCR-based methods are available to detect and quantify known UGMOs in specific cases. If this approach is not feasible, DNA enrichment of the unknown adjacent sequences of known GMO elements is one way to detect the presence of UGMOs in a food or feed product. These enrichment approaches are also known as chromosome walking or gene walking (GW). In recent years, enrichment approaches have been coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and implemented in, amongst others, the medical and microbiological fields. The present review will provide an overview of these approaches and an evaluation of their applicability in the identification of UGMOs in complex food or feed samples.

  11. Disease-threat model explains acceptance of genetically modified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection favoured survival of individuals who were able to avoid disease. The behavioural immune system is activated especially when our sensory system comes into contact with disease-connoting cues and/or when these cues resemble disease threat. We investigated whether or not perception of modern risky technologies, risky behaviour, expected reproductive goals and food neophobia are associated with the behavioural immune system related to specific attitudes toward genetically modified (GM products. We found that respondents who felt themselves more vulnerable to infectious diseases had significantly more negative attitudes toward GM products. Females had less positive attitudes toward GM products, but engaging in risky behaviours, the expected reproductive goals of females and food neophobia did not predict attitudes toward GM products. Our results suggest that evolved psychological mechanisms primarily designed to protect us against pathogen threat are activated by modern technologies possessing potential health risks.

  12. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  13. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yan Gong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hectares of genetically modified (GM crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. Omics techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques.

  14. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frisvold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.

  15. Environmental Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, B.; Kjær, C.; Hindar, K.

    of genetically modified plants. This chapter describes both the legislation within the EU and the state of the technology (existing and coming cases). Furthermore, a presentation of the ecological concerns discussed in the report, i.e. invasion, introgression and adverse effects on non-target organisms...... for annual plants, trees and fish, respectively, and suggests a structural/hierarchical decision system for information requirements. The latter should aid to eliminate the 'high-risk' products at an early stage and to improve the design of tests at higher tiers. The second section works with specific...... requirements for the ecological risk assessment of long-lived species like tree species and fish. The third and last section characterises the specific conditions and requirements prevailing in the Nordic region. It is recommended that new field releases and applications for marketing are accompanied...

  16. Electrochemiluminescence polymerase chain reaction detection of genetically modified organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinfeng; Xing Da; Shen Xingyan; Zhu Debin

    2005-01-01

    With the development of biotechnology, more and more genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have entered commercial market. Because of the safety concerns, detection and characterization of GMOs have attracted much attention recently. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method is a chemiluminescent (CL) reaction of species generated electrochemically on an electrode surface. It is a highly efficient and accurate detection method. In this paper, ECL polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with two types of nucleic acid probes hybridization was applied to detect GMOs for the first time. Whether the organisms contain GM components was discriminated by detecting the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator. The experiment results show that the detection limit is 100 fmol of PCR products. The promoter and the terminator can be clearly detected in GMOs. The method may provide a new means for the detection of GMOs due to its simplicity and high efficiency

  17. Genetically modified crops: detection strategies and biosafety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Suchitra; Ali, Sher

    2013-06-15

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are increasingly gaining acceptance but concurrently consumers' concerns are also increasing. The introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes into the plants has raised issues related to its risk assessment and biosafety. The International Regulations and the Codex guidelines regulate the biosafety requirements of the GM crops. In addition, these bodies synergize and harmonize the ethical issues related to the release and use of GM products. The labeling of GM crops and their products are mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds the levels of a recommended threshold. The new and upcoming GM crops carrying multiple stacked traits likely to be commercialized soon warrant sensitive detection methods both at the DNA and protein levels. Therefore, traceability of the transgene and its protein expression in GM crops is an important issue that needs to be addressed on a priority basis. The advancement in the area of molecular biology has made available several bioanalytical options for the detection of GM crops based on DNA and protein markers. Since the insertion of a gene into the host genome may even cause copy number variation, this may be uncovered using real time PCR. Besides, assessing the exact number of mRNA transcripts of a gene, correlation between the template activity and expressed protein may be established. Here, we present an overview on the production of GM crops, their acceptabilities, detection strategies, biosafety issues and potential impact on society. Further, overall future prospects are also highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. QUANTIFICATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE MON 810 IN PROCESSED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Siekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Maize MON 810 (Zea mays L. represents the majority of genetically modified food crops. It is the only transgenic cultivar grown in the EU (European Union countries and food products with its content higher than 0.9 % must be labelled. This study was aimed at impact of food processing (temperature, pH and pressure on DNA degradation and quantification of the genetically modified maize MON 810. The transgenic DNA was quantified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Processing as is high temperature (121 °C, elevated pressure (0.1 MPa and low pH 2.25 fragmented DNA. A consequence of two order difference in the species specific gene content compared to the transgenic DNA content in plant materials used has led to false negative results in the quantification of transgenic DNA. The maize containing 4.2 % of the transgene after processing appeared to be as low as 3.0 % (100 °C and 1.9 % (121 °C, 0.1 MPa. The 2.1 % amount of transgene dropped at 100 °C to 1.0 % and at 121 °C, 0.1 MPa to 0.6 %. Under such make up the DNA degradation of transgenic content showed up 2 or 3 time higher decrease a consequence of unequal gene presence. Such genes disparity is expressed as considerable decrease of transgenic content while the decrease of species specific gene content remains unnoticed. Based on our findings we conclude that high degree of processing might have led to false negative results of the transgenic constituent quantification. Determination of GMO content in processed foods may leads to incorrect statement and labelling in these cases could misleads consumers.doi:10.5219/212

  19. Detection method for genetically modified papaya using duplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Shimizu, Kaori; Mishima, Takashi; Aoki, Nobutaro; Hattori, Hideki; Sato, Hidetaka; Ueda, Nobuo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hino, Akihiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2006-08-01

    A simple and rapid method for the identification of genetically modified (GM) papaya, derived from Line 55-1, was developed by modifying the Japanese official PCR method. Genomic DNA was directly extracted from the fresh fruit without the lyophilization step, using a commercial silica-based kit. To develop a duplex PCR method which simultaneously detects the GM papaya-specific gene and the intrinsic papain gene, the papain 2-5'/3' (amplicon size; 184 bp) primer pair for the detection of the papain gene was newly designed within the region of the products (211 bp) amplified using the papain 1-5'/-3' primer pair adopted in the Japanese official PCR method. To detect the GM papaya-specific gene, the primer pair Nos C-5'/CaM N-3' described in the Japanese official method was used. The DNA sequences of the GM papaya gene and the intrinsic papain gene were co-amplified using the PCR method in a single tube. The developed duplex PCR method allows the simultaneous detection of the products by means of agarose gel electrophoresis or microchip electrophoresis. The proposed method for GM papaya identification is simple and rapid.

  20. [Detection of genetically modified organisms obtained from food samples ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Sato, Masaki; Uno, Naomichi; Sato, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-08-01

    Genetially modified organisms (GMOs) were explored in food samples obtained from November 2000 to March 2003 in the Tokyo area by using PCR and real-time PCR techniques. The existence of Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) was surveyed in processed foods derived from soybeans, such as tofu, boiled soybean, kinako, nama-age, abura-age, natto, miso, soymilk and yuba. RRS was detected in 3 of 37 tofu, 2 of 3 nama-age, 2 of 3 yuba and 3 of 3 abura-age samples. The CBH351 in 70 processed corn foods, NewLeaf Plus and NewLeaf Y in 50 processed potato foods, and 55-1 papaya in 16 papayas were surveyed. These GMOs were not detected among the samples. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of RRS and genetically modified (GM) corn were performed in soybean, corn and semi-processed corn products such as corn meal, corn flour and corn grits. RRS was detected in 42 of 178 soybean samples, and the amount of RRS in RRS-positive samples was determined. The content was in the range of 0.1-1.4% in identity-preserved soybeans (non-GMO), and 49.8-78.8% in non-segregated soybeans. On the other hand, GM corns were detected in 8 of 26 samples. The amount of GM corn in GM corn-positive samples was in the range of 0.1-2.0%.

  1. Acceptance of genetically modified foods: the relation between technology and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbült, Petra; De Vries, Nanne K; van Breukelen, Gerard; Dreezens, Ellen; Martijn, Carolien

    2008-07-01

    This study investigates why consumers accept different genetically modified food products to different extents. The study shows that whether food products are genetically modified or not and whether they are processed or not are the two important features that affect the acceptance of food products and their evaluation (in terms of perceived healthiness, naturalness, necessity and tastiness). The extent to which these evaluation attributes and acceptance of a product are affected by genetic modification or processing depends on whether the product is negatively affected by the other technology: Any technological change to a 'natural' product (when nonprocessed products are genetically modified or when non-genetically modified products are processed) affect evaluation and acceptance stronger than a change to an technologically adapted product (when processed products are also genetically modified or vice versa). Furthermore, evaluation attributes appear to mediate the effects of genetic modification and processing on acceptance.

  2. The Discussion around the agricultural Products Genetically Modified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez H, Andres

    2003-01-01

    The transgenic products or genetically modified have been product of the vertiginous technological developments related with the sciences of the life and mainly of the genetics. The Introduction of these products to the market has generated big expectations and discussions. It is undoubtedly intention of this paper to provide the reader a conceptual mark that identifies the main arguments exposed by the parts in debate, to identify the most relevant aspects in the international legislation and to describe shortly how the topic is approached in Colombia. They are gathered this way then and the so much arguments of defenders like opponents contain regarding the topic, among those that the improvement, of the productivity and the yields can be included by cultivated meter, the decrease of the malnutrition at world level, environmental risks for possible reductions of the biodiversity and of development of resistant plagues to pesticides or herbicides, among others. At international level the first steps are giving to unify a clear legislation in this respect, although at the moment it is not articulate with other legislations like the World Trade Organization WTO)

  3. Genetically modified organisms in light of domestic and world regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available At the same time as development and registration of new genetic modification of plant species have intensified, the number of countries in which they are grown has also increased considerably. Genetically modified crops were grown in 22 countries in 2006, six of which were in European Union. Protocol on Biosafety, known as Cartagena protocol was adopted at the international level in February, 2000. Presence, but not growing of GMO in food is allowed in many countries, while in some others labeling of food origination from GMO is obligatory. Labeling is obligatory in European Union, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Norway, Switzerland and some others. In our country the Law on GMO and sub-law acts were conceived according to EU regulative. The terms for limited use, production, trade of GMO and GMO products have been prescribed. Validation and standardization of GMO testing methods are now being implemented. It is expected that the analytical GMO methods will soon be harmonized at the international level. .

  4. Integrative genetic analysis suggests that skin color modifies the genetic architecture of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulur, Imge; Skol, Andrew D; Gamazon, Eric R; Cox, Nancy J; Onel, Kenan

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and presents a significant health care burden in many countries. In addition to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, the main causal factor for melanoma, genetic factors also play an important role in melanoma susceptibility. Although genome-wide association studies have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with melanoma, little is known about the proportion of disease risk attributable to these loci and their distribution throughout the genome. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of melanoma in 1,888 cases and 990 controls of European non-Hispanic ancestry. We estimated the overall narrow-sense heritability of melanoma to be 0.18 (P < 0.03), indicating that genetics contributes significantly to the risk of sporadically-occurring melanoma. We then demonstrated that only a small proportion of this risk is attributable to known risk variants, suggesting that much remains unknown of the role of genetics in melanoma. To investigate further the genetic architecture of melanoma, we partitioned the heritability by chromosome, minor allele frequency, and functional annotations. We showed that common genetic variation contributes significantly to melanoma risk, with a risk model defined by a handful of genomic regions rather than many risk loci distributed throughout the genome. We also demonstrated that variants affecting gene expression in skin account for a significant proportion of the heritability, and are enriched among melanoma risk loci. Finally, by incorporating skin color into our analyses, we observed both a shift in significance for melanoma-associated loci and an enrichment of expression quantitative trait loci among melanoma susceptibility variants. These findings suggest that skin color may be an important modifier of melanoma risk. We speculate that incorporating skin color and other non-genetic factors into genetic studies may allow for an improved understanding of melanoma

  5. Enhanced production of parthenocarpic cucumbers pollinated with stingless bees and Africanized honey bees in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crops have different levels of dependence on pollinators; this holds true even for cultivars of the same species, as in the case of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. The aim of this research was to assess the attractiveness of flowers of three Japanese parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars and evaluate the importance of Africanized bees (Apis mellifera, and the Brazilian native stingless bees, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula and Iraí (Nannotrigona testaceicornis on fruit production. Several parameters, including frequency of bee visits to flowers as well as duration of nectar collection and fruit set were examined; additionally, fruit weight, length and diameter were evaluated. Three greenhouses located in Ribeirão Preto, SP, were used for planting three cucumber cultivars (Hokushin, Yoshinari and Soudai. The female flowers were more attractive than male flowers; however, Jataí bees were not observed visiting the flowers. The Africanized and the Iraí bees collected only nectar, with a visitation peak between 10 and 12h. Visits to female flowers had a longer duration than visits to male flower visits in all three cultivars. Africanized bee colonies declined due to loss of bees while in the greenhouse; the native stingless bee colonies did not suffer these losses. When bees were excluded, fruit set was 78%; however, when bees had access to the flowers, fruit set was significantly (19.2% higher. Fruit size and weight did not differ with and without bees. This demonstrates that even in parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars, which do not require pollination in order to from fruits, fruit production is significantly increased by bee pollination.

  6. Do Organic Consumers Oppose Genetically Modified Food Stronger than Others? Results of a Consumer Research in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wirthgen, Antje

    2007-01-01

    The majority of consumers, in particular European consumers oppose genetic modifi-cation of food. Although consumers oppose strongly genetic modification of food, genetically modified food production increases world wide. The co-existence of both, genetically modified food production and food production free of genetic modification cannot be ensured. There is always a risk that non-genetically modified food gets contaminated despite safety regulations. Thus, even organic production, which is ...

  7. Conventional agricultural land use and immissions of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ownership rights do not provide the owner with full freedom of use over the owned thing anymore, especially when it comes to such valuable resources as agricultural land. Ownership rigths are privilegia odiosa these days. Highest legal acts of several countries, as well as decisions of the Court of Justice of the European Union, stress the fact that it is not absolute and that it has a particular social function. The owner is obliged to use the land, and to do so in a conventional manner. Conventional should, with respect to logical reasoning, relate only to what has been accepted, by a broader community, as useful and reasonable. However, that is not always the case in modern world. Agriculture is considered conventional when it is directed towards intensive plant production, while making use of artificial fertilizers, growth hormones, pesticides, fungicides, insecticides, and other chemical products. In USA and some other countries, production of plants which have a DNA modified by use of techniques of genetic engineering (GMO, are treated under the same legal regime. On the other hand, traditional, organic agriculture is treated as an exception, and special, more restrictive rules are applied to it. Civilization obviously found itself in an absurd situation. Something for which it is undoubtedly clear that it is bad in many aspects, and long term unsustainable (conventional agriculture is considered normal, something for which it is not known whether and to which extent it is harmful (GMO agriculture is being tolerated, and something for which we confidently know that it is not harmful, or at least not as nearly as harmful as the previously mentioned is considered an exception (organic agriculture. The difference between GMO immissions and emissions from a certain property being allowed or prohibited, i.e. whether the owner of a particular property will be held responsible for disturbance and possible damage, as a result of contamination of

  8. Examining consumer behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alexa; Townsend, Ellen

    2006-06-01

    This study examined behavior toward genetically modified (GM) food in a British community-based sample. We used an equivalent gain task in which participants actually received the options they chose to encourage truthful responding. In conjunction with this, theory of planned behavior (TPB) components were evaluated so as to examine the relative importance of behavioral influences in this domain. Here, the TPB was extended to include additional components to measure self-identity, moral norms, and emotional involvement. Results indicated that the monetary amounts participants accepted in preference to GM food were significantly lower than those accepted in preference to non-GM food. However, the vast majority of participants were indifferent between GM and non-GM food options. All TPB components significantly predicted behavioral intentions to try GM food, with attitudes toward GM being the strongest predictor. Self-identity and emotional involvement were also found to be significant predictors of behavioral intentions but moral norms were not. In addition, behavioral intentions significantly predicted behavior; however, PBC did not. An additional measure of participants' propensity to respond in a socially desirable manner indicated that our results were not influenced by self-presentation issues, giving confidence to our findings. Overall, it appears that the majority of participants (74.5%) would purchase GM food at some price.

  9. Determinants of Public Attitudes to Genetically Modified Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  10. [Detection of recombinant DNA from genetically modified papaya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Y; Asano, T; Shibuya, M; Hino, A; Toyoda, M

    2001-08-01

    A method using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to detect the genetically modified (GM) papaya (55-1 line), of which the mandatory safety assessment has not been finished in Japan because of insufficient data. The papaya intrinsic papain gene was used as an internal control. The results of PCR amplification of the papain gene segment indicated that a commercial silica membrane type kit (QIAGEN DNeasy plant mini) was useful for extraction of DNA from papaya fruit, but not for extraction from canned papaya fruit. On the other hand, a commercial ion-exchange type kit (QIAGEN Genomic-tip) provided enough purified DNA for PCR from canned papaya fruit. Compared with the parental line and other commercial non-GM papayas, the DNA from GM papaya fruit provided specific amplification bands in PCR with five primer pairs (Nos. 2-6) including beta-glucuronidase and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene-specific ones. On the other hand, the primer pairs recognizing these genes showed false-positive results when we used DNAs from canned papaya. Therefore, we recommend that the primer pairs (Nos. 5 and 6) recognizing the sequences derived from two different species of organism should be used in order to detect specifically the GM papaya in canned fruits.

  11. Genetically modified organisms: do the benefits outweigh the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this literature review is to analyze the implications of using genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as well as international and European position regarding such organisms. Review of international and European legal requirements and ethical guidelines and relevant publications, found and accessed with the help of PubMed and Lund University Library databases. The article discusses the main application areas of GMOs, the expansion of using GMOs in the world as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the implications of their usage. It further provides an overview of the suggested ways to tackle or avoid the GMO-related risks. The international and European positions regarding the application of GMOs are discussed and European Directives, Regulations, and ethical guidelines are overviewed. The article further presents the public attitudes towards GMOs in Europe as well as overviews surveys conducted at the national level. Suggested steps to tackle the challenge of developing and managing biotechnology for the benefit of public health and the environment are presented.

  12. Perspectives on genetically modified crops and food detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hui Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM crops are a major product of the global food industry. From 1996 to 2014, 357 GM crops were approved and the global value of the GM crop market reached 35% of the global commercial seed market in 2014. However, the rapid growth of the GM crop-based industry has also created controversies in many regions, including the European Union, Egypt, and Taiwan. The effective detection and regulation of GM crops/foods are necessary to reduce the impact of these controversies. In this review, the status of GM crops and the technology for their detection are discussed. As the primary gap in GM crop regulation exists in the application of detection technology to field regulation, efforts should be made to develop an integrated, standardized, and high-throughput GM crop detection system. We propose the development of an integrated GM crop detection system, to be used in combination with a standardized international database, a decision support system, high-throughput DNA analysis, and automated sample processing. By integrating these technologies, we hope that the proposed GM crop detection system will provide a method to facilitate comprehensive GM crop regulation.

  13. Proteomic evaluation of genetically modified crops: current status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chun Yan; Wang, Tai

    2013-01-01

    Hectares of genetically modified (GM) crops have increased exponentially since 1996, when such crops began to be commercialized. GM biotechnology, together with conventional breeding, has become the main approach to improving agronomic traits of crops. However, people are concerned about the safety of GM crops, especially GM-derived food and feed. Many efforts have been made to evaluate the unintended effects caused by the introduction of exogenous genes. “Omics” techniques have advantages over targeted analysis in evaluating such crops because of their use of high-throughput screening. Proteins are key players in gene function and are directly involved in metabolism and cellular development or have roles as toxins, antinutrients, or allergens, which are essential for human health. Thus, proteomics can be expected to become one of the most useful tools in safety assessment. This review assesses the potential of proteomics in evaluating various GM crops. We further describe the challenges in ensuring homogeneity and sensitivity in detection techniques. PMID:23471542

  14. Perspectives on genetically modified crops and food detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are a major product of the global food industry. From 1996 to 2014, 357 GM crops were approved and the global value of the GM crop market reached 35% of the global commercial seed market in 2014. However, the rapid growth of the GM crop-based industry has also created controversies in many regions, including the European Union, Egypt, and Taiwan. The effective detection and regulation of GM crops/foods are necessary to reduce the impact of these controversies. In this review, the status of GM crops and the technology for their detection are discussed. As the primary gap in GM crop regulation exists in the application of detection technology to field regulation, efforts should be made to develop an integrated, standardized, and high-throughput GM crop detection system. We propose the development of an integrated GM crop detection system, to be used in combination with a standardized international database, a decision support system, high-throughput DNA analysis, and automated sample processing. By integrating these technologies, we hope that the proposed GM crop detection system will provide a method to facilitate comprehensive GM crop regulation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Stakeholders' attitude to genetically modified foods and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Jahi, Jamaluddin Md; Nor, Abd Rahim Md

    2013-01-01

    Public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods has to be adequately addressed in order for their potential economic and social benefits to be realized. The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of the Malaysian public toward GM foods (GM soybean and GM palm oil) and GM medicine (GM insulin). A survey was carried out using self-constructed multidimensional instrument measuring attitudes towards GM products. The respondents (n = 1017) were stratified according to stakeholders' groups in the Klang Valley region. Results of the survey show that the overall attitude of the Malaysian stakeholders towards GM products was cautious. Although they acknowledged the presence of moderate perceived benefits associated with GM products surveyed and were moderately encouraging of them, they were also moderately concerned about the risks and moral aspects of the three GM products as well as moderately accepting the risks. Attitudes towards GM products among the stakeholders were found to vary not according to the type of all GM applications but rather depend on the intricate relationships between the attitudinal factors and the type of gene transfers involved. Analyses of variance showed significant differences in the six dimensions of attitude towards GM products across stakeholders' groups.

  16. Recombinant biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose in genetically modified Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldum, Gizem; Bismarck, Alexander; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) exhibits unique properties such as high purity compared to plant-based cellulose; however, commercial production of BC has remained a challenge, primarily due to the strain properties of cellulose-producing bacteria. Herein, we developed a functional and stable BC production system in genetically modified (GM) Escherichia coli by recombinant expression of both the BC synthase operon (bcsABCD) and the upstream operon (cmcax, ccp Ax). BC production was achieved in GM HMS174 (DE3) and in GM C41 (DE3) by optimization of the culture temperature (22 °C, 30 °C, and 37 °C) and IPTG concentration. BC biosynthesis was detected much earlier in GM C41 (DE3) cultures (3 h after IPTG induction) than those of Gluconacetobacter hansenii. GM HMS174 (DE3) produced dense fibres having a length of approximately 1000-3000 μm and a diameter of 10-20 μm, which were remarkably larger than the fibres of BC typically produced by G. hansenii.

  17. Bioavailability of transgenic microRNAs in genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Primo, Cecilia; Elbaz-Younes, Ismail; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic expression of small RNAs is a prevalent approach in agrobiotechnology for the global enhancement of plant foods. Meanwhile, emerging studies have, on the one hand, emphasized the potential of transgenic microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel dietary therapeutics and, on the other, suggested potential food safety issues if harmful miRNAs are absorbed and bioactive. For these reasons, it is necessary to evaluate the bioavailability of transgenic miRNAs in genetically modified crops. As a pilot study, two transgenic Arabidopsis lines ectopically expressing unique miRNAs were compared and contrasted with the plant bioavailable small RNA MIR2911 for digestive stability and serum bioavailability. The expression levels of these transgenic miRNAs in Arabidopsis were found to be comparable to that of MIR2911 in fresh tissues. Assays of digestive stability in vitro and in vivo suggested the transgenic miRNAs and MIR2911 had comparable resistance to degradation. Healthy mice consuming diets rich in Arabidopsis lines expressing these miRNAs displayed MIR2911 in the bloodstream but no detectable levels of the transgenic miRNAs. These preliminary results imply digestive stability and high expression levels of miRNAs in plants do not readily equate to bioavailability. This initial work suggests novel engineering strategies be employed to enhance miRNA bioavailability when attempting to use transgenic foods as a delivery platform.

  18. Detection methods and performance criteria for genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheau, Yves; Diolez, Annick; Kobilinsky, André; Magin, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are necessary for many applications, from seed purity assessment to compliance of food labeling in several countries. Numerous analytical methods are currently used or under development to support these needs. The currently used methods are bioassays and protein- and DNA-based detection protocols. To avoid discrepancy of results between such largely different methods and, for instance, the potential resulting legal actions, compatibility of the methods is urgently needed. Performance criteria of methods allow evaluation against a common standard. The more-common performance criteria for detection methods are precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, which together specifically address other terms used to describe the performance of a method, such as applicability, selectivity, calibration, trueness, precision, recovery, operating range, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and ruggedness. Performance criteria should provide objective tools to accept or reject specific methods, to validate them, to ensure compatibility between validated methods, and be used on a routine basis to reject data outside an acceptable range of variability. When selecting a method of detection, it is also important to consider its applicability, its field of applications, and its limitations, by including factors such as its ability to detect the target analyte in a given matrix, the duration of the analyses, its cost effectiveness, and the necessary sample sizes for testing. Thus, the current GMO detection methods should be evaluated against a common set of performance criteria.

  19. Consumer perception of genetically modified organisms and sources of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A

    2015-11-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Biodegradation of genetically modified seeds and plant tissues during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tim; Alexander, Trevor W; Xu, Weiping; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2010-03-15

    The increasing global market of genetically modified (GM) crops amplifies the potential for unintentional contamination of food and feed with GM plants. Methods proposed for disposal of crop residues should be assessed to prevent unintended distribution of GM materials. Composting of organic material is inexpensive and location-independent. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of composting for disposal of GM plants in terms of reducing seed viability and promoting the degradation of endogenous as well as transgenic DNA. Duplicate samples of corn kernels, alfalfa leaves, and GM canola seeds, meal and pellets were sealed in porous nylon bags and implanted in duplicate 85,000 kg (initial weight) feedlot manure compost piles. Samples were collected at intervals over 230 days of composing. Canola seeds and corn kernels were not viable after 14 days of composting with temperatures in the piles exceeding 50 degrees C. In all samples, PCR analyses revealed that plant endogenous and transgenic fragments were substantially degraded after 230 days of composting. Southern blotting of genomic DNA isolated from canola seeds identified differences in the persistence of endogenous, transgenic, and bacterial DNA. Composting GM and non-GM plant materials with manure rendered seeds non-viable, and resulted in substantial, although not complete, degradation of endogenous and transgenic plant DNA. This study demonstrates that composting could be effective for disposing of GM crops in the event of their inadvertent entry into the food or feed chain.

  1. Monitoring of genetically modified Escherichia coli in laboratory wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Fabienne; Wyrsch, Ines; Frank, Jörg; Müller, Matthias; Bertschi, Nicole; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2017-10-01

    Containment of genetically modified (GM) microorganisms such as Escherichia coli is a legal requirement to protect the environment from an unintended release and to avoid horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of recombinant DNA to native bacteria. In this study, we sampled the laboratory wastewater (LWW) at a large Swiss university from three sources over 2 years and cultured ampicillin-resistant, presumptive GM E. coli. From a total of 285 samples, 127 contained presumptive GM E. coli (45%) at a mean concentration of 2.8 × 10 2  CFU/ml. Plasmid DNA of 11 unique clones was partially or entirely sequenced. All consisted of cloning vectors harboring research-specific inserts. To estimate the chance of HGT between GM E. coli and native bacteria in LWW, we identified taxa representative for the bacterial community in LWW using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and measured conjugation frequencies of E. coli with five LWW isolates. At optimal conjugation conditions, frequencies were between 3.4 × 10 -3 and 2.4 × 10 -5 . Given the absence of transferable broad-host range plasmids and suboptimal conjugation conditions in the LWW system, we conclude that the chance of HGT is relatively low. Still, this study shows that the implementation of robust containment measures is key to avoid the escape of GM microorganisms.

  2. The consumer and the right to information against the uncertainties surrounding genetically modified foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Michelle da Silva Godoy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Verifies the need for consumer information on the divergênciascientíficas regarding the risks of genetically modified foods . Concludes access to information is inherent in the exercise of the right of choice doconsumidor front of genetically modified foods , as the same were entered the market without the existence of scientific consensus related to risk.

  3. A design for the control of apoptosis in genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Nao; Noguchi, Misa; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have engineered a system that holds potential for use as a safety switch in genetically modified yeasts. Human apoptotic factor BAX (no homolog in yeast), under the control of the FBP1 (gluconeogenesis enzyme) promoter, was conditionally expressed to induce yeast cell apoptosis after glucose depletion. Such systems might prove useful for the safe use of genetically modified organisms.

  4. "Mendel in the Kitchen: A Scientist's View of Genetically Modified Foods".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Benjamin

    2005-06-01

    Is genetically modified food safe? Are concerns over genetically modified food warranted? What is the difference between introducing genes into plants by grafting and by molecular engineering? These and other questions are answered in the book "Mendel in the Kitchen" written by plant biology expert Dr. Nina Fedoroff.

  5. Can health benefits break down Nordic consumers' rejection of genetically modified foods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    ' preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of health benefits. Before implementing the conjoint task, two thirds of the respondents were asked to taste a cheese, which was supposedly genetically modified. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well...

  6. Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Aarts, H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics

  7. Novel surface display system for proteins on non-genetically modified gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, T; Kanninga, R; Neef, J; Audouy, SAL; van Roosmalen, ML; Steen, A; Buist, G; Kok, J; Kuipers, OP; Robillard, G; Leenhouts, K

    A novel display system is described that allows highly efficient immobilization of heterologous proteins on bacterial surfaces in applications for which the use of genetically modified bacteria is less desirable. This system is based on nonliving and non-genetically modified gram-positive bacterial

  8. Assessing and monitoring impacts of genetically modified plants on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpaia, S.; Messéan, A.; Birch, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    effects of genetically modified (GM) plants, tests the efficacy of the EFSA Guidance Document for the Environmental Risk Assessment, explores new strategies for post market monitoring, and provides a systematic analysis of economic aspects of Genetically Modified crops cultivation in the EU. Research...

  9. [Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-02-01

    To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline - via PubMed -, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors "organisms, genetically modified" and "food labeling". The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modified products and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes new technologies.

  10. The influence of tasting experience and health benefits on Nordic consumers' rejection of genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a conjoint study of 750 Danish, Swedish, Nor-wegian and Finnish consumers' preferences for genetically modified and conventional cheese with different types of health benefits. The results showed homogeneity in preferences within as well as across co...... countries. In general, the genetically modified cheese was rejected, but this was modified somewhat by health benefits and tasting experience....

  11. Exploring the Role of Genetic Modifiers in DNA Repair and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    09-1-0029 TITLE: Exploring the role of genetic modifiers in DNA repair and breast cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brian D...1 September 2009 - 31 August 2013Annual SummarySeptember 2013 Exploring the Role of Genetic Modifiers in DNA Repair and Breast Cancer Brian D...cause sensitivity to DNA damage in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an attempt to identify genetic factors which cause predisposition to breast

  12. Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Sohn, Myung-Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2005-01-01

    Most traits introduced into genetically engineered crops result from the expression of new proteins. As the first step toward assessing the allergenic potential of genetically modified organism (GMO) food, immunologic and physicochemical characterizations are needed. We prepared crude extract from GMO soybeans, wild soybeans, curd, and soy milk and then performed sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After acidification with HCl, the samples were separated to globulin and whey. To evaluate changes in protein composition, either the samples were heated or pepsin was added. Polymerase chain reaction with primer encoding the 35S-promotor and the 3-enol-pyruvyl-shikimat-5-phosphat-synthase gene were performed, respectively, to detect the GMO component. SDS-PAGE results showed definite protein bands at 80 kDa in GMO soybean, 50 kDa in wild soybean, and a similar distribution of protein bands was noticed below 40 kDa. It was difficult to observe protein distribution because of modifications that occurred during processing in soybean-processed products. After heating, proteins of GMO and wild soybeans showed similar distributions and no distinct bands were detected at 50 and 80 kDa. Although SDS-PAGE analyses of raw GMO and wild soybeans differed, the same protein bands of 68, 37, and 20 kDa were observed in the globulin fraction after acidification. After adding pepsin, 20- and 68-kDa bands were found preserved in GMO and wild soybeans. The polymerase chain reaction procedures with primers specific to GMO soybeans showed that GMO soybeans and some curd samples included a GMO component. The skin test results of 49 patients showed 13 positive results to wild soybeans and 8 positive results to GMO soybeans. One patient had a positive skin test result to GMO soybeans only. Sera from nine patients with positive skin tests to the crude extract and a positive capsulated allergen product test to the soybean antigen were used for the immunoblotting

  13. Transgene x environment interactions in genetically modified wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L Zeller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The introduction of transgenes into plants may cause unintended phenotypic effects which could have an impact on the plant itself and the environment. Little is published in the scientific literature about the interrelation of environmental factors and possible unintended effects in genetically modified (GM plants. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied transgenic bread wheat Triticum aestivum lines expressing the wheat Pm3b gene against the fungus powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Four independent offspring pairs, each consisting of a GM line and its corresponding non-GM control line, were grown under different soil nutrient conditions and with and without fungicide treatment in the glasshouse. Furthermore, we performed a field experiment with a similar design to validate our glasshouse results. The transgene increased the resistance to powdery mildew in all environments. However, GM plants reacted sensitive to fungicide spraying in the glasshouse. Without fungicide treatment, in the glasshouse GM lines had increased vegetative biomass and seed number and a twofold yield compared with control lines. In the field these results were reversed. Fertilization generally increased GM/control differences in the glasshouse but not in the field. Two of four GM lines showed up to 56% yield reduction and a 40-fold increase of infection with ergot disease Claviceps purpurea compared with their control lines in the field experiment; one GM line was very similar to its control. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that, depending on the insertion event, a particular transgene can have large effects on the entire phenotype of a plant and that these effects can sometimes be reversed when plants are moved from the glasshouse to the field. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms underlie these effects and how they may affect concepts in molecular plant breeding and plant evolutionary ecology.

  14. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  15. Detection of Unlabeled Genetically Modified Soybean in the Omani Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Al-Sadqi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to screen for products containing Genetically Modified (GM food in the Omani market using detection methods for the presence of Roundup Ready Soybean, Bt176 and MON810 maize in food products and to quantify it in positive samples using real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. A total of 100 food samples were collected randomly from markets in Oman. Out of 59 samples, 8  (13.5% were successfully amplified with the maize plant specific PCR. GM screening showed negative for all samples, which indicated low or no GM maize in the samples tested. Out of 57 soy containing samples, 40 (70% were successfully amplified by the soybean plant specific PCR. Six samples out of the 40 (15% were found positive for GM using P35S-cf3/P35S-cr4 and HA-nos118-f/HA-nos118-r, primer pairs and using GMO5/GMO9 and GMO7/GMO8 primer pairs for specific detection of Roundup Ready Soybean. Real time PCR (TaqMan™ system was carried out for the positive Roundup Ready Soybean samples and results showed that 2 out of the positive GM soy samples contained more than 5%; a Soy Formula for Infants (imported sample contained 21% GM soybean and raw soybean seeds (imported in bulk amounts and packed in Oman  contained 88% GM soybean. The results demonstrate for the first time the presence of GM-soy in food products in the Omani market, reinforcing the need for the use of qualitative and quantitative methods for GM detection in food products.

  16. One Novel Multiple-Target Plasmid Reference Molecule Targeting Eight Genetically Modified Canola Events for Genetically Modified Canola Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuqing; Li, Xiang; Wang, Canhua; Song, Guiwen; Pi, Liqun; Zheng, Lan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2017-09-27

    Multiple-target plasmid DNA reference materials have been generated and utilized as good substitutes of matrix-based reference materials in the analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Herein, we report the construction of one multiple-target plasmid reference molecule, pCAN, which harbors eight GM canola event-specific sequences (RF1, RF2, MS1, MS8, Topas 19/2, Oxy235, RT73, and T45) and a partial sequence of the canola endogenous reference gene PEP. The applicability of this plasmid reference material in qualitative and quantitative PCR assays of the eight GM canola events was evaluated, including the analysis of specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and performance of pCAN in the analysis of various canola samples, etc. The LODs are 15 copies for RF2, MS1, and RT73 assays using pCAN as the calibrator and 10 genome copies for the other events. The LOQ in each event-specific real-time PCR assay is 20 copies. In quantitative real-time PCR analysis, the PCR efficiencies of all event-specific and PEP assays are between 91% and 97%, and the squared regression coefficients (R 2 ) are all higher than 0.99. The quantification bias values varied from 0.47% to 20.68% with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 1.06% to 24.61% in the quantification of simulated samples. Furthermore, 10 practical canola samples sampled from imported shipments in the port of Shanghai, China, were analyzed employing pCAN as the calibrator, and the results were comparable with those assays using commercial certified materials as the calibrator. Concluding from these results, we believe that this newly developed pCAN plasmid is one good candidate for being a plasmid DNA reference material in the detection and quantification of the eight GM canola events in routine analysis.

  17. Consumer reaction to information on the labels of genetically modified food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze consumer opinion on genetically modified foods and the information included on the label. METHODS A systematic review of the scientific literature on genetically modified food labeling was conducted consulting bibliographic databases (Medline – via PubMed –, EMBASE, ISI-Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL and AGRICOLA) using the descriptors “organisms, genetically modified” and “food labeling”. The search covered the first available date, up to June 2012, selecting relevant articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish. RESULTS Forty articles were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of them should have conducted a population-based intervention focused on consumer awareness of genetically modified foods and their need or not, to include this on the label. The consumers expressed a preference for non-genetically modified products, and added that they were prepared to pay more for this but, ultimately, the product bought was that with the best price, in a market which welcomes new technologies. In 18 of the articles, the population was in favor of obligatory labelling, and in six, in favor of this being voluntary; seven studies showed the consumer knew little about genetically modified food, and in three, the population underestimated the quantity they consumed. Price was an influencing factor in all cases. CONCLUSIONS Label should be homogeneous and clarify the degree of tolerance of genetically modified products in humans, in comparison with those non-genetically modified. Label should also present the content or not of genetically modified products and how these commodities are produced and should be accompanied by the certifying entity and contact information. Consumers express their preference for non-genetically modifiedproducts and they even notice that they are willing to pay more for it, but eventually they buy the item with the best price, in a market that welcomes

  18. Preventing the spread of malaria and dengue fever using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    In this candid interview, Anthony A. James explains how mosquito genetics can be exploited to control malaria and dengue transmission. Population replacement strategy, the idea that transgenic mosquitoes can be released into the wild to control disease transmission, is introduced, as well as the concept of genetic drive and the design criterion for an effective genetic drive system. The ethical considerations of releasing genetically-modified organisms into the wild are also discussed.

  19. Gender differences in consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerbeek, H.; Casimir, G.

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that women are less accepting of genetically engineered products than men. We expect two mechanisms to be at work here. First, in consumer behaviour theory, more knowledge is assumed to lead to more acceptance. We assumed that for genetically engineered foods, this general

  20. Multiple organ histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed on genetically modified organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cîrnatu, Daniela; Jompan, A; Sin, Anca Ileana; Zugravu, Cornelia Aurelia

    2011-01-01

    Diet can influence the structural characteristics of internal organs. An experiment involving 130 meat broilers was conducted during 42 days (life term for a meat broiler) to study the effect of feed with protein from genetically modified soy. The 1-day-old birds were randomly allocated to five study groups, fed with soy, sunflower, wheat, fish flour, PC starter. In the diet of each group, an amount of protein from soy was replaced with genetically modified soy (I - 0%, II - 25%, III - 50%, IV - 75%, V - 100% protein from genetically modified soy). The level of protein in soy, either modified, or non-modified, was the same. Organs and carcass weights were measured at about 42 days of age of the birds and histopathology exams were performed during May-June 2009. No statistically significant differences were observed in mortality, growth performance variables or carcass and organ yields between broilers consuming diets produced with genetically modified soybean fractions and those consuming diets produced with near-isoline control soybean fractions. Inflammatory and degenerative liver lesions, muscle hypertrophy, hemorrhagic necrosis of bursa, kidney focal tubular necrosis, necrosis and superficial ulceration of bowel and pancreatic dystrophies were found in tissues from broilers fed on protein from genetically modified soy. Different types of lesions found in our study might be due to other causes (parasites, viral) superimposed but their presence exclusively in groups fed with modified soy raises some serious questions about the consequences of use of this type of feed.

  1. Prospects for genetically modified non-human primate models, including the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Erika

    2015-04-01

    Genetically modified mice have contributed much to studies in the life sciences. In some research fields, however, mouse models are insufficient for analyzing the molecular mechanisms of pathology or as disease models. Often, genetically modified non-human primate (NHP) models are desired, as they are more similar to human physiology, morphology, and anatomy. Recent progress in studies of the reproductive biology in NHPs has enabled the introduction of exogenous genes into NHP genomes or the alteration of endogenous NHP genes. This review summarizes recent progress in the production of genetically modified NHPs, including the common marmoset, and future perspectives for realizing genetically modified NHP models for use in life sciences research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  2. In vivo investigations of genetically modified microorganisms using germ-free rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund jacobsen, Bodil

    Risk evaluation of genetically modified microorganism (GMMO) in relation to human health effects brings into consideration the ability of the microorganism to survive and colonise the gastrointestinal tract and the potential gene transfer to the resident microbiota. Different biological containment...

  3. How scary! An analysis of visual communication concerning genetically modified organisms in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Vera; Frisio, Dario G; Ferrazzi, Giovanni; Siletti, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Several studies provide evidence of the role of written communication in influencing public perception towards genetically modified organisms, whereas visual communication has been sparsely investigated. This article aims to evaluate the exposure of the Italian population to scary genetically modified organism-related images. A set of 517 images collected through Google are classified considering fearful attributes, and an index that accounts for the scary impact of these images is built. Then, through an ordinary least-squares regression, we estimate the relationship between the Scary Impact Index and a set of variables that describes the context in which the images appear. The results reveal that the first (and most viewed) Google result images contain the most frightful contents. In addition, the agri-food sector in Italy is strongly oriented towards offering a negative representation of genetically modified organisms. Exposure to scary images could be a factor that affects the negative perception of genetically modified organisms in Italy.

  4. A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Perry, J.N.; Amzal, B.; Paoletti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment.

  5. [Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modified foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2003-05-01

    Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms(GMO). These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development, but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper, all the study on the biosafety assessment of marker genes were reviewed, their possible hazards and risks were appraised, and the marker genes proved safe were list too. GMO Labeling the is one important regulations for the development of genetically modified foods in the market. The accurate detecting techniques for GMO are the basis for setting up labeling regulation. In addition, some methods used to remove marker genes in genetically modified foods were introduced in the paper, which can eliminate their biosafety concern thoroughly.

  6. CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY: WILLINGNESS TO BUY GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Adelaja, Adesoji O.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.

    2002-01-01

    Biotechnology is often viewed as the defining technology for the future of food and agriculture with the potential to deliver a wide range of economic and health benefits. Public acceptance of genetically modified food products is a critical factor for this emerging technology. Using data from a national survey, this study examines public acceptance of food biotechnology by modeling consumers' willingness to buy genetically modified foods. Empirical results suggest that younger, white, male a...

  7. Deliberate release of genetically modified plants into the environment in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Zlata LUTHAR

    2015-01-01

    Deliberate release of genetically modified higher plants (GMHPs) into the environment in Slovenia is regulated by the Law on the Management of Genetically Modified Organisms (ZRGSO) Ur. l. RS 23/2005 and 21/2010, III chapter. For each deliberate release of GMPs into the environment a license issued by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning (MESP) must be acquired. The application or notification should contain a very accurate and complex description of the GMP, of the field where it...

  8. Genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains: economics, public perception and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Cristina; Menozzi, Davide; Aramyan, Lusine H.; Valeeva, Natasha I.; Pakky, R.; Zimmermann, Karin L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market. Nonethel...

  9. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    , and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared...... environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due...... to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI...

  10. Detection and traceability of genetically modified organisms in the food production chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, M; Berdal, K G; Brera, C; Corbisier, P; Holst-Jensen, A; Kok, E J; Marvin, H J P; Schimmel, H; Rentsch, J; van Rie, J P P F; Zagon, J

    2004-07-01

    Both labelling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered in trade and regulation. Currently, labelling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by EU legislation. A proposed package of legislation would extend this labelling to foods without any traces of transgenics. These new legislations would also impose labelling and a traceability system based on documentation throughout the food and feed manufacture system. The regulatory issues of risk analysis and labelling are currently harmonised by Codex Alimentarius. The implementation and maintenance of the regulations necessitates sampling protocols and analytical methodologies that allow for accurate determination of the content of genetically modified organisms within a food and feed sample. Current methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms are focused on either one of two targets, the transgenic DNA inserted- or the novel protein(s) expressed- in a genetically modified product. For most DNA-based detection methods, the polymerase chain reaction is employed. Items that need consideration in the use of DNA-based detection methods include the specificity, sensitivity, matrix effects, internal reference DNA, availability of external reference materials, hemizygosity versus homozygosity, extrachromosomal DNA, and international harmonisation. For most protein-based methods, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with antibodies binding the novel protein are employed. Consideration should be given to the selection of the antigen bound by the antibody, accuracy, validation, and matrix effects. Currently, validation of detection methods for analysis of genetically modified organisms is taking place. In addition, new methodologies are developed, including the use of microarrays, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. Challenges for GMO detection include the detection of transgenic material in materials

  11. Toxicity assessment of modified Cry1Ac1 proteins and genetically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Key words: Modified Cry1Ac1, food safety assessment, toxicity, insect- resistant rice Agb0101. INTRODUCTION. Genetically modified (GM) crops are becoming an increasingly important feature of the agricultural land- scapes. In 2013, approximately 175 million hectares of. GM crops were planted by 18 ...

  12. Identification of genetic modifiers of behavioral phenotypes in serotonin transporter knockout rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Nijman, I.J.; Kuijpers, S.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain

  13. Genetically Modified Crops and Nuisance: Exploring the Role of Precaution in Private Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, Neil; Culver, Keith; Siebrasse, Norman

    2007-01-01

    This article critically considers calls for the precautionary principle to inform judicial decision making in a private law context in light of the Hoffman litigation, where it is alleged that the potential for genetic contamination from genetically modified (GM) crops causes an unreasonable interference with the rights of organic farmers to use…

  14. Genetically modified cellular vaccines for therapy of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV 16)-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2008), s. 180-186 ISSN 1568-0096 Grant - others:EU-FP6-NoE Clinigene(XE) 018933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV 16 * genetically modified vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.316, year: 2008

  15. Consumer Perceptions towards Introducing a Genetically Modified Banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of a genetically modified (GM) banana (Musa spp.) in Uganda is not without controversy. It is likely to generate a wide portfolio of concerns as the technology of genetic engineering is still in its early stages of development in Uganda. The purpose of this study is to show how

  16. Education modifies genetic and environmental influences on BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skytthe, Axel; Deary, Ian J; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-19

    Obesity is more common among the less educated, suggesting education-related environmental triggers. Such triggers may act differently dependent on genetic and environmental predisposition to obesity. In a Danish Twin Registry survey, 21,522 twins of same-sex pairs provided zygosity, height, weight, and education data. Body mass index (BMI = kg weight/ m height(2)) was used to measure degree of obesity. We used quantitative genetic modeling to examine how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental variance in BMI differed by level of education and to estimate how genetic and shared and nonshared environmental correlations between education and BMI differed by level of education, analyzing women and men separately. Correlations between education and BMI were -.13 in women, -.15 in men. High BMI's were less frequent among well-educated participants, generating less variance. In women, this was due to restriction of all forms of variance, overall by a factor of about 2. In men, genetic variance did not vary with education, but results for shared and nonshared environmental variance were similar to those for women. The contributions of the shared environment to the correlations between education and BMI were substantial among the well-educated, suggesting importance of familial environmental influences common to high education and lower BMI. Family influence was particularly important in linking high education and lower levels of obesity.

  17. Inadvertent presence of genetically modified elements in maize food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... assess the maize food products in the Kenyan market for the presence of genetic elements from GMOs. This was done by testing various maize food products, including grains from open air markets, relief food, maize seeds from seed companies and processed food sampled from various supermarkets in ...

  18. Genetically modified dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2001), s. 153-155 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC5526 Keywords : dendritic cells * cancer vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2001

  19. Reasonable Foreseeability and Liability in Relation to Genetically Modified Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Lara; Smyth, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    This article examines problems that may arise when addressing liability resulting from the genetic modification of microbes, animals, and plants. More specifically, it evaluates how uncertainties relating to the outcomes of these biotechnological innovations affect--or may affect--the courts' application of the reasonable foreseeability…

  20. The Status of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-21

    Dec 21, 2012 ... see no reason why GM crops and foods should be rejected apriori. Opponents of GM technologies and products hold that deliberate genetic modification may create varieties that are harmful to human health and the environment. The United States, followed by countries like. Brazil, Argentina, China and ...

  1. Unintended effects and their detection in genetically modified crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellini, F; Chesson, A; Colquhoun, I

    2004-01-01

    modification and that might impact primarily on health. The document first deals with the potential for unintended effects caused by the processes of transgene insertion (DNA rearrangements) and makes comparisons with genetic recombination events and DNA rearrangements in traditional breeding. The document...

  2. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  3. Investigating Novice and Expert Conceptions of Genetically Modified Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lisa M.; Bissonnette, Sarah A.; Knight, Jonathan D.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2017-01-01

    The aspiration of biology education is to give students tools to apply knowledge learned in the classroom to everyday life. Genetic modification is a real-world biological concept that relies on an in-depth understanding of the molecular behavior of DNA and proteins. This study investigated undergraduate biology students' conceptions of…

  4. Ecological Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Higher Plants (GMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, C.; Damgaard, C.; Kjellsson, G.

    assessment of GM plants when application for placing on the market is made. It is our hope that both the scientific community, the biotechnological industry and the regulatory bodies will participate in the process of improving the present draft, so that it can develop into a useful tool for both...... and establishment of the modified plant in natural habitats; risk of introgression of the inserted or modified traits to other plant species; and the risk of adverse effects on non-target organisms. The guidance paper considers only aspects of ecological risk assessment. Possible risks to human health, livestock...... for reproduction of the GMHP B. Identification of possible effects on non-target organisms C. Detection of potential hybridisation, and assessment of the selective force acting on the inserted gene in a natural plant population Tier III. Laboratory measurements and small scale trials on the GMHP A. Test of changes...

  5. The ethics of creating genetically modified children using genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    2017-12-01

    To review the recent ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding human reproduction involving germline genome editing. Genome editing techniques, such as CRISPR/Cas9, have facilitated genetic modification in human embryos. The most likely purpose of germline genome editing is the prevention of serious genetic disease in offspring. However, complex issues still remain, including irremediable risks to fetuses and future generations, the role of women, the availability of alternatives, long-term follow-up, health insurance coverage, misuse for human enhancement, and the potential effects on adoption. Further discussions, a broad consensus, and appropriate regulations are required before human germline genome editing is introduced into the global society. Before germline genome editing is used for disease prevention, a broad consensus must be formed by carefully discussing its ethical, legal, and social issues.

  6. ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

  7. Emotional attitudes of young people completing secondary schools towards genetic modification of organisms (GMO and genetically modified foods (GMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jurkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the study was recognition of the opinions of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms and genetically modified food, especially the respondents’ emotional attitude towards scientific achievements in the area of live genetically modified organisms. Material and method. The study covered a group of 500 school adolescents completing secondary school at the level of maturity examination. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a self-designed questionnaire form. Results. Knowledge concerning the possible health effects of consumption of food containing GMO among adolescents competing secondary schools is on a relatively low level; the adolescents examined ‘know rather little’ or ‘very little know’ about this problem. In respondents’ opinions the results of reliable studies pertaining to the health effects of consumption of GMO ‘rather do not exist’. The respondents are against the cultivation of GM plants and breeding of GM animals on own farm in the future. Secondary school adolescents considered that the production of genetically modified food means primarily the enrichment of biotechnological companies, higher income for food producers, and not the elimination of hunger in the world or elimination of many diseases haunting humans.

  8. Emotional attitudes of young people completing secondary schools towards genetic modification of organisms (GMO) and genetically modified foods (GMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Anna; Zagórski, Jerzy; Bujak, Franciszek; Lachowski, Stanisław; Florek-Łuszczki, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was recognition of the opinions of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms and genetically modified food, especially the respondents' emotional attitude towards scientific achievements in the area of live genetically modified organisms. The study covered a group of 500 school adolescents completing secondary school at the level of maturity examination. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a self-designed questionnaire form. Knowledge concerning the possible health effects of consumption of food containing GMO among adolescents competing secondary schools is on a relatively low level; the adolescents examined 'know rather little' or 'very little know' about this problem. In respondents' opinions the results of reliable studies pertaining to the health effects of consumption of GMO 'rather do not exist'. The respondents are against the cultivation of GM plants and breeding of GM animals on own farm in the future. Secondary school adolescents considered that the production of genetically modified food means primarily the enrichment of biotechnological companies, higher income for food producers, and not the elimination of hunger in the world or elimination of many diseases haunting humans.

  9. [Hypothetical link between endometriosis and xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, A; Paris, K

    2010-12-01

    Endometriosis is an oestrogen-dependent inflammatory disease affecting 10 % of reproductive-aged women. Often accompanied by chronic pelvic pain and infertility, endometriosis rigorously interferes with women's quality of life. Although the pathophysiology of endometriosis remains unclear, a growing body of evidence points to the implication of environmental toxicants. Over the last decade, an increase in the incidence of endometriosis has been reported and coincides with the introduction of genetically modified foods in our diet. Even though assessments of genetically modified food risk have not indicated any hazard on human health, xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as pesticides residues and xenoproteins, could be harmful in the long-term. The "low-dose hypothesis", accumulation and biotransformation of pesticides-associated genetically modified food and the multiplied toxicity of pesticides-formulation adjuvants support this hypothesis. This review summarizes toxic effects (in vitro and on animal models) of some xenobiotics-associated genetically modified food, such as glyphosate and Cry1Ab protein, and extrapolates on their potential role in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Their roles as immune toxicants, pro-oxidants, endocrine disruptors and epigenetic modulators are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Immunotoxicologic assessment of genetically modified drought-resistant wheat T349 with GmDREB1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-lai; Li, Yong-ning; Zhang, Xiao-peng; Song, Yan; Wang, Wei; Fang, Jin; Cui, Wen-ming; Jia, Xu-dong

    2012-06-01

    To assess the immunotoxicologic effects of genetically modified drought resistant wheat T349 with GmDREB1 gene. A total of 250 female BALB/c mice (6-8 week-old, weight 18-22 g) were divided into five large groups (50 mice for each large group) by body weight randomly. In each large group, the mice were divided into five groups (10 mice for each group) by body weight randomly, which were set as negative control group, common wheat group, parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, respectively. Mice in negative control and positive control group were fed with feedstuff AIN-93G, mice in common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group and genetically modified wheat group were fed with feedstuffs added corresponding wheat (proportion up to 76%) for 30 days, then body weight, organ coefficient of spleen and thymus, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotyping, serum cytokine, serum immunoglobulin, antibody plaque-forming cell (PFC), serum 50% hemolytic value (HC50), mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and phagocytic activities of phagocytes were detected respectively. After 30 days raise, among negative control group, common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, mice body weight were (21.0±0.3), (20.4±0.7), (21.1±1.0), (21.1±1.0), (19.4±1.0) g, respectively (F=7.47, Pgenetically modified drought-resistant wheat T349 was substantially equivalent to parental wheat in the effects on immune organs and immunologic functions of mice, and it didn't show immunotoxicity.

  11. First application of a microsphere-based immunoassay to the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs): quantification of Cry1Ab protein in genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantozzi, Anna; Ermolli, Monica; Marini, Massimiliano; Scotti, Domenico; Balla, Branko; Querci, Maddalena; Langrell, Stephen R H; Van den Eede, Guy

    2007-02-21

    An innovative covalent microsphere immunoassay, based on the usage of fluorescent beads coupled to a specific antibody, was developed for the quantification of the endotoxin Cry1Ab present in MON810 and Bt11 genetically modified (GM) maize lines. In particular, a specific protocol was developed to assess the presence of Cry1Ab in a very broad range of GM maize concentrations, from 0.1 to 100% [weight of genetically modified organism (GMO)/weight]. Test linearity was achieved in the range of values from 0.1 to 3%, whereas fluorescence signal increased following a nonlinear model, reaching a plateau at 25%. The limits of detection and quantification were equal to 0.018 and 0.054%, respectively. The present study describes the first application of quantitative high-throughput immunoassays in GMO analysis.

  12. Genetically Modified Pigs as Organ Donors for Xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryhorowicz, Magdalena; Zeyland, Joanna; Słomski, Ryszard; Lipiński, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    The growing shortage of available organs is a major problem in transplantology. Thus, new and alternative sources of organs need to be found. One promising solution could be xenotransplantation, i.e., the use of animal cells, tissues and organs. The domestic pig is the optimum donor for such transplants. However, xenogeneic transplantation from pigs to humans involves high immune incompatibility and a complex rejection process. The rapid development of genetic engineering techniques enables genome modifications in pigs that reduce the cross-species immune barrier.

  13. Consumers' Perceptions about Genetically Modified Foods and Their Stated Willingness-to-Pay for Genetically Modified Food Labeling: Evidences from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Karli, Bahri; Bilgic, Abdulbaki; Miran, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    We applied a multinomial logit model to determine consumer characteristics affecting three possible policy regulations that wanted to be implemented for genetically modified foods in Turkey. The study reveals that many household characteristics including food spending amount, education, gender, marital status, knowledge about food related policies and regional variables are key policy factors to choose regulation programs on GMO foods. People are more prone to implement compulsory policy on G...

  14. Genetically modified organisms in New Zealand and cultural issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, R.; Roberts, M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the ironies of the current debate in New Zealand about genetic modification is that it highlights the age-old conflict between science and religion, and in so doing demonstrates that modem society is still caught in the dilemma posed by these two views of the world. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate the distance between proponents and opponents of genetic modification (GM), and the difficulty of resolution within the secular-based framework of quantitative risk assessment applied by the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA) and decision-making committees. Alternative frameworks suggested by Maori are beginning to emerge, and along with the results of several government-funded research projects in this area, should make a valuable contribution to a new framework that more equitably incorporates the fundamental principles of both knowledge systems. If this aim is achieved, it will be of considerable interest to other indigenous peoples in the world who are also faced with real and perceived threats to their cultural beliefs and values originating from new biotechnologies. (author)

  15. Risk assesment in the context of EC directives on genetically modified organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, P.J. van der

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of these new molecular technologies initiated an international discussion on the safety in biotechnology. In 1974 one of the pioneers of this new technology, Paul Berg, expressed his view on the potential risks of recombinant DNA applications in the famous 'Berg letter', leading to a self-imposed moratorium on certain experiments. Following the Berg letter and the Asilomar convention, much international attention has been given to the question of safety in biotechnology. This attention resulted in hundreds of documents, research programmes, guidelines and regulations. This resulted, among others, in two EC Directives on genetically modified organisms: the EC Directive 90/219/EEC on the contained use of genetically modified micro-organisms, and Directive 90/220/EEC on the release of genetically modified organisms. These directives lay down a system for harmonization of risk assessment and risk management with regard to the safety for human health and the environment

  16. Analysis of genetically modified organisms by pyrosequencing on a portable photodiode-based bioluminescence sequencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinxin; Wei, Guijiang; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-07-01

    A portable bioluminescence analyser for detecting the DNA sequence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) was developed by using a photodiode (PD) array. Pyrosequencing on eight genes (zSSIIb, Bt11 and Bt176 gene of genetically modified maize; Lectin, 35S-CTP4, CP4EPSPS, CaMV35S promoter and NOS terminator of the genetically modified Roundup ready soya) was successfully detected with this instrument. The corresponding limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01% with 35 PCR cycles. The maize and soya available from three different provenances in China were detected. The results indicate that pyrosequencing using the small size of the detector is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable way in a farm/field test of GMO analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Avoiding genetically modified foods in GMO Ground Zero: A reflective self-narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sachi

    2015-05-01

    I engage in a reflective self-narrative of my experience attempting to maintain a diet free of genetically modified organisms. Social tension over the genetically modified organism industry in Hawai'i, United States, has led to public debates over jobs and social identities. Drawing on local media sources, grassroots organizations, and blog posts, I describe the way this tension has shaped my experience with food, eating, and being with others as a genetically modified organism avoider. I utilize discursive positioning to make sense of my experiences by locating them within the ongoing public conversations that give structure to the daily lives of Hawai'i's residents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods: Results of a qualitative study in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    of the research presented in this paper was to gain insight into consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods to obtain a better understanding of how consumers form attitudes to genetic engineering in food production. Perceived risks and benefits of applying genetic engineering in foods were...... engineering was associated with something unnatural, and feelings of unfamiliarity with the resulting products were voiced as well as moral considerations. Independently of whether the genetically modified material was present i final product (yoghurt) or not (beer), the consumers perceived the products...... and responsibility for the welfare of other people. 6. More complex cognitions were generally found in Denmark and Germany than in the United Kingdom and Italy, and in Denmark and Germany the perceived attributes and consequences were also more tightly linked to central life values. In Italy, only few associations...

  19. Genetic Modification of Human Pancreatic Progenitor Cells Through Modified mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Song; Chow, Christie C; Zhou, Junwei; Leung, Po Sing; Tsui, Stephen K; Lui, Kathy O

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a highly efficient genetic modification strategy for human pancreatic progenitor cells using modified mRNA-encoding GFP and Neurogenin-3. The properties of modified mRNA offer an invaluable platform to drive protein expression, which has broad applicability in pathway regulation, directed differentiation, and lineage specification. This approach can also be used to regulate expression of other pivotal transcription factors during pancreas development and might have potential therapeutic values in regenerative medicine.

  20. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available.

  1. Consumers’ Perception About Genetically Modified Foods and Their Purchase Intention in the City Center of Hatay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Duran Çelik; Erdal Dağıstan

    2016-01-01

    In this study consumers’ perception of, and purchase intention for genetically modified foods were examined in the city center of Hatay. The data of the 343 surveys were collected by using the face to face interview method. The data were analyzed by means of Likert Scale, and Spearman Correlation Analysis. According to the survey results, consumers’ risk perceptions about genetically modified foods are quite high. Consumers don’t willingly purchase genetically modified foods, and they intend ...

  2. Public Policy and Endogenous Beliefs: The Case of Genetically Modified Food

    OpenAIRE

    Lusk, Jayson L.; Rozan, Anne

    2008-01-01

    When individuals have limited information and are uncertain about the quality of a good, government policy, or the lack thereof, can serve as a signal to consumers about the likelihood of realizing alternatives states of nature. In this paper, we focus on a controversial beliefs about government intervention: the market for genetically modified food. Data from a mail survey were used to estimate an econometric model where beliefs about labeling policy, beliefs about the safety of genetically ...

  3. Regulatory options for genetically modified crops in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Bhagirath; Gheysen, Godelieve; Buysse, Jeroen; van der Meer, Piet; Burssens, Sylvia

    2014-02-01

    The introduction of semi-dwarfing, high-yielding and nutrients-responsive crop varieties in the 1960s and 1970s alleviated the suffering of low crop yield, food shortages and epidemics of famine in India and other parts of the Asian continent. Two semi-dwarfing genes, Rht in wheat and Sd-1 in rice heralded the green revolution for which Dr. Norman Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970. In contrast, the revolutionary new genetics of crop improvement shamble over formidable obstacles of regulatory delays, political interferences and public misconceptions. India benefited immensely from the green revolution and is now grappling to deal with the nuances of GM crops. The development of GM mustard discontinued prematurely in 2001 and insect-resistant Bt cotton varieties were successfully approved for commercial cultivation in 2002 in an evolving nature of regulatory system. However, the moratorium on Bt brinjal by MOEF in 2010 meant a considerable detour from an objective, science-based, rigorous institutional process of regulatory approval to a more subjective, nonscience-driven, political decision-making process. This study examines what ails the regulatory system of GM crops in India and the steps that led to the regulatory logjam. Responding to the growing challenges and impediments of existing biosafety regulation, it suggests options that are critical for GM crops to take roots for a multiplier harvest. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Production of Remedial Proteins through Genetically Modified Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Tariq

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA technology has created biological organisms with advanced genetic sequences and has been extensively used to express multiple genes for therapeutic purposes when expressed in a suitable host. Microbial systems such as prokaryotic bacteria has been successfully utilized as a heterologous systems showing high therapeutic potency for various human diseases. Bioengineered bacteria have been successfully utilized for producing therapeutic proteins, treating infectious diseases, and disease arise due to increasing resistance to antibiotics. Prominently E. coli found to be the most widely used expression system for recombinant therapeutic protein production i.e. hormones, enzymes and antibodies. Besides E. coli, non-pathogenic lactic acid bacteria has also been considered as an excellent candidate for live mucosal vaccine. Likewise, S. typhimurium has been deployed as attenuated type of vaccination as well as in treatment strategy of various cancers due to its ability of wide progression in tumors. The present article is a summarized view of the main achievements and current developments in the field of recombinant therapeutics using bacterial strains focusing on their usability in therapeutics and future potential.

  5. Genetically modified cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheyn, Dima; Mizrahi, Olga; Benjamin, Shimon; Gazit, Zulma; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan

    2010-06-15

    Regenerative medicine appears to take as its patron, the Titan Prometheus, whose liver was able to regenerate daily, as the field attempts to restore lost, damaged, or aging cells and tissues. The tremendous technological progress achieved during the last decade in gene transfer methods and imaging techniques, as well as recent increases in our knowledge of cell biology, have opened new horizons in the field of regenerative medicine. Genetically engineered cells are a tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, albeit a tool whose development is fraught with difficulties. Gene-and-cell therapy offers solutions to severe problems faced by modern medicine, but several impediments obstruct the path of such treatments as they move from the laboratory toward the clinical setting. In this review we provide an overview of recent advances in the gene-and-cell therapy approach and discuss the main hurdles and bottlenecks of this approach on its path to clinical trials and prospective clinical practice. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Consumer preferences of genetically modified foods of vegetal and animal origin in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand or price in the consumer's decision to purchase either food. Cluster analysis identified three segments: the largest (51.4% assigned greatest importance to brand and preferred genetically modified milk and tomato sauce; the second group (41.0% gave greatest importance to the existence of genetic manipulation and preferred non-genetically modified foods; the smallest segment (7.6% mainly valued price and preferred milk and tomato sauce with no genetic manipulation. The three segments rejected the store brand and preferred to pay less for both foods. The results are discussed based on studies conducted in developed and developing countries.

  7. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abreu-Cavalheiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.

  8. Identification of susceptibility genes and genetic modifiers of human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Kenneth; Kammerer, Stefan; Hoyal, Carolyn; Reneland, Rikard; Marnellos, George; Nelson, Matthew R.; Braun, Andreas

    2005-03-01

    The completion of the human genome sequence enables the discovery of genes involved in common human disorders. The successful identification of these genes is dependent on the availability of informative sample sets, validated marker panels, a high-throughput scoring technology, and a strategy for combining these resources. We have developed a universal platform technology based on mass spectrometry (MassARRAY) for analyzing nucleic acids with high precision and accuracy. To fuel this technology, we generated more than 100,000 validated assays for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering virtually all known and predicted human genes. We also established a large DNA sample bank comprised of more than 50,000 consented healthy and diseased individuals. This combination of reagents and technology allows the execution of large-scale genome-wide association studies. Taking advantage of MassARRAY"s capability for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids, allele frequencies are estimated in sample pools containing large numbers of individual DNAs. To compare pools as a first-pass "filtering" step is a tremendous advantage in throughput and cost over individual genotyping. We employed this approach in numerous genome-wide, hypothesis-free searches to identify genes associated with common complex diseases, such as breast cancer, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis, and genes involved in quantitative traits like high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-c) levels and central fat. Access to additional well-characterized patient samples through collaborations allows us to conduct replication studies that validate true disease genes. These discoveries will expand our understanding of genetic disease predisposition, and our ability for early diagnosis and determination of specific disease subtype or progression stage.

  9. Transport of a genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens and its parent strain through undisturbed tropical soil cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimaraes, V.F.; Cruz, I.V.; Hagler, A.N.; Mendonca-Hagler, L.C.; Elsas, van J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The transport of a genetically modified strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens, BR12, and its parent, BR5, was studied after irrigation of undisturbed clayey and sandy soil cores, simulating heavy tropical rainfall (56.6 mm/h). Vertical transport of both inoculant strains was detected in all soil cores.

  10. A latent class approach to investigating demand for genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Birol, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in Uganda, where bananas are among the most important

  11. Exotic species and genetically modified organisms in aquaculture and enhanced fisheries: ICLARM's position

    OpenAIRE

    Pullin, R.S.V.

    1994-01-01

    This article contains a discussion paper on the use of exotic species and genetically modified organisms in aquaculture and enhanced fisheries, together with a summary of ICLARM's (International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Philippines) current position on this important topic.

  12. A model based on soil structural aspects describing the fate of genetically modified bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van der N.; Elsas, van J.D.; Heijnen, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    A computer simulation model was developed which describes growth and competition of bacteria in the soil environment. In the model, soil was assumed to contain millions of pores of a few different size classes. An introduced bacterial strain, e.g. a genetically modified micro-organism (GEMMO), was

  13. Knowledge of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO)

    OpenAIRE

    Florek-Łuszczki Magdalena; Lachowski Stanisław; Chmielewski Jarosław; Jurkiewicz Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the conducted analyses is the evaluation of the level of knowledge concerning the scope of problems related with genetically modified organism (GMO) amongst adolescents completing secondary schools and the determination of the relationship between the level of this knowledge and the selected demographic traits of the adolescents examined.

  14. Knowledge of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florek-Łuszczki Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the conducted analyses is the evaluation of the level of knowledge concerning the scope of problems related with genetically modified organism (GMO amongst adolescents completing secondary schools and the determination of the relationship between the level of this knowledge and the selected demographic traits of the adolescents examined.

  15. Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, A.; Cockburn, A.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Debruyne, E.; Grafstroem, R.; Hammerling, U.; Kimber, I.; Knudsen, I.; Kuiper, H.A.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Penninks, A.H.; Poulsen, M.; Schauzu, M.; Wal, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of

  16. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de Clazien J.; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-01-01

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation

  17. Genetically modified crops and the “food crisis”: discourse and material impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, D.; Stone, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    A surge of media reports and rhetorical claims depicted genetically modified (GM) crops as a solution to the ‘global food crisis’ manifested in the sudden spike in world food prices during 2007–08. Broad claims were made about the potential of GM technologies to tackle the crisis, even though the

  18. Assessing genetically modified crops to minimize the risk of increased food allergy: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodman, Richard E.; Hefle, Susan L.; Taylor, Steven L.; van Ree, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    The first genetically modified (GM) crops approved for food use ( tomato and soybean) were evaluated for safety by the United States Food and Drug Administration prior to commercial production. Among other factors, those products and all additional GM crops that have been grown commercially have

  19. A review of animal models used to evaluate potential allergenicity of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsteller, Nathan; Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Goodman, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Food safety regulators request prediction of allergenicity for newly expressed proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops and in novel foods. Some have suggested using animal models to assess potential allergenicity. A variety of animal models have been used in research to evaluate sensitisation...

  20. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikulwe, E.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Falck-Zepeda, J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers’ perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results

  1. Substantial equivalence--an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuiper, Harry A.; Kleter, Gijs A.; Noteborn, Hub P.J.M.; Kok, Esther J.

    2002-01-01

    Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards but does not assess them. The outcome of the comparative exercise will further guide the safety assessment, which may include (immuno)toxicological and biochemical testing. Application of the concept of substantial equivalence may encounter practical difficulties: (i) the availability of near-isogenic parental lines to compare the genetically modified food with; (ii) limited availability of methods for the detection of (un)intended effects resulting from the genetic modification; and (iii) limited information on natural variations in levels of relevant crop constituents. In order to further improve the methodology for identification of unintended effects, new 'profiling' methods are recommended. Such methods will allow for the screening of potential changes in the modified host organism at different integration levels, i.e. at the genome level, during gene expression and protein translation, and at the level of cellular metabolism

  2. Vitamin D: direct effects of vitamin D metabolites on bone: lessons from genetically modified mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisman, J.A.; Bouillon, R.

    2014-01-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system has clear beneficial effects on bone as demonstrated by prevention of rickets in children and by reducing the risk of osteomalacia or osteoporosis in adults or elderly subjects. Depending on the design of the study of genetically modified animals, however, 1,25(OH)2D

  3. A cross-cultural comparison of consumers' purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    1999-01-01

    CONSUMERS' PURCHASE INTENTIONS WITH REGARD TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS ARE INVESTIGATED THROUGH A CROSS-NATIONAL SURVEY IN DENMARK, GERMANY, GREAT BRITAIN AND ITALY, USING BEER AND YOGHURT AS EXAMPLES (N=1000 PER PRODUCT). RESULTS SHOW THAT GENERALLY COGNITIVE STRUCTURES OF ITALIAN CONSUMERS AR...

  4. Optimization of the Compensation of a Meshed MV Network by a Modified Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans; Paar, M.; Toman, P.

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses the utilization of a modified genetic algorithm (GA) for the optimization of the shunt compensation in meshed and radial MV distribution networks. The algorithm looks for minimum costs of the network power losses and minimum capital and operating costs of applied capacitors...

  5. Genetic modifiers of CHEK2*1100delC-associated breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muranen, Taru A; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations that confers a two- to threefold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion...

  6. Pandora's picnic basket: the potential and hazards of genetically modified foods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McHughen, Alan

    2000-01-01

    ... technologies in the them from with breeding whether examines and Picnic Basket subject, from potentially dangerous products. either use or about the regulatory processes established to protect us genetically other regulators modified "natural" the production. explains, in dear language, the technologies around the food, methods question of world of Researc...

  7. Off-Label Prescription of Genetically Modified Organism Medicines in Europe : Emerging Conflicts of Interest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, Frederik H. E.; Hoeben, Rob C.; Hospers, Geke A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the first human medicine containing a genetically modified organism (GMO medicine) was authorized for use in the European market. Just as any medicinal product, the market authorization for a GMO medicine contains a precise description of the therapeutic use for which the medicinal product

  8. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of

  9. Evidence for the establishment and persistence of genetically modified canola populations in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Questions/Methods Concerns surrounding the commercial release of genetically modified crops include the risks of escape from cultivation, naturalization, and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species. Among the crops commonly grown in the U.S., a l...

  10. Learning to Argue as a Biotechnologist: Disprivileging Opposition to Genetically Modified Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Anne; Bach, Frank; Åkerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In the public discussion of genetically modified (GM) food the representations of science as a social good, conducted in the public interest to solve major problems are being subjected to intense scrutiny and questioning. Scientists working in these areas have been seen to struggle for the position of science in society. However few in situ…

  11. Genetic modifiers of menopausal hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Anja; Hein, Rebecca; Lindström, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Women using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are at increased risk of developing breast cancer (BC). To detect genetic modifiers of the association between current use of MHT and BC risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide case-only studies followed by replication in 11 case...

  12. Genetically modified organisms (GMO in opinions completing secondary schools in Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachowski Stanisław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the conducted analysis is the opinion of adolescents completing secondary schools concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO and determination of the relationship between the level of knowledge concerning GMO, and evaluation of the safety of their use in industry and agriculture.

  13. Towards the production of genetically modified strawberries which are acceptable to consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Kjellsen, T.D.; Heggem, R.; Iversen, T.H.; Schouten, H.J.; Krens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript discusses different aspects that are relevant to genetically modified strawberry plants with improved characteristics and ‘acceptable’ to consumers and growers of strawberry. It starts with a consumer acceptance survey, held in Norway, Denmark and the UK, studying public perception

  14. DTREEv2, a computer-based support system for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pertry, I.; Nothegger, C.; Sweet, J.; Kuiper, H.A.; Davies, H.; Iserentant, D.; Hull, R.; Mezzetti, B.; Messens, K.; Loose, De M.; Oliveira, de D.; Burssens, S.; Gheysen, G.; Tzotzos, G.

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) remains a contentious area and a major factor influencing the adoption of agricultural biotech. Methodologically, in many countries, risk assessment is conducted by expert committees with little or no recourse to databases and expert systems

  15. Workshop overview : Approaches to the assessment of the allergenic potential of food from genetically modified crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladics, G.S.; Holsapple, M.P.; Astwood, J.D.; Kimber, I.; Knippels, L.M.J.; Helm, R.M.; Dong, W.

    2003-01-01

    There is a need to assess the safety of foods deriving from genetically modified (GM) crops, including the allergenic potential of novel gene products. Presently, there is no single in vitro or in vivo model that has been validated for the identification or characterization of potential food

  16. Assessing Website Quality in Context: Retrieving Information about Genetically Modified Food on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Claire R.; Bird, Nora J.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Knowing the credibility of information about genetically modified food on the Internet is critical to the everyday life information seeking of consumers as they form opinions about this nascent agricultural technology. The Website Quality Evaluation Tool (WQET) is a valuable instrument that can be used to determine the credibility of…

  17. KEY ISSUES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: BREAKOUT GROUP REPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractOn the final afternoon of the Workshop, Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods, speakers and participants met in breakout groups to discuss specific questions in the areas of 1) Use of Human Clinical Data; 2) Animal Models to Assess Food ...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSpeakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  19. Benefits and costs of biologically contained genetically modified tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent

  20. News Media Use, Informed Issue Evaluation, and South Koreans' Support for Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sei-Hill; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Choi, Doo-Hun; Jun, Sangil

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing survey data on the issue of genetically modified foods in South Korea, this study explores the role of news media in facilitating informed issue evaluation. Respondents who read a newspaper more often were more knowledgeable about the issue. Also, heavy newspaper readers were more able than light readers to hold "consistent"…

  1. The Importance of Source: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Undergraduate Students' Attitudes toward Genetically Modified Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Taylor K.; Rumble, Joy N.; Gay, Keegan D.; Rodriguez, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Even though science says genetically modified (GM) foods are safe, many consumers remain skeptical of the technology. Additionally, the scientific community has trouble communicating to the public, causing consumers to make uninformed decisions. The Millennial Generation will have more buying power than any other generation before them, and more…

  2. Virus-host co-evolution under a modified nuclear genetic code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J. Taylor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Among eukaryotes with modified nuclear genetic codes, viruses are unknown. However, here we provide evidence of an RNA virus that infects a fungal host (Scheffersomyces segobiensis with a derived nuclear genetic code where CUG codes for serine. The genomic architecture and phylogeny are consistent with infection by a double-stranded RNA virus of the genus Totivirus. We provide evidence of past or present infection with totiviruses in five species of yeasts with modified genetic codes. All but one of the CUG codons in the viral genome have been eliminated, suggesting that avoidance of the modified codon was important to viral adaptation. Our mass spectroscopy analysis indicates that a congener of the host species has co-opted and expresses a capsid gene from totiviruses as a cellular protein. Viral avoidance of the host’s modified codon and host co-option of a protein from totiviruses suggest that RNA viruses co-evolved with yeasts that underwent a major evolutionary transition from the standard genetic code.

  3. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Kleter, G.A.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Kok, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for

  4. Relevance of Bt toxin interaction studies for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, De Adinda; Clercq, De Patrick; Maagd, de R.A.; Frankenhuyzen, van Kees

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, different Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-encoding genes have been combined or 'stacked' in genetically modified (GM) crops. Synergism between Bt proteins may occur and thereby increase the impact of the stacked GM event on nontarget invertebrates compared to plants expressing

  5. Assessing environmental impacts of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, A.N.E.; Kiss, Jozsef; Loon, van Joop J.A.; Messéan, Antoine; Nuti, Marco; Perry, Joe N.; Sweet, Jeremy B.; Tebbe, Christoph C.

    2017-01-01

    In legal frameworks worldwide, genetically modified plants (GMPs) are subjected to pre-market environmental risk assessment (ERA) with the aim of identifying potential effects on the environment. In the European Union, the EFSA Guidance Document introduces the rationale that GMPs, as well as their

  6. Identification of genetic modifiers of behavioral phenotypes in serotonin transporter knockout rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijman Isaäc J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variation in the regulatory region of the human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 has been shown to affect brain functionality and personality. However, large heterogeneity in its biological effects is observed, which is at least partially due to genetic modifiers. To gain insight into serotonin transporter (SERT-specific genetic modifiers, we studied an intercross between the Wistar SERT-/- rat and the behaviorally and genetically divergent Brown Norway rat, and performed a QTL analysis. Results In a cohort of >150 intercross SERT-/- and control (SERT+/+ rats we characterized 12 traits that were previously associated with SERT deficiency, including activity, exploratory pattern, cocaine-induced locomotor activity, and abdominal and subcutaneous fat. Using 325 genetic markers, 10 SERT-/--specific quantitative trait loci (QTLs for parameters related to activity and exploratory pattern (Chr.1,9,11,14, and cocaine-induced anxiety and locomotor activity (Chr.5,8 were identified. No significant QTLs were found for fat parameters. Using in silico approaches we explored potential causal genes within modifier QTL regions and found interesting candidates, amongst others, the 5-HT1D receptor (Chr. 5, dopamine D2 receptor (Chr. 8, cannabinoid receptor 2 (Chr. 5, and genes involved in fetal development and plasticity (across chromosomes. Conclusions We anticipate that the SERT-/--specific QTLs may lead to the identification of new modulators of serotonergic signaling, which may be targets for pharmacogenetic and therapeutic approaches.

  7. Sustained function of genetically modified porcine lungs in an ex vivo model of pulmonary xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, Glen P; Levvey, Browyn J; Salvaris, Evelyn; Gooi, Julian; Marasco, Sylvana; Rosenfeldt, Frank; Egan, Chris; McEgan Ccp, Robin; Mennen, Mark; Russell, Prue; Robson, Simon C; Nottle, Mark B; Dwyer, Karen M; Snell, Greg I; Cowan, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    Xenotransplantation could provide a solution to the donor shortage that is currently the major barrier to solid-organ transplantation. The ability to breed pigs with multiple genetic modifications provides a unique opportunity to explore the immunologic challenges of pulmonary xenotransplantation. Explanted lungs from wild-type and 3 groups of genetically modified pigs were studied: (i) α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO); (ii) GTKO pigs expressing the human complementary regulatory proteins CD55 and CD59 (GTKO/CD55-59); and (iii) GTKO pigs expressing both CD55-59 and CD39 (GTKO/CD55-59/CD39). The physiologic, immunologic and histologic properties of porcine lungs were evaluated on an ex vivo rig after perfusion with human blood. Lungs from genetically modified pigs demonstrated stable pulmonary vascular resistance and better oxygenation of the perfusate, and survived longer than wild-type lungs. Physiologic function was inversely correlated with the degree of platelet sequestration into the xenograft. Despite superior physiologic profiles, lungs from genetically modified pigs still showed evidence of intravascular thrombosis and coagulopathy after perfusion with human blood. The ability to breed pigs with multiple genetic modifications, and to evaluate lung physiology and histology in real-time on an ex vivo rig, represent significant advances toward better understanding the challenges inherent to pulmonary xenotransplantation. © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  8. [Detection of genetically modified soy (Roundup-Ready) in processed food products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, M; Beneke, B

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the application of a qualitative and a quantitative method of analysis to detect genetically modified RR-Soy (Roundup-Ready Soy) in processed foods is described. A total of 179 various products containing soy such as baby food and diet products, soy drinks and desserts, tofu and tofu products, soy based meat substitutes, soy protein, breads, flour, granules, cereals, noodles, soy bean sprouts, fats and oils as well as condiments were investigated following the pattern of the section 35 LMBG-method L 23.01.22-1. The DNA was extracted from the samples and analysed using a soybean specific lectin gene PCR as well as a PCR, specific for the genetic modification. Additional, by means of PCR in combination with fluorescence-detection (TaqMan 5'-Nuclease Assay), suspicious samples were subjected to a real-time quantification of the percentage of genetically modified RR-Soy. The methods of analysis proved to be extremely sensitive and specific in regard to the food groups checked. The fats and oils, as well as the condiments were the exceptions in which amplifiable soy DNA could not be detected. The genetic modification of RR-Soy was detected in 34 samples. Eight of these samples contained more than 1% of RR-Soy. It is necessary to determine the percentage of transgenic soy in order to assess whether genetically modified ingredients were deliberately added, or whether they were caused by technically unavoidable contamination (for example during transportation and processing).

  9. Safety assessment of a modified acetolactate synthase protein (GM-HRA) used as a selectable marker in genetically modified soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathesius, C A; Barnett, J F; Cressman, R F; Ding, J; Carpenter, C; Ladics, G S; Schmidt, J; Layton, R J; Zhang, J X Q; Appenzeller, L M; Carlson, G; Ballou, S; Delaney, B

    2009-12-01

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzymes have been isolated from numerous organisms including soybeans (Glycine max; GM-ALS) and catalyze the first common step in biosynthesis of branched chain amino acids. Expression of an ALS protein (GM-HRA) with two amino acid changes relative to native GM-ALS protein in genetically modified soybeans confers tolerance to herbicidal active ingredients and can be used as a selectable transformation marker. The safety assessment of the GM-HRA protein is discussed. Bioinformatics comparison of the amino acid sequence did not identify similarities to known allergenic or toxic proteins. In vitro studies demonstrated rapid degradation in simulated gastric fluid (protein expressed in planta is not glycosylated and genetically modified soybeans expressing the GM-HRA protein produced similar protein/allergen profiles as its non-transgenic parental isoline. No adverse effects were observed in mice following acute oral exposure at a dose of at least 436 mg/kg of body weight or in a 28-day repeated dose dietary toxicity study at doses up to 1247 mg/kg of body weight/day. The results demonstrate GM-HRA protein safety when used in agricultural biotechnology.

  10. Evidence for Absolute Moral Opposition to Genetically Modified Food in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sydney E; Inbar, Yoel; Rozin, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Public opposition to genetic modification (GM) technology in the food domain is widespread (Frewer et al., 2013). In a survey of U.S. residents representative of the population on gender, age, and income, 64% opposed GM, and 71% of GM opponents (45% of the entire sample) were "absolutely" opposed-that is, they agreed that GM should be prohibited no matter the risks and benefits. "Absolutist" opponents were more disgust sensitive in general and more disgusted by the consumption of genetically modified food than were non-absolutist opponents or supporters. Furthermore, disgust predicted support for legal restrictions on genetically modified foods, even after controlling for explicit risk-benefit assessments. This research suggests that many opponents are evidence insensitive and will not be influenced by arguments about risks and benefits. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Consumers’ Perception About Genetically Modified Foods and Their Purchase Intention in the City Center of Hatay, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Duran Çelik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study consumers’ perception of, and purchase intention for genetically modified foods were examined in the city center of Hatay. The data of the 343 surveys were collected by using the face to face interview method. The data were analyzed by means of Likert Scale, and Spearman Correlation Analysis. According to the survey results, consumers’ risk perceptions about genetically modified foods are quite high. Consumers don’t willingly purchase genetically modified foods, and they intend to consume foods grown in traditional methods. High risk perceptions have a determining role on consumers’ views about genetically modified foods and their purchase intention for them. Another outcome from this study is that consumers’ awareness and knowledge levels about genetically modified foods are quite low, and that their perceptions and attitudes are mostly based on biases.

  12. Detection of genetically modified maize in processed foods sold commercially in iran by qualitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer's right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses.

  13. Detection of Genetically Modified Maize in Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Iran by Qualitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer’s right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

  14. "It just goes against the grain." Public understandings of genetically modified (GM) food in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports on one aspect of qualitative research on public understandings of food risks, focusing on lay understandings of genetically modified (GM) food in the UK context. A range of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical literature on food, risk, and the public understanding of science are reviewed. The fieldwork methods are outlined and empirical data from a range of lay groups are presented. Major themes include: varying "technical" knowledge of science, the relationship between knowledge and acceptance of genetic modification, the uncertainty of scientific knowledge, genetic modification as inappropriate scientific intervention in "nature", the acceptability of animal and human applications of genetic modification, the appropriate boundaries of scientific innovation, the necessity for GM foods, the uncertainty of risks in GM food, fatalism about avoiding risks, and trust in "experts" to manage potential risks in GM food. Key discussion points relating to a sociological understanding of public attitudes to GM food are raised and some policy implications are highlighted.

  15. MARKETING RESEARCH OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS BY GEORGIAN FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUGZAR TODUA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although, genetically modified (GM crops have to be a broadly debated topic in different countries, there has been much less attention devoted to farmer attitudes towards GM crops. This paper attempts to research farmers’ insights on GM crops in Georgia through February-March 2014. An in-depth survey of 611 farmers revealed that respondents lack sufficient knowledge about genetic engineering. They tend to have a negative attitude towards GM crops and are strongly against of import and adoption of GM seeds. An empirical examination based on analysis of variance and Pearson’s correlation coefficient verified that both education and age were significant determinants of awareness of farmers about genetically engineered crops, while income used to have no significant influence on the farmers’ decision to adopt GM crops. In addition, relationship between awareness about genetic engineering and farmers’ decision to adopt GM crops has to be insignificant, as well.

  16. Variables Affecting Secondary School Students' Willingness to Eat Genetically Modified Food Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Jasmien; Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Gheysen, Godelieve; Valcke, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A large-scale cross-sectional study (N = 4002) was set up to determine Flemish secondary school students' willingness to eat genetically modified food (WTE) and to link students' WTE to previously identified key variables from research on the acceptance of genetic modification (GM). These variables include subjective and objective knowledge about genetics and biotechnology, perceived risks and benefits of GM food crops, trust in information from different sources about GM, and food neophobia. Differences between WTE-related variables based on students' grade level, educational track, and gender were analyzed. The students displayed a rather indecisive position toward GM food and scored weakly on a genetics and biotechnology knowledge test. WTE correlated most strongly with perceived benefits and subjective and objective knowledge. The results have clear implications for education, as they reiterate the need to strengthen students' scientific knowledge base and to introduce a GM-related debate at a much earlier stage in their school career.

  17. DNA degradation in genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab by food processing methods: implications for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fuguo; Zhang, Wei; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

    2015-05-01

    Food processing methods contribute to DNA degradation, thereby affecting genetically modified organism detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of food processing methods on the relative transgenic content of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, the levels of Cry1Ab were ⩾ 100% and <83%, respectively. Frying and baking in rice crackers contributed to a reduction in Pubi and Cry1Ab, while microwaving caused a decrease in Pubi and an increase in Cry1Ab. The processing methods of sweet rice wine had the most severe degradation effects on Pubi and Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, Cry1Ab was the most stable, followed by SPS and Pubi. However, in rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS was the most stable, followed by Cry1Ab and Pubi. Therefore, Cry1Ab is a better representative of transgenic components than is Pubi because the levels of Cry1Ab were less affected compared to Pubi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The legislation of CIS countries on the issue of genetically modified products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadov, Vugar; Mustafayeva, Aytan

    2011-12-01

    Genetic engineering is a fast-moving research field that produces many achievements, including genetically modified organisms, which are used during the production of food products. Recent decades have shown that scientists, policy makers and the general public cannot reach a consensus about the benefits and hazards of genetically modified food products. Opinions are so different, and both sides are so well-grounded, that it is not easy to reach a conclusion about this scientific achievement. Nevertheless, food security is one of the main objectives of the state, which is responsible for providing safe food products to its own citizens in the marketplace. This is why states are interested in reviewing these scientific achievements, in terms of the state's national interests and the security of its citizens. This article sets forth: (1) the main advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified products; (2) the role of national legislation in the control of food security; and (3) the attitude toward genetically modified products in the national legislatures of CIS countries. Taking these points into account, the authors come to the conclusion that actual Azerbaijan law is not responding to the changes, which have taken place in recent decades, in development of the world market and technological conditions in the production of food products. This provides the basis to conclude that, in actual conditions, the rights ofAzerbaijan citizens to the safety of food products are not well protected. At the end of this article, the authors make recommendations about the necessity of amendments to the legislation in their own country, towards the goal of greater control over such products in Azerbaijan.

  19. Readiness of adolescents to use genetically modified organisms according to their knowledge and emotional attitude towards GMOs

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Lachowski; Anna Jurkiewicz; Piotr Choina; Magdalena Florek-Łuszczki; Agnieszka Buczaj; Małgorzata Goździewska

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Agriculture based on genetically modified organisms plays an increasingly important role in feeding the world population, which is evidenced by a considerable growth in the size of land under genetically modified crops (GM). Uncertainty and controversy around GM products are mainly due to the lack of accurate and reliable information, and lack of knowledge concerning the essence of genetic modifications, and the effect of GM food on the human organism, and consequently, a nega...

  20. Genetic modifiers of Mendelian disease: Huntington's disease and the trinucleotide repeat disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmans, Peter A; Massey, Thomas H; Jones, Lesley

    2017-10-01

    In the decades since the genes and mutations associated with the commoner Mendelian disorders were first discovered, technological advances in genetic analysis have made finding genomic variation a much less onerous task. Recently, the global efforts to collect subjects with Mendelian disorders, to better define the disorders and to empower appropriate clinical trials, along with improved genetic technologies, have allowed the identification of genetic variation that does not cause disease, but substantially modifies disease presentation. The advantage of this is it identifies biological pathways and molecules, that, if modified in people, might alter disease presentation. In Huntington's disease (HD), caused by an expanded CAG repeat tract in HTT, genetic variation has been uncovered that is associated with change in the onset or progression of disease. Some of this variation lies in genes that are part of the DNA damage response, previously suggested to be important in modulating expansion of the repeat tract in germline and somatic cells. The genetic evidence implicates a DNA damage response-related pathway in modulating the pathogenicity of the repeat tracts in HD, and possibly, in other trinucleotide repeat disorders. These findings offer new targets for drug development in these currently intractable disorders. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Regulating innovative crop technologies in Canada: the case of regulating genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart; McHughen, Alan

    2008-04-01

    The advent of genetically modified crops in the late 1980s triggered a regulatory response to the relatively new field of plant genetic engineering. Over a 7-year period, a new regulatory framework was created, based on scientific principles that focused on risk mitigation. The process was transparent and deliberately sought the input of those involved in crop development from non-governmental organizations, industry, academia and federal research laboratories. The resulting regulations have now been in place for over a decade, and the resilience of the risk-mitigating regulations is evident as there has been no documented case of damage to either environment or human health.

  2. Extraction optimization and in vitro and in vivo anti-postprandial hyperglycemia effects of inhibitor from Phoenix dactylifera L. parthenocarpic fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abed, Hanen; Chakroun, Mouna; Fendri, Imen; Makni, Mohamed; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Drira, Noureddine; Mejdoub, Hafedh; Khemakhem, Bassem

    2017-04-01

    Phoenix dactylifera L. plays an important role in social, economic, and ecological Tunisian sectors. Some date palms produce parthenocarpic fruit named Sish. The aqueous ethanolic extract from P. dactylifera parthenocarpic dates demonstrated a potent inhibition of the enzymes related to type II diabetes. In this work, extraction optimization of amylase inhibitors was carried out using Box-Behnken Design. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the 70% aqueous ethanol extract was performed to identify the active compounds. The physicochemical results by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis showed the presence of 13 phenolic compounds. The in vitro study showed that the extract exhibited a more specific inhibitor of α-glucosidase than α-amylase with an IC 50 value of 0.6 and 2.5mg/mL, respectively. The in vivo study of this extract effect on the postprandial hyperglycemia activity showed a decrease in plasma glucose levels after 30min stronger than the Acarbose effect. These results confirmed the anti-postprandial hyperglycemia activity of the aqueous ethanolic extract from P. dactylifera parthenocarpic dates, which could lend support for its pharmaceutical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome and Hormonal Regulation of Pollinated and Parthenocarpic Fig (Ficus carica L. Fruit Suggest that Fruit Ripening is Coordinated by the Reproductive Part of the Syconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogev Rosianski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the unconventional climacteric fig (Ficus carica fruit, pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit of the same genotype exhibit different ripening characteristics. Integrative comparative analyses of tissue-specific transcript and of hormone levels during fruit repining from pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fig fruit were employed to unravel the similarities and differences in their regulatory processes during fruit repining. Assembling tissue-specific transcripts into 147,000 transcripts with 53,000 annotated genes provided new insights into the spatial distribution of many classes of regulatory and structural genes, including those related to color, taste and aroma, storage, protein degradation, seeds and embryos, chlorophyll, and hormones. Comparison of the pollinated and parthenocarpic tissues during fruit ripening showed differential gene expression, especially in the fruit inflorescence. The distinct physiological green phase II and ripening phase III differed significantly in their gene-transcript patterns in both pulp and inflorescence tissues. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole fruits enabled the first determination of ripening-related hormone levels from pollinated and non-pollinated figs. Ethylene and auxin both increased during fruit ripening, irrespective of pollination, whereas no production of active gibberellins or cytokinins was found in parthenocarpic or pollinated ripening fruit. Tissue-specific transcriptome revealed apparent different metabolic gene patterns for ethylene, auxin and ABA in pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fruit, mostly in the fruit inflorescence. Our results demonstrate that the production of abscisic acid (ABA, non-active ABA–GE conjugate and non-active indoleacetic acid (IAA–Asp conjugate in pollinated fruits is much higher than in parthenocarpic fruits. We suggest that fruit ripening is coordinated by the reproductive part of the syconium and the differences in ABA production between pollinated and

  4. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome and Hormonal Regulation of Pollinated and Parthenocarpic Fig (Ficus caricaL.) Fruit Suggest that Fruit Ripening Is Coordinated by the Reproductive Part of the Syconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosianski, Yogev; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Freiman, Zohar E; Lama, Kumar; Milo-Cochavi, Shira; Dahan, Yardena; Kerem, Zohar; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2016-01-01

    In the unconventional climacteric fig ( Ficus carica ) fruit, pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit of the same genotype exhibit different ripening characteristics. Integrative comparative analyses of tissue-specific transcript and of hormone levels during fruit repining from pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fig fruit were employed to unravel the similarities and differences in their regulatory processes during fruit repining. Assembling tissue-specific transcripts into 147,000 transcripts with 53,000 annotated genes provided new insights into the spatial distribution of many classes of regulatory and structural genes, including those related to color, taste and aroma, storage, protein degradation, seeds and embryos, chlorophyll, and hormones. Comparison of the pollinated and parthenocarpic tissues during fruit ripening showed differential gene expression, especially in the fruit inflorescence. The distinct physiological green phase II and ripening phase III differed significantly in their gene-transcript patterns in both pulp and inflorescence tissues. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole fruits enabled the first determination of ripening-related hormone levels from pollinated and non-pollinated figs. Ethylene and auxin both increased during fruit ripening, irrespective of pollination, whereas no production of active gibberellins or cytokinins was found in parthenocarpic or pollinated ripening fruit. Tissue-specific transcriptome revealed apparent different metabolic gene patterns for ethylene, auxin and ABA in pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fruit, mostly in the fruit inflorescence. Our results demonstrate that the production of abscisic acid (ABA), non-active ABA-GE conjugate and non-active indoleacetic acid (IAA)-Asp conjugate in pollinated fruits is much higher than in parthenocarpic fruits. We suggest that fruit ripening is coordinated by the reproductive part of the syconium and the differences in ABA production between pollinated and parthenocarpic fig fruit

  5. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome and Hormonal Regulation of Pollinated and Parthenocarpic Fig (Ficus carica L.) Fruit Suggest that Fruit Ripening Is Coordinated by the Reproductive Part of the Syconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosianski, Yogev; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Freiman, Zohar E.; Lama, Kumar; Milo-Cochavi, Shira; Dahan, Yardena; Kerem, Zohar; Flaishman, Moshe A.

    2016-01-01

    In the unconventional climacteric fig (Ficus carica) fruit, pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit of the same genotype exhibit different ripening characteristics. Integrative comparative analyses of tissue-specific transcript and of hormone levels during fruit repining from pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fig fruit were employed to unravel the similarities and differences in their regulatory processes during fruit repining. Assembling tissue-specific transcripts into 147,000 transcripts with 53,000 annotated genes provided new insights into the spatial distribution of many classes of regulatory and structural genes, including those related to color, taste and aroma, storage, protein degradation, seeds and embryos, chlorophyll, and hormones. Comparison of the pollinated and parthenocarpic tissues during fruit ripening showed differential gene expression, especially in the fruit inflorescence. The distinct physiological green phase II and ripening phase III differed significantly in their gene-transcript patterns in both pulp and inflorescence tissues. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole fruits enabled the first determination of ripening-related hormone levels from pollinated and non-pollinated figs. Ethylene and auxin both increased during fruit ripening, irrespective of pollination, whereas no production of active gibberellins or cytokinins was found in parthenocarpic or pollinated ripening fruit. Tissue-specific transcriptome revealed apparent different metabolic gene patterns for ethylene, auxin and ABA in pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fruit, mostly in the fruit inflorescence. Our results demonstrate that the production of abscisic acid (ABA), non-active ABA–GE conjugate and non-active indoleacetic acid (IAA)–Asp conjugate in pollinated fruits is much higher than in parthenocarpic fruits. We suggest that fruit ripening is coordinated by the reproductive part of the syconium and the differences in ABA production between pollinated and parthenocarpic fig fruit

  6. Comparative impact of genetically modified and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on succeeding crop and associated weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Naseer; Ullah, Faizan; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Bano, Asghari

    2016-04-01

    This research work documents the comparative impact of genetically modified (GM) (insect resistance) and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on growth and germination of succeeding crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and associated weed (Avena fatua L.). The aqueous extracts of both the GM and non-GM maize exhibited higher phenolic content than that of methanolic extracts. Germination percentage and germination index of wheat was significantly decreased by GM methanolic extract (10%) as well as that of non-GM maize at 3% aqueous extract. Similarly germination percentage of weed (Avena fatua L.) was significantly reduced by application of 3% and 5% methanolic GM extracts. All extracts of GM maize showed non-significant effect on the number of roots, root length and shoot length per plant but 5% and 10% methanolic extracts of non-GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of wheat seedling. Similarly, 10% methanolic extract of GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of weed seedling. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM maize (3% and 5%) significantly decreased the protease activity in wheat as compared to untreated control. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Genetic modifiers of chromatin acetylation antagonize the reprogramming of epi-polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Abraham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural populations are known to differ not only in DNA but also in their chromatin-associated epigenetic marks. When such inter-individual epigenomic differences (or "epi-polymorphisms" are observed, their stability is usually not known: they may or may not be reprogrammed over time or upon environmental changes. In addition, their origin may be purely epigenetic, or they may result from regulatory variation encoded in the DNA. Studying epi-polymorphisms requires, therefore, an assessment of their nature and stability. Here we estimate the stability of yeast epi-polymorphisms of chromatin acetylation, and we provide a genome-by-epigenome map of their genetic control. A transient epi-drug treatment was able to reprogram acetylation variation at more than one thousand nucleosomes, whereas a similar amount of variation persisted, distinguishing "labile" from "persistent" epi-polymorphisms. Hundreds of genetic loci underlied acetylation variation at 2,418 nucleosomes either locally (in cis or distantly (in trans, and this genetic control overlapped only partially with the genetic control of gene expression. Trans-acting regulators were not necessarily associated with genes coding for chromatin modifying enzymes. Strikingly, "labile" and "persistent" epi-polymorphisms were associated with poor and strong genetic control, respectively, showing that genetic modifiers contribute to persistence. These results estimate the amount of natural epigenomic variation that can be lost after transient environmental exposures, and they reveal the complex genetic architecture of the DNA-encoded determinism of chromatin epi-polymorphisms. Our observations provide a basis for the development of population epigenetics.

  8. [Labeling of food containing genetically modified organisms: international policies and Brazilian legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-08-01

    The increase in surface area planted with genetically modified crops, with the subsequent transfer of such crops into the general environment for commercial trade, has raised questions about the safety of these products. The introduction of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has led to the need to produce information and ensure training in this area for the implementation of policies on biosafety and for decision-making on the part of governments at the national, regional and international level. This article presents two main standpoints regarding the labeling of GM products (one adopted by the United States and the other by the European Union), as well as the position adopted by Brazil and its current legislation on labeling and commercial release of genetically modified (GM) products.

  9. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

    2013-11-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg(-1) GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25.

  10. Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konig, A.; Cockburn, A.; Crewel, R. W. R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group I of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics...... of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed approach to safety assessment starts with the comparison of the new GM crop with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use...... (the concept of substantial equivalence). This case-focused approach ensures that foods derived from GM crops that have passed this extensive test-regime are as safe and nutritious as currently consumed plant-derived foods. The approach is suitable for current and future GM crops with more complex...

  11. Assessing and monitoring impacts of genetically modified plants on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpaia, S.; Messéan, A.; Birch, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impacts of genetically modified crops is still a controversial issue in Europe. The overall risk assessment framework has recently been reinforced by the European Food Safety Authority(EFSA) and its implementation requires harmonized and efficient methodologies. The EU-funded re...... focuses on ecological studies in different EU regions, the sustainability of GM crops is estimated by analysing the functional components of the agro-ecosystems and specific experimental protocols are being developed for this scope.......The environmental impacts of genetically modified crops is still a controversial issue in Europe. The overall risk assessment framework has recently been reinforced by the European Food Safety Authority(EFSA) and its implementation requires harmonized and efficient methodologies. The EU...

  12. Genetic and modifying factors that determine the risk of brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelli, Terezinha de Cresci Braga; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha Serrão; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2011-01-01

    Some modifying factors may determine the risk of brain tumors. Until now, it could not be attempted to identify people at risk and also to improve significantly disease progression. Current therapy consists of surgical resection, followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Despite...... of these treatments, the prognosis for patients is poor. In this review, we highlight general aspects concerning genetic alterations in brain tumors, namely astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, medulloblastomas and ependymomas. The influence of these genetic alterations in patients' prognosis is discussed....... Mutagen sensitivity is associated with cancer risk. The convincing studies that linked DNA damages and DNA repair alterations with brain tumors are also described. Another important modifying factor is immunity. General immune response against cancer, tumor microenvironment and immune response, mechanisms...

  13. Evaluation of a non-targeted "Omic"' approach in the safety assessment of genetically modified plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Kok, E. J.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2006-01-01

    Genetically modified plants must be approved before release in the European Union, and the approval is generally based upon a comparison of various characteristics between the transgenic plant and a conventional counterpart. As a case study, focusing on safety assessment of genetically modified......-time PCR, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Analysis by cDNA microarray was used as a non-targeted approach for the identification of potential unintended effects caused by the transformation. The results revealed that, although the transgenic lines possessed different types of integration events...... has the potential to become a useful tool for screening of unintended effects, but state that it is crucial to have substantial information on the natural variation in traditional crops in order to be able to interpret "ornics" data correctly within the framework of food safety assessment strategies...

  14. Genetically modified foods: A critical review of their promise and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “genetic modified organisms (GMO” has become a controversial topic as its benefits for both food producers and consumers are companied by potential biomedical risks and environmental side effects. Increasing concerns from the public about GMO, particularly in the form of genetic modified (GM foods, are aimed at the short- and long-lasting health problems that may result from this advanced biotechnology. Complex studies are being carried out around the world independently to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of GM foods. In this paper, we attempt to summarize up-to-date knowledge about the benefits and potential problems of GM food. We also introduce some recent technological developments in GM foods and their impact in the field.

  15. Development and Evaluation of Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for Genetically Modified Soybean MON87701.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Keita; Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) soybean event, MON87701. First, a standard plasmid for MON87701 quantification was constructed. The conversion factor (C f ) required to calculate the amount of genetically modified organism (GMO) was experimentally determined for a real-time PCR instrument. The determined C f for the real-time PCR instrument was 1.24. For the evaluation of the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an inter-laboratory trial. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr), respectively. The determined biases and the RSDr values were less than 30 and 13%, respectively, at all evaluated concentrations. The limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and the developed method would thus be applicable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MON87701.

  16. Evaluation of a genetically modified foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine candidate generated by reverse genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Control of the disease has been mainly based on large-scale vaccinations with whole-virus inactivated vaccines. In recent years, a series of outbreaks of type O FMD occurred in China (including Chinese Taipei, Chinese Hong Kong) posed a tremendous threat to Chinese animal husbandry. Its causative agent, type O FMDV, has evolved into three topotypes (East–South Asia (ME-SA), Southeast Asia (SEA), Cathay (CHY)) in these regions, which represents an important obstacle to disease control. The available FMD vaccine in China shows generally good protection against ME-SA and SEA topotype viruses infection, but affords insufficient protection against some variants of the CHY topotype. Therefore, the choice of a new vaccine strain is of fundamental importance. Results The present study describes the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of FMDV vaccine strain and a genetically modified virus with some amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites 1, 3, and 4, based on the established infectious clone. The recombinant viruses had similar growth properties to the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus. All swine immunized with inactivated vaccine prepared from the O/HN/CHA/93 were fully protected from challenge with the viruses of ME-SA and SEA topotypes and partially protected against challenge with the virus of CHY topotype at 28 days post-immunization. In contrast, the swine inoculated with the genetically modified vaccine were completely protected from the infection of viruses of the three topotypes. Conclusions Some amino acid substitutions in the FMDV vaccine strain genome did not have an effect on the ability of viral replication in vitro. The vaccine prepared from genetically modified FMDV by reverse genetics significantly improved the protective efficacy to the variant of the CHY topotype, compared with the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus

  17. Evaluation of a genetically modified foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine candidate generated by reverse genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pinghua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is the most economically important and highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Control of the disease has been mainly based on large-scale vaccinations with whole-virus inactivated vaccines. In recent years, a series of outbreaks of type O FMD occurred in China (including Chinese Taipei, Chinese Hong Kong posed a tremendous threat to Chinese animal husbandry. Its causative agent, type O FMDV, has evolved into three topotypes (East–South Asia (ME-SA, Southeast Asia (SEA, Cathay (CHY in these regions, which represents an important obstacle to disease control. The available FMD vaccine in China shows generally good protection against ME-SA and SEA topotype viruses infection, but affords insufficient protection against some variants of the CHY topotype. Therefore, the choice of a new vaccine strain is of fundamental importance. Results The present study describes the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of FMDV vaccine strain and a genetically modified virus with some amino acid substitutions in antigenic sites 1, 3, and 4, based on the established infectious clone. The recombinant viruses had similar growth properties to the wild O/HN/CHA/93 virus. All swine immunized with inactivated vaccine prepared from the O/HN/CHA/93 were fully protected from challenge with the viruses of ME-SA and SEA topotypes and partially protected against challenge with the virus of CHY topotype at 28 days post-immunization. In contrast, the swine inoculated with the genetically modified vaccine were completely protected from the infection of viruses of the three topotypes. Conclusions Some amino acid substitutions in the FMDV vaccine strain genome did not have an effect on the ability of viral replication in vitro. The vaccine prepared from genetically modified FMDV by reverse genetics significantly improved the protective efficacy to the variant of the CHY topotype, compared with the

  18. Chemical Genetic Screens for TDP-43 Modifiers and ALS Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    C011 hypericin antibiotic /kinases /DA B-hydroxylase D007 deoxyphorbol antitumour D011 mezerein antitumour/phorbol F003 genistein antihelmintic... Mexico (2012) P. Drapeau and A. Parker Chemical genetic screens of TARDBP and FUS modifiers in C. elegans and zebrafish. Keystone Conference ‘New...ECL Western Blotting Substrate (Thermo Scientific). Densitometry was performed with Photoshop (Adobe). Statistics For paralysis and stress- resistance

  19. Lipid production in association of filamentous fungi with genetically modified cyanobacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana F; Taha, Mohamed; Wrede, Digby; Morrison, Paul; Ball, Andrew S; Stevenson, Trevor; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2015-01-01

    Numerous strategies have evolved recently for the generation of genetically modified or synthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria designed for production of ethanol, biodiesel and other fuels. In spite of their obvious attractiveness there are still a number of challenges that can affect their economic viability: the high costs associated with (1) harvesting, which can account for up to 50 % of the total biofuel's cost, (2) nutrients supply and (3) oil extraction. Fungal-assisted bio-flocculation of microalgae is gaining increasing attention due to its high efficiency, no need for added chemicals and low energy inputs. The implementation of renewable alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources from agricultural wastes and wastewaters for growing algae and fungi makes this strategy economically attractive. This work demonstrates that the filamentous fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus can efficiently flocculate the unicellular cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its genetically modified derivatives that have been altered to enable secretion of free fatty acids into growth media. Secreted free fatty acids are potentially used by fungal cells as a carbon source for growth and ex-novo production of lipids. For most of genetically modified strains the total lipid yields extracted from the fungal-cyanobacterial pellets were found to be higher than additive yields of lipids and total free fatty acids produced by fungal and Synechocystis components when grown in mono-cultures. The synergistic effect observed in fungal-Synechocystis associations was also found in bioremediation rates when animal husbandry wastewater was used an alternative source of nitrogen and phosphorus. Fungal assisted flocculation can complement and assist in large scale biofuel production from wild-type and genetically modified Synechocystis PCC 6803 strains by (1) efficient harvesting of cyanobacterial cells and (2) producing of high yields of lipids accumulated in fungal-cyanobacterial pellets.

  20. Genetically Modified Crops: Towards Agricultural Growth, Agricultural Development, or Agricultural Sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Azadi, Hossein; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghuchani, Omid M.; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Hajivand, Roghaye Y.; Dogot, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The present debate on how to increase global food production in a sustainable way has focused on arguments over the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) crops. Scientists in both public and private sectors clearly regard GM technology as a major new set of tools, whereas industry sees it as an opportunity for increased profits. However, it remains questionable whether GM crops can contribute to agricultural growth, agricultural development, and agricultural sustainability. This review p...

  1. Genetically Modified Feed Crops and Feed Ingredients in Indonesia: Opportunities and Constraints of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang R Prawiradiputra; Muharsini S

    2013-01-01

    The opportunity of the presence of genetically modified organism (GMO) forage crops in Indonesia is quite large. Although until now there is no single forage crop awarded safely crop in Indonesia, but several crop byproducts have been used as feed ingredient. The controversy over the presence of GMO plant cannot be avoided. There are a part of communities who could not accept the presence of GMO crops for some reasons. On the other hand, the producers claimed the advantages of the GMO cro...

  2. Feeding East Africa : are genetically modified crops part of the solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Tarjem, Ida Arff

    2017-01-01

    The African continent is faced with enormous challenges of poverty, hunger and food insecurity, which is exacerbated by climatic and environmental change, and a rapidly increasing population; and in the midst of it all is the smallholder and subsistence African farmer. Some believe that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and GM crops may offer part of the solution to some of these challenges. The GMO debate has gained considerable traction in the East African region, as recent regulat...

  3. The biomedical potential of genetically modified flax seeds overexpressing the glucosyltransferase gene

    OpenAIRE

    Czemplik, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Bazela, Karolina; Szopa, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Flax (Linum usitatissimum) is a potential source of many bioactive components that can be found in its oil and fibers, but also in the seedcake, which is rich in antioxidants. To increase the levels of medically beneficial compounds, a genetically modified flax type (named GT) with an elevated level of phenylopropanoids and their glycoside derivatives was generated. In this study, we investigated the influence of GT seedcake extract preparations on human fibroblast proliferation an...

  4. Consumer Perception of Genetically Modified Organisms and Sources of Information123

    OpenAIRE

    Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive in...

  5. Consumer Perception of Organic and Genetically Modified Foods : Health and Environmental Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to study consumer attitudes to and perceptions of organic and genetically modified (GM) foods and factors influencing the purchase/non purchase of these two types of foods. Data were collected by two questionnaire surveys (random nation-wide samples of 2000 consumers, response rate 58% and 39% respectively) and one interview study (n=40). A majority of the consumers had positive attitudes towards purchasing organic foods but few reported purchasing organic foods regularly. The mos...

  6. Factors affecting the adoption of genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scopin...

  7. Genetically Modified Food and International Trade: The Case of India, Bangladesh, Indonesia and the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Gruere, Guillaume P.; Bouet, Antoine; Mevel, Simon

    2007-01-01

    "Genetically modified (GM) food crops have the potential to raise agricultural productivity in Asian countries, but they are also associated with the risk of market access losses in sensitive importing countries. We study the potential effects of introducing GM food crops in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines in the presence of trade-related regulations of GM food in major importers. We focus on GM field crops (rice, wheat, maize, soybeans, and cotton) resistant to biotic and a...

  8. Genetically Modified alpha-Amylase Inhibitor Peas Are Not Specifically Allergenic in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rui-Yun; Reiner, Daniela; Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E.; Higgins, T. J. V.; Epstein, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity ...

  9. Characterization of Rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM) and non-GM maizes

    OpenAIRE

    Bumunang,Emmanuel Wihkochombom; Babalola,Olubukola Oluranti

    2014-01-01

    This study was done to examine the rhizobacteria from field grown Genetically Modified (GM) maize and its non-GM counterpart. Rhizospheric soil samples were collected at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and at post-harvest from two experimental fields in Gauteng, South Africa. Total rhizobacteria (cfu/g) in GM and non-GM soil samples was not significantly different across the different media 30 DAS and at post-harvest. Rhizobacterial isolates obtained were biochemically characterized using the anal...

  10. Managing major data of genetically modified mice: from scientific demands to legal obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, Michael; Trauth, Jürgen; Hindi, Iris El; Galuschka, Claudia; Sitek, Dagmar; Schenkel, Johannes

    2012-10-01

    The number of genetically modified mice is increasing rapidly. Several limitations when working with these animals are to be considered: small colonies, the continued danger of loss, often a limited breeding-success, the need to keep those mutants in stock, difficult and costly import-procedures, and also a major (scientific) value of those mutants often available only with major restrictions. To gather relevant information about all active and archived genetically modified mouse lines available in-house (>1.500) and to deal with a unique resource for several, quite different purposes, a data base was developed enabling optimum knowledge management and easy access. The data base covers also legal restraints and is being linked with the institutional publication repository. To identify the lines available detailed information is provided for each line, as the international designation, a short name, the characterization/description, and the genetic modification including the technique used therefore. The origin of the mutation (gene-ID# and donor organism), the origin of regulatory elements and their donors are listed as well as the genetic background, back-cross generation, phenotype, possible publications, keywords, and some in-house information. Also aspects of animal welfare, obligations to record genetically modified organisms, and technology transfer are displayed; the latter to make licenses possible (if legally permitted). Material transfer agreements, patents, or legal restrictions are listed. This data base helps to avoid double-imports, saves animals and costs since a redundant generation or import can be omitted. However, this is a contribution to the 3R principles developed by Russell and Burch.

  11. Community Engagement and Field Trials of Genetically Modified Insects and Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Carolyn P

    2018-01-01

    New techniques for the genetic modification of organisms are creating new strategies for addressing persistent public health challenges. For example, the company Oxitec has conducted field trials internationally-and has attempted to conduct field trials in the United States-of a genetically modified mosquito that can be used to control dengue, Zika, and some other mosquito-borne diseases. In 2016, a report commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine discussed the potential benefits and risks of another strategy, using gene drives. Driving a desired genotype through a population of wild animals or insects could lead to irreversible genetic modification of an entire species. The NASEM report recommends community, stakeholder, and public engagement about potential uses of the technology, and it argues that the engagement should occur as research advances, well before gene drives are deployed. Yet what "engagement" means in practice is unclear. This article seeks clarity on this problem by offering a justification for community engagement and drawing out implications of this argument for the implementation and desired outcomes of community engagement. Community engagement is essential when it comes to research that would release genetically modified insects or animals into the environment. By contrast, obtaining informed consent from people who live near such a proposed field trial is neither necessary nor sufficient. Drawing on the epistemic and moral arguments for deliberative democracy, I propose two discrete mechanisms of community engagement: community advisory boards and deliberative forums, neither of which has been systematically incorporated into research governance. The proposed mechanisms would engender respect for persons who live near field trials, even when the results of deliberation override some individuals' preferences. Community engagement foregrounds the community in our thinking about humans' relationship to nature

  12. Detection of genetically modified crops by combination of multiplex PCR and low-density DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; You, Yuan-Hai; Wu, Yong-Ning

    2008-02-01

    To develop a technique for simultaneous detection of various target genes in Roundup Ready soybean by combining multiplex PCR and low-density DNA microarray. Two sets of the multiplex PCR system were used to amplify the target genes in genetically modified (GM) soybean. Seventeen capture probes (PCR products) and 17 pairs of corresponding primers were designed according to the genetic characteristics of Rroundup Ready soybean (GTS40-3-2), maize (Mon810, Nk603, GA21), canola (T45, MS1/RF1), and rice (SCK) in many identified GM crops. All of the probes were categorized and identified as species-specific probes. One negative probe and one positive control probe were used to assess the efficiency of all reactions, and therefore eliminate any false positive and negative results. After multiplex PCR reaction, amplicons were adulterated with Cy5-dUTP and hybridized with DNA microarray. The array was then scanned to display the specific hybridization signals of target genes. The assay was applied to the analysis of sample of certified transgenic soybean (Roundup Ready GTS40-3-2) and canola (MS1/RF1). A combination technique of multiplex PCR and DNA microarray was successfully developed to identify multi-target genes in Roundup Ready soybean and MS1/RF1 canola with a great specificity and reliability. Reliable identification of genetic characteristics of Roundup Ready of GM soybean from genetically modified crops was achieved at 0.5% transgenic events, indicating a high sensitivity. A combination technique of multiplex PCR and low-density DNA microarray can reliably detect and identify the genetically modified crops.

  13. Assessing Website quality in context: retrieving information about genetically modified food on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire R. McInerney

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Knowing the credibility of information about genetically modified food on the Internet is critical to the everyday life information seeking of consumers as they form opinions about this nascent agricultural technology. The Website Quality Evaluation Tool (WQET is a valuable instrument that can be used to determine the credibility of Websites on any topic. Method. This study sought to use the WQET to determine the quality of Websites in the context of biotechnology or genetically modified food and to seek one or more easily identified characteristics, such as bias, commitment, use of metatags and site update-access interval (length of time between last update of the site and the date reviewed that might be used as a quick discriminator of a Website's quality. Analysis. Using SPSS, ANOVA and regression analyses were performed with the website variables of a population of one hundred Websites about genetically modified food. Results. Only the site update-access interval was determined to be a shortcut quality indicator with an inverse relationship. The longer the interval the lower the quality score. Conclusion. The study established a model for Website quality evaluation. The update-access interval proved to be the single clear-cut indicator to judge Website quality in everyday information seeking.

  14. Simultaneous Detection of Genetically Modified Organisms in a Mixture by Multiplex PCR-Chip Capillary Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Supriya; Dasari, Srikanth; Bhagavatula, Krishna; Mueller, Steffen; Deepak, Saligrama Adavigowda; Ghosh, Sudip; Basak, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    An efficient PCR-based method to trace genetically modified food and feed products is in demand due to regulatory requirements and contaminant issues in India. However, post-PCR detection with conventional methods has limited sensitivity in amplicon separation that is crucial in multiplexing. The study aimed to develop a sensitive post-PCR detection method by using PCR-chip capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CCE) to detect and identify specific genetically modified organisms in their genomic DNA mixture by targeting event-specific nucleotide sequences. Using the PCR-CCE approach, novel multiplex methods were developed to detect MON531 cotton, EH 92-527-1 potato, Bt176 maize, GT73 canola, or GA21 maize simultaneously when their genomic DNAs in mixtures were amplified using their primer mixture. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) of the peak migration time was 0.06 and 3.88% for the MON531 and Bt176, respectively. The RSD (RSDR) of the Cry1Ac peak ranged from 0.12 to 0.40% in multiplex methods. The method was sensitive in resolving amplicon of size difference up to 4 bp. The PCR-CCE method is suitable to detect multiple genetically modified events in a composite DNA sample by tagging their event specific sequences.

  15. The status and prospects for genetically modified food in Europe and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada KNEEVIC

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last sixteen years worldwide production of genetically modified (GM crops has been increased sharply. At the same time, consumer?s attitudes toward food products made from GM ingredients have been largely negative. This review considers the global production of GM plants in 2011 and consumer attitudes towards genetically modified foods in Europe and Croatia. While planted areas of GM crops grow worldwide, data from European surveys shows generally negative consumer?s perception towards GM food. Eurobarometer survey from 2010 was especially pointed out, where Croatian consumers were included in research for first time. It has been shown that the Croatian, even more than Europeans, do not approve the use of genetically modified food in human consumption. This aversion to GM crops is based on the personal attitude of consumers, whereas the two main risks cited are: potential health risk and preference for natural food, and social risks which include possible adverse effects of GM plants on the environment. Research has shown that the perceived level of risk by consumers can be mitigated if the confidence is built in state institutions and scientific research.

  16. Double genetically modified symbiotic system for improved Cu phytostabilization in legume roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, Patricia; Romero-Aguilar, Asunción; Delgadillo, Julián; Doukkali, Bouchra; Caviedes, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Pajuelo, Eloísa

    2017-06-01

    Excess copper (Cu) in soils has deleterious effects on plant growth and can pose a risk to human health. In the last decade, legume-rhizobium symbioses became attractive biotechnological tools for metal phytostabilization. For this technique being useful, metal-tolerant symbionts are required, which can be generated through genetic manipulation.In this work, a double symbiotic system was engineered for Cu phytostabilization: On the one hand, composite Medicago truncatula plants expressing the metallothionein gene mt4a from Arabidopsis thaliana in roots were obtained to improve plant Cu tolerance. On the other hand, a genetically modified Ensifer medicae strain, expressing copper resistance genes copAB from Pseudomonas fluorescens driven by a nodulation promoter, nifHp, was used for plant inoculation. Our results indicated that expression of mt4a in composite plants ameliorated plant growth and nodulation and enhanced Cu tolerance. Lower levels of ROS-scavenging enzymes and of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), such as malondialdehyde (a marker of lipid peroxidation), suggested reduced oxidative stress. Furthermore, inoculation with the genetically modified Ensifer further improved root Cu accumulation without altering metal loading to shoots, leading to diminished values of metal translocation from roots to shoots. The double modified partnership is proposed as a suitable tool for Cu rhizo-phytostabilization.

  17. Three-generation reproduction toxicity study of genetically modified rice with insect resistant genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichun; Zhuo, Qin; Gong, Zhaolong; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we evaluated the three generation reproductive toxicity of the genetically modified rice with insectresistant cry1Ac and sck genes. 120 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups which were fed with genetically modified rice diet (GM group), parental control rice diet (PR group) and AIN-93 control diet (both used as negative control) respectively. Bodyweight, food consumption, reproductive data, hematological parameters, serum chemistry, relative organ weights and histopathology for each generation were examined respectively. All the hematology and serum chemistry parameters, organ/body weight indicators were within the normal range or no change to the adverse direction was observed, although several differences in hematology and serum chemistry parameters (WBC, BUN, LDH of male rat, PLT, PCT, MPV of female rats), reproductive data (rate of morphologically abnormal sperm) were observed between GM rice group and two control groups. No macroscopic or histological adverse effects were found or considered as treatment-related, either. Overall, the three generation study of genetically modified rice with cry1Ac and sck genes at a high level showed no unintended adverse effects on rats's reproductive system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Preliminary assessment of framework conditions for release of genetically modified mosquitoes in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freece, Chenoa; Paré Toé, Léa; Esposito, Fulvio; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Favia, Guido

    2014-09-01

    Genetically modified mosquitoes (GMMs) are emerging as a measure to control mosquito-borne diseases, but before any genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are released into the environment, it is imperative to establish regulatory standards incorporating public engagement. A previous project in Burkina Faso introduced a type of genetically modified cotton [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)] cotton) that produces insecticide, and incorporated policies on public engagement. We explored the perspectives of Burkinabè (citizens of Burkina Faso) on bio-agricultural exposure to GMOs and their receptiveness to the use of GMOs. Interviews were conducted in a village (Bondoukuy) and with representatives from stakeholder organizations. The population may be very receptive to the use of GMMs against malaria, but may voice unfounded concerns that GMMs can transmit other diseases. It is important to constantly supply the population with correct and factual information. Investigating the application of Burkina Faso's biotechnology policies with regard to Bt cotton has shown that it may be conceivable in the future to have open discussions about the merits of GMM release. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Dual-reporter surrogate systems for efficient enrichment of genetically modified cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chonghua; Xu, Kun; Liu, Zhongtian; Shen, Juncen; Han, Furong; Chen, Zhilong; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-07-01

    Isolation of genetically modified cells generated by designed nucleases are challenging, since they are often phenotypically indistinguishable from their parental cells. To efficiently enrich genetically modified cells, we developed two dual-reporter surrogate systems, namely NHEJ-RPG and SSA-RPG based on NHEJ and SSA repair mechanisms, respectively. Repair and enrichment efficiencies of these two systems were compared using different nucleases. In both CRISPR-Cas9- and ZFNs-induced DSB repair studies, we found that the efficiency and sensitivity of the SSA-RPG reporter with direct repeat length more than 200 bp were much higher than the NHEJ-RPG reporter. By utilizing the SSA-RPG reporter, we achieved the enrichment for indels in several endogenous loci with 6.3- to 34.8-fold of non-selected cells. Thus, the highly sensitive SSA-RPG reporter can be used for activity validation of designed nucleases and efficient enrichment of genetically modified cells. Besides, our systems offer alternative enrichment choices either by puromycin selection or FACS.

  20. Prevalence of genetically modified rice, maize, and soy in Saudi food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, A I; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative DNA-based methods were applied to detect genetically modified foods in samples from markets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Two hundred samples were collected from Al-Qassim, Riyadh, and Mahdina in 2009 and 2010. GMOScreen 35S and NOS test kits for the detection of genetically modified organism varieties in samples were used. The positive results obtained from GMOScreen 35S and NOS were identified using specific primer pairs. The results indicated that all rice samples gave negative results for the presence of 35S and NOS terminator. About 26 % of samples containing soybean were positive for 35S and NOS terminator and 44 % of samples containing maize were positive for the presence of 35S and/or NOS terminator. The results showed that 20.4 % of samples was positive for maize line Bt176, 8.8 % was positive for maize line Bt11, 8.8 % was positive for maize line T25, 5.9 % was positive for maize line MON 810, and 5.9 % was positive for StarLink maize. Twelve samples were shown to contain genetically modified (GM) soy and 6 samples >10 % of GM soy. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >5 % of GM maize MON 810. Four samples containing GM maize were shown to contain >1 % of StarLink maize. Establishing strong regulations and certified laboratories to monitor GM foods or crops in Saudi market is recommended.

  1. Regulating genetically modified food. Policy trajectories, political culture, and risk perceptions in the U.S., Canada, and EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines whether national differences in political culture add an explanatory dimension to the formulation of policy in the area of biotechnology, especially with respect to genetically modified food. The analysis links the formulation of protective regulatory policies governing genetically modified food to both country and region-specific differences in uncertainty tolerance levels and risk perceptions in the United States, Canada, and European Union. Based on polling data and document analysis, the findings illustrate that these differences matter. Following a mostly opportunistic risk perception within an environment of high tolerance for uncertainty, policymakers in the United States and Canada modified existing regulatory frameworks that govern genetically modified food in their respective countries. In contrast, the mostly cautious perception of new food technologies and low tolerance for uncertainty among European Union member states has contributed to the creation of elaborate and stringent regulatory policies governing genetically modified food.

  2. Attitudes to genetically modified food over time: How trust in organizations and the media cycle predict support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Mathew D; Critchley, Christine R; Walshe, Jarrod

    2015-07-01

    This research examined public opinion toward genetically modified plants and animals for food, and how trust in organizations and media coverage explained attitudes toward these organisms. Nationally representative samples (N=8821) over 10 years showed Australians were less positive toward genetically modified animals compared to genetically modified plants for food, especially in years where media coverage was high. Structural equation modeling found that positive attitudes toward different genetically modified organisms for food were significantly associated with higher trust in scientists and regulators (e.g. governments), and with lower trust in watchdogs (e.g. environmental movement). Public trust in scientists and watchdogs was a stronger predictor of attitudes toward the use of genetically modified plants for food than animals, but only when media coverage was low. Results are discussed regarding the moral acceptability of genetically modified organisms for food, the media's role in shaping public opinion, and the role public trust in organizations has on attitudes toward genetically modified organisms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. There is no accounting for tastes! Product advantages and tasting reduce consumers' scepticism towards genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    . However, a new study carried out by MAPP in collaboration with researchers in Norway, Sweden and Finland indicates that consumers' scepticism is reduced when they taste genetically modified foods and experience that the products are more tasty and more healthy than similar conventional products...... to fat content, fatty acids content, price and added calcium and zinc. Moreover, the product descriptions differed in relation to whether genetically modified rennet had been used or not. In all four countries consumers attached most importance to the type of rennet. Also price was considered important...... were led to believe the genetically modified rennet resulted in lower fat content were the ones least negative. All in all there are many indications that consumer would be less negative towards genetic engineering if they had a chance to experience that genetically modified foods taste a lot better...

  4. A Novel Method to Generate and Expand Clinical-Grade, Genetically Modified, Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Marie-Andrée; Tavera, René J.; Haymaker, Cara; Ramachandran, Renjith; Malu, Shuti; Zhang, Minying; Wardell, Seth; Fulbright, Orenthial J.; Toth, Chistopher Leroy; Gonzalez, Audrey M.; Thorsen, Shawne T.; Flores, Esteban; Wahl, Arely; Peng, Weiyi; Amaria, Rodabe N.; Hwu, Patrick; Bernatchez, Chantale

    2017-01-01

    Following the clinical success achieved with the first generation of adoptive cell therapy (ACT) utilizing in vitro expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), the second and third generations of TIL ACT are evolving toward the use of genetically modified TIL. TIL therapy generally involves the transfer of a high number of TIL, ranging from 109 to 1011 cells. One of the technical difficulties in genetically modifying TIL, using a retroviral vector, is the ability to achieve large expansion of transduced TIL, while keeping the technique suitable to a Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) environment. Consequently, we developed and optimized a novel method for the efficient production of large numbers of GMP-grade, gene-modified TIL for the treatment of patients with ACT. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 was used as the gene of interest for methodology development. The optimized procedure is currently used in the production of gene-modified TIL for two clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic melanoma at MD Anderson Cancer Center. PMID:28824634

  5. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

    2013-12-04

    The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty.

  6. Communicating about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods: The mediating role of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-01-01

    role, direct as well as mediating effects of trust were tested in an attitude change experiment involving 1203 consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy and the UK. After prior attitudes to genetic modification in food production had been assessed, participants received different information materials...... (either product-specific information or balanced/general information about genetic modification in food production) and were asked to evaluate different types of genetically modified foods (either beer or yoghurt). The information materials were attributed to different information sources (either...... an industry association, a consumer organization, or a government source). After completion, perceived risk and perceived benefit were assessed, and participants indicated their trust in the information sources to which the materials had been attributed. Direct and trust-mediated attitude change effects were...

  7. Consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods: Results of a qualitative study in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    1999-01-01

    as the theoretical basis for conducting laddering interviews with 400 consumers in Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy, using beer and yoghurt as tangible product examples. Perceived risks and benefits of genetic modification in foods were investigated, with an emphasis on tracing cross......, as were a number of other undesirable consequences that were perceived to eventually prevent the fulfilment of both individual and social values. Udgivelsesdato: DEC......The objective of the research presented in this article was to gain insight into consumers' cognitions with regard to genetically modified foods to get a better understanding of the constituents of consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production overall. Means-end chain theory served...

  8. Screen for genetic modifiers of stbm reveals that photoreceptor fate and rotation can be genetically uncoupled in the Drosophila eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Wolff

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Polarity of the Drosophila compound eye arises primarily as a consequence of two events that are tightly linked in time and space: fate specification of two photoreceptor cells, R3 and R4, and the subsequent directional movement of the unit eyes of the compound eye, or ommatidia. While it is thought that these fates dictate the direction of ommatidial rotation, the phenotype of mutants in the genes that set up this polarity led to the hypothesis that these two events could be uncoupled.To definitively demonstrate these events are genetically separable, we conducted a dominant modifier screen to determine if genes, when misexpressed, could selectively enhance subclasses of mutant ommatidia in which the direction of rotation does not follow the R3/R4 cell fates, yet not affect the number of ommatidia in which rotation follows the R3/R4 cell fates. We identified a subset of P element lines that exhibit this selective enhancement. We also identified lines that behave in the opposite manner: They enhance the number of ommatidia that rotate in the right direction, but do not alter the number of ommatidia that rotate incorrectly with respect to the R3/R4 fates.These results indicate that fate and direction of rotation can be genetically separated, and that there are genes that act between R3/R4 fate specification and direction of ommatidial rotation. These data affirm what has been a long-standing assumption about the genetic control of ommatidial polarity.

  9. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology.

  10. Optimisation of qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of genetically modified crops by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vyhnánek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of genetically modified crops we selected the detection of the frequently used promoter 35S CaMV. To optimise the method we used two commercially available genotypes of maize from the company Monsanto (USA, i.e. the transgenic hybrid Bt-maize line MON810 and a genetically non-modified control (isogenic line to MON810. We tested the pri­mers and PCR programmes described by Greiner et al. (2005 and Hernandéz et al. (2005. When applying PCR methods of detection of Bt-maize the first step was to optimise the protocol for the detection of the maize genome and detection of the specific sites of genetically modified MON810 maize. For detection of the maize genome we selected the primers IVR1-F and IVR1-R (invertase gene which verify the presence of the maize genome by a 226 bp product. For qualitative detection of the insert of Bt-maize MON810 the primer pairs VW01/VW03 (Greiner et al., 2005 and BT03/BT04 (Hernandéz et al., 2005 were used to detect the 35S CaMV promoter. Products of the size 178 bp and 280 bp, respectively, verify its presence. Based on the results of qualitative PCR we selected the primers VW01/VW03 for semi-quantitative detection of the amount of DNA of Bt-maize. For semi-quantitative PCR we have chosen sampling of the amplification product in the 30th cycle of the PCR reaction. In the genetically unmodified control a detection limit of 1% of admixture of Bt-maize was determined when using semi-quantitative PCR. The same primers as for semi-quantitative PCR were also used for multiplex PCR but with half the concentration of primers for standard PCR. This protocol however will have to be further optimised. The presented results introduce PCR methods for qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of DNA of the genetically modified Bt-maize MON810 which can also be used for other GM crops containing the 35S CaMV promoter. It could be suitable to use these methods for the

  11. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  12. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Houdebine, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing

  13. Bioethanol production using genetically modified and mutant wheat and barley straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Engineering; East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (CN). State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering; Liu, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Chen, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zemetra, R.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (US). Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences

    2011-01-15

    To improve the performance of wheat and barley straws as feedstocks for ethanol biorefining, the genetic modifications of down regulating Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and low phytic acid mutation have been introduced into wheat and barley respectively. In this study, total 252 straw samples with different genetic background and location were collected from the field experiment based on a randomized complete block design. The fiber analysis (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) indicated that there were no significant differences between modified and wild type straw lines in terms of straw compositions. However, the difference did exist among straw lines on fiber utilization. 16 straw samples were further selected to conduct diluted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The data indicated that the phytic acid mutant and transgenic straws have changed the fiber structure, which significantly influences their hydrolysibility. These results may lead to a possible solution of mutant or genetic modified plant species that is capable to increase the hydrolysibility of biomass without changing their compositions and sacrificing their agronomy performance. (author)

  14. Use of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Robert D; Dunbar, Gary L; Rossignol, Julien

    2014-01-23

    The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating neurodegenerative disorders has received growing attention recently because these cells are readily available, easily expanded in culture, and when transplanted, survive for relatively long periods of time. Given that such transplants have been shown to be safe in a variety of applications, in addition to recent findings that MSCs have useful immunomodulatory and chemotactic properties, the use of these cells as vehicles for delivering or producing beneficial proteins for therapeutic purposes has been the focus of several labs. In our lab, the use of genetic modified MSCs to release neurotrophic factors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is of particular interest. Specifically, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been recognized as therapeutic trophic factors for Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, respectively. The aim of this literature review is to provide insights into: (1) the inherent properties of MSCs as a platform for neurotrophic factor delivery; (2) the molecular tools available for genetic manipulation of MSCs; (3) the rationale for utilizing various neurotrophic factors for particular neurodegenerative diseases; and (4) the clinical challenges of utilizing genetically modified MSCs.

  15. Immunotoxicological evaluation of wheat genetically modified with TaDREB4 gene on BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun Lai; Zhang, Xiao Peng; Song, Yan; Jia, Xu Dong

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the immunotoxicological effects of genetically modified wheat with TaDREB4 gene in female BALB/c mice. Female mice weighing 18-22 g were divided into five groups (10 mice/group), which were set as negative control group, common wheat group, parental wheat group, genetically modified wheat group and cyclophosphamide positive control group, respectively. Mice in negative control group and positive control group were fed with AIN93G diet, mice in common wheat group, non-genetically modified parental wheat group and genetically modified wheat group were fed with feedstuffs added corresponding wheat (the proportion is 76%) for 30 days, then body weight, absolute and relative weight of spleen and thymus, white blood cell count, histological examination of immune organ, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotyping, serum cytokine, serum immunoglobulin, antibody plaque-forming cell, serum half hemolysis value, mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and phagocytic activities of phagocytes were detected. No immunotoxicological effects related to the consumption of the genetically modified wheat were observed in BALB/c mice when compared with parental wheat group, common wheat group and negative control group. From the immunotoxicological point of view, results from this study demonstrate that genetically modified wheat with TaDREB4 gene is as safe as the parental wheat. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  16. Readiness of adolescents to use genetically modified organisms according to their knowledge and emotional attitude towards GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowski, Stanisław; Jurkiewicz, Anna; Choina, Piotr; Florek-Łuszczki, Magdalena; Buczaj, Agnieszka; Goździewska, Małgorzata

    2017-06-07

    Agriculture based on genetically modified organisms plays an increasingly important role in feeding the world population, which is evidenced by a considerable growth in the size of land under genetically modified crops (GM). Uncertainty and controversy around GM products are mainly due to the lack of accurate and reliable information, and lack of knowledge concerning the essence of genetic modifications, and the effect of GM food on the human organism, and consequently, a negative emotional attitude towards what is unknown. The objective of the presented study was to discover to what extent knowledge and the emotional attitude of adolescents towards genetically modified organisms is related with acceptance of growing genetically modified plants or breeding GM animals on own farm or allotment garden, and the purchase and consumption of GM food, as well as the use of GMOs in medicine. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire designed by the author, which covered a group of 500 adolescents completing secondary school on the level of maturity examination. The collected material was subjected to statistical analysis. Research hypotheses were verified using chi-square test (χ 2 ), t-Student test, and stepwise regression analysis. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the readiness of adolescents to use genetically modified organisms as food or for the production of pharmaceuticals, the production of GM plants or animals on own farm, depends on an emotional-evaluative attitude towards GMOs, and the level of knowledge concerning the essence of genetic modifications.

  17. Genetic engineering in agriculture and corporate engineering in public debate: risk, public relations, and public debate over genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajeev; Torres, Robert J; Rosset, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Corporations have long influenced environmental and occupational health in agriculture, doing a great deal of damage, making substantial profits, and shaping public debate to make it appear that environmental misfortunes are accidents of an otherwise well-functioning system, rather than systemic. The debate over the genetically modified (GM) crops is an example. The largest producer of commercial GM seeds, Monsanto, exemplifies the industry's strategies: the invocation of poor people as beneficiaries, characterization of opposition as technophobic or anti-progress, and portrayal of their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of or despite the evidence. This strategy is endemic to contemporary market capitalism, with its incentives to companies to externalize health and environmental costs to increase profits.

  18. Genetic variations in taste perception modify alcohol drinking behavior in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Yang, Sarah; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-06-01

    The sensory components of alcohol affect the onset of individual's drinking. Therefore, variations in taste receptor genes may lead to differential sensitivity for alcohol taste, which may modify an individual's drinking behavior. This study examined the influence of genetic variants in the taste-sensing mechanism on alcohol drinking behavior and the choice of alcoholic beverages. A total of 1829 Koreans were analyzed for their alcohol drinking status (drinker/non-drinker), total alcohol consumption (g/day), heavy drinking (≥30 g/day) and type of regularly consumed alcoholic beverages. Twenty-one genetic variations in bitterness, sweetness, umami and fatty acid sensing were also genotyped. Our findings suggested that multiple genetic variants modified individuals' alcohol drinking behavior. Genetic variations in the T2R bitterness receptor family were associated with overall drinking behavior. Subjects with the TAS2R38 AVI haplotype were less likely to be a drinker [odds ratio (OR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.95], and TAS2R5 rs2227264 predicted the level of total alcohol consumption (p = 0.01). In contrast, the T1R sweet and umami receptor family was associated with heavy drinking. TAS1R3 rs307355 CT carriers were more likely to be heavy drinkers (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.06-2.19). The genetic variants were also associated with the choice of alcoholic beverages. The homo-recessive type of TAS2R4 rs2233998 (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.11-2.37) and TAS2R5 rs2227264 (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.14-2.58) were associated with consumption of rice wine. However, TAS1R2 rs35874116 was associated with wine drinking (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.98) and the consumption level (p = 0.04). These findings suggest that multiple genetic variations in taste receptors influence drinking behavior in Koreans. Genetic variations are also responsible for the preference of particular alcoholic beverages, which may contribute to an individual's alcohol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2017

  19. Clinical potential and challenges of using genetically modified cells for articular cartilage repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, Henning; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects do not regenerate. Transplantation of autologous articular chondrocytes, which is clinically being performed since several decades, laid the foundation for the transplantation of genetically modified cells, which may serve the dual role of providing a cell population capable of chondrogenesis and an additional stimulus for targeted articular cartilage repair. Experimental data generated so far have shown that genetically modified articular chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) allow for sustained transgene expression when transplanted into articular cartilage defects in vivo. Overexpression of therapeutic factors enhances the structural features of the cartilaginous repair tissue. Combined overexpression of genes with complementary mechanisms of action is also feasible, holding promises for further enhancement of articular cartilage repair. Significant benefits have been also observed in preclinical animal models that are, in principle, more appropriate to the clinical situation. Finally, there is convincing proof of concept based on a phase I clinical gene therapy study in which transduced fibroblasts were injected into the metacarpophalangeal joints of patients without adverse events. To realize the full clinical potential of this approach, issues that need to be addressed include its safety, the choice of the ideal gene vector system allowing for a long-term transgene expression, the identification of the optimal therapeutic gene(s), the transplantation without or with supportive biomaterials, and the establishment of the optimal dose of modified cells. As safe techniques for generating genetically engineered articular chondrocytes and MSCs are available, they may eventually represent new avenues for improved cell-based therapies for articular cartilage repair. This, in turn, may provide an important step toward the unanswered question of articular cartilage regeneration. PMID:21674822

  20. PGC-1alpha downstream transcription factors NRF-1 and TFAM are genetic modifiers of Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghikia Aiden

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington disease (HD is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormal expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin HTT (HD gene. The primary genetic determinant of the age at onset (AO is the length of the HTT CAG repeat; however, the remaining genetic contribution to the AO of HD has largely not been elucidated. Recent studies showed that impaired functioning of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1a (PGC-1alpha contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and appears to play an important role in HD pathogenesis. Further genetic evidence for involvement of PGC-1alpha in HD pathogenesis was generated by the findings that sequence variations in the PPARGC1A gene encoding PGC-1alpha exert modifying effects on the AO in HD. In this study, we hypothesised that polymorphisms in PGC-1alpha downstream targets might also contribute to the variation in the AO. Results In over 400 German HD patients, polymorphisms in the nuclear respiratory factor 1 gene, NRF-1, and the mitochondrial transcription factor A, encoded by TFAM showed nominally significant association with AO of HD. When combining these results with the previously described modifiers rs7665116 in PPARGC1A and C7028T in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO1, mt haplogroup H in a multivariable model, a substantial proportion of the variation in AO can be explained by the joint effect of significant modifiers and their interactions, respectively. Conclusions These results underscore that impairment of mitochondrial function plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HD and that upstream transcriptional activators of PGC-1alpha may be useful targets in the treatment of HD.

  1. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: Exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte eCharrier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate — or more abundant and more nutritional — biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasing vested interest for cost-effective and lucrative seaweed cultivation processes. Thus, scientific research on seaweed development is particularly timely: the potential for expansion of seaweed cultivation depends on the sector’s capacity to produce seaweeds with modified morphological features (e.g. thicker blades, higher growth rates or delayed (or even no fertility. Here, we review the various technical approaches used to modify development in macroalgae, which have attracted little attention from developmental biologists to date. Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to three different eukaryotic phyla, the mechanisms controlling their morphogenesis are key to understanding their development. Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds — somatic variants, artificial hybrids and mutants — as well as the future potential of these techniques.

  2. The mechanisms of genetically modified vaccinia viruses for the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Artrish; Cadet, Valerie E; Hielscher, Abigail

    2015-09-01

    The use of oncolytic viruses for the treatment of cancer is an emerging field of cancer research and therapy. Oncolytic viruses are designed to induce tumor specific immunity while replicating selectively within cancer cells to cause lysis of the tumor cells. While there are several forms of oncolytic viruses, the use of vaccinia viruses for oncolysis may be more beneficial than other forms of oncolytic viruses. For example, vaccinia viruses have been shown to exert their anti-tumor effects through genetic engineering strategies which enhance their therapeutic efficacy. This paper will address some of the most common forms of genetically modified vaccinia viruses and will explore the mechanisms whereby they selectively target, enter and destroy cancer cells. Furthermore, this review will highlight how vaccinia viruses activate host immune responses against cancer cells and will address clinical trials evaluating the tumor-directed and killing efficacy of these viruses against solid tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M

    2013-12-01

    Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lifestyle modifies obesity-associated risk of cardiovascular disease in a genetically homogeneous population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit E; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk differs across populations. Whether such differences in obesity-related risk factors exist within population groups of the same genetic origin but with differences in lifestyle remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... was to analyze whether obesity was associated with the same degree of metabolic disturbances in 2 groups of genetically homogeneous Inuit who were exposed to considerable differences in lifestyle. DESIGN: We studied obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a cross-sectional population survey of 2311...... groups of Inuit living in Greenland and Inuit migrants living in Denmark. The findings indicate that lifestyle factors modify the cardiovascular disease risk associated with obesity....

  6. Genetically modified (GM) crops: milestones and new advances in crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamthan, Ayushi; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kamthan, Mohan; Datta, Asis

    2016-09-01

    New advances in crop genetic engineering can significantly pace up the development of genetically improved varieties with enhanced yield, nutrition and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Genetically modified (GM) crops can act as powerful complement to the crops produced by laborious and time consuming conventional breeding methods to meet the worldwide demand for quality foods. GM crops can help fight malnutrition due to enhanced yield, nutritional quality and increased resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, several biosafety issues and public concerns are associated with cultivation of GM crops developed by transgenesis, i.e., introduction of genes from distantly related organism. To meet these concerns, researchers have developed alternative concepts of cisgenesis and intragenesis which involve transformation of plants with genetic material derived from the species itself or from closely related species capable of sexual hybridization, respectively. Recombinase technology aimed at site-specific integration of transgene can help to overcome limitations of traditional genetic engineering methods based on random integration of multiple copy of transgene into plant genome leading to gene silencing and unpredictable expression pattern. Besides, recently developed technology of genome editing using engineered nucleases, permit the modification or mutation of genes of interest without involving foreign DNA, and as a result, plants developed with this technology might be considered as non-transgenic genetically altered plants. This would open the doors for the development and commercialization of transgenic plants with superior phenotypes even in countries where GM crops are poorly accepted. This review is an attempt to summarize various past achievements of GM technology in crop improvement, recent progress and new advances in the field to develop improved varieties aimed for better consumer acceptance.

  7. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.593, p consumers in making informed purchase decisions.

  9. Recognition of genetically modified product based on affinity propagation clustering and terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Kan, Jianquan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, based on the terahertz spectrum, a new identification method of genetically modified material by support vector machine (SVM) based on affinity propagation clustering is proposed. This algorithm mainly uses affinity propagation clustering algorithm to make cluster analysis and labeling on unlabeled training samples, and in the iterative process, the existing SVM training data are continuously updated, when establishing the identification model, it does not need to manually label the training samples, thus, the error caused by the human labeled samples is reduced, and the identification accuracy of the model is greatly improved.

  10. A genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus that can produce gold nanoparticles from a metal salt precursor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew John Love

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV to surface display a characterized peptide with potent metal ion binding and reducing capacity (MBP TMV, and demonstrate that unlike wild type (WT TMV, this construct can lead to the formation of discrete 10-40 nm gold nanoparticles when mixed with 3 mM potassium tetrachloroaurate. Using a variety of analytical physicochemical approaches it was found that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and stable. Given that the MBP TMV can produce metal nanomaterials in the absence of chemical reductants, it may have utility in the green production of metal nanomaterials.

  11. Optimization of the Compensation of a Meshed MV Network by a Modified Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans; Paar, M.; Toman, P.

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses the utilization of a modified genetic algorithm (GA) for the optimization of the shunt compensation in meshed and radial MV distribution networks. The algorithm looks for minimum costs of the network power losses and minimum capital and operating costs of applied capacitors...... on the steady-state analysis using a linear one-line diagram model of a power network. The results of steady-state solutions are compared with the results from the DIgSILENT PowerFactory program. Its practical applicability is demonstrated on examples of 22 kV and meshed overhead distribution networks....

  12. Effect of Paracoccus sp. and their Genetically Modified on Skin Coloration of Red Sea Bream

    OpenAIRE

    AGUS KURNIA; SHUICHI SATOH; SATOSHI HANZAWA

    2010-01-01

    Astaxanthin (Asx) content in the skin of red sea bream was observed in a feeding trial with two Asx sources: marine bacteria (Paracoccus sp.) and Asx concentrated marine bacteria modified genetically (GM marine bacteria). Four semi purified diets were prepared and contained two levels of marine bacteria (15 and 30 mg Asx/kg), 30 mg Asx/kg of GM marine bacteria and control diet without additional Asx. The diets were fed to fourteen fish of red sea bream (initial weight 128.5 g) which were rand...

  13. Life cycle inventory and risk assessment of genetic modified perennial ryegrass in a technology foresight perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Rasmussen, B.; Schleisner, L.

    2000-01-01

    , a methodological approach is suggested to analyse the uncertainties that the biotech industry and the authorities face when implementing genetically modified (GM) crops. These uncertainties embracescientific rationality regarding technological development and risk assessments, as well as ethic political and social...... important and uncertain fac-tors for the future direction of GM crops: 1) publicparticipation in regulation, 2) utility value for the consumers, 3) being first to market GM-ryegrass, and 4) an efficient professional network. Based on the identified drivers several scenar-ios were constructed, of which two...

  14. The EU Rules on Labelling of Genetically Modified Foods: Mission accomplished?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bracht

    2010-01-01

    In 2003 the EU adopted new rules regulating all aspects of placing genetically modified foods on the market. The rules significantly enhance the scope of the labelling requirement in an attempt to accommodate consumer demand, but it is debatable whether or not a labelling requirement in the case...... of GMO related content in a food product is in fact an appropriate measure to protect consumer interests. Furthermore, the EU labelling rules may prove to be a trade obstacle causing conflict in the EU’s trade relations with third countries. The labelling rules will most likely be considered a trade...

  15. [Detection of recombinant-DNA in foods from stacked genetically modified plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, E Iu; Chernyshova, O N

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction method was applied to the detection and quantification of MON863 and MON810 in stacked genetically modified maize MON 810xMON 863. The limit of detection was approximately 0,1%. The accuracy of the quantification, measured as bias from the accepted value and the relative repeatability standard deviation, which measures the intra-laboratory variability, were within 25% at each GM-level. A method verification has demonstrated that the MON 863 and the MON810 methods can be equally applied in quantification of the respective events in stacked MON810xMON 863.

  16. Relationships among the Non-Genetically Modified Soybean and Energy Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Aruga, Kentaka

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, recently the use of soybeans as an energy source has drawn attention. It is concerned in Japan that if the use of soybeans for energy keeps increasing, not only the price of conventional soybeans, which is used for soybean oil, but also the price of non-genetically modified organism (Non-GMO) soybeans, which is consumed for food, will increase. This paper examines the price relationships between the non-GMO and conventional soybean prices, and energy prices such as those...

  17. Subretinal transplantation of genetically modified human cell lines attenuates loss of visual function in dystrophic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Raymond D.; Adamson, Peter; Sauvé, Yves; Keegan, David J.; Girman, Sergej V.; Wang, Shaomei; Winton, Helen; Kanuga, Naheed; Kwan, Anthony S. L.; Beauchène, Laurence; Zerbib, Anne; Hetherington, Len; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Coffey, Peter; Greenwood, John

    2001-01-01

    Royal College of Surgeons rats are genetically predisposed to undergo significant visual loss caused by a primary dysfunction of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. By using this model, we have examined the efficacy of subretinal transplantation of two independent human RPE cell lines each exhibiting genetic modifications that confer long-term stability in vitro. The two cell lines, a spontaneously derived cell line (ARPE19) and an extensively characterized genetically engineered human RPE cell line (h1RPE7), which expresses SV40 large T (tumor) antigen, were evaluated separately. Both lines result in a significant preservation of visual function as assessed by either behavioral or physiological techniques. This attenuation of visual loss correlates with photoreceptor survival and the presence of donor cells in the areas of rescued photoreceptors at 5 months postgrafting (6 months of age). These results demonstrate the potential of genetically modified human RPE cells for ultimate application in therapeutic transplantation strategies for retinal degenerative diseases caused by RPE dysfunction. PMID:11504951

  18. Assessment of the nutritional values of genetically modified wheat, corn, and tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneria, Eugenia; Fanasca, Simone; Monastra, Giovanni; Finotti, Enrico; Ambra, Roberto; Azzini, Elena; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2008-10-08

    The genetic modification in fruit and vegetables could lead to changes in metabolic pathways and, therefore, to the variation of the molecular pattern, with particular attention to antioxidant compounds not well-described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality composition of transgenic wheat ( Triticum durum L.), corn ( Zea mays L.), and tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) to the nontransgenic control with a similar genetic background. In the first experiment, Ofanto wheat cultivar containing the tobacco rab1 gene and nontransgenic Ofanto were used. The second experiment compared two transgenic lines of corn containing Bacillus thuringiensis "Cry toxin" gene (PR33P67 and Pegaso Bt) to their nontransgenic forms. The third experiment was conducted on transgenic tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) containing the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolD gene and its nontransgenic control (cv. Tondino). Conventional and genetically modified crops were compared in terms of fatty acids content, unsaponifiable fraction of antioxidants, total phenols, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin C, total antioxidant activity, and mineral composition. No significant differences were observed for qualitative traits analyzed in wheat and corn samples. In tomato samples, the total antioxidant activity (TAA), measured by FRAP assay, and the naringenin content showed a lower value in genetically modified organism (GMO) samples (0.35 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 2.82 mg 100 g (-1), respectively), in comparison to its nontransgenic control (0.41 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 4.17 mg 100 g (-1), respectively). On the basis of the principle of substantial equivalence, as articulated by the World Health Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, these data support the conclusion that GM events are nutritionally similar to conventional varieties of wheat, corn, and tomato on

  19. Monitoring the presence of genetically modified food on the market of the Republic of Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattunar, Albert; Capak, Krunoslav; Novak, Jelena Zafran; Mićović, Vladimir; Doko-Jelinić, Jagoda; Malatestinić, Dulija

    2011-12-01

    From the beginning of the human race people have been applying different methods to change the genetic material of either plants or animals in order to increase their yield as well as to improve the quality and quantity of food. Genetically modified organism (GMO) means an organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination. Analysing the presence of GMO in food is done by detecting the presence of either specific DNA sequences inserted in the genome of transgenic organism, or detecting proteins as a result of the expression of the inserted DNA. In this work food testing for the presence of genetically modified organisms was conducted during the period from 2004 to 2007 in the GMO laboratory of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health. According to the regulations, among the samples in which the presence of GMO was detected, all those which had more than 0.9% of GMO content were either rejected from the border or removed from the market, because such GM food has to be appropriately labelled. Among the food samples which were analysed in 2004: 127 (2.37%) of a total of 1226 samples contained more than 0.9% of GMOs; in 2005 there was only one in 512 (0.20%) samples in total; in 2006 there were 4 out of 404 samples (0.99%), and in 2007: 7 of a total of 655 samples (1.07%) had GMO content above the allowed threshold of 0.9%.

  20. Readiness of adolescents to use genetically modified organisms according to their knowledge and emotional attitude towards GMOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Lachowski

    2017-06-01

    Stepwise regression analysis showed that the readiness of adolescents to use genetically modified organisms as food or for the production of pharmaceuticals, the production of GM plants or animals on own farm, depends on an emotional-evaluative attitude towards GMOs, and the level of knowledge concerning the essence of genetic modifications.

  1. A statistical simulation model for fiels testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, P.W.; Voet, van der H.; Baldacchino, F.; Arpaia, S.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its

  2. Physico-Chemical Properties and Biodegradability of Genetically Modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Charles Warren

    Increasing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions and the finite supply of fossil fuels lead to the goal of utilizing lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuels, platform chemicals, and biocomposites. Lignin is responsible for the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass and is a major barrier to its deconstruction. Great progress has been made in mapping and modifying the lignin biosynthetic pathway. However, the link between the genetic modification, resulting chemical and physical properties of the wood, and how these properties influence the thermomechanical and recalcitrance to biological and chemical degradation needs further investigation. In this dissertation, the study of modified Populus trichocarpa and Pinus taeda were utilized to accomplish this goal. Thermo-mechanical properties of genetically modified P. trichocarpa with altered lignin content and/or lignin structure were measured with a series of tools including; dynamic mechanical analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and wet chemistry techniques. Results demonstrated lignin content and lignin structure likely influence the glass transition temperature (Tg), and that decreased lignin content and the corresponding higher proportion of cell wall carbohydrates may contribute to increased molecular mobility in the wood polymer structure. The effect of lignin biosynthetic pathway modification on biological degradation of these transgenic wood specimens was of interest. However, experimental methods for fungal treatment on small young greenhouse-grown wood specimens are not well established. Therefore, a project was undertaken to develop a method for fungal inoculation and incubation for these unique specimens. Several parameters were tested, and a fungal treatment method was identified with sufficient weight loss after decay and significant reduction in variation of weight loss between replicates compared to previous experiments by direct inoculation of wood with liquid malt extract fungal culture

  3. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified agricultural landscape: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to determine genetic diversity of fragmented populations in highly modified landscapes to understand how populations respond to land-use change. This information will help guide future conservation and management strategies. We conducted a population genetic study on an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified landscape near the Toluca metropolitan area, in order to provide crucial information for the conservation of this species. There was medium levels of genetic diversity, with a few alleles and genotypes. We identified three genetically differentiated clusters, likely as a result of different habitat cover type. We also found evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck and medium values of effective population size. Inbreeding coefficients were low and there was a moderate gene flow. Our results can be used as a basis for future research and C. triseriatus conservation efforts, particularly considering that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is heavily impacted by destructive land-use practices.

  4. Application of omics technologies for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants : arabidopsis and modified defence mechanisms as a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houshyani Hassanzadeh, B.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of rapid biotechnological developments in the past century, genetically modified (GM) crops were developed and introduced for field application. Despite the advantages of these crops and the professional marketing policies, people also started questioning the safety of GM products for

  5. Application of omics technologies for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants : arabidopsis and modified defence mechanisms as a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houshyani Hassanzadeh, B.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of rapid biotechnological developments in the past century, genetically modified (GM) crops were developed and introduced for field application. Despite the advantages of these crops and the professional marketing policies, people also started questioning the safety of GM products

  6. A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amzal Billy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment. Results Statistical methods are described for the assessment of the difference between a genetically modified (GM plant variety and a conventional non-GM counterpart, and for the assessment of the equivalence between the GM variety and a group of reference plant varieties which have a history of safe use. It is proposed to present the results of both difference and equivalence testing for all relevant plant characteristics simultaneously in one or a few graphs, as an aid for further interpretation in safety assessment. A procedure is suggested to derive equivalence limits from the observed results for the reference plant varieties using a specific implementation of the linear mixed model. Three different equivalence tests are defined to classify any result in one of four equivalence classes. The performance of the proposed methods is investigated by a simulation study, and the methods are illustrated on compositional data from a field study on maize grain. Conclusions A clear distinction of practical relevance is shown between difference and equivalence testing. The proposed tests are shown to have appropriate performance characteristics by simulation, and the proposed simultaneous graphical representation of results was found to be helpful for the interpretation of results from a practical field trial data set.

  7. What risk assessments of genetically modified organisms can learn from institutional analyses of public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S Ravi; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT) as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.

  8. Finding the joker among the maize endogenous reference genes for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternò, Annalisa; Marchesi, Ugo; Gatto, Francesco; Verginelli, Daniela; Quarchioni, Cinzia; Fusco, Cristiana; Zepparoni, Alessia; Amaddeo, Demetrio; Ciabatti, Ilaria

    2009-12-09

    The comparison of five real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods targeted at maize ( Zea mays ) endogenous sequences is reported. PCR targets were the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene for three methods and high-mobility group (hmg) gene for the other two. The five real-time PCR methods have been checked under repeatability conditions at several dilution levels on both pooled DNA template from several genetically modified (GM) maize certified reference materials (CRMs) and single CRM DNA extracts. Slopes and R(2) coefficients of all of the curves obtained from the adopted regression model were compared within the same method and among all of the five methods, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were analyzed for each PCR system. Furthermore, method equivalency was evaluated on the basis of the ability to estimate the target haploid genome copy number at each concentration level. Results indicated that, among the five methods tested, one of the hmg-targeted PCR systems can be considered equivalent to the others but shows the best regression parameters and a higher repeteability along the dilution range. Thereby, it is proposed as a valid module to be coupled to different event-specific real-time PCR for maize genetically modified organism (GMO) quantitation. The resulting practicability improvement on the analytical control of GMOs is discussed.

  9. Covering Chemical Diversity of Genetically-Modified Tomatoes Using Metabolomics for Objective Substantial Equivalence Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Oikawa, Akira; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Watanabe, Shin; Yano, Megumu; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi; Saito, Kazuki

    2011-01-01

    As metabolomics can provide a biochemical snapshot of an organism's phenotype it is a promising approach for charting the unintended effects of genetic modification. A critical obstacle for this application is the inherently limited metabolomic coverage of any single analytical platform. We propose using multiple analytical platforms for the direct acquisition of an interpretable data set of estimable chemical diversity. As an example, we report an application of our multi-platform approach that assesses the substantial equivalence of tomatoes over-expressing the taste-modifying protein miraculin. In combination, the chosen platforms detected compounds that represent 86% of the estimated chemical diversity of the metabolites listed in the LycoCyc database. Following a proof-of-safety approach, we show that % had an acceptable range of variation while simultaneously indicating a reproducible transformation-related metabolic signature. We conclude that multi-platform metabolomics is an approach that is both sensitive and robust and that it constitutes a good starting point for characterizing genetically modified organisms. PMID:21359231

  10. Pharmacological profiling of zebrafish behavior using chemical and genetic classification of sleep-wake modifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yuhei; Okabe, Shiko; Sasagawa, Shota; Murakami, Soichiro; Ashikawa, Yoshifumi; Yuge, Mizuki; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-wake states are impaired in various neurological disorders. Impairment of sleep-wake states can be an early condition that exacerbates these disorders. Therefore, treating sleep-wake dysfunction may prevent or slow the development of these diseases. Although many gene products are likely to be involved in the sleep-wake disturbance, hypnotics and psychostimulants clinically used are limited in terms of their mode of action and are not without side effects. Therefore, there is a growing demand for developing new hypnotics and psychostimulants with high efficacy and few side effects. Toward this end, animal models are indispensable for use in genetic and chemical screens to identify sleep-wake modifiers. As a proof-of-concept study, we performed behavioral profiling of zebrafish treated with chemical and genetic sleep-wake modifiers. We were able to demonstrate that behavioral profiling of zebrafish treated with hypnotics or psychostimulants from 9 to 10 days post-fertilization was sufficient to identify drugs with specific modes of action. We were also able to identify behavioral endpoints distinguishing GABA-A modulators and hypocretin (hcrt) receptor antagonists and between sympathomimetic and non-sympathomimetic psychostimulants. This behavioral profiling can serve to identify genes related to sleep-wake disturbance associated with various neuropsychiatric diseases and novel therapeutic compounds for insomnia and excessive daytime sleep with fewer adverse side effects. PMID:26578964

  11. Critical assessment of digital PCR for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeke, Tigst; Dobnik, David

    2018-03-24

    The number of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on the market is steadily increasing. Because of regulation of cultivation and trade of GMOs in several countries, there is pressure for their accurate detection and quantification. Today, DNA-based approaches are more popular for this purpose than protein-based methods, and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is still the gold standard in GMO analytics. However, digital PCR (dPCR) offers several advantages over qPCR, making this new technique appealing also for GMO analysis. This critical review focuses on the use of dPCR for the purpose of GMO quantification and addresses parameters which are important for achieving accurate and reliable results, such as the quality and purity of DNA and reaction optimization. Three critical factors are explored and discussed in more depth: correct classification of partitions as positive, correctly determined partition volume, and dilution factor. This review could serve as a guide for all laboratories implementing dPCR. Most of the parameters discussed are applicable to fields other than purely GMO testing. Graphical abstract There are generally three different options for absolute quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) using digital PCR: droplet- or chamber-based and droplets in chambers. All have in common the distribution of reaction mixture into several partitions, which are all subjected to PCR and scored at the end-point as positive or negative. Based on these results GMO content can be calculated.

  12. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds.

  13. Intravitreal Implantation of Genetically Modified Autologous Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells for Treating Retinal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Christopher J; Sanders, Douglas N; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Jensen, Cheryl A; Castaner, Leilani J; Kirk, Mark D; Katz, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    A number of retinal degenerative diseases may be amenable to treatment with continuous intraocular delivery of therapeutic agents that cannot be delivered effectively to the retina via systemic or topical administration. Among these disorders are lysosomal storage diseases resulting from deficiencies in soluble lysosomal enzymes. Most cells, including those of the retina, are able to take up these enzymes and incorporate them in active form into their lysosomes. In theory, therefore, continuous intraocular administration of a normal form of a soluble lysosomal enzyme should be able to cure the molecular defect in the retinas of subjects lacking this enzyme. Experiments were conducted to determine whether genetically modified bone marrow-derived stem cells implanted into the vitreous could be used as -vehicles for continuous delivery of such enzymes to the retina. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from normal mice were implanted into the vitreous of mice undergoing retinal degeneration as a result of a mutation in the PPT1 gene. The implanted cells appeared to survive indefinitely in the vitreous without proliferating or invading the retina. This indicates that intravitreal implantation of MSCs is likely a safe means of long-term delivery of proteins synthesized by the implanted cells. Experiments have been initiated to test the efficacy of using genetically modified autologous MSCs to inhibit retinal degeneration in a canine model of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

  14. The media and genetically modified foods: evidence in support of social amplification of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, Lynn J; Miles, Susan; Marsh, Roy

    2002-08-01

    Empirical examinations of the "social amplification of risk" framework are rare, partly because of the difficulties in predicting when conditions likely to result in amplification effects will occur. This means that it is difficult to examine changes in risk perception that are contemporaneous with increases and/or decreases in social or media discussion of the risks associated with a particular risk event. However, the collection of attitude data before, during, and after the increased reporting of the risks of genetically modified food in the United Kingdom (spring 1999) has demonstrated that people's risk perceptions do increase and decrease in line with what might be expected upon examination of the amplification and attenuation mechanisms integral to the framework. Perceptions of benefit, however, appeared to be permanently depressed by negative reporting about genetically modified food. Trust in regulatory institutions with responsibility for protecting the public was not affected. It was concluded that the social amplification of risk framework is a useful framework for beginning to explain the potential impact on risk perceptions of a risk event, particularly if that risk event is presented to the public as a new hazard occurring in a crisis context.

  15. Mendel in the kitchen a scientist's view of genetically modified foods

    CERN Document Server

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2004-01-01

    While European restaurants race to footnote menus, reassuring concerned gourmands that no genetically modified ingredients were used in the preparation of their food, starving populations around the world eagerly await the next harvest of scientifically improved crops. "Mendel in the Kitchen" provides a clear and balanced picture of this tangled, tricky (and very timely) topic. Any farmer you talk to, could tell you that we've been playing with the genetic makeup of our food for millennia, carefully coaxing nature to do our bidding. The practice officially dates back to Gregor Mendel - who was not a renowned scientist, but a 19th century Augustinian monk. Mendel spent many hours toiling in his garden, testing and cultivating more than 28,000 pea plants, selectively determining very specific characteristics of the peas that were produced, ultimately giving birth to the idea of heredity - and the now very common practice of artificially modifying our food. But as science takes the helm, steering common field pr...

  16. Model studies on the detectability of genetically modified feeds in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poms, R E; Hochsteiner, W; Luger, K; Glössl, J; Foissy, H

    2003-02-01

    Detecting the use of genetically modified feeds in milk has become important, because the voluntary labeling of milk and dairy products as "GMO free" or as "organically grown" prohibits the employment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The aim of this work was to investigate whether a DNA transfer from foodstuffs like soya and maize was analytically detectable in cow's milk after digestion and transportation via the bloodstream of dairy cows and, thus, whether milk could report for the employment of transgene feeds. Blood, milk, urine, and feces of dairy cows were examined, and foreign DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction by specifically amplifying a 226-bp fragment of the maize invertase gene and a 118-bp fragment of the soya lectin gene. An intravenous application of purified plant DNA showed a fast elimination of marker DNA in blood or its reduction below the detection limit. With feeding experiments, it could be demonstrated that a specific DNA transfer from feeds into milk was not detectable. Therefore, foreign DNA in milk cannot serve as an indicator for the employment of transgene feeds unless milk is directly contaminated with feed components or airborne feed particles.

  17. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brandon R; Lusk, Jayson L

    2016-09-01

    In the debates surrounding biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) food, data from consumer polls are often presented as evidence for precaution and labeling. But how much do consumers actually know about the issue? New data collected from a nationwide U.S. survey reveal low levels of knowledge and numerous misperceptions about GM food. Nearly equal numbers of consumers prefer mandatory labeling of foods containing DNA as do those preferring mandatory labeling of GM foods. When given the option, the majority of consumers prefer that decisions about GM food be taken out of their hands and be made by experts. After answering a list of questions testing objective knowledge of GM food, subjective, self-reported knowledge declines somewhat, and beliefs about GM food safety increase slightly. Results suggest that consumers think they know more than they actually do about GM food, and queries about GM facts cause respondents to reassess how much they know. The findings question the usefulness of results from opinion polls as a motivation for creating public policy surrounding GM food.-McFadden, B. R., Lusk, J. L. What consumers don't know about genetically modified food, and how that affects beliefs. © FASEB.

  18. [Detection of genetically modified organisms in food and animal feed by polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-chang; Yang, Ming-jie; Yang, Xing-fen; Huang, Jun-ming

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in the foods and animal feed samples in Guangzhou market. The presence of GMO were investigated by PCR detection of camv 35S promoter and nos terminator, and the presence of RoundUp Ready Soybean (RRS), Bt176 Maximaizer or Mon810 YieldGard in GMO-positive samples were further determined by PCR detecting their specific DNA fragments respectively. One corn soup sample, two soybean samples, one potato fries sample as well as two animal feed samples were revealed to be GMO-positive in twenty-two food samples and three animal feed samples, and the presence of RRS in the GMO-positive soybean samples and the two positive animal feed samples were verified by PCR detection of a 129 bp RRS-specific DNA fragment, however, no Bt176 Maximaizer or Mon810 YieldGard specific PCR products were obtained with the GMO-positive corn soup and animal feed DNA samples used as PCR templates. Genetically modified organism presented in foods and animal feeds even though they were not been labelled.

  19. Is genetically modified crop the answer for the next green revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Saikat Kumar; Dutta, Madhuleema; Goyal, Aakash; Bhowmik, Pankaj Kumar; Kumar, Jitendra; Nandy, Sanjib; Scagliusi, Sandra Mansun; Prasad, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    Post-green revolution advances made in biotechnology paved the way of cultivating the high-yielding, stress and disease resistant genetically modified (GM) varieties of wheat, rice, maize cotton and several other crops. The recent rapid commercialization of the genetically modified crops in Asia, Americas and Australia indicates the potentiality of this new technology. GM crops give higher yields and are rich in nutritional values containing vitamins and minerals and can thus can help to alleviate hunger and malnutrition of the growing population in the under developed and developing countries. It could also be possible to develop more biotic and abiotic stress resistant genotypes in these crops where it was difficult to develop due to the unavailability of genes of resistance in the crossing germplasms. However, further research and investigations are needed to popularize the cultivation of these crops in different parts of the world. This review provides an insight of the impact of GM crops on contemporary agriculture across the past few decades, traces its' history across time, highlights new achievements and breakthroughs and discusses the future implication of this powerful technology in the coming few decades.

  20. What Risk Assessments of Genetically Modified Organisms Can Learn from Institutional Analyses of Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravi Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs are evaluated traditionally by combining hazard identification and exposure estimates to provide decision support for regulatory agencies. We question the utility of the classical risk paradigm and discuss its evolution in GMO risk assessment. First, we consider the problem of uncertainty, by comparing risk assessment for environmental toxins in the public health domain with genetically modified organisms in the environment; we use the specific comparison of an insecticide to a transgenic, insecticidal food crop. Next, we examine normal accident theory (NAT as a heuristic to consider runaway effects of GMOs, such as negative community level consequences of gene flow from transgenic, insecticidal crops. These examples illustrate how risk assessments are made more complex and contentious by both their inherent uncertainty and the inevitability of failure beyond expectation in complex systems. We emphasize the value of conducting decision-support research, embracing uncertainty, increasing transparency, and building interdisciplinary institutions that can address the complex interactions between ecosystems and society. In particular, we argue against black boxing risk analysis, and for a program to educate policy makers about uncertainty and complexity, so that eventually, decision making is not the burden that falls upon scientists but is assumed by the public at large.

  1. A MODIFIED GENETIC ALGORITHM FOR FINDING FUZZY SHORTEST PATHS IN UNCERTAIN NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Heidari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In realistic network analysis, there are several uncertainties in the measurements and computation of the arcs and vertices. These uncertainties should also be considered in realizing the shortest path problem (SPP due to the inherent fuzziness in the body of expert's knowledge. In this paper, we investigated the SPP under uncertainty to evaluate our modified genetic strategy. We improved the performance of genetic algorithm (GA to investigate a class of shortest path problems on networks with vague arc weights. The solutions of the uncertain SPP with considering fuzzy path lengths are examined and compared in detail. As a robust metaheuristic, GA algorithm is modified and evaluated to tackle the fuzzy SPP (FSPP with uncertain arcs. For this purpose, first, a dynamic operation is implemented to enrich the exploration/exploitation patterns of the conventional procedure and mitigate the premature convergence of GA technique. Then, the modified GA (MGA strategy is used to resolve the FSPP. The attained results of the proposed strategy are compared to those of GA with regard to the cost, quality of paths and CPU times. Numerical instances are provided to demonstrate the success of the proposed MGA-FSPP strategy in comparison with GA. The simulations affirm that not only the proposed technique can outperform GA, but also the qualities of the paths are effectively improved. The results clarify that the competence of the proposed GA is preferred in view of quality quantities. The results also demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently be utilized to handle FSPP in uncertain networks.

  2. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Amy [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Moore, Lee R. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas [Phycal Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Zborowski, Maciej, E-mail: zborowm@ccf.org [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP–AA). They were grown in Sueoka’s modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl{sub 3} EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed “magnetic deposition microscopy”, or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest. - Highlights: • Auxenochlorella protothecoides algae were genetically modified for biofuel production. • Algal iron metabolism was sufficient for their label-less magnetic separation. • High magnetic field and low flow required make the separation scale-up uneconomical.

  3. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Amy; Moore, Lee R.; Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas; Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP–AA). They were grown in Sueoka’s modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl 3 EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed “magnetic deposition microscopy”, or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest. - Highlights: • Auxenochlorella protothecoides algae were genetically modified for biofuel production. • Algal iron metabolism was sufficient for their label-less magnetic separation. • High magnetic field and low flow required make the separation scale-up uneconomical

  4. Detecting un-authorized genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst-Jensen, Arne; Bertheau, Yves; de Loose, Marc; Grohmann, Lutz; Hamels, Sandrine; Hougs, Lotte; Morisset, Dany; Pecoraro, Sven; Pla, Maria; Van den Bulcke, Marc; Wulff, Doerte

    2012-01-01

    Genetically modified plants, in the following referred to as genetically modified organisms or GMOs, have been commercially grown for almost two decades. In 2010 approximately 10% of the total global crop acreage was planted with GMOs (James, 2011). More than 30 countries have been growing commercial GMOs, and many more have performed field trials. Although the majority of commercial GMOs both in terms of acreage and specific events belong to the four species: soybean, maize, cotton and rapeseed, there are another 20+ species where GMOs are commercialized or in the pipeline for commercialization. The number of GMOs cultivated in field trials or for commercial production has constantly increased during this time period. So have the number of species, the number of countries involved, the diversity of novel (added) genetic elements and the global trade. All of these factors contribute to the increasing complexity of detecting and correctly identifying GMO derived material. Many jurisdictions, including the European Union (EU), legally distinguish between authorized (and therefore legal) and un-authorized (and therefore illegal) GMOs. Information about the developments, field trials, authorizations, cultivation, trade and observations made in the official GMO control laboratories in different countries around the world is often limited, despite several attempts such as the OECD BioTrack for voluntary dissemination of data. This lack of information inevitably makes it challenging to detect and identify GMOs, especially the un-authorized GMOs. The present paper reviews the state of the art technologies and approaches in light of coverage, practicability, sensitivity and limitations. Emphasis is put on exemplifying practical detection of un-authorized GMOs. Although this paper has a European (EU) bias when examples are given, the contents have global relevance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. USE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MUSCLE AND FAT GRAFTS TO REPAIR DEFECTS IN BONE AND CARTILAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C.H.; Liu, F.-J.; Glatt, V.; Hoyland, J.A.; Kirker-Head, C.; Walsh, A.; Betz, O.; Wells, J.W.; Betz, V.; Porter, R.M.; Saad, F.A.; Gerstenfeld, L.C.; Einhorn, T.A.; Harris, M.B.; Vrahas, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel technology for the rapid healing of large osseous and chondral defects, based upon the genetic modification of autologous skeletal muscle and fat grafts. These tissues were selected because they not only possess mesenchymal progenitor cells and scaffolding properties, but also can be biopsied, genetically modified and returned to the patient in a single operative session. First generation adenovirus vector carrying cDNA encoding human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Ad.BMP-2) was used for gene transfer to biopsies of muscle and fat. To assess bone healing, the genetically modified (“gene activated”) tissues were implanted into 5mm-long critical size, mid-diaphyseal, stabilized defects in the femora of Fischer rats. Unlike control defects, those receiving gene-activated muscle underwent rapid healing, with evidence of radiologic bridging as early as 10 days after implantation and restoration of full mechanical strength by 8 weeks. Histologic analysis suggests that the grafts rapidly differentiated into cartilage, followed by efficient endochondral ossification. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of Y-chromosomes following the transfer of male donor muscle into female rats demonstrated that at least some of the osteoblasts of the healed bone were derived from donor muscle. Gene activated fat also healed critical sized defects, but less quickly than muscle and with more variability. Anti-adenovirus antibodies were not detected. Pilot studies in a rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated the promise of this technology for healing cartilage defects. Further development of these methods should provide ways to heal bone and cartilage more expeditiously, and at lower cost, than is presently possible. PMID:20073015

  6. Genetic and chemical modifiers of a CUG toxicity model in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Garcia-Lopez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding CUG repeat expansions interfere with the activity of human Muscleblind-like (MBNL proteins contributing to myotonic dystrophy 1 (DM1. To understand this toxic RNA gain-of-function mechanism we developed a Drosophila model expressing 60 pure and 480 interrupted CUG repeats in the context of a non-translatable RNA. These flies reproduced aspects of the DM1 pathology, most notably nuclear accumulation of CUG transcripts, muscle degeneration, splicing misregulation, and diminished Muscleblind function in vivo. Reduced Muscleblind activity was evident from the sensitivity of CUG-induced phenotypes to a decrease in muscleblind genetic dosage and rescue by MBNL1 expression, and further supported by the co-localization of Muscleblind and CUG repeat RNA in ribonuclear foci. Targeted expression of CUG repeats to the developing eye and brain mushroom bodies was toxic leading to rough eyes and semilethality, respectively. These phenotypes were utilized to identify genetic and chemical modifiers of the CUG-induced toxicity. 15 genetic modifiers of the rough eye phenotype were isolated. These genes identify putative cellular processes unknown to be altered by CUG repeat RNA, and they include mRNA export factor Aly, apoptosis inhibitor Thread, chromatin remodelling factor Nurf-38, and extracellular matrix structural component Viking. Ten chemical compounds suppressed the semilethal phenotype. These compounds significantly improved viability of CUG expressing flies and included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (ketoprofen, muscarinic, cholinergic and histamine receptor inhibitors (orphenadrine, and drugs that can affect sodium and calcium metabolism such as clenbuterol and spironolactone. These findings provide new insights into the DM1 phenotype, and suggest novel candidates for DM1 treatments.

  7. Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famenini Shannon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically-modified (GM mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. Methods The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. Results Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was

  8. Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John M; Touré, Mahamoudou B; Traore, Mohamed M; Famenini, Shannon; Taylor, Charles E

    2010-05-14

    Genetically-modified (GM) mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was preferred; however a transgenic release that satisfied

  9. Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment.

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. Results In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from “omics” analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments. PMID:24304660

  11. Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin

    2012-01-01

    Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights.

  12. A proposed impact assessment method for genetically modified plants (AS-GMP Method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus-Hitzschky, Katia Regina Evaristo de; Silveira, Jose Maria F.J. da

    2009-01-01

    An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an assessment of their potential economic impacts and safety, including an evaluation of the potential impact of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment method to evaluate the impact of biotechnologies that uses quantifiable parameters and allows a comparative analysis between conventional technology and technologies using GMOs. This paper introduces a method to perform an impact analysis associated with the commercial release and use of genetically modified plants, the Assessment System GMP Method. The assessment is performed through indicators that are arranged according to their dimension criterion likewise: environmental, economic, social, capability and institutional approach. To perform an accurate evaluation of the GMP specific indicators related to genetic modification are grouped in common fields: genetic insert features, GM plant features, gene flow, food/feed field, introduction of the GMP, unexpected occurrences and specific indicators. The novelty is the possibility to include specific parameters to the biotechnology under assessment. In this case by case analysis the factors of moderation and the indexes are parameterized to perform an available assessment.

  13. Determinants of consumer attitudes and purchase intentions with regard to genetically modified foods: Results of a cross-national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2000-01-01

    Executive summary 1. Previous research has shown consumers to be highly sceptical towards genetic modification in food production. So far, however, little research has tried to explain how consumers form attitudes and make decisions with regard to genetically modified foods. 2. The paper presents...... the results of a survey which was carried out in Denmark, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom to investigate the formation of consumer attitudes towards genetic modification in food production and of purchase decisions with regard to genetically modified yoghurt and beer. Altogether, 2031 consumers were...... interviewed in the four countries. 3. Results show that attitude formation and decision-making are more comparable among Danish, German and British consumers than with Italian consumers. Likewise, Italian consumers turned out to be significantly less negative towards genetic modification in foods than...

  14. The GMOseek matrix: a decision support tool for optimizing the detection of genetically modified plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Since their first commercialization, the diversity of taxa and the genetic composition of transgene sequences in genetically modified plants (GMOs) are constantly increasing. To date, the detection of GMOs and derived products is commonly performed by PCR-based methods targeting specific DNA sequences introduced into the host genome. Information available regarding the GMOs’ molecular characterization is dispersed and not appropriately organized. For this reason, GMO testing is very challenging and requires more complex screening strategies and decision making schemes, demanding in return the use of efficient bioinformatics tools relying on reliable information. Description The GMOseek matrix was built as a comprehensive, online open-access tabulated database which provides a reliable, comprehensive and user-friendly overview of 328 GMO events and 247 different genetic elements (status: 18/07/2013). The GMOseek matrix is aiming to facilitate GMO detection from plant origin at different phases of the analysis. It assists in selecting the targets for a screening analysis, interpreting the screening results, checking the occurrence of a screening element in a group of selected GMOs, identifying gaps in the available pool of GMO detection methods, and designing a decision tree. The GMOseek matrix is an independent database with effective functionalities in a format facilitating transferability to other platforms. Data were collected from all available sources and experimentally tested where detection methods and certified reference materials (CRMs) were available. Conclusions The GMOseek matrix is currently a unique and very valuable tool with reliable information on GMOs from plant origin and their present genetic elements that enables further development of appropriate strategies for GMO detection. It is flexible enough to be further updated with new information and integrated in different applications and platforms. PMID:23965170

  15. Pollen Morphology and Boron Concentration in Floral Tissues as Factors Triggering Natural and GA-Induced Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Yáñez, Mónica; Tapia, Jaime; Moreno, Yerko

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development (PFD) reduces fruit yield and quality in grapevine. Parthenocarpic seedless berries arise from fruit set without effective fertilization due to defective pollen germination. PFD has been associated to micronutrient deficiency but the relation of this phenomenon with pollen polymorphism has not been reported before. In this work, six grapevine cultivars with different tendency for PFD and grown under micronutrient-sufficient conditions were analyzed to determine pollen structure and germination capability as well as PFD rates. Wide variation in non-germinative abnormal pollen was detected either among cultivars as well as for the same cultivar in different growing seasons. A straight correlation with PFD rates was found (R2 = 0.9896), suggesting that natural parthenocarpy is related to defective pollen development. Such relation was not observed when PFD was analyzed in grapevine plants exposed to exogenous gibberellin (GA) or abscissic acid (ABA) applications at pre-anthesis. Increase (GA treatment) or reduction (ABA treatment) in PFD rates without significative changes in abnormal pollen was determined. Although these plants were maintained at sufficient boron (B) condition, a down-regulation of the floral genes VvBOR3 and VvBOR4 together with a reduction of floral B content in GA-treated plants was established. These results suggest that impairment in B mobility to reproductive tissues and restriction of pollen tube growth could be involved in the GA-induced parthenocarpy. PMID:26440413

  16. Pollen Morphology and Boron Concentration in Floral Tissues as Factors Triggering Natural and GA-Induced Parthenocarpic Fruit Development in Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Orlando; Roa-Roco, Rosa Nair; Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Yáñez, Mónica; Tapia, Jaime; Moreno, Yerko; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Parthenocarpic fruit development (PFD) reduces fruit yield and quality in grapevine. Parthenocarpic seedless berries arise from fruit set without effective fertilization due to defective pollen germination. PFD has been associated to micronutrient deficiency but the relation of this phenomenon with pollen polymorphism has not been reported before. In this work, six grapevine cultivars with different tendency for PFD and grown under micronutrient-sufficient conditions were analyzed to determine pollen structure and germination capability as well as PFD rates. Wide variation in non-germinative abnormal pollen was detected either among cultivars as well as for the same cultivar in different growing seasons. A straight correlation with PFD rates was found (R2 = 0.9896), suggesting that natural parthenocarpy is related to defective pollen development. Such relation was not observed when PFD was analyzed in grapevine plants exposed to exogenous gibberellin (GA) or abscissic acid (ABA) applications at pre-anthesis. Increase (GA treatment) or reduction (ABA treatment) in PFD rates without significative changes in abnormal pollen was determined. Although these plants were maintained at sufficient boron (B) condition, a down-regulation of the floral genes VvBOR3 and VvBOR4 together with a reduction of floral B content in GA-treated plants was established. These results suggest that impairment in B mobility to reproductive tissues and restriction of pollen tube growth could be involved in the GA-induced parthenocarpy.

  17. Consumers’ response to genetically modified ingredients in processed food in an emerging economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yormirzoev, Mirzobobo; Teuber, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods are available in many countries including post–Soviet Union countries. However, empirical evidence on consumer acceptance for this region is scarce. In this study, we investigate consumers’ willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients...... with their willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients. Moreover, a higher risk perception of GM food is negatively associated with the probability to purchase and consume such foods. However, our results indicate that risk perceptions of GM food seem to be relatively low in comparison to other....... For this purpose, a consumer survey was conducted in 2015 in Tajikistan. In many aspects, our results confirm previous empirical findings showing that women are more skeptical toward GM food and a higher level of respondents’ education and the presence of minors in households are negatively correlated...

  18. Whole genome sequence analysis of unidentified genetically modified papaya for development of a specific detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takumi; Noguchi, Akio; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Kazuto; Futo, Satoshi; Sakata, Kozue; Fukuda, Nozomi; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Tanaka, Hidenori; Akashi, Ryo; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2016-08-15

    Identification of transgenic sequences in an unknown genetically modified (GM) papaya (Carica papaya L.) by whole genome sequence analysis was demonstrated. Whole genome sequence data were generated for a GM-positive fresh papaya fruit commodity detected in monitoring using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequences obtained were mapped against an open database for papaya genome sequence. Transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences were identified as a GM papaya developed to resist infection from a Papaya ringspot virus. Based on the transgenic sequences, a specific real-time PCR detection method for GM papaya applicable to various food commodities was developed. Whole genome sequence analysis enabled identifying unknown transgenic construct- and event-specific sequences in GM papaya and development of a reliable method for detecting them in papaya food commodities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plants with stacked genetically modified events: to assess or not to assess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Esther J; Pedersen, Jan; Onori, Roberta; Sowa, Slawomir; Schauzu, Marianna; De Schrijver, Adinda; Teeri, Teemu H

    2014-02-01

    The principles for the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMOs) are harmonised worldwide to a large extent. There are, however, still differences between the European GMO regulations and the GMO regulations as they have been formulated in other parts of the world. One of these differences relates to the so-called 'stacked GM events', that is, GMOs, plants so far, where new traits are combined by conventional crossing of different GM plants. This paper advocates rethinking the current food/feed safety assessment of stacked GM events in Europe based on an analysis of different aspects that currently form the rationale for the safety assessment of stacked GM events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety of Pseudomonas chlororaphis as a gene source for genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Staley, Jamie; Challender, Mary; Heuton, Jamie

    2018-02-01

    Genetically modified crops undergo extensive evaluation to characterize their food, feed and environmental safety prior to commercial introduction, using a well-established, science-based assessment framework. One component of the safety assessment includes an evaluation of each introduced trait, including its source organism, for potential adverse pathogenic, toxic and allergenic effects. Several Pseudomonas species have a history of safe use in agriculture and certain species represent a source of genes with insecticidal properties. The ipd072Aa gene from P. chlororaphis encodes the IPD072Aa protein, which confers protection against certain coleopteran pests when expressed in maize plants. P. chlororaphis is ubiquitous in the environment, lacks known toxic or allergenic properties, and has a history of safe use in agriculture and in food and feed crops. This information supports, in part, the safety assessment of potential traits, such as IPD072Aa, that are derived from this source organism.

  1. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

  2. PCR Based Detection of Genetically Modified Soy in Processed Foods Commercially Available in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdullah Alaraidh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, PCR (polymerase chain reaction technique was applied to detect the presence of GMO sold in the Saudi Arabian market. This method was applied to detect genetically modified soy (GM-soy in particular the roundup ready soy (RRS. To confirm the presence of soy, samples were first tested for the existence of the soy specific lectin gene.  A total of eighty samples were tested out of which two samples tested positive as GM-soy. Not surprisingly, the findings showed the existence of GM-soy in food products in Saudi. This supports the necessity of developing precise quantitative and qualitative ways for routine analyses and detection of GMO products in the Saudi Arabian market. With the discovery of GM products in the Saudi Arabian market it would be of no surprise that other Middle Eastern nations also knowingly or unknowingly import GM crops.

  3. Health effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) crops to livestock animals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Clazien J; Swanenburg, Manon

    2017-08-31

    A large share of genetically modified (GM) crops grown worldwide is processed into livestock feed. Feed safety of GM crops is primarily based on compositional equivalence with near-isogenic cultivars and experimental trials in rodents. However, feeding studies in target animals add to the evaluation of GM crops with respect to animal health. This review aimed to evaluate the possible health effects of feeding GM crops to livestock by reviewing scientific publications on experimental studies in ruminants, pigs, and poultry in which at least one of the following health parameters was investigated: body condition score, organ weight, haematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, clinical examination, immune response, or gastrointestinal microbiota. In most experiments, either Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize, Roundup Ready (RR) soybean, or both were fed to livestock animals. Significant differences (PGM crops has adverse effects on animal health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiological biosafety assessment of genetically modified canola on weed (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kashmala; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out for the assessment of physiological biosafety and effects of genetically modified (GM) canola on Avena sativa, which is a common weed plant of South Asia. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM canola were assessed on seed germination and growth of A. sativa under sterilized conditions. The extracts were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% concentrations of methanol. Results showed that the extract of GM canola increases the number of roots and root fresh weight. However, root length was significantly decreased. Similarly, a significant rate of increase was observed in shoot fresh weight and shoot length of A. sativa by treatment of GM canola. Emergence percentage, germination index, and emergence rate index show a significant effect of decrease when treated with GM canola. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Generation Expansion Planning in pool market: A hybrid modified game theory and improved genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shayanfar, H.A.; Lahiji, A. Saliminia; Aghaei, J.; Rabiee, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the traditional policy, Generation Expansion Planning (GEP) problem in competitive framework is complicated. In the new policy, each Generation Company (GENCO) decides to invest in such a way that obtains as much profit as possible. This paper presents a new hybrid algorithm to determine GEP in a Pool market. The proposed algorithm is divided in two programming levels: master and slave. In the master level a Modified Game Theory (MGT) is proposed to evaluate the contrast of GENCOs by the Independent System Operator (ISO). In the slave level, an Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) method is used to find the best solution of each GENCO for decision-making of investment. The validity of the proposed method is examined in the case study including three GENCOs with multi-type of power plants. The results show that the presented method is both satisfactory and consistent with expectation.

  6. Problem formulation in the environmental risk assessment for genetically modified plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolt, Jeffrey D.; Keese, Paul; Raybould, Alan; Burachik, Moisés; Gray, Alan; Olin, Stephen S.; Schiemann, Joachim; Sears, Mark; Wu, Felicia

    2009-01-01

    Problem formulation is the first step in environmental risk assessment (ERA) where policy goals, scope, assessment endpoints, and methodology are distilled to an explicitly stated problem and approach for analysis. The consistency and utility of ERAs for genetically modified (GM) plants can be improved through rigorous problem formulation (PF), producing an analysis plan that describes relevant exposure scenarios and the potential consequences of these scenarios. A properly executed PF assures the relevance of ERA outcomes for decision-making. Adopting a harmonized approach to problem formulation should bring about greater uniformity in the ERA process for GM plants among regulatory regimes globally. This paper is the product of an international expert group convened by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Research Foundation. PMID:19757133

  7. Blood-testis barrier and spermatogenesis: lessons from genetically-modified mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hua Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The blood-testis barrier (BTB is found between adjacent Sertoli cells in the testis where it creates a unique microenvironment for the development and maturation of meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in seminiferous tubes. It is a compound proteinous structure, composed of several types of cell junctions including tight junctions (TJs, adhesion junctions and gap junctions (GJs. Some of the junctional proteins function as structural proteins of BTB and some have regulatory roles. The deletion or functional silencing of genes encoding these proteins may disrupt the BTB, which may cause immunological or other damages to meiotic and postmeiotic cells and ultimately lead to spermatogenic arrest and infertility. In this review, we will summarize the findings on the BTB structure and function from genetically-modified mouse models and discuss the future perspectives.

  8. Use of genetically modified crops and pesticides in Brazil: growing hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Eduardo Soares de Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetically modified (GM crops were officially authorized in Brazil in 2003. In this documentary study, we aimed to identify possible changes in the patterns of pesticide use after the adoption of this technology over a span of 13 years (2000 to 2012. The following variables were analyzed: Pesticide use (kg, Pesticide use per capita (kg/inhab, Pesticide and herbicide use per area (kg/ha and productivity (kg/ha. Contrary to the initial expectations of decreasing pesticide use following the adoption of GM crops, overall pesticide use in Brazil increased 1.6-fold between the years 2000 and 2012. During the same period, pesticide use for soybean increased 3-fold. This study shows that the adoption of GM crops in Brazil has led to an increase in pesticide use with possible increases in environmental and human exposure and associated negative impacts.

  9. The Costs of Coexistence Measures for Genetically Modified Maize in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venus, Thomas J.; Dillen, Koen; Punt, Maarten J.

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the perceived costs of legal requirements ('coexistence measures') for growing genetically modified (GM) Bt maize in Germany using a choice experiment. The costs of the evaluated ex-ante and ex-post coexistence measures range from zero to more than €300 per measure and most are greater...... than the extra revenue the farmers in our survey expect from growing Bt maize or than estimates in the literature. The cost estimates for temporal separation, the highest in our evaluation, imply that the exclusion of this measure in Germany is justified. The costliest measures of the ones...... that are currently applied in Germany are joint and strict liability for all damages. Our results further show that neighbours do not cause a problem and opportunities for reducing costs through agreements with them exist. Finally, we find that farmers' attitudes towards GM crops affect the probability of adoption...

  10. Recommendations from a meeting on health implications of genetically modified organism (GMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amofah, George

    2014-06-01

    The Ghana Public Health Association organized a scientific seminar to examine the introduction of genetically modified organisms into public use and the health consequences. The seminar was driven by current public debate on the subject. The seminar identified some of the advantages of GMOs and also the health concerns. It is clear that there is the need to enhance local capacity to research the introduction and use of GMOs; to put in place appropriate regulatory mechanisms including particularly the labeling of GMO products and post-marketing surveillance for possible negative health consequences in the long term. Furthermore the appropriate state agency should put in place advocacy strategies to keep the public informed about GMOs.

  11. A modified decision tree algorithm based on genetic algorithm for mobile user classification problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-sheng; Fan, Shu-jiang

    2014-01-01

    In order to offer mobile customers better service, we should classify the mobile user firstly. Aimed at the limitations of previous classification methods, this paper puts forward a modified decision tree algorithm for mobile user classification, which introduced genetic algorithm to optimize the results of the decision tree algorithm. We also take the context information as a classification attributes for the mobile user and we classify the context into public context and private context classes. Then we analyze the processes and operators of the algorithm. At last, we make an experiment on the mobile user with the algorithm, we can classify the mobile user into Basic service user, E-service user, Plus service user, and Total service user classes and we can also get some rules about the mobile user. Compared to C4.5 decision tree algorithm and SVM algorithm, the algorithm we proposed in this paper has higher accuracy and more simplicity.

  12. Genetically modified crops for the bioeconomy: meeting public and regulatory expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapotin, Saharah Moon; Wolt, Jeffrey D

    2007-12-01

    As the United States moves toward a plant-based bioeconomy, a large research and development effort is focused on creating new feedstocks to meet biomass demand for biofuels, bioenergy, and specialized bioproducts, such as industrial compounds and biomaterial precursors. Most bioeconomy projections assume the widespread deployment of novel feedstocks developed through the use of modern molecular breeding techniques, but rarely consider the challenges involved with the use of genetically modified crops, which can include hurdles due to regulatory approvals, market adoption, and public acceptance. In this paper we consider the implications of various transgenic crops and traits under development for the bioeconomy that highlight these challenges. We believe that an awareness of the issues in crop and trait selection will allow developers to design crops with maximum stakeholder appeal and with the greatest potential for widespread adoption, while avoiding applications unlikely to meet regulatory approval or gain market and public acceptance.

  13. Effects of information on young consumers' willingness to pay for genetically modified food: experimental auction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajale, Dilip B; Becker, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of information on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for genetically modified food (GMF). We used Vickrey second price experimental auction method for elicitation of consumer WTP for GM potato chips and GM soya-chocolate bar. The sample used in this study was university students from Delhi, India. Four information formats (positive, negative, no information, and combined information about GM technology) were used for the examination. The results show that, when students received the combine information they were willing to pay around 17%-20% premium for GMF and when received the negative information they demanded around 22% discount for GMF. While the positive- and the no-information formats alone have no considerable effect on consumers' WTP for GMF. Overall, our findings suggest that while doing marketing of GMF in India, the best strategy is to provide combined information about GM technology.

  14. Labeling of genetically modified food: closer to reality in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlers, Anton E

    2013-01-01

    Within the broader context of several related biotech developments, including the proliferation of GM food in American grocery stories, the recent decision by Whole Foods Market, Inc. to require the labeling of all genetically modified (GM) organism products sold in its stores by 2018, and the development of GM animals for consumption, this essay asks whether the United States is inching towards a policy of mandatory GM food labeling. The analysis highlights aspects of the biotechnology policy debate in the United States and European Union, and traces public opinion as well as grassroots and legislative efforts aimed at GM food labeling. Findings show that activities at the federal level do not suggest any major regulatory changes regarding labeling in the near future; however, a growing number of individual states are considering GM food labeling legislation and political momentum in favor of labeling has picked up in recent years. Voluntary labeling by food companies may also become increasingly common.

  15. Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf A. Groeneveld

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent introgression of transgenes from GM crops to their conventional or wild relatives, thereby adding to the safety of their cultivation. As a result, coexistence regulations for these crops are less stringent than for crops without biological containment. The potential adoption of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants is assessed in a cost-benefit framework for Italy and Spain. We conclude that biological containment has considerable potential benefits if policy makers are willing to loosen the restrictions on the introduction of these varieties.

  16. Intellectual property rights related to the genetically modified glyphosate tolerant soybeans in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Roberta L; Lage, Celso L S; Vasconcellos, Alexandre G

    2011-06-01

    The present work analyzes the different modalities of protection of the intellectual creations in the biotechnology agricultural field. Regarding the Brazilian legislations related to the theme (the Industrial Property Law - no. 9. 279/96 and the Plant Variety Protection Law - no. 9. 456/97), and based in the international treaties signed by Brazil, the present work points to the inclusions of each of them, as well as to their interfaces using as reference the case study of glyphosate tolerant genetically modified soybean. For this case study, Monsanto's pipelines patents were searched and used to analyze the limits of patent protection in respect to others related to the Intellectual Property (IP) laws. Thus, it was possible to elucidate the complex scenario of the Intellectual Property of the glyphosate tolerant soybeans, since for the farmer it is hard to correlate the royalties payment with the IP enterprise's rights.

  17. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brandon R

    2016-01-01

    There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual) or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.

  18. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon R McFadden

    Full Text Available There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM foods and human involvement in global warming (GW. Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.

  19. Food safety: importance of composition for assessing genetically modified cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijssen, Fredrika W Jansen; Morris, E Jane; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2013-09-04

    The importance of food composition in safety assessments of genetically modified (GM) food is described for cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) that naturally contains significantly high levels of cyanogenic glycoside (CG) toxicants in roots and leaves. The assessment of the safety of GM cassava would logically require comparison with a non-GM crop with a proven "history of safe use". This study investigates this statement for cassava. A non-GM comparator that qualifies would be a processed product with CG level below the approved maximum level in food and that also satisfies a "worst case" of total dietary consumption. Although acute and chronic toxicity benchmark CG values for humans have been determined, intake data are scarce. Therefore, the non-GM cassava comparator is defined on the "best available knowledge". We consider nutritional values for cassava and conclude that CG residues in food should be a priority topic for research.

  20. Detection of HbsAg and hATIII genetically modified goats (Caprahircus) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Chenyu; Zhang, Qingde; Zhai, Shanli; Liu, Bang

    2013-11-01

    In this study, sensitive and rapid detection systems were designed using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect the genetically modified goats. A set of 4 primers were designed for each exogenous nucleic acids HBsAg and hATIII. The DNA samples were first amplified with the outer and inner primers and released a single-stranded DNA,of which both ends were stem-loop structure. Then one inner primer hybridized with the loop, and initiated displacement synthesis in less than 1 h. The result could be visualized by both agarose gel electrophoresis and unaided eyes directly after adding SYBR GREEN 1. The detection limit of LAMP was ten copies of target molecules, indicating that LAMP was tenfold more sensitive than the classical PCR. Furthermore, all the samples of genetically modified goats were tested positively by LAMP, and the results demonstrated that the LAMP was a rapid and sensitive method for detecting the genetically modified organism.

  1. Development of a qualitative real-time PCR method to detect 19 targets for identification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Pengfei; Xu, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaofu; Wei, Wei; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    As the amount of commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) grows recent years, the diversity of target sequences for molecular detection techniques are eagerly needed. Considered as the gold standard for GMO analysis, the real-time PCR technology was optimized to produce a high-throughput GMO screening method. With this method we can detect 19 transgenic targets. The specificity of the assays was demonstrated to be 100 % by the specific amplification of DNA derived from reference material from 20 genetically modified crops and 4 non modified crops. Furthermore, most assays showed a very sensitive detection, reaching the limit of ten copies. The 19 assays are the most frequently used genetic elements present in GM crops and theoretically enable the screening of the known GMO described in Chinese markets. Easy to use, fast and cost efficient, this method approach fits the purpose of GMO testing laboratories.

  2. Application of whole genome shotgun sequencing for detection and characterization of genetically modified organisms and derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst-Jensen, Arne; Spilsberg, Bjørn; Arulandhu, Alfred J; Kok, Esther; Shi, Jianxin; Zel, Jana

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of high-throughput, massive or next-generation sequencing technologies has created a completely new foundation for molecular analyses. Various selective enrichment processes are commonly applied to facilitate detection of predefined (known) targets. Such approaches, however, inevitably introduce a bias and are prone to miss unknown targets. Here we review the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies and the preparation of fit-for-purpose whole genome shotgun sequencing libraries for the detection and characterization of genetically modified and derived products. The potential impact of these new sequencing technologies for the characterization, breeding selection, risk assessment, and traceability of genetically modified organisms and genetically modified products is yet to be fully acknowledged. The published literature is reviewed, and the prospects for future developments and use of the new sequencing technologies for these purposes are discussed.

  3. A 90-day safety study in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Kroghsbo, Stine; Schrøder, Malene

    2007-01-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of a rice variety expressing the snowdrop Galanthus...... nivalis lectin (GNA lectin), and forms part of a EU-funded project where the objective has been to develop and validate sensitive and specific methods to assess the safety of genetically modified foods. Mate and female Wistar rats were given a purified diet containing either 60% genetically modified...... diets, but none of them were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, the design of the present animal study did not enable us to conclude on the safety of the GM food. Additional group(s) where the expressed gene products have been spiked to the diet should be included in order to be able...

  4. Transboundary Movements of Genetically Modified Organisms and the Cartagena Protocol: Key Issues and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile J Lim Tung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology or the engineering of the genetic material of species can give way to avenues of possibilities for the benefit of people, fauna and flora but also has the potential of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. One of the first attempts to legislate on international rules on biotechnology can be traced back to article 19 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 1992. The CBD is indeed the first international legal instrument apart from the then European Community’s relevant directives to suggest that biotechnology is a matter of concern for the international community while providing a basis upon which more detailed procedures would be elaborated in the field of biosafety. While the CBD includes international rules on access to genetic resources, access to and the transfer of technology, the handling of biotechnology and the distribution of its benefits, it does not include a detailed regulation on genetically modified organisms (GMOs and their possible adverse effects on the environment, human and animal health. It was only with the coming into existence of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (Cartagena Protocol to the CBD in 2000 that the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs such as genetically engineered plants, animals, and microbes were at last being catered for, albeit leaving aside the broader categories of GMOs. Due to the need for the negotiators of this protocol to make compromises, there were still key issues on the international biosafety framework pertaining mainly to the scope of the GMOs to be covered by this protocol and by the Advanced Informed Agreement procedure; identification and traceability issues; and liability and redress issues. Nine years after the entry into force of the Cartagena Protocol the transboundary movements of GMOs have clearly increased with new categories of GMOs and genetically modified products to regulate. The

  5. Genetic modifiers of carcinogen DNA adducts in target lung and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Su, Li; Mark, Eugene J; Wain, John C; Christiani, David C

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of carcinogen DNA adducts in blood has been used as a surrogate for the target lung tissue. We aimed to examine whether genetic polymorphisms in several metabolic pathway genes modify the relation between DNA adducts in target lung and blood. One hundred and thirty-five early-stage lung cancer patients from the Massachusetts General Hospital were studied. DNA adducts were measured by the (32)P-postlabeling assay in lung and blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) in a subset of 53 who had paired blood samples. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed in genes involved in phase II (GSTs, NAT2, EPHX and NQO1), DNA repair (ERCC1, ERCC2 and XRCC1) and DNA methylation (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) pathways. There was a significant correlation between DNA adduct levels in lung and blood within the different genotypes, with one exception. Significant modifications in adducts were found by variants in genes for phase II metabolism [NAT2 (1.51 for rapid versus 0.76 for slow, P = 0.022)], DNA repair [ERCC1 C118T (P = 0.014), ERCC2 (P = 0.003) and XRCC1 (P = 0.025)] and MTHFR [C677T (P = 0.005) and A1298C (P = 0.005)]. The relation between DNA adducts in blood MNCs and target lung tissue was significantly modified by the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the three main pathways. Despite the relatively small sample size, our results suggest that genetic factors may need to be considered when assessing the association of DNA adducts using surrogate tissue in studies of lung cancer. Further studies are needed to better understand their role and the mechanisms.

  6. Biosafety management and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa; Hallerman, Eric M; Wu, Kongming

    2014-04-01

    As a developing country with relatively limited arable land, China is making great efforts for development and use of genetically modified (GM) crops to boost agricultural productivity. Many GM crop varieties have been developed in China in recent years; in particular, China is playing a leading role in development of insect-resistant GM rice lines. To ensure the safe use of GM crops, biosafety risk assessments are required as an important part of the regulatory oversight of such products. With over 20 years of nationwide promotion of agricultural biotechnology, a relatively well-developed regulatory system for risk assessment and management of GM plants has been developed that establishes a firm basis for safe use of GM crops. So far, a total of seven GM crops involving ten events have been approved for commercial planting, and 5 GM crops with a total of 37 events have been approved for import as processing material in China. However, currently only insect-resistant Bt cotton and disease-resistant papaya have been commercially planted on a large scale. The planting of Bt cotton and disease-resistant papaya have provided efficient protection against cotton bollworms and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), respectively. As a consequence, chemical application to these crops has been significantly reduced, enhancing farm income while reducing human and non-target organism exposure to toxic chemicals. This article provides useful information for the colleagues, in particular for them whose mother tongue is not Chinese, to clearly understand the biosafety regulation and commercial use of genetically modified crops in China.

  7. Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, A; Cockburn, A; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Grafstroem, R; Hammerling, U; Kimber, I; Knudsen, I; Kuiper, H A; Peijnenburg, A A C M; Penninks, A H; Poulsen, M; Schauzu, M; Wal, J M

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed approach to safety assessment starts with the comparison of the new GM crop with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use (the concept of substantial equivalence). This case-focused approach ensures that foods derived from GM crops that have passed this extensive test-regime are as safe and nutritious as currently consumed plant-derived foods. The approach is suitable for current and future GM crops with more complex modifications. First, the paper reviews test methods developed for the risk assessment of chemicals, including food additives and pesticides, discussing which of these methods are suitable for the assessment of recombinant proteins and whole foods. Second, the paper presents a systematic approach to combine test methods for the safety assessment of foods derived from a specific GM crop. Third, the paper provides an overview on developments in this area that may prove of use in the safety assessment of GM crops, and recommendations for research priorities. It is concluded that the combination of existing test methods provides a sound test-regime to assess the safety of GM crops. Advances in our understanding of molecular biology, biochemistry, and nutrition may in future allow further improvement of test methods that will over time render the safety assessment of foods even more effective and informative. Copryright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Development of genetically modified eliminable human dermal fibroblast feeder cells for ocular surface regeneration medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingli; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Takamatsu, Fumihiko; Maeda, Naoyuki; Ohashi, Yuichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2013-11-15

    Cultured human corneal limbal stem/progenitor cells are usually established and maintained on feeder layers. However, animal feeder cells are associated with viral infection, pathogen transmission, and xenogenic contamination. All feeder cells also can be mixed easily into cell-sheet production, causing self-contamination. We developed a line of labeled, immortalized, eliminable human dermal fibroblast cells to eliminate these problems. The enhanced green fluorescent protein gene, human-derived telomerase reverse transcriptase gene, and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene were transfected into human dermal fibroblast cells to establish labeled, immortalized, eliminable feeder cells. Established eliminable dermal fibroblasts (TERT+TK-D) were treated with mitomycin, cocultured with human limbal stem/progenitor cells to regenerate epithelium sheets, and compared with 3T3 feeder cells. Established TERT+TK-D feeder cells maintained immortalization, visualization, and eliminable characteristics during 6 months of continuous passages. The colony-forming efficiency of limbal stem/progenitor cells was similar in the TERT+TK-D group (11.77 ± 0.21%) and the 3T3 group (12.8 ± 1.61%) (P = 0.332). All cell sheets were well stratified into 4 to 5 layers. The TERT+TK-D group colonies and epithelial cell sheets showed weaker staining of corneal epithelium differentiation marker K3 than the 3T3 group and quantitative analysis of mRNA transcripts. Moreover, PCR analysis against the long terminal repeat sequence of the lentiviral vector integrated into the genetically modified feeder cells showed no contamination of ganciclovir-treated regeneration epithelial sheets. Genetically modified, labeled, immortalized, eliminable human dermal feeder cells are promising substitutes for 3T3 feeder cells for xenogeny-free ocular surface regeneration.

  9. [Cloning goat producing human lactoferrin with genetically modified donor cells selected by single or dual markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Liyou; Yuan, Yuguo; Yu, Baoli; Yang, Tingjia; Cheng, Yong

    2012-12-01

    We compared the efficiency of cloning goat using human lactoferrin (hLF) with genetically modified donor cells marked by single (Neo(r)) or double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers. Single marker expression vector (pBLC14) or dual markers expression vector (pAPLM) was delivered to goat fetal fibroblasts (GFF), and then the transgenic GFF was used as donor cells to produce transgenic goats. Respectively, 58.8% (20/34) and 86.7% (26/30) resistant cell lines confirmed the transgenic integration by PCR. Moreover, pAPLM cells lines were subcultured with several passages, only 20% (6/30) cell lines was observed fluorescence from each cell during the cell passage. Somatic cell nuclear transfer using the donor cells harbouring pBLC14 or pAPLM construct, resulting in a total of 806 reconstructed embryos, a pregnancy rate at 35 d (53.8%, 39.1%) and 60 d (26.9%, 21.7%), and an offspring birth rate (1.9%, 1.4%) with 5 and 7 newborn cloned goats, respectively. Transgene was confirmed by PCR and southern-blot in all cloned offspring. There were no significant differences at the reconstructed embryo fusion rates, pregnancy rates and the birth rate (P > 0.05) between single and double markers groups. The Neo(r)/GFP double markers could improve the reliability for accurately and efficiently selecting the genetically modified donor cells. No adverse effect was observed on the efficiency of transgenic goat production by SCNT using somatic cells transfected with double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers vector.

  10. The Comparative Effects of Genetically Modified Maize and Conventional Maize on Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kýlýçgün

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available       Aim: Genetically modified crops have a potential to solve many of the world’s  nutrition problems. On the other hand, the impact of these novel crops on environmental, animal and human health should be tested and their risk assessment is required. In this study, the aim of this study was to investigate the positive or possible negative effects of genetically modified maize on offspring rats which were between the start of dry food feeding and the time interval until they reached puberty. Material and Method: Thirty Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were fed with transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis maize and conventional maize during 40 days. After the experimental period, the length, height and weight of organs and serum chemistry and hematology values were measured. Results: The length, height and weight of liver, spleen, lung and kidneys in Bacillus thuringiensis maize group of rats were different from those in control and conventional groups. When mean values of serum chemistry and hematology parameters, which were glucose, urea, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, chlorine were examined, some obvious differences were found between the rats fed with transgenic maize and its conventional counterpart and control groups. Discussion: The results of this study showed that Bacillus  thuringiensis maize may not only have an effect on the length, height and weight of organs of the maturing term of rats but also lead to alterations in serum chemistry and hematology values.

  11. A statistical approach to quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO) using frequency distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Lars; Busch, Ulrich; Pecoraro, Sven

    2014-12-14

    According to Regulation (EU) No 619/2011, trace amounts of non-authorised genetically modified organisms (GMO) in feed are tolerated within the EU if certain prerequisites are met. Tolerable traces must not exceed the so-called 'minimum required performance limit' (MRPL), which was defined according to the mentioned regulation to correspond to 0.1% mass fraction per ingredient. Therefore, not yet authorised GMO (and some GMO whose approvals have expired) have to be quantified at very low level following the qualitative detection in genomic DNA extracted from feed samples. As the results of quantitative analysis can imply severe legal and financial consequences for producers or distributors of feed, the quantification results need to be utterly reliable. We developed a statistical approach to investigate the experimental measurement variability within one 96-well PCR plate. This approach visualises the frequency distribution as zygosity-corrected relative content of genetically modified material resulting from different combinations of transgene and reference gene Cq values. One application of it is the simulation of the consequences of varying parameters on measurement results. Parameters could be for example replicate numbers or baseline and threshold settings, measurement results could be for example median (class) and relative standard deviation (RSD). All calculations can be done using the built-in functions of Excel without any need for programming. The developed Excel spreadsheets are available (see section 'Availability of supporting data' for details). In most cases, the combination of four PCR replicates for each of the two DNA isolations already resulted in a relative standard deviation of 15% or less. The aims of the study are scientifically based suggestions for minimisation of uncertainty of measurement especially in -but not limited to- the field of GMO quantification at low concentration levels. Four PCR replicates for each of the two DNA isolations

  12. JRC GMO-Matrix: a web application to support Genetically Modified Organisms detection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Petrillo, Mauro; Bonfini, Laura; Gatto, Francesco; Rosa, Sabrina; Patak, Alexandre; Kreysa, Joachim

    2014-12-30

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the current state of the art technique for DNA-based detection of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). A typical control strategy starts by analyzing a sample for the presence of target sequences (GM-elements) known to be present in many GMOs. Positive findings from this "screening" are then confirmed with GM (event) specific test methods. A reliable knowledge of which GMOs are detected by combinations of GM-detection methods is thus crucial to minimize the verification efforts. In this article, we describe a novel platform that links the information of two unique databases built and maintained by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, one containing the sequence information of known GM-events and the other validated PCR-based detection and identification methods. The new platform compiles in silico determinations of the detection of a wide range of GMOs by the available detection methods using existing scripts that simulate PCR amplification and, when present, probe binding. The correctness of the information has been verified by comparing the in silico conclusions to experimental results for a subset of forty-nine GM events and six methods. The JRC GMO-Matrix is unique for its reliance on DNA sequence data and its flexibility in integrating novel GMOs and new detection methods. Users can mine the database using a set of web interfaces that thus provide a valuable support to GMO control laboratories in planning and evaluating their GMO screening strategies. The platform is accessible at http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/jrcgmomatrix/ .

  13. JRC GMO-Amplicons: a collection of nucleic acid sequences related to genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Mauro; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Henriksson, Peter; Bonfini, Laura; Patak, Alex; Kreysa, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The DNA target sequence is the key element in designing detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Unfortunately this information is frequently lacking, especially for unauthorized GMOs. In addition, patent sequences are generally poorly annotated, buried in complex and extensive documentation and hard to link to the corresponding GM event. Here, we present the JRC GMO-Amplicons, a database of amplicons collected by screening public nucleotide sequence databanks by in silico determination of PCR amplification with reference methods for GMO analysis. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) provides these methods in the GMOMETHODS database to support enforcement of EU legislation and GM food/feed control. The JRC GMO-Amplicons database is composed of more than 240 000 amplicons, which can be easily accessed and screened through a web interface. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at pooling and collecting publicly available sequences related to GMOs in food and feed. The JRC GMO-Amplicons supports control laboratories in the design and assessment of GMO methods, providing inter-alia in silico prediction of primers specificity and GM targets coverage. The new tool can assist the laboratories in the analysis of complex issues, such as the detection and identification of unauthorized GMOs. Notably, the JRC GMO-Amplicons database allows the retrieval and characterization of GMO-related sequences included in patents documentation. Finally, it can help annotating poorly described GM sequences and identifying new relevant GMO-related sequences in public databases. The JRC GMO-Amplicons is freely accessible through a web-based portal that is hosted on the EU-RL GMFF website. Database URL: http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/jrcgmoamplicons/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Deliberate release of genetically modified plants into the environment in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata LUTHAR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Deliberate release of genetically modified higher plants (GMHPs into the environment in Slovenia is regulated by the Law on the Management of Genetically Modified Organisms (ZRGSO Ur. l. RS 23/2005 and 21/2010, III chapter. For each deliberate release of GMPs into the environment a license issued by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning (MESP must be acquired. The application or notification should contain a very accurate and complex description of the GMP, of the field where it will be released and of wider surroundings or environment. The application consists of Annex 2 with accessories: 1. Part A (technical data for the authorization of deliberate GMP release into the environment; 2. Part B (environmental risk assessment; 3. Application summary in Slovenian and English language for the release of GMP into environment, which is transmitted to Brussels by MESP; 4. Extract from the Land Cadastre of the field to which the GMP will be released. The release procedure runs (till here under the above mentioned Law, which has been in place for several years and which clearly defines that it is possible to release GMP in Slovenia. In the case of GM rice in 2011, the law applied till the site selection of the experiment. Here, the law was not sufficiently taken into account. It was prevailed by the regulation of Farmland and Forest Fund of the Republic of Slovenia and municipal decision, which was stronger than the national law and prevented the cultivation of GM rice in an area that is legally suitable for release of GMO into the environment. Rice is not grown in Slovenia and does not have wild ancestors or close relatives with whom it might mate. Nearest area of cultivation is in neighboring Italy, which is from potentially selected location in Slovenia more than 70 km away.

  15. ANALISIS ARGUMENTASI MAHASISWA PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI PADA ISU SOSIOSAINFIK KONSUMSI GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM (GMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Herlanti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis argumentasi yang dikemukakan oleh mahasiswa pendidikan biologi terkait isu sosiosaintifik yaitu konsumsi pangan Genetically Modified Organism (GMO.  Penelitian menggunakan metode survei secara online.  Partisipan yang berasal dari semester III-VII Universitas Islam Negeri Jakarta yang secara sukarela mengisi kuisioner online yang diunggah pada weblog. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan isu sosiosaintifik GMO lebih banyak ditanggapi secara saintifik oleh partisipan.  Argumentasi sebagian besar berada pada level II, yaitu telah mampu mengungkapkan sebuah klaim disertai dengan alasan. Hanya sedikit yang sudah mampu memberikan argumen secara holistik (level IV, yaitu mampu mengungkapkan argumen dengan alasan yang kuat yang tidak mudah dibantah.  Umumnya argumentasi yang dikemukan partisipan berjenis argumentasi sederhana dan argumentasi tipe rantai.  Berdasarkan temuan ini, perlu dikembangkan sebuah model perkuliahan yang dapat meningkatkan keterampilan berargumentasi. This research aimed to analyze the argument for socioscientifik issue “Genetically Modified Organism (GMO Food Consumtion”.  This reseach used online survey.  Participant filled online questionaire that uploaded in weblog.  Participants are student of biology education in Jakarta Islamic State University. The result showed most participants gave scientific view in their argument.  Most of argumentations were in level II; participants gave a klaim within a warrant.  Only a few argument were in level IV, it’s a holistic argument that contained a klaim, a warrant, a backing, and a rebuttal.  Most of argument had simple type or chain type.  From this result, university must develop strategies of lecturing to improve argumentation skill.

  16. Locating hazardous gas leaks in the atmosphere via modified genetic, MCMC and particle swarm optimization algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Ru; Yan, Yuting; Dong, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jun Ming

    2017-05-01

    Hazardous gas leaks in the atmosphere can cause significant economic losses in addition to environmental hazards, such as fires and explosions. A three-stage hazardous gas leak source localization method was developed that uses movable and stationary gas concentration sensors. The method calculates a preliminary source inversion with a modified genetic algorithm (MGA) and has the potential to crossover with eliminated individuals from the population, following the selection of the best candidate. The method then determines a search zone using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling, utilizing a partial evaluation strategy. The leak source is then accurately localized using a modified guaranteed convergence particle swarm optimization algorithm with several bad-performing individuals, following selection of the most successful individual with dynamic updates. The first two stages are based on data collected by motionless sensors, and the last stage is based on data from movable robots with sensors. The measurement error adaptability and the effect of the leak source location were analyzed. The test results showed that this three-stage localization process can localize a leak source within 1.0 m of the source for different leak source locations, with measurement error standard deviation smaller than 2.0.

  17. Development of agribiotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess safety of genetically modified crops in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiruddin, Khondoker M; Nasim, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh is on the verge of adopting genetically modified (GM) crops for commercial cultivation and consumption as feed and food. Most of the laboratories are engaged in tissue culture and molecular characterization on plants, whereas some have started living modified organism research with shortages of trained manpower, infrastructure, and funding. Nutritionally improved Golden Rice, biotech brinjal, and late blight-resistant potato are in contained trials in a greenhouse, and potato ring spot virus-resistant papaya is in the process of approval for a field trial. The government has taken some initiative in support of GM organism research, which include the formation of a Biotechnology Department in all institutes and the formation of the apex body, the National Task Force Committee on Biotechnology of Bangladesh under the chairpersonship of the Prime Minister. Biosafety policy guidelines and related aspects of biotechnology issues have been approved, and the laws are in the process of being promulgated. Being a party to the Cartagena Protocol, proper biosafety measures are regulated by the appropriate authority as stated. Although there are no laws made yet directly for biosafety of GM crops/foods, the relevant laws on agriculture, medicine, food, import, trade, environment, etc. may suffice and explain the situation.

  18. Cellular Immunotherapy for Carcinoma Using Genetically Modified EGFR-Specific T Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xikun Zhou

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is overexpressed in a variety of human malignancies, including pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer. Overexpression of EGFR is a predictive marker of therapeutic response and several lines of evidence suggest that EGFR is an excellent target for tumor therapy. However, the effective antitumor capacity of EGFR-specific T cells against EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells has not been fully elucidated. In our previous study, we identified an anti-EGFR single-chain variable fragment (scFv with specific and high affinity after screening by ribosome display. In this study, the anticancer potential of anti-EGFR scFv was investigated on the basis of cell-targeted therapy. A chimeric antigen receptor (CAR targeting EGFR was constructed and expressed on the cell membrane of T lymphocytes. These CAR-modified T cells demonstrated antitumor efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the safety evaluation showed that CAR-modified lymphocytes have no or very minimal acute systemic toxicity. Taken together, our study provided the experimental basis for clinical application of genetically engineered lymphocytes; moreover, we also evaluate a new and interesting cell therapy protocol.

  19. Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushey, Dean F; Bannon, Gary A; Delaney, Bryan F; Graser, Gerson; Hefford, Mary; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Lee, Thomas C; Madduri, Krishna M; Pariza, Michael; Privalle, Laura S; Ranjan, Rakesh; Saab-Rincon, Gloria; Schafer, Barry W; Thelen, Jay J; Zhang, John X Q; Harper, Marc S

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops may contain newly expressed proteins that are described as "intractable". Safety assessment of these proteins may require some adaptations to the current assessment procedures. Intractable proteins are defined here as those proteins with properties that make it extremely difficult or impossible with current methods to express in heterologous systems; isolate, purify, or concentrate; quantify (due to low levels); demonstrate biological activity; or prove equivalency with plant proteins. Five classes of intractable proteins are discussed here: (1) membrane proteins, (2) signaling proteins, (3) transcription factors, (4) N-glycosylated proteins, and (5) resistance proteins (R-proteins, plant pathogen recognition proteins that activate innate immune responses). While the basic tiered weight-of-evidence approach for assessing the safety of GM crops proposed by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) in 2008 is applicable to intractable proteins, new or modified methods may be required. For example, the first two steps in Tier I (hazard identification) analysis, gathering of applicable history of safe use (HOSU) information and bioinformatics analysis, do not require protein isolation. The extremely low level of expression of most intractable proteins should be taken into account while assessing safety of the intractable protein in GM crops. If Tier II (hazard characterization) analyses requiring animal feeding are judged to be necessary, alternatives to feeding high doses of pure protein may be needed. These alternatives are discussed here. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cellular Immunotherapy for Carcinoma Using Genetically Modified EGFR-Specific T Lymphocytes12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xikun; Li, Jing; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Zhongwen; Qiu, Ji; Zhang, Yinbing; Wang, Wei; Ma, Yu; Huang, Nongyu; Cui, Kaijun; Li, Jiong; Wei, Yu-quan

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in a variety of human malignancies, including pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer. Overexpression of EGFR is a predictive marker of therapeutic response and several lines of evidence suggest that EGFR is an excellent target for tumor therapy. However, the effective antitumor capacity of EGFR-specific T cells against EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells has not been fully elucidated. In our previous study, we identified an anti-EGFR single-chain variable fragment (scFv) with specific and high affinity after screening by ribosome display. In this study, the anticancer potential of anti-EGFR scFv was investigated on the basis of cell-targeted therapy. A chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting EGFR was constructed and expressed on the cell membrane of T lymphocytes. These CAR-modified T cells demonstrated antitumor efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the safety evaluation showed that CAR-modified lymphocytes have no or very minimal acute systemic toxicity. Taken together, our study provided the experimental basis for clinical application of genetically engineered lymphocytes; moreover, we also evaluate a new and interesting cell therapy protocol. PMID:23633926