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Sample records for genetic subdivision differs

  1. The extent of population genetic subdivision differs among four co-distributed shark species in the Indo-Australian archipelago

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    Giles Jenny

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The territorial fishing zones of Australia and Indonesia are contiguous to the north of Australia in the Timor and Arafura Seas and in the Indian Ocean to the north of Christmas Island. The area surrounding the shared boundary consists of a variety of bio-diverse marine habitats including shallow continental shelf waters, oceanic trenches and numerous offshore islands. Both countries exploit a variety of fisheries species, including whaler (Carcharhinus spp. and hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.. Despite their differences in social and financial arrangements, the two countries are motivated to develop complementary co-management practices to achieve resource sustainability. An essential starting point is knowledge of the degree of population subdivision, and hence fisheries stock status, in exploited species. Results Populations of four commercially harvested shark species (Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Prionace glauca, Sphyrna lewini were sampled from northern Australia and central Indonesia. Neutral genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA control region sequence and allelic variation at co-dominant microsatellite loci revealed genetic subdivision between Australian and Indonesian populations of C. sorrah. Further research is needed to address the possibility of genetic subdivision among C. obscurus populations. There was no evidence of genetic subdivision for P. glauca and S. lewini populations, but the sampling represented a relatively small part of their distributional range. For these species, more detailed analyses of population genetic structure is recommended in the future. Conclusion Cooperative management between Australia and Indonesia is the best option at present for P. glauca and S. lewini, while C. sorrah and C. obscurus should be managed independently. On-going research on these and other exploited shark and ray species is strongly recommended. Biological and ecological similarity between species may

  2. The extent of population genetic subdivision differs among four co-distributed shark species in the Indo-Australian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovenden, Jenny R; Kashiwagi, Tom; Broderick, Damien; Giles, Jenny; Salini, John

    2009-02-12

    The territorial fishing zones of Australia and Indonesia are contiguous to the north of Australia in the Timor and Arafura Seas and in the Indian Ocean to the north of Christmas Island. The area surrounding the shared boundary consists of a variety of bio-diverse marine habitats including shallow continental shelf waters, oceanic trenches and numerous offshore islands. Both countries exploit a variety of fisheries species, including whaler (Carcharhinus spp.) and hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.). Despite their differences in social and financial arrangements, the two countries are motivated to develop complementary co-management practices to achieve resource sustainability. An essential starting point is knowledge of the degree of population subdivision, and hence fisheries stock status, in exploited species. Populations of four commercially harvested shark species (Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Prionace glauca, Sphyrna lewini) were sampled from northern Australia and central Indonesia. Neutral genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA control region sequence and allelic variation at co-dominant microsatellite loci) revealed genetic subdivision between Australian and Indonesian populations of C. sorrah. Further research is needed to address the possibility of genetic subdivision among C. obscurus populations. There was no evidence of genetic subdivision for P. glauca and S. lewini populations, but the sampling represented a relatively small part of their distributional range. For these species, more detailed analyses of population genetic structure is recommended in the future. Cooperative management between Australia and Indonesia is the best option at present for P. glauca and S. lewini, while C. sorrah and C. obscurus should be managed independently. On-going research on these and other exploited shark and ray species is strongly recommended. Biological and ecological similarity between species may not be a predictor of population genetic structure, so

  3. [Genetic structure, subdivision, and population differentiation in Stankewiczii pine Pinus stankewiczii (Sukacz.) Fomin from Mountain Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Gorlova, E M

    2006-06-01

    In order to analyze the genetic structure, subdivision and differentiation within and between two small isolated populations of the Crimea relict endemic, Pinus stankewiczii (Sukacz.) Fomin, electrophoretic analysis of the isozyme variation at nine enzymatic systems was carried out using 183 oldest trees. It was demonstrated that in populations of P. stankewiczii, 80% of the genes were in polymorphic state. Each tree was heterozygous at 19.1% loci, and at 21.6% loci in artificial 50-year-old plantation. The genetic structure of two populations was less differentiated (DN = 0.006), compared to their individual localities (DN = 0.008-0.009). Within-population subdivision of the diffusely dispersed populations was higher (FST-GST = 1.8-2.0%) than that of the populations themselves (0.8%).

  4. Microsatellites reveal a strong subdivision of genetic structure in Chinese populations of the mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

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    Sun Jing-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two colour forms of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch coexist in China: a red (carmine form, which is considered to be native and a green form which is considered to be invasive. The population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this organism were unclear in China, and there is a controversy over whether they constitute distinct species. To address these issues, we genotyped a total of 1,055 individuals from 18 red populations and 7 green populations in China using eight microsatellite loci. Results We identified 109 alleles. We found a highly significant genetic differentiation among the 25 populations (global FST = 0.506, global FST {ENA} = 0.473 and a low genetic diversity in each population. In addition, genetic diversity of the red form mites was found to be higher than the green form. Pearson correlations between statistics of variation (AR and HE and geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude showed that the genetic diversity of the red form was correlated with latitude. Using Bayesian clustering, we divided the Chinese mite populations into five clades which were well congruent with their geographic distributions. Conclusions Spider mites possess low levels of genetic diversity, limit gene flow between populations and significant and IBD (isolation by distance effect. These factors in turn contribute to the strong subdivision of genetic structure. In addition, population genetic structure results don't support the separation of the two forms of spider mite into two species. The morphological differences between the two forms of mites may be a result of epigenetic effects.

  5. The spatial scale of genetic subdivision in populations of Ifremeria nautilei, a hydrothermal-vent gastropod from the southwest Pacific

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    Thaler Andrew D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep-sea hydrothermal vents provide patchy, ephemeral habitats for specialized communities of animals that depend on chemoautotrophic primary production. Unlike eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents, where population structure has been studied at large (thousands of kilometres and small (hundreds of meters spatial scales, population structure of western Pacific vents has received limited attention. This study addresses the scale at which genetic differentiation occurs among populations of a western Pacific vent-restricted gastropod, Ifremeria nautilei. Results We used mitochondrial and DNA microsatellite markers to infer patterns of gene flow and population subdivision. A nested sampling strategy was employed to compare genetic diversity in discrete patches of Ifremeria nautilei separated by a few meters within a single vent field to distances as great as several thousand kilometres between back-arc basins that encompass the known range of the species. No genetic subdivisions were detected among patches, mounds, or sites within Manus Basin. Although I. nautilei from Lau and North Fiji Basins (~1000 km apart also exhibited no evidence for genetic subdivision, these populations were genetically distinct from the Manus Basin population. Conclusions An unknown process that restricts contemporary gene flow isolates the Manus Basin population of Ifremeria nautilei from widespread populations that occupy the North Fiji and Lau Basins. A robust understanding of the genetic structure of hydrothermal vent populations at multiple spatial scales defines natural conservation units and can help minimize loss of genetic diversity in situations where human activities are proposed and managed.

  6. Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 strains display a difference in the colonization of the leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere

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    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon

    2011-01-01

    Strains CHC12 and CHC8, belonging to, respectively, Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria (Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1), were recently isolated from the leek rhizosphere. The key question addressed in this study was: does attraction to and colonization of the rhizosphere occur in the sam

  7. Genetic subdivision and candidate genes under selection in North American grey wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Rena M; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Harrigan, Ryan; Knowles, James C; Musiani, Marco; Coltman, David; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Previous genetic studies of the highly mobile grey wolf (Canis lupus) found population structure that coincides with habitat and phenotype differences. We hypothesized that these ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes) should exhibit signatures of selection in genes related to morphology, coat colour and metabolism. To test these predictions, we quantified population structure related to habitat using a genotyping array to assess variation in 42 036 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 111 North American grey wolves. Using these SNP data and individual-level measurements of 12 environmental variables, we identified six ecotypes: West Forest, Boreal Forest, Arctic, High Arctic, British Columbia and Atlantic Forest. Next, we explored signals of selection across these wolf ecotypes through the use of three complementary methods to detect selection: FST /haplotype homozygosity bivariate percentilae, bayescan, and environmentally correlated directional selection with bayenv. Across all methods, we found consistent signals of selection on genes related to morphology, coat coloration, metabolism, as predicted, as well as vision and hearing. In several high-ranking candidate genes, including LEPR, TYR and SLC14A2, we found variation in allele frequencies that follow environmental changes in temperature and precipitation, a result that is consistent with local adaptation rather than genetic drift. Our findings show that local adaptation can occur despite gene flow in a highly mobile species and can be detected through a moderately dense genomic scan. These patterns of local adaptation revealed by SNP genotyping likely reflect high fidelity to natal habitats of dispersing wolves, strong ecological divergence among habitats, and moderate levels of linkage in the wolf genome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Genetic subdivision of chemosynthetic endosymbionts of Solemya velum along the Southern New England coast.

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    Stewart, Frank J; Baik, Alan Hyun Y; Cavanaugh, Colleen M

    2009-09-01

    Population-level genetic diversity in the obligate symbiosis between the bivalve Solemya velum and its thioautotrophic bacterial endosymbiont was examined. Distinct populations along the New England coast shared a single mitochondrial genotype but were fixed for unique symbiont genotypes, indicating high levels of symbiont genetic structuring and potential symbiont-host decoupling.

  9. Loss of genetic diversity and increased subdivision in an endemic Alpine Stonefly threatened by climate change

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    Jordan, Steve; Giersch, Jonathan J.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Hotalling, Scott; Fanning, Liz; Luikart, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Much remains unknown about the genetic status and population connectivity of high-elevation and high-latitude freshwater invertebrates, which often persist near snow and ice masses that are disappearing due to climate change. Here we report on the conservation genetics of the meltwater stonefly Lednia tumana (Ricker) of Montana, USA, a cold-water obligate species. We sequenced 1530 bp of mtDNA from 116 L. tumana individuals representing “historic” (>10 yr old) and 2010 populations. The dominant haplotype was common in both time periods, while the second-most-common haplotype was found only in historic samples, having been lost in the interim. The 2010 populations also showed reduced gene and nucleotide diversity and increased genetic isolation. We found lower genetic diversity in L. tumana compared to two other North American stonefly species, Amphinemura linda (Ricker) and Pteronarcys californica Newport. Our results imply small effective sizes, increased fragmentation, limited gene flow, and loss of genetic variation among contemporary L. tumana populations, which can lead to reduced adaptive capacity and increased extinction risk. This study reinforces concerns that ongoing glacier loss threatens the persistence of L. tumana, and provides baseline data and analysis of how future environmental change could impact populations of similar organisms.

  10. Landscape genetics of alpine Sierra Nevada salamanders reveal extreme population subdivision in space and time.

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    Savage, Wesley K; Fremier, Alexander K; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2010-08-01

    Quantifying the influence of the landscape on the genetic structure of natural populations remains an important empirical challenge, particularly for poorly studied, ecologically cryptic species. We conducted an extensive microsatellite analysis to examine the population genetics of the southern long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum sigillatum) in a naturally complex landscape. Using spatially explicit modelling, we investigated the influence of the Sierra Nevada topography on potential dispersal corridors between sampled populations. Our results indicate very high-genetic divergence among populations, high within-deme relatedness, and little evidence of recent migration or population admixture. We also discovered unexpectedly high between-year genetic differentiation (F(ST)) for breeding sites, suggesting that breeding groups vary over localized space and time. While environmental factors associated with high-elevation montane habitats apparently play an important role in shaping population differentiation, additional, species-specific biological processes must also be operating to account for observed deviations from temporal, among-year panmixia. Our study emphasizes the population-level insights that can be gained from high-density sampling in space and time, and the highly substructured population biology that may characterize amphibians in extreme montane habitats.

  11. Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 strains display a difference in colonization in the colonization of the leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes da Rocha, U.; Elsas, van J.D.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Strains CHC12 and CHC8, belonging to, respectively, Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria (Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1), were recently isolated from the leek rhizosphere. The key question addressed in this study was: does attraction to and colonization of the rhizosphere occur in the sam

  12. [Genetic diversity and subdivision parameters of Colias crocea Fourc. and C. erate Esp. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Crimea according to allozyme and RAPD-PCR analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, A E; Simchuk, A P

    2008-01-01

    Some parameters of genetic diversity and subdivision were tested in syntopic Crimean populations of two species of the sulfur butterllies, Colias crocea Fourc. and C. erate Esp. by allozyme and RAPD-PCR analyses. Genetic diversity in each of the species compared appeared to be approximately equal: the portion of polimorphic loci P95 (99) is 67% for C. crocea and is 61% for C. erate. Paratypic forms of both species do not differ from nominative ones by parameters of genetic diversity. The mean expected heterozygosities (H'(e)) in the C. crocea, C. erate and their paratypic forms by the RAPD-PCD data are 24.3 +/- 4.4%, 21.7 +/- 4.2%, 26.4 +/- 4.1%, respectively. The observed heterozygosities by the allozyme data in other samples are considerably less than theoretically expected ones (H(o) = 15.6 +/- 3.3%, H(e) = 50.5 +/- 4.5% for C. crocea; H(o) = 17.95 +/- 6.15%, H(e) = 50.8 +/- 8% for C. erate, and H(o) = 24.2 +/- 7.5%, H(e) = 50.9 +/- 8.7% for paratypic forms, respectively). The mean observed heterozygosity in the paratypic forms of C. erate (f. androconiata, f. chrysodona, f. edusoides) is almost two times higher than that of the f. chlorodona and f. eratoides. Paratypic forms of both species differ from nominative ones (particularly from that of C. crocea) by the level of intrapopulation inbreeding and by the degree of gene flow (F = 0.691 for C. crocea, 0.646 for C. erate, and 0.524 for paratypic forms). One can suppose a significant gene exchange among adjacent populations of C. crocea and C. erate (Wright's F(ST) = 0.155 for 6 allozyme and 18 RAPD loci, Nm = 1.363). Nei's similarity coefficients (S) varies from 0.7554 among nominative C. crocea and C. erate (D(N) = 0.28) to 0.8092 among C. crocea and paratypic forms (D = 0.21) and to 0.8936 among C. erate and paratypic forms of both species (D(N) = 0.11). Paratypic forms with rounded valve margin preliminarily identified as C. crocea revealed a considerable degree of similarity to the paratypic forms of C

  13. ESTIMATING ERROR BOUNDS FOR TERNARY SUBDIVISION CURVES/SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Mustafa; Jiansong Deng

    2007-01-01

    We estimate error bounds between ternary subdivision curves/surfaces and their control polygons after k-fold subdivision in terms of the maximal differences of the initial control point sequences and constants that depend on the subdivision mask. The bound is independent of the process of subdivision and can be evaluated without recursive subdivision.Our technique is independent of parametrization therefore it can be easily and efficiently implemented. This is useful and important for pre-computing the error bounds of subdivision curves/surfaces in advance in many engineering applications such as surface/surface intersection, mesh generation, NC machining, surface rendering and so on.

  14. Different cortical projections from three subdivisions of the rat lateral posterior thalamic nucleus: a single-neuron tracing study with viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hisashi; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Furuta, Takahiro; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    The lateral posterior thalamic nucleus (LP) is one of the components of the extrageniculate pathway in the rat visual system, and is cytoarchitecturally divided into three subdivisions--lateral (LPl), rostromedial (LPrm), and caudomedial (LPcm) portions. To clarify the differences in the dendritic fields and axonal arborisations among the three subdivisions, we applied a single-neuron labeling technique with viral vectors to LP neurons. The proximal dendrites of LPl neurons were more numerous than those of LPrm and LPcm neurons, and LPrm neurons tended to have wider dendritic fields than LPl neurons. We then analysed the axonal arborisations of LP neurons by reconstructing the axon fibers in the cortex. The LPl, LPrm and LPcm were different from one another in terms of the projection targets--the main target cortical regions of LPl and LPrm neurons were the secondary and primary visual areas, whereas those of LPcm neurons were the postrhinal and temporal association areas. Furthermore, the principal target cortical layers of LPl neurons in the visual areas were middle layers, but that of LPrm neurons was layer 1. This indicates that LPl and LPrm neurons can be categorised into the core and matrix types of thalamic neurons, respectively, in the visual areas. In addition, LPl neurons formed multiple axonal clusters within the visual areas, whereas the fibers of LPrm neurons were widely and diffusely distributed. It is therefore presumed that these two types of neurons play different roles in visual information processing by dual thalamocortical innervation of the visual areas.

  15. Genetic variation among the Golla pastoral caste subdivisions of Andhra Pradesh, India, according to the HLA system.

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    Crawford, M H; Reddy, B M; Martinez-Laso, J; Mack, S J; Erlich, H A

    2001-09-01

    The HLA allele frequency distributions have been characterized for the HLA class I and class II loci of the Golla pastoral caste, from Southeast India, subdivided into the subcastes (Puja, Punugu, Kurava, Pokanati, Karnam, and Doddi). Genetic distances, neighbor-joining, correspondence, and haplotype analyses all indicate that the subcastes exhibit a high haplotype variability and that their genetic substratum may be the result of European-Middle East/Asian admixture with the autochthonous populations. The Karnam subcaste seems to be the one that has undergone a higher degree of admixture, when compared with the other subcastes. The Golla speak an old Indian Dravidian language and should theoretically represent the basic Indian substratum that existed before the postulated "Aryan" invasion.

  16. Estudo da subdivisão genética da raça Mangalarga Marchador Study on genetic subdivision of the Mangalarga Marchador horse breed

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    M.D. Costa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as informações de 233.214 animais inscritos no arquivo zootécnico da Associação Brasileira dos Criadores do Cavalo Mangalarga Marchador, descendentes de 16 ancestrais com contribuição genética mínima de até 1% para a população atual. Análises de componentes principais foram feitas com o intuito de agrupar animais geneticamente semelhantes e o de avaliar a subdivisão da raça em famílias ou grupos genéticos distintos. A média do coeficiente de parentesco entre animais da atual população e os ancestrais de maior contribuição genética variou de 4,7%, para a égua Herdade Alteza, a 0,7%, para o garanhão Tabatinga Fanfarra. A atual população da raça Mangalarga Marchador é constituída, em ordem de importância, por cinco grupos genéticos descendentes dos animais Herdade Alteza e Seta Caxias, Providência Itu e Tabatinga Predileto, Abaíba Marengo, Tabatinga Cossaco e Angaí Miron.Pedigree information on 233,214 animal from the studbook of the Associação Brasileira dos Criadores do Cavalo Mangalarga Marchador, related to 16 ancestors with, at least, 1% of genetic contribution to the actual population were used to describe the genetic structure of breed population. Principal component analyses were used to classify animals of the same genetic basis and to identify possible subdivision of the breed in families or genetics groups. The average relationship coefficient between each one of the ancestors and the actual breed population vary from 4.7%, for the mare Herdade Alteza, to .7%, for the stallion Tabatinga Fanfarra. The actual breed population can be subdivided into five families, represented, in order of importance, by animals related to the ancestors Herdade Alteza and Seta Caxias, Providência Itu and Tabatinga Predileto, Abaíba Marengo, Tabatinga Cossaco and Agaí Miron.

  17. Deformable surface modeling based on dual subdivision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huawei; SUN Hanqiu; QIN Kaihuai

    2005-01-01

    Based on dual Doo-Sabin subdivision and the corresponding parameterization, a modeling technique of deformable surfaces is presented in this paper. In the proposed model, all the dynamic parameters are computed in a unified way for both non-defective and defective subdivision matrices, and central differences are used to discretize the Lagrangian dynamics equation instead of backward differences. Moreover, a local scheme is developed to solve the dynamics equation approximately, thus the order of the linear equation is reduced greatly. Therefore, the proposed model is more efficient and faster than the existing dynamic models. It can be used for deformable surface design, interactive surface editing, medical imaging and simulation.

  18. Subdivision for Generating Quadrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Guofu; Feng Yuyu; Chen Falai

    2002-01-01

    Quadrics are of basic importance in Computer Graphics and Computer Aided Design. In this paper,we design a subdivision scheme based on the method suggested by G. Morin and J. Warren to generate conics and quadrics conveniently. Given the control polygon(poly-hedron),the corresponding ellipse (ellipsoid)can be generated. The hyperbolas and hyperboloids are generated based on the generation of ellipses and ellipsoids by a simple transformation. The method in this paper is much simpler and easier to apply than those given by Eugenia Montiel et al.

  19. The accuracy, precision and sustainability of different techniques for tablet subdivision: breaking by hand and the use of tablet splitters or a kitchen knife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet-Nales, D.A. van; Doeve, M.E.; Nicia, A.E.; Teerenstra, S.; Notenboom, K.; Hekster, Y.A.; Bemt, B.J.F van den

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tablets are frequently subdivided to lower the dose, to facilitate swallowing by e.g. children or older people or to save costs. Splitting devices are commonly used when hand breaking is difficult or painful. METHODS: Three techniques for tablet subdivision were investigated: hand brea

  20. Local Routing in Convex Subdivisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Prosenjit; Durocher, Stephane; Mondal, Debajyoti;

    2015-01-01

    In various wireless networking settings, node locations determine a network’s topology, allowing the network to be modelled by a geometric graph drawn in the plane. Without any additional information, local geometric routing algorithms can guarantee delivery to the target node only in restricted...... classes of geometric graphs, such as triangulations. In order to guarantee delivery on more general classes of geometric graphs (e.g., convex subdivisions or planar subdivisions), previous local geometric routing algorithms required Θ(logn) state bits to be stored and passed with the message. We present...... the first local geometric routing algorithm using only one state bit to guarantee delivery on convex subdivisions and the first local geometric memoryless routing algorithm that guarantees delivery on edge-augmented monotone subdivisions (including all convex subdivisions) when the algorithm has knowledge...

  1. The accuracy, precision and sustainability of different techniques for tablet subdivision: breaking by hand and the use of tablet splitters or a kitchen knife

    OpenAIRE

    van Riet-Nales, D.A.; Doeve, M.E.; Nicia, A.E.; Teerenstra, S; Notenboom, K.; Hekster, Y.A.; Bemt, B.J.F. van den

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tablets are frequently subdivided to lower the dose, to facilitate swallowing by e.g. children or older people or to save costs. Splitting devices are commonly used when hand breaking is difficult or painful. METHODS: Three techniques for tablet subdivision were investigated: hand breaking, tablet splitter, kitchen knife. A best case drug (paracetamol), tablet (round, flat, uncoated, 500 mg) and operator (24-year student) were applied. Hundred tablets were subdivided by hand and...

  2. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare;

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested t...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34.......Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested...... that they may accumulate in elderly individuals. To further explore the presence and the age-related acquisition of somatic structural variants in the human genome, we investigated CNVs acquired over a period of 10 years in 86 elderly Danish twins as well as CNV discordances between co-twins of 18 monozygotic...

  3. Improved Ternary Subdivision Interpolation Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huawei; QIN Kaihuai

    2005-01-01

    An improved ternary subdivision interpolation scheme was developed for computer graphics applications that can manipulate open control polygons unlike the previous ternary scheme, with the resulting curve proved to be still C2-continuous. Parameterizations of the limit curve near the two endpoints are given with expressions for the boundary derivatives. The split joint problem is handled with the interpolating ternary subdivision scheme. The improved scheme can be used for modeling interpolation curves in computer aided geometric design systems, and provides a method for joining two limit curves of interpolating ternary subdivisions.

  4. Distribution of components of basal lamina and dystrophin-dystroglycan complex in the rat pineal gland: differences from the brain tissue and between the subdivisions of the gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagyura, Zsolt; Pócsai, Károly; Kálmán, Mihály

    2010-01-01

    The pineal gland is an evagination of the brain tissue, a circumventricular neuroendocrine organ. Our immunohistochemical study investigates basal lamina components (laminin, agrin, perlecan, fibronectin), their receptor, the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex (beta-dystroglycan, dystrophin utrophin), aquaporins (-4,-9) and cellular markers (S100, neurofilament, GFAP, glutamine synthetase) in the adult rat corpus pineale. The aim was to compare the immunohistochemical features of the cerebral and pineal vessels and their environment, and to compare their features in the distal and proximal subdivisions of the so-called 'superficial pineal gland'. In contrast to the cerebral vessels, pineal vessels proved to be immunonegative to alpha1-dystrobrevin, but immunoreactive to laminin. An inner, dense, and an outer, loose layer of laminin as two basal laminae were present. The gap between them contained agrin and perlecan. Basal lamina components enmeshed the pinealocytes, too. Components of dystrophin-dystroglycan complex were also distributed along the vessels. Dystrophin, utrophin and agrin gave a 'patchy' distribution rather than a continuous one. The vessels were interconnected by wing-like structures, composed of basal lamina-components: a delicate network forming nests for cells. Cells immunostained with glutamine synthetase, S100-protein or neurofilament protein contacted the vessels, as well as GFAP- or aquaporin-immunostained astrocytes. Within the body a smaller, proximal, GFAP-and aquaporin-containing subdivision, and a larger, distal, GFAP-and aquaporin-free subdivision could be distinguished. The vascular localization of agrin and utrophin, as well as dystrophin, delineated vessels unequally, preferring the proximal or distal end of the body, respectively.

  5. Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings

    OpenAIRE

    Plomin, R.; Deary, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence is a core construct in differential psychology and behavioural genetics, and should be so in cognitive neuroscience. It is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality. Intelligence is one of the most heritable behavioural traits. Here, we highlight five genetic findings that are special to intelligence differences and that have important implications for its genetic architecture and for...

  6. Recursively-regular subdivisions and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafel Jaume

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We generalize regular subdivisions (polyhedral complexes resulting from the projection of the lower faces of a polyhedron introducing the class of recursively-regular subdivisions. Informally speaking, a recursively-regular subdivision is a subdivision that can be obtained by splitting some faces of a regular subdivision by other regular subdivisions (and continue recursively. We also define the finest regular coarsening and the regularity tree of a polyhedral complex. We prove that recursively-regular subdivisions are not necessarily connected by flips and that they are acyclic with respect to the in-front relation. We show that the finest regular coarsening of a subdivision can be efficiently computed, and that whether a subdivision is recursively regular can be efficiently decided. As an application, we also extend a theorem known since 1981 on illuminating space by cones and present connections of recursive regularity to tensegrity theory and graph-embedding problems.     

  7. Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; Deary, I J

    2015-02-01

    Intelligence is a core construct in differential psychology and behavioural genetics, and should be so in cognitive neuroscience. It is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality. Intelligence is one of the most heritable behavioural traits. Here, we highlight five genetic findings that are special to intelligence differences and that have important implications for its genetic architecture and for gene-hunting expeditions. (i) The heritability of intelligence increases from about 20% in infancy to perhaps 80% in later adulthood. (ii) Intelligence captures genetic effects on diverse cognitive and learning abilities, which correlate phenotypically about 0.30 on average but correlate genetically about 0.60 or higher. (iii) Assortative mating is greater for intelligence (spouse correlations ~0.40) than for other behavioural traits such as personality and psychopathology (~0.10) or physical traits such as height and weight (~0.20). Assortative mating pumps additive genetic variance into the population every generation, contributing to the high narrow heritability (additive genetic variance) of intelligence. (iv) Unlike psychiatric disorders, intelligence is normally distributed with a positive end of exceptional performance that is a model for 'positive genetics'. (v) Intelligence is associated with education and social class and broadens the causal perspectives on how these three inter-correlated variables contribute to social mobility, and health, illness and mortality differences. These five findings arose primarily from twin studies. They are being confirmed by the first new quantitative genetic technique in a century-Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA)-which estimates genetic influence using genome-wide genotypes in large samples of unrelated individuals. Comparing GCTA results to the results of twin studies reveals important insights into the genetic architecture

  8. Space subdivision for indoor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Liu, L.; Sithole, G.; Zhao, J.; Mortari, F.

    2014-01-01

    This report makes an overview of 2D, 2,5D and 3D approaches for indoor space subdivision for the purpose of indoor navigation. The report starts with a conceptual framework for indoor space utilisation. We introduce and elaborate on the concepts of indoor space (navigable and non-navigable), agent,

  9. Space subdivision for indoor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlatanova, S.; Liu, L.; Sithole, G.; Zhao, J.; Mortari, F.

    2014-01-01

    This report makes an overview of 2D, 2,5D and 3D approaches for indoor space subdivision for the purpose of indoor navigation. The report starts with a conceptual framework for indoor space utilisation. We introduce and elaborate on the concepts of indoor space (navigable and non-navigable), agent,

  10. Wavelet subdivision methods gems for rendering curves and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles

    2010-01-01

    OVERVIEW Curve representation and drawing Free-form parametric curves From subdivision to basis functions Wavelet subdivision and editing Surface subdivision BASIS FUNCTIONS FOR CURVE REPRESENTATION Refinability and scaling functions Generation of smooth basis functions Cardinal B-splines Stable bases for integer-shift spaces Splines and polynomial reproduction CURVE SUBDIVISION SCHEMES Subdivision matrices and stencils B-spline subdivision schemes Closed curve rendering Open curve rendering BASIS FUNCTIONS GENERATED BY SUBDIVISION MATRICES Subdivision operators The up-sampling convolution ope

  11. Comparative landscape genetics of two river frog species occurring at different elevations on Mount Kilimanjaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancolli, Giulia; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Storfer, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Estimating population connectivity and species' abilities to disperse across the landscape is crucial for understanding the long-term persistence of species in changing environments. Surprisingly, few landscape genetic studies focused on tropical regions despite the alarming extinction rates within these ecosystems. Here, we compared the influence of landscape features on the distribution of genetic variation of an Afromontane frog, Amietia wittei, with that of its more broadly distributed lowland congener, Amietia angolensis, on Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. We predicted high gene flow in the montane species with movements enhanced through terrestrial habitats of the continuous rainforest. In contrast, dispersal might be restricted to aquatic corridors and reduced by anthropogenic disturbance in the lowland species. We found high gene flow in A. wittei relative to other montane amphibians. Nonetheless, gene flow was lower than in the lowland species which showed little population structure. Least-cost path analysis suggested that dispersal is facilitated by stream networks in both species, but different landscape features were identified to influence connectivity among populations. Contrary to a previous study, gene flow in the lowland species was negatively correlated with the presence of human settlements. Also, genetic subdivision in A. wittei did not coincide with specific physical barriers as in other landscape genetic studies, suggesting that factors other than topography may contribute to population divergence. Overall, these results highlight the importance of a comparative landscape genetic approach for assessing the influence of the landscape matrix on population connectivity, particularly because nonintuitive results can alter the course of conservation and management.

  12. Nanothermodynamics: a subdivision potential approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moussavi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available  Classical thermodynamic laws and relations have been developed for macroscopic systems that satisfy the thermodynamic limit. These relations are challenged as the system size decreases to the scale of nano-systems, in which thermodynamic properties are overshadowed by system size, and the usual classical concepts of extensivity and intensivity are no longer valid. The challenges to the classical thermodynamics in relation to small systems are demonstrated, and via the approach introduced by Hill, the concept of sub-division potential is clarified in details. The fundamental thermodynamic relations are obtained using a rational-based method.

  13. Symmetry properties of subdivision graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshkhah, Ashraf; Devillers, Alice; Praeger, Cheryl E.

    2010-01-01

    The subdivision graph $S(\\Sigma)$ of a graph $\\Sigma$ is obtained from $\\Sigma$ by `adding a vertex' in the middle of every edge of $\\Si$. Various symmetry properties of $\\S(\\Sigma)$ are studied. We prove that, for a connected graph $\\Sigma$, $S(\\Sigma)$ is locally $s$-arc transitive if and only if $\\Sigma$ is $\\lceil\\frac{s+1}{2}\\rceil$-arc transitive. The diameter of $S(\\Sigma)$ is $2d+\\delta$, where $\\Sigma$ has diameter $d$ and $0\\leqslant \\delta\\leqslant 2$, and local $s$-distance transi...

  14. The Functional Characteristics of the Common Subdivisions from the Dewey System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenovia Niculescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the normative architecture of the Dewey system, we meet the main determination of the common subdivisions which have specific forms of expressions. The referential values of the common subdivisions consist in the variety of reflection of different peculiar aspects of information.

  15. Reverse Loop subdivision with sharp features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Mingxi; Ma Lizhuang; Mao Zhihong; Wu Xiaomao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new reverse Loop subdivision method. In contrast to current wavelets based Loop subdivision scheme, our method applies the same rules to both regular and extraordinary vertices and reconstructs the sharp features easily. Furthermore, our method runs faster because it does not need analysis and synthesis procedural. Our main goal is the design of a reverse subdivision method that can reconstruct the coarser mesh from a finer subdivision surface with sharp features for multiresolution representation. The proposed method only needs a little memory storage and brings little error, and it is easy to implement.

  16. Electromyography Activation Levels of the 3 Gluteus Medius Subdivisions During Manual Strength Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otten, Roald; Tol, Johannes L; Holmich, Per

    2015-01-01

    of the individual GM subdivisions. The second aim was to evaluate differences in sEMG activation levels between the tested and contralateral (stabilizing) leg. METHOD: Twenty healthy physically active male subjects participated in this study. Muscle activity using sEMG was recorded for the GM subdivisions in 8......STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. CONTEXT: Gluteus medius (GM) muscle dysfunction is associated with overuse injury. The GM is functionally composed of 3 separate subdivisions: anterior, middle, and posterior. Clinical assessment of the GM subdivisions is relevant to detect strength and activation...... deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels...

  17. Evaluation of Subdivision of Warfarin Sodium Tablets Splitting for Different Equal Parts and by Different Methods%华法林钠片不同等份及不同方法分剂量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元江

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compared difference of various equal parts and various methods splitting warfarin sodium tablets. Method: Tablet cutters, scissors and knives were utilized to divide whole tablet produced by manufacture A, B and C into half and quarter parts. For one third and one fifth parts, the method scissor and pulverizing was applied to compare real weight and RSD of equal parts. Accuracy of subdivision of tablets of European Pharmacopiea was adopted. Results: RSDI/4 was more than RSDI/2 for three methods. When divided into half, all passed European Pharmacopeia standard except manufacture B used by knife while when divided into quarter all failed the requirement. For RSDI/5, all could not reach the requirement except manufacture B used by knife. For RSD1/3, the value was near to or beyond 15%. The real weight was not important difference for various operator when subdivided into two, three or five parts ( P〉0.05 ) . Conclusion: It was not accurate and rational to divide warfarin sodium tablets into such equal parts with abovementioned methods.%目的:比较华法林钠片不同等份及不同方法分剂量的差异。方法:分剂量成1/2、1/4片时采用切药器、剪刀、小刀,分剂量成1/3、1/5片时采用剪刀、磨粉分包,比较等份片实际重量的RSD及实际重量的差异,采用《欧洲药典》片剂分剂量准确性标准。结果:同一厂家华法林钠片3种方法分剂量,等份片RSD1/4均大于RSD1/2。分成二等份时,除国产B用小刀分剂量外,3厂家不同方法分剂量均符合《欧洲药典》标准。分成四等份时,3厂家不同方法分剂量均不符合《欧洲药典》标准。除国产B学生乙剪刀分剂量外,3厂家剪刀、磨粉分剂量成五等份时RSD均〉15%。三等份时RSD均接近或超过15%。分剂量成二等份、三等份或五等份,不同操作者等份片实际重量无统计学意义(P〉0.05)。结论:3厂家华法林钠片不同操

  18. Blending Parametric Patches with Subdivision Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂清; 李华

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the problem of blending parametric surfaces using subdivision patches is discussed. A new approach, named removing-boundary, is presented to generate piecewise-smooth subdivision surfaces through discarding the outmost quadrilaterals of the open meshes derived by each subdivision step. Then the approach is employed both to blend parametric bicubic B-spline surfaces and to fill n-sided holes. It is easy to produce piecewisesmooth subdivision surfaces with both convex and concave corners on the boundary, and limit surfaces are guaranteed to be C2 continuous on the boundaries except for a few singular points by the removing-boundary approach. Thus the blending method is very efficient and the blending surface generated is of good effect.

  19. Guillotine subdivisions approximate polygonal subdivisions: A simple new method for the geometric k-MST problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.S.B. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We show that any rectilinear polygonal subdivision in the plane can be converted into a {open_quotes}guillotine{close_quote} subdivision whose length is at most twice that of the original subdivision. {open_quote}Guillotine{close_quotes} subdivisions have a simple recursive structure that allows one to search for {open_quotes}optimal{close_quotes} such subdivisions in polynomial time, using dynamic programming. In particular, a consequence of our main theorem is a very simple proof that the k-MST problem in the plane has a constant factor polynomial-time approximation algorithm, and the constant factor that we obtain is a substantial improvement over all previous bounds: We obtain a factor of 2 for the L{sub 1} metric, and a factor of 2{radical}2 for the L{sub 2} (Euclidean) metric.

  20. Slow-Growing Subdivisions in any Dimension: Towards Removing the Curse of Dimensionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascucci,V

    2001-06-25

    The efficient representation of volumetric meshes is a central problem in scientific visualization. The difference in performance between most visualization algorithm for rectilinear grids and for unstructured mesh is mostly due to fundamental difference in efficiency of their representations. In Computer Graphics the gap in performance between 2D rectilinear grids and unstructured mesh has been overcome with the development of representation schemes based on the concept of subdivision surfaces. This gap has not been bridged in the volumetric cases which is fundamental interest for Scientific Visualization. In this paper we introduce a slow-growing volumetric subdivision scheme for meshes of any topology, any intrinsic dimension d and composed of a general type of polyhedral cells (topological balls). The main feature of this approach is the ability to split in different stages cells of different dimensions. This allows to increase the resolution of the mesh slowly using small stencils for the smoothing rules. ''Sharp features'' of dimension lower than d are embedded naturally in the subdivision procedure. Automatic adaptation is provided for variable resolution. In the uniform case the slow subdivision doubles the number of vertices in the mesh at each refinement independent of its dimension d. The bisection of all the edges in a d-dimensional simplicial mesh requires d subdivision steps. Hence the slow subdivision is a d{radical}2 subdivision scheme. This algorithm generalizes a recently developed {radical}2 subdivision scheme to 3D and higher dimensional meshes where the vertex proliferation becomes increasingly problematic as d grows (the curse of dimensionality). We introduce a smoothing rule for both the domain mesh and for functions defined on it. Empirical evidence demonstrates the smoothness of the scheme directly on the mesh and indirectly on the isosurfaces of the functions.

  1. Loop Subdivision Surface Based Progressive Interpolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Hua (Frank) Cheng; Feng-Tao Fan; Shu-Hua Lai; Cong-Lin Huang; Jia-Xi Wang; Jun-Hai Yong

    2009-01-01

    A new method for constructing interpolating Loop subdivision surfaces is presented. The new method is an extension of the progressive interpolation technique for B-splines. Given a triangular mesh M, the idea is to iteratively upgrade the vertices of M to generate a new control mesh M such that limit surface of M would interpolate M. It can be shown that the iterative process is convergent for Loop subdivision surfaces. Hence, the method is well-defined. The new method has the advantages of both a local method and a global method, i.e., it can handle meshes of any size and any topology while generating smooth interpolating subdivision surfaces that faithfully resemble the shape of the given meshes. The meshes considered here can be open or closed.

  2. Point Location in Disconnected Planar Subdivisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Prosenjit; Douieb, Karim; Dujmovic, Vida; King, James; Morin, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Let $G$ be a (possibly disconnected) planar subdivision and let $D$ be a probability measure over $\\R^2$. The current paper shows how to preprocess $(G,D)$ into an O(n) size data structure that can answer planar point location queries over $G$. The expected query time of this data structure, for a query point drawn according to $D$, is $O(H+1)$, where $H$ is a lower bound on the expected query time of any linear decision tree for point location in $G$. This extends the results of Collette et al (2008, 2009) from connected planar subdivisions to disconnected planar subdivisions. A version of this structure, when combined with existing results on succinct point location, provides a succinct distribution-sensitive point location structure.

  3. Vector subdivision schemes in (Lp(Rs))r(1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Song(

    2003-01-01

    -346.[16]Rots, C. C., Strang, G., A note on the joint spectral radius, Indag. Math., 1960, 22: 379-381.[17]Daubechies, I., Lagarias, J. C., Two-scal difference equations: Ⅱ. Local regularity, infinite products of matrices and fractals, SIAM J. Math. Anal., 1992, 23: 1031-1079.[18]Wang, Y., Two-scale dilation equations and mean spectral radius, Random Comput. Dynam., 1996, 4: 49-72.[19]Zhou, D. X., The p-norm joint spectral radius for even integers, Methods and Applications of Analysis, 1998,5: 39-54.[20]Ji, R. Q., Jiang, Q. T., Shen, Z. W., Convergence of cascade algorithms associated with nonhomogeneous refinement equations, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 2001, 129: 415-427.[21]Jia, R. Q., Convergence of vector subdivision schemes and construction of biorthogonal multiple wavelets,Advance in wavelets (Hong Kong, 1997), Singapore: Springer, 1998, 199-227.[22]Li, S., Convergence of cascade algorithms in Sobolev spaces associated with inhomogeneous refinement equations, J. Approx. Theory, 2000, 104: 135-163.[23]Strang, G., Zhou, D. X., Inhomogeneous refinement equations, J. Fourier Anal. Appl., 1998, 4: 733-747.

  4. Electromyographic analysis of the three subdivisions of gluteus medius during weight-bearing exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Sullivan Kieran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluteus medius (GM dysfunction is associated with many musculoskeletal disorders. Rehabilitation exercises aimed at strengthening GM appear to improve lower limb kinematics and reduce pain. However, there is a lack of evidence to identify which exercises best activate GM. In particular, as GM consists of three distinct subdivisions, it is unclear if GM activation is consistent across these subdivisions during exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the activation of the anterior, middle and posterior subdivisions of GM during weight-bearing exercises. Methods A single session, repeated-measures design. The activity of each GM subdivision was measured in 15 pain-free subjects using surface electromyography (sEMG during three weight-bearing exercises; wall squat (WS, pelvic drop (PD and wall press (WP. Muscle activity was expressed relative to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Differences in muscle activation were determined using one-way repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni analysis. Results The activation of each GM subdivision during the exercises was significantly different (interaction effect; p Discussion Posterior GM displayed higher activation across all three exercises than both anterior and middle GM. The WP produced the highest %MVIC activation for all GM subdivisions, and this was most pronounced for posterior GM. Clinicians may use these results to effectively progress strengthening exercises for GM in the rehabilitation of lower extremity injuries.

  5. Effect of Watertight Subdivision on Subdivision Index for Medium Size Ro–Ro Passenger Ferries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ro-pax vessels should fulfil the requirements of the current harmonised SOLAS Convention. The study analyses the effect of various ro-pax vessel subdivision arrangements on the subdivision index. A Polish ferry was chosen as a generic ship to perform the study. For illustration of damage survivability, the attained subdivision index A was calculated for a number of modified configurations. The arrangements included single and double sides above and below the car deck, with and without a double buoyant car deck. The conclusions of the study can be used in the design of new ro-pax vessels.

  6. The Residential Subdivision under the Influence of the Unfinished Densification (Case Study for Subdivisions in Setif, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhia Eddine Zakaria Lacheheb

    2015-06-01

    subdivision Sellam and the subdivision El Imane with a common situation, and a different land surface, density and cutting, being occupied by various social classes, with different needs and different household average size. The approach of this work is based on the typo morphological analysis to reveal the differences in the degrees of completions of the subdivision’s built environment and on the investigation, by a household’s survey, to demonstrate importance of the degree of completion and to reveal the conditions of qualitative densification favorable and convenient to a better subdivision’s appropriation. Keywords: Subdivision, Degree of completion, Densification, Urban Quality.

  7. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian canc...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....

  8. Planet map generation by tetrahedral subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for generating pseudo-random, zoomable planet maps for games and art.  The method is based on spatial subdivision using tetrahedrons.  This ensures planet maps without discontinuities caused by mapping a flat map onto a sphere. We compare the method to other map...

  9. Planet Map Generation by Tetrahedral Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for generating pseudo-random, zoomable planet maps for games and art.  The method is based on spatial subdivision using tetrahedrons.  This ensures planet maps without discontinuities caused by mapping a flat map onto a sphere. We compare the method to other map...

  10. Biological aspects of genetic differences in piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to gain insight in the biological background of differences in the direct genetic (piglet) component of piglet survival. Estimations of the direct genetic component of piglet survival were obtained by calculation of estimated breeding values for piglet survival (EBVp

  11. 29 CFR 1975.5 - States and political subdivisions thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subdivisions of a State: (5) The term “employer” means a person engaged in a business affecting commerce who... “State or political subdivision of a State”, but unusual factors to the contrary in a particular case may... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false States and political subdivisions thereof. 1975.5...

  12. Estimating Subdivision Depth of Catmull-Clark Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Wang; Kai-Huai Qin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, both general and exponential bounds of the distance between a uniform Catmull-Clark surface and its control polyhedron are derived. The exponential bound is independent of the process of subdivision and can be evaluated without recursive subdivision. Based on the exponential bound, we can predict the depth of subdivision within a user-specified error tolerance. This is quite useful and important for pre-computing the subdivision depth of subdivision surfaces in many engineering applications such as surface/surface intersection,mesh generation, numerical control machining and surface rendering.

  13. Translating Population Difference: The Use and Re-Use of Genetic Ancestry in Brazilian Cancer Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2016-01-01

    In the past ten years, there has been an expansion of scientific interest in population genetics linked to both understanding histories of human migration and the way that population difference and diversity may account for and/or be implicated in health and disease. In this article, I examine how particular aspects of a globalizing research agenda related to population differences and genetic ancestry are taken up in locally variant ways in the nascent field of Brazilian cancer genetics. Drawing on a broad range of ethnographic data from clinical and nonclinical contexts in the south of Brazil, I examine the ambiguities that attention to genetic ancestry generates, so revealing the disjunctured and diverse ways a global research agenda increasingly orientated to questions of population difference and genetic ancestry is being used and reused.

  14. Measuring differentiation among populations at different levels of genetic integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most genetic studies of population differentiation are based on gene-pool frequencies. Population differences for gene associations that show up as deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (homologous association or gametic disequilibria (non-homologous association are disregarded. Thus little is known about patterns of population differentiation at higher levels of genetic integration nor the causal forces. Results To fill this gap, a conceptual approach to the description and analysis of patterns of genetic differentiation at arbitrary levels of genetic integration (single or multiple loci, varying degrees of ploidy is introduced. Measurement of differentiation is based on the measure Δ of genetic distance between populations, which is in turn based on an elementary genic difference between individuals at any given level of genetic integration. It is proven that Δ does not decrease when the level of genetic integration is increased, with equality if the gene associations at the higher level follow the same function in both populations (e.g. equal inbreeding coefficients, no association between loci. The pattern of differentiation is described using the matrix of pairwise genetic distances Δ and the differentiation snail based on the symmetric population differentiation ΔSD. A measure of covariation compares patterns between levels. To show the significance of the observed differentiation among possible gene associations, a special permutation analysis is proposed. Applying this approach to published genetic data on oak, the differentiation is found to increase considerably from lower to higher levels of integration, revealing variation in the forms of gene association among populations. Conclusion This new approach to the analysis of genetic differentiation among populations demonstrates that the consideration of gene associations within populations adds a new quality to studies on population differentiation that is

  15. Crohn’s Disease Localization Displays Different Predisposing Genetic Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossa, Fabrizio; Valvano, Maria Rosa; Corritore, Giuseppe; Latiano, Tiziana; Martino, Giuseppina; D’Incà, Renata; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Pastore, Maria; D’Altilia, Mario; Scimeca, Daniela; Biscaglia, Giuseppe; Andriulli, Angelo; Latiano, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background Crohn’s disease (CD) is a pathologic condition with different clinical expressions that may reflect an interplay between genetics and environmental factors. Recently, it has been highlighted that three genetic markers, NOD2, MHC and MST1, were associated to distinct CD sites, supporting the concept that genetic variations may contribute to localize CD. Genetic markers, previously shown to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), were tested in CD patients with the aim to better dissect the genetic relationship between ileal, ileocolonic and colonic CD and ascertain whether a different genetic background would support the three disease sites as independent entities. Methods A panel of 29 SNPs of 19 IBD loci were analyzed by TaqMan SNP allelic discrimination method both evaluating their distinct contribute and analyzing all markers jointly. Results Seven hundred and eight CD patients and 537 healthy controls were included in the study. Of the overall population of patients, 237 patients had an ileal involvement (L1), 171 a colonic localization (L2), and the 300 remaining an ileocolon location (L3). We confirmed the association for 23 of 29 variations (P < 0.05). Compared to healthy controls, 16 variations emerged as associated to an ileum disease, 7 with a colonic disease and 14 with an ileocolonic site (P < 0.05). Comparing ileum to colonic CD, 5 SNPs (17%) were differentially associated (P < 0.05). A genetic model score that aggregated the risks of 23 SNPs and their odds ratios (ORs), yielded an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.70 for the overall CD patients. By analyzing each CD location, the AUC remained at the same level for the ileal and ileocolonic sites (0.73 and 0.72, respectively), but dropped to a 0,66 value in patients with colon localization. Conclusions Our findings reaffirm the existence of at least three different subgroups of CD patients, with a genetic signature distinctive for the three main CD sites. PMID:28052082

  16. The visual pulvinar in tree shrews I. Multiple subdivisions revealed through acetylcholinesterase and Cat-301 chemoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, David C; Jain, Neeraj; Kaas, Jon H

    2003-12-22

    Tree shrews are highly visual mammals closely related to primates. They have a large visual pulvinar complex, but its organization and relation to visual cortex is only partly known. We processed brain sections through the pulvinar with seven different procedures in an effort to reveal histologically distinct compartments. The results revealed three major subdivisions. A dorsal subdivision, Pd, stains darkly for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and occupies the dorsoposterior one-third of the pulvinar complex. A ventral subdivision, Pv, stains darkly when processed with the Cat-301 antibody and occupies the ventroanterior fifth of the pulvinar complex along the brachium of the superior colliculus. Unexpectedly, part of Pv is ventral to the brachium. A large central subdivision, Pc, stains moderately dark for AChE and cytochrome oxidase (CO), and very light for Cat-301. Pc includes about half of the pulvinar complex, with parts on both sides of the brachium of the superior colliculus. These architectonic results demonstrate that the pulvinar complex of tree shrews is larger and has more subdivisions than previously described. The complex resembles the pulvinar of primates by having a portion ventral to the brachium and by having histochemically distinct nuclei; the number of nuclei is less than in primates, however.

  17. Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish pallium based on molecular marker analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Julia; Kroehne, Volker; Freudenreich, Dorian; Machate, Anja; Geffarth, Michaela; Braasch, Ingo; Kaslin, Jan; Brand, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: The telencephalon shows a remarkable structural diversity among vertebrates. In particular, the everted telencephalon of ray-finned fishes has a markedly different morphology compared to the evaginated telencephalon of all other vertebrates. This difference in development has hampered the comparison between different areas of the pallium of ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei of all other vertebrates. Various models of homology between pallial subdivisions in ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei in tetrapods have been proposed based on connectional, neurochemical, gene expression and functional data. However, no consensus has been reached so far. In recent years, the analysis of conserved developmental marker genes has assisted the identification of homologies for different parts of the telencephalon among several tetrapod species. Results: We have investigated the gene expression pattern of conserved marker genes in the adult zebrafish ( Danio rerio) pallium to identify pallial subdivisions and their homology to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Combinatorial expression analysis of ascl1a, eomesa, emx1, emx2, emx3, and Prox1 identifies four main divisions in the adult zebrafish pallium. Within these subdivisions, we propose that Dm is homologous to the pallial amygdala in tetrapods and that the dorsal subdivision of Dl is homologous to part of the hippocampal formation in mouse. We have complemented this analysis be examining the gene expression of emx1, emx2 and emx3 in the zebrafish larval brain. Conclusions: Based on our gene expression data, we propose a new model of subdivisions in the adult zebrafish pallium and their putative homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Pallial nuclei control sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, like memory, learning and emotion. The identification of pallial subdivisions in the adult zebrafish and their homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods will contribute to the use of the zebrafish system as a model

  18. Robustness of the Probabilistic damage Stability Concept to the Degree of Details in the Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Erik Sonne; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Baatrup, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The paper addresses the sensitivity of the Attained Index A to the degree of details in the modeling of the internal subdivision and for differences in software. The calculations are performed within the framework of the SOLAS, Part B.1 for cargo ships. The different software gives fairly equal...... simplifications can be taken without changing the Attained Index A significantly....

  19. Robustness of the Probabilistic damage Stability Concept to the Degree of Details in the Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Erik Sonne; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Baatrup, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The paper addresses the sensitivity of the Attained Index A to the degree of details in the modeling of the internal subdivision and for differences in software. The calculations are performed within the framework of the SOLAS, Part B.1 for cargo ships. The different software gives fairly equal...

  20. Mean size formula of wavelet subdivision tree on Heisenberg group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-mao

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mean size formula of wavelet packets (wavelet subdivision tree) on Heisenberg group. The formula is given in terms of the p-norm joint spectral radius. The vector refinement equations on Heisenberg group and the subdivision tree on the Heisenberg group are discussed. The mean size formula of wavelet packets can be used to describe the asymptotic behavior of norm of the subdivision tree.

  1. Behavioural genetic differences between Chinese and European pigs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QINGPO CHU; TINGTING LIANG; LINGLING FU; HUIZHI LI; BO ZHOU

    2017-09-01

    Aggression is a heritable trait and genetically related to neurotransmitter-related genes. Behavioural characteristics of some pig breeds are different. To compare the genetic differences between breeds, backtest and aggressive behaviour assessments, and genotyped using Sequenom iPLEX platform were performed in 50 Chinese indigenous Mi pigs and 100 landrace-large white (LLW) cross pigs with 32 SNPs localized in 11 neurotransmitter-related genes. The genetic polymorphisms of 26 SNPs had notable differences (P < 0.05) between Mi and LLW. The most frequent haplotypes were different in DBH, HTR2A, GAD1, HTR2B,MAOA and MAOB genes between Mi and LLW. The mean of backtest scores was significantly lower (P < 0.001) for Mi than LLW pigs. Skin lesion scores were greater (P < 0.01) in LLW pigs than Mi pigs. In this study, we have confirmed that Chinese Mi pigs are less active and less aggressive than European LLW pigs, and the genetic polymorphisms of neurotransmitter-related genes, which have been proved previously associated with aggressive behaviour, have considerable differences between Mi and LLW pigs.

  2. A SUBDIVISION SCHEME FOR VOLUMETRIC MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GhulamMustafa; LiuXuefeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a subdivision scheme which generalizes a surface scheme in previous papers to volume meshes is designed. The scheme exhibits significant control over shrink-age/size of volumetric models. It also has the ability to conveniently incorporate boundaries and creases into a smooth limit shape of models. The method presented here is much simpler and easier as compared to MacCracken and Joy's. This method makes no restrictions on the local topology of meshes. Particularly, it can be applied without any change to meshes of nonmanifold topology.

  3. Different types of secondary information in the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraia, Richard J; Iben, James R

    2014-07-01

    Whole-genome and functional analyses suggest a wealth of secondary or auxiliary genetic information (AGI) within the redundancy component of the genetic code. Although there are multiple aspects of biased codon use, we focus on two types of auxiliary information: codon-specific translational pauses that can be used by particular proteins toward their unique folding and biased codon patterns shared by groups of functionally related mRNAs with coordinate regulation. AGI is important to genetics in general and to human disease; here, we consider influences of its three major components, biased codon use itself, variations in the tRNAome, and anticodon modifications that distinguish synonymous decoding. AGI is plastic and can be used by different species to different extents, with tissue-specificity and in stress responses. Because AGI is species-specific, it is important to consider codon-sensitive experiments when using heterologous systems; for this we focus on the tRNA anticodon loop modification enzyme, CDKAL1, and its link to type 2 diabetes. Newly uncovered tRNAome variability among humans suggests roles in penetrance and as a genetic modifier and disease modifier. Development of experimental and bioinformatics methods are needed to uncover additional means of auxiliary genetic information.

  4. Comparison of genetic detection efficiency of different markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... in phenotypic differences (Parra et al., 2003; Brutsaert et al., 2005) ... tion of neutral genetic variation among popula-tions, and ... relationship among breeds and exploring the evolution .... was not only related with their origin, but also related with ... National High Technology Research and Development.

  5. Genetic diversity of Actinobacillus lignieresii isolates from different hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko; Angen, Øystein; Bisgaard, Magne

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity detected by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) of 54 Actinobacilus lignieresii isolates from different hosts and geographic localities is described. On the basis of variances in AFLP profiles, the strains were grouped in two major clusters; one comprisin...

  6. A genetic basis for intraspecific differences in developmental timing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tills, Oliver; Rundle, Simon D; Salinger, Moritz; Haun, Timm; Pfenninger, Markus; Spicer, John I

    2011-01-01

    Heterochrony, altered developmental timing between ancestors and their descendents, has been proposed as a pervasive evolutionary feature and recent analytical approaches have confirmed its existence as an evolutionary pattern. Yet, the mechanistic basis for heterochrony remains unclear and, in particular, whether intraspecific variation in the timing of developmental events generates, or has the potential to generate, future between-species differences. Here we make a key step in linking heterochrony at the inter- and intraspecific level by reporting an association between interindividual variation in both the absolute and relative timing (position within the sequence of developmental events) of key embryonic developmental events and genetic distance for the pond snail, Radix balthica. We report significant differences in the genetic distance of individuals exhibiting different levels of dissimilarity in their absolute and relative timing of developmental events such as spinning activity, eyespot formation, heart ontogeny, and hatching. This relationship between genetic and developmental dissimilarity is consistent with there being a genetic basis for variation in developmental timing and so suggests that intraspecific heterochrony could provide the raw material for natural selection to produce speciation.

  7. Genetic and environmental stability differs in reactive and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Zheng, Mo; Baker, Laura A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reactive (impulsive and affective) and proactive (planned and instrumental) aggression from childhood to early adolescence. The sample was drawn from an ongoing longitudinal twin study of risk factors for antisocial behavior at the University of Southern California (USC). The twins were measured on two occasions: ages 9-10 years (N=1,241) and 11-14 years (N=874). Reactive and proactive aggressive behaviors were rated by parents. The stability in reactive aggression was due to genetic and nonshared environmental influences, whereas the continuity in proactive aggression was primarily genetically mediated. Change in both reactive and proactive aggression between the two occasions was mainly explained by nonshared environmental influences, although some evidence for new genetic variance at the second occasion was found for both forms of aggression. These results suggest that proactive and reactive aggression differ in their genetic and environmental stability, and provide further evidence for some distinction between reactive and proactive forms of aggression.

  8. Orienting the Neighborhood: A Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes a new computerized Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool being developed to allow users to interactively design subdivision street layouts while receiving feedback about energy impacts based on user-specified building design variants and availability of roof surfaces for photovoltaic and solar water heating systems.

  9. The $\\gamma$-vector of a barycentric subdivision

    CERN Document Server

    Nevo, Eran; Tenner, Bridget Eileen

    2010-01-01

    We prove that the $\\gamma$-vector of the barycentric subdivision of a simplicial sphere is the $f$-vector of a balanced simplicial complex. The combinatorial basis for this work is the study of certain refinements of Eulerian numbers used by Brenti and Welker to describe the $h$-vector of the barycentric subdivision of a boolean complex.

  10. 14 CFR 93.55 - Subdivision of Terminal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subdivision of Terminal Area. 93.55 Section 93.55 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... § 93.55 Subdivision of Terminal Area. The Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area is subdivided as follows: (a...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1219 - Dissolution of political subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissolution of political subdivision. 404... Agreements Is Obtained and Continues § 404.1219 Dissolution of political subdivision. If a political... satisfactory evidence of its dissolution or nonexistence. The evidence must establish that the entity is not...

  12. Improved Butterfly Subdivision Scheme for Meshes with Arbitrary Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; MA Yong-you; ZHANG Cheng; JIANG Shou-wei

    2005-01-01

    Based on the butterfly subdivision scheme and the modified butterfly subdivision scheme, an improved butterfly subdivision scheme is proposed. The scheme uses a small stencil of six points to calculate new inserting vertex, 2n new vertices are inserted in the 2n triangle faces in each recursion, and the n old vertices are kept, special treatment is given to the boundary, achieving higher smoothness while using small stencils is realized. With the proposed scheme, the number of triangle faces increases only by a factor of 3 in each refinement step. Compared with the butterfly subdivision scheme and the modified butterfly subdivision scheme, the size of triangle faces changes more gradually, which allows one to have greater control over the resolution of a refined mesh.

  13. Difference in MSA phenotype distribution between populations: genetics or environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Tetsutaro; Revesz, Tamas; Paviour, Dominic; Lees, Andrew J; Quinn, Niall; Tada, Mari; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Onodera, Osamu; Wakabayashi, Koichi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Holton, Janice L

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for the differences in emphasis on striatonigral or olivopontocerebellar involvement in multiple system atrophy (MSA) remain to be determined. Semi-quantitative pathological analyses carried out in the United Kingdom and Japan demonstrated that olivopontocerebellar-predominant pathology was more frequent in Japanese MSA than British MSA. This observation provides evidence for a difference in phenotype distribution between British and Japanese patients with definite MSA. Studies of the natural history and epidemiology of MSA carried out in various populations have revealed that the relative prevalences of clinical subtypes of MSA probably differ among populations; the majority of MSA patients diagnosed in Europe have predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P), while the majority of MSA patients diagnosed in Asia have predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C). Although potential drawbacks to the published frequencies of clinical subtypes and pathological subtypes should be considered because of selection biases, the difference demonstrated in pathological subtype is also consistent with the differences in clinical subtype of MSA demonstrated between Europe and Asia. Modest alterations in susceptibility factors may contribute to the difference in MSA phenotype distribution between populations. Synergistic interactions between genetic risk variants and environmental toxins responsible for parkinsonism or cerebellar dysfunction should therefore be explored. Further investigations are needed to determine the environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors that account for the differences in clinicopathological phenotype of MSA among different populations.

  14. Epidemiological and genetical differences between classical and atypical scrapie cases

    OpenAIRE

    Lühken, Gesine; Buschmann, Anne; Brandt, Horst; Eiden, Martin; Groschup, Martin; Erhardt, Georg

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiology and prion protein (PrP) genetics in scrapie-affected sheep flocks in Germany. For this purpose, 224 German scrapie cases in sheep diagnosed between January 2002 and February 2006 were classified as classical or atypical scrapie and the amino acids at codons 136, 141, 154 and 171 were determined. Likewise, representative numbers of flock mates were genotyped. Significant epidemiological differences were observed betw...

  15. Sex differences in genetic architecture of complex phenotypes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Vink

    Full Text Available We examined sex differences in familial resemblance for a broad range of behavioral, psychiatric and health related phenotypes (122 complex traits in children and adults. There is a renewed interest in the importance of genotype by sex interaction in, for example, genome-wide association (GWA studies of complex phenotypes. If different genes play a role across sex, GWA studies should consider the effect of genetic variants separately in men and women, which affects statistical power. Twin and family studies offer an opportunity to compare resemblance between opposite-sex family members to the resemblance between same-sex relatives, thereby presenting a test of quantitative and qualitative sex differences in the genetic architecture of complex traits. We analyzed data on lifestyle, personality, psychiatric disorder, health, growth, development and metabolic traits in dizygotic (DZ same-sex and opposite-sex twins, as these siblings are perfectly matched for age and prenatal exposures. Sample size varied from slightly over 300 subjects for measures of brain function such as EEG power to over 30,000 subjects for childhood psychopathology and birth weight. For most phenotypes, sample sizes were large, with an average sample size of 9027 individuals. By testing whether the resemblance in DZ opposite-sex pairs is the same as in DZ same-sex pairs, we obtain evidence for genetic qualitative sex-differences in the genetic architecture of complex traits for 4% of phenotypes. We conclude that for most traits that were examined, the current evidence is that same the genes are operating in men and women.

  16. Genetic structure in dwarf bamboo (Bashania fangiana clonal populations with different genet ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-qing Ma

    Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP fingerprints were used to reveal genotypic diversity of dwarf bamboo (Bashania fangiana clonal populations with two different genet ages (≤30 years versus >70 years at Wolong National Natural Reserve, Sichuan province, China. We generated AFLP fingerprints for 96 leaf samples, collected at 30 m intervals in the two populations, using ten selective primer pairs. A total of 92 genotypes were identified from the both populations. The mean proportion of distinguishable genotypes (G/N was 0.9583 (0.9375 to 0.9792 and Simpson's index of diversity (D was 0.9982 (0.9973 to 0.9991. So, two B. fangiana populations were multiclonal and highly diverse. The largest single clone may occur over a distance of about 30 m. Our results demonstrated that the genotypic diversity and genet density of B. fangiana clonal population did not change significantly (47 versus 45 with genet aging and low partitioned genetic differentiation was between the two populations (Gst = 0.0571. The analysis of molecular variance consistently showed that a large proportion of the genetic variation (87.79% existed among the individuals within populations, whereas only 12.21% were found among populations. In addition, the high level of genotypic diversity in the two populations implies that the further works were needed to investigate the reasons for the poor seed set in B. fangiana after flowering.

  17. Processes and subdivisions in diogenites, a multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, T. A.; Hewins, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques used on diogenite orthopyroxene analyses show the relationships that occur within diogenites and the two orthopyroxenite components (class I and II) in the polymict diogenite Garland. Cluster analysis shows that only Peckelsheim is similar to Garland class I (Fe-rich) and the other diogenites resemble Garland class II. The unique diogenite Y 75032 may be related to type I by fractionation. Factor analysis confirms the subdivision and shows that Fe does not correlate with the weakly incompatible elements across the entire pyroxene composition range, indicating that igneous fractionation is not the process controlling total diogenite composition variation. The occurrence of two groups of diogenites is interpreted as the result of sampling or mixing of two main sequences of orthopyroxene cumulates with slightly different compositions.

  18. Heterogeneity in Genetic Admixture across Different Regions of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena, Sergio; Via, Marc; Ziv, Elad; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Dejean, Cristina; Huntsman, Scott; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Dutil, Julie; Matta, Jaime L.; Beckman, Kenneth; Burchard, Esteban González; Parolin, María Laura; Goicoechea, Alicia; Acreche, Noemí; Boquet, Mariel; Ríos Part, María Del Carmen; Fernández, Vanesa; Rey, Jorge; Stern, Mariana C.; Carnese, Raúl F.; Fejerman, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The population of Argentina is the result of the intermixing between several groups, including Indigenous American, European and African populations. Despite the commonly held idea that the population of Argentina is of mostly European origin, multiple studies have shown that this process of admixture had an impact in the entire Argentine population. In the present study we characterized the distribution of Indigenous American, European and African ancestry among individuals from different regions of Argentina and evaluated the level of discrepancy between self-reported grandparental origin and genetic ancestry estimates. A set of 99 autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was genotyped in a sample of 441 Argentine individuals to estimate genetic ancestry. We used non-parametric tests to evaluate statistical significance. The average ancestry for the Argentine sample overall was 65% European (95%CI: 63–68%), 31% Indigenous American (28–33%) and 4% African (3–4%). We observed statistically significant differences in European ancestry across Argentine regions [Buenos Aires province (BA) 76%, 95%CI: 73–79%; Northeast (NEA) 54%, 95%CI: 49–58%; Northwest (NWA) 33%, 95%CI: 21–41%; South 54%, 95%CI: 49–59%; p<0.0001] as well as between the capital and immediate suburbs of Buenos Aires city compared to more distant suburbs [80% (95%CI: 75–86%) versus 68% (95%CI: 58–77%), p = 0.01]. European ancestry among individuals that declared all grandparents born in Europe was 91% (95%CI: 88–94%) compared to 54% (95%CI: 51–57%) among those with no European grandparents (p<0.001). Our results demonstrate the range of variation in genetic ancestry among Argentine individuals from different regions in the country, highlighting the importance of taking this variation into account in genetic association and admixture mapping studies in this population. PMID:22506044

  19. Semi-stationary subdivision operators in geometric modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the view of operator, a novel uniform subdivision construction method is proposed for free form curve and surface design. This method can give an appropriate manner of parameter change in the subdivision iteration with fewer parameters and better shape control, such as building local revolving surfaces. The convergent property of order 2 subdivision surface is elegantly analyzed using computing techniques of matrix. This method is promised to be valuable in Computer Aided Design and computer graphics, due to the simplicity both in mathematical theory and practical implementation, the similarity to the B-spline curve and surface, G1 continuity, the affine invariability and local flexible control.

  20. [HLA and myasthenia. Subdivision in 3 categories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elchidiac, A; Lepage, V; Berrih, S; Colombani, J; Degos, L

    1985-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility (HLA types), clinical and pathological findings, amount of acetylcholine receptor antibodies and T lymphocyte subpopulations were studied in 63 patients with Myasthenia Gravis (MG). The frequency of HLA-DR5 was increased among patients (0.50 versus 0.23 in controls, pc less than 0.01, relative risk 3.3) and that of HLA-DR3 previously described as associated with MG was slightly increased (0.31 versus 0.20 in controls). The relative frequencies of two T cell subpopulations (T4 helper and T8 suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes) were normal in HLA-DR5 positive patients while the ratio T4/T8 was increased in other MG patients, who were HLA-DR3 (p less than 0.005). The high rate was due to an increase in the absolute number of T4 lymphocytes (p less than 0.001). HLA-DR3 patients were mostly women with early onset of a severe form of the disease, marked by the presence of thymic follicular lymphoid hyperplasia. A third genetic susceptibility to this disease was recently described in patients treated with D-penicillamine, the antigenic frequency of HLA-Bw35, DR1 is significantly increased. These 3 types of association between HLA and myasthenia gravis can be related to three different physiopathological mechanisms: the first two are probably linked to individual immunity (inductor/suppressor disequilibrium), in the third association, the mechanism is immunopharmacological.

  1. The independence of initial vectors in the subdivision schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迪荣; 李落清

    2002-01-01

    Starting with an initial vector λ = (λ(κ))κ∈z ∈ ep(Z), the subdivision scheme generates asequence (Snaλ)∞n=1 of vectors by the subdivision operator Saλ(κ) = ∑λ(j)a(k - 2j), k ∈ Z. j∈zSubdivision schemes play an important role in computer graphics and wavelet analysis. It is very interesting tounderstand under what conditions the sequence (Snaλ)∞n=1 converges to an Lp-function in an appropriate sense.This problem has been studied extensively. In this paper we show that the subdivision scheme converges forany initial vector in ep(Z) provided that it does for one nonzero vector in that space. Moreover, if the integertranslates of the refinable function are stable, the smoothness of the limit function corresponding to the vectorλ is also independent of λ.

  2. Cities, Towns and Villages, County subdivisions, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'County subdivisions'....

  3. Orthodontic treatment alternative to a class III subdivision malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusions are considered one of the most complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. Skeletal and/or dental asymmetries in patients presenting with Class III malocclusions can worsen the prognosis. Recognizing the dentoalveolar and skeletal characteristics of subdivision malocclusions and their treatment possibilities is essential for a favorable nonsurgical correction. Therefore, this article presents a nonsurgical asymmetric extraction approach to Class III subdivision malocclusion treatment which can significantly improve the occlusal and facial discrepancies.

  4. 46 CFR 42.09-10 - Stability, subdivision, and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stability, subdivision, and strength. 42.09-10 Section..., subdivision, and strength. (a) All vessels. Where regulations in this part, or in part 46 of this subchapter... strength requirements are in §§ 42.09-1, 42.13-1, 42.13-5, and 42.15-1. The applicable flooded...

  5. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Baldwin M; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2010-06-01

    Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature-nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism-collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism-collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences.

  6. The Minnesota Adoption Studies: genetic differences and malleability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, S; Weinberg, R A

    1983-04-01

    In 1974 we launched 2 large adoption studies for 2 quite different purposes. The Transracial Adoption Study was designed to test the hypothesis that black and interracial children reared by white families perform on IQ and school achievement tests as well as other adoptees because they are reared in the culture of the tests and the schools. In addition, transracial families provided a sample with large numbers of adopted and natural children in the same families. Sources of individual differences among siblings could be studied without fear of possible differences between adoptive families and those with their own children. The Adolescent Adoption Study was designed to assess the cumulative impact of differences among family environments at the end of the child-rearing period. All of the children were adopted in the first year of life and averaged 18.5 years at the time of the study. A comparison sample of families with their own adolescents was also studied. Black and interracial children scored as well on IQ tests as adoptees in other studies. Individual differences among them, however, were more related to differences among their biological than adoptive parents, whether they lived together or not. Young siblings were found to be intellectually quite similar, whether genetically related or not. Adolescents' IQ test scores were similar to those of their parents and siblings only if they were biologically related. Our interpretation of these results is that younger children are more influenced by differences among their family environments than older adolescents, who are freer to seek their own niches.

  7. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  8. Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish pallium based on molecular marker analysis [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ganz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The telencephalon shows a remarkable structural diversity among vertebrates. In particular, the everted telencephalon of ray-finned fishes has a markedly different morphology compared to the evaginated telencephalon of all other vertebrates. This difference in development has hampered the comparison between different areas of the pallium of ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei of all other vertebrates. Various models of homology between pallial subdivisions in ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei in tetrapods have been proposed based on connectional, neurochemical, gene expression and functional data. However, no consensus has been reached so far. In recent years, the analysis of conserved developmental marker genes has assisted the identification of homologies for different parts of the telencephalon among several tetrapod species. Results: We have investigated the gene expression pattern of conserved marker genes in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio pallium to identify pallial subdivisions and their homology to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Combinatorial expression analysis of ascl1a, eomesa, emx1, emx2, emx3, and Prox1 identifies four main divisions in the adult zebrafish pallium. Within these subdivisions, we propose that Dm is homologous to the pallial amygdala in tetrapods and that the dorsal subdivision of Dl is homologous to part of the hippocampal formation in mouse. We have complemented this analysis be examining the gene expression of emx1, emx2 and emx3 in the zebrafish larval brain. Conclusions: Based on our gene expression data, we propose a new model of subdivisions in the adult zebrafish pallium and their putative homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Pallial nuclei control sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, like memory, learning and emotion. The identification of pallial subdivisions in the adult zebrafish and their homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods will contribute to the use of the zebrafish

  9. MR-DTI and PET multimodal imaging of dopamine release within subdivisions of basal ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziortzi, A.; Searle, G.; Tsoumpas, C.; Long, C.; Shotbolt, P.; Rabiner, E.; Jenkinson, M.; Gunn, R. N.

    2011-09-01

    The basal ganglia is a group of anatomical nuclei, functionally organised into limbic, associative and sensorimotor regions, which plays a central role in dopamine related neurological and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we combine two imaging modalities to enable the measurement of dopamine release in functionally related subdivisions of the basal ganglia. [11C]-(+)-PHNO Positron Emission Tomography (PET) measurements in the living human brain pre- and post-administration of amphetamine allow for the estimation of regional dopamine release. Combined Magnetic Resonance Diffusion Tensor Imaging (MR-DTI) data allows for the definition of functional territories of the basal ganglia from connectivity information. The results suggest that there is a difference in dopamine release among the connectivity derived functional subdivisions. Dopamine release is highest in the limbic area followed by the sensorimotor and then the associative area with this pattern reflected in both striatum and pallidum.

  10. Gender differences in consumers' acceptance of genetically modified foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerbeek, H.; Casimir, G.

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that women are less accepting of genetically engineered products than men. We expect two mechanisms to be at work here. First, in consumer behaviour theory, more knowledge is assumed to lead to more acceptance. We assumed that for genetically engineered foods, this general princip

  11. An Improved QTM Subdivision Model with Approximate Equal-area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xuesheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the defect of large area deformation in the traditional QTM subdivision model, an improved subdivision model is proposed which based on the “parallel method” and the thought of the equal area subdivision with changed-longitude-latitude. By adjusting the position of the parallel, this model ensures that the grid area between two adjacent parallels combined with no variation, so as to control area variation and variation accumulation of the QTM grid. The experimental results show that this improved model not only remains some advantages of the traditional QTM model(such as the simple calculation and the clear corresponding relationship with longitude/latitude grid, etc, but also has the following advantages: ①this improved model has a better convergence than the traditional one. The ratio of area_max/min finally converges to 1.38, far less than 1.73 of the “parallel method”; ②the grid units in middle and low latitude regions have small area variations and successive distributions; meanwhile, with the increase of subdivision level, the grid units with large variations gradually concentrate to the poles; ③the area variation of grid unit will not cumulate with the increasing of subdivision level.

  12. A Subdivision Method to Unify the Existing Latitude and Longitude Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqi Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As research on large regions of earth progresses, many geographical subdivision grids have been established for various spatial applications by different industries and disciplines. However, there is no clear relationship between the different grids and no consistent spatial reference grid that allows for information exchange and comprehensive application. Sharing and exchange of data across departments and applications are still at a bottleneck. It would represent a significant step forward to build a new grid model that is inclusive of or compatible with most of the existing geodesic grids and that could support consolidation and exchange within existing data services. This study designs a new geographical coordinate global subdividing grid with one dimension integer coding on a 2n tree (GeoSOT that has 2n coordinate subdivision characteristics (global longitude and latitude subdivision and can form integer hierarchies at degree, minute, and second levels. This grid has the multi-dimensional quadtree hierarchical characteristics of a digital earth grid, but also provides good consistency with applied grids, such as those used in mapping, meteorology, oceanography and national geographical, and three-dimensional digital earth grids. No other existing grid codes possess these characteristics.

  13. Living in a Genetic World: How Learning About Interethnic Genetic Similarities and Differences Affects Peace and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimel, Sasha Y; Huesmann, Rowell; Kunst, Jonas R; Halperin, Eran

    2016-05-01

    Information about the degree of one's genetic overlap with ethnic outgroups has been emphasized in genocides, is frequently learned about through media reporting, and is increasingly being accessed via personal genetic testing services. However, the consequence of learning about whether your own ethnic group is either genetically related to or genetically distinct from a disliked ethnic group remains unknown. Across four experiments, using diverse samples, measures and contexts, we demonstrate that altering perceptions of genetic overlap between groups in conflict--in this case Arabs and Jews--impacts factors that are directly related to interethnic hostility (e.g., aggressive behaviors, support of conflict-related policies). Our findings indicate that learning about the genetic difference between oneself and an ethnic outgroup may contribute to the promotion of violence, whereas learning about the similarities may be a vital step toward fostering peace in some contexts. Possible interventions and implications are discussed. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Exploring land developer perspectives on conservation subdivision design and environmentally sustainable land development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen, Z Aslıgül

    2014-11-01

    Insight into land developers' perspectives on alternative residential developments and the barriers they experience in trying to develop them can be crucial in efforts to change environmentally damaging low-density, large-lot, and automobile-dependent residential patterns. Using a semi-structured interview instrument followed by short surveys, I examined the views of 16 developers in Waukesha County, WI, USA, a county that has experienced significant development pressures and widespread implementation of conservation subdivision design. The land developer investigation focused on conservation subdivision design familiarity and implementation, and identified a number of barriers that developers experienced in implementing the design. While the majority of the developers appeared familiar with the design and had experience developing conservation subdivisions, their motivations for developing them varied, as did their on-site conservation practices. The barriers included the lack of land use regulations supporting the design, economic factors, community opposition, and a lack of knowledge about sustainable residential development practices. Strategies to promote more environmentally sustainable residential land development patterns include providing a more supportive institutional environment, enacting different regulations and guidelines for natural resources protection, and offering education on ecologically sound development and planning practices.

  15. GENETIC CONSEQUENCES OF SEED DISPERSAL IN THREE SYMPATRIC FOREST HERBS. I. HIERARCHICAL POPULATION-GENETIC STRUCTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles F; Guries, Raymond P

    1994-06-01

    To examine the effects of seed dispersal on spatial genetic structure, we compare three sympatric species of forest herbs in the family Apiaceae whose fruits differ widely in morphological adaptations for animal-attached dispersal. Cryptotaenia canadensis has smooth fruits that are gravity dispersed, whereas Osmorhiza claytonii and Sanicula odorata fruits have appendages that facilitate their attachment to animals. The relative seed-dispersal ability among species, measured as their ability to remain attached to mammal fur, is ranked Sanicula > Osmorhiza > Cryptotaenia. We use a nested hierarchical sampling design to analyze genetic structure at spatial scales ranging from a few meters to hundreds of kilometers. Genetic differentiation among population subdivisions, estimated by average genetic distance and hierarchical F-statistics, has an inverse relationship with dispersal ability such that Cryptotaenia > Osmorhiza > Sanicula. In each species, genetic differentiation increases with distance among population subdivisions. Stochastic variation in gene flow, arising from seed dispersal by attachment to animals, may partly explain the weak relationship between pairwise spatial and genetic distance among populations and heterogeneity in estimates of single locus F-statistics. A hierarchical island model of gene flow is invoked to describe the effects of seed dispersal on population genetic structure. Seed dispersal is the predominant factor affecting variation in gene flow among these ecologically similar, taxonomically related species. © 1994 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Divided Spheres Geodesics and the Orderly Subdivision of the Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Popko, Edward S

    2012-01-01

    This well-illustrated book-in color throughout-presents a thorough introduction to the mathematics of Buckminster Fuller's invention of the geodesic dome, which paved the way for a flood of practical applications as diverse as weather forecasting and fish farms. The author explains the principles of spherical design and the three main categories of subdivision based on geometric solids (polyhedra). He illustrates how basic and advanced CAD techniques apply to spherical subdivision and covers modern applications in product design, engineering, science, games, and sports balls.

  17. Outline of The probabilistic Concept of Ship Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Maciej

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the whole probabilistic concept of ship subdivision is given, comprising the latest advances in determination of pi and s1 factors - the two probabilistic factors that form the basis of the new regulations.The method for calculating the pi factor for dry cargo ships is thoroughly...... presented and compared with the original method, developed by IMO inthe late 60's for passenger ships. After that, a review is presented of the past efforts to develop an estimate for the factor si - the most difficultand controversial part of the new subdivision regulations based on the probabilistic...... conditions, assuring a high accuracy of prediction for the si factor....

  18. Dynamic Change of Genetic Diversity in Conserved Populations with Different Initial Genetic Architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yun-feng; LI Hong-wei; WU Ke-liang; WU Chang-xin

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance and management of genetic diversity of farm animal genetic resources (AnGR) is very important for biological, socioeconomical and cultural significance. The core concern of conservation for farm AnGR is the retention of genetic diversity of conserved populations in a long-term perspective. However, numerous factors may affect evolution of genetic diversity of a conserved population. Among those factors, the genetic architecture of conserved populations is little considered in current conservation strategies. In this study, we investigated the dynamic changes of genetic diversity of conserved populations with two scenarios on initial genetic architectures by computer simulation in which thirty polymorphic microsatellite loci were chosen to represent genetic architecture of the populations with observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He), observed and mean effective number of alleles (Ao and Ae), number of polymorphic loci (NP) and the percentage of polymorphic loci (PP), number of rare alleles (RA) and number of non-rich polymorphic loci (NRP) as the estimates of genetic diversity. The two scenarios on genetic architecture were taken into account, namely, one conserved population with same allele frequency (AS) and another one with actual allele frequency (AA). The results showed that the magnitude of loss of genetic diversity is associated with genetic architecture of initial conserved population, the amplitude of genetic diversity decline in the context AS was more narrow extent than those in context AA, the ranges of decline of Ho and Ao were about 4 and 2 times in AA compared with that in AS, respectively, the occurrence of first monomorphic locus and the time of change of measure NP in scenario AA is 20 generations and 23 generations earlier than that in scenario AS, respectively. Additionally, we found that NRP, a novel measure proposed by our research group, was a proper estimate for monitoring the evolution of genetic diversity

  19. Is genetic information relevantly different from other kinds of non-genetic information in the life insurance context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpas, P J

    2008-07-01

    Within the medical, legal and bioethical literature, there has been an increasing concern that the information derived from genetic tests may be used to unfairly discriminate against individuals seeking various kinds of insurance; particularly health and life insurance. Consumer groups, the general public and those with genetic conditions have also expressed these concerns, specifically in the context of life insurance. While it is true that all insurance companies may have an interest in the information obtained from genetic tests, life insurers potentially have a very strong incentive to (want to) use genetic information to rate applicants, as individuals generally purchase their own cover and may want to take out very large policies. This paper critically focuses on genetic information in the context of life insurance. We consider whether genetic information differs in any relevant way from other kinds of non-genetic information required by and disclosed to life insurance companies by potential clients. We will argue that genetic information should not be treated any differently from other types of health information already collected from those wishing to purchase life insurance cover.

  20. Genetic Influences on Individual Differences in Exercise Behavior during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels van der Aa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in adolescent exercise behavior. Data on regular leisure time exercise activities were analyzed in 8,355 adolescent twins, from three-age cohorts (13-14, 15-16, and 17–19 years. Exercise behavior was assessed with survey items about type of regular leisure time exercise, frequency, and duration of the activities. Participants were classified as sedentary, regular exercisers, or vigorous exercisers. The prevalence of moderate exercise behavior declined from age 13 to 19 years with a parallel increase in prevalence of sedentary behavior, whereas the prevalence of vigorous exercise behavior remained constant across age cohorts. Variation in exercise behavior was analyzed with genetic structural equation modeling employing a liability threshold model. Variation was largely accounted for by genetic factors (72% to 85% of the variance was explained by genetic factors, whereas shared environmental factors only accounted for a substantial part of the variation in girls aged 13-14 years (46%. We hypothesize that genetic effects on exercise ability may explain the high heritability of exercise behavior in this phase of life.

  1. 24 CFR 1710.215 - Subdivision characteristics and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... developer's proposed plans which includes a description of the system of collecting surface waters; a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subdivision characteristics and climate. 1710.215 Section 1710.215 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  2. Parity, cycle space, and K4-subdivisions in graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    . Zang). We prove the new result that every $4$-connected graph with at least three triangles contains a totally odd $K_4$-subdivision if and only if it does notcontain a vertex whose deletion results in a bipartite graph.In particular, every $4$-connected planar graph contains a totally odd $K_4...

  3. Genetic analysis of body weight of Takifugu rubripes at different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-09

    Nov 9, 2016 ... 2Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao ... weight trait was mainly controlled by dominance effects from 8 to 17 months ... Key words: Takifugu rubripes, body weight, genetic parameters, .... The quantity of fish and the environment were standardized to ..... models of evolutionary change.

  4. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  5. Genetic diversity of Gallibacterium anatis isolates from different chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, A.M.; Torpdahl, Mia; Christensen, H.

    2003-01-01

    of chickens from an organic, egg-producing flock and a layer parent flock. A subset of strains was also characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and biotyping. The organic flock isolates were characterized by more than 94% genetic similarity, indicating that only a single clone was apparent...

  6. Thermodestruction of brown coals of different genetic types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butuzova, Ludmila; Isaeva, Lubov [L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical Organic and Coal Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 70 R. Luxemburg str., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Turchanina, Oksana [Donetsk National Technical University, 48 Artema str., 83000 Donetsk (Ukraine); Krzton, Andrzej [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Sowinskiego, 44-102, Gliwice (Poland)

    2002-06-20

    The influence of brown coal genetic type and method of chemical pre-treatment on its behavior in pyrolysis processes has been shown. An important role of brown coal reductivity in coal thermal decomposition has been ascertained. It has been found that chemical pre-treatment permits variation of the rate of pyrolysis, the yields of pyrolysis products and structure of semi-cokes.

  7. Individual Differences in Scotopic Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity: Genetic and Non-Genetic Influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J Bartholomew

    Full Text Available Despite the large amount of variation found in the night (scotopic vision capabilities of healthy volunteers, little effort has been made to characterize this variation and factors, genetic and non-genetic, that influence it. In the largest population of healthy observers measured for scotopic visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS to date, we quantified the effect of a range of variables on visual performance. We found that young volunteers with excellent photopic vision exhibit great variation in their scotopic VA and CS, and this variation is reliable from one testing session to the next. We additionally identified that factors such as Circadian preference, iris color, astigmatism, depression, sex and education have no significant impact on scotopic visual function. We confirmed previous work showing that the amount of time spent on the vision test influences performance and that laser eye surgery results in worse scotopic vision. We also showed a significant effect of intelligence and photopic visual performance on scotopic VA and CS, but all of these variables collectively explain <30% of the variation in scotopic vision. The wide variation seen in young healthy volunteers with excellent photopic vision, the high test-retest agreement, and the vast majority of the variation in scotopic vision remaining unexplained by obvious non-genetic factors suggests a strong genetic component. Our preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS of 106 participants ruled out any common genetic variants of very large effect and paves the way for future, larger genetic studies of scotopic vision.

  8. Brainstem projections of neurons located in various subdivisions of the dorsolateral hypothalamic area – an anterograde tract-tracing study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rege Sugárka Papp

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The projections from the dorsolateral hypothalamic area (DLH to the lower brainstem have been investigated by using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA, an anterograde tracer in rats. The DLH can be divided into 3 areas (dorsomedial hypothalamus, perifornical area, lateral hypothalamic area, and further subdivided into 8 subdivisions. After unilateral stereotaxic injections of BDA into individual DLH subdivisions, the correct sites of injections were controlled histologically, and the distribution patterns of BDA-positive fibers were mapped on serial sections between the hypothalamus and spinal cord in 22 rats. BDA-labeled fibers were observable over 100 different brainstem areas, nuclei or subdivisions. Injections into the 8 DLH subdivisions established distinct topographical patterns. In general, the density of labeled fibers was low in the lower brainstem. High density of fibers was seen only 4 of the 116 areas: in the lateral and ventrolateral parts of the periaqueductal gray, the Barrington’s and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei. All of the biogenic amine cell groups in the lower brainstem (9 noradrenaline, 3 adrenaline and 9 serotonin cell groups received labeled fibers, some of them from all, or at least 7 DLH subdivisions, mainly from perifornical and ventral lateral hypothalamic neurons. Some of the tegmental nuclei and nuclei of the reticular formation were widely innervated, although the density of the BDA-labeled fibers was generally low. No definitive descending BDA-positive pathway, but long-run solitaire BDA-labeled fibers were seen in the lower brainstem. These descending fibers joined some of the large tracts or fasciculi in the brainstem. The distribution pattern of BDA-positive fibers of DLH origin throughout the lower brainstem was comparable to patterns of previously published orexin- or melanin-concentrating hormone-immunoreactive fibers with somewhat differences.

  9. Current and historical drivers of landscape genetic structure differ in core and peripheral salamander populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Y Dudaniec

    Full Text Available With predicted decreases in genetic diversity and greater genetic differentiation at range peripheries relative to their cores, it can be difficult to distinguish between the roles of current disturbance versus historic processes in shaping contemporary genetic patterns. To address this problem, we test for differences in historic demography and landscape genetic structure of coastal giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus in two core regions (Washington State, United States versus the species' northern peripheral region (British Columbia, Canada where the species is listed as threatened. Coalescent-based demographic simulations were consistent with a pattern of post-glacial range expansion, with both ancestral and current estimates of effective population size being much larger within the core region relative to the periphery. However, contrary to predictions of recent human-induced population decline in the less genetically diverse peripheral region, there was no genetic signature of population size change. Effects of current demographic processes on genetic structure were evident using a resistance-based landscape genetics approach. Among core populations, genetic structure was best explained by length of the growing season and isolation by resistance (i.e. a 'flat' landscape, but at the periphery, topography (slope and elevation had the greatest influence on genetic structure. Although reduced genetic variation at the range periphery of D. tenebrosus appears to be largely the result of biogeographical history rather than recent impacts, our analyses suggest that inherent landscape features act to alter dispersal pathways uniquely in different parts of the species' geographic range, with implications for habitat management.

  10. Genetic versus antigenic differences among highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Ben; Reemers, Sylvia; Dortmans, Jos; Vries, de Erik; Jong, de Mart; Zande, van de Saskia; Rottier, Peter J.M.; Haan, de Cornelis A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses display a remarkable genetic and antigenic diversity. We examined to what extent genetic distances between several H5N1 viruses from different clades correlate with antigenic differences and vaccine performance. H5-specific antisera were generated, an

  11. Spatial genetic structure in two congeneric epiphytes with different dispersal strategies analysed by three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snall, T; Fogelqvist, J; Ribeiro, P J; Lascoux, M

    2004-08-01

    Three different approaches were used to assess the kinship structure of two epiphytic bryophytes, Orthotrichum speciosum and O. obtusifolium, that have different dispersal strategies. The two species were sampled in a 200 ha landscape where species occurrence and host trees had been mapped previously. Local environmental conditions at sampled trees were recorded and kinship between individuals was calculated based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-marker data. We did not detect any association between AFLP-markers and investigated environmental conditions. In both species, significant kinship coefficients were found between individuals up to 300-350 m apart which shows that both species have a restricted dispersal range. The spatial kinship structure was detected with both autocorrelation analysis and generalized additive models (GAMs), but linear regression failed to detect any structure in O. speciosum. Although the dioecious O. obtusifolium is currently the more common species it may, none the less, due to its restricted dispersal range and reproduction mode, become threatened in the future by current silvicultural practices which enhance the distance between host trees and decrease their life span. Finally, GAMs seem most appropriate for analysing spatial genetic structure because the effects of local environmental conditions and spatial structure can be analysed simultaneously, no assumption of a parametric form between kinship coefficient and distance is required, and spatial data resolution is not lost in the arbitrary choice of distance classes characterizing autocorrelation analysis.

  12. Curve interpolation based on Catmull-Clark subdivision scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for curve interpolation is proposed. The algorithm can produce a subdivision surface that can interpolate the predefined cubic B-spline curves by applying the Catmull-Clark scheme to a polygonal mesh containing "symmetric zonal meshes", which possesses some special properties. Many kinds of curve interpolation problems can be dealt with by this algorithm, such as interpolating single open curve or closed curve, a mesh of nonintersecting or intersecting curve. The interpolating surface is C2 everywhere excepting at a finite number of points. At the same time, sharp creases can also be modeled on the limit subdivision surface by duplicating the vertices of the tagged edges of initial mesh, i.e. the surface is only C0 along the cubic B-spline curve that is defined by the tagged edges. Because of being simple and easy to implement, this method can be used for product shape design and graphic software development.

  13. Memoryless Routing in Convex Subdivisions: Random Walks are Optimal

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Dan; Dujmovic, Vida; Morin, Pat

    2009-01-01

    A memoryless routing algorithm is one in which the decision about the next edge on the route to a vertex t for a packet currently located at vertex v is made based only on the coordinates of v, t, and the neighbourhood, N(v), of v. The current paper explores the limitations of such algorithms by showing that, for any (randomized) memoryless routing algorithm A, there exists a convex subdivision on which A takes Omega(n^2) expected time to route a message between some pair of vertices. Since this lower bound is matched by a random walk, this result implies that the geometric information available in convex subdivisions is not helpful for this class of routing algorithms. The current paper also shows the existence of triangulations for which the Random-Compass algorithm proposed by Bose etal (2002,2004) requires 2^{\\Omega(n)} time to route between some pair of vertices.

  14. Genetic differentiation and reduced genetic diversity at the northern range edge of two species with different dispersal modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Abigail E; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts that genetic variation should be reduced at range margins, but empirical support is equivocal. Here, we used genotyping-by-sequencing technology to investigate genetic variation in central and marginal populations of two species in the marine gastropod genus Crepidula. These two species have different development and dispersal types and might therefore show different spatial patterns of genetic variation. Both allelic richness and the proportion of private alleles were highest in the most central populations of both species, and lower at the margin. The species with low dispersal, Crepidula convexa, showed high degrees of structure throughout the range that conform to the pattern found in previous studies using other molecular markers. The northernmost populations of the high-dispersing species, Crepidula fornicata, are distinct from more central populations, although this species has been previously observed to have little genetic structure over much of its range. Although genetic diversity was significantly lower at the range margin, the absolute reduction in diversity observed with these genomewide markers was slight, and it is not yet known whether there are functional consequences for the marginal populations.

  15. Stellar subdivisions and Stanley-Reisner rings of Gorenstein complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Boehm, Janko

    2009-01-01

    Unprojection theory aims to analyze and construct complicated commutative rings in terms of simpler ones. Our main result is that, on the algebraic level of Stanley-Reisner rings, stellar subdivisions of non-acyclic Gorenstein simplicial complexes correspond to unprojections of type Kustin-Miller. As an application, we inductively calculate the minimal graded free resolutions of Stanley-Reisner rings associated to stacked polytopes.

  16. Continuity of non-uniform recursive subdivision surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Since Doo-Sabin and Catmull-Clark surfaces were proposed in 1978, eigenstructure, convergence and continuity analyses of stationary subdivision have been performed very well, but it has been very difficult to prove the convergence and continuity of non-uniform recursive subdivision surfaces (NURSSes, for short) of arbitrary topology. In fact, so far a problem whether or not there exists the limit surface as well as G1 continuity of a non-uniform Catmull-Clark subdivision has not been solved yet. Here the concept of equivalent knot spacing is introduced. A new technique for eigenanalysis, convergence and continuity analyses of non-uniform Catmull-Clark surfaces is proposed such that the convergence and G1 continuity of NURSSes at extraordinary points are proved. In addition, slightly improved rules for NURSSes are developed. This offers us one more alternative for modeling free-form surfaces of arbitrary topologies with geometric features such as cusps, sharp edges, creases and darts, while elsewhere maintaining the same order of continuity as B-spline surfaces.

  17. Continuity of non-uniform recursive subdivision surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开怀; 王华维

    2000-01-01

    Since Doo-Sabin and Catmull-Clark surfaces were proposed in 1978, eigenstructure, convergence and continuity analyses of stationary subdivision have been performed very well, but it has been very difficult to prove the convergence and continuity of non-uniform recursive subdivision surfaces (NURSSes, for short) of arbitrary topology. In fact, so far a problem whether or not there exists the limit surface as well as G1 continuity of a non-uniform Catmull-Clark subdivision has not been solved yet. Here the concept of equivalent knot spacing is introduced. A new technique for eigenanaly-sis, convergence and continuity analyses of non-uniform Catmull-Clark surfaces is proposed such that the convergence and G1 continuity of NURSSes at extraordinary points are proved. In addition, slightly improved rules for NURSSes are developed. This offers us one more alternative for modeling free-form surfaces of arbitrary topologies with geometric features such as cusps, sharp edges, creases and darts, while elsewhere ma

  18. Recursive subdivision of urban space and Zipf’s law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang; Wang, Jiejing

    2014-02-01

    Zipf’s law can be used to describe the rank-size distribution of cities in a region. It has seldom been employed to research urban internal structure. In this paper, we demonstrate that the space-filling process within a city follows Zipf’s law and can be characterized with the rank-size rule. A model of spatial disaggregation of urban space is presented to depict the spatial regularity of urban growth. By recursive subdivision of space, an urban region can be geometrically divided into two parts, four parts, eight parts, and so on, and form a hierarchy with cascade structure. If we rank these parts by size, the portions will conform to the Zipf distribution. By means of the GIS technique and remote sensing data, the model of recursive subdivision of urban space is applied to three cities in China. The results show that the intra-urban hierarchy complies with Zipf’s law, and the values of the rank-size scaling exponent are very close to 1. The significance of this study lies in three aspects. First, it shows that the strict subdivision of space is an efficient approach to revealing spatial order of urban form. Second, it discloses the relationships between the urban space-filling process and the rank-size rule. Third, it suggests a new way of understanding fractals, Zipf’s law, and spatial organization of urban evolution.

  19. A subdivision algorithm for phase equilibrium calculations at high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Corazza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase equilibrium calculations at high pressures have been a continuous challenge for scientists and engineers. Traditionally, this task has been performed by solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations originating from isofugacity equations. The reliability and accuracy of the solutions are strongly dependent on the initial guess, especially due to the fact that the phase equilibrium problems frequently have multiple roots. This work is focused on the application of a subdivision algorithm for thermodynamic calculations at high pressures. The subdivision algorithm consists in the application of successive subdivisions at a given initial interval (rectangle of variables and a systematic test to verify the existence of roots in each subinterval. If the interval checked passes in the test, then it is retained; otherwise it is discharged. The algorithm was applied for vapor-liquid, solid-fluid and solid-vapor-liquid equilibrium as well as for phase stability calculations for binary and multicomponent systems. The results show that the proposed algorithm was capable of finding all roots of all high-pressure thermodynamic problems investigated, independent of the initial guess used.

  20. Genetic Variability of Apolipoprotein E in Different Populations from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Fernández-Mestre

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variation at the Apolipoprotein E locus (APOE is an important determinant of plasma lipids and has been implicated in various human pathological conditions. The objective of the present study was to estimate the distribution of APOE alleles in five Venezuelan communities: two Amerindian tribes (Bari and Yucpa, one Negroid population from Curiepe, one Caucasoid population from Colonia Tovar and the mestizo urban population living in Caracas. The APOE*3 allele was the most common allele in all populations studied. However, a significant increase in the APOE*2 allele frequency in the Mestizo (18.96% and Negroid (16.25% populations was found. Similar to results reported in other Native American populations we have found that the APOE*2 allele is completely absent in the Bari and Yucpa Amerindians. Frequencies found in the Colonia Tovar population are in agreement with those reported in the population of Germany, indicating a high degree of relatedness. The results support the notion that the distribution of the APOE alleles shows ethnic variability.

  1. Genetic diversity in different populations of sloths assessed by DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. MORAES

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed a population of Bradypus torquatus with individuals originally distributed in different localities of Bahia, and two populations of B. variegatus with individuals from Bahia and São Paulo States. Using the DNA fingerprinting method, we assessed the genetic variability within and between populations. Analysis of the DNA profiles revealed genetic similarity indices ranging from 0.34 ± 0.07 to 0.87 ± 0.04. Similar low levels of genetic variability were found only in isolated mammalian populations or among related individuals. This study presents the first analyses of genetic diversity in sloth populations.

  2. RNA-DNA sequence differences spell genetic code ambiguities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas; Nielsen, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in Science by Li et al. 2011(1) reports widespread sequence differences in the human transcriptome between RNAs and their encoding genes termed RNA-DNA differences (RDDs). The findings could add a new layer of complexity to gene expression but the study has been criticized. ...

  3. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  4. Subdivision of the occipital lobes: an anatomical and functional MRI connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Urbanski, Marika; Valabregue, Romain; Bayle, Dimitri J; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2014-07-01

    Exploring brain connectivity is fundamental to understanding the functional architecture of the cortex. In our study we employed tractography-based parcellation, combined with the principal component analysis statistical framework, to divide the occipital lobes into seven areas in a group of eighteen healthy participants. Tractography-based parcellation is a method based on diffusion imaging tractography, which segregates the living human brain into distinctive areas showing sharp differences in their anatomical connectivity. The results were compared to covarying functional networks involving distinct areas within the occipital lobes, that we obtained using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as well as to other existing subdivisions of the occipital lobes. Our results showed similarities with functional imaging data in healthy controls and cognitive profiles in brain-damaged patients, although several differences with cytoarchitectonic, myelogenetic, myeloarchitectonic and functional maps were reported. While the similarities are encouraging, the potential validity and limitations of the differences observed are discussed. Taken together these results suggest that tractography-based parcellation may provide a new promising anatomical subdivision of the living human brain based on its anatomical connectivity, which may benefit the understanding of clinical-neuroanatomical dissociations and functional neuroimaging results.

  5. Subdivision design and stewardship affect bird and mammal use of conservation developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Cooper M; Pejchar, Liba; Reed, Sarah E

    2017-06-01

    Developing effective tools for conservation on private lands is increasingly important for global biodiversity conservation; private lands are located in more productive and biologically diverse areas, and they face accelerated rates of land conversion. One strategy is conservation development (CD) subdivisions, which cluster houses in a small portion of a property and preserve the remaining land as protected open space. Despite widespread use, the characteristics that make CD more or less effective at achieving biodiversity conservation are not well understood. We investigated CD's ability to successfully protect animal populations by examining bird and mammal occurrences in 14 CD subdivisions and four undeveloped areas (range: 14-432 ha) in northern Colorado, USA. Using point count and camera trap data in an occupancy modeling framework, we evaluated the relative importance of nine subdivision design factors (e.g., housing density, proportion of CD protected) and 14 stewardship factors (e.g., presence of livestock, percent native vegetation cover) in influencing the overall community composition and the probability of use by 16 birds and six mammals. We found that habitat use by 75% of birds and 83% of mammals was associated with design characteristics that maximized the natural or undisturbed land area both within and near the development (e.g., proportion of CD protected, total area of protected open space, proportion of natural land cover in the surrounding landscape). These factors were also associated with an increasing dominance of human-sensitive bird species, larger-bodied mammals, and mammals with larger home ranges. Habitat use by birds was also influenced by local land use composition and quality, and use by several bird and mammal species decreased with increased localized disturbances. We found few differences in habitat use between sampling sites in undeveloped areas and in CD subdivisions. These similarities indicate that, if CDs are large enough

  6. Genomewide mapping reveals a combination of different genetic effects causing the genetic basis of heterosis in two elite rice hybrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lanzhi Li; Xiaohong He; Hongyan Zhang; Zhiming Wang; Congwei Sun; Tongmin Mou; Xinqi Li; Yuanming Zhang; Zhongli Hu

    2015-06-01

    North Carolina design III (NCIII) is one of the most powerful and widely used mating designs for understanding the genetic basis of heterosis. However, the quantitative trait mapping (QTL) conducted in previous studies with this design was mainly based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), composite interval or multiple interval mapping methods. These methodologies could not investigate all kinds of genetic effects, especially epistatic effects, simultaneously on the whole genome. In this study, with a statistical method for mapping epistatic QTL associated with heterosis using the recombinant inbred line (RIL)-based NCIII design, we conducted QTL mapping for nine agronomic traits of two elite hybrids to characterize the mode of gene action contributing to heterosis on a whole genomewide scale. In total, 23 main-effect QTL (M-QTL) and 23 digenic interactions in IJ (indica × japonica) hybrids, 11 M-QTL and 82 digenic interactions in II (indica × indica) hybrid QTLs were identified in the present study. The variation explained by individual M-QTL or interactions ranged from 2.3 to 11.0%. The number of digenic interactions and the total variation explained by interactions of each trait were larger than those of M-QTL. The augmented genetic effect ratio of most M-QTL and digenic interactions in (L1–L2) data of two backcross populations (L1 and L2) showed complete dominance or overdominance, and in (L1 + L2) data showed an additive effect. Our results indicated that the dominance, overdominance and epistatic effect were important in conditioning the genetic basis of heterosis of the two elite hybrids. The relative contributions of the genetic components varied with traits and the genetic basis of the two hybrids was different.

  7. Genomewide mapping reveals a combination of different genetic effects causing the genetic basis of heterosis in two elite rice hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lanzhi; He, Xiaohong; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Zhiming; Sun, Congwei; Mou, Tongmin; Li, Xinqi; Zhang, Yuanming; Hu, Zhongli

    2015-06-01

    North Carolina design III (NCIII) is one of the most powerful and widely used mating designs for understanding the genetic basis of heterosis. However, the quantitative trait mapping (QTL) conducted in previous studies with this design was mainly based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), composite interval or multiple interval mapping methods. These methodologies could not investigate all kinds of genetic effects, especially epistatic effects, simultaneously on the whole genome. In this study, with a statistical method for mapping epistatic QTL associated with heterosis using the recombinant inbred line (RIL)-based NCIII design, we conducted QTL mapping for nine agronomic traits of two elite hybrids to characterize the mode of gene action contributing to heterosis on a whole genomewide scale. In total, 23 main-effect QTL (M-QTL) and 23 digenic interactions in IJ (indica x japonica) hybrids, 11 M-QTL and 82 digenic interactions in II (indica x indica) hybrid QTLs were identified in the present study. The variation explained by individual M-QTL or interactions ranged from 2.3 to 11.0%. The number of digenic interactions and the total variation explained by interactions of each trait were larger than those of M-QTL. The augmented genetic effect ratio of most M-QTL and digenic interactions in (L1 - L2) data of two backcross populations (L1 and L2) showed complete dominance or overdominance, and in (L1 + L2) data showed an additive effect. Our results indicated that the dominance, overdominance and epistatic effect were important in conditioning the genetic basis of heterosis of the two elite hybrids. The relative contributions of the genetic components varied with traits and the genetic basis of the two hybrids was different.

  8. Genetic differences in growth within and between Lycopersicon species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, Pim; Pet, Gerard; Jansen, Ritsert; Jansen, Hans

    1991-01-01

    Growth analyses were carried out on 88 accessions of five Lycopersicon species. Experiments were conducted in a climate room at 19/14°C day/night temperature which was irradiated at 20 W/m2 for eight hours per day. Large differences in plant weights between wild species and the cultivated tomato wer

  9. Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish pallium based on molecular marker analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4m2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ganz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The telencephalon shows a remarkable structural diversity among vertebrates. In particular, the everted telencephalon of ray-finned fishes has a markedly different morphology compared to the evaginated telencephalon of all other vertebrates. This difference in development has hampered the comparison between different areas of the pallium of ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei of all other vertebrates. Various models of homology between pallial subdivisions in ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei in tetrapods have been proposed based on connectional, neurochemical, gene expression and functional data. However, no consensus has been reached so far. In recent years, the analysis of conserved developmental marker genes has assisted the identification of homologies for different parts of the telencephalon among several tetrapod species. Results: We have investigated the gene expression pattern of conserved marker genes in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio pallium to identify pallial subdivisions and their homology to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Combinatorial expression analysis of ascl1a, eomesa, emx1, emx2, emx3, and Prox1 identifies four main divisions in the adult zebrafish pallium. Within these subdivisions, we propose that Dm is homologous to the pallial amygdala in tetrapods and that the dorsal subdivision of Dl is homologous to part of the hippocampal formation in mouse. We have complemented this analysis be examining the gene expression of emx1, emx2 and emx3 in the zebrafish larval brain. Conclusions: Based on our gene expression data, we propose a new model of subdivisions in the adult zebrafish pallium and their putative homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Pallial nuclei control sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, like memory, learning and emotion. The identification of pallial subdivisions in the adult zebrafish and their homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods will contribute to the use of the zebrafish

  10. Effects of unilateral premolar extraction treatment on the dental arch forms of Class II subdivision malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Ginu; Masoud, Ahmed I; Viana, Grace; Obrez, Ales; Kusnoto, Budi; Evans, Carla A

    2017-08-01

    A retrospective study evaluating posttreatment symmetry in dental arch form and midlines was carried out in Class II subdivision patients treated with unilateral and bilateral maxillary premolar extractions. Using Geomagic (version 14; Geomagic, Research Triangle Park, NC) and MATLAB (version 8.4; MathWorks, Natick, Mass) software, best-fit curves expressed as quartic polynomials were generated for 13 Class II subdivisions treated with unilateral extractions and 20 treated with bilateral maxillary premolar extractions. Transverse and sagittal measurements were recorded to assess symmetry. Dental models were superimposed on constructed reference planes to generate average posttreatment arches. Statistical comparisons were performed with the significance level set at P ≤0.05. The unilateral extraction group showed significant differences in transverse arch forms between the right and left sides in the anterior, anterior-middle, and middle segments of the arch, and all regions other than the posterior segment in the sagittal dimension. Significant differences were found between groups in the anterior and anterior-middle segments of the arch transversely, the middle and middle-posterior segments sagittally, and the midline deviation relative to the midsagittal plane. Superimposed average arches showed similar results. Unilateral maxillary extraction treatment generally results in a narrower and more posteriorly displaced arch form on the extraction side, with a deviated maxillary midline toward the extraction side of the arch. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The ethics of characterizing difference: guiding principles on using racial categories in human genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Mountain, Joanna; Koenig, Barbara; Altman, Russ; Brown, Melissa; Camarillo, Albert; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca; Cho, Mildred; Eberhardt, Jennifer; Feldman, Marcus; Ford, Richard; Greely, Henry; King, Roy; Markus, Hazel; Satz, Debra; Snipp, Matthew; Steele, Claude; Underhill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We are a multidisciplinary group of Stanford faculty who propose ten principles to guide the use of racial and ethnic categories when characterizing group differences in research into human genetic variation.

  12. Population genetic differences along a latitudinal cline between original and recently colonized habitat in a butterfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Vandewoestijne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Past and current range or spatial expansions have important consequences on population genetic structure. Habitat-use expansion, i.e. changing habitat associations, may also influence genetic population parameters, but has been less studied. Here we examined the genetic population structure of a Palaeartic woodland butterfly Pararge aegeria (Nymphalidae which has recently colonized agricultural landscapes in NW-Europe. Butterflies from woodland and agricultural landscapes differ in several phenotypic traits (including morphology, behavior and life history. We investigated whether phenotypic divergence is accompanied by genetic divergence between populations of different landscapes along a 700 km latitudinal gradient. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Populations (23 along the latitudinal gradient in both landscape types were analyzed using microsatellite and allozyme markers. A general decrease in genetic diversity with latitude was detected, likely due to post-glacial colonization effects. Contrary to expectations, agricultural landscapes were not less diverse and no significant bottlenecks were detected. Nonetheless, a genetic signature of recent colonization is reflected in the absence of clinal genetic differentiation within the agricultural landscape, significantly lower gene flow between agricultural populations (3.494 than between woodland populations (4.183, and significantly higher genetic differentiation between agricultural (0.050 than woodland (0.034 pairwise comparisons, likely due to multiple founder events. Globally, the genetic data suggest multiple long distance dispersal/colonization events and subsequent high intra- and inter-landscape gene flow in this species. Phosphoglucomutase deviated from other enzymes and microsatellite markers, and hence may be under selection along the latitudinal gradient but not between landscape types. Phenotypic divergence was greater than genetic divergence, indicating directional

  13. Elucidating the etiology of individual differences in parenting: A meta-analysis of behavioral genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Burt, S Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Decades of research have indicated the foundational importance of parenting to offspring outcomes during childhood and beyond. Unearthing the specific origins of parenting is therefore a critically important research objective. Extant research on this topic has suggested that parenting behaviors are multidetermined (Belsky, 1984) and are associated with a wide range of contextual and familial characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, community, family financial stress), as well as characteristics of the parents (e.g., personality) and their children (e.g., temperament). Behavioral genetic studies have further indicated that parenting behaviors are in fact heritable-that is, individual differences in parenting are at least partially a function of genetic differences between persons. Critically, however, the estimates of these genetic influences have varied dramatically across studies. It is also unclear how factors such as parent gender, child age, and methodological considerations may impact genetic influences on parenting behavior. In the current set of meta-analyses, we sought to quantitatively synthesize twin and adoption studies (n = 56) examining the etiology of parenting behavior, with the goal of more definitively cataloguing genetic and environmental effects on parenting. Results reveal significant effects of parental genetic makeup on parental behavior, but also highlight the genetic makeup of the child as a particularly prominent source of genetic transmission (via evocative gene-environment correlation). Environmental contributions to parenting also emerged as important, including both shared and nonshared environmental effects. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Efficacy of genetically modified Bt toxins against insects with different genetic mechanisms of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Huang, Fangneng; Ghimire, Mukti N; Leonard, B Rogers; Siegfried, Blair D; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Yang, Yajun; Wu, Yidong; Gahan, Linda J; Heckel, David G; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2011-10-09

    Transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are grown widely for pest control, but insect adaptation can reduce their efficacy. The genetically modified Bt toxins Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod were designed to counter insect resistance to native Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Previous results suggested that the modified toxins would be effective only if resistance was linked with mutations in genes encoding toxin-binding cadherin proteins. Here we report evidence from five major crop pests refuting this hypothesis. Relative to native toxins, the potency of modified toxins was >350-fold higher against resistant strains of Plutella xylostella and Ostrinia nubilalis in which resistance was not linked with cadherin mutations. Conversely, the modified toxins provided little or no advantage against some resistant strains of three other pests with altered cadherin. Independent of the presence of cadherin mutations, the relative potency of the modified toxins was generally higher against the most resistant strains.

  15. Ultrasonic characterisation of B. femoris from Iberian pigs of different genetics and feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niñoles, L; Mulet, A; Ventanas, S; Benedito, J

    2011-10-01

    Ultrasonic velocity was used to characterise the differences in composition and texture of Biceps Femoris muscles from four batches of pigs of different genetics (Iberian and Iberian × Duroc) and feeding systems ("montanera" and concentrate). Significant differences (p<0.05) were found for the ultrasonic velocity in samples with different genetics and feeding systems. These differences were dependent on the temperature of the measurements and were related to the intramuscular fat content (IMF) of the samples and, therefore, to the meat quality. The ultrasonic velocities at 0 and 20 °C were related to the IMF (R=0.77 and 0.65, respectively). A discriminant analysis, including ultrasonic velocity at temperatures from 0 to 20 °C, allowed 87.0% of the samples to be correctly classified in the batches. Therefore, ultrasonics could be useful in the characterisation and differentiation of B. femoris muscles of Iberian pigs with different genetics and from different feeding systems.

  16. Distinguishing between population bottleneck and population subdivision by a Bayesian model choice procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Benjamin M; Wegmann, Daniel; Excoffier, Laurent

    2010-11-01

    Although most natural populations are genetically subdivided, they are often analysed as if they were panmictic units. In particular, signals of past demographic size changes are often inferred from genetic data by assuming that the analysed sample is drawn from a population without any internal subdivision. However, it has been shown that a bottleneck signal can result from the presence of some recent immigrants in a population. It thus appears important to contrast these two alternative scenarios in a model choice procedure to prevent wrong conclusions to be made. We use here an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approach to infer whether observed patterns of genetic diversity in a given sample are more compatible with it being drawn from a panmictic population having gone through some size change, or from one or several demes belonging to a recent finite island model. Simulations show that we can correctly identify samples drawn from a subdivided population in up to 95% of the cases for a wide range of parameters. We apply our model choice procedure to the case of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and find conclusive evidence that Western and Eastern chimpanzee samples are drawn from a spatially subdivided population. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Recursive Subdivision of Urban Space and Zipf's law

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yanguang; Wang, Jiejing

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law can be used to describe the rank-size distribution of cities in a region. It was seldom employed to research urban internal structure. In this paper, we demonstrate that the space-filling process within a city follows Zipf's law and can be characterized with the rank-size rule. A model of spatial disaggregation of urban space is presented to depict the spatial regularity of urban growth. By recursive subdivision of space, an urban region can be geometrically divided into two parts,...

  18. Classification and treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Sara E; Jackson, Stona R; Turpin, David L; Ramsay, Douglas S; Spiekerman, Charles; Huang, Greg J

    2014-04-01

    Patients with Class II subdivision malocclusions are a challenge for clinicians because reestablishing symmetry in 1 arch or both arches is often a treatment goal. In patients with mandibular skeletal asymmetry, surgery is often a treatment option. However, patients may be unwilling to undergo surgery, and other options might have to be considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiologies and outcomes of Class II subdivision patients treated at the University of Washington graduate orthodontic clinic in Seattle from 1995 through 2011. A search of patients treated between 1995 and 2011 resulted in the identification of 110 consecutively treated Class II subdivision subjects with complete records. Ninety-eight subjects could be classified into 1 of 3 groups, based on midline position and dental or skeletal etiology. Initial and final models were used to measure the peer assessment rating scores, midlines, overjet, overbite, and molar positions. Initial and final cephalograms were traced and measured. Charts were reviewed for information regarding treatment. Twenty-five percent of the 98 subjects had their maxillary and mandibular midlines coincident with the facial midline; their asymmetries were due to a maxillary posterior dental asymmetry. Another 15% had maxillary midlines deviated from their facial midlines, caused by maxillary anterior and posterior dental asymmetry. About 50% of the subjects had mandibular midlines that were not coincident with their facial midlines, and most of them exhibited some degree of mandibular skeletal asymmetry. Over the past 15 years, treatment strategies used at the University of Washington indicated trends toward less surgery, fewer extractions, less use of headgear, and more reliance on fixed functional appliances. Ideal correction of midlines was not always achieved, especially in patients with mandibular skeletal asymmetry, with undercorrection occurring more commonly than overcorrection. Final peer assessment

  19. Metabolic alterations in genetically selected Drosophila strains with different longevities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, S A; Arking, R

    2001-10-01

    Sometime ago we obtained biomarker data suggesting that the earliest determining event in the expression of the extended longevity phenotype in our selected strains of Drosophila took place early in adult life at about 5-7 days of age. In a later series of experiments we documented that our La and Lb long lived strains underwent a specific up-regulation of the antioxidant defense system (ADS) genes and enzymes. This led to a reduction in oxidative damage and an extended longevity. In the current work, we assayed the activity of 17 metabolically important enzymes in 5-7 day old flies of 13 strains variously selected for different longevities. We conclude that the two sets of replicated long-lived strains have an altered metabolic pattern (relative to normal-lived animals) which is consistent with an increased flux through the pentose shunt and an enhanced NADP+ reducing system to support the increased activity of the ADS enzymes. This result can be interpreted as a shift of energy expenditure from reproduction to somatic maintenance. We conclude that theories based on differential energy allocations appear to empirically explain, at least in part, the mechanisms underlying the transformation of a normal longevity phenotype to an extended longevity phenotype.

  20. A new subdivision technique for grating based on CMOS microscopic imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Yuan; Huimin Yan; Xiangqun Cao; Bin Lin

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new subdivision technique directly subdividing the grating stripe by using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microscopic imaging system combined with image processing. The corresponding optical system, subdivision principle, and image processing methods are illuminated. The relations of systemic resolution to subdivision number, grating period, magnifying power and tilt angle are theoretically discussed and experimentally checked on the Abbe comparator. The measurement precision for displacement of the proposed subdivision system is tested in the range of 5 mm and the maximum displacement error is less than 0.4μm. The factors contributing to the systemic error are also discussed.

  1. Habitat differences influence genetic impacts of human land use on the American beech (Fagus grandifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumibao, Candice Y; McLachlan, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    Natural reforestation after regional forest clearance is a globally common land-use sequence. The genetic recovery of tree populations in these recolonized forests may depend on the biogeographic setting of the landscape, for instance whether they are in the core or in the marginal part of the species' range. Using data from 501 individuals genotyped across 7 microsatellites, we investigated whether regional differences in habitat quality affected the recovery of genetic variation in a wind-pollinated tree species, American beech (Fagus grandifolia) in Massachusetts. We compared populations in forests that were recolonized following agricultural abandonment to those in remnant forests that have only been logged in both central inland and marginal coastal regions. Across all populations in our entire study region, recolonized forests showed limited reduction of genetic diversity as only observed heterozygosity was significantly reduced in these forests (H(O) = 0.520 and 0.590, respectively). Within inland region, this pattern was observed, whereas in the coast, recolonized populations exhibited no reduction in all genetic diversity estimates. However, genetic differentiation among recolonized populations in marginal coastal habitat increased (F(st) logged = 0.072; F(st) secondary = 0.249), with populations showing strong genetic structure, in contrast to inland region. These results indicate that the magnitude of recovery of genetic variation in recolonized populations can vary at different habitats.

  2. Sex differences in genetic and environmental risk factors for irrational fears and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Jacobson, K C; Myers, J; Prescott, C A

    2002-02-01

    For irrational fears and their associated phobias, epidemiological studies suggest sex differences in prevalence and twin studies report significant genetic effects. How does sex impact on the familial transmission of liability to fears and phobias? In personal interviews with over 3000 complete pairs (of whom 1058 were opposite-sex dizygotic pairs), ascertained from a population-based registry, we assessed the lifetime prevalence of five phobias and their associated irrational fears analysed using a multiple threshold model. Twin resemblance was assessed by polychoric correlations and biometrical model-fitting incorporating sex-specific effects. For agoraphobia, situational and blood/injury fear/phobia, the best fit model suggested equal heritability in males and females and genetic correlations between the sexes of less than +0.50. For animal fear/phobias by contrast, the best fit model suggested equal heritability in males and females and a genetic correlation of unity. No evidence was found for an impact of family environment on liability to these fears or phobias. For social phobias, twin resemblance in males was explained by genetic factors and in females by familial-environmental factors. The impact of sex on genetic risk may differ meaningfully across phobia subtypes. Sex-specific genetic risk factors may exist for agoraphobia, social, situational and blood-injury phobias but not for animal fear/phobia. These results should be interpreted in the context of the limited power of twin studies, even with large sample sizes, to resolve sex-specific genetic effects.

  3. Genetic architecture of Wistar-Kyoto rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Middleton, Frank A; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-07-02

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely used as a model for studies of hypertension and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, derived from the same ancestral outbred Wistar rat as the SHR, are normotensive and have been used as the closest genetic control for the SHR, although the WKY has also been used as a model for depression. Notably, however, substantial behavioral and genetic differences among the WKY substrains, usually from the different vendors and breeders, have been observed. These differences have often been overlooked in prior studies, leading to inconsistent and even contradictory findings. The complicated breeding history of the SHR and WKY rats and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic background of different commercial substrains make the selection of control rats a daunting task, even for researchers who are mindful of their genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the genetic relationship of 16 commonly used WKY and SHR rat substrains using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. Our results confirmed a large genetic divergence and complex relationships among the SHR and WKY substrains. This understanding, although incomplete without the genome sequence, provides useful guidance in selecting substrains and helps to interpret previous reports when the source of the animals was known. Moreover, we found two closely related, yet distinct WKY substrains that may provide novel opportunities in modeling psychiatric disorders.

  4. Curcumin profiing and genetic diversity of different accessions of Curcuma longa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Arya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the genetic diversity and variation in active compound of turmeric rhizomes collected from different niches of Uttarakhand. Methods: Genetic diversity and relationship of Curcuma longa accessions was evaluated by random amplification polymorphism DNA analysis and curcumin profiling was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography method. Results: The curcumin contents in 20 accessions of turmeric rhizomes were found to be in the range of 0.90% to 3.26%. All accessions were separated into six groups (92% genetic similarity by using 10 decamer oligonucleotide primers for the amplification of genomic DNA. Conclusions: The results indicated the possibility of selecting high quality clones for large scale production.

  5. Genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences: the three major dimensions of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, H J

    1990-03-01

    This article deals with the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to individual differences in the three major dimensions of personality (Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism). Twin studies indicate, and family studies confirm within limits, the strong genetic determination of these and many other personality factors, additive genetic variance accounting for roughly half the total phenotypic variance. On the environmental side, shared family environment plays little or no part, all environmental effects being within-family. Assortative mating, important in the formation of social attitudes, has little impact on personality. Dominance may be important for Extraversion. Epistasis (emergenesis) may account for the comparative low values of dizygotic (DZ) twins' correlations. Evidence for differential heritability of traits is present, but not very strong. It is concluded that behavioral genetics forms a vital part of the psychological understanding of the causes of individual differences in personality.

  6. Genetic Differentiation of Pinus koraiensis under Different Altitude Conditions in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGFujuan

    2004-01-01

    The genetic differentiation of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) in different altitudes in Changbai Mountain was analyzed by ISSR technique, and it was found that the level of genetic diversity of Korean pine reduces along with altitude increasing in Changbai Mountain. The variation of Korean pine is mainly from intra-population and there is a positive relativity between genetic distance and vertical geographic distance of Korean pine in different altitudes. The genetic coherence shows that altitude has less insulation to Korean pine. Therefore, it is deduced that the terrain formation of vertical distribution of Korean pine is a result of diffusion from lower altitude to higher altitude in the course of enlarging its adaptability.

  7. A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Amzal Billy; Perry Joe N; van der Voet Hilko; Paoletti Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment. Results Statistical methods are described for the assessment of the difference between a genetically modified (GM) plant variety and a conventional non-GM counterpart, and for the assessment o...

  8. Recursive Subdivision of Urban Space and Zipf's law

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law can be used to describe the rank-size distribution of cities in a region. It was seldom employed to research urban internal structure. In this paper, we demonstrate that the space-filling process within a city follows Zipf's law and can be characterized with the rank-size rule. A model of spatial disaggregation of urban space is presented to depict the spatial regularity of urban growth. By recursive subdivision of space, an urban region can be geometrically divided into two parts, four parts, eight parts, and so on, and form a hierarchy with cascade structure. If we rank these parts by size, the portions will conform to the Zipf distribution. By means of GIS technique and remote sensing data, the model of recursive subdivision of urban space is applied to three cities of China. The results show that the intra-urban hierarchy complies with Zipf's law, and the values of the rank-size scaling exponent are very close to 1. The significance of this study lies in three aspects. First, it shows that the ...

  9. Sex, Subdivision, and Domestic Dispersal of Trypanosoma cruzi Lineage I in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Costales, Jaime A.; Miles, Michael A.; Grijalva, Mario J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular epidemiology at the community level has an important guiding role in zoonotic disease control programmes where genetic markers are suitably variable to unravel the dynamics of local transmission. We evaluated the molecular diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, in southern Ecuador (Loja Province). This kinetoplastid parasite has traditionally been a paradigm for clonal population structure in pathogenic organisms. However, the presence of naturally occurring hybrids, mitochondrial introgression, and evidence of genetic exchange in the laboratory question this dogma. Methodology/Principal Findings Eighty-one parasite isolates from domiciliary, peridomiciliary, and sylvatic triatomines and mammals were genotyped across 10 variable microsatellite loci. Two discrete parasite populations were defined: one predominantly composed of isolates from domestic and peridomestic foci, and another predominantly composed of isolates from sylvatic foci. Spatial genetic variation was absent from the former, suggesting rapid parasite dispersal across our study area. Furthermore, linkage equilibrium between loci, Hardy-Weinberg allele frequencies at individual loci, and a lack of repeated genotypes are indicative of frequent genetic exchange among individuals in the domestic/peridomestic population. Conclusions/Significance These data represent novel population-level evidence of an extant capacity for sex among natural cycles of T. cruzi transmission. As such they have dramatic implications for our understanding of the fundamental genetics of this parasite. Our data also elucidate local disease transmission, whereby passive anthropogenic domestic mammal and triatomine dispersal across our study area is likely to account for the rapid domestic/peridomestic spread of the parasite. Finally we discuss how this, and the observed subdivision between sympatric sylvatic and domestic/peridomestic foci, can inform efforts at Chagas disease

  10. Sex differences in genetic and environmental influences on educational attainment and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orstavik, Ragnhild E; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Røysamb, Espen; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2014-12-01

    In many Western countries, women now reach educational levels comparable to men, although their income remains considerably lower. For the past decades, it has become increasingly clear that these measures of socio-economic status are influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Less is known about the relationship between education and income, and sex differences. The aim of this study was to explore genetic and environmental factors influencing education and income in a large cohort of young Norwegian twins, with special emphasis on gender differences. National register data on educational level and income were obtained for 7,710 twins (aged 29-41 years). Bivariate Cholesky models were applied to estimate qualitative and quantitative gender differences in genetic and environmental influences, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the correlation between education and income, and genetic correlations within and between sexes and phenotypes. The phenotypic correlation between educational level and income was 0.34 (0.32-0.39) for men and 0.45 (0.43-0.48) for women. An ACE model with both qualitative and quantitative sex differences fitted the data best. The genetic correlation between men and women (rg) was 0.66 (0.22-1.00) for educational attainment and 0.38 (0.01-0.75) for income, and between the two phenotypes 0.31 (0.08-0.52) for men and 0.72 (0.64-0.85) for women. Our results imply that, in relatively egalitarian societies with state-supported access to higher education and political awareness of gender equality, genetic factors may play an important role in explaining sex differences in the relationship between education and income.

  11. 13,16-Dimethyl octacosanedioic acid (iso-diabolic acid), a common membrane-spanning lipid of Acidobacteria subdivisions 1 and 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E.C.; Weijers, J.W.H.; Foesel, B.U.; Overmann, J.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of membrane lipids of 17 different strains representing 13 species of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the phylum Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum of the Bacteria, were examined by hydrolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and by high-performance liquid

  12. Industrial Parks, Subdivision layer - Industrial parks are included in the subdivision layer, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Industrial Parks dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Subdivision...

  13. Cities, Towns and Villages, SubdivisionBndryAnno-The data set is the subdivision boundary text., Published in 1998, Davis County Utah.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1998. It is described as 'SubdivisionBndryAnno-The data...

  14. Simultaneous Task Subdivision and Allocation using Negotiations in Multi-Robot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a negotiations based approach for simultaneous task subdivision and assignment in hetero-geneous multi-robot systems. We first propose an abstraction of the concept of a task that allows for the generalizing of a variety of different problems. Based on such an abstraction, we have developed a negotiation protocol based on Rubinstein’s alternate offers protocol. This is extended to the multi-dimensional space and employs a heuristic search step for evaluating and generating offers. Furthermore, the issue of how to extend a bilateral negotiations protocol to more than two parties is taken into consideration. The protocol was first tested in numerical simulations with different scenarios and then applied to three real world missions.

  15. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  16. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  17. 48 CFR 702.170-8 - Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions. As used in the FAR and AIDAR, these terms do... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Government, Federal, State, local and political subdivisions. 702.170-8 Section 702.170-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  18. 41 CFR 105-50.001-2 - Political subdivision or local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... local government. 105-50.001-2 Section 105-50.001-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... OR TECHNICAL SERVICES TO STATE AND LOCAL UNITS OF GOVERNMENT § 105-50.001-2 Political subdivision or local government. Political subdivision or local government means a local unit of government,...

  19. Long-term evaluation of Class II subdivision treatment with unilateral maxillary first molar extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects of asymmetrical maxillary first molar (M1) extraction in Class II subdivision treatment. Materials and Methods: Records of 20 Class II subdivision whites (7 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 13.0 years; SD, 1.7 years) consecutively treated with the Begg technique

  20. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements. The political subdivision must comply with all terms and conditions in the Cooperative Agreement... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6115...

  1. Differential reward coding in the subdivisions of the primate caudate during an oculomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kae; Santos, Gustavo S; Matsuzaki, Ryuichi; Nakahara, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-07

    The basal ganglia play a pivotal role in reward-oriented behavior. The striatum, an input channel of the basal ganglia, is composed of subdivisions that are topographically connected with different cortical and subcortical areas. To test whether reward information is differentially processed in the different parts of the striatum, we compared reward-related neuronal activity along the dorsolateral-ventromedial axis in the caudate nucleus of monkeys performing an asymmetrically rewarded oculomotor task. In a given block, a target in one position was associated with a large reward, whereas the other target was associated with a small reward. The target position-reward value contingency was switched between blocks. We found the following: (1) activity that reflected the block-wise reward contingency emerged before the appearance of a visual target, and it was more prevalent in the dorsal, rather than central and ventral, caudate; (2) activity that was positively related to the reward size of the current trial was evident, especially after reward delivery, and it was more prevalent in the ventral and central, rather than dorsal, caudate; and (3) activity that was modulated by the memory of the outcomes of the previous trials was evident in the dorsal and central caudate. This multiple reward information, together with the target-direction information, was represented primarily by individual caudate neurons, and the different reward information was represented in caudate subpopulations with distinct electrophysiological properties, e.g., baseline firing and spike width. These results suggest parallel processing of different reward information by the basal ganglia subdivisions defined by extrinsic connections and intrinsic properties.

  2. Genetic diversity of Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata populations in three forest communities with different succession stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junmin LI; Zexin JIN; Qiping GU; Wenyan LOU

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the relationship between population succession and its genetic behavior, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to analyze the genetic diversity of Quercu glandulifera var.brevipetiolata populations in three forest communities with different succession stages (coniferous forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest). The results showed that 145 repetitive loci were produced in 60 individuals of Q. glandulifera using 11 primers, among which 120 loci were polymorphic, and the total percentage of polymorphic loci was 82.76% with an average of 64.14%. Estimated by the Shannon information index, the total genetic diversity of the three populations was 0.4747, with an average of 0.3642, while it was 0.3234, with an average of 0.2484, judged from the Nei index. Judged from percentage of polymorphic loci,Shannon inform at ion index and Nei index, the genetic diversity followed a decreasing order: coniferous forest >broad-leaved mixed forest > evergreen broad-leaved for-est. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 69.73% of the genetic variance existed within populations and 30.27% of the genetic variance existed among popu-lations. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) was 0.2319 and the gene flow (Nm) was 1.6539. The mean of genetic identity among populations of Q. glandulifera was 0.8501 and the mean of genetic distance was 0.1626. The genetic identity between the Q. glandulifera population in the coniferous forest and that in the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest was the highest. UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance showed that the population in the coniferous forest gathered with that in the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest firstly, then with that in the evergreen broad-leaved forest. The genetic structure of Q. glandulifera was not only characteristic of the biological characteristics of this species, but was also influenced by the

  3. Estimating genetic diversity and sampling strategy for a wild soybean (Glycine soja) population based on different molecular markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhong; ZHAO Ru; GU Senchang; YAN Wen; CHENG Zhou; CHEN Muhong; LU Weifeng; WANG Shuhong; LU Baorong; LU Jun; ZHANG Fan; XIANG Rong; XIAO Shangbin; YAN Pin

    2006-01-01

    Genetic diversity is the basic and most important component of biodiversity. It is essential for the effective conservation and utilization of genetic resources to accurately estimate genetic diversity of the targeted species and populations. This paper reports analyses of genetic diversity of a wild soybean population using three molecular marker technologies (AFLP, ISSR and SSR), and computer simulation studies of randomly selected subsets with different sample size (5-90 individuals) drawn 50 times from a total of 100 wild soybean individuals. The variation patterns of genetic diversity indices, including expected heterozygosity (He), Shannon diversity index (/), and percentage of polymorphic loci (P), were analyzed to evaluate changes of genetic diversity associated with the increase of individuals in each subset. The results demonstrated that (1) values of genetic diversity indices of the same wild soybean population were considerably different when estimated by different molecular marker techniques; (2) genetic diversity indices obtained from subsets with different sample sizes also diverged considerably; (3) P values were relatively more reliable for comparing genetic diversity detected by different molecular marker techniques; and (4) different diversity indices reached 90% of the total genetic diversity of the soybean population quite differently in terms of the sample size (number of individuals) analyzed.When using the P value as a determinator, 30-40individuals could capture over 90% of the total genetic diversity of the wild soybean population. Results from this study provide a strong scientific basis for estimating genetic diversity and for strategic conservation of plant species.

  4. In vitro evaluation of caseinophosphopeptides from different genetic variants on bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Tulipano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs have been shown to enhance calcium solubility and to increase the calcification by in vitro analyses. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of four selected casein peptides, which differ in the number of phosphorylated serines, on osteoblast mineralization in vitro. The chosen peptides, related to different casein genetic variants, were obtained by chemical synthesis and tested on murine osteoblast cell line (MC3T3-E1. Our results suggest that the distinct peptides in protein hydrolysates may differentially affect calcium deposition in the extracellular matrix and that the genetic variation within the considered peptides is involved in their differential effect.

  5. Differences in Common Genetic Predisposition to Ischemic Stroke by Age and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, Matthew; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Malik, Rainer; Sudlow, Cathie; Rothwell, Peter M; Maguire, Jane M; Koblar, Simon A; Bevan, Steve; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; Dichgans, Martin; Levi, Chris; Lewis, Cathryn M; Markus, Hugh S

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies points to differences in factors predisposing to stroke by age and sex. Whether these arise because of different genetic influences remained untested. Here, we use data from 4 genome-wide association data sets to study the relationship between genetic influence on stroke with both age and sex. Using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood methods, we performed 4 analyses: (1) we calculated the genetic correlation between groups divided by age and (2) by sex, (3) we calculated the heritability of age-at-stroke-onset, and (4) we evaluated the evidence that heritability of stroke is greater in women than in men. We found that genetic factors influence age at stroke onset (h2 [SE]=18.0 [6.8]; P=0.0038), with a trend toward a stronger influence in women (women: h2 [SE]=21.6 [3.5]; Men: h2 [SE]=13.9 [2.8]). Although a moderate proportion of genetic factors was shared between sexes (rG [SE]=0.68 [0.16]) and between younger and older cases (rG [SE]=0.70 [0.17]), there was evidence to suggest that there are genetic susceptibility factors that are specific to sex (P=0.037) and to younger or older groups (P=0.056), particularly for women (P=0.0068). Finally, we found a trend toward higher heritability of stroke in women although this was not significantly greater than in men (P=0.084). Our results indicate that there are genetic factors that are either unique to or have a different effect between younger and older age groups and between women and men. Performing large, well-powered genome-wide association study analyses in these groups is likely to uncover further associations. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Edge subdivision and edge multisubdivision versus some domination related parameters in generalized corona graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dettlaff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph \\(G=(V,E\\, the subdivision of an edge \\(e=uv\\in E(G\\ means the substitution of the edge \\(e\\ by a vertex \\(x\\ and the new edges \\(ux\\ and \\(xv\\. The domination subdivision number of a graph \\(G\\ is the minimum number of edges of \\(G\\ which must be subdivided (where each edge can be subdivided at most once in order to increase the domination number. Also, the domination multisubdivision number of \\(G\\ is the minimum number of subdivisions which must be done in one edge such that the domination number increases. Moreover, the concepts of paired domination and independent domination subdivision (respectively multisubdivision numbers are defined similarly. In this paper we study the domination, paired domination and independent domination (subdivision and multisubdivision numbers of the generalized corona graphs.

  7. Facial emotion perception differs in young persons at genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Christian G; Richard, Jan A; Brensinger, Colleen M; Borgmann-Winter, Karin E; Conroy, Catherine G; Moberg, Paul J; Gur, Ruben C; Gur, Raquel E; Calkins, Monica E

    2014-05-15

    A large body of literature has documented facial emotion perception impairments in schizophrenia. More recently, emotion perception has been investigated in persons at genetic and clinical high-risk for psychosis. This study compared emotion perception abilities in groups of young persons with schizophrenia, clinical high-risk, genetic risk and healthy controls. Groups, ages 13-25, included 24 persons at clinical high-risk, 52 first-degree relatives at genetic risk, 91 persons with schizophrenia and 90 low risk persons who completed computerized testing of emotion recognition and differentiation. Groups differed by overall emotion recognition abilities and recognition of happy, sad, anger and fear expressions. Pairwise comparisons revealed comparable impairments in recognition of happy, angry, and fearful expressions for persons at clinical high-risk and schizophrenia, while genetic risk participants were less impaired, showing reduced recognition of fearful expressions. Groups also differed for differentiation of happy and sad expressions, but differences were mainly between schizophrenia and control groups. Emotion perception impairments are observable in young persons at-risk for psychosis. Preliminary results with clinical high-risk participants, when considered along findings in genetic risk relatives, suggest social cognition abilities to reflect pathophysiological processes involved in risk of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive Display of Surfaces Using Subdivision Surfaces and Wavelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchaineau, M A; Bertram, M; Porumbescu, S; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-10-03

    Complex surfaces and solids are produced by large-scale modeling and simulation activities in a variety of disciplines. Productive interaction with these simulations requires that these surfaces or solids be viewable at interactive rates--yet many of these surfaced solids can contain hundreds of millions of polygondpolyhedra. Interactive display of these objects requires compression techniques to minimize storage, and fast view-dependent triangulation techniques to drive the graphics hardware. In this paper, we review recent advances in subdivision-surface wavelet compression and optimization that can be used to provide a framework for both compression and triangulation. These techniques can be used to produce suitable approximations of complex surfaces of arbitrary topology, and can be used to determine suitable triangulations for display. The techniques can be used in a variety of applications in computer graphics, computer animation and visualization.

  9. Dispersal capacity and genetic structure of Arapaima gigas on different geographic scales using microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Araripe

    Full Text Available Despite the ecological and economic importance of the Arapaima gigas (Cuvier 1817, few data about its dispersal capacity are available. The present study was based on the analysis of microsatellite markers in order to estimate the dispersal capacity of the species on fine, meso, and large geographic scales. For this, 561 specimens obtained from stocks separated by distances of up to 25 km (fine scale, 100 km (meso scale, and 1300-2300 km (large scale were analyzed. The fine scale analysis indicated a marked genetic similarity between lakes, with low genetic differentiation, and significant differences between only a few pairs of sites. Low to moderate genetic differentiation was observed between pairs of sites on a meso scale (100 km, which could be explained by the distances between sites. By contrast, major genetic differentiation was recorded in the large scale analysis, that is, between stocks separated by distances of over 1300 km, with the analysis indicating that differentiation was not related solely to distance. The genetic structuring analysis indicated the presence of two stocks, one represented by the arapaimas of the Mamirauá Reserve, and the other by those of Santarém and Tucuruí. The dispersal of arapaimas over short distances indicates a process of lateral migration within the várzea floodplains, which may be the principal factor determining the considerable homogeneity observed among the várzea lakes. The populations separated by distances of approximately 100 km were characterized by reduced genetic differentiation, which was associated with the geographic distances between sites. Populations separated by distances of over 1300 km were characterized by a high degree of genetic differentiation, which may be related primarily to historical bottlenecks in population size and the sedentary behavior of the species. Evidence was found of asymmetric gene flow, resulting in increasing genetic variability in the population of the

  10. A Genetic Approach to Spanish Populations of the Threatened Austropotamobius italicus Located at Three Different Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Matallanas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish freshwater ecosystems are suffering great modification and some macroinvertebrates like Austropotamobius italicus, the white-clawed crayfish, are threatened. This species was once widely distributed in Spain, but its populations have shown a very strong decline over the last thirty years, due to different factors. Three Spanish populations of this crayfish—from different scenarios—were analysed with nuclear (microsatellites and mitochondrial markers (COI and 16S rDNA. Data analyses reveal the existence of four haplotypes at mitochondrial level and polymorphism for four microsatellite loci. Despite this genetic variability, bottlenecks were detected in the two natural Spanish populations tested. In addition, the distribution of the mitochondrial haplotypes and SSR alleles show a similar geographic pattern and the genetic differentiation between these samples is mainly due to genetic drift. Given the current risk status of the species across its range, this diversity offers some hope for the species from a management point of view.

  11. Genetic structure of Leptopilina boulardi populations from different climatic zones of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Alphen Jacques JM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic structure of populations can be influenced by geographic isolation (including physical distance and ecology. We examined these effects in Leptopilina boulardi, a parasitoid of Drosophila of African origin and widely distributed over temperate and (sub tropical climates. Results We sampled 11 populations of L. boulardi from five climatic zones in Iran and measured genetic differentiation at nuclear (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism; AFLP and mitochondrial (Cytochrome Oxidase I; COI loci. An Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA for the AFLP data revealed that 67.45% of variation resided between populations. No significant variation was observed between climatic zones. However, a significant difference was detected between populations from the central (dry regions and those from the wetter north, which are separated by desert. A similarly clear cut genetic differentiation between populations from the central part of Iran and those from the north was observed by UPGMA cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCO. Both UPGMA and PCO further separated two populations from the very humid western Caspian Sea coast (zone 3 from other northern populations from the temperate Caspian Sea coastal plain (zone 2, which are connected by forest. One population (Nour was genetically intermediate between these two zones, indicating some gene flow between these two groups of populations. In all analyses a mountain population, Sorkhabad was found to be genetically identical to those from the nearby coastal plain (zone 2, which indicates high gene flow between these populations over a short geographical distance. One population from the Caspian coast (Astaneh was genetically highly diverged from all other populations. A partial Mantel test showed a highly significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances, as well as separation by the deserts of central Iran. The COI sequences were highly

  12. Genetic structure of Leptopilina boulardi populations from different climatic zones of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyahooei, Majeed Askari; van Alphen, Jacques J M; Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2011-01-27

    The genetic structure of populations can be influenced by geographic isolation (including physical distance) and ecology. We examined these effects in Leptopilina boulardi, a parasitoid of Drosophila of African origin and widely distributed over temperate and (sub) tropical climates. We sampled 11 populations of L. boulardi from five climatic zones in Iran and measured genetic differentiation at nuclear (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism; AFLP) and mitochondrial (Cytochrome Oxidase I; COI) loci. An Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) for the AFLP data revealed that 67.45% of variation resided between populations. No significant variation was observed between climatic zones. However, a significant difference was detected between populations from the central (dry) regions and those from the wetter north, which are separated by desert. A similarly clear cut genetic differentiation between populations from the central part of Iran and those from the north was observed by UPGMA cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCO). Both UPGMA and PCO further separated two populations from the very humid western Caspian Sea coast (zone 3) from other northern populations from the temperate Caspian Sea coastal plain (zone 2), which are connected by forest. One population (Nour) was genetically intermediate between these two zones, indicating some gene flow between these two groups of populations. In all analyses a mountain population, Sorkhabad was found to be genetically identical to those from the nearby coastal plain (zone 2), which indicates high gene flow between these populations over a short geographical distance. One population from the Caspian coast (Astaneh) was genetically highly diverged from all other populations. A partial Mantel test showed a highly significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances, as well as separation by the deserts of central Iran. The COI sequences were highly conserved among all populations. The

  13. Assessment of Water Pollution in Tipparthy Revenue Sub-Division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medikondu Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study has been carried out to explore the physicochemical characteristics of drinking water sources of Tipparthy revenue sub-division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Totally 49 water samples were collected from the different locations (22 villages of the study area including bore well, open well and hand pump water and analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, total hardness, fluoride, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, phosphates, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, Iron and dissolved oxygen. On an average, in almost all the samples, one or the other chemical constituent was beyond the permissible limits it was also concluded that water sources in the study area not fit for potability. Sodium absorption ratio (SAR and water quality (WQI studies indicate water available from all sources not fit for irrigation also. The study indicates the need for periodic monitoring of ground water in the study area.

  14. The genetic basis for mating-induced sex differences in starvation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Taehwan; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2015-11-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to influence starvation resistance, which is an important determinant of fitness in many organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster. Recent studies have revealed that mating can alter starvation resistance in female D. melanogaster, but little is known about the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying such mating-mediated changes in starvation resistance. In the present study, we first investigated whether the effect of mating on starvation resistance is sex-specific in D. melanogaster. As indicated by a significant sex×mating status interaction, mating increased starvation resistance in females but not in males. In female D. melanogaster, post-mating increase in starvation resistance was mainly attributed to increases in food intake and in the level of lipid storage relative to lean body weight. We then performed quantitative genetic analysis to estimate the proportion of the total phenotypic variance attributable to genetic differences (i.e., heritability) for starvation resistance in mated male and female D. melanogaster. The narrow-sense heritability (h(2)) of starvation resistance was 0.235 and 0.155 for males and females, respectively. Mated females were more resistant to starvation than males in all genotypes, but the degree of such sexual dimorphism varied substantially among genotypes, as indicated by a significant sex×genotype interaction for starvation resistance. Cross-sex genetic correlation was greater than 0 but less than l for starvation resistance, implying that the genetic architecture of this trait was partially shared between the two sexes. For both sexes, starvation resistance was positively correlated with longevity and lipid storage at genetic level. The present study suggests that sex differences in starvation resistance depend on mating status and have a genetic basis in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic diversity of Lithocarpus harlandii populations in three forest communities with different succession stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui LI; Zexin JIN; Wenyan LOU; Junmin LI

    2008-01-01

    By using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique,this paper studied the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of Lithocarpus harlandii populations in three forest communities (con-iferous forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and evergreen broad-leaved forest) with different succes-sion stages in Tiantai Mountain in Zhejiang Province.The results showed that a total of 173 repetitive loci were produced in 60 individuals of L. Harlandii by 12 random primers, among which, 152 loci were polymorphic, and the total percentage of polymorphic loci was 87.86%. The average percentage of polymorphic loci of the popula-tions was 65.32%, and their total genetic diversity estimated by Shannon information index was 0.4529,with an average of 0.3458,while that judged from Nei's index was 0.3004, with an average of 0.2320. The percentage of polymorphic loci, Shannon information index, and Nei's index of the populations were in the sequence of coniferous forest community coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest community evergreen broad-leaved forest community. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 72.85% of genetic variance was found within the populations,and 27.15% of genetic variance resided among the populations. The coefficient of gene differentiation was 0.2277, and the gene flow was 1.6949. The genetic structure of L. Harlandii was influenced not only by the biological characteristics of this species, but also by the micro-environment of different communities. The mean of genetic identity among three populations of L. Harlandii was 0.8662, and the mean of their genetic distance was 0.1442. The genetic similarity between coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest community and evergreen broad-leaved forest community was the highest, while that between evergreen broad-leaved forest community and coniferous forest community was the lowest.The unweighted pair group method with arithmeticmean (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic

  16. Hidden biodiversity in an ecologically important freshwater amphipod: differences in genetic structure between two cryptic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Marie Westram

    Full Text Available Cryptic species, i.e. species that are morphologically hard to distinguish, have been detected repeatedly in various taxa and ecosystems. In order to evaluate the importance of this finding, we have to know in how far cryptic species differ in various aspects of their biology. The amphipod Gammarus fossarum is a key invertebrate in freshwater streams and contains several cryptic species. We examined the population genetic structure, genetic diversity and demographic history of two of them (type A and type B using microsatellite markers and asked whether they show significant differences. We present results of population genetic analyses based on a total of 37 populations from the headwaters of two major European drainages, Rhine and Rhone. We found that, in both species, genetic diversity was geographically structured among and within drainages. For type A in the Rhine and type B in the Rhone, we detected significant patterns of isolation by distance. The increase of genetic differentiation with geographical distance, however, was much higher in type A than in type B. This result indicates substantial interspecific differences in population history and/or the extent of current gene flow between populations. In the Rhine, type B does not show evidence of isolation by distance, and population differentiation is relatively low across hundreds of kilometres. The majority of these populations also show signatures of recent bottlenecks. These patterns are consistent with a recent expansion of type B into the Rhine drainage. In summary, our results suggest considerable and previously unrecognized interspecific differences in the genetic structure of these cryptic keystone species.

  17. Genetic Diversity of European and Chinese Oilseed Brassica rapa Cultivars from Different Breeding Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yong-guo; Ofori Atta1; LU Chang-ming

    2009-01-01

    The Brassica oilseed crops went through two major breeding bottlenecks during the introgression of genes for zero erucic acid and low glucosinolate content, respectively, which may lead to reduced genetic biodiversity of the crop. This study investigates the impact of these bottlenecks on the genetic diversity within and across European and Chinese winter B. Rapa cultivars. We compared eight cultivars from Europe and China, representing three different seed qualities from three different breeding periods: (1) high erucic acid, high glucosinolates (++); (2) zero erucic acid, high glucosinolates (0+); (3) zero erueic acid, low glueosonolates (00, canola quality). Diversity was estimated on 32 plants per cultivar, with 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers covering each of the B. Rapa linkage groups. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that genetic variations within cultivars, across cultivars and across regions (Europe and China) were significant, with about 60% of the total variation within cultivars. There was a slight, but non-significant loss in genetic diversity within cultivars when comparing the three breeding periods as indicated by effective number of alleles (2.39,2.23, and 1.99 for breeding periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively), Shannon information index (0.93, 0.90, 0.75), and expected heterozygosity (0.51, 0.49, 0.42). By cluster analysis (UPGMA dendrogram) and principal coordinate analysis, Chinese and European cultivars were clearly divided into two distinct groups. In conclusion, quality improvement did not significantly reduce the genetic diversity of European and Chinese B. Rapa cultivars.

  18. Genetic diversity of different accessions of Thymus kotschyanus using RAPD marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ismaili

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of genetic diversity is a major step for understanding evolution and breeding applications. Recent advances in the application of the polymerase chain reaction make it possible to score individuals at a large number of loci. The RAPD technique has been successfully used in a variety of taxonomic and genetic diversity studies. The genetic diversity of 18 accessions of Thymus kotschyanus collected from different districts of Iran has been reported in this study, using 30 random amplified polymorphic DNA primers. Multivariate statistical analyses including principal coordinate analysis (PCOA and cluster analysis were used to group the accessions. From 29 primers, 385 bands were scored corresponding to an average of 13.27 bands per primer with 298 bands showing polymorphism (77.40%. A dendrogram constructed based on the UPGMA clustering method revealed three major clusters. The obtained results from grouping 18 accessions of T. kotschyanus with two studied methods indicated that in the most cases the applied methods produced similar grouping results. This study revealed nearly rich genetic diversity among T. kotschyanus accessions from different regions of Iran. The results showed RAPD marker was a useful marker for genetic diversity studies of T. kotschyanus and it was indicative of geographica variations.

  19. Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely genetic in origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Naomi P; Miyake, Akira; Young, Susan E; Defries, John C; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K

    2008-05-01

    Recent psychological and neuropsychological research suggests that executive functions--the cognitive control processes that regulate thought and action--are multifaceted and that different types of executive functions are correlated but separable. The present multivariate twin study of 3 executive functions (inhibiting dominant responses, updating working memory representations, and shifting between task sets), measured as latent variables, examined why people vary in these executive control abilities and why these abilities are correlated but separable from a behavioral genetic perspective. Results indicated that executive functions are correlated because they are influenced by a highly heritable (99%) common factor that goes beyond general intelligence or perceptual speed, and they are separable because of additional genetic influences unique to particular executive functions. This combination of general and specific genetic influences places executive functions among the most heritable psychological traits. These results highlight the potential of genetic approaches for uncovering the biological underpinnings of executive functions and suggest a need for examining multiple types of executive functions to distinguish different levels of genetic influences.

  20. Genetic variations of wood properties and growth characters of Korean pines from different provenances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Totally 26 provenance stands of 17-year-old Korean pine were selected for investigating wood properties and growth characters in Mao'ershan Experiment al Forest Farm of Northeast Forestry University in 1999. The anatomical property indexes, including tracheid length, tracheid diameter and wall-indiameter ratio ,and the physical property indexes, suchas growth ring width, late wood percen tage and growth ring density, were measured for wood properties. Growth characte r indexes, including tree height and diameter at breast height, were also measur ed. The analytical results showed that there exited obviously difference in wood property indexes between different provenances, which is suggested that wood pr operties are controlled by their genetic differences. The growth character indexes of Korean pines presented significant difference and they might also be contr olled by their genetic differences. Most parameters of wood properties mainly varied in the direction of longitude, but the parameters of growth characters vari ed in the direction of latitude.

  1. Genetics of end-use quality differences between a modern and historical spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project was to determine the genetic basis for quality differences between a modern semidwarf spring wheat cultivar ‘McNeal’ and a historically important standard height cultivar ‘Thatcher’. McNeal is higher yielding with lower grain protein than Thatcher, yet has stronger gluten p...

  2. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana

    2016-01-01

    in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage...

  3. Frontostriatal Involvement in Task Switching Depends on Genetic Differences in D2 Receptor Density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelzel, C.; Basten, U.; Montag, C.; Reuter, M.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest an association of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability with flexibility in reward-based learning. We extend these results by demonstrating an association of genetically based differences in DRD2 density with the ability to intentionally switch between nonrewarded tasks:

  4. Different removal of ultraviolet photoproducts in genetically related xeroderma pigmentosum and trichothiodystrophy diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Eveno; F. Bourre; X. Quilliet; O. Chevalier-Lagente (Odile); L. Roza (Len); A.P.M. Eker (André); W.J. Kleijer (Wim); O. Nikaido; M. Stefanini (Miria); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.E. Cleaver; A. Sarasin; M. Mezzina

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTo understand the heterogeneity in genetic predisposition to skin cancer in different nucleotide excision repair-deficient human syndromes, we studied repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and of pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone (6-4PP) photoproducts in cells from trichothiodystrophy (

  5. Why Evolutionary Ontologies are a completely different field than Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Matei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary ontologies (EO are a field of evolutionary computation as genetic algorithms (GA. Although there are commonalities between the two concepts, we will demonstrate by means of this article that there are significant differences, which makes them completely distinct.

  6. Personalized Media: A Genetically Informative Investigation of Individual Differences in Online Media Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayorech, Ziada; von Stumm, Sophie; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Plomin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Online media use has become an increasingly important behavioral domain over the past decade. However, studies into the etiology of individual differences in media use have focused primarily on pathological use. Here, for the first time, we test the genetic influences on online media use in a UK representative sample of 16 year old twins, who were assessed on time spent on educational (N = 2,585 twin pairs) and entertainment websites (N = 2,614 twin pairs), time spent gaming online (N = 2,635 twin pairs), and Facebook use (N = 4,333 twin pairs). Heritability was substantial for all forms of online media use, ranging from 34% for educational sites to 37% for entertainment sites and 39% for gaming. Furthermore, genetics accounted for 24% of the variance in Facebook use. Our results support an active model of the environment, where young people choose their online engagements in line with their genetic propensities. PMID:28114386

  7. Genetic Diversity of Parkia biglobosa from Different Agroecological Zones of Nigeria Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Amusa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. is an important leguminous tree crop in the African Savannahs useful to the natives where it is found, for domestic use. Previous diversity studies on this tree crop had been majorly on morphological and biochemical analysis. In order to capture the maximum diversity not obtained by previous research, the study aimed at evaluating the genetic diversity of accessions of this crop in the different agroecological zones in Nigeria using RAPD markers. A total of 81 scorable bands with an average of 8.1 bands per primer were amplified among the accessions studied. Intrazonal genetic diversity analysis showed a percentage polymorphism with a range of 11.11% to 65.43% among the agroecological zones studied. Although, gene diversity was highest within Humid forest agroecological zone, a low genetic distance and high genetic similarity between the agroecological zones were observed. Cluster analysis indicated six main groups of which four groups had single accessions while the two groups clustered the remaining accessions, indicating a narrowed genetic base from the 23 accessions studied.

  8. [Analysis of genetic variations in different goose breeds using microsatellite markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Li, Peng; Song, Yi; Li, Shi-Ze; Wei, Chun-Bo; Yang, Huan-Min

    2006-11-01

    The genetic diversity of six goose breeds (White Goose, Zi Goose, Huoyan Goose, Wanxi Goose, Rhin, Landoise) was analyzed using microsatellite markers. Heterozygosity(H), polymorphism information content (PIC) and genetic distances were calculated for each breed based on the allele frequency. Results showed that 7 microsatellite sites were highly polymorphic, and could be used as effective markers for analysis of genetic relationship among different goose breeds. The mean heterozygosityies of were between 0.6617 (Rhin) and 0.8814 (Zi goose), among six goose breeds, the lowest was Rhin goose (0.6617) and the highest was Zi goose (0.8814). The range of mean PIC was between 0.6145 and 0.7814, which was in the similar range as the mean heterozygosities. Based on the UPGMA cluster analysis results, six goose breeds were grouped into classes, White, Zi, Huoyan and Wanxi Goose in one class, and the foreign breeds of Rhin and Landoise goose in another class. These results indicated that the dendrogram obtain from genetic distance could be used to correctly reflect the phylogenetic relationship among the six goose breeds, suggesting that microsatellite DNA marker is a useful tool to determine the genetic diversity in closely related breeds.

  9. A technical assistance on data collection on subdivision of wet-system apparatuses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    In the Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center, development on subdivision engineering system for abolition of nuclear fuel facilities has been promoted. However, data on subdivision of instruments and apparatuses to be carried out as a part of the abolition was insufficient. Therefore, here was intended to investigate data collections so as to use subdivision of a wet-system apparatuses of the smelting conversion facility begun on June, 2000, as a field of data collection as effectively as possible, on construction of the system rationally supporting abolition of nuclear fuel facility promoted at the Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center. This subdivision of the wet-system apparatuses of the facility is programmed to carry out the subdivision for two years of 2000 and 2001 fiscal years. Its working procedure is begun from non-polluted matters (electrics, instruments, and utility pipings) at every rooms to carry out appliances using uranium. Here were reported on present states survey of the subdivision, kinds and frequencies of data at the subdivision, data collection manual, and rationalization of data recording method. (G.K.)

  10. Divergent structural brain abnormalities between different genetic subtypes of children with Prader–Willi syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lukoshe, Akvile; White, Tonya; Schmidt, Marcus N.; van der Lugt, Aad; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms that indicate not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. However, little is known about developmental differences in brain structure in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate global brain morphology in children with PWS, including the comparison between different genetic subtypes of PWS. In addition, we performed exploratory cortical and subcortical foc...

  11. The Shark Alar Hypothalamus: Molecular Characterization of Prosomeric Subdivisions and Evolutionary Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Menuet, Arnaud; Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Our study revealed a complex genoarchitecture for the chondrichthyan alar hypothalamus. We identified terminal (rostral) and peduncular (caudal) subdivisions in the prosomeric paraventricular and subparaventricular areas (TPa/PPa and TSPa/PSPa, respectively) evidenced by the expression pattern of developmental genes like ScLhx5 (TPa) and immunoreactivity against Pax6 (PSPa) and 5-HT (PPa and PSPa). Dorso-ventral subdivisions were only evidenced in the SPa (SPaD, SPaV; respectively) by means of Pax6 and ScNkx2.8 (respectively). Interestingly, ScNkx2.8 expression overlaps over the alar-basal boundary, as Nkx2.2 does in other vertebrates. Our results reveal evidences for the existence of different groups of tangentially migrated cells expressing ScOtp, Pax6, and ScDlx2. The genoarchitectonic comparative analysis suggests alternative interpretations of the rostral-most alar plate in prosomeric terms and reveals a conserved molecular background for the vertebrate alar hypothalamus likely acquired before/during the agnathan-gnathostome transition, on which Otp, Pax6, Lhx5, and Neurog2 are expressed in the Pa while Dlx and Nkx2.2/Nkx2.8 are expressed in the SPa.

  12. The Shark Alar Hypothalamus: Molecular Characterization of Prosomeric Subdivisions and Evolutionary Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N.; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Menuet, Arnaud; Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Our study revealed a complex genoarchitecture for the chondrichthyan alar hypothalamus. We identified terminal (rostral) and peduncular (caudal) subdivisions in the prosomeric paraventricular and subparaventricular areas (TPa/PPa and TSPa/PSPa, respectively) evidenced by the expression pattern of developmental genes like ScLhx5 (TPa) and immunoreactivity against Pax6 (PSPa) and 5-HT (PPa and PSPa). Dorso-ventral subdivisions were only evidenced in the SPa (SPaD, SPaV; respectively) by means of Pax6 and ScNkx2.8 (respectively). Interestingly, ScNkx2.8 expression overlaps over the alar-basal boundary, as Nkx2.2 does in other vertebrates. Our results reveal evidences for the existence of different groups of tangentially migrated cells expressing ScOtp, Pax6, and ScDlx2. The genoarchitectonic comparative analysis suggests alternative interpretations of the rostral-most alar plate in prosomeric terms and reveals a conserved molecular background for the vertebrate alar hypothalamus likely acquired before/during the agnathan-gnathostome transition, on which Otp, Pax6, Lhx5, and Neurog2 are expressed in the Pa while Dlx and Nkx2.2/Nkx2.8 are expressed in the SPa. PMID:27932958

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Genetic Testing Strategies for Lynch Syndrome in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Erh; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Chung, Ren-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) and other cancers. Genetic screening for LS among patients with newly diagnosed CRC aims to identify mutations in the disease-causing genes (i.e., the DNA mismatch repair genes) in the patients, to offer genetic testing for relatives of the patients with the mutations, and then to provide early prevention for the relatives with the mutations. Several genetic tests are available for LS, such as DNA sequencing for MMR genes and tumor testing using microsatellite instability and immunohistochemical analyses. Cost-effectiveness analyses of different genetic testing strategies for LS have been performed in several studies from different countries such as the US and Germany. However, a cost-effectiveness analysis for the testing has not yet been performed in Taiwan. In this study, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of four genetic testing strategies for LS described in previous studies, while population-specific parameters, such as the mutation rates of the DNA mismatch repair genes and treatment costs for CRC in Taiwan, were used. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios based on discounted life years gained due to genetic screening were calculated for the strategies relative to no screening and to the previous strategy. Using the World Health Organization standard, which was defined based on Taiwan's Gross Domestic Product per capita, the strategy based on immunohistochemistry as a genetic test followed by BRAF mutation testing was considered to be highly cost-effective relative to no screening. Our probabilistic sensitivity analysis results also suggest that the strategy has a probability of 0.939 of being cost-effective relative to no screening based on the commonly used threshold of $50,000 to determine cost-effectiveness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluating different genetic testing strategies for LS in

  14. Different Slopes for Different Folks: Genetic Influences on Growth in Delinquent Peer Association and Delinquency During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Nedelec, Joseph L; Beaver, Kevin M; Barnes, J C

    2015-07-01

    An extensive line of research has identified delinquent peer association as a salient environmental risk factor for delinquency, especially during adolescence. While previous research has found moderate-to-strong associations between exposure to delinquent peers and a variety of delinquent behaviors, comparatively less scholarship has focused on the genetic architecture of this association over the course of adolescence. Using a subsample of kinship pairs (N = 2379; 52% female) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child and Young Adult Supplement (CNLSY), the present study examined the extent to which correlated individual differences in starting levels and developmental growth in delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency were explained by additive genetic and environmental influences. Results from a series of biometric growth models revealed that 37% of the variance in correlated growth between delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency was explained by additive genetic effects, while nonshared environmental effects accounted for the remaining 63% of the variance. Implications of these findings for interpreting the nexus between peer effects and adolescent delinquency are discussed.

  15. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Ivanildes Solange da Costa; Souza, Maria Aparecida; Pena, Janethe Deolinda de Oliveira; Machado, Gleyce Alves; Moura, Lísia Gomes Martins de; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC) patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF), Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG) and São Paulo (SP) regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total). Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  16. Agronomic Evaluation and Genetic Characterization of Different Accessions in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bacchi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lentil is an important winter-sown legume for semi-arid and temperate areas, food consumption of seed is considerable in several countries of Mediterranean Basin. In Central and Southern Italy different lentil landraces are cultivated within specific marginal areas and commercialized with a recognizable geographical indication of origin. Considering the extensive germplasm and the economic importance of lentil in several rural areas, detailed knowledge of existing genetic variation from different regions is the first important step both for conservation and exploitation of genetic resources, allowing to develop breeding programs. In field experiments over three cropping seasons (2002-2005, 25 lentil accessions from Plant Genetic Institute of National Research Council (Bari, representing part of a large germplasm collection from different areas, were carried out at the University of Reggio Calabria in order to characterize the agronomic performances in a semi-arid environment and to study genetic variability. For this purpose, 10 AFLP primer combinations and 6 SSR markers were used. The agronomic results highlighted the influence of different climatic conditions on phenological, biometrical and yielding traits. A considerable production level of lentil (2,55 t ha-1 and a low yield variability in the three years was observed, showing the high adaptability of the germplasm tested to semi-arid environment. The earliness and the plant height appeared as the most important traits negatively correlated to grain yield; in particular the earliness was confirmed as suitable mechanism of escape from abiotic stress. Genetic characterization showed that a few number of microsatellites and primer combinations are able to provide significant insights on genetic diversity combining the 25 accessions in 3 large clusters that mainly mirror their geographic origin. Principal Component Analysis that consider genetic as well as morphological and agronomic data

  17. Discovering misattributed paternity in genetic counselling: different ethical perspectives in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, Pamela; Caenazzo, Luciana; Parker, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Misattributed paternity or 'false' paternity is when a man is wrongly thought, by himself and possibly by others, to be the biological father of a child. Nowadays, because of the progression of genetics and genomics the possibility of finding misattributed paternity during familial genetic testing has increased. In contrast to other medical information, which pertains primarily to individuals, information obtained by genetic testing and/or pedigree analysis necessarily has implications for other biologically related members in the family. Disclosing or not a misattributed paternity has a number of different biological and social consequences for the people involved. Such an issue presents important ethical and deontological challenges. The debate centres on whether or not to inform the family and, particularly, whom in the family, about the possibility that misattributed paternity might be discovered incidentally, and whether or not it is the duty of the healthcare professional (HCP) to disclose the results and to whom. In this paper, we consider the different perspectives and reported problems, and analyse their cultural, ethical and legal dimensions. We compare the position of HCPs from an Italian and British point of view, particularly their role in genetic counselling. We discuss whether the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe (1997) can be seen as a basis for enriching the debate.

  18. Extending the Spectrum of Radiological Findings in Patients With Severe Osteopetrosis and Different Genetic Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanovsky, Natalia; Rozovsky, Katya; Hiller, Nurith; Weintraub, Michael; Stepensky, Polina

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate radiological findings in a cohort of 22 patients with infantile malignant osteopetrosis in order to establish the correlation between radiological findings and different genetic backgrounds. Clinical files, genetic analysis results, and radiological examinations of children treated for osteopetrosis with bone marrow transplantation in a referral center in the last 5 years were retrospectively evaluated. The study received institutional review board (IRB) approval. Twenty-two patients were included in the study: 18 males, four females, ages 1 month-9 years 10 months, and the median age was 11 months (mean 23 months). There were 12 patients with different mutations in the TCIRG1 gene, five with mutations in the SNX10 gene, four children harbored RANK mutations, and one patient had a CLCN7 mutation. We noted more severe radiological findings in patients with TCIRG1 and RANK mutations, including fractures, osteopetrorickets, hydrocephalus, and hepatomegaly. Varus deformity of the femoral neck was seen exclusively in patients with a TCIRG1 mutation. The variable genetic spectrum of osteopetrosis is associated with a variable radiological presentation. These correlations may be helpful for priorities in genetic analysis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Inter-population differences in otolith morphology are genetically encoded in the killifish Aphanius fasciatus (Cyprinodontiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Annabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inter-population differences in otolith shape, morphology and chemistry have been used effectively as indicators for stock assessment or for recognizing environmental adaptation in fishes. However, the precise parameters that affect otolith morphology remain incompletely understood. Here we provide the first direct support for the hypothesis that inter-population differences in otolith morphology are genetically encoded. The study is based on otolith morphology and two mitochondrial markers (D-loop, 16S rRNA of three natural populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae from Southeast Tunisia. Otolith and genetic data yielded congruent tree topologies. Divergence of populations likely results from isolation events in the course of the Pleistocene sea level drops. We propose that otolith morphology is a valuable tool for resolving genetic diversity also within other teleost species, which may be important for ecosystem management and conservation of genetic diversity. As reconstructions of ancient teleost fish faunas are often solely based on fossil otoliths, our discoveries may also lead to a new approach to research in palaeontology.

  20. Evaluation of different genetic procedures for the generation of artificial hybrids in Saccharomyces genus for winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Lopes, Christian A; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2012-05-15

    Several methods based on recombinant DNA techniques have been proposed for yeast strain improvement; however, the most relevant oenological traits depend on a multitude of loci, making these techniques difficult to apply. In this way, hybridization techniques involving two complete genomes became interesting. Natural hybrid strains between different Saccharomyces species have been detected in diverse fermented beverages including wine, cider and beer. These hybrids seem to be better adapted to fluctuating situations typically observed in fermentations due to the acquisition of particular physiological properties of both parental strains. In this work we evaluated the usefulness of three different hybridization methods: spore to spore mating, rare-mating and protoplast fusion for the generation of intra- and inter-specific stable hybrids, being the first report about the comparison of different methods to obtain artificial hybrids to be used in fermentations. Spore to spore mating is an easy but time-consuming method; hybrids generated with this technique could lack some of the industrially relevant traits present in the parental strains because of the segregation occurred during meiosis and spore generation prior to hybridization. Hybrids obtained by protoplast fusion get the complete information of both parents but they are currently considered as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Finally, hybrids obtained by rare-mating are easily obtained by the optimized methodology described in this work, they originally contain a complete set of chromosomes of both parents and they are not considered as GMOs. Hybrids obtained by means of the three methodological approaches showed a high genetic variability; however, a loss of genetic material was detected in most of them. Based on these results, it became evident that a last crucial aspect to be considered in every hybridization program is the genetic stabilization of recently generated hybrids that guarantee its

  1. QTL mapping based on different genetic systems for essential amino acid contents in cottonseeds in different environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Liu

    Full Text Available Cottonseeds are rich in various essential amino acids. However, the inheritance of them at molecular level are still not defined across various genetic systems. In the present study, using a newly developed mapping model that can analyze the embryo and maternal main effects as well as QTL × environment interaction effects on quantitative quality trait loci (QTLs in cottonseeds, a study on QTL located in the tetraploid embryo and tetraploid maternal plant genomes for essential amino acid contents in cottonseeds under different environments was carried out, using the immortal F2 (IF2 populations from a set of 188 recombinant inbred lines derived from an intraspecific hybrid cross of two upland cotton germplasms HS46 and MARKCBUCAG8US-1-88 as experimental materials. The results showed a total of 35 QTLs associated with these quality traits in cottonseeds. Nineteen QTLs were subsequently mapped on chromosome 5, 6 and 8 in sub-A genome and chromosome 15, 18, 22 and 23 in sub-D genome. Eighteen QTLs were also found having QTL × environment (QE interaction effects. The genetic main effects from QTLs located on chromosomes in the embryo and maternal plant genomes and their QE effects in different environments were all important for these essential amino acids in cottonseeds. The results suggested that the influence of environmental factors on the expression of some QTLs located in different genetic systems should be considered when improving for these amino acids. This study can serve as the foundation for the improvement of these essential amino acids in cottonseeds.

  2. Yellowstone bison genetics: let us move forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Natalie D.; Gogan, Peter J.P.; Hedrick, Philip W.; Wahl, Jacquelyn M.; Derr, James N.

    2012-01-01

    White and Wallen (2012) disagree with the conclusions and suggestions made in our recent assessment of population structure among Yellowstone National Park (YNP) bison based on 46 autosomal microsatellite loci in 661 animals (Halbert et al. 2012). First, they suggest that "the existing genetic substructure (that we observed) was artificially created." Specifically, they suggest that the substructure observed between the northern and central populations is the result of human activities, both historical and recent. In fact, the genetic composition of all known existing bison herds was created by, or has been influenced by, anthropogenic activities, although this obviously does not reduce the value of these herds for genetic conservation (Dratch and Gogan 2010). As perspective, many, if not most, species of conservation concern have been influenced by human actions and as a result currently exist as isolated populations. However, it is quite difficult to distinguish between genetic differences caused by human actions and important ancestral variation contained in separate populations without data from early time periods. Therefore, to not lose genetic variation that may be significant or indicative of important genetic variation, the generally acceptable management approach is to attempt to retain this variation based on the observed population genetic subdivision (Hedrick et al. 1986).

  3. Genetic susceptibility to dental caries differs between the sexes: a family-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience have been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting a higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although it may be partly due to the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family based study (N = 2,663; 740 families; ages 1-93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions.

  4. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of different types of natural populations in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. and the relationships with sex ratio, population structure, and geographic isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaoqing; Wu, Shuai; Wang, Yiguang; Zhao, Hongbo; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2014-01-01

    Osmanthus fragrans Lour., an evergreen small tree, has the rare sexual system of androdioecy (coexistence of males and hermaphrodites), once with wide-spread natural distribution in the areas of the South Yangzi river basin. However, due to excessive human utilization, natural distribution became fragmented and the number and size of natural populations reduced sharply. With four different types of natural populations from the same region as research object, we aim to provide a comparative analysis on the relationships among genetic diversity, sexual system, population structure and size, and geographic isolation by ISSR. In genetic parameters of N e , H e , and I, the LQGC population had the highest value and the LQZGQ population had the lowest value. These indicated that LQGC population showed the highest genetic diversity, followed by QDH and JN population, and LQZGQ population exhibited the lowest genetic diversity. Genetic diversity in populations is closely related to population structure, reproduction mode, and sex ratio. However, there seems to be no obvious correlation between genetic diversity and population size. The results of AMOVA showed that genetic variations mostly occurred within populations. It indicates that no significant genetic differentiation among populations occurs, and geographic isolation has no significant effect on genetic diversity.

  5. Genetic Diversity and Genetic Structure of Different Types of Natural Populations in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. and the Relationships with Sex Ratio, Population Structure, and Geographic Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqing Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmanthus fragrans Lour., an evergreen small tree, has the rare sexual system of androdioecy (coexistence of males and hermaphrodites, once with wide-spread natural distribution in the areas of the South Yangzi river basin. However, due to excessive human utilization, natural distribution became fragmented and the number and size of natural populations reduced sharply. With four different types of natural populations from the same region as research object, we aim to provide a comparative analysis on the relationships among genetic diversity, sexual system, population structure and size, and geographic isolation by ISSR. In genetic parameters of Ne, He, and I, the LQGC population had the highest value and the LQZGQ population had the lowest value. These indicated that LQGC population showed the highest genetic diversity, followed by QDH and JN population, and LQZGQ population exhibited the lowest genetic diversity. Genetic diversity in populations is closely related to population structure, reproduction mode, and sex ratio. However, there seems to be no obvious correlation between genetic diversity and population size. The results of AMOVA showed that genetic variations mostly occurred within populations. It indicates that no significant genetic differentiation among populations occurs, and geographic isolation has no significant effect on genetic diversity.

  6. Ecological and genetic differences between Cacopsylla melanoneura (Hemiptera, Psyllidae populations reveal species host plant preference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Malagnini

    Full Text Available The psyllid Cacopsylla melanoneura is considered one of the vectors of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali', the causal agent of apple proliferation disease. In Northern Italy, overwintered C. melanoneura adults reach apple and hawthorn around the end of January. Nymph development takes place between March and the end of April. The new generation adults migrate onto conifers around mid-June and come back to the host plant species after overwintering. In this study we investigated behavioural differences, genetic differentiation and gene flow between samples of C. melanoneura collected from the two different host plants. Further analyses were performed on some samples collected from conifers. To assess the ecological differences, host-switching experiments were conducted on C. melanoneura samples collected from apple and hawthorn. Furthermore, the genetic structure of the samples was studied by genotyping microsatellite markers. The examined C. melanoneura samples performed better on their native host plant species. This was verified in terms of oviposition and development of the offspring. Data resulting from microsatellite analysis indicated a low, but statistically significant difference between collected-from-apple and hawthorn samples. In conclusion, both ecological and genetic results indicate a differentiation between C. melanoneura samples associated with the two host plants.

  7. Monkey-based research on human disease: the implications of genetic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jarrod

    2014-11-01

    Assertions that the use of monkeys to investigate human diseases is valid scientifically are frequently based on a reported 90-93% genetic similarity between the species. Critical analyses of the relevance of monkey studies to human biology, however, indicate that this genetic similarity does not result in sufficient physiological similarity for monkeys to constitute good models for research, and that monkey data do not translate well to progress in clinical practice for humans. Salient examples include the failure of new drugs in clinical trials, the highly different infectivity and pathology of SIV/HIV, and poor extrapolation of research on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke. The major molecular differences underlying these inter-species phenotypic disparities have been revealed by comparative genomics and molecular biology - there are key differences in all aspects of gene expression and protein function, from chromosome and chromatin structure to post-translational modification. The collective effects of these differences are striking, extensive and widespread, and they show that the superficial similarity between human and monkey genetic sequences is of little benefit for biomedical research. The extrapolation of biomedical data from monkeys to humans is therefore highly unreliable, and the use of monkeys must be considered of questionable value, particularly given the breadth and potential of alternative methods of enquiry that are currently available to scientists.

  8. Differences in foraging ecology align with genetically divergent ecotypes of a highly mobile marine top predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeglinski, Jana W E; Wolf, Jochen B W; Werner, Christiane; Costa, Daniel P; Trillmich, Fritz

    2015-12-01

    Foraging differentiation within a species can contribute to restricted gene flow between ecologically different groups, promoting ecological speciation. Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) show genetic and morphological divergence between the western and central archipelago, possibly as a result of an ecologically mediated contrast in the marine habitat. We use global positioning system (GPS) data, time-depth recordings (TDR), stable isotope and scat data to compare foraging habitat characteristics, diving behaviour and diet composition of Galapagos sea lions from a western and a central colony. We consider both juvenile and adult life stages to assess the potential role of ontogenetic shifts that can be crucial in shaping foraging behaviour and habitat choice for life. We found differences in foraging habitat use, foraging style and diet composition that aligned with genetic differentiation. These differences were consistent between juvenile and adult sea lions from the same colony, overriding age-specific behavioural differences. Our study contributes to an understanding of the complex interaction of ecological condition, plastic behavioural response and genetic make-up of interconnected populations.

  9. Genetic Differences of Mitten Crabs Based on RFLP Analysis on Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Pengfei; WANG Qian; DAI Wei; WANG Xiaomei

    2008-01-01

    The genetic differences of 15 mitten crab populations from 6 river systems in mainland China and 1 population from Russia were studied based on RFLP analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI).The results showed that Tas I-RFLP pattern could be used as a genetic marker to distinguish Eriocheir hepuensis from Eriocheir sinensis, Eriocheirjaponica and Eriocheir leptognathus;genetic distances among 13 populations ofEriocheir sinensis range from 0 to 0.015, indicating that they were different geographic strains;the subspecies status ofEriocheir sinensis and Eriocheir hepuensis (population from Nanliujiang) were considered owning to their genetic distances of 0.02-0.044,indicating that genetic divergence between them was low; Eriocheir leptognathus (population from Nanpaihe, Tianjin) was the most distant taxon with genetic distances value of 0.147-0.195,which could be defined as genetic distances between species in genus Eriocheir.

  10. Differing Patterns of Selection and Geospatial Genetic Diversity within Two Leading Plasmodium vivax Candidate Vaccine Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parobek, Christian M.; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Hathaway, Nicholas J.; Socheat, Duong; Rogers, William O.; Juliano, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Although Plasmodium vivax is a leading cause of malaria around the world, only a handful of vivax antigens are being studied for vaccine development. Here, we investigated genetic signatures of selection and geospatial genetic diversity of two leading vivax vaccine antigens – Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (pvmsp-1) and Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp). Using scalable next-generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced amplicons of the 42 kDa region of pvmsp-1 (n = 44) and the complete gene of pvcsp (n = 47) from Cambodian isolates. These sequences were then compared with global parasite populations obtained from GenBank. Using a combination of statistical and phylogenetic methods to assess for selection and population structure, we found strong evidence of balancing selection in the 42 kDa region of pvmsp-1, which varied significantly over the length of the gene, consistent with immune-mediated selection. In pvcsp, the highly variable central repeat region also showed patterns consistent with immune selection, which were lacking outside the repeat. The patterns of selection seen in both genes differed from their P. falciparum orthologs. In addition, we found that, similar to merozoite antigens from P. falciparum malaria, genetic diversity of pvmsp-1 sequences showed no geographic clustering, while the non-merozoite antigen, pvcsp, showed strong geographic clustering. These findings suggest that while immune selection may act on both vivax vaccine candidate antigens, the geographic distribution of genetic variability differs greatly between these two genes. The selective forces driving this diversification could lead to antigen escape and vaccine failure. Better understanding the geographic distribution of genetic variability in vaccine candidate antigens will be key to designing and implementing efficacious vaccines. PMID:24743266

  11. Differing patterns of selection and geospatial genetic diversity within two leading Plasmodium vivax candidate vaccine antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Parobek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Plasmodium vivax is a leading cause of malaria around the world, only a handful of vivax antigens are being studied for vaccine development. Here, we investigated genetic signatures of selection and geospatial genetic diversity of two leading vivax vaccine antigens--Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (pvmsp-1 and Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp. Using scalable next-generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced amplicons of the 42 kDa region of pvmsp-1 (n = 44 and the complete gene of pvcsp (n = 47 from Cambodian isolates. These sequences were then compared with global parasite populations obtained from GenBank. Using a combination of statistical and phylogenetic methods to assess for selection and population structure, we found strong evidence of balancing selection in the 42 kDa region of pvmsp-1, which varied significantly over the length of the gene, consistent with immune-mediated selection. In pvcsp, the highly variable central repeat region also showed patterns consistent with immune selection, which were lacking outside the repeat. The patterns of selection seen in both genes differed from their P. falciparum orthologs. In addition, we found that, similar to merozoite antigens from P. falciparum malaria, genetic diversity of pvmsp-1 sequences showed no geographic clustering, while the non-merozoite antigen, pvcsp, showed strong geographic clustering. These findings suggest that while immune selection may act on both vivax vaccine candidate antigens, the geographic distribution of genetic variability differs greatly between these two genes. The selective forces driving this diversification could lead to antigen escape and vaccine failure. Better understanding the geographic distribution of genetic variability in vaccine candidate antigens will be key to designing and implementing efficacious vaccines.

  12. Estimates of genetic variance and variance of predicted genetic merits using pedigree or genomic relationship matrices in six Brown Swiss cattle populations for different traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loberg, A; Dürr, J W; Fikse, W F; Jorjani, H; Crooks, L

    2015-10-01

    The amount of variance captured in genetic estimations may depend on whether a pedigree-based or genomic relationship matrix is used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genetic variance as well as the variance of predicted genetic merits (PGM) using pedigree-based or genomic relationship matrices in Brown Swiss cattle. We examined a range of traits in six populations amounting to 173 population-trait combinations. A main aim was to determine how using different relationship matrices affect variance estimation. We calculated ratios between different types of estimates and analysed the impact of trait heritability and population size. The genetic variances estimated by REML using a genomic relationship matrix were always smaller than the variances that were similarly estimated using a pedigree-based relationship matrix. The variances from the genomic relationship matrix became closer to estimates from a pedigree relationship matrix as heritability and population size increased. In contrast, variances of predicted genetic merits obtained using a genomic relationship matrix were mostly larger than variances of genetic merit predicted using pedigree-based relationship matrix. The ratio of the genomic to pedigree-based PGM variances decreased as heritability and population size rose. The increased variance among predicted genetic merits is important for animal breeding because this is one of the factors influencing genetic progress. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Laser Subdivision of the Genesis Concentrator Target Sample 60000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Howard V., Jr.; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Clemett, S. J.; Gonzales, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; McNamara, K. M.; See, T. H.

    2013-01-01

    The Genesis Allocation Committee received a request for 1 square centimeter of the diamond-like-carbon (DLC) concentrator target for the analysis of solar wind nitrogen isotopes. The target consists of a single crystal float zone (FZ) silicon substrate having a thickness on the order of 550 micrometers with a 1.5-3.0 micrometer-thick coating of DLC on the exposed surface. The solar wind is implanted shallowly in the front side DLC. The original target was a circular quadrant with a radius of 3.1 cm; however, the piece did not survive intact when the spacecraft suffered an anomalous landing upon returning to Earth on September 8, 2004. An estimated 75% of the DLC target was recovered in at least 18 fragments. The largest fragment, Genesis sample 60000, has been designated for this allocation and is the first sample to be subdivided using our laser scribing system Laser subdivision has associated risks including thermal diffusion of the implant if heating occurs and unintended breakage during cleavage. A careful detailed study and considerable subdividing practice using non-flight FZ diamond on silicon, DOS, wafers has considerably reduced the risk of unplanned breakage during the cleaving process. In addition, backside scribing reduces the risk of possible thermal excursions affecting the implanted solar wind, implanted shallowly in the front side DLC.

  14. Comparison between different selection criteria in the genetic evaluation of Valle del Belice sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Firpo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactation length in dairy sheep affects milk yield like other genetic and environmental factors. The length of the production period is affected by management decisions such as culling, mating and particularly ranking of animals with different parity and lambing in different months or seasons. Moreover the low heritability of lactation length (Barillet and Boichard, 1987; Dahlin et al., 1998 does not allow its use as a selection criterion. For this reason to achieve a good reliability in phenotypic and genetic evaluation of dairy species, production variability caused by systematic environmental effects must be removed. This is of particular interest for dairy sheep and goats reared in Sicily, where the typical production system is based on pasture, and related food availability is strongly affected by seasonal and annual climatic variations, which results in considerable variations in daily yields........

  15. Genetic uniformity of Echinococcus multilocularis collected from different intermediate host species in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Munehiro; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kurosawa, Tsutomu; Kamiya, Masao

    2007-02-01

    DNA from several isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis and Echinococcus multilocularis were digested with restriction enzymes and hybridized with digoxigenated oligonucleotide probe (CAC)5. Within the six wild isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis from Norway rats in Hokkaido, although several bands were common among isolates, fingerprinting patterns were specific to each isolate. In the case of E. multilocularis, regardless of hosts from which each isolate has been isolated, the five isolates collected from Hokkaido, showed the same fingerprinting pattern. These results indicate that there was very little genetic difference among these isolates. Although the fingerprinting pattern of E. multilocularis from St. Lawrence Is. was similar to that of the Hokkaido isolates, some bands were different from those in the Hokkaido isolates. Echinococcus multilocularis in Hokkaido seems to be closely-related genetically to that from St. Lawrence Is.

  16. Genome-Wide Investigation of Multifocal and Unifocal Prostate Cancer—Are They Genetically Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeawuchi, Chinyere; Schmidt, Hartmut; Voss, Reinhard; Titze, Ulf; Abbas, Mahmoud; Neumann, Joerg; Eltze, Elke; Hoogland, Agnes Marije; Jenster, Guido; Brandt, Burkhard; Semjonow, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is widely observed to be biologically heterogeneous. Its heterogeneity is manifested histologically as multifocal prostate cancer, which is observed more frequently than unifocal prostate cancer. The clinical and prognostic significance of either focal cancer type is not fully established. To investigate prostate cancer heterogeneity, the genetic profiles of multifocal and unifocal prostate cancers were compared. Here, we report observations deduced from tumor-tumor comparison of copy number alteration data of both focal categories. Forty-one fresh frozen prostate cancer foci from 14 multifocal prostate cancers and eight unifocal prostate cancers were subjected to copy number variation analysis with the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarray tool. With the investigated cases, tumors obtained from a single prostate exhibited different genetic profiles of variable degrees. Further comparison identified no distinct genetic pattern or signatures specific to multifocal or unifocal prostate cancer. Our findings suggest that samples obtained from multiple sites of a single unifocal prostate cancer show as much genetic heterogeneity and variability as separate tumors obtained from a single multifocal prostate cancer. PMID:23736690

  17. Genetic Differentiation of Different Geographical Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Dong; LIU Guo-xia; FAN Zhong-xue; TAO Yun-li; ZHANG You-jun

    2007-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a species complex, which includes different geographical populations with genetic differentiation. The recent progress on the genetic differentiation of various geographical populations of B. tabaci complex was introduced. The genetic differentiation was further analyzed on the basis of the sequences of mtDNA COI and rDNA ITSl recorded in the world's GenBank. Five groups are defined on the basis of mtDNA COI and rDNA ITS1, including the Asia group, America group, Africa group, Australia group, and Biotype B/Mediterranean/Middle East/ Northern Africa/Biotype Ms group. There are several ungrouped geographical classifications, such as the Uganda population, Ivory Coast population, and Taiwan population. Geographical isolation may be the most important factor that contributed to the genetic differentiation of various geographical populations of B. tabaci. Many populations with biological advantages invaded new regions and caused severe economic losses within human activity. It is necessary to strengthen the research of B. tabaci biotype to prevent the spread of invaded populations and the invasion of potentially dangerous populations.

  18. Infestation by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in heifers from different genetics groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Marini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the infestation of ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in 59 heifers of three genetic groups was run: Nellore, Guzerá and ½ Angus x ½ Nellore, belonging to the roster APTA Regional Andradina / SP. Every 28 days held the count of ticks, where the left side of the animal, with evaluation of only engorged females with more than 4.5 mm in the period from June 2007 to May 2008. The genetic group (P 0.05. The count of ticks was higher in the rainy season (4.32 ± 5.20 in comparison with the dry season (3.74 ± 5.54. Despite the higher counts of ticks during the experimental period, in heifers ½ Angus x ½ Nellore, this genetic group obtained the highest average daily weight gain (0.57 kg/day. Heifers and bulls Nellore and Guzerá were not statistically different in relation to daily weight gain, with averages of 0.37 and 0.40kg/day, respectively. ½ Angus heifers genetic group cattle have a higher infestation by ticks.

  19. Genetic structuring of the moss Pseudoscleropodium purum sampled at different distances from a pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquete, M Teresa; Spagnuolo, Valeria; Fernández, J Ángel; Aboal, Jesús R; Imperatore, Ivana; Giordano, Simonetta

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to investigate the genetic structure of the terrestrial moss Pseudoscleropodium purum (Hedw.) M. Fleish. naturally exposed to different levels of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals. We also determined the heavy metal concentrations in samples of this moss to evaluate whether there was a relationship between atmospheric pollution and population genetic diversity. A low level of genetic diversity and a limited gene flow among populations were observed which is in accordance to the prevalence of asexual reproduction in this species. In addition, no significant correlation was found between metal content and gene diversity in P. purum, probably because of the common history of the sampled populations and/or to the lack of a drastic reduction of the size of the population; nonetheless, a clear genetic structure was evident in relation to the existing pollution gradient. Thus, based on the results of the principal coordinate analysis and Bayesian analysis of the genotypes, the mixed structure of the second most polluted population would suggest an ongoing differentiation of metal-tolerant genotypes in the most polluted sites of the sampling area.

  20. Study on Growth and Genetic Gains of Different Families in Eucalyptus urophylla Second Generation Seed Orchards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A second-generation seedling seed orchard including 32 open-pollinated families of Eucalyptus urophylla was built at Gaoyao City, Guangdong Province to examine the genetic performance of the orchard, which were selected from the superior trees in an improvement seed orchard. Compared to the characteristics of height, DBH, individual volume, stem form, branch and blossom quantities among different families at 22 months. The results indicate that: (1) The most superior families in individual volume and bl...

  1. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  2. Research of subdivision driving technology for brushless DC motors in optical fiber positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yi; Gu, Yonggang; Zhu, Ye; Zhai, Chao

    2016-07-01

    In fiber spectroscopic telescopes, optical fiber positioning units are used to position thousands of fibers on the focal plane quickly and precisely. Stepper motors are used in existing units, however, it has some inherent deficiencies, such as serious heating and low efficiency. In this work, the universally adopted subdivision driving technology for stepper motors is transplanted to brushless DC motors. It keeps the advantages of stepper motors such as high positioning accuracy and resolution, while overcomes the disadvantages mentioned above. Thus, this research mainly focuses on develop a novel subdivision driving technology for brushless DC motor. By the proving of experiments of online debug and subdivision speed and position, the proposed brushless DC motor subdivision technology can achieve the expected functions.

  3. 46 CFR 173.055 - Watertight subdivision and damage stability standards for existing sailing school vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... board (c) An existing sailing school vessel which is required to meet a one compartment subdivision..., be fitted with a collision bulkhead and sufficient air tankage or other internal buoyancy to...

  4. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF, Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG and São Paulo (SP regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total. Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05, while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05. Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  5. Genetic and morphometric differences between yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus, Lutjanidae populations of the tropical West Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson V. Vasconcellos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Ocyurus chrysurus were compared genetically and morphometrically along the West Atlantic coast to test the null hypothesis of population homogeneity in the area. Brazilian populations were found to be differentiated in shape (canonical variates analysis; F[48,515] = 10.84, p < 0.0001. Analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (663 bp of the control region did not show any differences between Brazilian populations but could detect differences between Brazilian and Caribbean (Belize populations. The samples from Pernambuco differed significantly from the other Brazilian populations in allozyme frequencies (11 loci; F ST = 0.167; p < 0.05, but this may have resulted from the small number of samples analysed for that population. Sequence variation of Belize samples departed from neutral expectations (Fu's FS = -8.88; p < 0.001. A mismatch distribution analysis points to an ancient population expansion in that area. We conclude that the genetic data do not allow the rejection of the null hypothesis of panmixia for Brazilian yellowtail snapper populations which should be treated as a single genetic stock, with a latitudinal gradient on their morphology which probably results from phenotypic plasticity. On the other hand, there is a severe restriction to gene flow between O. chrysurus populations from the Caribbean and from the southwestern Atlantic.

  6. Genetic analysis of reciprocal differences in the inheritance of in vitro characters in pearl millet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyavathi, Valluri V; Manga, V.; Rao, Muktinutalapati V. Subba; Chittibabu, Malladi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reciprocal differences persist in nature because of the unequal contribution of cytoplasmic determinants from male and female gametes to the zygote. The inheritance of genetic differences is an important factor that influences various traits, including somatic embryogenesis and regeneration in vitro. In this report, we estimate the cytoplasmic and maternal effects in pearl millet and their adequacy in describing the observed reciprocal differences based on an in depth study of the parents, F2s and reciprocal backcross progenies needed for fitting genetical models. Our study revealed that of the two characters examined, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency, the former showed a greater proportion of cytoplasmic nuclear interaction whereas the latter showed a greater role of nuclear factors. Additive-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity and dominance-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency. Dwarfing was associated with the production of large quantities of embryogenic callus that had visually recognizable characteristics. The phenotypic nature of dwarf parents (green dwarf with long narrow leaves) with a genetic basis for a given character controlled by nuclear and cytoplasmic determinants can be exploited for other breeding programs. PMID:27007899

  7. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Methods Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes we...

  8. Stability Verification for Energy-Aware Hydraulic Pressure Control via Simplicial Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a linear programming-based method for finding Lyapunov functions of dynamical systems with polynomial vector fields. We propose to utilize a certificate of positivity in the Bernstein basis based on subdivisioning to find a Lyapunov function. The subdivision-based method...... is proposed since it has better degree bounds than similar methods based on degree elevation. The proposed method is successfully applied to find a Lyapunov function for a pressure controlled water distribution system....

  9. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurado Juan J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed which actual census (2008 consists of 3057 females and 203 males distributed in 22 populations more or less isolated. The aim of this work is to study the genetic status of this breed through the analysis of molecular data from 10 microsatellites typed in historic and actual live animals. Results The mean expected heterozygosity across loci within populations ranged from 0.62 to 0.77. Genetic differentiation measures were moderate, with a mean FST of 0.074, GST of 0.081 and RST of 0.085. Percentages of variation among and within populations were 7.5 and 92.5, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses pointed out a population subdivision in 16 clusters, however, no correlation between geographical distances and genetic differences was found. Management factors such as the limited exchange of animals between farmers (estimated gene flow Nm = 3.08 mostly due to sanitary and social constraints could be the major causes affecting Guadarrama goat population subdivision. Conclusion Genetic diversity measures revealed a good status of biodiversity in the Guadarrama goat breed. Since diseases are the first cause affecting the census in this breed, population subdivision would be an advantage for its conservation. However, to maintain private alleles present at low frequencies in such small populations minimizing the inbreeding rate, it would necessitate some mating designs of animals carrying such alleles among populations. The systematic use of molecular markers will

  10. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Magdalena; Calvo, Jorge H; Martínez, Marta; Marcos-Carcavilla, Ane; Cuevas, Javier; González, Carmen; Jurado, Juan J; de Tejada, Paloma Díez

    2009-01-01

    Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed which actual census (2008) consists of 3057 females and 203 males distributed in 22 populations more or less isolated. The aim of this work is to study the genetic status of this breed through the analysis of molecular data from 10 microsatellites typed in historic and actual live animals. Results The mean expected heterozygosity across loci within populations ranged from 0.62 to 0.77. Genetic differentiation measures were moderate, with a mean FST of 0.074, GST of 0.081 and RST of 0.085. Percentages of variation among and within populations were 7.5 and 92.5, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses pointed out a population subdivision in 16 clusters, however, no correlation between geographical distances and genetic differences was found. Management factors such as the limited exchange of animals between farmers (estimated gene flow Nm = 3.08) mostly due to sanitary and social constraints could be the major causes affecting Guadarrama goat population subdivision. Conclusion Genetic diversity measures revealed a good status of biodiversity in the Guadarrama goat breed. Since diseases are the first cause affecting the census in this breed, population subdivision would be an advantage for its conservation. However, to maintain private alleles present at low frequencies in such small populations minimizing the inbreeding rate, it would necessitate some mating designs of animals carrying such alleles among populations. The systematic use of molecular markers will facilitate the

  11. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri A Thomassen

    Full Text Available Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi, Reticulated (G. reticulata and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1 isolation-by-distance; 2 physical barriers to dispersal; 3 general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4 regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically

  12. Regional differences in seasonal timing of rainfall discriminate between genetically distinct East African giraffe taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Henri A; Freedman, Adam H; Brown, David M; Buermann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, David K

    2013-01-01

    Masai (Giraffa tippelskirchi), Reticulated (G. reticulata) and Rothschild's (G. camelopardalis) giraffe lineages in East Africa are morphologically and genetically distinct, yet in Kenya their ranges abut. This raises the question of how divergence is maintained among populations of a large mammal capable of long-distance travel, and which readily hybridize in zoos. Here we test four hypotheses concerning the maintenance of the phylogeographic boundaries among the three taxa: 1) isolation-by-distance; 2) physical barriers to dispersal; 3) general habitat differences resulting in habitat segregation; or 4) regional differences in the seasonal timing of rainfall, and resultant timing of browse availability. We used satellite remotely sensed and climate data to characterize the environment at the locations of genotyped giraffes. Canonical variate analysis, random forest algorithms, and generalized dissimilarity modelling were employed in a landscape genetics framework to identify the predictor variables that best explained giraffes' genetic divergence. We found that regional differences in the timing of precipitation, and resulting green-up associated with the abundance of browse, effectively discriminate between taxa. Local habitat conditions, topographic and human-induced barriers, and geographic distance did not aid in discriminating among lineages. Our results suggest that selection associated with regional timing of events in the annual climatic cycle may help maintain genetic and phenotypic divergence in giraffes. We discuss potential mechanisms of maintaining divergence, and suggest that synchronization of reproduction with seasonal rainfall cycles that are geographically distinct may contribute to reproductive isolation. Coordination of weaning with green-up cycles could minimize the costs of lactation and predation on the young. Our findings are consistent with theory and empirical results demonstrating the efficacy of seasonal or phenologically dictated

  13. GENETIC, COLORATION, AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF TWO DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF Kappaphycus alvarezii

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    Sulaeman Sulaeman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different colors (green and brown of Kappaphycus alvarezii have been farmed in Indonesian waters for many years. This study aimed at comparing two ‘varieties’, i.e. green and brown, both genetically and morphologically. Samples for DNA analysis were collected from a farmer in Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi. Five universal primers i.e. Ca-01, Ca-02, P-40, P-50, and DALRP were selected to obtain DNA genetic markers in differentiating the green and brown varieties. To compare coloration patterns during cultivation and the growth performance of both varieties, a field experiment was performed in a seaweed farming area in Pinrang Regency, during dry season of August-September 2004. The result of genetic assessment showed that the five selected primers revealed different RAPD banding pattern for both varieties. P-50 and DALRP primers demonstrated the greatest amplification in differentiating RAPD fragment between green and brown varieties. Fragment 900 bp and 1.300 bp were consistently generated in the green variety but were not amplified in the brown variety. The result of the field study confirmed that the coloration pattern of green and brown varieties was fixed; no interchange in color occurred during one crop cultivation.

  14. Genetic variation among different morphotypes of the male freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man

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    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The genetic differences between the blue claw male (BC, orange claw male (OC and small male (SM morphotypes of male freshwater prawns were assessed using microsatellite DNA markers. Thirty individuals from each of the three groups of male prawns were collected from a hatchery rearing system in Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Significant differences in growth were observed between the three groups. The total numbers of alleles per locus in the BC, OC and SM groups were found to be 23, 27 and 21, respectively from all loci. The average observed heterozygosities (Ho ranged from 0.48 to 0.56 across all loci in the three groups. The mean FIS of −0.018 indicated an excess of heterozygosity. The pair-wise comparisons and the FST values revealed significant genetic differentiation across the groups. The greatest genetic distance was observed between the BC and SM groups and lowest one was between the BC and the OC groups.

  15. Comparative proteomic analysis of genetically modified maize grown under different agroecosystems conditions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Guerra, Miguel Pedro; Wikmark, Odd-Gunnar; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2013-12-04

    Profiling technologies allow the simultaneous measurement and comparison of thousands of cell components without prior knowledge of their identity. In the present study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry to evaluate protein expression of Brazilian genetically modified maize hybrid grown under different agroecosystems conditions. To this effect, leaf samples were subjected to comparative analysis using the near-isogenic non-GM hybrid as the comparator. In the first stage of the analysis, the main sources of variation in the dataset were identified by using Principal Components Analysis which correlated most of the variation to the different agroecosystems conditions. Comparative analysis within each field revealed a total of thirty two differentially expressed proteins between GM and non-GM samples that were identified and their molecular functions were mainly assigned to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, genetic information processing and stress response. To the best of our knowledge this study represents the first evidence of protein identities with differentially expressed isoforms in Brazilian MON810 genetic background hybrid grown under field conditions. As global databases on outputs from "omics" analysis become available, these could provide a highly desirable benchmark for safety assessments.

  16. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  17. Genetic analysis on 3'-terminal flanking region of uncoupling protein 3 in different pig breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 3′-terminal flanking region of porcine uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was cloned, the sequence data revealed 15 nucleotide substitutions among Landrace and three Chinese native pig breeds named Neijiang, Minpig and Erhualian. The continuous 9 polymorphic sites were checked by PCR-RFLP, the results indicatedthat Erhualian had extraordinary gene frequency, presented most significant difference by χ2 test compared with Landrace, Largewhite, Neijiang and Minpig respectively, significant level compared with Meishan; and Meishan also had significant difference compared with Landrace and Minpig respectively. These results canbe concluded that Taihu pigs have special genetic characteristics among pig breeds.

  18. Ultrastructure of five Euglena species positioned in the subdivision Serpentes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusel-Fetzmann, Elsa; Weidinger, Marieluise

    2008-11-01

    Within the genus Euglena, the subgroup "Serpentes" is characterised by species with long, slim cell bodies, which move without flagellum by snake-like locomotion in the detritus or in the mud, or swim freely in the water with a flagellum. Two major groups can be distinguished. The first is centred around the species Euglena satelles, with Euglena carterae, Euglena adhaerens and others, and is characterised by a straight-ended anterior part of the cell without a protruding flagellum. The second group is centred around the species Euglena deses, with its varieties, and Euglena ehrenbergii, and is characterised by a lateral canal opening at the anterior end with one flagellum protruding sideways. The representatives of the whole Serpentes group have various (15-30) large chloroplasts containing characteristic naked pyrenoids. The exception is Euglena ehrenbergii, which possesses innumerable small chloroplasts without pyrenoids. To better characterise this whole subgroup, to better taxonomically distinguish between the diverse species and to provide a basis for further molecular-genetic analysis of the phylogeny of and relationship between the Euglena species, we used transmission and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the five selected species. One important distinguishing feature among the species is the form of the pellicle. It can differ in thickness or cross-sectional shape (e.g. A-, M-or plateau-like shape) and can have various arrangements of microtubules and endoplasmic reticulum mucus vesicles. We show that the group is more heterogeneous than expected and that some species have very individual features that poorly fit into a common Serpentes group, particularly the above-mentioned Euglena ehrenbergii. Euglena carterae, formerly named Euglena deses var. carterae, with its typical straight-ended canal opening, does not fit into the Euglena deses varieties, as has already been confirmed by molecular genetic methods.

  19. Genetic differentiation of strongyloides stercoralis from two different climate zones revealed by 18S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdee, Wallop; Thaenkham, Urusa; Dekumyoy, Paron; Sa-Nguankiat, Surapol; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit

    2012-11-01

    Over 70 countries in tropical and subtropical zones are endemic areas for Strongyloides stercoralis, with a higher prevalence of the parasite often occurring in tropical regions compared to subtropical ones. In order to explore genetic variations of S. stercoralis form different climate zones, 18S ribosomal DNA of parasite specimens obtained from Thailand were sequenced and compared with those from Japan. The maximum likelihood indicates that S. stercoralis populations from these two different climate zones have genetically diverged. The genetic relationship between S. stercoralis populations is not related to the host species, but rather to moisture and temperature. These factors may directly drive genetic differentiation among isolated populations of S. stercoralis.

  20. Genetic differences in hemoglobin function between highland and lowland deer mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storz, Jay F.; Runck, Amy M.; Moriyama, Hideaki;

    2010-01-01

    In high-altitude vertebrates, adaptive changes in blood–O2 affinity may be mediated by modifications of hemoglobin (Hb) structure that affect intrinsic O2 affinity and/or responsiveness to allosteric effectors that modulate Hb–O2 affinity. This mode of genotypic specialization is considered typical...... of mammalian species that are high-altitude natives. Here we investigated genetically based differences in Hb–O2 affinity between highland and lowland populations of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), a generalist species that has the broadest altitudinal distribution of any North American mammal....... The results of a combined genetic and proteomic analysis revealed that deer mice harbor a high level of Hb isoform diversity that is attributable to allelic polymorphism at two tandemly duplicated -globin genes and two tandemly duplicated β-globin genes. This high level of isoHb diversity translates...

  1. The same but different: monomorphic microsatellite markers as a new tool for genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareno, Alison G; dos Reis, Mauricio S

    2011-10-01

    The nucleotide variation at a microsatellite locus lacking length polymorphisms among its alleles was assessed to generate an informative tool for genetic analysis. From a set of microsatellite markers, a monomorphic microsatellite locus developed for the palm species Butia eriospatha was used to elucidate whether there are polymorphic sites in its flanking regions. DNA sequences ≈133 bp long were obtained. Aligned sequences show variation at 17 polymorphic sites with both insertions and nucleotide substitutions. Fourteen distinct sequences (alleles) among 22 individuals were identified. The percent sequence difference varied from 0.0 to 5%, indicating that there is significant variation among sequences. Due to significant levels of information and sequence diversity on a simple sequence repeat (SSR) locus of identical size, our study highlights that this molecular marker class can be a useful tool for population genetics and evolutionary studies for many plant species.

  2. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity analysis of different rice cultivars by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allhgholipour Mehrzad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 52 rice SSR markers well distributed on 12 chromosomes were used to characterize and assess the genetic diversity among ninety four rice genotypes. The total number of polymorphic alleles was 361 alleles with the average of 5.86 alleles per SSR locus. The study revealed that some markers such as RM276 and RM5642 on chromosome 6 and RM14 and RM1 on chromosome 1 have more than 9 observed alleles compared to other primers like RM16, RM207, RM208 and RM317 with 3-4 alleles. The highest and lowest PIC values were observed for primers RM276 (0.892 and RM208 (0.423 respectively. Using Shannon´s diversity index, a mean genetic diversity of 1.641 was obtained from the analysis, indicating a high level of genetic variation among these cultivars. Cluster analysis using the complete linkage method based on jaccard similarity coefficient revealed that all genotypes were classified to nine clusters at genetic similarity level of 0.010.75, which contained 12, 16, 2, 18, 3, 6, 16, 10 and 11 varieties, respectively. Results of discriminant analysis showed that the nine cluster groups were confirmed at high levels of correct percent (96.8 and revealed true differences among these clusters. As a final result from this study, we selected eight cultivars from different cluster including Daylamani, Tarom mohali (landrace rice cultivars, RI1843046, Back cross line, RI184472, RI184421 (promising cultivars, Line 23 and IR50 (IRRI lines as parents. All of the selected cultivars will be arranged in complete diallel design to obtain combining abilities, gene effects and heterosis for each important morphology and physico-chemical characters.

  3. Mapping genetic variants underlying differences in the central nitrogen metabolism in fermenter yeasts.

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    Matías Jara

    Full Text Available Different populations within a species represent a rich reservoir of allelic variants, corresponding to an evolutionary signature of withstood environmental constraints. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are widely utilised in the fermentation of different kinds of alcoholic beverages, such as, wine and sake, each of them derived from must with distinct nutrient composition. Importantly, adequate nitrogen levels in the medium are essential for the fermentation process, however, a comprehensive understanding of the genetic variants determining variation in nitrogen consumption is lacking. Here, we assessed the genetic factors underlying variation in nitrogen consumption in a segregating population derived from a cross between two main fermenter yeasts, a Wine/European and a Sake isolate. By linkage analysis we identified 18 main effect QTLs for ammonium and amino acids sources. Interestingly, majority of QTLs were involved in more than a single trait, grouped based on amino acid structure and indicating high levels of pleiotropy across nitrogen sources, in agreement with the observed patterns of phenotypic co-variation. Accordingly, we performed reciprocal hemizygosity analysis validating an effect for three genes, GLT1, ASI1 and AGP1. Furthermore, we detected a widespread pleiotropic effect on these genes, with AGP1 affecting seven amino acids and nine in the case of GLT1 and ASI1. Based on sequence and comparative analysis, candidate causative mutations within these genes were also predicted. Altogether, the identification of these variants demonstrate how Sake and Wine/European genetic backgrounds differentially consume nitrogen sources, in part explaining independently evolved preferences for nitrogen assimilation and representing a niche of genetic diversity for the implementation of practical approaches towards more efficient strains for nitrogen metabolism.

  4. Mapping genetic variants underlying differences in the central nitrogen metabolism in fermenter yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Matías; Cubillos, Francisco A; García, Verónica; Salinas, Francisco; Aguilera, Omayra; Liti, Gianni; Martínez, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Different populations within a species represent a rich reservoir of allelic variants, corresponding to an evolutionary signature of withstood environmental constraints. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are widely utilised in the fermentation of different kinds of alcoholic beverages, such as, wine and sake, each of them derived from must with distinct nutrient composition. Importantly, adequate nitrogen levels in the medium are essential for the fermentation process, however, a comprehensive understanding of the genetic variants determining variation in nitrogen consumption is lacking. Here, we assessed the genetic factors underlying variation in nitrogen consumption in a segregating population derived from a cross between two main fermenter yeasts, a Wine/European and a Sake isolate. By linkage analysis we identified 18 main effect QTLs for ammonium and amino acids sources. Interestingly, majority of QTLs were involved in more than a single trait, grouped based on amino acid structure and indicating high levels of pleiotropy across nitrogen sources, in agreement with the observed patterns of phenotypic co-variation. Accordingly, we performed reciprocal hemizygosity analysis validating an effect for three genes, GLT1, ASI1 and AGP1. Furthermore, we detected a widespread pleiotropic effect on these genes, with AGP1 affecting seven amino acids and nine in the case of GLT1 and ASI1. Based on sequence and comparative analysis, candidate causative mutations within these genes were also predicted. Altogether, the identification of these variants demonstrate how Sake and Wine/European genetic backgrounds differentially consume nitrogen sources, in part explaining independently evolved preferences for nitrogen assimilation and representing a niche of genetic diversity for the implementation of practical approaches towards more efficient strains for nitrogen metabolism.

  5. Insomnia, sleep quality, pain, and somatic symptoms: sex differences and shared genetic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihui; Lam, Siu-Ping; Li, S X; Tang, N L; Yu, M W M; Li, A M; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the sex differences, and the shared genetic and environmental factors underlying the associations of sleep disturbances (insomnia and sleep quality) with pain and somatic symptoms in both adolescents and middle-aged adults. We recruited 259 adolescents (69 with current insomnia) and their parents (256 middle-aged adults, 78 with current insomnia). Insomnia severity and sleep quality were measured by the Insomnia Severity Inventory (ISI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), respectively. Pain and somatic symptoms were measured by the Somatic Symptom Inventory and Visual Analogue Scale for overall pain. Subjects with insomnia scored higher on all measures of pain and somatic symptoms than non-insomnia patients, in both adolescents and adults (Ppain and somatic measures were associated with ISI and PSQI scores after controlling for age, sex, depressive and anxiety symptoms. There was an interaction effect between insomnia and female sex on pain and somatic symptoms (PPain and somatic symptoms ran in family with moderate heritability (range h(2)=0.15-0.42). The phenotypic associations of ISI and PSQI with pain and somatic measures were both contributed by genetic (range p(G)=0.41-0.96) and environmental (range p(E)=0.27-0.40) factors with a major genetic contribution. In summary, insomnia and poor sleep quality are closely associated with pain and somatic symptoms. Insomnia seems to modulate the sex differences in pain and somatic symptoms, especially in the adult population. A shared genetic predisposition might underlie the associations of insomnia and sleep quality with pain and somatic symptoms.

  6. Natural genetic variation in selected populations of Arabidopsis thaliana is associated with ionomic differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Buescher

    Full Text Available Controlling elemental composition is critical for plant growth and development as well as the nutrition of humans who utilize plants for food. Uncovering the genetic architecture underlying mineral ion homeostasis in plants is a critical first step towards understanding the biochemical networks that regulate a plant's elemental composition (ionome. Natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana provide a rich source of genetic diversity that leads to phenotypic differences. We analyzed the concentrations of 17 different elements in 12 A. thaliana accessions and three recombinant inbred line (RIL populations grown in several different environments using high-throughput inductively coupled plasma- mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. Significant differences were detected between the accessions for most elements and we identified over a hundred QTLs for elemental accumulation in the RIL populations. Altering the environment the plants were grown in had a strong effect on the correlations between different elements and the QTLs controlling elemental accumulation. All ionomic data presented is publicly available at www.ionomicshub.org.

  7. 'Combined reflectance stratigraphy' - subdivision of loess successions by diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberényi, Jozsef; Bradak-Hayashi, Balázs; Kiss, Klaudia; Kovács, József; Varga, György; Balázs, Réka; Szalai, Zoltán; Viczián, István

    2016-04-01

    The different varieties of loess (and intercalated paleosol layers) together constitute one of the most widespread terrestrial sediments, which was deposited, altered, and redeposited in the course of the changing climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. To reveal more information about Pleistocene climate cycles and/or environments the detailed lithostratigraphical subdivision and classification of the loess variations and paleosols are necessary. Beside the numerous method such as various field measurements, semi-quantitative tests and laboratory investigations, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is one of the well applied method on loess/paleosol sequences. Generally, DRS has been used to separate the detrital and pedogenic mineral component of the loess sections by the hematite/goethite ratio. DRS also has been applied as a joint method of various environmental magnetic investigations such as magnetic susceptibility- and isothermal remanent magnetization measurements. In our study the so-called "combined reflectance stratigraphy method" were developed. At First, complex mathematical method was applied to compare the results of the spectral reflectance measurements. One of the most preferred multivariate methods is cluster analysis. Its scope is to group and compare the loess variations and paleosol based on the similarity and common properties of their reflectance curves. In the Second, beside the basic subdivision of the profiles by the different reflectance curves of the layers, the most characteristic wavelength section of the reflectance curve was determined. This sections played the most important role during the classification of the different materials of the section. The reflectance value of individual samples, belonged to the characteristic wavelength were depicted in the function of depth and well correlated with other proxies like grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility data. The results of the correlation showed the significance of

  8. A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amzal Billy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment. Results Statistical methods are described for the assessment of the difference between a genetically modified (GM plant variety and a conventional non-GM counterpart, and for the assessment of the equivalence between the GM variety and a group of reference plant varieties which have a history of safe use. It is proposed to present the results of both difference and equivalence testing for all relevant plant characteristics simultaneously in one or a few graphs, as an aid for further interpretation in safety assessment. A procedure is suggested to derive equivalence limits from the observed results for the reference plant varieties using a specific implementation of the linear mixed model. Three different equivalence tests are defined to classify any result in one of four equivalence classes. The performance of the proposed methods is investigated by a simulation study, and the methods are illustrated on compositional data from a field study on maize grain. Conclusions A clear distinction of practical relevance is shown between difference and equivalence testing. The proposed tests are shown to have appropriate performance characteristics by simulation, and the proposed simultaneous graphical representation of results was found to be helpful for the interpretation of results from a practical field trial data set.

  9. The neuroanatomy of genetic subtype differences in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honea, Robyn A; Holsen, Laura M; Lepping, Rebecca J; Perea, Rodrigo; Butler, Merlin G; Brooks, William M; Savage, Cary R

    2012-03-01

    Despite behavioral differences between genetic subtypes of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), no studies have been published characterizing brain structure in these subgroups. Our goal was to examine differences in the brain structure phenotype of common subtypes of PWS [chromosome 15q deletions and maternal uniparental disomy 15 (UPD)]. Fifteen individuals with PWS due to a typical deletion [(DEL) type I; n = 5, type II; n = 10], eight with PWS due to UPD, and 25 age-matched healthy-weight individuals (HWC) participated in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. A custom voxel-based morphometry processing stream was used to examine regional differences in gray and white matter volume (WMV) between groups, covarying for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Overall, compared to HWC, PWS individuals had lower gray matter volumes (GMV) that encompassed the prefrontal, orbitofrontal and temporal cortices, hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, and lower WMVs in the brain stem, cerebellum, medial temporal, and frontal cortex. Compared to UPD, the DEL subtypes had lower GMV primarily in the prefrontal and temporal cortices, and lower white matter in the parietal cortex. The UPD subtype had more extensive lower gray and WMVs in the orbitofrontal and limbic cortices compared to HWC. These preliminary findings are the first structural neuroimaging findings to support potentially separate neural mechanisms mediating the behavioral differences seen in these genetic subtypes.

  10. Microsatellite Analysis of Genetic Diversity Between Loach with Different Levels of Ploidy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ya-juan; Qi Hong-rui; Ma Hai-yan; Zhou He; Xu Wen; Sui Yi; Li Jia-qi

    2014-01-01

    We used microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic parameters of three different polyploidy populations ofMisgurnus anguillicaudatus from Honghu City, Hubei Province. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis banding patterns of diploid (2n), triploid (3n) and tetraploid loaches (4n) were analyzed with PopGen software. A total of 68 alleles were obtained from seven microsatellite loci and the polymorphism information content (PIC) indices were all above 0.5. The average expected mean heterozygosity values (He) were 0.8420, 0.7186 and 0.8521; the average observed mean heterozygosity values (Ho) were 0.9674, 0.9785 and 0.8928; and the Hardy-WeinbergP values were 0.3078, 0.3151 and 0.3762, for diploid, triploid and tetraploid individuals, respectively. The results indicated that the three populations were highly polymorphic, with no deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium observed at all the seven microsatellite loci. This indicated a high level of genetic diversity within the populations. A cluster analysis diagram showed that the shortest genetic distance was between diploid and tetraploid loaches and they shared a close phylogenetic relationship. The triploid and tetraploid individuals had the most distant phylogenetic relationship.

  11. Genetic and molecular basis of individual differences in human umami taste perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriatsu Shigemura

    Full Text Available Umami taste (corresponds to savory in English is elicited by L-glutamate, typically as its Na salt (monosodium glutamate: MSG, and is one of five basic taste qualities that plays a key role in intake of amino acids. A particular property of umami is the synergistic potentiation of glutamate by purine nucleotide monophosphates (IMP, GMP. A heterodimer of a G protein coupled receptor, TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, is proposed to function as its receptor. However, little is known about genetic variation of TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 and its potential links with individual differences in umami sensitivity. Here we investigated the association between recognition thresholds for umami substances and genetic variations in human TAS1R1 and TAS1R3, and the functions of TAS1R1/TAS1R3 variants using a heterologous expression system. Our study demonstrated that the TAS1R1-372T creates a more sensitive umami receptor than -372A, while TAS1R3-757C creates a less sensitive one than -757R for MSG and MSG plus IMP, and showed a strong correlation between the recognition thresholds and in vitro dose-response relationships. These results in human studies support the propositions that a TAS1R1/TAS1R3 heterodimer acts as an umami receptor, and that genetic variation in this heterodimer directly affects umami taste sensitivity.

  12. Genetic variability of garlic accessions as revealed by agro-morphological traits evaluated under different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerheide, E S S; Azevedo Filho, J A; Vencovsky, R; Zucchi, M I; Zago, B W; Pinheiro, J B

    2017-05-31

    The cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.) displays a wide phenotypic diversity, which is derived from natural mutations and phenotypic plasticity, due to dependence on soil type, moisture, latitude, altitude and cultural practices, leading to a large number of cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability shown by 63 garlic accessions belonging to Instituto Agronômico de Campinas and the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" germplasm collections. We evaluated ten quantitative characters in experimental trials conducted under two localities of the State of São Paulo: Monte Alegre do Sul and Piracicaba, during the agricultural year of 2007, in a randomized blocks design with five replications. The Mahalanobis distance was used to measure genetic dissimilarities. The UPGMA method and Tocher's method were used as clustering procedures. Results indicated significant variation among accessions (P < 0.01) for all evaluated characters, except for the percentage of secondary bulb growth in MAS, indicating the existence of genetic variation for bulb production, and germplasm evaluation considering different environments is more reliable for the characterization of the genotypic variability among garlic accessions, since it diminishes the environmental effects in the clustering of genotypes.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of different varieties of Morada Nova hair sheep from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J S B; Paiva, S R; Silva, E C; McManus, C M; Caetano, A R; Façanha, D A E; de Sousa, M A N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze genetic diversity and population structure among varieties of White (N = 40), Red (N = 32), and Black (N = 31) Morada Nova hair sheep from flocks in the northeastern Brazilian semiarid region. Fifteen nuclear microsatellite markers and two regions of mitochondrial DNA were used. The intra-population analysis demonstrated that the White variety had higher diversity, while the Red variety had the lowest values. The Bayesian analysis to assess the genetic population structure allowed differentiation between White, Red, and Black varieties, and revealed a tendency towards sub-structuring in the White variety flocks from the States of Ceará and Paraíba. The results of analyses of molecular variance showed that the greatest genetic structure was found when comparing flocks rather than varieties (8.59 vs 6.64% of the total variation, P Dtl, both the dendrogram analysis and the principal coordinate analysis showed the formation of two main groups: one composed of White and another of Black and Red individuals. Five and two haplotypes were found for the D-loop region and the ND5 gene, respectively. A haplotype unique to the Red variety was found in the D-loop region and a variety haplotype unique to the Black variety was found in the ND5 gene; however, these frequencies were low and therefore require further validation. These results support the existence of substantial differences between the Red and White varieties and should be used as separate genetic resources and to improve conservation programs.

  14. Physiological bases of genetic differences in cannibalism behavior of the confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, T; Luyten, Y A; MacPherson, M; Stevens, L

    2001-04-01

    Physiological causes of genetic differences in cannibalism were examined to gain a better understanding of constraints on behavior evolution. Cannibalism has complex population level consequences in Tribolium confusum, including dramatic effects on population size. Laboratory strains with low and high cannibalism rates, obtained through inbreeding, have maintained distinct levels of cannibalism for over two decades even in the absence of artificial selection to maintain the differences. Why strains differ in their cannibalism rates was examined by measuring: (1) the nutritional benefit from cannibalism in both nutritionally good and poor environments, and (2) the possibility that eggs are an important source of water. How strains achieve differences in cannibalism was examined by testing for differences between strains in their ability to find eggs and in their tendency to eat eggs. Beetles from both strains survive equally well in a nutritionally good environment, but they accomplish this in different ways. The low cannibalism strain has high survivorship with and without cannibalism. The high cannibalism strain has low survivorship when not fed eggs and survivorship equivalent to the low cannibalism strain when fed eggs, suggesting it compensates for poor nutritional adaptation by eating eggs. The strains also differ in feeding behavior; beetles from the high cannibalism strain have a higher appetite for eggs. Beetles from the two strains did not differ in locomotor activity, search efficiency, or need for water. The observed behavioral and nutritional differences may contribute to the maintenance of different levels of cannibalism.

  15. Genetically different isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi elicit different infection dynamics in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Dawn M; Ellis, Angela E; Yabsley, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a genetically and biologically diverse species. In the current study we determined T. cruzi infection dynamics in two common North American reservoirs, Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor). Based on previous molecular and culture data from naturally-exposed animals, we hypothesised that raccoons would have a longer patent period than opossums, and raccoons would be competent reservoirs for both genotypes T. cruzi I (TcI) and TcIIa, while opossums would only serve as hosts for TcI. Individuals (n=2 or 3) of each species were inoculated with 1x10(6) culture-derived T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa (North American (NA) - raccoon), TcI (NA - opossum), TcIIb (South American - human), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitemias in opossums gradually increased and declined rapidly, whereas parasitemias peaked sooner in raccoons and they maintained relatively high parasitemia for 5weeks. Raccoons became infected with all three T. cruzi strains, while opossums only became infected with TcI and TcIIb. Although opossums were susceptible to TcIIb, infection dynamics were dramatically different compared with TcI. Opossums inoculated with TcIIb seroconverted, but parasitemia duration was short and only detectable by PCR. In addition, raccoons seroconverted sooner (3-7days post inoculation) than opossums (10days post inoculation). These data suggest that infection dynamics of various T. cruzi strains can differ considerably in different wildlife hosts.

  16. Acceptance of Genetic Testing in a General Population: Age, Education and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, A. R.; Hakonen, A.; Hietala, M.; Lonnqvist, J.; Niemela, P.; Peltonen, L; Aula, P.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of age, education, and gender on acceptance of genetic testing were studied. Finnish participants responded to a questionnaire presenting reasons for and against genetic testing (N=1,967). Intentions to take genetic tests, worries, and experience of genetic test or hereditary disease were also assessed. Results are presented and discussed.…

  17. Genetic determinants of the physical status of human beings at different stages of ontogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko V.A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the structure of physical states at different stages of ontogenesis and the role of genetic factors in these transformations. It is proved that in the process of aging there are changes in physical conditions. Firstly, towards the dominance of aerobic capacity, and secondly - the speed-strength and coordination training. A survey of 125 women aged 20-25 years found that between the individual extrovert and the parameters of their physical status, there are ambiguous dependence which determine constitutional peculiarities, somatotype and cardio-respiratory system. For a typical introverted women increased body weight and power characteristics, combined with lack of capacity oxygen-transport system.

  18. Genetic difference in HLA-DR phenotypes between coeliac disease and transitory gluten intolerance.

    OpenAIRE

    Meuli, R; Pichler, W J; Gaze, H; Lentze, M J

    1995-01-01

    Genetic differences in HLA phenotypes were studied in coeliac disease to investigate why some patients do not react with mucosal damage after gluten challenge. Forty five children with coeliac disease and 16 with transitory gluten intolerance were typed; 76 subjects served as controls. HLA phenotypes in children with coeliac disease had significantly higher proportions of DR3/X and DR5/7 than controls (48.8% v 11.8% and 26.7% v 5.3%). Children with transitory gluten intolerance had lower DR3/...

  19. Mitochondrial genetic differentiation and morphological difference of Miniopterus fuliginosus and Miniopterus magnater in China and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi; Sun, Keping; Lu, Guanjun; Lin, Aiqing; Jiang, Tinglei; Jin, Longru; Hoyt, Joseph R; Feng, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Because of its complicated systematics, the bent-winged bat is one of the most frequently studied bat species groups. In China, two morphologically similar bent-winged bat species, Miniopterus fuliginosus and Miniopterus magnater were identified, but their distribution range and genetic differentiation are largely unexplored. In this study, we applied DNA bar codes and two other mitochondrial DNA genes including morphological parameters to determine the phylogeny, genetic differentiation, spatial distribution, and morphological difference of the M. fuliginosus and M. magnater sampled from China and one site in Vietnam. Mitochondrial DNA gene genealogies revealed two monophyletic lineages throughout the Tropic of Cancer. According to DNA bar code divergences, one is M. fuliginosus corresponding to the Chinese mainland and the other is M. magnater corresponding to tropical regions including Hainan and Guangdong provinces of China and Vietnam. Their most recent common ancestor was dated to the early stage of the Quaternary glacial period (ca. 2.26 million years ago [Ma] on the basis of D-loop data, and ca. 1.69-2.37 Ma according to ND2). A population expansion event was inferred for populations of M. fuliginosus at 0.14 Ma. The two species probably arose in separate Pleistocene refugia under different climate zones. They significantly differed in forearm length, maxillary third molar width, and greatest length of the skull.

  20. Genetic differences in internal transcribed spacer 1 between Dermanyssus gallinae from wild birds and domestic chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, S; Morrison, D A; Mattsson, J G; Chirico, J

    2008-06-01

    We investigated the presence of the poultry red mite or the chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer, Acari: Dermanyssidae, in wild bird populations in four different geographical regions of Sweden. The mites identified as D. gallinae were compared genetically with D. gallinae from egg-producing poultry farms in the same regions. The small subunit (SSU) gene, the 5.8S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and the two internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the rRNA genes were used in the genetic analysis. All D. gallinae mites had identical SSU rRNA, 5.8S rRNA and ITS2 sequences independent of their origin. By contrast, we identified significant differences in the ITS1 sequences. Based on the differences in the ITS1 sequences, the mites could be divided into two genotypes, of wild and domesticated origin, with no variation within the groups. These results imply that wild bird populations are of low importance, if any, as natural reservoirs of D. gallinae in these four geographical regions of Sweden.

  1. Molecular study of Trypanosoma caninum isolates based on different genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Juliana H S; Toma, Helena K; de Fatima Madeira, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Trypanosoma caninum is a parasite recently described in dogs, whose life cycle is rather unknown. Here, we performed a genetic study with T. caninum samples obtained in different Brazilian regions. The study was based on PCR assays target to small and large subunit ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (18S rDNA and 24Sα rDNA), cytochrome B (Cyt b), and internal transcribed spacer 1 rDNA (ITS1 rDNA) following by the sequence analysis. Additionally, we used primers for the variable regions of kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles and endonucleases restriction in the ITS1 rDNA amplification product. T. caninum samples displayed the same patterns. Tree construction confirmed the close relationship between T. caninum samples, regardless of the molecular target used and endonuclease restriction digestion revealed that all samples have the same restriction profile. Therefore, T. caninum seems to be a genetically homogeneous specie. In the kDNA assay, T. caninum possessed a different molecular size profile with respect to others trypanosomes, 330 and 350 bp. This study provides nucleotide sequences from different regions of the genome of T. caninum that certainly facilitate future studies.

  2. Determination of genetic differences between fluid and nonfluid variants of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus using rep-PCR technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousek, J; Mráz, I

    2003-01-01

    Testing of 23 isolates of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus for analysis by rep-PCR (using BOX, ERIC, REP primer sets) was used for the purpose of localization of genetic markers for fluid and/or nonfluid strains. None of the primer sets was successful in detecting genetic differences between the isolates and no polymorphism was generated.

  3. The calculated genetic barrier for antiretroviral drug resistance substitutions is largely similar for different HIV-1 subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, D.A. van de; Wensing, A.M.J.; Angarano, G.; Asjo, B.; Balotta, C.; Camacho, R.; Chaix, M.; Costagliola, D.; De Luca, A.; Derdelinckx, I.; Grossman, Z.; Hamouda, O.; Hatzakis, A.; Hemmer, R.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Horban, A.; Korn, K.; Kücherer, C.; Leitner, T.; Loveday, C.; MacRae, E.; Maljkovic, I.; Mendoza, C. de; Meyer, L.; Nielsen, C.; Op de Coul, E.L.M.; Omaasen, V.; Paraskevis, D.; Perrin, L.; Puchhammer-Stöckl, E.; Salminen, M.; Schmit, J.; Scheider, F.; Schuurman, R.; Soriano, V.; Stanczak, G.; Stanojevic, M.; Vandamme, A.; Laethem, K. van; Violin, M.; Wilde, K.; Yerly, S.; Zazzi, M.; Boucher, C.A.B.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic barrier, defined as the number of mutations required to overcome drug-selective pressure, is an important factor for the development of HIV drug resistance. Because of high variability between subtypes, particular HIV-1 subtypes could have different genetic barriers for drug resistance s

  4. Comment on Gohli et al. : "Does promiscuity explain differences in levels of genetic diversity across passerine birds?"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spurgin, Lewis G.

    2013-01-01

    Gohli et al. (2013) report a positive relationship between genetic diversity and promiscuity across passerine birds, and suggest that female promiscuity acts as a form of balancing selection, maintaining differences in genetic variation across species. This is an interesting hypothesis, but the

  5. Lung defenses against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in C5-deficient mice with different genetic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerquetti, M C; Sordelli, D O; Bellanti, J A; Hooke, A M

    1986-01-01

    Lung defenses against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated in C5-deficient strains of mice with different genetic backgrounds. We studied pulmonary clearance and cell responses after aerosol exposure to P. aeruginosa in C5-deficient B10.D2/oSnJ and DBA/2J mice and their closest C5-sufficient counterparts, B10.D2/nSnJ and DBA/1J mice. Different patterns of lung clearance and pulmonary cell responses were found for the two C5-deficient strains. C5-deficient B10.D2/oSnJ mice showed defective lung clearance of P. aeruginosa 4 h after challenge compared with C5-sufficient B10.D2/nSnJ animals. This finding was associated with a decreased number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes recruited into the airways during the same time. Interestingly, C5-deficient DBA/2J mice recruited higher numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes than did C5-sufficient DBA/1J mice by 4 h after aerosolization. Nevertheless, lung clearance of P. aeruginosa in DBA/2J mice was not as effective as in C5-sufficient DBA/1J mice, suggesting that other functions of C5 besides chemotaxism could be involved. Lung clearance of P. aeruginosa was also investigated in C5-deficient and -sufficient hybrids sharing the same genetic background (DBA/2J X B10.D2). The results suggested that murine lung clearance of P. aeruginosa is markedly affected by lack of C5 in a specific genetic background (B10.D2). PMID:3086235

  6. Genetic parameters of egg quality traits on different pedigree layers with special focus on dynamic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A E; Icken, W; Ould-Ali, D; Cavero, D; Schmutz, M

    2014-10-01

    Egg quality traits are of utmost importance in layer breeding programs due to their effect on profitability in the egg production industry and on the production of quality chicks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and estimate genetic parameters of different quality traits: egg weight, breaking strength, dynamic stiffness (Kdyn), egg shape index, eggshell thickness, and albumen height. Eggs were obtained from 4 pure lines of birds. Two different tests were performed: a white breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a white egg layer program that were analyzed at 67 to 70 wk of age, and a brown breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a brown egg layer program that were analyzed at 32 to 36 wk of age. In general, heritabilities were moderate to high for all traits (h² = 0.23 to 0.71). A high genetic correlation was estimated in both tests between breaking strength and Kdyn (rg = +0.40 to +0.61). Shell thickness was also positively correlated with breaking strength (rg = +0.50 to +0.63) and Kdyn (rg = +0.28 to +0.69). These moderate relationships demonstrate that the strength of an egg not only relies on the shell thickness but also on the quality and uniformity of eggshell construction. Dynamic stiffness might be preferred for breeding purposes due to its lower negative genetic correlation with egg weight and its higher heritability (h² = 0.35 to 0.70) compared with breaking strength (h² = 0.23 to 0.35). Breaking strength and Kdyn were positively correlated with shape index, which confirms that round eggs will show higher shell stability. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor egg shape to maintain an optimal form.

  7. Comparison of different models for genetic evaluation of egg weight in Mazandaran fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, P; Jasouri, M; Moradi, M R

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to compare different models to estimate variance components for egg weight (EW) in laying hens. 2. The data set included 67 542 EW records of 18 245 Mazandaran hens at 24, 28, 30, 32 and 84 weeks of age, during 19 consecutive generations. Variance components were estimated using multi-trait, repeatability, fixed regression and random regression models (MTM, RM, FRM and RRM, respectively) by Average Information-Restricted Maximum Likelihood algorithm (AI-REML). The models were compared based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). 3. The MTM was the best model followed by the Legendre RRMs. A RRM with 2nd degree of fit for fixed regression and 3(rd) and 2(nd) degrees of fit for random regressions of direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, respectively, was the best RRM. The FRM and RM were not proper models to fit the data. However, nesting curves within contemporary groups improved the fit of FRM. 4. Heritability estimates for EW by MTM (0.06-0.41) were close to the estimates obtained by the best RRM (0.09-0.45). In both MTM and RRM, positive genetic correlations were estimated for EW records at different ages, with higher correlations for adjacent records. 5. The results suggest that MTM is the best model for EW data, at least when the records are taken at relatively few age points. Though selection based on EW at higher ages might be more precise, 30 or 32 weeks of age could be considered as the most appropriate time points for selection on EW to maximise genetic improvement per time unit.

  8. Genetic trends in the expected progeny difference of the asymptotic weight of Nelore females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía del Valle Garnero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies on weight covering the full life cycle of Zebu cattle, and there is no entire growth description or mean growth pattern for animals belonging to this breed. In order to provide such data, 1,158 Nelore females born between 1985 and 1995 were weighed 14,563 times from birth to full growth maturity, in ten herds spread over seven Brazilian states. The Von Bertalanffy, Brody, logistic and Gompertz non-linear models were used to obtain the asymptotic weights (A and the maturation rates (K. The (covariance and breeding value components for A and K were obtained by using the multiple trait derivative free restricted maximum likelihood method under the animal model. Genetic trends were calculated in function of the mean expected progeny differences (EPD for the trait (A or K divided by the number of animals according to their year of birth. The genetic trends of the expected progeny difference with reference to the date of birth of the cows were, on average, -6.5g y-1 for A and 2.0g y-1 for K, close to zero as confirmed by the low (0.0023 to 0.003 coefficient of regression values. The curve parameters are recommended as a selection criterion to reach precocity and avoid adult weight increase in the female herd.

  9. Different genetic algorithms and the evolution of specialization: a study with groups of simulated neural robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrauto, Tomassino; Parisi, Domenico; Di Stefano, Gabriele; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Organisms that live in groups, from microbial symbionts to social insects and schooling fish, exhibit a number of highly efficient cooperative behaviors, often based on role taking and specialization. These behaviors are relevant not only for the biologist but also for the engineer interested in decentralized collective robotics. We address these phenomena by carrying out experiments with groups of two simulated robots controlled by neural networks whose connection weights are evolved by using genetic algorithms. These algorithms and controllers are well suited to autonomously find solutions for decentralized collective robotic tasks based on principles of self-organization. The article first presents a taxonomy of role-taking and specialization mechanisms related to evolved neural network controllers. Then it introduces two cooperation tasks, which can be accomplished by either role taking or specialization, and uses these tasks to compare four different genetic algorithms to evaluate their capacity to evolve a suitable behavioral strategy, which depends on the task demands. Interestingly, only one of the four algorithms, which appears to have more biological plausibility, is capable of evolving role taking or specialization when they are needed. The results are relevant for both collective robotics and biology, as they can provide useful hints on the different processes that can lead to the emergence of specialization in robots and organisms.

  10. Optimal Subdivision for Treatment and Management of Catastrophic Landslides in a Watershed Using Topographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Yuan; Fu, Kuei-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Recent extreme rainfall events led to many landslides due to climate changes in Taiwan. How to effectively promote post-disaster treatment and/or management works in a watershed/drainage basin is a crucial issue. Regarding the processes of watershed treatment and/or management works, disaster hotspot scanning and treatment priority setup should be carried out in advance. A scanning method using landslide ratio to determine the appropriate outlet of an interested watershed, and an optimal subdivision system with better homogeneity and accuracy in landslide ratio estimation were developed to help efficient executions of treatment and/or management works. Topography is a key factor affecting watershed landslide ratio. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the natural phenomenon, multivariate analysis was applied to understand the relationship between topographic factors and landslide ratio in the interested watershed. The concept of species-area curve, which is usually adopted at on-site vegetation investigation to determinate the suitable quadrate size, was used to derive the optimal threshold in subdivisions. Results show that three main component axes including factors of scale, network and shape extracted from Digital Terrain Model coupled with areas of landslide can effectively explain the characteristics of landslide ratio in the interested watershed, and a relation curve obtained from the accuracy of landslide ratio classification and number of subdivisions could be established to derive optimal subdivision of the watershed. The subdivision method promoted in this study could be further used for priority rank and benefit assessment of landslide treatment in a watershed.

  11. Generalized B-spline subdivision-surface wavelets for geometry compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Martin; Duchaineau, Mark A; Hamann, Bernd; Joy, Kenneth I

    2004-01-01

    We present a new construction of lifted biorthogonal wavelets on surfaces of arbitrary two-manifold topology for compression and multiresolution representation. Our method combines three approaches: subdivision surfaces of arbitrary topology, B-spline wavelets, and the lifting scheme for biorthogonal wavelet construction. The simple building blocks of our wavelet transform are local lifting operations performed on polygonal meshes with subdivision hierarchy. Starting with a coarse, irregular polyhedral base mesh, our transform creates a subdivision hierarchy of meshes converging to a smooth limit surface. At every subdivision level, geometric detail can be expanded from wavelet coefficients and added to the surface. We present wavelet constructions for bilinear, bicubic, and biquintic B-Spline subdivision. While the bilinear and bicubic constructions perform well in numerical experiments, the biquintic construction turns out to be unstable. For lossless compression, our transform can be computed in integer arithmetic, mapping integer coordinates of control points to integer wavelet coefficients. Our approach provides a highly efficient and progressive representation for complex geometries of arbitrary topology.

  12. Improved Implementation of Point Location in General Two-Dimensional Subdivisions

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmer, Michael; Halperin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We present a major revamp of the point-location data structure for general two-dimensional subdivisions via randomized incremental construction, implemented in CGAL, the Computational Geometry Algorithms Library. We can now guarantee that the constructed directed acyclic graph G is of linear size and provides logarithmic query time. Via the construction of the Voronoi diagram for a given point set S of size n, this also enables nearest-neighbor queries in guaranteed O(log n) time. Another major innovation is the support of general unbounded subdivisions as well as subdivisions of two-dimensional parametric surfaces such as spheres, tori, cylinders. The implementation is exact, complete, and general; i.e., it can also handle non-linear subdivisions. Like the previous version, the data structure supports modifications of the subdivision, such as insertions and deletions of edges, after the initial preprocessing. A major challenge is to retain the expected O(n log n) preprocessing time while providing the above ...

  13. Comment on Gohli et al. (2013): "Does promiscuity explain differences in levels of genetic diversity across passerine birds?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, Lewis G

    2013-10-01

    Gohli et al. (2013) report a positive relationship between genetic diversity and promiscuity across passerine birds, and suggest that female promiscuity acts as a form of balancing selection, maintaining differences in genetic variation across species. This is an interesting hypothesis, but the enormous variation in genetic diversity present within species is not taken into account in their analyses. This, combined with a small sample size at several levels, makes the relationship between genetic diversity and promiscuity very difficult to interpret. Demonstrating that species-level differences in genetic diversity (if they occur at all) are affected by promiscuity would require a far more comprehensive study than is presently possible. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Genetic dissection of chlorophyll content at different growth stages in common wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kunpu Zhang; Zhijun Fang; Yan Liang; Jichun Tian

    2009-08-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for chlorophyll content were studied using a doubled haploid (DH) population with 168 progeny lines, derived from a cross between two elite Chinese wheat cultivars Huapei 3 × Yumai 57. Chlorophyll content was evaluated at the maximum tillering stage (MS), the heading stage (HS), and the grain filling stage (GS), at three different environments in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons. QTL analyses were performed using a mixed linear model approach. A total of 17 additive QTLs and nine pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected. Ten of 17 additive QTLs for chlorophyll content were persistently expressed at more than two growth stages, which suggest developmentally regulated loci controlling genetics for chlorophyll content in different growth stages in wheat. One novel major QTL for chlorophyll content was closely linked with the PCR marker Xwmc215 and was persistently expressed at three growth stages.

  15. Genetic affinity among five different population groups in India reflecting a Y-chromosome gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anjana; Sharma, Swarkar; Bhat, Audesh; Pandit, Awadesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Four binary polymorphisms and four multiallelic short tandem repeat (STR) loci from the nonrecombining region of the human Y-chromosome were typed in different Indian population groups from Uttar Pradeh (UP), Bihar (BI), Punjab (PUNJ), and Bengal (WB) speaking the Indo-Aryan dialects and from South India (SI) with the root in the Dravidian language. We identified four major haplogroups [(P) 1+, (C and F) 2+, (R1a) 3, (K) 26+] and 114 combinations of Y-STR haplotypes. Analyses of the haplogroups indicated no single origin from any lineage but a result of a conglomeration of different lineages from time to time. The phylogenetic analyses indicate a high degree of population admixture and a greater genetic proximity for the studied population groups when compared with other world populations.

  16. Optimization of Consumed Power in Two Different DC Motors Coupled Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Jafarboland

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A single DC motor can be substituted by two different couple DC motors in submarines. By this way, by varying the speed of submarine, the power of propellant and subsequently the mechanical power of these motors would vary. One important promlem in controlling the mechanical coupling of these motors is the power sharing between them. In the previous reports the mechanical power was shared between them in nonoptimized manner. In this paper an optimized cantroller is indroduced that optimize the efficiency of the system. The power sharing between these motors would vary according to their speed. The proposed controller is based on Genetic Algoritm and is able to share the mechanical power between the motors in an optimized manner at different speeds. The simutation results shows the well behavior of system and also the optimize power sharing.

  17. Corticotropin releasing factor and catecholamines enhance glutamatergic neurotransmission in the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Yuval; Winder, Danny G

    2013-07-01

    Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) plays an important role in many behaviors including anxiety, memory consolidation and cardiovascular responses. While these behaviors can be modulated by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and catecholamine signaling, the mechanism(s) by which these signals modify CeA glutamatergic neurotransmission remains unclear. Utilizing whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology recordings from neurons in the lateral subdivision of the CeA (CeAL), we show that CRF, dopamine (DA) and the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (ISO) all enhance the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSC) without altering sEPSC kinetics, suggesting they increase presynaptic glutamate release. The effect of CRF on sEPSCs was mediated by a combination of CRFR1 and CRFR2 receptors. While previous work from our lab suggests that CRFRs mediate the effect of catecholamines on excitatory transmission in other subregions of the extended amygdala, blockade of CRFRs in the CeAL failed to significantly alter effects of DA and ISO on glutamatergic transmission. These findings suggest that catecholamine and CRF enhancement of glutamatergic transmission onto CeAL neurons occurs via distinct mechanisms. While CRF increased spontaneous glutamate release in the CeAL, CRF caused no significant changes to optogenetically evoked glutamate release in this region. The dissociable effects of CRF on different types of glutamatergic neurotransmission suggest that CRF may specifically regulate spontaneous excitatory transmission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular characterization of prosomeric and intraprosomeric subdivisions of the embryonic zebrafish diencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauter, Gilbert; Söll, Iris; Hauptmann, Giselbert

    2013-04-01

    During development of the early neural tube, positional information provided by signaling gradients is translated into a grid of transverse and longitudinal transcription factor expression domains. Transcription factor specification codes defining distinct histogenetic domains within this grid are evolutionarily conserved across vertebrates and may reflect an underlying common vertebrate bauplan. When compared to the rich body of comparative gene expression studies of tetrapods, there is considerably less comparative data available for teleost fish. We used sensitive multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization to generate a detailed map of regulatory gene expression domains in the embryonic zebrafish diencephalon. The high resolution of this technique allowed us to resolve abutting and overlapping gene expression of different transcripts. We found that the relative topography of gene expression patterns in zebrafish was highly similar to those of orthologous genes in tetrapods and consistent with a three-prosomere organization of the alar and basal diencephalon. Our analysis further demonstrated a conservation of intraprosomeric subdivisions within prosomeres 1, 2, and 3 (p1, p2, and p3). A tripartition of zebrafish p1 was identified reminiscent of precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) pretectal domains of tetrapods. The constructed detailed diencephalic transcription factor gene expression map further identified molecularly distinct thalamic and prethalamic rostral and caudal domains and a prethalamic eminence histogenetic domain in zebrafish. Our comparative gene expression analysis conformed with the idea of a common bauplan for the diencephalon of anamniote and amniote vertebrates from fish to mammals.

  19. Family of 2n-Point Ternary Non-Stationary Interpolating Subdivision Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHWISH BARI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article offers 2n-point ternary non-stationary interpolating subdivision schemes, with the tension parameter, by using Lagrange identities. By choosing the suitable value of tension parameter, we can get different limit curves according to our own choice. Tightness or looseness of the limit curve depends upon the increment or decline the value of tension parameter. The proposed schemes are the counter part of some existing parametric and non-parametric stationary schemes. The main purpose of this article is to reproduce conics and the proposed schemes reproduce conics very well such that circle, ellipse, parabola and hyperbola. We also establish a deviation error formula which is useful to calculate the maximum deviation of limit curve from the original limit curve. The presentation and of the proposed schemes are verified by closed and open figures. The given table shows the less deviation of the limit curves by proposed scheme as compare to the existing scheme. Graphical representation of deviation error is also presented and it shows that as the number of control points increases, the deviation error decreases.

  20. Hepatitis A outbreak in Ba subdivision, Fiji, October–December 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneley Getahun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A cluster of suspected hepatitis A cases was notified to the Fiji Ministry of Health on 22 October 2013. An outbreak investigation team was mobilized to confirm the existence of an outbreak of hepatitis A and advise appropriate public health interventions. Methods: A case definition for the outbreak investigation was established, and standardized data collection tools were used to collect information on clinical presentation and risk factors. An environmental assessment was also conducted. Results: There were 160 clinical cases of hepatitis A of which 15 were laboratory-confirmed. The attack rate was 349 per 10 000 population in the Nukuloa nursing zone; there were no reported deaths. Residents of the Nukuloa settlement were 6.6 times more likely to present with symptomatic hepatitis A infection (95% confidence interval: 3.8–12.6 compared with residents of another village with a different water supply. Discussion: This is the first significant hepatitis A outbreak documented in Ba subdivision and possibly in Fiji. Enhanced surveillance of hepatitis A may reveal other clusters in the country. Improving the primary water source dramatically reduced the occurance of disease in the affected community and adjacent areas.

  1. Hepatitis A outbreak in Ba subdivision, Fiji, October-December 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Aneley; Rafai, Eric; Tolosa, Maria Ximena; Dawainavesi, Akanisi; Tabua, Anaseini Maisema; Tabua, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of suspected hepatitis A cases was notified to the Fiji Ministry of Health on 22 October 2013. An outbreak investigation team was mobilized to confirm the existence of an outbreak of hepatitis A and advise appropriate public health interventions. A case definition for the outbreak investigation was established, and standardized data collection tools were used to collect information on clinical presentation and risk factors. An environmental assessment was also conducted. There were 160 clinical cases of hepatitis A of which 15 were laboratory-confirmed. The attack rate was 349 per 10,000 population in the Nukuloa nursing zone; there were no reported deaths. Residents of the Nukuloa settlement were 6.6 times more likely to present with symptomatic hepatitis A infection (95% confidence interval: 3.8-12.6) compared with residents of another village with a different water supply. This is the first significant hepatitis A outbreak documented in Ba subdivision and possibly in Fiji. Enhanced surveillance of hepatitis A may reveal other clusters in the country. Improving the primary water source dramatically reduced the occurance of disease in the affected community and adjacent areas.

  2. Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis versus bacteremia strains: Subtle genetic differences at stake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchiat, Coralie; Moreau, Karen; Devillard, Sébastien; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Mosnier, Amandine; Geissmann, Tom; Bes, Michèle; Tristan, Anne; Lina, Gérard; Laurent, Frédéric; Piroth, Lionel; Aissa, Nejla; Duval, Xavier; Le Moing, Vincent; Vandenesch, François

    2015-12-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE)((1)) is a severe condition complicating 10-25% of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Although host-related IE risk factors have been identified, the involvement of bacterial features in IE complication is still unclear. We characterized strictly defined IE and bacteremia isolates and searched for discriminant features. S. aureus isolates causing community-acquired, definite native-valve IE (n=72) and bacteremia (n=54) were collected prospectively as part of a French multicenter cohort. Phenotypic traits previously reported or hypothesized to be involved in staphylococcal IE pathogenesis were tested. In parallel, the genotypic profiles of all isolates, obtained by microarray, were analyzed by discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC)((2)). No significant difference was observed between IE and bacteremia strains, regarding either phenotypic or genotypic univariate analyses. However, the multivariate statistical tool DAPC, applied on microarray data, segregated IE and bacteremia isolates: IE isolates were correctly reassigned as such in 80.6% of the cases (C-statistic 0.83, P<0.001). The performance of this model was confirmed with an independent French collection IE and bacteremia isolates (78.8% reassignment, C-statistic 0.65, P<0.01). Finally, a simple linear discriminant function based on a subset of 8 genetic markers retained valuable performance both in study collection (86.1%, P<0.001) and in the independent validation collection (81.8%, P<0.01). We here show that community-acquired IE and bacteremia S. aureus isolates are genetically distinct based on subtle combinations of genetic markers. This finding provides the proof of concept that bacterial characteristics may contribute to the occurrence of IE in patients with S. aureus bacteremia.

  3. Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2: evidence for distinct sequence subtypes with differences in virus biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, F; Yue, L; Robertson, D L; Hill, S C; Hui, H.; Biggar, R J; Neequaye, A E; Whelan, T M; Ho, D D; Shaw, G M

    1994-01-01

    The virulence properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are known to vary significantly and to range from relative attenuation in certain individuals to high-level pathogenicity in others. These differences in clinical manifestations may, at least in part, be determined by genetic differences among infecting virus strains. Evaluation of the full spectrum of HIV-2 genetic diversity is thus a necessary first step towards understanding its molecular epidemiology, natural history ...

  4. Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2:evidence for distinct sequence subtypes with differences in virus biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, F; Yue, L; ROBERTSON, DL; Hill, SC; Hui, HX; BIGGAR, RJ; NEEQUAYE, AE; WHELAN, TM; Ho, DD; Shaw, GM; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, BH

    1994-01-01

    The virulence properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are known to vary significantly and to range from relative attenuation in certain individuals to high level pathogenicity in others. These differences in clinical manifestations may, at least in part, be determined by genetic differences among infecting virus strains. Evaluation of the full spectrum of HIV-2 genetic diversity is thus a necessary first step towards understanding its molecular epidemiology, natural history ...

  5. Infrared Thermography to Evaluate Heat Tolerance in Different Genetic Groups of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is considered a limiting factor for sheep production. We used information from physiological characteristics linked to heat tolerance to determine whether infrared thermography temperatures were able to separate groups of animals and determine the most important variables in this differentiation. Forty-eight four-month-old male lambs from eight genetic groups were used. Physiological (rectal temperature–RT, heart rate–HR, respiratory rate–RR and blood traits, infrared thermography temperatures, heat tolerance indices, body measurements, weight and carcass traits were measured. Statistical analyses included variance, correlations, factor, discrimination and regression. Observing the correlations between physiological characteristics (RT, RR and HR with temperatures measured by infrared thermography, regions for further studies should include the mean temperature of flank, nose and rump. Results show that there are strong relationships between thermograph measurements and RR, RT and HR in lambs, which are suggested to be directly correlated with heat tolerance capacity of the different genetic groups evaluated in this study. The assessment of body surface temperature measured by the thermograph could be used as a noninvasive tool to assess heat tolerance of the animals.

  6. Infrared Thermography to Evaluate Heat Tolerance in Different Genetic Groups of Lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Bianchini, Eliandra; Paim, Tiago do Prado; de Lima, Flavia Gontijo; Braccini Neto, José; Castanheira, Marlos; Esteves, Geisa Isilda Ferreira; Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is considered a limiting factor for sheep production. We used information from physiological characteristics linked to heat tolerance to determine whether infrared thermography temperatures were able to separate groups of animals and determine the most important variables in this differentiation. Forty-eight four-month-old male lambs from eight genetic groups were used. Physiological (rectal temperature–RT, heart rate–HR, respiratory rate–RR) and blood traits, infrared thermography temperatures, heat tolerance indices, body measurements, weight and carcass traits were measured. Statistical analyses included variance, correlations, factor, discrimination and regression. Observing the correlations between physiological characteristics (RT, RR and HR) with temperatures measured by infrared thermography, regions for further studies should include the mean temperature of flank, nose and rump. Results show that there are strong relationships between thermograph measurements and RR, RT and HR in lambs, which are suggested to be directly correlated with heat tolerance capacity of the different genetic groups evaluated in this study. The assessment of body surface temperature measured by the thermograph could be used as a noninvasive tool to assess heat tolerance of the animals. PMID:26193274

  7. Genetic diversity among different physiological traits of Sorghum bicolor cultivars of subtropical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafeel, S O

    2015-08-21

    The genetic diversity of Saudi locally growing sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars has not been thoroughly characterized. To understand the genomic patterns of diversification in Saudi sorghum cultivars (N = 7), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used as a rapid, inexpensive method for providing information regarding genomic variability below the species level. Six commercially available primers were initially used to select a single primer based on availability, universality, and its use with standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions. PCR-amplified molecular markers were reproducibly detected in Saudi cultivars. The single primer 2 produced clear bands and revealed variability among the cultivars. Seven tested cultivars were categorized into 2 major groups, indicating 2 genomogroups for the Saudi-cultivars. Five cultivars (S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6) showed identical banding patterns and were grouped in the same clade, although their panicles varied in size, shape, and color. Two cultivars (S1 and S7) showed different banding patterns. In this study, a single primer (P2) was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of genotype detection among sorghum cultivars. This is the first report describing genetic variation among S. bicolor cultivars in Saudi Arabia. The commercial primer (P2) and PCR reaction mixture used in this study are readily available and can be used in sorghum improvement programs.

  8. Fatalistic responses to different types of genetic risk information: exploring the role of self-malleability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Liesbeth; Henneman, Lidewij; De Vet, Riekie; Knol, Dirk; Marteau, Theresa; Timmermans, Danielle

    2010-02-01

    Providing people with genetic risk information may induce a sense of fatalism, the belief that little can be done to reduce the risk. We postulated that fatalism is a function of health risk information and individual differences in self-perception. DNA-based risk information was hypothesised to generate more fatalism than risk information based on family history or non-genetic risk information. Moreover, people who view themselves as more rather than less able to change self-attributes were hypothesised to respond least fatalistically. Factor analyses in separate samples were used to construct a five-item 'Malleability of self' measure. Predictive validity of the measure was tested using a within-subjects analogue design. Participants responded to three scenario vignettes in which they were informed of an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In Scenario 1, risk was ascertained by DNA testing, family history and cholesterol testing; in Scenario 2, it was ascertained by family history and cholesterol testing; in Scenario 3, risk was ascertained by cholesterol testing alone. Scenario 1 was associated with least perceived control over cholesterol level and CVD risk. People who viewed themselves as more able to change self-attributes experienced more control in all three scenarios.

  9. Achromobacter xylosoxidans: an emerging pathogen carrying different elements involved in horizontal genetic transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traglia, German Matías; Almuzara, Marisa; Merkier, Andrea Karina; Adams, Christina; Galanternik, Laura; Vay, Carlos; Centrón, Daniela; Ramírez, María Soledad

    2012-12-01

    In the last few years, numerous cases of multidrug-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans infections have been documented in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms and mobile elements related to multidrug resistance in this bacterium, we studied 24 non-epidemiological A. xylosoxidans clinical isolates from Argentina. Specific primers for plasmids, transposons, insertion sequences, bla(ampC), intI1, and intI2 genes were used in PCR reactions. The obtained results showed the presence of wide host range IncP plasmids in ten isolates and a high dispersion of class 1 integrons (n = 10) and class 2 integrons (n = 3). Four arrays in the variable region (vr) of class 1 integrons were identified carrying different gene cassettes as the aminoglycoside resistance aac(6')-Ib and aadA1, the trimethoprim resistance dfrA1 and dfrA16, and the β-lactamase bla(OXA-2). In only one of the class 2 integrons, a vr was amplified that includes sat2-aadA1. The bla(ampC) gene was found in all isolates, confirming its ubiquitous nature. Our results show that A. xylosoxidans clinical isolates contain a rich variety of genetic elements commonly associated with resistance genes and their dissemination. This supports the hypothesis that A. xylosoxidans is becoming a reservoir of horizontal genetic transfer elements commonly involved in spreading antibiotic resistance.

  10. Genetic Characterization of Soybean Rhizobia Isolated from Different Ecological Zones in North-Eastern Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Safiullah; Ayubi, Abdul Ghani; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2017-03-31

    Seventy rhizobial isolates were obtained from the root nodules of two soybean (Glycine max) cultivars: Japanese cultivar Enrei and USA cultivar Stine3300, which were inoculated with different soil samples from Afghanistan. In order to study the genetic properties of the isolates, the DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and symbiotic genes (nodD1 and nifD) were elucidated. Furthermore, the isolates were inoculated into the roots of two soybean cultivars, and root nodule numbers and nitrogen fixation abilities were subsequently evaluated in order to assess symbiotic performance. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Afghanistan isolates obtained from soybean root nodules were classified into two genera, Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer. Bradyrhizobium isolates accounted for 54.3% (38) of the isolates, and these isolates had a close relationship with Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Five out of the 38 Bradyrhizobium isolates showed a novel lineage for B. liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Thirty-two out of the 70 isolates were identified as Ensifer fredii. An Ensifer isolate had identical nodD1 and nifD sequences to those in B. yuanmingense. This result indicated that the horizontal gene transfer of symbiotic genes occurred from Bradyrhizobium to Ensifer in Afghanistan soil. The symbiotic performance of the 14 tested isolates from the root nodules of the two soybean cultivars indicated that Bradyrhizobium isolates exhibited stronger acetylene reduction activities than Ensifer isolates. This is the first study to genetically characterize soybean-nodulating rhizobia in Afghanistan soil.

  11. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi: Different methods of data analysis to evaluate the genetics-biology relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Eliane R P; Andó, Miriam H; Zalloum, Leila; Bértoli, Marta; de Oliveira Machado Dalalio, Márcia; Silveira, Thais Gomes Verzignassi; Gomes, Mônica L; Guedes, Terezinha A; de Araújo, Silvana Marques

    2009-10-01

    The correlation of genetic and biological diversity in Trypanosoma cruzi was studied. Strains of T. cruzi II, isolated from humans; and of T. cruzi I, isolated from wild-animal reservoirs and from triatomines in the state of Paraná, Brazil, were used. Thirty-six biological parameters measured in vitro and six in vivo, related to growth kinetics and metacyclogenesis, susceptibility to benznidazole, macrophage infection, and experimental infection in mice were evaluated. Data from RAPD and SSR-PCR were used as genetic parameters. Mantel's test, group analysis, principal components analysis (PCA), and cladistical analyses were applied. With the Mantel's test, a low correlation was observed when parameters related to growth kinetics and metacyclogenesis in vitro and development of the experimental infection in vivo were included. The group analysis defined two groups that were separated as to whether they produced patent parasitemia in BALB/c mice. In the larger group, strains derived from wild reservoirs were separated from strains derived from triatomines and humans. The PCA identified two groups that differed as to whether they produced a parasitemia curve in mice. The cladistical analysis supported the previous results. This study shows the importance of the parasite-host relationship for the behavior of the strains, and that the combination of methods supports, extends, and clarifies the available information.

  13. Radiographic evaluation and unusual bone formations in different genetic patterns in synpolydactyly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yucel, Aylin; Acar, Murat [Afyon Kocatepe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Afyon (Turkey); Kuru, Ilhami; Bozan, M. Eray [Afyon Kocatepe University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Afyon (Turkey); Solak, Mustafa [Afyon Kocatepe University School of Medicine, Department of Genetics, Afyon (Turkey)

    2005-08-01

    To compare the radiological findings of heterozygous and homozygous subjects with synpolydactyly (SPD) and to discuss their unusual bone formations. Families with hand and foot SPD were examined. Genetic analysis was performed with blood samples and the pedigree was constructed. The affected individuals, especially those with distinctive phenotypic features, were invited to our orthopaedics clinic for further diagnostic studies. All participants underwent detailed clinical and X-ray examinations. Of the invited patients, 16 (five female and 11 male; age range 4-37 years, mean age 10.75 years) were included in our study, and hand and foot radiographs were obtained. All subjects had bilateral hand radiographs (32 hands), and 14 had bilateral foot radiographs (28 feet). Genetic analysis revealed 12 heterozygote (75%) and four (25%) homozygote phenotypes. Among patients enrolled into the study nine (three homozygotes, six heterozygotes) had SPD of both hands and feet bilaterally (tetrasynpolydactyly). Six unusual bone formations were observed in the hands and feet: delta phalanx, delta metacarpal/metatarsal, kissing delta phalanx, true double epiphysis, pseudoepiphysis and cone-shaped epiphysis. There were major differences in radiological and clinical manifestations of homozygote and heterozygote phenotypes. The homozygous SPD presented with very distinctive unusual bone formations. The existence and variety of unusual bones may indicate the severity of penetrance and expressivity of SPD. (orig.)

  14. Genetic architecture of white matter hyperintensities differs in hypertensive and nonhypertensive ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Samii, Poneh; Devan, William; Traylor, Matthew; Lanfranconi, Silvia; Zhang, Cathy R; Cloonan, Lisa; Falcone, Guido J; Radmanesh, Farid; Fitzpatrick, Kaitlin; Kanakis, Allison; Rothwell, Peter M; Sudlow, Cathie; Boncoraglio, Giorgio B; Meschia, James F; Levi, Chris; Dichgans, Martin; Bevan, Steve; Rosand, Jonathan; Rost, Natalia S; Markus, Hugh S

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are extremely heritable, but the underlying genetic variants are largely unknown. Pathophysiological heterogeneity is known to reduce the power of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Hypertensive and nonhypertensive individuals with WMH might have different underlying pathologies. We used GWAS data to calculate the variance in WMH volume (WMHV) explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a measure of heritability (SNP heritability [HSNP]) and tested the hypothesis that WMH heritability differs between hypertensive and nonhypertensive individuals. WMHV was measured on MRI in the stroke-free cerebral hemisphere of 2336 ischemic stroke cases with GWAS data. After adjustment for age and intracranial volume, we determined which cardiovascular risk factors were independent predictors of WMHV. Using the genome-wide complex trait analysis tool to estimate HSNP for WMHV overall and within subgroups stratified by risk factors found to be significant in multivariate analyses. A significant proportion of the variance of WMHV was attributable to common SNPs after adjustment for significant risk factors (HSNP=0.23; P=0.0026). HSNP estimates were higher among hypertensive individuals (HSNP=0.45; P=7.99×10(-5)); this increase was greater than expected by chance (P=0.012). In contrast, estimates were lower, and nonsignificant, in nonhypertensive individuals (HSNP=0.13; P=0.13). A quarter of variance is attributable to common SNPs, but this estimate was greater in hypertensive individuals. These findings suggest that the genetic architecture of WMH in ischemic stroke differs between hypertensives and nonhypertensives. Future WMHV GWAS studies may gain power by accounting for this interaction. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer.

  15. Clinical outcome and genetic differences within a monophyletic Dengue virus type 2 population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapuarachchige Chanditha Hapuarachchi

    Full Text Available The exact mechanisms of interplay between host and viral factors leading to severe dengue are yet to be fully understood. Even though previous studies have implicated specific genetic differences of Dengue virus (DENV in clinical severity and virus attenuation, similar studies with large-scale, whole genome screening of monophyletic virus populations are limited. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 89 whole genomes of DENV-2 cosmopolitan clade III isolates obtained from patients diagnosed with dengue fever (DF, n = 58, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, n = 30 and dengue shock syndrome (DSS, n = 1 in Singapore between July 2010 and January 2013, in order to determine the correlation of observed viral genetic differences with clinical outcomes. Our findings showed no significant difference between the number of primary and secondary infections that progressed to DHF and DSS (p>0.05 in our study cohort. Despite being highly homogenous, study isolates possessed 39 amino acid substitutions of which 10 substitutions were fixed in three main groups of virus isolates. None of those substitutions were specifically associated with DHF and DSS. Notably, two evolutionarily unique virus groups possessing C-P43T+NS1-S103T+NS2A-V83I+NS3-R337K+ NS3-I600T+ NS5-P136S and NS2A-T119N mutations were exclusively found in patients with DF, the benign form of DENV infections. Those mutants were significantly associated with mild disease outcome. These observations indicated that disease progression into DHF and DSS within our patient population was more likely to be due to host than virus factors. We hypothesize that selection for potentially less virulent groups of DENV-2 in our study cohort may be an evolutionary adaptation of viral strains to extend their survival in the human-mosquito transmission cycle.

  16. Quantifying the role of population subdivision in evolution on rugged fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Schwab, David J

    2014-08-01

    Natural selection drives populations towards higher fitness, but crossing fitness valleys or plateaus may facilitate progress up a rugged fitness landscape involving epistasis. We investigate quantitatively the effect of subdividing an asexual population on the time it takes to cross a fitness valley or plateau. We focus on a generic and minimal model that includes only population subdivision into equivalent demes connected by global migration, and does not require significant size changes of the demes, environmental heterogeneity or specific geographic structure. We determine the optimal speedup of valley or plateau crossing that can be gained by subdivision, if the process is driven by the deme that crosses fastest. We show that isolated demes have to be in the sequential fixation regime for subdivision to significantly accelerate crossing. Using Markov chain theory, we obtain analytical expressions for the conditions under which optimal speedup is achieved: valley or plateau crossing by the subdivided population is then as fast as that of its fastest deme. We verify our analytical predictions through stochastic simulations. We demonstrate that subdivision can substantially accelerate the crossing of fitness valleys and plateaus in a wide range of parameters extending beyond the optimal window. We study the effect of varying the degree of subdivision of a population, and investigate the trade-off between the magnitude of the optimal speedup and the width of the parameter range over which it occurs. Our results, obtained for fitness valleys and plateaus, also hold for weakly beneficial intermediate mutations. Finally, we extend our work to the case of a population connected by migration to one or several smaller islands. Our results demonstrate that subdivision with migration alone can significantly accelerate the crossing of fitness valleys and plateaus, and shed light onto the quantitative conditions necessary for this to occur.

  17. Extrapolating Acceleration Algorithms for Finding B—Spline Intersections Using Recursive Subdivision Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开怀; 范刚; 等

    1994-01-01

    The new algorithms for finding B-Spline or Bezier curves and surfaces intersections using recursive subdivision techniques are presented,which use extrapolating acceleration technique,and have convergent precision of order 2.Matrix method is used to subdivide the curves or surfaces which makes the subdivision more concise and intuitive.Dividing depths of Bezier curves and surfaces are used to subdivide the curves or surfaces adaptively.Therefore the convergent precision and the computing efficiency of finding the intersections of curves and surfaces have been improved by the methods proposed in the paper.

  18. X-ray microbeam quantification of grain subdivision accompanying large deformations of copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.C.; Guvenilir, A.; McDowell, D.L.; Stock, S.R. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Polychromatic synchrotron x-ray microbeams offer a very efficient alternative to electron beam methods for quantifying the amount and character of grain subdivision accompanying large deformations. With a 0.01 mm diameter collimator, bending magnet radiation from a 3.0 GeV source and image storage plates, samples of copper with thicknesses greater than 0.1 mm have been studied. Results from an as-received sample and a sample deformed to 100% torsion are compared and illustrate how efficiently grain subdivision can be quantified with polychromatic microbeam diffraction.

  19. Genetic Variation of Isozyme Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO Profiles in Different Varieties of Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chilli pepper is a major spice crop and is of cosmopolitan in distribution. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native PAGE was used to study the polyphenol oxidase (PPO isozyme variation in 21 varieties of Capsicum annuum L. A maximum of 4 PPO bands were scored in five varieties i.e., Ca14, Ca15, Ca16, Ca19 & Ca20, while the minimum (2 bands was observed in four varieties (Ca3, Ca10, Ca13 & Ca17. 15 pair wise combinations showed highest average per cent similarity (100% and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The present study revealed that considerable intraspecific differences were found in the varieties. Thus the results obtained could be used in fingerprinting the genotypes.

  20. On the Performance of Different Genetic Programming Approaches for the SORTING Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Markus; Neumann, Frank; Urli, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    In genetic programming, the size of a solution is typically not specified in advance, and solutions of larger size may have a larger benefit. The flexibility often comes at the cost of the so-called bloat problem: individuals grow without providing additional benefit to the quality of solutions, and the additional elements can block the optimization process. Consequently, problems that are relatively easy to optimize cannot be handled by variable-length evolutionary algorithms. In this article, we analyze different single- and multiobjective algorithms on the sorting problem, a problem that typically lacks independent and additive fitness structures. We complement the theoretical results with comprehensive experiments to indicate the tightness of existing bounds, and to indicate bounds where theoretical results are missing.

  1. Machado-Joseph disease is genetically different from Holguin dominant ataxia (SCA2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveria, I.; Manaia, A. (Univ. Porto (Portugal) Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)); Melki, J.; Burlet, P.; Rozet, J.M.; Munnich, A. (Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)); Magarino, C.; Gispert, S. (Univ. Porto (Portugal) Centro Nacional Genetica Medica, Havana (Cuba)); Lunkes, A.; Auburger, G. (Univ. Hospital, Duesseldorf (Germany))

    1993-09-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) and Holguin ataxia (SCA2) are autosomal dominant multisystem degenerations with spinocerebellar involvement that are predominant among people of Portuguese-Azorean and of Cuban descent, respectively. Their clinical distinction may at times be difficult to make in individual patients, due to significant phenotypic overlapping (similar overall age-of-onset and duration of cerebellar ataxia, eye movement, and, often, other common problems). The recent mapping of SCA2 to chromosome 12q provided another candidate region for linkage studies of MJD. Original data on 10 families with Holguin ataxia show that the locus of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) on chromosome 12q is linked to SCA2 at 4 cM and is thus far its closest marker. The exclusion of linkage 15 cM on each side of PAH in 16 families with MJD shows that these two forms of dominant ataxia are genetically distinct and at different chromosomal locations (nonallelic). 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Genetic and epigenetic differences associated with environmental gradients in replicate populations of two salt marsh perennials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, C M; Preite, V; Schrey, A W; Alvarez, M; Robertson, M H; Verhoeven, K J F; Richards, C L

    2016-04-01

    While traits and trait plasticity are partly genetically based, investigating epigenetic mechanisms may provide more nuanced understanding of the mechanisms underlying response to environment. Using AFLP and methylation-sensitive AFLP, we tested the hypothesis that differentiation to habitats along natural salt marsh environmental gradients occurs at epigenetic, but not genetic loci in two salt marsh perennials. We detected significant genetic and epigenetic structure among populations and among subpopulations, but we found multilocus patterns of differentiation to habitat type only in epigenetic variation for both species. In addition, more epigenetic than genetic loci were correlated with habitat in both species. When we analysed genetic and epigenetic variation simultaneously with partial Mantel, we found no correlation between genetic variation and habitat and a significant correlation between epigenetic variation and habitat in Spartina alterniflora. In Borrichia frutescens, we found significant correlations between epigenetic and/or genetic variation and habitat in four of five populations when populations were analysed individually, but there was no significant correlation between genetic or epigenetic variation and habitat when analysed jointly across the five populations. These analyses suggest that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the response to salt marsh habitats, but also that the relationships among genetic and epigenetic variation and habitat vary by species. Site-specific conditions may also cloud our ability to detect response in replicate populations with similar environmental gradients. Future studies analysing sequence data and the correlation between genetic variation and DNA methylation will be powerful to identify the contributions of genetic and epigenetic response to environmental gradients.

  3. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Marčić, Zoran; Šanda, Radek; Vukić, Jasna; Mrakovčić, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis) whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy) and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely

  4. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences

  5. Constructing Measure by Repeated Infinite Subdivision%通过反复无限细分定义测度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严质彬

    2005-01-01

    This paper generalizes the method of constructing measure by repeated finite subdivision in fTactal geometry to that by infinite subdivision. Two conditions for the existing method are removed. A measure on the interval [0, 1] is constructed using this generalized method.

  6. Influence of unilateral maxillary first molar extraction treatment on second and third molar inclination in Class II subdivision patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight

  7. Morphological and genetic characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from roots of different maize genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Angela Cristina; Bassani, Luciana Lange; Adamoski, Douglas; Stringari, Danyelle; Cordeiro, Vanessa Kava; Glienke, Chirlei; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Hungria, Mariangela; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia Vitoria

    2013-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops worldwide, and in Brazil, the state of Paraná stands as its largest producer. The crop demands high inputs of N fertilizers, therefore all strategies aiming to optimize the grain production with lower inputs are very relevant. Endophytic bacteria have a high potential to increment maize grain yield by means of input via biological nitrogen fixation and/or plant growth promotion, in this last case increasing the absorption of water and nutrients by the plants. In this study, we established a collection of 217 endophytic bacteria, isolated from roots of four lineages and three hybrid genotypes of maize, and isolated in four different N-free culture media. Biochemical-comprising growth in different carbon sources, intrinsic tolerance to antibiotics, and biochemical tests for catalase, nitrate reductase, urease, and growth in N-free media in vitro-and genetic characterization by BOX-PCR revealed great variability among the isolates. Both commercial hybrids and homozygous lineages were broadly colonized by endophytes, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of bacteria belonging to the genera Pantoea, Bacillus, Burkholderia, and Klebsiella. Qualitative differences in endophytic colonization were detected between lineages and hybrid genotypes.

  8. Genetic distances and phylogenetic trees of different Awassi sheep populations based on DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate evolutionary distances and to reconstruct phylogeny trees between different Awassi sheep populations. Thirty-two sheep individuals from three different geographical areas of Jordan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were randomly sampled. DNA was extracted from the tissue samples and sequenced using the T7 promoter universal primer. Different phylogenetic trees were reconstructed from 0.64-kb DNA sequences using the MEGA software with the best general time reverse distance model. Three methods of distance estimation were then used. The maximum composite likelihood test was considered for reconstructing maximum likelihood, neighbor-joining and UPGMA trees. The maximum likelihood tree indicated three major clusters separated by cytosine (C) and thymine (T). The greatest distance was shown between the South sheep and North sheep. On the other hand, the KSA sheep as an outgroup showed shorter evolutionary distance to the North sheep population than to the others. The neighbor-joining and UPGMA trees showed quite reliable clusters of evolutionary differentiation of Jordan sheep populations from the Saudi population. The overall results support geographical information and ecological types of the sheep populations studied. Summing up, the resulting phylogeny trees may contribute to the limited information about the genetic relatedness and phylogeny of Awassi sheep in nearby Arab countries.

  9. Different thermotolerances in in vitro-produced embryos derived from different maternal and paternal genetic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Miki; Yamanaka, Kenichi; Balboula, Ahmed Zaky; Takahashi, Masashi

    2017-07-21

    The present study evaluated the effects of genetic backgrounds on the developmental competence and thermotolerance of bovine in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos. First, Holstein (Hol) and Japanese Black (JB) oocytes were fertilized with sperm from Hol, JB and a thermotolerant breed (Brahman), and in vitro development was evaluated when the embryos were exposed to heat shock on Day 2 (Day 0 = day of fertilization). Sperm genetic backgrounds affected the developmental competence in controls (P JB) and IVP embryos were evaluated. JB parthenotes showed developmental arrest after Day 4, and the rate of development to the blastocyst stage decreased by heat shock, but not in Hol parthenotes. Heat shock decreased developmental competence after cleavage of IVP embryos regardless of genetic background. The thermotolerance of IVP embryos would be controlled by both maternal and paternal factors but genetic involvement was still unclear. Further evaluation is needed to reveal the genetic contribution to thermotolerance. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Does epilepsy in multiplex autism pedigrees define a different subgroup in terms of clinical characteristics and genetic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiet, Claire; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Laurent, Claudine; Bodeau, Nicolas; Génin, Bérengère; Leguern, Eric; Tordjman, Sylvie; Cohen, David

    2013-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy frequently occur together. Prevalence rates are variable, and have been attributed to age, gender, comorbidity, subtype of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and risk factors. Recent studies have suggested disparate clinical and genetic settings depending on simplex or multiplex autism. The aim of this study was to assess: 1) the prevalence of epilepsy in multiplex autism and its association with genetic and non-genetic risk factors of major effect, intellectual disability and gender; and 2) whether autism and epilepsy cosegregate within multiplex autism families. We extracted from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) database (n = 3,818 children from 1,264 families) all families with relevant medical data (n = 664 children from 290 families). The sample included 478 children with ASD and 186 siblings without ASD. We analyzed the following variables: seizures, genetic and non-genetic risk factors, gender, and cognitive functioning as assessed by Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). The prevalence of epilepsy was 12.8% in cases with ASD and 2.2% in siblings without ASD (P VABS measure, the risk of epilepsy in multiplex autism was significantly associated with intellectual disability, but not with gender. Identified risk factors (genetic or non-genetic) of autism tended to be significantly associated with epilepsy (P = 0.052). When children with prematurity, pre- or perinatal insult, or cerebral palsy were excluded, a genetic risk factor was reported for 6/59 (10.2%) of children with epilepsy and 12/395 (3.0%) of children without epilepsy (P = 0.002). Finally, using a permutation test, there was significant evidence that the epilepsy phenotype co-segregated within families (P <10-4). Epilepsy in multiplex autism may define a different subgroup in terms of clinical characteristics and genetic risk.

  11. ama1 Genes of Sympatric Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum from Venezuela Differ Significantly in Genetic Diversity and Recombination Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Ord, RL; Tami, A; Sutherland, CJ

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present the first population genetic analysis of homologous loci from two sympatric human malaria parasite populations sharing the same human hosts, using full-length sequences of ama1 genes from Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum collected in the Venezuelan Amazon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Significant differences between the two species were found in genetic diversity at the ama1 locus, with 18 distinct haplotypes identified among the 73 Pvama1 sequences obtained, compa...

  12. Genetic Dissection of Acute Anterior Uveitis Reveals Similarities and Differences in Associations observed with Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip C.; Claushuis, Theodora A.M.; Cortes, Adrian; Martin, Tammy M.; Evans, David M.; Leo, Paul; Mukhopadhyay, Pamela; Bradbury, Linda A.; Cremin, Katie; Harris, Jessica; Maksymowych, Walter P.; Inman, Robert D.; Rahman, Proton; Haroon, Nigil; Gensler, Lianne; Powell, Joseph E.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Craig, Jamie E.; Lim, Lyndell L.; Wakefield, Denis; McCluskey, Peter; Voigt, Valentina; Fleming, Peter; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia; Pointon, Jennifer J.; Weisman, Michael H.; Wordsworth, B. Paul; Reveille, John D.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Brown, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To use high density genotyping to investigate the genetic associations of acute anterior uveitis (AAU) in patients both with and without ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Method We genotyped 1,711 patients with AAU (either primary or with AAU and AS), 2,339 AS patients without AAU, and 10,000 controls on the Illumina Immunochip Infinium microarray. We also used data on AS patients from previous genomewide association studies to investigate the AS risk locus ANTXR2 for its putative effect in AAU. ANTXR2 expression in mouse eyes was investigated by RT-PCR. Results Comparing all AAU cases with HC, strong association was seen over HLA-B corresponding to the HLA-B27 tag SNP rs116488202. Three non-MHC loci IL23R, the intergenic region 2p15 and ERAP1 were associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5×10−8). Five loci harboring the immune-related genes IL10-IL19, IL18R1-IL1R1, IL6R, the chromosome 1q32 locus harboring KIF21B, as well as the eye related gene EYS, were also associated at a suggestive level of significance (P < 5×10−6). A number of previously confirmed AS associations demonstrated significant differences in effect size between AS patients with AAU and AS patients without AAU. ANTXR2 expression was found to vary across eye compartments. Conclusion These findings, with both novel AAU specific associations, and associations shared with AS demonstrate overlapping but also distinct genetic susceptibility loci for AAU and AS. The associations in IL10 and IL18R1 are shared with inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting common etiologic pathways. PMID:25200001

  13. Different genotypes of Trypanosoma cruzi produce distinctive placental environment genetic response in chronic experimental infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juiz, Natalia Anahí; Solana, María Elisa; Acevedo, Gonzalo Raúl; Benatar, Alejandro Francisco; Ramirez, Juan Carlos; da Costa, Priscilla Almeida; Macedo, Andrea Mara; Longhi, Silvia Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Congenital infection of Trypanosoma cruzi allows transmission of this parasite through generations. Despite the problematic that this entails, little is known about the placenta environment genetic response produced against infection. We performed functional genomics by microarray analysis in C57Bl/6J mice comparing placentas from uninfected animals and from animals infected with two different T. cruzi strains: K98, a clone of the non-lethal myotropic CA-I strain (TcI), and VD (TcVI), isolated from a human case of congenital infection. Analysis of networks by GeneMANIA of differentially expressed genes showed that “Secretory Granule” was a pathway down-regulated in both infected groups, whereas “Innate Immune Response” and “Response to Interferon-gamma” were pathways up-regulated in VD infection but not in K98. Applying another approach, the GSEA algorithm that detects small changes in predetermined gene sets, we found that metabolic processes, transcription and macromolecular transport were down-regulated in infected placentas environment and some pathways related to cascade signaling had opposite regulation: over-represented in VD and down-regulated in K98 group. We also have found a stronger tropism to the placental organ by VD strain, by detection of parasite DNA and RNA, suggesting living parasites. Our study is the first one to describe in a murine model the genetic response of placental environment to T. cruzi infection and suggests the development of a strong immune response, parasite genotype-dependent, to the detriment of cellular metabolism, which may contribute to control infection preventing the risk of congenital transmission. PMID:28273076

  14. Social behavior in a genetic model of dopamine dysfunction at different neurodevelopmental time points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabitzke, P A; Simpson, E H; Kandel, E R; Balsam, P D

    2015-09-01

    Impairments in social behavior characterize many neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. In fact, the temporal emergence and trajectory of these deficits can define the disorder, specify their treatment and signal their prognosis. The sophistication of mouse models with neurobiological endophenotypes of many aspects of psychiatric diseases has increased in recent years, with the necessity to evaluate social behavior in these models. We adapted an assay for the multimodal characterization of social behavior at different development time points (juvenile, adolescent and adult) in control mice in different social contexts (specifically, different sex pairings). Although social context did not affect social behavior in juvenile mice, it did have an effect on the quantity and type of social interaction as well as ultrasonic vocalizations in both adolescence and adulthood. We compared social development in control mice to a transgenic mouse model of the increase in postsynaptic striatal D2R activity observed in patients with schizophrenia (D2R-OE mice). Genotypic differences in social interactions emerged in adolescence and appeared to become more pronounced in adulthood. That vocalizations emitted from dyads with a D2R-OE subject were negatively correlated with active social behavior while vocalizations from control dyads were positively correlated with both active and passive social behavior also suggest social deficits. These data show that striatal dopamine dysfunction plays an important role in the development of social behavior and mouse models such as the one studied here provide an opportunity for screening potential therapeutics at different developmental time points. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. Feature-Adaptive Rendering of Loop Subdivision Surfaces on Modern GPUs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄韵岑; 冯结青; 崔元敏; 杨宝光

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach for real-time rendering Loop subdivision surfaces on modern graphics hardware. Our algorithm evaluates both positions and normals accurately, thus providing the true Loop subdivision surface. The core idea is to recursively refine irregular patches using a GPU compute kernel. All generated regular patches are then directly evaluated and rendered using the hardware tessellation unit. Our approach handles triangular control meshes of arbitrary topologies and incorporates common subdivision surface features such as semi-sharp creases and hierarchical edits. While surface rendering is accurate up to machine precision, we also enforce a consistent bitwise evaluation of positions and normals at patch boundaries. This is particularly useful in the context of displacement mapping which strictly requires matching surface normals. Furthermore, we incorporate efficient level-of-detail rendering where subdivision depth and tessellation density can be adjusted on-the-fly. Overall, our algorithm provides high-quality results at real-time frame rates, thus being ideally suited to interactive rendering applications such as video games or authoring tools.

  16. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  17. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  18. 46 CFR 170.135 - Operating information for a vessel with Type III subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating information for a vessel with Type III... Operating Personnel § 170.135 Operating information for a vessel with Type III subdivision. (a) In addition to the information required in 46 CFR 170.110, the stability booklet of a passenger vessel with...

  19. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  20. Wavelet-based multiresolution with n-th-root-of-2 Subdivision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsen, L; Pascucci, V; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2004-12-16

    Multiresolution methods are a common technique used for dealing with large-scale data and representing it at multiple levels of detail. The authors present a multiresolution hierarchy construction based on n{radical}2 subdivision, which has all the advantages of a regular data organization scheme while reducing the drawback of coarse granularity. The n{radical}2-subdivision scheme only doubles the number of vertices in each subdivision step regardless of dimension n. They describe the construction of 2D, 3D, and 4D hierarchies representing surfaces, volume data, and time-varying volume data, respectively. The 4D approach supports spatial and temporal scalability. For high-quality data approximation on each level of detail, they use downsampling filters based on n-variate B-spline wavelets. They present a B-spline wavelet lifting scheme for n{radical}2-subdivision steps to obtain small or narrow filters. Narrow filters support adaptive refinement and out-of-core data exploration techniques.

  1. 45 CFR 302.55 - Incentive payments to States and political subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive payments to States and political subdivisions. 302.55 Section 302.55 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.55 Incentive payments to States and...

  2. 45 CFR 303.52 - Pass-through of incentives to political subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pass-through of incentives to political..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES STANDARDS FOR PROGRAM OPERATIONS § 303.52 Pass-through of incentives... subdivisions as follows: (a) The State IV-D agency must develop a standard methodology for passing through...

  3. 24 CFR 1715.50 - Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with HUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising disclaimers... REGISTRATION PROGRAM) PURCHASERS' REVOCATION RIGHTS, SALES PRACTICES AND STANDARDS Advertising Disclaimers § 1715.50 Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with HUD. (a) The following...

  4. 46 CFR 171.073 - Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II... Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type II subdivision. (a) A main transverse watertight bulkhead may not be stepped unless additional watertight bulkheads are located as shown in Figure...

  5. 46 CFR 171.067 - Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type I subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type I... Treatment of stepped and recessed bulkheads in Type I subdivision. (a) For the purpose of this section— (1) The main transverse watertight bulkhead immediately forward of a stepped bulkhead is referred to...

  6. Simple Derivation of the Lifetime and the Distribution of Faces for a Binary Subdivision Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The iterative random subdivision of rectangles is used as a generation model of networks in physics, computer science, and urban planning. However, these researches were independent. We consider some relations in them, and derive fundamental properties for the average lifetime depending on birth-time and the balanced distribution of rectangle faces.

  7. Isogeometric finite element approximation of minimal surfaces based on extended loop subdivision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Chen, Chong; Xu, Guoliang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the formulation of isogeometric analysis for minimal surface models on planar bounded domains by extended Loop surface subdivision approach. The exactness of the physical domain of interest is fixed on the coarsest level of the triangular discretization with any topological structure, which is thought of as the initial control mesh of Loop subdivision. By performing extended Loop subdivision, the control mesh can be repeatedly refined, and the geometry is described as an infinite set of quartic box-spline while maintaining its original exactness. The limit function representation of extended Loop subdivision forms our finite element space, which possesses C1 smoothness and the flexibility of mesh topology. We establish its inverse inequalities which resemble the ones of general finite element spaces. We develop the approximation estimate with the aid of H1 convergence property of the corresponding linear models. It enables us to overcome the difficulty of proving the boundedness of the gradient of finite element solutions appearing in the coefficient of minimal surface models. Numerical examples are given with the comparison to the classical linear finite element method which is consistent with our theoretical results.

  8. Genetic variation and structure in the Mediterranean shrubs Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus in different landscape contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, S; Albaladejo, R G; Aparicio, A

    2015-03-01

    Studies concerning different habitat configurations can provide insights into the complex interactions between species' life-history traits and the environment and can help to predict patterns in population genetics. In this study, we compared patterns of genetic variation in two Mediterranean shrub species (Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus) that co-occur in populations within three contrasting landscape contexts: continuous, fragmented-connected and fragmented-isolated populations. Analysing variation at microsatellites loci, our results revealed weak responses to the landscape contexts. We rather found a population-specific response in both study species. However, despite both study species sharing similar levels of genetic diversity, Myrtus displayed higher levels of homozygosity and genetic differentiation among populations, stronger patterns of within-population spatial genetic structure, lower values of mutation-scaled effective population size and stronger evidence for recent genetic bottlenecks than Pistacia. This result highlights the influence of past events (e.g. historical connectivity, fluctuations in population size) and local factors (e.g. microhabitat availability for recruitment, habitat quality, plant density, native fauna) and that the landscape configuration per se (i.e. fragment size and/or isolation) might not completely determine the species' genetic patterns.

  9. Genetic relationships among Enterococcus faecalis isolates from different sources as revealed by multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Song, Y Q; Xu, H Y; Menghe, B L G; Zhang, H P; Sun, Z H

    2015-08-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is part of the natural gut flora of humans and other mammals; some isolates are also used in food production. So, it is important to evaluate the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among E. faecalis isolates from different sources. Multilocus sequence typing protocol was used to compare 39 E. faecalis isolates from Chinese traditional food products (including dairy products, acidic gruel) and 4 published E. faecalis isolates from other sources including human-derived isolates employing 5 housekeeping genes (groEL, clpX, recA, rpoB, and pepC). A total of 23 unique sequence types were identified, which were grouped into 5 clonal complexes and 10 singletons. The value of standardized index of association of the alleles (IA(S)=0.1465) and network structure indicated a high frequency of intraspecies recombination across these isolates. Enterococcus faecalis lineages also exhibited clearly source-clustered distributions. The isolates from dairy source were clustered together. However, the relationship between isolates from acidic gruel and one isolate from a human source was close. The MLST scheme presented in this study provides a sharable and continuously growing sequence database enabling global comparison of strains from different sources, and will further advance our understanding of the microbial ecology of this important species.

  10. Transcriptomes Reveal Genetic Signatures Underlying Physiological Variations Imposed by Different Fermentation Conditions in Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Roger S.; van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien; Wiersma, Anne; Overmars, Lex; Marco, Maria L.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are utilized widely for the fermentation of foods. In the current post-genomic era, tools have been developed that explore genetic diversity among LAB strains aiming to link these variations to differential phenotypes observed in the strains investigated. However, these genotype-phenotype matching approaches fail to assess the role of conserved genes in the determination of physiological characteristics of cultures by environmental conditions. This manuscript describes a complementary approach in which Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 was fermented under a variety of conditions that differ in temperature, pH, as well as NaCl, amino acid, and O2 levels. Samples derived from these fermentations were analyzed by full-genome transcriptomics, paralleled by the assessment of physiological characteristics, e.g., maximum growth rate, yield, and organic acid profiles. A data-storage and -mining suite designated FermDB was constructed and exploited to identify correlations between fermentation conditions and industrially relevant physiological characteristics of L. plantarum, as well as the associated transcriptome signatures. Finally, integration of the specific fermentation variables with the transcriptomes enabled the reconstruction of the gene-regulatory networks involved. The fermentation-genomics platform presented here is a valuable complementary approach to earlier described genotype-phenotype matching strategies which allows the identification of transcriptome signatures underlying physiological variations imposed by different fermentation conditions. PMID:22802930

  11. Study on Different Crossover Mechanisms of Genetic Algorithm for Test Interval Optimization for Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Mehra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance tests are performed periodically on standby systems of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP, as they improve the systems’ availability on demand. High availability of safety critical systems is very essential to NPP safety, hence, careful analysis is required to schedule the surveillance activities for such systems in a cost effective way without compromising the plant safety. This forms an optimization problem wherein, two different cases can be formulated for deciding the value of Surveillance Test Interval. In one case, cost is the objective function to be minimized while unavailability is constrained to be at a given level and in another case, unavailability is minimized for a given cost level. Here, optimization is done using Genetic Algorithm (GA and real encoding has been employed as it caters well to the requirements of this problem. A detailed procedure for GA formulation is described in this paper. Two different crossover methods, arithmetical crossover and blend crossover are explored and compared in this study to arrive at the most suitable crossover method for such type of problems.

  12. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopic Discrimination of Wines Reflects Genetic Homology of Several Different Grape (V. vinifera L.) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Wen, Wen; Zhang, Fengmin; Hardie, Jim W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled multivariate analysis (1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA) is an important tool for the discrimination of wine products. Although 1H NMR has been shown to discriminate wines of different cultivars, a grape genetic component of the discrimination has been inferred only from discrimination of cultivars of undefined genetic homology and in the presence of many confounding environmental factors. We aimed to confirm the influence of grape genotypes in the absence of those factors. Methods and Results We applied 1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to wines from five, variously genetically-related grapevine (V. vinifera) cultivars; all grown similarly on the same site and vinified similarly. We also compared the semi-quantitative profiles of the discriminant metabolites of each cultivar with previously reported chemical analyses. The cultivars were clearly distinguishable and there was a general correlation between their grouping and their genetic homology as revealed by recent genomic studies. Between cultivars, the relative amounts of several of the cultivar-related discriminant metabolites conformed closely with reported chemical analyses. Conclusions Differences in grape-derived metabolites associated with genetic differences alone are a major source of 1H NMR-based discrimination of wines and 1H NMR has the capacity to discriminate between very closely related cultivars. Significance of the Study The study confirms that genetic variation among grape cultivars alone can account for the discrimination of wine by 1H NMR-PCA/PLS and indicates that 1H NMR spectra of wine of single grape cultivars may in future be used in tandem with hierarchical cluster analysis to elucidate genetic lineages and metabolomic relations of grapevine cultivars. In the absence of genetic information, for example, where predecessor varieties are no longer extant, this may be a particularly useful approach. PMID

  13. The Effects of Different Types of Text and Individual Differences on View Complexity about Genetically Modified Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Daniel L.; Zoellner, Brian P.; Parkinson, Meghan M.; Rossi, Anthony M.; Monk, Mary J.; Vinnachi, Jenelle

    2017-01-01

    View change about socio-scientific issues has been well studied in the literature, but the change in the complexity of those views has not. In the current study, the change in the complexity of views about a specific scientific topic (i.e. genetically modified organisms; GMOs) and use of evidence in explaining those views was examined in relation…

  14. Differences in Genetic Background Between Active Smokers, Passive Smokers, and Non-Smokers With Crohn's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Frans; Nolte, Ilja M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Dijkstra, Gerard; Weersma, Rinse K.

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking behavior and genetic variations are important factors for the development of Crohn's disease (CD), but studies investigating the interaction between smoking and genetic background are scarce. We studied allelic associations of 19 confirmed variants located in 14 CD-associated

  15. Contemporary and historic factors influence differently genetic differentiation and diversity in a tropical palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Carvalho, C; Ribeiro, M C; Côrtes, M C; Galetti, M; Collevatti, R G

    2015-09-01

    Population genetics theory predicts loss in genetic variability because of drift and inbreeding in isolated plant populations; however, it has been argued that long-distance pollination and seed dispersal may be able to maintain gene flow, even in highly fragmented landscapes. We tested how historical effective population size, historical migration and contemporary landscape structure, such as forest cover, patch isolation and matrix resistance, affect genetic variability and differentiation of seedlings in a tropical palm (Euterpe edulis) in a human-modified rainforest. We sampled 16 sites within five landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic forest and assessed genetic variability and differentiation using eight microsatellite loci. Using a model selection approach, none of the covariates explained the variation observed in inbreeding coefficients among populations. The variation in genetic diversity among sites was best explained by historical effective population size. Allelic richness was best explained by historical effective population size and matrix resistance, whereas genetic differentiation was explained by matrix resistance. Coalescence analysis revealed high historical migration between sites within landscapes and constant historical population sizes, showing that the genetic differentiation is most likely due to recent changes caused by habitat loss and fragmentation. Overall, recent landscape changes have a greater influence on among-population genetic variation than historical gene flow process. As immediate restoration actions in landscapes with low forest amount, the development of more permeable matrices to allow the movement of pollinators and seed dispersers may be an effective strategy to maintain microevolutionary processes.

  16. Glioblastomas with Oligodendroglial Component – Common Origin of the Different Histological Parts and Genetic Subclassification

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    Barbara Klink

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glioblastomas are the most common and most malignant brain tumors in adults. A small subgroup of glioblastomas contains areas with histological features of oligodendroglial differentiation (GBMO. Our objective was to genetically characterize the oligodendroglial and the astrocytic parts of GBMOs and correlate morphologic and genetic features with clinical data.

  17. THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF SILVER (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX AND BIGHEAD (ARISTICHTHYS NOBILIS CARPS FROM FISH FARM LIMANSKE

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    Т. Nagorniuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studying the peculiarities of the genetic structure of different age groups of silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Methodology. The methods of vertical polyacrylamide and horizontal starch electrophoresis with our own modifications have been used for the study. Sampling of the biological material and histochemical staining of gel plates were carried out using the generally accepted methods. Statistical analysis of the obtained data were performed in "Biosys-I". Findings. We analyzed the genetic structure of age-1, age-1+ and age-2 of silver and bighead carps with the use of genetic-biochemical markers - Рralb, EST, MDH, МЕ, СА. We demonstrated the peculiarities of allele frequencies and genotypic composition of protein system loci. A high level of heterozygosity in the examined was detected loci for age-1 silver carp – 66.7-88.9% and age-1 bighead carp – 65.4-77.8%. A significantly higher level of the observed average heterozygosity compared to the expected heterozygosity of age-1 as silver carp (Ho = 75.9%, He = 49,6%, and bighead carp (Ho = 73,6%, He = 47,9% was observed. This fact indicated on the necessity for performing a stabilization of their genetic structure. The calculated Wright's F index in different age groups showed a predominance of the observed level of the average heterozygosity over the expected one for 22.7–53% in silver carp and 24.5-53.7% in bighead carp. A stabilization of the genetic structure in age-2 silver carp (Ho = 57.8%; He = 47.1% by the heterogeneity level was observed. Originality. For the first time we analyzed the genetic structure and the level of heterogeneity of the breeding groups of age-1, age-1+, age-2 silver and bighead carps from fish farm Limanske with the use of genetic-biochemical markers. Practical value. The results of the study can be used in selection and breeding works aimed at creating the breeding stocks of silver and

  18. Genetic factors of individual differences in decision making in economic behavior: A Japanese twin study using the Allais problem

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    Chizuru eShikishima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Why does decision making differ among individuals? People sometimes make seemingly inconsistent decisions with lower expected (monetary utility even when objective information of probabilities and rewards are provided. It is noteworthy, however, that a certain proportion of people do not provide anomalous responses, choosing the alternatives with higher expected utility, thus appearing to be more rational. We investigated the genetic and environmental influences on these types of individual differences in decision making using a classical Allais problem task. Participants were 1,199 Japanese adult twins aged 20–47. Univariate genetic analysis revealed that approximately a third of the Allais problem response variance was explained by genetic factors and the rest by environmental factors unique to individuals and measurement error. The environmental factor shared between families did not contribute to the variance. Subsequent multivariate genetic analysis clarified that decision making using the expected utility theory was associated with general intelligence and that the association was largely mediated by the same genetic factor. We approach the mechanism underlying two types of rational decision making from the perspective of genetic correlations with cognitive abilities.

  19. Genetic Factors of Individual Differences in Decision Making in Economic Behavior: A Japanese Twin Study using the Allais Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikishima, Chizuru; Hiraishi, Kai; Yamagata, Shinji; Ando, Juko; Okada, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Why does decision making differ among individuals? People sometimes make seemingly inconsistent decisions with lower expected (monetary) utility even when objective information of probabilities and reward are provided. It is noteworthy, however, that a certain proportion of people do not provide anomalous responses, choosing the alternatives with higher expected utility, thus appearing to be more "rational." We investigated the genetic and environmental influences on these types of individual differences in decision making using a classical Allais problem task. Participants were 1,199 Japanese adult twins aged 20-47. Univariate genetic analysis revealed that approximately a third of the Allais problem response variance was explained by genetic factors and the rest by environmental factors unique to individuals and measurement error. The environmental factor shared between families did not contribute to the variance. Subsequent multivariate genetic analysis clarified that decision making using the expected utility theory was associated with general intelligence and that the association was largely mediated by the same genetic factor. We approach the mechanism underlying two types of "rational" decision making from the perspective of genetic correlations with cognitive abilities.

  20. Different patterns of genetic structure of relict and isolated populations of endangered peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, W; Prus-Glowacki, W

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in environmental conditions in populations of peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann) caused rapid decline or even extinction of the species in several stands in Central Europe. Conservation strategies for P. uliginosa require information about the evolutionary history and genetic structure of its populations. Using isozymes we assessed the genetic structure of P. uliginosa from four isolated stands in Poland and compared the results to genetic structures of other closely related pine species including eight populations of Pinus mugo, ten of Pinus sylvestris and one of Pinus uncinata. The level of genetic variability of P. uliginosa measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and average heterozygosity was similar to others related to P. uliginosa taxa from the reference group but it differs among populations. High genetic similarity was found between two populations of P. uliginosa from Low Silesian Pinewood. The populations were genetically distinct as compared to other populations including locus classicus of the species from the peat bog at Batorów Reserve. Very low genetic distance (DN = 0.002) and small genetic differentiation (GST = 0.003) were found between P. uliginosa and P. mugo in the sympatric populations of the species from Zieleniec peat bog suggesting the ongoing natural hybridisation and genetic contamination of peat-bog pine from this area. Some evidence for skew in allele frequency distribution potentially due to recent bottleneck was found in population from Low Silesian Pinewood. The analysed open pollinated progeny derived from two P. uliginosa stands from Low Silesian Pinewood showed the excess of homozygotes as compared to the maternal trees indicating high level of inbreeding (F = 0.105, F = 0.081). The results are discussed in the context of evolution of P. uliginosa populations, taxonomic relationships between the analysed species and conservation strategies for active protection of peat-bog pine.

  1. Genetic variability and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations from different malaria ecological regions of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingasia, Luicer A; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Andagalu, Ben; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    Transmission intensity, movement of human and vector hosts, biogeographical features, and malaria control measures are some of the important factors that determine Plasmodium falciparum parasite genetic variability and population structure. Kenya has different malaria ecologies which might require different disease intervention methods. Refined parasite population genetic studies are critical for informing malaria control and elimination strategies. This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure of P. falciparum parasites from the different malaria ecological zones in Kenya. Twelve multi-locus microsatellite (MS) loci previously described were genotyped in 225 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2012 and 2013 from five sites; three in lowland endemic regions (Kisumu, Kombewa, and Malindi) and two in highland, epidemic regions (Kisii and Kericho). Parasites from the lowland endemic and highland epidemic regions of western Kenya had high genetic diversity compared to coastal lowland endemic region of Kenya [Malindi]. The Kenyan parasites had a mean genetic differentiation index (FST) of 0.072 (p=0.011). The multi-locus genetic analysis of the 12 MS revealed all the parasites had unique haplotypes. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed in all the five parasite populations. Kisumu had the most significant index of association values (0.16; pmalaria has been on the decline. The presence of significant LD suggests that there is occurrence of inbreeding in the parasite population. Parasite populations from Kisii showed the strongest evidence for epidemic population structure whereas the rest of the regions showed panmixia. Defining the genetic diversity of the parasites in different ecological regions of Kenya after introduction of the artemether-lumefantrine is important in refining the spread of drug resistant strains and malaria transmission for more effective control and eventual elimination of malaria in Kenya. Copyright

  2. Variation in Salmonella enteritidis RAPD-PCR patterns may not be due to genetic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Demetrius L; Berghaus, Roy D; Lee, Margie D; Maurer, John J

    2011-12-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a leading cause of gastroenteritis associated with consumption of contaminated poultry meat and eggs. Because pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) has limited utility in distinguishing between clonal Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR has been recommended as an alternative molecular fingerprinting tool. This study's objective was to determine whether increasing PCR stringency would improve the repeatability of RAPD DNA patterns based on assessment of target sites within the genome. An in silico PCR was performed to predict amplification products from an Salmonella Enteritidis genome sequence for three different RAPD primers (1247, 1283, and OPA4) and to determine whether any primer would be more likely to amplify variable regions within the genome. A comparison of within- and between-isolate similarities in RAPD patterns was performed using primer 1247, which was predicted by in silico analysis to yield a variable size range of amplicons. In order to reduce artifactual variability associated with the method, three different methods for template preparation were evaluated. All were found to provide comparable results with respect to the similarities observed with repeated analyses of the same Salmonella Enteritidis isolates (n = 18, P = 0.91). Although the median within-isolate similarity (76.0%) was significantly greater than the median between-isolate similarity (66.7%; P = 0.001), duplicate RAPD-PCR runs of the same Salmonella Enteritidis isolates produced DNA patterns that ranged in similarity between 61.5 and 100%. These results indicate that the repeatability of RAPD-PCR is insufficient to distinguish genetic differences among related and unrelated Salmonella Enteritidis isolates.

  3. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumei Chang; Liqun Liang; Haitao Ma; Jianguo He; Xiaowen Sun

    2008-01-01

    Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) has higher commercial value as food source than any other species of Eriocheir in China.To evaluate the germplasm resources and characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of the crabs in different water systems,two stocks and two farming populations were assessed with 25 polymorphic microsallite loci available in public GenBank.Basic statistics showed that the average observed heterozygosity (Ho) amongst populations ranged from 0.5789 to 0.6824.However,a remarkable presence of inbreeding and heterozygote deficiencies were observed.To analyze population structure,pairwise FST coefficients explained only ~10.3% variability from the subdivision of mitten crab populations,the remaining variability stems from the subdivision within subpopulations.Although the four populations had slight differentiation,different allelic frequencies resulted in distinct population structures.Two stocks and one farming population were clustered together to the phylogenetic branch of Yangtze crab,with an approximate membership of 95%.Whereas,another fanning population was clustered singly to the phylogenetic branch of the Liaohe crab,with a membership of 97.1%.The tests for individual admixture showed that Yangtze crab had probably been contaminated with individuals from other water systems.Genetic relationships between populations also supported the conclusion that Yangtze crab and Liaohe crab had different gene pools in spite of the origins of the same species.

  4. Nitrate source indicators in ground water of the Scimitar Subdivision, Peters Creek area, Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bronwen; Strelakos, Pat M.; Jokela, Brett

    2000-01-01

    A combination of aqueous chemistry, isotopic measurement, and in situ tracers were used to study the possible nitrate sources, the factors contributing to the spatial distribution of nitrate, and possible septic system influence in the ground water in the Scimitar Subdivision, Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska. Two water types were distinguished on the basis of the major ion chemistry: (1) a calcium sodium carbonate water, which was associated with isotopically heavier boron and with chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) that were in the range expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group A water) and (2) a calcium magnesium carbonate water, which was associated with elevated nitrate, chloride, and magnesium concentrations, generally isotopically lighter boron, and CFC's concentrations that were generally in excess of that expected from equilibration with the atmosphere (group B water). Water from wells in group B had nitrate concentrations that were greater than 3 milligrams per liter, whereas those in group A had nitrate concentrations of 0.2 milligram per liter or less. Nitrate does not appear to be undergoing extensive transformation in the ground-water system and behaves as a conservative ion. The major ion chemistry trends and the presence of CFC's in excess of an atmospheric source for group B wells are consistent with waste-water influences. The spatial distribution of the nitrate among wells is likely due to the magnitude of this influence on any given well. Using an expanded data set composed of 16 wells sampled only for nitrate concentration, a significant difference in the static water level relative to bedrock was found. Well water samples with less than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels within the bedrock, whereas those samples with greater than 1 milligram per liter nitrate had static water levels near or above the top of the bedrock. This observation would be consistent with a conceptual model of a low-nitrate fractured bedrock

  5. Does subdivision of the "atypical" urine cytology increase predictive accuracy for urothelial carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, David G; Hossain, Deloar

    2014-12-01

    Urine cytology is routinely used for early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with hematuria or a history of urothelial carcinoma, but its clinical utility is greatly diminished by a high frequency of "atypical" specimens, reportedly around 20% in the literature. We compared our results with double-stained urine cytology specimens (papanicolaou and acid hematoxylin stains) with published results with only a single or double papanicolaou stain. The acid hematoxylin stain enhanced nuclear chromatin staining, eliminated significant background debris, and improved visibility of diagnostic cells in the presence of obscuring blood. Medical records of all urine cytologies received between 2005 and 2012 in our laboratories were reviewed. The study group consisted of all cases with bladder biopsy follow-up within one year of cytology. Of 43,131 urine cytologies diagnosed in our laboratories, biopsy follow-up results were available within one year in 10,473 cases, including 852 for symptoms and 1,461 for follow-up of bladder cancer. An additional 6,427 cases had cystoscopy results in which no biopsy was obtained. Cases were classified as negative (81.6%), atypical, favor reactive (2.9%), atypical, favor neoplastic (7.3%), suspicious (5.7%), and malignant (2.5%), with subsequent frequencies for urothelial cancer on biopsy of 13.3%, 31.1%, 37.6%, 53.6%, and 74.3%, respectively. No significant difference was found if atypical was subdivided into two categories: favor reactive and favor neoplastic. Subdivision of the atypical category did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Addition of the acid hematoxylin stain decreased the incidence of atypical urine cytologies from about 20% to 10.2%.

  6. Differential efferent projections of the anterior, posteroventral and posterodorsal subdivisions of the medial amygdala in mice

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    Cecília ePardo-Bellver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The medial amygdaloid nucleus (Me is a key structure in the control of sociosexual behaviour in mice. It receives direct projections from the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, as well as an important hormonal input. To better understand its behavioural role, in this work we investigate the structures receiving information from the Me, by analysing the efferent projections from its anterior (MeA, posterodorsal (MePD and posteroventral (MePV subdivisions, using anterograde neuronal tracing with biotinylated and tetrametylrhodamine-conjugated dextranamines.The Me is strongly interconnected with the rest of the chemosensory amygdala, but shows only moderate projections to the central nucleus and light projections to the associative nuclei of the basolateral amygdaloid complex. In addition, the MeA originates a strong feedback projection to the deep mitral cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb, whereas the MePV projects to its granule cell layer. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (especially the MeA has also moderate projections to different olfactory structures, including the piriform cortex. The densest outputs of the Me target the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST and the hypothalamus. The MeA and MePV project to key structures of the circuit involved in the defensive response against predators (medial posterointermediate BST, anterior hypothalamic area, dorsomedial aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections also innervate reproductive-related nuclei. In contrast, the MePD projects mainly to structures that control reproductive behaviours (medial posteromedial BST, medial preoptic nucleus, and ventrolateral aspect of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, although less dense projections to defensive-related nuclei also exist. These results confirm and extend previous results in other rodents and suggest that the medial amygdala is anatomically and functionally compartmentalized.

  7. Molecular phylogeny restores the supra-generic subdivision of homoscleromorph sponges (Porifera, Homoscleromorpha.

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    Eve Gazave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homoscleromorpha is the fourth major sponge lineage, recently recognized to be distinct from the Demospongiae. It contains <100 described species of exclusively marine sponges that have been traditionally subdivided into 7 genera based on morphological characters. Because some of the morphological features of the homoscleromorphs are shared with eumetazoans and are absent in other sponges, the phylogenetic position of the group has been investigated in several recent studies. However, the phylogenetic relationships within the group remain unexplored by modern methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the first molecular phylogeny of Homoscleromorpha based on nuclear (18S and 28S rDNA and complete mitochondrial DNA sequence data that focuses on inter-generic relationships. Our results revealed two robust clades within this group, one containing the spiculate species (genera Plakina, Plakortis, Plakinastrella and Corticium and the other containing aspiculate species (genera Oscarella and Pseudocorticium, thus rejecting a close relationship between Pseudocorticium and Corticium. Among the spiculate species, we found affinities between the Plakortis and Plakinastrella genera, and between the Plakina and Corticium. The validity of these clades is furthermore supported by specific morphological characters, notably the type of spicules. Furthermore, the monophyly of the Corticium genus is supported while the monophyly of Plakina is not. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As the result of our study we propose to restore the pre-1995 subdivision of Homoscleromorpha into two families: Plakinidae Schulze, 1880 for spiculate species and Oscarellidae Lendenfeld, 1887 for aspiculate species that had been rejected after the description of the genus Pseudocorticium. We also note that the two families of homoscleromorphs exhibit evolutionary stable, but have drastically distinct mitochondrial genome organizations that differ in gene content

  8. Feature selection using genetic algorithm for breast cancer diagnosis: experiment on three different datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalaei, Shokoufeh; Shahraki, Hadi; Rowhanimanesh, Alireza; Eslami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study addresses feature selection for breast cancer diagnosis. The present process uses a wrapper approach using GA-based on feature selection and PS-classifier. The results of experiment show that the proposed model is comparable to the other models on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets. Materials and Methods: To evaluate effectiveness of proposed feature selection method, we employed three different classifiers artificial neural network (ANN) and PS-classifier and genetic algorithm based classifier (GA-classifier) on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets include Wisconsin breast cancer dataset (WBC), Wisconsin diagnosis breast cancer (WDBC), and Wisconsin prognosis breast cancer (WPBC). Results: For WBC dataset, it is observed that feature selection improved the accuracy of all classifiers expect of ANN and the best accuracy with feature selection achieved by PS-classifier. For WDBC and WPBC, results show feature selection improved accuracy of all three classifiers and the best accuracy with feature selection achieved by ANN. Also specificity and sensitivity improved after feature selection. Conclusion: The results show that feature selection can improve accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of classifiers. Result of this study is comparable with the other studies on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets. PMID:27403253

  9. Genetic Correlates of Individual Differences in Sleep Behavior of Free-Living Great Tits (Parus major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F. Stuber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Within populations, free-living birds display considerable variation in observable sleep behaviors, reflecting dynamic interactions between individuals and their environment. Genes are expected to contribute to repeatable between-individual differences in sleep behaviors, which may be associated with individual fitness. We identified and genotyped polymorphisms in nine candidate genes for sleep, and measured five repeatable sleep behaviors in free-living great tits (Parus major, partly replicating a previous study in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus. Microsatellites in the CLOCK and NPAS2 clock genes exhibited an association with sleep duration relative to night length, and morning latency to exit the nest box, respectively. Furthermore, microsatellites in the NPSR1 and PCSK2 genes associated with relative sleep duration and proportion of time spent awake at night, respectively. Given the detection rate of associations in the same models run with random markers instead of candidate genes, we expected two associations to arise by chance. The detection of four associations between candidate genes and sleep, however, suggests that clock genes, a clock-related gene, or a gene involved in the melanocortin system, could play key roles in maintaining phenotypic variation in sleep behavior in avian populations. Knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying sleep behavior in the wild is important because it will enable ecologists to assess the evolution of sleep in response to selection.

  10. Soil temperature modeling at different depths using neuro-fuzzy, neural network, and genetic programming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Sanikhani, Hadi; Cobaner, Murat

    2016-05-01

    The applicability of artificial neural networks (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and genetic programming (GP) techniques in estimating soil temperatures (ST) at different depths is investigated in this study. Weather data from two stations, Mersin and Adana, Turkey, were used as inputs to the applied models in order to model monthly STs. The first part of the study focused on comparison of ANN, ANFIS, and GP models in modeling ST of two stations at the depths of 10, 50, and 100 cm. GP was found to perform better than the ANN and ANFIS-SC in estimating monthly ST. The effect of periodicity (month of the year) on models' accuracy was also investigated. Including periodicity component in models' inputs considerably increased their accuracies. The root mean square error (RMSE) of ANN models was respectively decreased by 34 and 27 % for the depths of 10 and 100 cm adding the periodicity input. In the second part of the study, the accuracies of the ANN, ANFIS, and GP models were compared in estimating ST of Mersin Station using the climatic data of Adana Station. The ANN models generally performed better than the ANFIS-SC and GP in modeling ST of Mersin Station without local climatic inputs.

  11. Genetic Correlates of Individual Differences in Sleep Behavior of Free-Living Great Tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Erica F; Baumgartner, Christine; Dingemanse, Niels J; Kempenaers, Bart; Mueller, Jakob C

    2016-01-06

    Within populations, free-living birds display considerable variation in observable sleep behaviors, reflecting dynamic interactions between individuals and their environment. Genes are expected to contribute to repeatable between-individual differences in sleep behaviors, which may be associated with individual fitness. We identified and genotyped polymorphisms in nine candidate genes for sleep, and measured five repeatable sleep behaviors in free-living great tits (Parus major), partly replicating a previous study in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Microsatellites in the CLOCK and NPAS2 clock genes exhibited an association with sleep duration relative to night length, and morning latency to exit the nest box, respectively. Furthermore, microsatellites in the NPSR1 and PCSK2 genes associated with relative sleep duration and proportion of time spent awake at night, respectively. Given the detection rate of associations in the same models run with random markers instead of candidate genes, we expected two associations to arise by chance. The detection of four associations between candidate genes and sleep, however, suggests that clock genes, a clock-related gene, or a gene involved in the melanocortin system, could play key roles in maintaining phenotypic variation in sleep behavior in avian populations. Knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying sleep behavior in the wild is important because it will enable ecologists to assess the evolution of sleep in response to selection.

  12. Soil temperature modeling at different depths using neuro-fuzzy, neural network, and genetic programming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Sanikhani, Hadi; Cobaner, Murat

    2017-08-01

    The applicability of artificial neural networks (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and genetic programming (GP) techniques in estimating soil temperatures (ST) at different depths is investigated in this study. Weather data from two stations, Mersin and Adana, Turkey, were used as inputs to the applied models in order to model monthly STs. The first part of the study focused on comparison of ANN, ANFIS, and GP models in modeling ST of two stations at the depths of 10, 50, and 100 cm. GP was found to perform better than the ANN and ANFIS-SC in estimating monthly ST. The effect of periodicity (month of the year) on models' accuracy was also investigated. Including periodicity component in models' inputs considerably increased their accuracies. The root mean square error (RMSE) of ANN models was respectively decreased by 34 and 27 % for the depths of 10 and 100 cm adding the periodicity input. In the second part of the study, the accuracies of the ANN, ANFIS, and GP models were compared in estimating ST of Mersin Station using the climatic data of Adana Station. The ANN models generally performed better than the ANFIS-SC and GP in modeling ST of Mersin Station without local climatic inputs.

  13. Feature selection using genetic algorithm for breast cancer diagnosis: experiment on three different datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoufeh Aalaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study addresses feature selection for breast cancer diagnosis. The present process uses a wrapper approach using GA-based on feature selection and PS-classifier. The results of experiment show that the proposed model is comparable to the other models on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets. Materials and Methods: To evaluate effectiveness of proposed feature selection method, we employed three different classifiers artificial neural network (ANN and PS-classifier and genetic algorithm based classifier (GA-classifier on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets include Wisconsin breast cancer dataset (WBC, Wisconsin diagnosis breast cancer (WDBC, and Wisconsin prognosis breast cancer (WPBC. Results: For WBC dataset, it is observed that feature selection improved the accuracy of all classifiers expect of ANN and the best accuracy with feature selection achieved by PS-classifier. For WDBC and WPBC, results show feature selection improved accuracy of all three classifiers and the best accuracy with feature selection achieved by ANN. Also specificity and sensitivity improved after feature selection. Conclusion: The results show that feature selection can improve accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of classifiers. Result of this study is comparable with the other studies on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets.

  14. Genetic differences between Tunisian camel and sheep strains of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus revealed by SSCP

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    Oudni-M’rad M.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovine and dromedary Echinococcus granulosus isolates from Tunisia were identified as G1 and G6 strains based on polymorphism of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxydase CO1. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP was used in order to examine the genetic variation within and between Tunisian G1 and G6 strains and to estimate the extent of selfing. The dromedary isolates are genetically distinct from sheep isolates (high value of genetic variation between populations: Fst = 0.46. No significant deficiency in heterozygotes was found in sheep isolates, whereas heterozygote deficiency (suggesting selfing was found in a limited number of camel isolates.

  15. Functional subdivisions in the left angular gyrus where the semantic system meets and diverges from the default network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Fagan, Elizabeth; Price, Cathy J

    2010-12-15

    The left angular gyrus (AG) is reliably activated across a wide range of semantic tasks, and is also a consistently reported component of the so-called default network that it is deactivated during all goal-directed tasks. We show here that there is only partial overlap between the semantic system and the default network in left AG and the overlap defines a reliable functional landmark that can be used to segregate functional subdivisions within AG. In 94 healthy human subjects, we collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during fixation and eight goal directed tasks that involved semantic matching, perceptual matching or speech production in response to familiar or unfamiliar stimuli presented in either verbal (letters) or nonverbal (pictures) formats. Our results segregated three different left AG regions that were all activated by semantic relative to perceptual matching: (1) a midregion (mAG) that overlapped with the default network because it was deactivated during all tasks relative to fixation; (2) a dorsomesial region (dAG) that was more activated by all tasks relative to fixation; and (3) a ventrolateral region (vAG) that was only activated above fixation during semantic matching. By examining the effects of task and stimuli in each AG subdivision, we propose that mAG is involved in semantic associations regardless of the presence or absence of a stimulus; dAG is involved in searching for semantics in all visual stimuli, and vAG is involved in the conceptual identification of visual inputs. Our findings provide a framework for reporting and interpreting AG activations with greater definition.

  16. Regional brain shrinkage over two years: individual differences and effects of pro-inflammatory genetic polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, N; Ghisletta, P; Dahle, C L; Bender, A R; Yang, Y; Yuan, P; Daugherty, A M; Raz, N

    2014-12-01

    We examined regional changes in brain volume in healthy adults (N=167, age 19-79years at baseline; N=90 at follow-up) over approximately two years. With latent change score models, we evaluated mean change and individual differences in rates of change in 10 anatomically-defined and manually-traced regions of interest (ROIs): lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), orbital frontal cortex (OF), prefrontal white matter (PFw), hippocampus (Hc), parahippocampal gyrus (PhG), caudate nucleus (Cd), putamen (Pt), insula (In), cerebellar hemispheres (CbH), and primary visual cortex (VC). Significant mean shrinkage was observed in the Hc, CbH, In, OF, and PhG, and individual differences in change were noted in all regions, except the OF. Pro-inflammatory genetic variants modified shrinkage in PhG and CbH. Carriers of two T alleles of interleukin-1β (IL-1β C-511T, rs16944) and a T allele of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T, rs1801133) polymorphisms showed increased PhG shrinkage. No effects of a pro-inflammatory polymorphism for C-reactive protein (CRP-286C>A>T, rs3091244) or apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele were noted. These results replicate the pattern of brain shrinkage observed in previous studies, with a notable exception of the LPFC, thus casting doubt on the unique importance of prefrontal cortex in aging. Larger baseline volumes of CbH and In were associated with increased shrinkage, in conflict with the brain reserve hypothesis. Contrary to previous reports, we observed no significant linear effects of age and hypertension on regional brain shrinkage. Our findings warrant further investigation of the effects of neuroinflammation on structural brain change throughout the lifespan.

  17. Different selective effects on rhizosphere bacteria exerted by genetically modified versus conventional potato lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cavalcante Franco Dias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this study, we assessed the actively metabolizing bacteria in the rhizosphere of potato using two potato cultivars, i.e. the genetically-modified (GM cultivar Modena (having tubers with altered starch content and the near-isogenic non-GM cultivar Karnico. To achieve our aims, we pulse-labelled plants at EC90 stage with (13C-CO2 and analysed their rhizosphere microbial communities 24 h, 5 and 12 days following the pulse. In the analyses, phospholipid fatty acid/stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP as well as RNA-SIP followed by reverse transcription and PCR-DGGE and clone library analysis, were used to determine the bacterial groups that actively respond to the root-released (13C labelled carbonaceous compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PLFA-SIP data revealed major roles of bacteria in the uptake of root-released (13C carbon, which grossly increased with time. Gram-negative bacteria, including members of the genera Pseudomonas and Burkholderia, were strong accumulators of the (13C-labeled compounds at the two cultivars, whereas Gram-positive bacteria were lesser responders. PCR-DGGE analysis of cDNA produced from the two cultivar types showed that these had selected different bacterial, alpha- and betaproteobacterial communities at all time points. Moreover, an effect of time was observed, indicating dynamism in the structure of the active bacterial communities. PCR-DGGE as well as clone library analyses revealed that the main bacterial responders at cultivar Karnico were taxonomically affiliated with the genus Pseudomonas, next to Gluconacetobacter and Paracoccus. Cultivar Modena mainly attracted Burkholderia, next to Moraxella-like (Moraxellaceae family and Sphingomonas types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on the use of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia as proxies for differentially-selected bacterial genera, we conclude that the selective forces exerted by potato cultivar Modena on the active bacterial populations differed

  18. Genetic diversity and virulence properties of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Giovanni; Imperi, Monica; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Pataracchia, Marco; Creti, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    A recent increase in virulence of pathogenic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has been widely proposed. Such an increase may be partly explained by the acquisition of new virulence traits by horizontal gene transfer from related streptococci such as Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS). A collection of 54 SDSE strains isolated in Italy in the years 2000-2010 from different sources (paediatric throat carriage, invasive and non-invasive diseases) was characterized by emm typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. The virulence repertoire was evaluated by PCR for the presence of GAS superantigen (spe) genes, the streptolysin S (sagA) gene, the group G fibronectin-binding protein (gfbA) gene and GAS-GBS alpha-like protein family (alp) genes; moreover, the ability to invade human epithelial cells was investigated. Resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin was assessed. The combined use of emm typing and PFGE proved to be a reliable strategy for the epidemiological analysis of SDSE isolates. The most frequent emm types were the same as those more frequently reported in other studies, thus indicating the diffusion of a limited number of a few successful emm types fit to disseminate in humans. The speG gene was detected in SDSE strains of different genetic backgrounds. Erythromycin resistance determined by the erm(T) gene, and the unusual, foggy MLSB phenotype, observed in one and seven strains, respectively, have never previously, to our knowledge, been reported in SDSE. Moreover, a new member of the alp family was identified. The identification of new antibiotic and virulence determinants, despite the small size of the sample analysed, shows the importance of constant attention to monitoring the extent of lateral gene transfer in this emerging pathogen.

  19. Brain imaging genetics in ADHD and beyond - mapping pathways from gene to disorder at different levels of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marieke; Onnink, Marten; van Donkelaar, Marjolein; Wolfers, Thomas; Harich, Benjamin; Shi, Yan; Dammers, Janneke; Arias-Va Squez, Alejandro; Hoogman, Martine; Franke, Barbara

    2017-01-31

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and often persistent neurodevelopmental disorder. Beyond gene-finding, neurobiological parameters, such as brain structure, connectivity, and function, have been used to link genetic variation to ADHD symptomatology. We performed a systematic review of brain imaging genetics studies involving 62 ADHD candidate genes in childhood and adult ADHD cohorts. Fifty-one eligible research articles described studies of 13 ADHD candidate genes. Almost exclusively, single genetic variants were studied, mostly focussing on dopamine-related genes. While promising results have been reported, imaging genetics studies are thus far hampered by methodological differences in study design and analysis methodology, as well as limited sample sizes. Beyond reviewing imaging genetics studies, we also discuss the need for complementary approaches at multiple levels of biological complexity and emphasize the importance of combining and integrating findings across levels for a better understanding of biological pathways from gene to disease. These may include multi-modal imaging genetics studies, bioinformatic analyses, and functional analyses of cell and animal models.

  20. Guide for subdivision of spent fuel pool. Project UNESA MAAP5-SFP; Guia para subdivision de la piscina de combustible gastado. Proyecto UNESA MAAP5-SFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Barrios, M.; Garcia Gonzalez, M.; Perez Martin, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of the UNESA MAAP5-SFP project is to analyze the capabilities of MAAP5 code and, particularly, the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) module in order to tackle its modeling and facilitate the development of specific SFP models of Spanish NPPs. Within the project, Empresarios Agrupados (EEAA) is the responsible for the development of the Guide for the subdivision of the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP). This Guide includes a theoretical description of the model that is used by the code and a sequence of practical cases with the aim to evaluate the influence of specific parameters.

  1. Estimation of genetic parameters for body weight at different ages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... important traits in sheep production, specially in Iran that lamb sale is the ..... ment, food availability, diseases, climatic condition (rate of rainfall .... parameters and genetic trends for live weight and fleece traits in. Menz sheep.

  2. A statistical assessment of differences and equivalences between genetically modified and reference plant varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Perry, J.N.; Amzal, B.; Paoletti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms is currently often performed by comparative evaluation. However, natural variation of plant characteristics between commercial varieties is usually not considered explicitly in the statistical computations underlying the assessment. Re

  3. Genetic structure of Leptopilina boulardi populations from different climatic zones of Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyahooei, M.A.; van Alphen, J.J.M.; Kraaijeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetic structure of populations can be influenced by geographic isolation (including physical distance) and ecology. We examined these effects in Leptopilina boulardi, a parasitoid of Drosophila of African origin and widely distributed over temperate and (sub) tropical climates.

  4. Gender difference in genetic association between IL1A variant and early lumbar disc degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskola, Pasi J; Kjær, Per; Sorensen, Joan S;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the associations between specific genetic markers and early disc degeneration (DD) or early disc degeneration progression (DDP) defined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)....

  5. Genetic and epigenetic differences associated with environmental gradients in replicate populations of two salt marsh perennials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foust, C.M.; Preite, V.; Schrey, Aaron W.; Alvarez, M.; Robertson, M.H.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Richards, C.L.

    2016-01-01

    While traits and trait plasticity are partly genetically based, investigating epigenetic mechanisms may provide more nuanced understanding of the mechanisms underlying response to environment. Using AFLP and methylation-sensitive AFLP, we tested the hypothesis that differentiation to habitats along

  6. Making a difference: education at the 10th International Conference on Zebrafish Development and Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Lara D; Liang, Jennifer O; Pickart, Michael A; Pierret, Chris; Tomasciewicz, Henry G

    2012-12-01

    Scientists, educators, and students met at the 10th International Conference on Zebrafish Development and Genetics during the 2-day Education Workshop, chaired by Dr. Jennifer Liang and supported in part by the Genetics Society of America. The goal of the workshop was to share expertise, to discuss the challenges faced when using zebrafish in the classroom, and to articulate goals for expanding the impact of zebrafish in education.

  7. Gender difference in genetic association between IL1A variant and early lumbar disc degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskola, Pasi J; Kjær, Per; Sorensen, Joan S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the associations between specific genetic markers and early disc degeneration (DD) or early disc degeneration progression (DDP) defined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).......The purpose of the present study was to analyze the associations between specific genetic markers and early disc degeneration (DD) or early disc degeneration progression (DDP) defined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)....

  8. Genetic and environmental contributions to population group differences on the Raven's Progressive Matrices estimated from twins reared together and apart

    OpenAIRE

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Bons, Trudy Ann; Vernon, Philip A; Čvorović, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    We carried out two studies to test the hypothesis that genetic and environmental influences explain population group differences in general mental ability just as they do individual differences within a group. We estimated the heritability and environmentality of scores on the diagrammatic puzzles of the Raven's Coloured and/or Standard Progressive Matrices (CPM/SPM) from two independent twin samples and correlated these estimates with group differences on the same items. In Study 1, 199 pair...

  9. Genetic variability of glutathione S-transferase enzymes in human populations: functional inter-ethnic differences in detoxification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimanti, Renato; Carboni, Cinzia; Baesso, Ilenia; Piacentini, Sara; Iorio, Andrea; De Stefano, Gian Franco; Fuciarelli, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-Transferase enzymes (GSTs) constitute the principal Phase II superfamily which plays a key role in cellular detoxification and in other biological processes. Studies of GSTs have revealed that genetic polymorphisms are present in these enzymes and that some of these are Loss-of-Function (LoF) variants, which affect enzymatic functions and are related to different aspects of human health. The aim of this study was to analyze functional genetic differences in GST enzymes among human populations. Attention was focused on LoF polymorphisms of GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTO1, GSTO2, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes. These LoF variants were analyzed in 668 individuals belonging to six human groups with different ethnic backgrounds: Amhara and Oromo from Ethiopia; Colorado and Cayapa Amerindians and African Ecuadorians from Ecuador; and one sample from central Italy. The HapMap database was used to compare our data with reference populations and to analyze the haplotype and Linkage Disequilibrium diversity in different ethnic groups. Our results highlighted that ethnicity strongly affects the genetic variability of GST enzymes. In particular, GST haplotypes/variants with functional impact showed significant differences in human populations, according to their ethnic background. These data underline that human populations have different structures in detoxification genes, suggesting that these ethnic differences influence disease risk or response to drugs and therefore have implications for genetic association studies involving GST enzymes. In conclusion, our investigation provides data about the distribution of important LoF variants in GST genes in human populations. This information may be useful for designing and interpreting genetic association studies.

  10. The Impact on Genetic Testing of Mutational Patterns of CFTR Gene in Different Clinical Macrocategories of Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, Marco; Bruno, Sabina M; Pierandrei, Silvia; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Testino, Giancarlo; Truglio, Gessica; Strom, Roberto; Quattrucci, Serena

    2016-07-01

    More than 2000 sequence variations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene are known. The marked genetic heterogeneity, poor functional characterization of the vast majority of sequence variations, and an uncertain genotype-phenotype relationship complicate the definition of mutational search strategies. We studied the effect of the marked genetic heterogeneity detected in a case series comprising 610 patients of cystic fibrosis (CF), grouped in different clinical macrocategories, on the operative characteristics of the genetic test designed to fully characterize CF patients. The detection rate in each clinical macrocategory and at each mutational step was found to be influenced by genetic heterogeneity. The definition of a single mutational panel that is suitable for all clinical macrocategories proved impossible. Only for classic CF with pancreas insufficiency did a reduced number of mutations yield a detection rate of diagnostic value. All other clinical macrocategories required an extensive genetic search. The search for specific mutational classes appears to be useful only in specific CF clinical forms. A flowchart defining a mutational search that may be adopted for different CF clinical forms, optimized in respect to those already available, is proposed. The findings also have consequences for carrier screening strategies.

  11. Two Genetically Similar H9N2 Influenza A Viruses Show Different Pathogenicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingtao Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available H9N2 Avian influenza virus has repeatedly infected humans and other mammals, which highlights the need to determine the pathogenicity and the corresponding mechanism of this virus for mammals. In this study, we found two H9N2 viruses with similar genetic background but with different pathogenicity in mice. The A/duck/Nanjing/06/2003 (NJ06 virus was highly pathogenic for mice, with a 50% mouse lethal dose of 102.83 50% egg infectious dose, whereas the A/duck/Nanjing/01/1999 (NJ01 virus was low pathogenic for mice, with a 50% mouse lethal dose of >106.81 50% egg infectious dose. Further studies showed that the NJ06 virus grew faster and reached significantly higher titers than NJ01 in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the NJ06 virus induced more severe lung lesions, and higher levels of inflammatory cellular infiltration and cytokine response in lungs than NJ01 did. However, only twelve different amino acid residues (HA-K157E, NA-A9T, NA-R435K, PB2-T149P, PB2-K627E, PB1-R187K, PA-L548M, PA-M550L, NP-G127E, NP-P277H, NP-D340N, NS1-D171N were found between the two viruses, and all these residues except for NA-R435K were located in the known functional regions involved in interaction of viral proteins or between the virus and host factors. Summary, our results suggest that multiple amino acid differences may be responsible for the higher pathogenicity of the NJ06 virus for mice, resulting in lethal infection, enhanced viral replication, severe lung lesions, and excessive inflammatory cellular infiltration and cytokine response in lungs. These observations will be helpful for better understanding the pathogenic potential and the corresponding molecular basis of H9N2 viruses that might pose threats to human health in the future.

  12. Histopathological and genetic differences between polypoid and non-polypoid submucosal colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ichiro Hirata; Fang-Yu Wang; Mitsuyuki Murano; Takuya Inoue; Ken Toshina; Takashi Nishikawa; Kentaro Maemura

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the histopathological and geneticdifferences between polypoid growth (PG) and nonpolypoid growth (NPG) submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma (CRC).METHODS: A total of 96 cases of submucosal CRC were divided into two groups according to their growth type;60 cases of PG and 36 cases of NPG. The size, histological degree of dysplasia, depth of submucosal invasion and lymph node metastasis were compared between the two groups. Furthermore, expression of p53 was detected by immunohistochemical staining, and K-ras gene mutation was examined by polymerase chain reaction based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP).RESULTS: The average size of the lesions in the NPG group was significantly smaller than those in the PG group (7.5 mm vs 13.8 mm, P < 0.001). The histological degree of dysplasia tended to be more severe in NPG group, while the incidence of submucosal massive invasion and the lymph node metastasis were both significantly higher in the NPG type than in the PG group (64.3% vs 43.3%, P = 0.004; 43% vs 7%, P =0.008, respectively). In addition, K-ras gene mutations were detected in 67% of lesions in the PG group, but none in the NPG group, while no difference in p53immunohistochemical expression was found between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Compared with PG submucosal CRC,NPG type demonstrates more frequent submucosal massive invasion, more lymph node metastasis and a higher degree dysplasia. Genetically, NPG type shows much less frequent K-ras mutation.

  13. Genetic diversity of eukaryotic plankton assemblages in Eastern Tibetan Lakes differing by their salinity and altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong L; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Wang, Jianjun; Boenigk, Jens

    2009-10-01

    Eukaryotic plankton assemblages in 11 high-mountain lakes located at altitudes of 2,817 to 5,134 m and over a total area of ca. one million square kilometers on the Eastern Tibet Plateau, spanning a salinity gradient from 0.2 (freshwater) to 187.1 g l(-1) (hypersaline), were investigated by cultivation independent methods. Two 18S rRNA gene-based fingerprint approaches, i.e., the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with subsequent band sequencing were applied. Samples of the same lake type (e.g., freshwater) generally shared more of the same bands or T-RFs than samples of different types (e.g., freshwater versus saline). However, a certain number of bands or T-RFs among the samples within each lake were distinct, indicating the potential presence of significant genetic diversity within each lake. PCA indicated that the most significant environmental gradient among the investigated lakes was salinity. The observed molecular profiles could be further explained (17-24%) by ion percentage of chloride, carbonate and bicarbonate, and sulfate, which were also covaried with change of altitude and latitude. Sequence analysis of selected major DGGE bands revealed many sequences (largely protist) that are not related to any known cultures but to uncultured eukaryotic picoplankton and unidentified eukaryotes. One fourth of the retrieved sequences showed eukaryotic plankton, which were found worldwide and detected in low land lakes, were also detected in habitats located above 4,400 m, suggesting a cosmopolitan distribution of these phylotypes. Collectively, our study suggests that there was a high beta-diversity of eukaryotic plankton assemblages in the investigated Tibetan lakes shaped by multiple geographic and environmental factors.

  14. Genetic diversity of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Gekko gecko Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in Southeast Asia determined with multilocus enzyme electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watee Kongbuntad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Red-spotted tokay geckos, Gekko gecko, are distributed mainly in Southeast Asia. They are a traditional Chinese medicine, with the massive hunting for exports dramatically decreasing their numbers. Information on the genetic diversity of these geckos in Southeast Asia is very limited. This study aims to explore intrapopulation and interpopulation genetic variation and the genetic structure of 16 populations collected from different localities in Thailand, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Cambodia using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Relatively high genetic diversity occurred at both the intrapopulation and interpopulation levels. Genetic differentiation with FST values ranging between 0.006–0.892 was found. Five distinct genetic groups of the red-spotted tokay populations could be classified. A group of populations from northern Thailand showed the highest genetic differentiation from the other groups. Moreover, there was a substantial genetic subdivision depending on the genetic groups with FCT=0.664 and FSC=0.185. This genetic structure is related to geographical distribution and distance between populations, R2=0.5614, p<0.001. Our findings of pronounced genetic structuring and the concomitant conservation genetic consequences if further population loss occurs mean that management actions should therefore focus on the conservation of all of the main sites where tokay geckos still occur.

  15. Brain SCALE : Brain Structure and Cognition: an Adolescent Longitudinal Twin Study into the Genetic Etiology of Individual Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soelen, Inge L. C.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Peper, Jiska S.; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Koenis, Marinka M. G.; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Swagerman, Suzanne C.; Kahn, Rene S.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    From childhood into adolescence, the child's brain undergoes considerable changes in both structure and function. Twin studies are of great value to explore to what extent genetic and environmental factors explain individual differences in brain development and cognition. In The Netherlands, we init

  16. The Etiology of Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition in Australian School Students: A Behavior-Genetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, William; Anton-Mendez, Ines; Ellis, Elizabeth M.; Levisen, Christina; Byrne, Brian; van Daal, Victor H. P.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    We present one of the first behavior-genetic studies of individual differences in school students' levels of achievement in instructed second language acquisition (ISLA). We assessed these language abilities in Australian twin pairs (maximum N pairs = 251) by means of teacher ratings, class rankings, and self-ratings of proficiency, and used the…

  17. Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Biomass and Wood Chemistry of Populus under Different Nitrogen Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novaes, E.; Osorio, L.; Drost, D. R.; Miles, B. L.; Boaventura-Novaes, C. R. D.; Benedict, C.; Dervinis, C.; Yu, Q.; Sykes, R.; Davis, M.; Martin, T. A.; Peter, G. F.; Kirst, M.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration, biofuels and other wood-based industries. It is also unclear how environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability, impact the genes that regulate growth, biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. We phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above- and below-ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Sixty-three quantitative trait loci were identified for the 20 traits analyzed. The majority of quantitative trait loci are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and quantitative trait loci co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Pleiotropic loci linking higher growth rates to wood with less lignin are excellent targets to engineer tree germplasm improved for pulp, paper and cellulosic ethanol production. The causative genes are being identified with a genetical genomics approach.

  18. Prevalence of genetic differences in phosphorylcholine expression between nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrs Carl F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although non-typeable (NT Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus are closely related human commensals, H. haemolyticus is non-pathogenic while NT H. influenzae is an important cause of respiratory tract infections. Phase-variable phosphorylcholine (ChoP modification of lipooligosaccharide (LOS is a NT H. influenzae virulence factor that, paradoxically, may also promote complement activation by binding C-reactive protein (CRP. CRP is known to bind more to ChoP positioned distally than proximally in LOS, and the position of ChoP within LOS is dictated by specific licD alleles (designated here as licDI, licDIII, and licDIV that are present in a lic1 locus. The lic1 locus contains the licA-licD genes, and ChoP-host interactions may also be influenced by a second lic1 locus that allows for dual ChoP substitutions in the same strain, or by the number of licA gene tetranucleotide repeats (5'-CAAT-3' that reflect phase-variation mutation rates. Results Using dot-blot hybridization, 92% of 88 NT H. influenzae and 42.6% of 109 H. haemolyticus strains possessed a lic1 locus. Eight percent of NT H. influenzae and none of the H. haemolyticus strains possessed dual copies of lic1. The licDIII and licDIV gene alleles were distributed similarly (18-22% among the NT H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus strains while licDI alleles were present in 45.5% of NT H. influenzae but in less than 1% of H. haemolyticus strains (P H. influenzae had an average of 26.8 tetranucleotide repeats in licA compared to14.8 repeats in H. haemolyticus (P H. influenzae strains that possessed a licDIII allele had increased numbers of repeats compared to NT H. influenzae with other licD alleles (P Conclusions These data demonstrate that genetic similarities and differences of ChoP expression exist between NT H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus and strengthen the hypothesis that, at the population level, these differences may, in part, provide an advantage in

  19. Sex differences in clinical and genetic determinants of levodopa peak-dose dyskinesias in Parkinson disease: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappia, Mario; Annesi, Grazia; Nicoletti, Giuseppe; Arabia, Gennarina; Annesi, Ferdinanda; Messina, Demetrio; Pugliese, Pierfrancesco; Spadafora, Patrizia; Tarantino, Patrizia; Carrideo, Sara; Civitelli, Donatella; De Marco, Elvira V; Cirò-Candiano, Innocenza C; Gambardella, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

    2005-04-01

    Several factors, both clinical and genetic, may account for the risk of developing levodopa-induced peak-dose dyskinesias (PDD) in patients with Parkinson disease, but it is unclear how these factors interact for modulating the individual susceptibility for PDD. To examine clinical and genetic risk factors for determining individual susceptibility of PDD in patients with Parkinson disease. Cohort study. Referral center for Parkinson disease in Calabria, southern Italy. Patients Two hundred fifty patients with Parkinson disease were screened for the presence or absence of PDD following a short-term levodopa administration, and 215 subjects were available for further evaluations, including genotypic analysis of the CA dinucleotide short tandem repeat (CAn-STR) polymorphism located in the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2). One hundred five patients (48.8%) exhibited PDD following short-term levodopa administration, and 110 patients (51.2%) did not. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent predictors for the occurrence of PDD were female sex, earlier age at onset of Parkinson disease, longer duration of treatment, and higher dose of levodopa. Genetic factors related to the DRD2 CAn-STR polymorphism were not independent predictors for PDD in the total population, but they had a strong protective effect on the appearance of PDD when the multivariate analysis was performed in men (odds ratio, 0.34 [95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.84]). In women, a genetic protective effect on PDD was not evident. Risk factors for PDD, both clinical and genetic, act in different ways for men and women. Genetic factors related to the DRD2 polymorphic status have a protective effect on PDD development in men but not in women. A female sex-related effect for the risk of PDD may be so strong that it overcomes any protective effect due to genetic factors.

  20. Contrasting patterns of genetic structuring in natural populations of Arabidopsis lyrata Subsp. petraea across different regions in northern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran

    Full Text Available Level and partitioning of genetic diversity is expected to vary between contrasting habitats, reflecting differences in strength of ecological and evolutionary processes. Therefore, it is necessary to consider processes acting on different time scales when trying to explain diversity patterns in different parts of species' distributions. To explore how historical and contemporary factors jointly may influence patterns of genetic diversity and population differentiation, we compared genetic composition in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea from the northernmost parts of its distribution range on Iceland to that previously documented in Scandinavia. Leaf tissue and soil were sampled from ten Icelandic populations of A. lyrata. Seedlings were grown from soil samples, and tissue from above-ground and seed bank individuals were genotyped with 21 microsatellite markers. Seed bank density in Icelandic populations was low but not significantly different from that observed in Norwegian populations. While within-population genetic diversity was relatively high on Iceland (H(E = 0.35, among-population differentiation was low (F(ST = 0.10 compared to Norwegian and Swedish populations. Population differentiation was positively associated with geographical distance in both Iceland and Scandinavia, but the strength of this relationship varied between regions. Although topography and a larger distribution range may explain the higher differentiation between mountainous Norwegian relative to lowland populations in Sweden, these factors cannot explain the lower differentiation in Icelandic compared to Swedish populations. We propose that low genetic differentiation among Icelandic populations is not caused by differences in connectivity, but is rather due to large historical effective population sizes. Thus, rather than contemporary processes, historical factors such as survival of Icelandic lineages in northern refugia during the last glacial

  1. Contrasting patterns of genetic structuring in natural populations of Arabidopsis lyrata Subsp. petraea across different regions in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahati-Anbaran, Mohsen; Lundemo, Sverre; Ansell, Stephen W; Stenøien, Hans K

    2014-01-01

    Level and partitioning of genetic diversity is expected to vary between contrasting habitats, reflecting differences in strength of ecological and evolutionary processes. Therefore, it is necessary to consider processes acting on different time scales when trying to explain diversity patterns in different parts of species' distributions. To explore how historical and contemporary factors jointly may influence patterns of genetic diversity and population differentiation, we compared genetic composition in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea from the northernmost parts of its distribution range on Iceland to that previously documented in Scandinavia. Leaf tissue and soil were sampled from ten Icelandic populations of A. lyrata. Seedlings were grown from soil samples, and tissue from above-ground and seed bank individuals were genotyped with 21 microsatellite markers. Seed bank density in Icelandic populations was low but not significantly different from that observed in Norwegian populations. While within-population genetic diversity was relatively high on Iceland (H(E) = 0.35), among-population differentiation was low (F(ST) = 0.10) compared to Norwegian and Swedish populations. Population differentiation was positively associated with geographical distance in both Iceland and Scandinavia, but the strength of this relationship varied between regions. Although topography and a larger distribution range may explain the higher differentiation between mountainous Norwegian relative to lowland populations in Sweden, these factors cannot explain the lower differentiation in Icelandic compared to Swedish populations. We propose that low genetic differentiation among Icelandic populations is not caused by differences in connectivity, but is rather due to large historical effective population sizes. Thus, rather than contemporary processes, historical factors such as survival of Icelandic lineages in northern refugia during the last glacial period may have

  2. Subdivision, Sampling, and Initialization Strategies for Simplical Branch and Bound in Global Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Zilinskas, A,

    2002-01-01

    two schemes for sampling points of the function: midpoint sampling and vertex sampling. The convergence of the algorithm is proved, and numerical results are presented for the two dimensional case, for which also a special initial covering is presented. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights......We consider the problem of optimizing a Lipshitzian function. The branch and bound technique is a well-known solution method, and the key components for this are the subdivision scheme, the bound calculation scheme, and the initialization. For Lipschitzian optimization, the bound calculations...... are based on the sampling of function values. We propose a branch and bound algorithm based on regular simplexes. Initially, the domain in question is covered with regular simplexes, and our subdivision scheme maintains this property. The bound calculation becomes both simple and efficient, and we describe...

  3. A New Solid Subdivision Scheme%一种新的体细分格式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Mustafa; 刘雪峰

    2005-01-01

    近二十年来,对曲线和曲面的细分方法(Subdivision)的研究和应用在计算机图形学和造型领域中相当流行,然而对于实体的细分方法却研究得较少.在本文中,我们设计了一种基于六面体的逼近细分格式:在张量积网格上表现为张量积格式,在体网格上生成光滑的极限实体,并能在实体上引入边界和折痕.根据已有的在简单六面体网格上的基于六面体的逼近格式,如果不采用一些特殊规则,设计者很难得到实体模型.我们设计了一套针对实体模型的细分规则来简化细分过程.大体上,我们的细分过程结合了简单线性细分和二层平均,对网格的局部拓扑结构没有严格要求.特别地,我们的格式可以不加修改地应用到非流形拓扑网格上.同时,我们引入了用于控制模型形状的自由参数,使模型设计更具弹性.%Subdivision for curves and surfaces has gained popularity in computer graphics and shape modeling during the past two decades, yet solid/volumetric subdivision has received much less attention. In this paper, we design a subdivision scheme that reproduces the tensor product rule on tensor product meshes and yields smooth limit volumes for arbitrary volume meshes. It also has the ability to conveniently incorporate boundaries and creases into a smooth limit shape of model. It is a hexahedral-based, approximation scheme. According to the existing hexahedralbased,approximation scheme over simple or rough hexahedral meshes it is difficult to get the solid models which designers want to model without using some special rules. We devise a set of solid subdivision rules to facilitate a simple subdivision procedure. In principle, our solid subdivision process is a combination of simple linear subdivision and two rounds of averaging. This process makes no restrictions on the local topology of the meshes. Particularly, it can be applied without any change to meshes with non-manifold topology

  4. Detection of Babesia bigemina in cattle of different genetic groups and in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M C S; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G; Regitano, L C A; Alencar, M M; Néo, T A; Silva, A M; Oliveira, H N

    2008-08-17

    Babesia bigemina infections were investigated in four genetic groups of beef cattle and in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus engorged female ticks. Blood samples and engorged female ticks were collected from 15 cows and 15 calves from each of the following genetic groups: Nelore, Angus x Nelore, Canchim x Nelore, and Simmental x Nelore. Microscopic examination of blood smears and tick hemolymph revealed that merozoites of B. bigemina (6/60) as well as kinetes of Babesia spp. (9/549) were only detected in samples (blood and ticks, respectively) originated from calves. PCR-based methods using primers for specific detection of B. bigemina revealed 100% infection in both calves and cows, regardless the genetic group. Tick infection was detected by nested-PCR amplifications showing that the frequency of B. bigemina was higher (P0.05).

  5. Gastrointestinal nematode infection in beef cattle of different genetic groups in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M C S; Alencar, M M; Chagas, A C S; Giglioti, R; Oliveira, H N

    2009-12-23

    Resistance to natural infection by gastrointestinal nematodes was compared in 67 female calves of the following genetic groups: Nelore (NX); 1/2 Senepol+1/2 Nelore (SN); and 1/2 Aberdeen Angus+1/2 Nelore (AN). The NX (n=26), SN (n=23) and AN (n=18) animals were monitored for 14 months, during which they remained without treatment, allowed to graze in a tropical environment. Eggs per gram of feces (EPG), coprocultures and packed cell volume (PCV) were carried out monthly. No significant effects of the interaction between the genetic groups and month/year of collection and the genetic group on the EPG were found, but there was a significant influence of the month of collection (Px Bos indicus crossbreeds can be a good strategy to reduce the use of chemical control in Brazil.

  6. Genetic evaluation of early egg production and maturation traits using two different approaches in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Khadiga, G; Mahmoud, B Y F; El-Full, E A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a multi-trait selection program based on aggregated breeding values using an animal model Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) in Japanese quail. The estimated genetic gain was compared by both mixed model and least squares methods. Data of 1,682 female Japanese quails were collected through four consecutive generations to estimate genetic gain, depending on aggregated breeding values, for age at first egg (AFE), body weight at sexual maturity (BWSM), and days needed to produce the first ten eggs (DN10). Estimates of cumulative selection response were favorable for all the studied traits and significant for AFE (-3.03) and BWSM(10.38), but not significant for DN10(-0.15). Estimates of direct heritability were moderate for AFE (0.21) and BWSM(0.25) but low for DN10(0.08), while estimates of maternal heritability were moderate for AFE (0.19) but low for BWSM(0.04) and DN10(0.01). High (0.45 to 0.56) genetic and low (-0.01 to -0.18) phenotypic correlations were observed among the studied traits. Negative (-0.23 to -0.95) correlations between additive genetic and maternal genetic effects were observed for all traits. Genetic trends were -0.76 (P=0.031), 2.54 (P=0.037), and -0.06 (P=0.052) with calculated product-moment correlations between breeding values, estimated by BLUP and phenotypic selection methods, of 0.78 (P=0.002), 0.77 (P=0.004), and 0.61 (P=0.007) for AFE, BWSM, and DN10, respectively. Aggregated breeding value estimation based on animal model BLUP could be an effective method of constructing a selection program to achieve a favorable selection response in egg production traits in Japanese quail.

  7. Paternal lineages signal distinct genetic contributions from British Loyalists and continental Africans among different Bahamian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Tanya M; Martinez, Emanuel; Herrera, Kristian J; Wright, Marisil R; Perez, Omar A; Hernandez, Michelle; Ramirez, Evelyn C; McCartney, Quinn; Herrera, Rene J

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 500 years, the Bahamas has been influenced by a wide array of settlers, some of whom have left marked genetic imprints throughout the archipelago. To assess the extent of each group's genetic contributions, high-resolution Y-chromosome analyses were performed, for the first time, to delineate the patriarchal ancestry of six islands in the Northwest (Abaco and Grand Bahama) and Central (Eleuthera, Exuma, Long Island, and New Providence) Bahamas and their genetic relationships with previously published reference populations. Our results reveal genetic signals emanating primarily from African and European sources, with the predominantly sub-Saharan African and Western European haplogroups E1b1a-M2 and R1b1b1-M269, respectively, accounting for greater than 75% of all Bahamian patrilineages. Surprisingly, we observe notable discrepancies among the six Bahamian populations in their distribution of these lineages, with E1b1a-M2 predominating Y-chromosomes in the collections from Abaco, Exuma, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama, and New Providence, whereas R1b1b1-M269 is found at elevated levels in the Long Island population. Substantial Y-STR haplotype variation within sub-haplogroups E1b1a7a-U174 and E1b1ba8-U175 (greater than any continental African collection) is also noted, possibly indicating genetic influences from a variety of West and Central African groups. Furthermore, differential European genetic contributions in each island (with the exception of Exuma) reflect settlement patterns of the British Loyalists subsequent to the American Revolution. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Population Genetics of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae: One Host (Apis mellifera) and Two Different Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maside, Xulio; Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Jara, Laura; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; De la Rúa, Pilar; Higes, Mariano; Bartolomé, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Two microsporidians are known to infect honey bees: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Whereas population genetics data for the latter have been released in the last few years, such information is still missing for N. apis. Here we analyze the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at three single-copy loci (PTP2, PTP3 and RPB1) in a collection of Apis mellifera isolates from all over the world, naturally infected either with N. apis (N = 22) or N. ceranae (N = 23), to provide new insights into the genetic diversity, demography and evolution of N. apis, as well as to compare them with evidence from N. ceranae. Neutral variation in N. apis and N. ceranae is of the order of 1%. This amount of diversity suggests that there is no substantial differentiation between the genetic content of the two nuclei present in these parasites, and evidence for genetic recombination provides a putative mechanism for the flow of genetic information between chromosomes. The analysis of the frequency spectrum of neutral variants reveals a significant surplus of low frequency variants, particularly in N. ceranae, and suggests that the populations of the two pathogens are not in mutation-drift equilibrium and that they have experienced a population expansion. Most of the variation in both species occurs within honey bee colonies (between 62%-90% of the total genetic variance), although in N. apis there is evidence for differentiation between parasites isolated from distinct A. mellifera lineages (20%-34% of the total variance), specifically between those collected from lineages A and C (or M). This scenario is consistent with a long-term host-parasite relationship and contrasts with the lack of differentiation observed among host-lineages in N. ceranae (mellifera worldwide population is a recent event.

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity among different indigenous Xanthomonas isolates via RAPD and ISSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Sabin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity among seven Xanthomonas isolates representing four species was assessed using RAPD and ISSR PCR-based techniques. Both techniques revealed high degrees of polymorphisms among the studied isolates. A cluster dendrogram based on the combined data of RAPD and ISSR showed that genetic diversity exists in local isolates of Xanthomonas. In terms of percentage similarity values, the genomic variation was found to be in the range of 29.29% - 100% among the isolates. X. campestris (Mangifera indica remained unclustered in cluster dendrogram and revealed a unique genomic profile compared to other isolates used in this study.

  10. Live Performance, Carcass Yield, and Welfare of Broilers of Different Genetic Strains Reared at Different Housing Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JNT Arruda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the performance, carcass yield and quality, and physiological stress indicators of broilers of three genetic strains reared at three housing densities for 29 days. A total of 828 day-old male chicks, with average initial weight of 40.0± 2.0g were used. Three genetic strains (Cobb 500, Ross 808, and Ross 508, with 276 birds each and three housing densities (17, 19, and 21 broilers/m² were tested. A completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, with four replicates of 23 birds each, was applied. The following responses were evaluated: performance parameters (average weekly body weight, average daily gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, physiological stress indicators (blood glucose levels, blood cell counts, and carcass yield and quality (dermatosis, bruising, dermatitis, and femoral degeneration scores. Average weekly body weight (BW and daily weight gain (DWG were not influenced by rearing density (p≥0.05, but Cobb 500 broilers were the heaviest during the analyzed period. In the second week, Ross 508 birds showed better feed conversion ratio (FCR when housed at the density of 17 broilers/m² (p≤0.001, whereas the best FCR of Ross 808 and Cobb 500 broilers was obtained at 21 broilers/m² (p≤0.001. Carcass yield was not influenced by the treatments (p≥0.05. Physiological stress indicators were not affected by the treatments, and remained within normal ranges (p≥0.05. Dermatosis scores (scratches increased (p≤0.05 when housing density increased from 17 to 19 broilers /m².

  11. An Optimization Model for Urban Readjustment and Subdivision Regulations in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukmehmetoglu, Mehmet; Geymen, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in Turkey has resulted in various problems in urban spaces such as squatter houses, substandard subdivisions, and low-quality urban environment. In order to facilitate self-motivated developments, government has enacted various laws and bylaws and made amendments in current legal frameworks. The 18th Article (Dough Rule) of the Land and Building Development Law (İmar Kanunu) has various and extensive applications in regulating and restructuring cadastral properties. One of ...

  12. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    J. W. Booij; Christos Livas

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination.

  13. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Booij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination.

  14. The Tools of Financial Policy in the Dairy Products Subdivision of the Agroindustrial Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bielosviet Oleksandr. V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at definition and classification of tools of the State financial policy in the dairy products subdivision of the agroindustrial complex (DPS of AIC). The article considers the financial policy tools used in terms of targeted programs of the State support for the DPS of AIC: the State target program for development of Ukrainian villages, sectoral program for dairy breeding and the project of the conception of the State target program for development of dairy breeding in Uk...

  15. Assessment of genetically modified soybean crops and different cultivars by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Braz Alcantara

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potentiality of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy associated to chemometric analysis for assessment of conventional and genetically modified soybean crops. Recently, genetically modified organisms have been queried about their influence on the environment and their safety as food/feed. In this regard, chemical investigations are ever more required. Thus three different soybean cultivars distributed in transgenic Roundup ReadyTM soybean and theirs conventional counterparts were directly investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. The application of PCA and KNN methods permitted the discrimination and classification of the genetically modified samples from conventional ones when they were separately analysed. The analyses showed the chemical variation according to genetic modification. Furthermore, this methodology was efficient for cultivar grouping and highlights cultivar dependence for discrimination between transgenic and non-transgenic samples. According to this study, FT-IR and chemometrics could be used as a quick, easy and low cost tool to assess the chemical composition variation in genetically modified organisms.

  16. Do parental perceptions and motivations towards genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for deafness vary in different cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Risha; Puri, Ratna D; Saxena, Renu; Verma, Ishwar C

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of attitudes of individuals with deafness and their families towards genetic testing or prenatal diagnosis have mostly been carried out in the West. It is expected that the perceptions and attitudes would vary amongst persons of different cultures and economic background. There is little information on the prevailing attitudes for genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis for deafness in developing countries. Therefore, this study evaluates the motivations of Indian people with inherited hearing loss towards such testing. Twenty-eight families with history of congenital hearing loss (23 hearing parents with child/family member with deafness, 4 couples with both partners having deafness and 1 parent and child with deafness) participated in a semi-structured survey investigating their interest, attitudes, and intentions for using genetic and prenatal testing for deafness. Participants opinioned that proper management and care of individuals with deafness were handicapped by limited rehabilitation facilities with significant financial and social burden. Nineteen (68%) opted for genetic testing. Twenty-six (93%) expressed high interest in prenatal diagnosis, while 19 (73%) would consider termination of an affected fetus. Three hearing couples, in whom the causative mutations were identified, opted for prenatal diagnosis. On testing, all the three fetuses were affected and the hearing parents elected to terminate the pregnancies. This study provides an insight into the contrasting perceptions towards hearing disability in India and its influence on the desirability of genetic testing and prenatal diagnosis.

  17. Developmental genetic analysis of fruit shape traits under different environmental conditions in sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrical (L Roem. Violales, Cucurbitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of genetic main effects and genotype × environment (GE interaction effects for the fruit shape traits fruit length and fruit circumference in the sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrical (L Roem. Violales, Cucurbitaceae was conducted for diallel cross data from two planting seasons. A genetic model including fruit direct effects and maternal effects and unconditional and conditional variances analysis was used to evaluate the development of the fruit at four maturation stages. The variance analysis results indicated that fruit length and circumference were simultaneously affected by fruit direct genetic effects and maternal effects as well as GE interaction effects. Fruit direct genetic effects were relatively more important for both fruit shape traits during the whole developmental period. Gene activation was mostly due to additive effects at the first maturation stage and dominance effects were mainly active during the other three stages. The fruit shape trait correlation coefficients due to different genetic effects and the phenotypic correlation coefficients varied significantly for the various maturation stages. The results indicate that it is relatively easy to improve the two fruit shape traits for market purposes by carefully selecting the parents at the first maturation stage 3 days after flowering instead of at fruit economic maturation.

  18. Road and Street Centerlines, Centerlines based on newly platted subdivisions, Published in Not Provided, City of Aurora.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of Not Provided. It is described as 'Centerlines based on newly platted subdivisions'. Data by this...

  19. Molecular mapping of striatal subdivisions in juvenile Macaca Mulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Joann; Muly, Emil C.; Hemby, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    The striatum of the primate brain can be subdivided into three distinct anatomical subregions: caudate (CAU), putamen (PUT), and ventral striatum (VS). Although these subregions share several anatomical connections, cell morphological, and histochemical features, they differ considerably in their vulnerability to different neurological and psychiatric diseases, and these brain regions have significantly different functions in health and disease. In order to better understand the molecular underpinnings of the different disease and functional vulnerabilities, transcriptional profiles were generated from the CAU, PUT, and VS of five juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) using human cDNA neuromicroarrays containing triplicate spots of 1227 cDNAs. Differences in microarray gene expression were assessed using z score analysis and 1.5-fold change between paired subregions. Clustering of genes based on dissimilarity of expression patterns between regions revealed subregion specific expression profiles encoding G-protein-coupled receptor signaling transcripts, transcription factors, kinases and phosphatases, and cell signaling and signal transduction transcripts. Twelve transcripts were examined using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and 81% demonstrated alterations similar to those seen with microarray analysis, some of which were statistically significant. Subregion specific transcription profiles support the anatomical differentiation and potential disease vulnerabilities of the respective subregions. PMID:16455077

  20. Large Scale Isosurface Bicubic Subdivision-Surface Wavelets for Representation and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, M.; Duchaineau, M.A.; Hamann, B.; Joy, K.I.

    2000-01-05

    We introduce a new subdivision-surface wavelet transform for arbitrary two-manifolds with boundary that is the first to use simple lifting-style filtering operations with bicubic precision. We also describe a conversion process for re-mapping large-scale isosurfaces to have subdivision connectivity and fair parameterizations so that the new wavelet transform can be used for compression and visualization. The main idea enabling our wavelet transform is the circular symmetrization of the filters in irregular neighborhoods, which replaces the traditional separation of filters into two 1-D passes. Our wavelet transform uses polygonal base meshes to represent surface topology, from which a Catmull-Clark-style subdivision hierarchy is generated. The details between these levels of resolution are quickly computed and compactly stored as wavelet coefficients. The isosurface conversion process begins with a contour triangulation computed using conventional techniques, which we subsequently simplify with a variant edge-collapse procedure, followed by an edge-removal process. This provides a coarse initial base mesh, which is subsequently refined, relaxed and attracted in phases to converge to the contour. The conversion is designed to produce smooth, untangled and minimally-skewed parameterizations, which improves the subsequent compression after applying the transform. We have demonstrated our conversion and transform for an isosurface obtained from a high-resolution turbulent-mixing hydrodynamics simulation, showing the potential for compression and level-of-detail visualization.

  1. Integration and management of massive remote-sensing data based on GeoSOT subdivision model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Cheng, Chengqi; Chen, Bo; Meng, Li

    2016-07-01

    Owing to the rapid development of earth observation technology, the volume of spatial information is growing rapidly; therefore, improving query retrieval speed from large, rich data sources for remote-sensing data management systems is quite urgent. A global subdivision model, geographic coordinate subdivision grid with one-dimension integer coding on 2n-tree, which we propose as a solution, has been used in data management organizations. However, because a spatial object may cover several grids, ample data redundancy will occur when data are stored in relational databases. To solve this redundancy problem, we first combined the subdivision model with the spatial array database containing the inverted index. We proposed an improved approach for integrating and managing massive remote-sensing data. By adding a spatial code column in an array format in a database, spatial information in remote-sensing metadata can be stored and logically subdivided. We implemented our method in a Kingbase Enterprise Server database system and compared the results with the Oracle platform by simulating worldwide image data. Experimental results showed that our approach performed better than Oracle in terms of data integration and time and space efficiency. Our approach also offers an efficient storage management system for existing storage centers and management systems.

  2. Timing of gene expression from different genetic systems in shaping leucine and isoleucine contents of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) meal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guo Lin Chen; Jian Guo Wu; Murali-Tottekkaad Variath; Chun Hai Shi

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using a diallel design with nine parents: Youcai 601, Double 20-4, Huashuang 3, Gaoyou 605, Zhongyou 821, Eyouchangjia, Zhong R-888, Tower and Zheshuang 72. The seed developmental process was divided into five stages, namely initial (days 1–15 after flowering), early (days 16–22 after flowering), middle (days 23–29), late (days 30–36), and maturing (days 37–43) developmental stages. The variation of dynamic genetic effects for leucine and isoleucine contents of rapeseed meal was analysed at five developmental stages, across different environments using the genetic models with time-dependent measures. The results from unconditional and conditional analyses indicated that the expression of diploid embryo, cytoplasmic and diploid maternal plant genes were important for leucine and isoleucine contents at different developmental stages of rapeseed, particularly at the initial and early developmental stages. Among different genetic systems, nutrition quality traits were mainly controlled by the accumulative or net maternal main effects and their GE interaction effects, except at maturity when the net diploid embryo effects were larger. The expression of genes was affected by the environmental conditions on 15, 22, 29 or 36 days after flowering, but was more stable at mature stage. For the isoleucine content the narrow-sense heritabilities on 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 days after flowering were 43.0, 65.7, 60.1, 65.5 and 78.2%, respectively, while for the leucine content the corresponding narrow-sense heritabilities were relatively smaller. The interaction heritabilities were more important than the general heritabilities at the first three developmental times. The improvement for isoleucine content could be achieved by selection based on the higher narrow-sense heritabilities. Various genetic systems exhibited genetic correlations among the developmental times or leucine and isoleucine contents. A

  3. Environmental effects on sex differences in the genetic load for adult lifespan in a seed-feeding beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C W; Stillwell, R C

    2009-07-01

    We have little understanding of how environmental conditions affect the expression of the genetic load for lifespan and adult mortality rates, or how this environmental dependence affect tests of models for the evolution of senescence. We use the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, as a model to explore how the inbreeding load (L) affecting adult lifespan varies with rearing conditions (diet and temperature), and how rearing conditions affect tests of the mutation accumulation model of senescence. When reared under benign conditions, there was a large sex difference in inbreeding depression (delta) and the inbreeding load (L=0.51-0.86 lethal equivalents per gamete for females L= approximately 0 for males). This sex difference in L was dependent on temperature, but not on rearing host or heat shock. At both high and low temperatures (relative to intermediate temperature) L increased for males, and L converged for the sexes at low temperature (L=0.26-0.53 for both sexes). Correlations were small for L between pairs of temperatures, indicating that the genes responsible for the inbreeding load differed between temperatures. In contrast to predictions of the mutation accumulation model of senescence, the age-specific inbreeding load for the adult mortality rate (L(u(t))) did not increase with age in any rearing environment. The genetic load underlying lifespan and adult mortality rates, and large sex differences in the genetic load, is highly dependent on environmental conditions. Estimating the genetic load in benign laboratory environments may be insufficient to predict the genetics underlying lifespan variation in nature where environmental variation is the norm.

  4. Differences in genetic variation in antigen-processing machinery components and association with cervical carcinoma risk in two Indonesian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Akash M; Spaans, Vivian M; Mahendra, Nyoman Bayu; Osse, Elisabeth M; Vet, Jessica N I; Purwoto, Gatot; Surya, I G D; Cornian, Santoso; Peters, Alexander A; Fleuren, Gert J; Jordanova, Ekaterina S

    2015-06-01

    Genetic variation of antigen-processing machinery (APM) components has been shown to be associated with cervical carcinoma risk and outcome in a genetically homogeneous Dutch population. However, the role of APM component single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetically heterogeneous populations with different distributions of human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes remains unclear. Eleven non-synonymous, coding SNPs in the TAP1, TAP2, LMP2, LMP7 and ERAP1 genes were genotyped in cervical carcinoma patients and healthy controls from two distinct Indonesian populations (Balinese and Javanese). Individual genotype and allele distributions were investigated using single-marker analysis, and combined SNP effects were assessed by haplotype construction and haplotype interaction analysis. Allele distribution patterns in Bali and Java differed in relation to cervical carcinoma risk, with four ERAP1 SNPs and one TAP2 SNP in the Javanese population showing significant association with cervical carcinoma risk, while in the Balinese population, only one TAP2 SNP showed this association. Multimarker analysis demonstrated that in the Javanese patients, one specific haplotype, consisting of the ERAP1-575 locus on chromosome 5 and the TAP2-379 and TAP2-651 loci on chromosome 6, was significantly associated with cervical carcinoma risk (global P = 0.008); no significant haplotype associations were found in the Balinese population. These data indicate not only that genetic variation in APM component genes is associated with cervical carcinoma risk in Indonesia but also that the patterns of association differ depending on background genetic composition and possibly on differences in HPV type distribution.

  5. Microsatellite DNA analysis of northern pike ( Esox lucius L.) populations: insights into the genetic structure and demographic history of a genetically depauperate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. H.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2005-01-01

    The northern pike Esox lucius L. is a freshwater fish exhibiting pronounced population subdivision and low genetic variability. However, there is limited knowledge on phylogeographical patterns within the species, and it is not known whether the low genetic variability reflects primarily current...

  6. Genetic diversity of teak (Tectona grandis L.F. from different provenances using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Kussumoto Alcântara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis is one of the main timber species in the world with high economic value, famous for its beauty, strength and durability. The objective of this work was to characterize the genetic diversity of teak genotypes used in Brazilian plantations. Nine microsatellite primers were used to assess 60 teak genotypes, including 33 genotypes from seeds of plantations and 14 clones from Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and 13 clones from Honduras, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, Ivory Coast and Solomon Islands. Two groups of genotypes were detected using the Bayesian Structure analysis: 80% were placed in group 1, represented by genotypes from Cáceres and one from Malaysia, and 20% allocated in group 2, composed of clones from India, Solomon Islands, Malaysia and Honduras and the clones from the Ivory Coast. Most of the genetic variability (73% was concentrated within groups according to AMOVA analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated for the two groups obtained in the analysis of Structure. Moderate genetic diversity was found, with 4.1 alleles per locus, on average, and an average heterozygosity of 0.329, which was lower than the expected heterozygosity (He = 0.492. Group 1 showed the lowest values for these parameters. Suggestions were made concerning the identification of contrasting genotypes to be used as parents in breeding programs.

  7. Genetic markers of striatal dopamine predict individual differences in dysfunctional, but not functional impulsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colzato, L.S.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; van der Does, A.J.W.; Hommel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Various psychiatric disorders are characterized by elevated levels of impulsivity. Although extensive evidence supports a specific role of striatal, but not frontal dopamine (DA) in human impulsivity, recent studies on genetic variability have raised some doubts on such a role. Importantly, impulsiv

  8. Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality: an Australian twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Shekar, Sri N; Zietsch, Brendan P; Eaves, Lindon J; Bailey, J Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G

    2008-05-01

    Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward homophobia, we analysed data from 4,688 twins who completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour and attitudes, including attitudes toward homosexuality. Results show that, in accordance with literature, males have significantly more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than females and non-heterosexuals are less homophobic than heterosexuals. In contrast with some earlier findings, age had no significant effect on the homophobia scores in this study. Genetic modelling showed that variation in homophobia scores could be explained by additive genetic (36%), shared environmental (18%) and unique environmental factors (46%). However, corrections based on previous findings show that the shared environmental estimate may be almost entirely accounted for as extra additive genetic variance arising from assortative mating for homophobic attitudes. The results suggest that variation in attitudes toward homosexuality is substantially inherited, and that social environmental influences are relatively minor.

  9. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m2)], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age f...

  10. Differences in genetic and environmental variation in adult BMI by sex, age, time period, and region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood.Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age ...

  11. Genetic and epigenetic similarities and differences between childhood and adult AML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl-Christensen, Caroline; Ommen, Hans Beier; Aggerholm, Anni

    2012-01-01

    The biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is complex and includes both genetic and epigenetic aberrations. We addressed the combined consequences of promoter hypermethylation of p15, CDH1, ER, MDR1, and RARB2 and mutation of NPM1, CEBPA, FLT3, and WT1 in a Danish cohort of 70 pediatric and 383...

  12. Common and different genetic background for rheumatoid arthritis and coeliac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Marieke J H; Trynka, Gosia; Heskamp, Sandra; Franke, Barbara; van Diemen, Cleo C; Smolonska, Joanna; van Leeuwen, Maria; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boezen, Hendrika; Postma, Dirkje S; Platteel, Mathieu; Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan-Willem W J; Groen, Hendricus; Mali, Willem P T M; Mulder, Chris J; Tack, Greetje J; Verbeek, Wieke H M; Wolters, Victorien M; Houwen, Roderick H J; Mearin, M Luisa; van Heel, David A; Radstake, Timothy R D J; van Riel, Piet L C M; Wijmenga, Cisca; Barrera, Pilar; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed genetic risk factors in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Several of the associated genes and underlying pathways are shared by various autoimmune diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and coeliac disease (CD) are two autoimmune

  13. [Genetic variability of juniper tall (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) in the northern and southern limits of the natural distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2013-01-01

    Genetic structure, subdivision and differentiation of six populations of juniper tall (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimean Mountains and of one population in Lebanon were investigated using 18 polymorphic allozyme loci as genetic markers. The high level of genetic variability of J. excelsa was established in the northern and the southern limits of its natural habitat. The mean values of the main indicators of genetic polymorphism were: P99 = 1,000, A = 3,167, H(E) = 0,370, H(o) = 0,405. Subdivision and differentiation of populations were low (F(ST) = 0,032, D(N) = 0,026) indicating similarity of their gene pools.

  14. Confirming candidate genes for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster using two different genetic backgrounds and selection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke; Frydenberg, Jane; Sarup, Pernille Merete

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating genes that affect life span or that can be used as biomarkers for ageing has received attention in diverse studies in recent years. Using model organisms and various approaches several genes have been linked to the longevity phenotype. For Drosophila melanogaster those studies have...... usually focussed on one sex and on flies originating from one genetic background, and results from different studies often do not overlap. Using D. melanogaster selected for increased longevity we aimed to find robust longevity related genes by examining gene expression in both sexes of flies originating...... from different genetic backgrounds. Further, we compared expression changes across three ages, when flies were young, middle aged or old, to examine how candidate gene expression changes with the onset of ageing. We selected 10 genes based on their expression differences in prior microarray studies...

  15. Subdivision of Polygon Parcel in Land-Use Data Generalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al Tinghua

    2003-01-01

    In land-use data generalization, the removal of insignificant parcel with small size is the most frequently used operator. Traditionally for the generalization method, the small parcel is assigned completely to one of its neighbors. This study tries to improve the generalization by separating the insignificant parcel into parts around the weighted skeleton and assigning these parts to different neighbors. The distribution of the weighted skeleton depends on the compatibility between the removed object and its neighbor, which considers not only topological relationship but also distance relationship and semantic similarity. This process is based on the Delaunay triangulation model. This paper gives the detailed geometric algorithms for this operation.

  16. The value of genetic information for diabetes risk prediction - differences according to sex, age, family history and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Mühlenbruch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with type 2 diabetes through the past years. In previous studies, the usefulness of these genetic markers for prediction of diabetes was found to be limited. However, differences may exist between substrata of the population according to the presence of major diabetes risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the added predictive value of genetic information (42 single nucleotide polymorphisms in subgroups of sex, age, family history of diabetes, and obesity. METHODS: A case-cohort study (random subcohort N = 1,968; incident cases: N = 578 within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Potsdam study was used. Prediction models without and with genetic information were evaluated in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and the integrated discrimination improvement. Stratified analyses included subgroups of sex, age (<50 or ≥50 years, family history (positive if either father or mother or a sibling has/had diabetes, and obesity (BMI< or ≥30 kg/m(2. RESULTS: A genetic risk score did not improve prediction above classic and metabolic markers, but - compared to a non-invasive prediction model - genetic information slightly improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (difference [95%-CI]: 0.007 [0.002-0.011]. Stratified analyses showed stronger improvement in the older age group (0.010 [0.002-0.018], the group with a positive family history (0.012 [0.000-0.023] and among obese participants (0.015 [-0.005-0.034] compared to the younger participants (0.005 [-0.004-0.014], participants with a negative family history (0.003 [-0.001-0.008] and non-obese (0.007 [0.000-0.014], respectively. No difference was found between men and women. CONCLUSION: There was no incremental value of genetic information compared to standard non-invasive and metabolic

  17. Blue eyes in lemurs and humans: same phenotype, different genetic mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Brenda J; Pedersen, Anja; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2009-01-01

    Almost all mammals have brown or darkly-pigmented eyes (irises), but among primates, there are some prominent blue-eyed exceptions. The blue eyes of some humans and lemurs are a striking example of convergent evolution of a rare phenotype on distant branches of the primate tree. Recent work...... on humans indicates that blue eye color is associated with, and likely caused by, a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12913832) in an intron of the gene HERC2, which likely regulates expression of the neighboring pigmentation gene OCA2. This raises the immediate question of whether blue eyes in lemurs might...... have a similar genetic basis. We addressed this by sequencing the homologous genetic region in the blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons; N = 4) and the closely-related black lemur (Eulemur macaco macaco; N = 4), which has brown eyes. We then compared a 166-bp segment corresponding...

  18. Genetic differentiation among Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations living on different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Sarmiento-Benavides, Sandra L; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Hernández-Delgado, Sanjuana; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl

    2010-06-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) is a dangerous pest that damages a wide variety of agricultural, horticultural, and forestry crops. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints were used to characterize the genetic variation of 11 M. hirsutus populations infesting three plant species in Nayarit, Mexico. Analysis was carried out using four primers combinations, producing 590 polymorphic bands. Cluster analysis, as well as bootstrap dendrogram and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis, grouped M. hirsutus populations according to their host plant. The estimated F(ST) values indicated a high differentiation in M. hirsutus populations among the three host plant species. These results were also supported by a Bayesian analysis, which indicated a population clustering robustness according to their host plant. Genetic variation among populations is not caused by geographic distances, as shown by a Mantel test.

  19. Commonalities and differences between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: the genetic clues to their interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Giovanni C; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Tarallo, Sonia; Rosina, Floriano

    2011-12-01

    Traditional knowledge of clinical, laboratorial, and endoscopic orders regarding ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease has begun to be implemented by the revolutionary data from genetic studies. Ever since many decades ago it has been clear that inflammatory bowel diseases are complex multifactorial disorders wherein gut-confined and/or environmental factors must synergize with genetic components to effect the full-blown disorder. The sequencing of the human genome and the generation of public resources of single nucleotide polymorphisms permitted the conduction of powerful population based genome-wide association studies. The latter have increased the number of the identified susceptibility loci to 99. In this review we touched on two pathways that make true susceptibility genes for inflammatory bowel diseases; gene loci that confer specific risk for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease were discussed in detail.

  20. Patriline Differences Reveal Genetic Influence on Forewing Size and Shape in a Yellowjacket Wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespula flavopilosa Jacobson, 1978.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Perrard

    Full Text Available The wing venation is frequently used as a morphological marker to distinguish biological groups among insects. With geometric morphometrics, minute shape differences can be detected between closely related species or populations, making this technique useful for taxonomy. However, the direct influence of genetic differences on wing morphology has not been explored within colonies of social insects. Here, we show that the father's genotype has a direct effect on wing morphology in colonies of social wasps. Using geometric morphometrics on the venation pattern, we found significant differences in wing size and shape between patrilines of yellowjackets, taking allometry and measurement error into account. The genetic influence on wing size accounted for a small part of the overall size variation, but venation shape was highly structured by the differences between patrilines. Overall, our results showed a strong genetic influence on wing morphology likely acting at multiple levels of venation pattern development. This confirmed the pertinence of this marker for taxonomic purposes and suggests this phenotype as a potentially useful marker for phylogenies. This also raises doubts about the strength of selective pressures on this phenotype, which highlights the need to understand better the role of wing venation shape in insect flight.

  1. Can behavioural differences in Platypus cylindrus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) from Portugal and Tunisia be explained by genetic and morphological traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahirech, A; Inácio, M L; Nóbrega, F; Henriques, J; Bonifácio, L; Sousa, E; Ben Jamâa, M L

    2016-02-01

    Platypus cylindrus is an important wood borer of cork oak trees (Quercus suber) in the Mediterranean region, namely Portugal, Morocco and Algeria where its presence has drastically increased in the past few decades. On the contrary, the insect is not a relevant pest in Tunisia. The aim of this work is to analyze morphological and genetic differences among Tunisian and Portuguese populations in order to understand their role in the diverse population dynamics (e.g., aggressiveness) of the insect. The information could be used as a novel tool to implement protective measures. Insects were collected from cork oak stands in Tunisia (Ain Beya, Babouch and Mzara) and Portugal (Chamusca and Crato). Morphological traits of female and male mycangial pits were determined, using scanning electron microscopy but no significant differences were found. Genetic differences were analyzed using nuclear (internal simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I (COI)) molecular markers. The results showed a very low level of intraspecific polymorphism and genetic diversity. The alignment of COI sequences showed high percentage of identical sites (99%) indicating a very low variation in nucleotide composition. Other variables related with the ecology of the insect and its associated fungi must be studied for a better understanding of the differences in the insect population's dynamic in Mediterranean countries.

  2. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Attitudes Toward Homosexuality: An Australian Twin Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Shekar, S. N.; Zietsch, B.P.; Eaves, L.J; Bailey, J. M.; Boomsma, D. I.; Martin, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward homophobia, we analysed data from 4,688 twins who completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour and attitudes...

  3. Differences in the Genetic Susceptibility to Age-Related Macular Degeneration Clinical Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ling; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Melles, Ronald B.; Sakoda, Lori C.; Kvale, Mark N.; Banda, Yambazi; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil; Jorgenson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared across age-related macular degeneration (AMD) subtypes the effect of AMD risk variants, their predictive power, and heritability. Methods The prevalence of AMD was estimated among active non-Hispanic white Kaiser Permanente Northern California members who were at least 65 years of age as of June 2013. The genetic analysis included 5,170 overall AMD cases ascertained from electronic health records (EHR), including 1,239 choroidal neovascularization (CNV) cases and 1,060 nonexudative AMD cases without CNV, and 23,130 controls of non-Hispanic white ancestry from the Kaiser Permanente Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. Imputation was based on the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. Results The narrow-sense heritability due to common autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was 0.37 for overall AMD, 0.19 for AMD unspecified, 0.20 for nonexudative AMD, and 0.60 for CNV. For the 19 previously reported AMD risk loci, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.675 for overall AMD, 0.640 for AMD unspecified, 0.678 for nonexudative AMD, and 0.766 for CNV. The individual effects on the risk of AMD for 18 of the 19 SNPs were in a consistent direction with those previously reported, including a protective effect of the APOE ε4 allele. Conversely, the risk of AMD was significantly increased in carriers of the ε2 allele. Conclusions These findings provide an independent confirmation of many of the previously identified AMD risk loci, and support a potentially greater role of genetic factors in the development of CNV. The replication of established associations validates the use of EHR in genetic studies of ophthalmologic traits. PMID:26176866

  4. Partitioning the heritability of Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder reveals differences in genetic architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea K Davis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related neurobehavioral disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and Tourette Syndrome (TS, using GCTA. Our analysis yielded a heritability point estimate of 0.58 (se = 0.09, p = 5.64e-12 for TS, and 0.37 (se = 0.07, p = 1.5e-07 for OCD. In addition, we conducted multiple genomic partitioning analyses to identify genomic elements that concentrate this heritability. We examined genomic architectures of TS and OCD by chromosome, MAF bin, and functional annotations. In addition, we assessed heritability for early onset and adult onset OCD. Among other notable results, we found that SNPs with a minor allele frequency of less than 5% accounted for 21% of the TS heritability and 0% of the OCD heritability. Additionally, we identified a significant contribution to TS and OCD heritability by variants significantly associated with gene expression in two regions of the brain (parietal cortex and cerebellum for which we had available expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs. Finally we analyzed the genetic correlation between TS and OCD, revealing a genetic correlation of 0.41 (se = 0.15, p = 0.002. These results are very close to previous heritability estimates for TS and OCD based on twin and family studies, suggesting that very little, if any, heritability is truly missing (i.e., unassayed from TS and OCD GWAS studies of common variation. The results also indicate that there is some genetic overlap between these two phenotypically-related neuropsychiatric disorders, but suggest that the two disorders have distinct genetic architectures.

  5. Partitioning the Heritability of Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Reveals Differences in Genetic Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lea K.; Yu, Dongmei; Keenan, Clare L.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Derks, Eske M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Yang, Jian; Lee, S. Hong; Evans, Patrick; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrio, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, Oscar J.; Bloch, Michael H.; Blom, Rianne M.; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond; Cappi, Carolina; Cardona Silgado, Julio C.; Cath, Danielle C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Conti, David V.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette A.; Deforce, Dieter; Delorme, Richard; Dion, Yves; Edlund, Christopher K.; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Gallagher, Patience J.; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Haddad, Stephen; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Hounie, Ana G.; Illmann, Cornelia; Jankovic, Joseph; Jenike, Michael A.; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Macciardi, Fabio; McCracken, James T.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias J.; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosàrio, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Rouleau, Guy A.; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, E.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Miguel, Euripedes C.; McMahon, William; Wagner, Michael; Nicolini, Humberto; Posthuma, Danielle; Hanna, Gregory L.; Heutink, Peter; Denys, Damiaan; Arnold, Paul D.; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Freimer, Nelson B.; Pauls, David L.; Wray, Naomi R.

    2013-01-01

    The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related neurobehavioral disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette Syndrome (TS), using GCTA. Our analysis yielded a heritability point estimate of 0.58 (se = 0.09, p = 5.64e-12) for TS, and 0.37 (se = 0.07, p = 1.5e-07) for OCD. In addition, we conducted multiple genomic partitioning analyses to identify genomic elements that concentrate this heritability. We examined genomic architectures of TS and OCD by chromosome, MAF bin, and functional annotations. In addition, we assessed heritability for early onset and adult onset OCD. Among other notable results, we found that SNPs with a minor allele frequency of less than 5% accounted for 21% of the TS heritability and 0% of the OCD heritability. Additionally, we identified a significant contribution to TS and OCD heritability by variants significantly associated with gene expression in two regions of the brain (parietal cortex and cerebellum) for which we had available expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). Finally we analyzed the genetic correlation between TS and OCD, revealing a genetic correlation of 0.41 (se = 0.15, p = 0.002). These results are very close to previous heritability estimates for TS and OCD based on twin and family studies, suggesting that very little, if any, heritability is truly missing (i.e., unassayed) from TS and OCD GWAS studies of common variation. The results also indicate that there is some genetic overlap between these two phenotypically-related neuropsychiatric disorders, but suggest that the two disorders have distinct genetic architectures. PMID:24204291

  6. Genetic diversity of Greek Aegilops species using different types of nuclear genome markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Konstantinos G; Bebeli, Penelope J

    2010-09-01

    Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) analyses were used to evaluate genetic variability and relationships of Greek Aegilops species. Thirty-eight accessions of seven Greek Aegilops species [Ae. triuncialis (genome UC), Ae. neglecta (UM), Ae. biuncialis (UM), Ae. caudata (C), Ae. comosa (M), Ae. geniculata (MU) and Ae. umbellulata (U)] as well as Triticum accessions were studied. Nineteen RAPD and ten ISSR primers yielded 344 and 170 polymorphic bands, respectively, that were used for the construction of dendrograms. Regardless of the similarity coefficient and marker type used, UPGMA placed 38 Aegilops accessions into one branch while the other branch consisted of wheat species. Within the Aegilops cluster, subgroups were identified that included species that shared the same genome or belonged to the same botanical section. Within the Triticum cluster, two robust subgroups were formed, one including diploid wheat and another including polyploid wheat. In conclusion, results showed that there is genetic diversity in the Greek Aegilops species studied, and clustering based on genetic similarities was in agreement with botanical classifications.

  7. Allele distribution and genetic diversity of VNTR loci in Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from different sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartkus Joanne M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis is a zoonotic pathogen, which can be found in many sources including animals and the environment. However, little is known about the molecular relatedness among S. Enteritidis isolates from different sources. We have applied multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA to study the genetic diversity of S. Enteritidis isolates from human and non-human sources. Results We identified 38 unique MLVA types using nine VNTR loci markers for discrimination between 145 S. Enteritidis isolates from different sources including humans (n = 41, chickens (n = 45, and eggs (n = 40. There were 20 distinct MLVA types identified from human isolates, 17 distinct MLVA types from chicken isolates, and 5 from egg isolates. We compared allele distribution and frequency for each VNTR marker and measured allelic polymorphism within each VNTR locus of S. Enteritidis isolates from the sources using Nei's diversity index (D. Differences in allele distribution and frequency were detected in most loci of study isolates. Different genetic diversity for certain loci was identified in isolates from different sources. The average of genetic diversity (D was lower in egg isolates (0.16 compared to human (0.41 and chicken (0.30. However, for loci SE3, SE7, and SE9, human isolates showed significantly higher diversity than both chicken and egg isolates. Whereas for loci SE5 and SE10, chicken isolates had significantly higher diversity than both human and egg isolates. Minimum-spanning tree (MST comprised one major cluster, a minor cluster, and four clonal expansions. MLVA application enabled a cluster analysis by the MST of the S. Enteritidis isolates by sources, which allows a great insight into the genetic relatedness and the possible flow of these organisms between different reservoirs and humans. Conclusion Differences in allele distribution and genetic diversity of VNTR loci in S

  8. Functional subdivisions in low-frequency primary auditory cortex (AI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M N; Palmer, A R

    2009-04-01

    We wished to test the hypothesis that there are modules in low-frequency AI that can be identified by their responsiveness to communication calls or particular regions of space. Units were recorded in anaesthetised guinea pig AI and stimulated with conspecific vocalizations and a virtual motion stimulus (binaural beats) presented via a closed sound system. Recording tracks were mainly oriented orthogonally to the cortical surface. Some of these contained units that were all time-locked to the structure of the chutter call (14/22 tracks) and/or the purr call (12/22 tracks) and/or that had a preference for stimuli from a particular region of space (8/20 tracks with four contralateral, two ipsilateral and two midline), or where there was a strong asymmetry in the response to beats of different direction (two tracks). We conclude that about half of low-frequency AI is organized into modules that are consistent with separate "what" and "where" pathways.

  9. Female guppies agree to differ: phenotypic and genetic variation in mate-choice behavior and the consequences for sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R; Endler, J A

    2001-08-01

    Variation among females in mate choice may influence evolution by sexual selection. The genetic basis of this variation is of interest because the elaboration of mating preferences requires additive genetic variation in these traits. Here we measure the repeatability and heritability of two components of female choosiness (responsiveness and discrimination) and of female preference functions for the multiple ornaments borne by male guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We show that there is significant repeatable variation in both components of choosiness and in some preference functions but not in others. There appear to be several male ornaments that females find uniformly attractive and others for which females differ in preference. One consequence is that there is no universally attractive male phenotype. Only responsiveness shows significant additive genetic variation. Variation in responsiveness appears to mask variation in discrimination and some preference functions and may be the most biologically relevant source of phenotypic and genetic variation in mate-choice behavior. To test the potential evolutionary importance of the phenotypic variation in mate choice that we report, we estimated the opportunity for and the intensity of sexual selection under models of mate choice that excluded and that incorporated individual female variation. We then compared these estimates with estimates based on measured mating success. Incorporating individual variation in mate choice generally did not predict the outcome of sexual selection any better than models that ignored such variation.

  10. Are There Cultural Differences in Parental Interest in Early Diagnosis and Genetic Risk Assessment for Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiet, Claire; Couchon, Elizabeth; Carr, Kelly; Carayol, Jerôme; Cohen, David

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are many societal and cultural differences between healthcare systems and the use of genetic testing in the US and France. These differences may affect the diagnostic process for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in each country and influence parental opinions regarding the use of genetic screening tools for ASD. Methods: Using an internet-based tool, a survey of parents with at least one child with ASD was conducted. A total of 162 participants from the US completed an English version of the survey and 469 participants from France completed a French version of the survey. Respondents were mainly females (90%) and biological parents (94.3% in the US and 97.2% in France). Results: The mean age of ASD diagnosis reported was not significantly different between France (57.5 ± 38.4 months) and the US (56.5 ± 52.7 months) (p = 0.82) despite significant difference in the average age at which a difference in development was first suspected [29.7 months (±28.4) vs. 21.4 months (±18.1), respectively, p = 7 × 10−4]. Only 27.8% of US participants indicated that their child diagnosed with ASD had undergone diagnostic genetic testing, whereas 61.7% of the French participants indicated this was the case (p = 2.7 × 10−12). In both countries, the majority of respondents (69.3% and 80% from France and the US, respectively) indicated high interest in the use of a genetic screening test for autism. Conclusion: Parents from France and the US report a persistent delay between the initial suspicion of a difference in development and the diagnosis of ASD. Significantly fewer US participants underwent genetic testing although this result should be regarded as exploratory given the limitations. The significance of these between country differences will be discussed. PMID:24795872

  11. Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur.

  12. Differences in mitochondrial DNA inheritance and function align with body conformation in genetically lean and fat sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B A; Loughnan, R; Hickford, J; Young, I R; St John, J C; Clarke, I

    2015-05-01

    Body weight and adiposity are determined by the balance between energy intake, energy expenditure, and nutrient deposition. We have identified differences in appetite-regulating peptides in sheep selectively bred to be either lean or fat, wherein gene expression for orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone are elevated in the lean group. Despite this, the underlying mechanisms leading to differences in body composition in the lean and fat lines remains unknown. We measured postprandial temperature in adipose tissue and muscle to ascertain whether a difference in thermogenesis is associated with the difference in body composition in genetically lean (n = 8) and fat (n = 12) ewes. Body weight was higher (P fat mass was lower (P fat groups. Animals received intracerebroventricular cannulae and temperature probes implanted into the retroperitoneal fat and the hind-limb skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis). Animals were meal fed (1100-1600 h) to entrain postprandial thermogenesis. Food intake was similar between lean and fat animals. Postprandial thermogenesis was greater (P tissue of lean animals but not in skeletal muscle. Intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin reduced (Pfat of lean animals, with similar UCP3 expression in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial genome sequencing indicated haplotypic clustering in lean and fat animals within both the encoding and nonencoding regions. This demonstrates that differences in body composition may be underpinned by differences in thermogenesis, specifically within adipose tissue. Furthermore, thermogenic differences may be associated with specific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, suggesting a strong genetic component inherited through the maternal lineage.

  13. Genetic and virulence variability among Erwinia tracheiphila strains recovered from different cucurbit hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, E Saalau; Dixon, P M; Batzer, J C; Gleason, M L

    2013-09-01

    The causal agent of cucurbit bacterial wilt, Erwinia tracheiphila, has a wide host range in the family Cucurbitaceae, including economically important crops such as muskmelon (Cucumis melo), cucumber (C. sativus), and squash (Cucurbita spp.). Genetic variability of 69 E. tracheiphila strains was investigated by repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) using BOXA1R and ERIC1-2 primers. Fingerprint profiles revealed significant variability associated with crop host; strains isolated from Cucumis spp. were clearly distinguishable from Cucurbita spp.-isolated strains regardless of geographic origin. Twelve E. tracheiphila strains isolated from muskmelon, cucumber, or summer squash were inoculated onto muskmelon and summer squash seedlings, followed by incubation in a growth chamber. Wilt symptoms were assessed over 3 weeks, strains were reisolated, and rep-PCR profiles were compared with the inoculated strains. Wilting occurred significantly faster when seedlings were inoculated with strains that originated from the same crop host genus (P<0.001). In the first run of the experiment, cucumber and muskmelon strains caused wilting on muskmelon seedlings at a median of 7.8 and 5.6 days after inoculation (dai), respectively. Summer squash seedlings wilted 18.0, 15.7, and 5.7 dai when inoculated with muskmelon-, cucumber-, and squash-origin strains, respectively. In a second run of the experiment, cucumber and muskmelon strains caused wilting on muskmelon at 7.0 and 6.9 dai, respectively, whereas summer squash seedlings wilted at 23.6, 29.0 and 9.0 dai when inoculated with muskmelon-, cucumber-, and squash-origin strains, respectively. Our results provide the first evidence of genetic diversity within E. tracheiphila and suggest that strain specificity is associated with plant host. This advance is a first step toward understanding the genetic and population structure of E. tracheiphila.

  14. Power to identify a genetic predictor of antihypertensive drug response using different methods to measure blood pressure response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Stephen T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether office, home, ambulatory daytime and nighttime blood pressure (BP responses to antihypertensive drug therapy measure the same signal and which method provides greatest power to identify genetic predictors of BP response. Methods We analyzed office, home, ambulatory daytime and nighttime BP responses in hypertensive adults randomized to atenolol (N = 242 or hydrochlorothiazide (N = 257 in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses Study. Since different measured BP responses may have different predictors, we tested the "same signal" model by using linear regression methods to determine whether known predictors of BP response depend on the method of BP measurement. We estimated signal-to-noise ratios and compared power to identify a genetic polymorphism predicting BP response measured by each method separately and by weighted averages of multiple methods. Results After adjustment for pretreatment BP level, known predictors of BP response including plasma renin activity, race, and sex were independent of the method of BP measurement. Signal-to-noise ratios were more than 2-fold greater for home and ambulatory daytime BP responses than for office and ambulatory nighttime BP responses and up to 11-fold greater for weighted averages of all four methods. Power to identify a genetic polymorphism predicting BP response was directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio and, therefore, greatest with the weighted averages. Conclusion Since different methods of measuring BP response to antihypertensive drug therapy measure the same signal, weighted averages of the BP responses measured by multiple methods minimize measurement error and optimize power to identify genetic predictors of BP response.

  15. Optimal Feature Extraction for Discriminating Raman Spectra of Different Skin Samples using Statistical Methods and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Dehghani Bidgoli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Raman spectroscopy, that is a spectroscopic technique based on inelastic scattering of monochromatic light, can provide valuable information about molecular vibrations, so using this technique we can study molecular changes in a sample. Material and Methods: In this research, 153 Raman spectra obtained from normal and dried skin samples. Baseline and electrical noise were eliminated in the preprocessing stage with subsequent normalization of Raman spectra. Then, using statistical analysis and Genetic algorithm, optimal features for discrimination between these two classes have been searched.  In statistical analysis for choosing optimal features, T test, Bhattacharyya distance and entropy between two classes have been calculated. Seeing that T test can better discriminate these two classes so this method used for selecting the best features. Another time Genetic algorithm used for selecting optimal features, finally using these selected features and classifiers such as LDA, KNN, SVM and neural network, these two classes have been discriminated. Results: In comparison of classifiers results, under various strategies for selecting features and classifier, the best results obtained in combination of genetic algorithm in feature selection and SVM in classification. Finally using combination of genetic algorithm and SVM, we could discriminate normal and dried skin samples with accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 91%. Discussion and Conclusion: According to obtained results, we can conclude that genetic algorithm demonstrates better performance than statistical analysis in selection of discriminating features of Raman spectra. In addition, results of this research illustrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy in study of different material effects on skin and skin diseases related to skin dehydration.

  16. [Methylmercury exposure in the general population; toxicokinetics; differences by gender, nutritional and genetic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José M; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Sáinz-Martín, María; Bretón-Lesmes, Irene; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Llorente-Ballesteros, M Teresa; Martínez-García, M José; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Cuadrado-Cenzual, M Ángeles; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability.

  17. Comparative analyses of different genetic markers for the detection of Acanthamoeba spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Monika; Wojtkowiak-Giera, Agnieszka; Hadaś, Edward

    2014-09-01

    Acanthamoeba are widespread free-living amoebae which may cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), keratitis, skin ulcerations and disseminated tissue infection. An important diagnostic and prognostic factor for the treatment of infection is a quick and correct diagnosis of amoebae strains. The aim of our study was to develop a rapid method for detection and identification of pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. strains from diagnostic material collected from water. In this study we analysed five amplification-based genetic markers (Aca 16S, Ac6/210, GP, JDP, Nelson) used for identification of pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. strains isolated in water sources in Poland, Iceland and Sweden. Our results demonstrated the presence of pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in tap water. PCR assay appeared to be a more rapid and sensitive method to detect the presence of amoebae than the limited conventional techniques. Based on our observations, we can confirm that the use of four out of five genetic markers (Aca 16S, Ac 6/210, JDP, GP, Nelson) may be helpful in identification of Acanthamoeba spp. strains, but only one Aca 16S primer pair is a highly specific marker that distinguishes between pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba and other free-living amoeba families.

  18. Distribution of trinucleotide microsatellites in different categories of mammalian genomic sequence: Implications for human genetic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, R.L. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1994-05-01

    The distribution of all trinucleotide microsatellite sequences in the GenBank database was surveyed to provide insight into human genetic disease syndromes that result from expansion of microsatellites. The microsatellite motif (CAG)[sub n] is one of the most abundant microsatellite motifs in human GenBank DNA sequences and is the most abundant microsatellite found in exons. This fact may explain why (CAG)[sub n] repeats are thus far the predominant microsatellites expanded in human genetic diseases. Surprisingly, (CAG)[sub n] microsatellites are excluded from intronic regions in a strand-specific fashion, possibly because of similarity to the 3[prime] consensus splice site, CAGG. A comparison of the positions of microsatellites in human vs rodent homologous sequences indicates that some arrays are not extensively conserved for long periods of time, even when they form parts of protein coding sequences. The general lack of conservation of trinucleotide repeat loci in diverse mammals indicates that animal models for some human microsatellite expansion syndromes may be difficult to find. 20 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Next generation sequencing for preimplantation genetic testing of blastocysts aneuploidies in women of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Lukaszuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current preimplantation genetic screening of aneuploidies tests are based on the low quality and low density comparative genomic hybridization arrays. The results are based on fewer than 2,700 probes. Our main outcome was the association of aneuploidy rates and the women’s age. Between August–December 2013, 198 blastocysts from women (mean age 36.3+-4.6 undergoing in vitro fertilization underwent routine trophectoderm biopsy. NGS was performed on Ion Torrent PGM (Life Technologies. The results were analyzed in five age groups (<31, 31–35, 36–38, 39–40 and >40. 85 blastocysts were normal according to NGS results. The results in the investigated groups were (% of normal blastocyst in each group: <31 (41.9%, 31–35 (47.6%, 36–38 (47.8%, 39–40 (37.7% and >40 (38.5%. Our study suggests that NGS PGD is applicable for routine preimplantation genetic testing. It allows also for easy customization of the procedure for each individual patient making personalized diagnostics a reality.

  20. Genetic analysis of biomass and photosynthetic parameters in wheat grown in different light intensities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Li; Gui Wang; Qi Zheng; Bin Li; Ruilian Jing; Zhensheng Li

    2014-01-01

    Growth light intensities largely determine photo-synthesis, biomass, and grain yield of cereal crops. To explore the genetic basis of light responses of biomass and photosynthetic parameters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was carried out in a doubled haploid (DH) population grown in low light (LL), medium light (ML), and high light (HL), respectively. The results showed that the wheat seedlings grown in HL produced more biomass with lower total chlorophyll content (Chl), carotenoid content, and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) while the wheat seed-lings grown in LL produced less biomass with higher Chl compared with those grown in ML. In total, 48 QTLs were identified to be associated with the investigated parameters in relation to growth light intensities. These QTLs were mapped to 15 chromosomes which individually explained 6.3%-36.0% of the phenotypic variance, of which chromo-somes 3A, 1D, and 6B were specifically involved in LL response, 5D and 7A specifically involved in ML response, and 4B specifically involved in HL response. Several light-responsive QTLs were co-located with QTLs for photosyn-thetic parameters, biomass, and grain weight under various conditions which may provide new hints to uncover the genetic control of photosynthesis, biomass, and grain weight.

  1. QTL mapping with different genetic systems for nine non-essential amino acids of cottonseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiying; Quampah, Alfred; Chen, Jinhong; Li, Jinrong; Huang, Zhuangrong; He, Qiuling; Shi, Chunhai; Zhu, Shuijin

    2017-03-18

    Amino acid is an important nutrient resource for both human and animals. Using a set of 188 RILs population derived from an elite hybrid cross of upland cotton cultivars 'HS46' × 'MARCABUCAG8US-1-88' and their immortal F2 (IF2) with reciprocal backcrosses BC1F1 and BC2F1 (BC) populations in two environments, the QTLs located on the embryo genome and maternal plant genome for nine amino acids of cottonseed were studied across environments. The QTL Network-CL-2.0-seed software was used to analyze the QTLs and their genetic effects for nine amino acids. A total of 56 QTLs for nine amino acids were detected in both populations, with many having over 5% of phenotypic variation. Ten of the total QTLs could be simultaneously found in the IF2 and BC populations. For most QTLs, the genetic effects from embryo genome were more important than those from maternal plant genome for the performance of nine amino acids. Significant embryo additive main effects and maternal additive main effect with their environment interaction effects from many QTLs were also found in present experiment. Some QTLs with larger phenotypic variation were important for improving the amino-acid contents in cottonseeds.

  2. Blood pressure, heart rate and tubuloglomerular feedback in A1AR-deficient mice with different genetic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S M; Mizel, D; Qin, Y; Huang, Y; Schnermann, J

    2015-01-01

    Differences in genetic background between control mice and mice with targeted gene mutations have been recognized as a potential cause for phenotypic differences. In this study, we have used A1AR-deficient mice in a C57Bl/6 and SWR/J congenic background to assess the influence of background on the effect of A1AR-deficiency on cardiovascular and renal functional parameters. In A1AR+/+ and A1AR-/- mice in C57Bl/6 and SWR/J congenic backgrounds, we assessed blood pressure and heart rate using radio-telemetry, plasma renin concentrations and tubuloglomerular feedback. We did not detect significant differences in arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rates (HR) between A1AR+/+ and A1AR-/- mice in either C57Bl/6, SWR/J or mixed backgrounds. MAP and HR were significantly higher in SWR/J than in C57Bl/6 mice. A high NaCl intake increased MAP in A1AR-/- mice on C57Bl/6 background while there was less or no salt sensitivity in the SWR/J background. No significant differences in plasma renin concentration were detected between A1AR-/- and A1AR+/+ mice in any of the strains. Tubuloglomerular feedback was found to be absent in A1AR-/- mice with SWR/J genetic background. While this study confirmed important differences between inbred mouse strains, we did not identify phenotypic modifications of A1AR-related effects on blood pressure, heart rate and plasma renin by differences in genetic background. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Genetic improvement on Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeuschinensis): growth and viability performance in F1 hybrids of different populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yi; KONG Jie; LI Wendong; LUAN Sheng; YANG Cuihua; WANG Qingyin

    2008-01-01

    Fenneropenaeus chinensis distributed in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea of China and the west coast of the Korean Peninsula. Different geographical populations represent potentially different genetic resources. To learn further the characteristics of different geographical population, crosses among two wild and three farmed populations were produced. The two wild populations were from the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea (WYP), and the west coast of the Korean Peninsula and coast (WKN). The three farmed populations included the offspring of first generation of wild shrimp from coast in Korea (FKN), the Huang Hai (the Yellow Sea in Chinese) No. 1 (HH 1), and JK98. The phenotypes growth and survival rates of these populations were compared to confirm the feasibility for crossbreeding. The body length (BL), carapace length (CL), carapace width (CW), height of the second and third abdominal segment (HST), width of the second and third abdominal segment (WST), length of the first abdominal segment (LF), length of the last abdominal segment (LL), live body weight (BW), and survival rate were measured. Different combinations were statistically performed with ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple significant difference (P<0.05) in BL, CL, HST, LL, and BW; and insignificant difference (P0.05) in other growth traits and survival rate. The results of Duncan's Multiple Range Test are that BL and CL of was the best combination in all growth traits. Therefore, hybridization can introduce the variation to base populations. The systematic selection program based on additive genetic performance may be more effective than crossbreeding.

  4. Genetic architecture of differences in oviposition preference between ancestral and derived populations of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucić, N; Seslija, D

    2007-05-01

    We investigated the additive, dominance and epistatic genetic effects underlying differentiation in oviposition preference between two populations of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides obtectus evolved in the laboratory for 102 generations on bean and chickpea seeds. We reared and tested females on each of two host legumes. The populations differed in mean oviposition preference; the preference for chickpea was stronger in population reared on the chickpea (C) than in population maintained on common bean (P). Observations in the parental populations indicated that females tend to prefer ovipositioning their eggs on the seeds they have already experienced. The patterns of the means in each of the parental populations and 12 types of hybrids (two F(1), two F(2) and eight backcrosses) indicated that population differences in oviposition preference from both rearing hosts could be explained by nonadditive genetic effects. Statistically detectable additive and dominance genetic effects were observed in the most parsimonious model only when females were reared on the chickpea. The most parsimonious models on both rearing hosts suggested a contribution of negative additive x additive epistasis to the divergence of oviposition preference between the P and C populations. This indicates a positive effect of epistasis on the performance of the second generations of hybrids.

  5. Genetic diversity of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates nodulating two different host plants during soil restoration with alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X X; Kosier, B; Priefer, U B

    2001-09-01

    A total of 360 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains was isolated from three brown-coal mining restoration fields of different age and plant cover (without and in the first and second year of alfalfa, Medicago sativa, cultivation) using two host species (Vicia hirsuta and Pisum sativum) as capture plants. The strains were genetically typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions (IGS-RFLP) and characterized by plasmid profiles and RFLP analysis of amplified nodABC genes. The R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population was dominated by the same group of strains (irrespective of the trap plant used). According to type richness, the genetic diversity of indigenous R. leguminosarum in the second year of restoration was lower than in the first year and it resembled that of the fallow field, except for plasmid types, in which it was higher than that of the fallow field. Some of the less frequent nodABC genotypes were associated with distinct chromosomal IGS genotypes and symbiotic plasmids (pSyms) of different sizes, indicating that horizontal transfer and rearrangements of pSym can occur in natural environments. However, the dominant pSym and chromosomal genotypes were strictly correlated suggesting a genetically stable persistence of the prevailing R. leguminosarum bv. viciae genotypes in the absence of its host plant.

  6. Genetic diversity of indigenous Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae isolates nodulating two different host plants during soil restoration with alfalfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.X.; Kosier, B.; Priefer, U.B. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    A total of 360 Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains was isolated from three brown-coal mining restoration fields of different age and plant cover (without and in the first and second year of alfalfa, Medicago sativa, cultivation) using two host species (Vicia hirsuta and Pisum sativum) as capture plants. The strains were genetically typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions (IGS-RFLP) and characterized by plasmid profiles and RFLP analysis of amplified nodABC genes. The R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population was dominated by the same group of strains (irrespective of the trap plant used). According to type richness, the genetic diversity of indigenous R. leguminosarum in the second year of restoration was lower than in the first year and it resembled that of the fallow field, except for plasmid types, in which it was higher than that of the fallow field. Some of the less frequent nodABC genotypes were associated with distinct chromosomal IGS genotypes and symbiotic plasmids (pSyms) of different sizes, indicating that horizontal transfer and rearrangements of pSym can occur in natural environments. However, the dominant pSym and chromosomal genotypes were strictly correlated suggesting a genetically stable persistence of the prevailing R. leguminosarum bv, viciae genotypes in the absence of its host plant.

  7. Genotype variation and genetic relationship among Escherichia coli from nursery pigs located in different pens in the same farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Ahmed, Shahana; Hansen, Monica Hegstad

    2017-01-01

    supplemented with ampicillin or tetracycline was also investigated. Besides, the genetic relationship of strains within each pen, between pens, as well as among strains within each group isolated from media with or without antibiotic, was assessed. RESULTS: REP-PCR patterns (N = 75) were generated for all...... to be identical; however, in some of the pens, additional strains occurred at a lower frequency. E. coli isolates yielding different REP profiles were subjected to PFGE and led to 41 different genotypes which were also compared. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the presence of dominant strains, our results suggest a high...

  8. Genetic differences in growth, migration, and survival between hatchery and wild steelhead and Chinook salmon: Introduction and executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Steve P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of studies testing for genetically based differences in performance (growth, migration, and survival) between hatchery and wild populations of steelhead and Chinook salmon (Project Number 90-052). The report is organized into 10 chapters with a general study introduction preceding the first chapter. A growing body of data shows that domestication and a resulting loss of fitness for natural rearing occur in hatchery populations of anadromous salmonids; however, the magnitude of domestication will vary among species and hatchery programs. Better information on domestication is needed to accurately predict the consequences when hatchery and wild fish interbreed. The intent of hatchery supplementation is to increase natural production through introduction of hatchery fish into natural production areas. The goal of this study was to provide managers with information on the genetic risks of hatchery supplementation to wild populations of Columbia River Basin summer steelhead and spring Chinook salmon.

  9. Use of fluorescent proteins and color-coded imaging to visualize cancer cells with different genetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins are very bright and available in spectrally-distinct colors, enable the imaging of color-coded cancer cells growing in vivo and therefore the distinction of cancer cells with different genetic properties. Non-invasive and intravital imaging of cancer cells with fluorescent proteins allows the visualization of distinct genetic variants of cancer cells down to the cellular level in vivo. Cancer cells with increased or decreased ability to metastasize can be distinguished in vivo. Gene exchange in vivo which enables low metastatic cancer cells to convert to high metastatic can be color-coded imaged in vivo. Cancer stem-like and non-stem cells can be distinguished in vivo by color-coded imaging. These properties also demonstrate the vast superiority of imaging cancer cells in vivo with fluorescent proteins over photon counting of luciferase-labeled cancer cells.

  10. Differences in the Selection Bottleneck between Modes of Sexual Transmission Influence the Genetic Composition of the HIV-1 Founder Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien C Tully

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the stringent population bottleneck that occurs during sexual HIV-1 transmission, systemic infection is typically established by a limited number of founder viruses. Elucidation of the precise forces influencing the selection of founder viruses may reveal key vulnerabilities that could aid in the development of a vaccine or other clinical interventions. Here, we utilize deep sequencing data and apply a genetic distance-based method to investigate whether the mode of sexual transmission shapes the nascent founder viral genome. Analysis of 74 acute and early HIV-1 infected subjects revealed that 83% of men who have sex with men (MSM exhibit a single founder virus, levels similar to those previously observed in heterosexual (HSX transmission. In a metadata analysis of a total of 354 subjects, including HSX, MSM and injecting drug users (IDU, we also observed no significant differences in the frequency of single founder virus infections between HSX and MSM transmissions. However, comparison of HIV-1 envelope sequences revealed that HSX founder viruses exhibited a greater number of codon sites under positive selection, as well as stronger transmission indices possibly reflective of higher fitness variants. Moreover, specific genetic "signatures" within MSM and HSX founder viruses were identified, with single polymorphisms within gp41 enriched among HSX viruses while more complex patterns, including clustered polymorphisms surrounding the CD4 binding site, were enriched in MSM viruses. While our findings do not support an influence of the mode of sexual transmission on the number of founder viruses, they do demonstrate that there are marked differences in the selection bottleneck that can significantly shape their genetic composition. This study illustrates the complex dynamics of the transmission bottleneck and reveals that distinct genetic bottleneck processes exist dependent upon the mode of HIV-1 transmission.

  11. Differences in the Selection Bottleneck between Modes of Sexual Transmission Influence the Genetic Composition of the HIV-1 Founder Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Damien C.; Ogilvie, Colin B.; Batorsky, Rebecca E.; Bean, David J.; Power, Karen A.; Ghebremichael, Musie; Bedard, Hunter E.; Gladden, Adrianne D.; Seese, Aaron M.; Amero, Molly A.; Lane, Kimberly; McGrath, Graham; Bazner, Suzane B.; Tinsley, Jake; Lennon, Niall J.; Henn, Matthew R.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Norris, Philip J.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Jessen, Heiko; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Walker, Bruce D.; Altfeld, Marcus; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Allen, Todd M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the stringent population bottleneck that occurs during sexual HIV-1 transmission, systemic infection is typically established by a limited number of founder viruses. Elucidation of the precise forces influencing the selection of founder viruses may reveal key vulnerabilities that could aid in the development of a vaccine or other clinical interventions. Here, we utilize deep sequencing data and apply a genetic distance-based method to investigate whether the mode of sexual transmission shapes the nascent founder viral genome. Analysis of 74 acute and early HIV-1 infected subjects revealed that 83% of men who have sex with men (MSM) exhibit a single founder virus, levels similar to those previously observed in heterosexual (HSX) transmission. In a metadata analysis of a total of 354 subjects, including HSX, MSM and injecting drug users (IDU), we also observed no significant differences in the frequency of single founder virus infections between HSX and MSM transmissions. However, comparison of HIV-1 envelope sequences revealed that HSX founder viruses exhibited a greater number of codon sites under positive selection, as well as stronger transmission indices possibly reflective of higher fitness variants. Moreover, specific genetic “signatures” within MSM and HSX founder viruses were identified, with single polymorphisms within gp41 enriched among HSX viruses while more complex patterns, including clustered polymorphisms surrounding the CD4 binding site, were enriched in MSM viruses. While our findings do not support an influence of the mode of sexual transmission on the number of founder viruses, they do demonstrate that there are marked differences in the selection bottleneck that can significantly shape their genetic composition. This study illustrates the complex dynamics of the transmission bottleneck and reveals that distinct genetic bottleneck processes exist dependent upon the mode of HIV-1 transmission. PMID:27163788

  12. Genetic differences between blight-causing Erwinia species with differing host specificities, identified by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Lindsay R; Zhao, Youfu; Sundin, George W

    2006-11-01

    PCR-based subtractive hybridization was used to isolate sequences from Erwinia amylovora strain Ea110, which is pathogenic on apples and pears, that were not present in three closely related strains with differing host specificities: E. amylovora MR1, which is pathogenic only on Rubus spp.; Erwinia pyrifoliae Ep1/96, the causal agent of shoot blight of Asian pears; and Erwinia sp. strain Ejp556, the causal agent of bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. In total, six subtractive libraries were constructed and analyzed. Recovered sequences included type III secretion components, hypothetical membrane proteins, and ATP-binding proteins. In addition, we identified an Ea110-specific sequence with homology to a type III secretion apparatus component of the insect endosymbiont Sodalis glossinidius, as well as an Ep1/96-specific sequence with homology to the Yersinia pestis effector protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH.

  13. CURRENT STATUS, TRENDS AND CONTRADICTIONS IN ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK OF THE STATE INSPECTION FOR ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF TERRITORIAL SUBDIVISIONS OF THE MINISTRY OF INTERIOR OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda A. ERMOLAEVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the current state, trends and contradictions in organization of the work of the Russian traffic police subdivisions of the Ministry of Interior, following the requirements of the President regarding education of law-abiding citizens. After the road accident that had occurred in Khabarovsk region on August 5, 2015, when 68 people were injured, 15 people died, Vladimir Putin conducted a session of the Government of the Russian Federation. At the session, the President assigned the task to develop additional measures of safety on the roads. The complex plan, proposed by I. Shuvalov and aimed at reducing deaths on the roads, includes some different aspects: interaction with information agencies for publishing the data on dangerous sections of roads; strengthening of requirements to organizations engaged in transporting citizens; the use of helicopters to provide medical aid for victims of traffic accidents. The First Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation paid special attention to education of road users, introduction of norms of driver’s behavior, emergence of the term «dangerous driving» and strengthening of the responsibility for driving while intoxicated. For many years, the educational function has been assigned to police officers, namely to the traffic police. However, in some regions of the Russian Federation there is a reduction of police regular staff officers, including the State Inspection for road traffic safety of territorial subdivisions of the Ministry of Interior of the Russian Federation. 

  14. Resources calculation of cobalt-rich crusts with the grid subdivision and integral method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of three geological models and several orebody boundaries, a method of grid subdivision and integral has been proposed to calculate and evaluate the resources of cobalt-rich crusts on the seamounts in the central Pacific Ocean. The formulas of this method are deduced and the interface of program module is designed. The method is carried out in the software "Auto mapping system of submarine topography and geomorphology MBChart". This method and program will possibly become a potential tool to calculate the resources of seamounts and determine the target diggings for China's next Five-year Plan.

  15. Subdivisions in digraphs of large out-degree or large dichromatic number

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In 1985, Mader conjectured the existence of a function $f$ such that every digraph with minimum out-degree at least $f(k)$ contains a subdivision of the transitive tournament of order $k$. This conjecture is still completely open, as the existence of $f(5)$ remains unknown. In this paper, we show that if $D$ is an oriented path, or an in-arborescence (i.e., a tree with all edges oriented towards the root) or the union of two directed paths from $x$ to $y$ and a directed path from $y$ to $x$, ...

  16. Triangulations, Subdivisions, and Covers for Control of Affine Hypersurface Systems on Polytopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zhiyun

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the problem for an affine hypersurface system to reach a polytopic target set starting from inside a polytope in the state space. We present an exhaustive solution which begins with a characterization of states which can reach the target by open-loop control and concludes with a systematic procedure to synthesize a feedback control. Our emphasis is on methods of subdivision, triangulation, and covers which explicitly account for the capabilities of the control system. In contrast with previous literature, the partition methods are guaranteed to yield a correct feedback synthesis, assuming the problem is solvable by open-loop control.

  17. The genomes of closely related Pantoea ananatis maize seed endophytes having different effects on the host plant differ in secretion system genes and mobile genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani-Tezerji, Raheleh; Naveed, Muhammad; Jehl, Marc-André; Sessitsch, Angela; Rattei, Thomas; Mitter, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    The seed as a habitat for microorganisms is as yet under-explored and has quite distinct characteristics as compared to other vegetative plant tissues. In this study, we investigated three closely related P. ananatis strains (named S6, S7, and S8), which were isolated from maize seeds of healthy plants. Plant inoculation experiments revealed that each of these strains exhibited a different phenotype ranging from weak pathogenic (S7), commensal (S8), to a beneficial, growth-promoting effect (S6) in maize. We performed a comparative genomics analysis in order to find genetic determinants responsible for the differences observed. Recent studies provided exciting insight into the genetic drivers of niche adaption and functional diversification of the genus Pantoea. However, we report here for the first time on the analysis of P. ananatis strains colonizing the same ecological niche but showing distinct interaction strategies with the host plant. Our comparative analysis revealed that genomes of these three strains are highly similar. However, genomic differences in genes encoding protein secretion systems and putative effectors, and transposase/integrases/phage related genes could be observed.

  18. The genomes of closely related Pantoea ananatis maize seed endophytes having different effects on the host plant differ in secretion system genes and mobile genetic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh eSheibani-Tezerji

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The seed as a habitat for microorganisms is as yet under-explored and has quite distinct characteristics as compared to other vegetative plant tissues. In this study, we investigated three closely related P. ananatis strains (named S6, S7 and S8, which were isolated from maize seeds of healthy plants. Plant inoculation experiments revealed that each of these strains exhibited a different phenotype ranging from weak pathogenic (S7, commensal (S8, to a beneficial, growth-promoting effect (S6 in maize. We performed a comparative genomics analysis in order to find genetic determinants responsible for the differences observed. Recent studies provided exciting insight into the genetic drivers of niche adaption and functional diversification of the genus Pantoea. However, we report here for the first time on the analysis of P. ananatis strains colonizing the same ecological niche but showing distinct interaction strategies with the host plant. Our comparative analysis revealed that genomes of these three strains are highly similar. However, genomic differences in genes encoding protein secretion systems and putative effectors, and transposase/integrases/phage related genes could be observed.

  19. Extreme genetic differences among populations of Gazella granti, Grant's gazelle in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arctander, P; Kat, P W; Aman, R A

    1996-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from six Kenyan Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti) populations were highly divergent among locations. Neighbouring populations not separated by geographical or vegetational barriers exhibited and nucleotide sequence divergence about 14 per cent....... A similar level of divergence separates Grant's gazelles from a closely related species, the Soemmering's gazelle (G. soemmeringii). Nuclear microsatellite repeat number variation at two loci also indicated substantial population genetic differentiation. Despite high levels of sequence divergence...... populations of Grant's gazelles were more closely related to each other than to Soemmering's and Thompson's gazelles (G. thomsoni) as measured by nucleotide sequence divergence at the mtDNA protein coding cytochrome b gene and the nuclear alpha-lactalbumin gene. This pattern of extensive differentiation...

  20. Distribution and genetic diversity of functional microorganisms in different CANON reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Dong; Zeng, Huiping; Li, Xiangkun; Liang, Yuhai; Chang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jie

    2012-11-01

    Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) has been regarded as an efficient and economical process for nitrogen removal from wastewater. The distribution and genetic diversity of the functional microorganisms in five lab-scale CANON reactors have been investigated by using some molecular biology methods. Nitrosomonas-like aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) and Candidatus Brocadia-related anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) were detected as predominant functional microbes in the five reactors while Nitrobacter-like nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) existed only in the systems operated at ambient temperature. Communities of AerAOB and AnAOB were almost similar among the five reactors while the distribution of the functional microbes was either scattered or densely packed. Meanwhile, this study has demonstrated the feasibility of starting up CANON by inoculating conventional activated sludge in low ammonium content at ambient temperature.

  1. Genetic regulation of bone metabolism in the chicken: similarities and differences to Mammalian systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johnsson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Birds have a unique bone physiology, due to the demands placed on them through egg production. In particular their medullary bone serves as a source of calcium for eggshell production during lay and undergoes continuous and rapid remodelling. We take advantage of the fact that bone traits have diverged massively during chicken domestication to map the genetic basis of bone metabolism in the chicken. We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL and expression QTL (eQTL mapping study in an advanced intercross based on Red Junglefowl (the wild progenitor of the modern domestic chicken and White Leghorn chickens. We measured femoral bone traits in 456 chickens by peripheral computerised tomography and femoral gene expression in a subset of 125 females from the cross with microarrays. This resulted in 25 loci for female bone traits, 26 loci for male bone traits and 6318 local eQTL loci. We then overlapped bone and gene expression loci, before checking for an association between gene expression and trait values to identify candidate quantitative trait genes for bone traits. A handful of our candidates have been previously associated with bone traits in mice, but our results also implicate unexpected and largely unknown genes in bone metabolism. In summary, by utilising the unique bone metabolism of an avian species, we have identified a number of candidate genes affecting bone allocation and metabolism. These findings can have ramifications not only for the understanding of bone metabolism genetics in general, but could also be used as a potential model for osteoporosis as well as revealing new aspects of vertebrate bone regulation or features that distinguish avian and mammalian bone.

  2. Response of Lymphocytes to Radiation in Untreated Breast Cancer Patients as Detected with Three Different Genetic Assays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LIN LOU; ZHI-JIAN CHEN; JIANG WEI; JI-LIANG HE; LI-FEN JIN; SHI-JIE CHEN; WEI ZHENG; SHI-JIE XU

    2008-01-01

    To detect the response of lymphocytes to radiation in untreated breast cancer patients with three different genetic assays.Methods Blood samples were collected from 25 untreated patients and 25 controls.Each blood sample was divided into two parts:one was irradiated by 3-Gy X-ray (irradiated sample),the other was not irradiated (non-irradiated sample).The radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was assessed by comet assay,cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and 6-TG-resistant cells scored (TG) assay.Results The baseline values of micronucleated cell frequency (MCF) and micronucleus frequency (MNF) in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01),and 3-Gy X-ray induced genetic damage to lymphocytes in the patients increased significantly as compared with that in the controls as detected with the three genetic assays (P<0.01).The proportion of radiosensitive cases in the patient group was 48% for the mean tail length (MTL),40% for the mean tail moment (MTM),40% for MCE 44% for MNE and 48% for mutation frequencies of the hprt gene (Mfs-hprt),respectively,whereas the proportion of radiosensitive cases in the control group was only 8% for all the parameters.Conclusion The difference in the lymphocyte radiosensitivity between the breast cancer patients and the controls is significant.Moreover,there are wide individual variations in lymphocyte radiosensitivity of patients with breast cancer.In some cases,the radiosensitivity of the same patient may be different as detected with the different assays.It is suggested that multiple assays should be used to assess the radiosensitivity of patients with breast cancer before therapy.

  3. Ultrasonic and sensory characterization of dry-cured ham fat from Iberian pigs with different genetics and feeding backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niñoles, L; Sanjuan, N; Ventanas, S; Benedito, J

    2008-11-01

    The textural and ultrasonic properties of the subcutaneous fat from five batches of dry-cured hams from animals with different genetics (Iberian, Iberian×Duroc) and type of feeding ("montanera", concentrate feeds with different oleic acid content) were studied and related to the sensory traits (oiliness and brightness) of their biceps femoris muscle. The different genetics and feeding backgrounds found in the batches brought about differences in their ultrasonic velocities (average velocity from 4 to 20°C ranged from 1608 to 1650m/s) and textural parameters (maximum force at 8°C ranged from 11 to 21N). On average, batches with lower textural parameters had lower velocities and higher sensory scores. Ultrasonic measurements were used to carry out a discriminant analysis which allowed 78.3% of the samples to be correctly classified in the batches considered. Therefore, ultrasonic and sensory techniques could be useful in the characterization and differentiation of dry-cured hams from Iberian pigs.

  4. Evaluation of Subdivision of Warfarin Sodium Tablets from 3 Enterprises%3厂家华法林钠片分剂量的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元江; 缪经纬; 邓欣; 詹金陶; 刘其东

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate rationality of splitting warfarin sodium tablets from 3 enterprises. METHODS: Tablet cutter, scissor and knife were used to divide whole tablet from enterprise A (imported uncoated tablets), B (domestic sugar-coated tablets) and C (domestic film-coated tablets) into half and quarter parts by a student. For one third and one fifth parts, the method scissor by 2 students and pulverizing by 2 pharmacists were applied (n=30) , meanwhile European Pharmacopeia 6.0(EP 6.0) and other standards were adopted to evaluate the accuracy of subdivision of half and quarter parts and friability of all the subdivision. The disintegration time of tablets from 3 enterprises was investigated. RESULTS: The accuracy of subdivision of Warfarin sodium tablets from 3 enterprises could not met the requirement specified in EP 6.0. There was no significant difference in the pass rate of subdivision of half and quarter parts among 3 methods, there was no significant difference in the pass rate of subdivision between 2 students (except fifth parts) or 2 pharmacists. As to friability test for equal parts, enterprise A met the standard while enterprises B and C not. The disintegration time were 3, 29 and 23 min for 3 enterprises. CONCLUSION: It is not rational to subdivide Warfarin sodium tablets by above methods.%目的:评价3厂家华法林钠片分剂量的合理性.方法:对A(进口,未包衣)、B(国产,糖衣片)、C(国产,薄膜衣片)厂家的华法林钠片进行分剂量,分别由1名学生用切药器、剪刀、小刀将整片进行二、四等分;由另外2名学生用剪刀和2名药师用磨粉分包将整片进行三、五等分(n=30).参照《欧洲药典》第6版,对二、四等分片进行分剂量准确性评价,对二、三、四、五等分片进行等分片脆碎度评价,并考察3厂家片剂的崩解时限.结果:3厂家二、三、四、五等分分剂量准确性均不符合《欧洲药典》规定.3种方法二、四等分分

  5. [Genetic diversity of capsid assembly protein genes (g20) of cyanophage in different natural environment--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ruiyong; Kimura, Makoto; Wang, Guanghua

    2013-11-04

    With the development of molecular biological techniques and progress of sequencing virus genome, scientists pay great attentions to the genetic diversity of viruses, which are ubiquitous and abundant in natural environments. So far, no universal genetic marker, analogous to 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA used for microbial communities exists throughout all viruses. However, some family-specific genes encoding conserved amino acids have been proposed for the evaluation of phage diversity and a series of breakthrough achievements were obtained. In this paper, we targeted the capsid assembly protein genes (g20) of cyanophages and reviewed the recent progress on their genetic diversity in natural environments of marines, lakes and paddy fields and discussed the relationship between distribution of g20 gene of cyanophages and its environments. Those studies showed that the distribution of g20 gene varied with environments and many unique clusters were found in different natural environment. In final, several research issues and the future research tendencies for the study of environmental g20 gene were also addressed in this paper.

  6. A quantitative genetic study of starvation resistance at different geographic scales in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenaga, Julieta; José Fanara, Juan; Hasson, Esteban

    2010-08-01

    Food shortage is a stress factor that commonly affects organisms in nature. Resistance to food shortage or starvation resistance (SR) is a complex quantitative trait with direct implications on fitness. However, surveys of natural genetic variation in SR at different geographic scales are scarce. Here, we have measured variation in SR in sets of lines derived from nine natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster collected in western Argentina. Our study shows that within population variation explained a larger proportion of overall phenotypic variance (80%) than among populations (7·2%). We also noticed that an important fraction of variation was sex-specific. Overall females were more resistant to starvation than males; however, the magnitude of the sexual dimorphism (SD) in SR varied among lines and explained a significant fraction of phenotypic variance in all populations. Estimates of cross-sex genetic correlations suggest that the genetic architecture of SR is only partially shared between sexes in the populations examined, thus, facilitating further evolution of the SD.

  7. Gender cognitive: differences are in the aspect of neurobiology, genetics, cogitative patternes and social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chuikova

    2016-03-01

    Frontal stakes are functionally different for men and for women. Probably also, that left and right frontal stakes functionally are very different for men and in less degree for women. Thus extremely improbably, that these functional differences are limited to distinction between a language and unverbal processes. Masculine and woman strategies of making decision are different, and the lateralization of functions of frontal stakes is also different for them. Masculine and woman strategies of making decision are different, and the lateralization of functions of frontal stakes is also different for them. It was known a long ago, that structural, biochemical and functional distinctions between hemispheres are stronger expressed for men, what for women. Therefore must not surprise, what functional distinctions more than between two woman frontal stakes between two masculine frontal stakes. The riddle of cognitive distinctions between genders can appear one of such problems, that needs to be carried from an empiric sphere in the sphere of the developed theoretical disciplines.

  8. Genetic structuring among silverside fish (Atherinella brasiliensis) populations from different Brazilian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Cortinhas, Maria Cristina; Kersanach, Ralf; Proietti, Maíra; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; D'Incao, Fernando; Lacerda, Ana Luzia F.; Prata, Pedro Sanmartin; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Ramsdorf, Wanessa; Boni, Talge Aiex; Prioli, Alberto José; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-09-01

    Estuaries are dynamic environments, key for the survival of innumerous ecologically or economically important fish species. Among these species are Neotropical silversides (Atherinella brasiliensis), which are resident and abundant in Brazilian estuaries and used as a complementary source of income and food for local communities. To better understand silverside populations in Brazil, we evaluated the genetic diversity, structure and demography of fish sampled at six estuaries from the northeastern to the southern coast, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and mitochondrial DNA (D-loop) markers. High haplotype diversities (h ranging from 0.75 to 0.99) were found in all populations except Carapebus, located in Southeast Brazil (h = 0.54). A total of 69 mtDNA haplotypes were found, with Itaparica (Northeast Brazil) and Carapebus presenting only exclusive haplotypes, while some were shared among populations in the South. Strong regional structure was observed, with very high differentiation between Itaparica and Carapebus, as well as among these two populations and the ones from the Southern region (Paranaguá, Conceição, Camacho and Patos). Among southern areas, low/moderate structure was detected. Most populations showed unimodal mismatch distributions indicating recent demographic expansion, while Carapebus presented a multimodal distribution characteristic of a stable or bottlenecked population. Times since possible population expansion were highest in Itaparica (32,500 ya) and Carapebus (29,540 ya), while in the Southern region longest time was observed at Conceição (25,540 ya) and shortest at Patos (9720 ya). In a general manner, haplotype diversities were directly related to times since population expansions; again, Carapebus was the exception, displaying long time since expansion but low diversity, possibly due to a recent bottleneck caused by the isolation and human impacts this lagoon is subject to. Isolation by Distance was significant for Itaparica

  9. Pathogenicity of Genetically Similar, H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Chicken and the Differences in Sensitivity among Different Chicken Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Shiina, Takashi; Suzuki, Shingo; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruka; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of genetically closely related H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were evaluated in White Leghorn chickens. These viruses varied in the clinical symptoms they induced, including lethality, virus shedding, and replication in host tissues. A comparison of the host responses in the lung, brain, and spleen suggested that the differences in viral replication efficiency were related to the host cytokine response at the early phase of infection, especially variations in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Based on these findings, we inoculated the virus that showed the mildest pathogenicity among the five tested, A/pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004, into four breeds of Thai indigenous chicken, Phadu-Hung-Dang (PHD), Chee, Dang, and Luang-Hung-Khao (LHK), to explore effects of genetic background on host response. Among these breeds, Chee, Dang, and LHK showed significantly longer survival times than White Leghorns. Virus shedding from dead Thai indigenous chickens was significantly lower than that from White Leghorns. Although polymorphisms were observed in the Mx and MHC class I genes, there was no significant association between the polymorphisms in these loci and resistance to HPAIV.

  10. Contrasting patterns of clonality and fine-scale genetic structure in two rare sedges with differing geographic distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, R M; Millar, M A; Byrne, M

    2015-09-01

    For plants with mixed reproductive capabilities, asexual reproduction is more frequent in rare species and is considered a strategy for persistence when sexual recruitment is limited. We investigate whether asexual reproduction contributes to the persistence of two co-occurring, rare sedges that both experience irregular seed set and if their differing geographic distributions have a role in the relative contribution of clonality. Genotypic richness was high (R=0.889±0.02) across the clustered populations of Lepidosperma sp. Mt Caudan and, where detected, clonal patches were small, both in ramet numbers (⩽3 ramets/genet) and physical size (1.3±0.1 m). In contrast, genotypic richness was lower in the isolated L. sp. Parker Range populations, albeit more variable (R=0.437±0.13), with genets as large as 17 ramets and up to 5.8 m in size. Aggregated clonal growth generated significant fine-scale genetic structure in both species but to a greater spatial extent and with additional genet-level structure in L. sp. Parker Range that is likely due to restricted seed dispersal. Despite both species being rare, asexual reproduction clearly has a more important role in the persistence of L. sp. Parker Range than L. sp. Mt Caudan. This is consistent with our prediction that limitations to sexual reproduction, via geographic isolation to effective gene exchange, can lead to greater contributions of asexual reproduction. These results demonstrate the role of population isolation in affecting the balance of alternate reproductive modes and the contextual nature of asexual reproduction in rare species.

  11. Comparative genetic mapping points to different sex chromosomes in sibling species of wild strawberry (Fragaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Margot T; Spigler, Rachel B; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2010-12-01

    Separate sexes have evolved repeatedly from hermaphroditic ancestors in flowering plants, and thus select taxa can provide unparalleled insight into the evolutionary dynamics of sex chromosomes that are thought to be shared by plants and animals alike. Here we ask whether two octoploid sibling species of wild strawberry--one almost exclusively dioecious (males and females), Fragaria chiloensis, and one subdioecious (males, females, and hermaphrodites), F. virginiana--share the same sex-determining chromosome. We created a genetic map of the sex chromosome and its homeologs in F. chiloensis and assessed macrosynteny between it and published maps of the proto-sex chromosome of F. virginiana and the homeologous autosome of hermaphroditic diploid species. Segregation of male and female function in our F. chiloensis mapping population confirmed that linkage and dominance relations are similar to those in F. virginiana. However, identification of the molecular markers most tightly linked to the sex-determining locus in the two octoploid species shows that, in both, this region maps to homeologues of chromosome 6 in diploid congeners, but is located at opposite ends of their respective chromosomes.

  12. Genetic variants in the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and risk of different types of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Juan; Yu, Chen-Yang; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Hao-Yan; Guan, Jian; Chen, Ying-Xuan; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-02-16

    Members of the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway regulate cell proliferation, migration and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling, and are frequently dysregulated in cancer. Whether germline genetic variants in inositol phosphate metabolism pathway are associated with cancer risk remains to be clarified. We examined the association between inositol phosphate metabolism pathway genes and risk of eight types of cancer using data from genome-wide association studies. Logistic regression models were applied to evaluate SNP-level associations. Gene- and pathway-based associations were tested using the permutation-based adaptive rank-truncated product method. The overall inositol phosphate metabolism pathway was significantly associated with risk of lung cancer (P = 2.00 × 10(-4)), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (P = 5.70 × 10(-3)), gastric cancer (P = 3.03 × 10(-2)) and renal cell carcinoma (P = 1.26 × 10(-2)), but not with pancreatic cancer (P = 1.40 × 10(-1)), breast cancer (P = 3.03 × 10(-1)), prostate cancer (P = 4.51 × 10(-1)), and bladder cancer (P = 6.30 × 10(-1)). Our results provide a link between inherited variation in the overall inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and several individual genes and cancer. Further studies will be needed to validate these positive findings, and to explore its mechanisms.

  13. Genetic Evidence for Contrasting Wetland and Savannah Habitat Specializations in Different Populations of Lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andy E; Cotterill, Fenton P D Woody; Winterbach, Christiaan W; Winterbach, Hanlie E K; Antunes, Agostinho; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    South-central Africa is characterized by an archipelago of wetlands, which has evolved in time and space since at least the Miocene, providing refugia for animal species during Pleistocene arid episodes. Their importance for biodiversity in the region is reflected in the evolution of a variety of specialist mammal and bird species, adapted to exploit these wetland habitats. Populations of lions (Panthera leo) across south-central and east Africa have contrasting signatures of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and biparental nuclear DNA in wetland and savannah habitats, respectively, pointing to the evolution of distinct habitat preferences. This explains the absence of genetic admixture of populations from the Kalahari savannah of southwest Botswana and the Okavango wetland of northern Botswana, despite separation by only 500 km. We postulate that ancestral lions were wetland specialists and that the savannah lions evolved from populations that were isolated during arid Pleistocene episodes. Expansion of grasslands and the resultant increase in herbivore populations during mesic Pleistocene climatic episodes provided the stimulus for the rapid population expansion and diversification of the highly successful savannah lion specialists. Our model has important implications for lion conservation.

  14. Production of L-lysine on different silage juices using genetically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Andreas; Wagner, Ines; Sieker, Tim; Ulber, Roland; Schneider, Konstantin; Peifer, Susanne; Heinzle, Elmar

    2013-01-20

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, the best established industrial producer organism for lysine was genetically modified to allow the production of lysine on grass and corn silages. The resulting strain C. glutamicum lysC(fbr)dld(Psod)pyc(Psod)malE(Psod)fbp(Psod)gapX(Psod) was based on earlier work (Neuner and Heinzle, 2011). That mutant carries a point mutation in the aspartokinase (lysC) regulatory subunit gene as well as overexpression of D-lactate dehydrogenase (dld), pyruvate carboxylase (pyc) and malic enzyme (malE) using the strong Psod promoter. Here, we additionally overexpressed fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (fbp) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapX) using the same promoter. The resulting strain grew readily on grass and corn silages with a specific growth rate of 0.35 h⁻¹ and lysine carbon yields of approximately 90 C-mmol (C-mol)⁻¹. Lysine yields were hardly affected by oxygen limitation whereas linear growth was observed under oxygen limiting conditions. Overall, this strain seems very robust with respect to the composition of silage utilizing all quantified low molecular weight substrates, e.g. lactate, glucose, fructose, maltose, quinate, fumarate, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine and alanine.

  15. Detection and Genetic Analysis of Porcine Bocavirus in Different Swine Herds in North Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine Bocavirus (PBoV has been reported to be associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and pneumonia in pigs. In this study, a survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of PBoV in slaughter pigs, sick pigs, asymptomatic pigs and classical swine fever virus (CSFV eradication plan herds in five provinces of China (Henan, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei and Tianjin by means of PCR targeting NS1 gene of PBoV. Among the total of 403 tissue samples, 11.41% were positive for PBoV. The positive rates of spleen (20.75% and inguinal lymph node (27.18% are higher than those of other organs. PCR products of twenty PBoV positive samples from slaughter pigs were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The result revealed that PBoV could be divided into 6 groups (PBoV-a~PBoV-f. All PBoV sequenced in this study belong to PBoV-a–PBoV-d with 90.1% to 99% nucleotide identities. Our results exhibited significant genetic diversity of PBoV and suggested a complex prevalence of PBoV in Chinese swine herds. Whether this diversity of PBoV has a significance to pig production or even public health remains to be further studied.

  16. Psychopathic personality traits and environmental contexts: Differential correlates, gender differences, and genetic mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Carlson, Marie D; Blonigen, Daniel M; Patrick, Christopher J; Iacono, William G; Mgue, Matt

    2012-07-01

    Theorists have speculated that primary psychopathy (or Factor 1 affective-interpersonal features) is prominently heritable whereas secondary psychopathy (or Factor 2 social deviance) is more environmentally determined. We tested this differential heritability hypothesis using a large adolescent twin sample. Trait-based proxies of primary and secondary psychopathic tendencies were assessed using Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) estimates of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality, respectively. The environmental contexts of family, school, peers, and stressful life events were assessed using multiple raters and methods. Consistent with prior research, MPQ Impulsive Antisociality was robustly associated with each environmental risk factor, and these associations were significantly greater than those for MPQ Fearless Dominance. However, MPQ Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality exhibited similar heritability, and genetic effects mediated the associations between MPQ Impulsive Antisociality and the environmental measures. Results were largely consistent across male and female twins. We conclude that gene-environment correlations rather than main effects of genes and environments account for the differential environmental correlates of primary and secondary psychopathy.

  17. Functional subdivision of group-ICA results of fMRI data collected during cinema viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siina Pamilo

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA can unravel functional brain networks from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. The number of the estimated components affects both the spatial pattern of the identified networks and their time-course estimates. Here group-ICA was applied at four dimensionalities (10, 20, 40, and 58 components to fMRI data collected from 15 subjects who viewed a 15-min silent film ("At land" by Maya Deren. We focused on the dorsal attention network, the default-mode network, and the sensorimotor network. The lowest dimensionalities demonstrated most prominent activity within the dorsal attention network, combined with the visual areas, and in the default-mode network; the sensorimotor network only appeared with ICA comprising at least 20 components. The results suggest that even very low-dimensional ICA can unravel the most prominent functionally-connected brain networks. However, increasing the number of components gives a more detailed picture and functionally feasible subdivision of the major networks. These results improve our understanding of the hierarchical subdivision of brain networks during viewing of a movie that provides continuous stimulation embedded in an attention-directing narrative.

  18. An Indoor Navigation Approach Considering Obstacles and Space Subdivision of 2d Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Wei, Shuangfeng; Zlatanova, Sisi

    2016-06-01

    The demand for indoor navigation is increasingly urgent in many applications such as safe management of underground spaces or location services in complex indoor environment, e.g. shopping centres, airports, museums, underground parking lot and hospitals. Indoor navigation is still a challenging research field, as currently applied indoor navigation algorithms commonly ignore important environmental and human factors and therefore do not provide precise navigation. Flexible and detailed networks representing the connectivity of spaces and considering indoor objects such as furniture are very important to a precise navigation. In this paper we concentrate on indoor navigation considering obstacles represented as polygons. We introduce a specific space subdivision based on a simplified floor plan to build the indoor navigation network. The experiments demonstrate that we are able to navigate around the obstacles using the proposed network. Considering to well-known path-finding approaches based on Medial Axis Transform (MAT) or Visibility Graph (VG), the approach in this paper provides a quick subdivision of space and routes, which are compatible with the results of VG.

  19. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Fernanda Meloti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lateral cephalometric radiographs are traditionally required for orthodontic treatment, yet rarely used to assess asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare them with the existing morphology in Class I and II relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety initial lateral cephalometric radiographs of male and female Brazilian children aged between 12 to 15 years old were randomly and proportionally divided into three groups: Group 1 (Class I, Group 2 (Class II and Group 3 (Class II subdivision. Analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs included angular measurements, horizontal linear measurements and two indexes of asymmetry that were prepared for this study. RESULTS: In accordance with an Index of Dental Asymmetry (IDA, greater mandibular dental asymmetry was identified in Group 3. An Index of Mandibular Asymmetry (IMA revealed less skeletal and dental mandibular asymmetry in Group 2, greater skeletal mandibular asymmetry in Group 1, and greater mandibular dental asymmetry in Group 3. CONCLUSION: Both IDA and IMA revealed greater mandibular dental asymmetry for Group 3 in comparison to Groups 1 and 2. These results are in accordance with those found by other diagnostic methods, showing that lateral cephalometric radiography is an acceptable method to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in malocclusions.

  20. Population Genetic Structure of the Endangered Kaiser's Mountain Newt, Neurergus kaiseri (Amphibia: Salamandridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Farasat

    Full Text Available Species often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in an endemic and critically endangered stream breeding mountain newt, Neurergus kaiseri, within its entire range in southwestern Iran. We identified two geographic regions based on phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood of 779 bp mtDNA (D-loop in 111 individuals from ten of twelve known breeding populations. This analysis revealed a clear divergence between northern populations, located in more humid habitats at higher elevation, and southern populations, from drier habitats at lower elevations regions. From seven haplotypes found in these populations none was shared between the two regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA of N. kaiseri indicates that 94.03% of sequence variation is distributed among newt populations and 5.97% within them. Moreover, a high degree of genetic subdivision, mainly attributable to the existence of significant variance among the two regions is shown (θCT = 0.94, P = 0.002. The positive and significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (r = 0.61, P = 0.002 following controlling for environmental distance suggests an important influence of geographic divergence of the sites in shaping the genetic variation and may provide tools for a possible conservation based prioritization policy for the endangered species.

  1. Light-dependent genetic and phenotypic differences in the squat lobster Munida tenuimana (Crustacea: Decapoda) along deep continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, J.; Costa, C.; Ketmaier, V.; Angelini, C.; Antonucci, F.; Menesatti, P.; Company, J. B.

    2013-11-01

    The levels of environmental light experienced by organisms during the behavioral activity phase deeply influence the performance of important ecological tasks. As a result, their shape and coloring may experience a light-driven selection process via the day-night rhythmic behavior. In this study, we tested the phenotypic and genetic variability of the western Mediterranean squat lobster (Munida tenuimana). We sampled at depths with different photic conditions and potentially, different burrow emergence rhythms. We performed day-night hauling at different depths, above and below the twilight zone end (i.e., 700 m, 1200 m, 1350 m, and 1500 m), to portray the occurrence of any burrow emergence rhythmicity. Collected animals were screened for shape and size (by geometric morphometry), spectrum and color variation (by photometric analysis), as well as for sequence variation at the mitochondrial DNA gene encoding for the NADH dehydrogenase subunit I. We found that a weak genetic structuring and shape homogeneity occurred together with significant variations in size, with the smaller individuals living at the twilight zone inferior limit and the larger individuals above and below. The infra-red wavelengths of spectral reflectance varied significantly with depth while the blue-green ones were size-dependent and expressed in smaller animals, which has a very small spectral reflectance. The effects of solar and bioluminescence lighting are discussed as depth-dependent evolutionary forces likely influencing the behavioral rhythms and coloring of M. tenuimana.

  2. Lung adenocarcinoma of never smokers and smokers harbor differential regions of genetic alteration and exhibit different levels of genomic instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsie L Thu

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the observed clinical distinctions between lung tumors in smokers and never smokers (NS extend beyond specific gene mutations, such as EGFR, EML4-ALK, and KRAS, some of which have been translated into targeted therapies. However, the molecular alterations identified thus far cannot explain all of the clinical and biological disparities observed in lung tumors of NS and smokers. To this end, we performed an unbiased genome-wide, comparative study to identify novel genomic aberrations that differ between smokers and NS. High resolution whole genome DNA copy number profiling of 69 lung adenocarcinomas from smokers (n = 39 and NS (n = 30 revealed both global and regional disparities in the tumor genomes of these two groups. We found that NS lung tumors had a greater proportion of their genomes altered than those of smokers. Moreover, copy number gains on chromosomes 5q, 7p, and 16p occurred more frequently in NS. We validated our findings in two independently generated public datasets. Our findings provide a novel line of evidence distinguishing genetic differences between smoker and NS lung tumors, namely, that the extent of segmental genomic alterations is greater in NS tumors. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that these lung tumors are globally and genetically different, which implies they are likely driven by distinct molecular mechanisms.

  3. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with test-day animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portolano, B.; Maizon, D.O.; Riggio, V.; Tolone, M.; Cacioppo, D.

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day animal model and to evaluate the effect of different testing schemes on the ranking of top sheep. Alternative recording schemes that use less information than

  4. Genetic Differences between Two Strains of Xylella fastidiosa Revealed by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization†

    OpenAIRE

    Harakava,Ricardo; Gabriel, Dean W.

    2003-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to rapidly identify 18 gene differences between a citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) strain and a Pierce's disease of grape (PD) strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The results were validated as being highly representative of actual differences by comparison of the completely sequenced genome of a CVC strain with that of a PD strain.

  5. Genetic variants associated with VLDL, LDL and HDL particle size differ with race/ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specific constellations of lipoprotein particle features, reflected as differences in mean lipoprotein particle diameters, are associated with risk of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The associations of lipid profiles with disease risk differ by race/ethnicity, the reason f...

  6. Within-population genetic structure in beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stands characterized by different disturbance histories: does forest management simplify population substructure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piotti

    Full Text Available The fine-scale assessment of both spatially and non-spatially distributed genetic variation is crucial to preserve forest genetic resources through appropriate forest management. Cryptic within-population genetic structure may be more common than previously thought in forest tree populations, which has strong implications for the potential of forests to adapt to environmental change. The present study was aimed at comparing within-population genetic structure in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. plots experiencing different disturbance levels. Five plot pairs made up by disturbed and undisturbed plots having the same biogeographic history were sampled throughout Europe. Overall, 1298 individuals were analyzed using four highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (SSRs. Bayesian clustering within plots identified 3 to 11 genetic clusters (within-plot θ ST ranged from 0.025 to 0.124. The proportion of within-population genetic variation due to genetic substructuring (F CluPlot = 0.067 was higher than the differentiation among the 10 plots (F PlotTot = 0.045. Focusing on the comparison between managed and unmanaged plots, disturbance mostly explains differences in the complexity of within-population genetic structure, determining a reduction of the number of genetic clusters present in a standardized area. Our results show that: i genetic substructuring needs to be investigated when studying the within-population genetic structure in forest tree populations, and ii indices describing subtle characteristics of the within-population genetic structure are good candidates for providing early signals of the consequences of forest management, and of disturbance events in general.

  7. Within-population genetic structure in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands characterized by different disturbance histories: does forest management simplify population substructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Andrea; Leonardi, Stefano; Heuertz, Myriam; Buiteveld, Joukje; Geburek, Thomas; Gerber, Sophie; Kramer, Koen; Vettori, Cristina; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The fine-scale assessment of both spatially and non-spatially distributed genetic variation is crucial to preserve forest genetic resources through appropriate forest management. Cryptic within-population genetic structure may be more common than previously thought in forest tree populations, which has strong implications for the potential of forests to adapt to environmental change. The present study was aimed at comparing within-population genetic structure in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) plots experiencing different disturbance levels. Five plot pairs made up by disturbed and undisturbed plots having the same biogeographic history were sampled throughout Europe. Overall, 1298 individuals were analyzed using four highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (SSRs). Bayesian clustering within plots identified 3 to 11 genetic clusters (within-plot θ ST ranged from 0.025 to 0.124). The proportion of within-population genetic variation due to genetic substructuring (F CluPlot = 0.067) was higher than the differentiation among the 10 plots (F PlotTot = 0.045). Focusing on the comparison between managed and unmanaged plots, disturbance mostly explains differences in the complexity of within-population genetic structure, determining a reduction of the number of genetic clusters present in a standardized area. Our results show that: i) genetic substructuring needs to be investigated when studying the within-population genetic structure in forest tree populations, and ii) indices describing subtle characteristics of the within-population genetic structure are good candidates for providing early signals of the consequences of forest management, and of disturbance events in general.

  8. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Real-time Ultrasound Measurements for Hanwoo Cows at Different Ages and Pregnancy Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of ultrasound measurements for longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA, backfat thickness (BFT, and marbling score (MS in Hanwoo cows (N = 3,062 at the ages between 18 and 42 months. Data were collected from 100 Hanwoo breeding farms in Gyeongbuk province, Korea, in 2007 and 2008. The cows were classified into four different age groups, i.e. 18 to 22 months (the first pregnancy period, 23 to 27 (the first parturition, 28 to 32 (the second pregnancy, and 33 to 42 (the second parturition, respectively. For each age group, a multi-trait animal model was used to estimate variance components and heritabilities of the three traits. The averages of LMA, BFT, and MS measurements across the cows of all age groups were 50.1 cm2, 4.62 mm, and 3.04, respectively and heritability estimates were 0.09, 0.10, and 0.08 for the respective traits. However, when the data were analyzed in different age groups, heritability estimates of LMA and BFT were 0.24 and 0.47, respectively, for the cows of 18 to 22 months of age, and 0.21 for MS in the 28 to 32 months old cows. When the cows of all age groups were used, the estimates of genetic (phenotypic correlations were 0.43 (0.35, −0.06 (0.34 and 0.21 (0.32 between LMA and BFT, LMA and MS, and BFT and MS, respectively. However, in the cow age group between 28 and 32 (18 and 22 months, the estimates of genetic (phenotypic correlations were 0.05 (0.29, −0.15 (0.24 and 0.38 (0.24, for the respective pairs of traits. These results suggest that genetic, environmental, and phenotypic variations differ depending on cow age, such that care must be taken when ultrasound measurements are applied to selection of cows for meat quality.

  9. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  10. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  11. Different Clinical Outcomes of Entamoeba histolytica in Malaysia: Does Genetic Diversity Exist?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tengku Shahrul Anuar; Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi; Mohamed Kamel Abdul Ghani; Siti Nor Azreen; Fatmah Md Salleh; Nuraffini Ghazali; Mekadina Bernadus; Norhayati Moktar

    2013-01-01

    ...) communities in Malaysia. Examination was performed on 500 stool samples obtained from Orang Asli communities in 3 different states using formalin-ether concentration, trichrome staining, and single-round PCR techniques...

  12. 星的细分图的IC-着色%IC-coloring of the Subdivision of Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑峰

    2012-01-01

    研究了星的细分图的IC-着色问题,改进了星的细分图的IC-指数的下界,并且得到了两类图的IC-指数的一个下界。%This thesis researches the IC-coloring of the star subdivision graph,improved the lower IC-index of the star subdivision graph,and concluded two class graphs of the one lower IC-index.

  13. Genetic adaptation of Streptococcus mutans during biofilm formation on different types of surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharoni Reuven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adhesion and successful colonization of bacteria onto solid surfaces play a key role in biofilm formation. The initial adhesion and the colonization of bacteria may differ between the various types of surfaces found in oral cavity. Therefore, it is conceivable that diverse biofilms are developed on those various surfaces. The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular modifications occurring during in vitro biofilm development of Streptococcus mutans UA159 on several different dental surfaces. Results Growth analysis of the immobilized bacterial populations generated on the different surfaces shows that the bacteria constructed a more confluent and thick biofilms on a hydroxyapatite surface compared to the other tested surfaces. Using DNA-microarray technology we identified the differentially expressed genes of S. mutans, reflecting the physiological state of biofilms formed on the different biomaterials tested. Eight selected genes were further analyzed by real time RT-PCR. To further determine the impact of the tested material surfaces on the physiology of the bacteria, we tested the secretion of AI-2 signal by S. mutans embedded on those biofilms. Comparative transcriptome analyses indicated on changes in the S. mutans genome in biofilms formed onto different types of surfaces and enabled us to identify genes most differentially expressed on those surfaces. In addition, the levels of autoinducer-2 in biofilms from the various tested surfaces were different. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that gene expression of S. mutans differs in biofilms formed on tested surfaces, which manifest the physiological state of bacteria influenced by the type of surface material they accumulate onto. Moreover, the stressful circumstances of adjustment to the surface may persist in the bacteria enhancing intercellular signaling and surface dependent biofilm formation.

  14. The genetic difference between Western and Chinese urothelial cell carcinomas: infrequent FGFR3 mutation in Han Chinese patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Liu, Tiantian; Ge, Nan; Kong, Feng; Yang, Liu; Björkholm, Magnus; Fan, Yidong; Zhao, Shengtian; Xu, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) includes urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC), renal pelvic carcinoma (RPC) and ureter carcinoma (UC), and its incidence varies dependent on geographical areas and tumor locations, which indicates different oncogenic mechanisms and/or different genetic susceptibility/environment exposure. The activating mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter are the most frequent genetic events in UCCs. These mutations have clinical utilities in UCC initial diagnostics, prognosis, recurrence monitoring and management. However, the vast majority of the results are obtained from studies of UCC patients in Western countries, and little has been known about these in Han Chinese patients. In the present study, we screened the FGFR3 gene and TERT promoter for mutations in 116 UBC, 91 RPC and 115 UC tumors from Han Chinese patients by using Sanger Sequencing. TERT promoter mutations occurred at a high frequency in these UCC patients, comparable with that seen in Western patients, however, the FGFR3 mutation was surprisingly lower, only 9.4% for UBCs, 8.8% for RPCs and 2.6% for UCs, respectively. Taken together, the FGFR3 gene is an infrequent target in the pathogenesis of Han Chinese UCCs, and its mutation detection and targeted therapy have limited clinical utility in these patients. Our results underscore the need for extensive characterization of cancer genomes from diverse patient populations, thereby contributing to precision medicine for cancer treatment and prevention. PMID:27029078

  15. Differing courses of genetic evolution of Bradyrhizobium inoculants as revealed by long-term molecular tracing in Acacia mangium plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrineau, M M; Le Roux, C; Galiana, A; Faye, A; Duponnois, R; Goh, D; Prin, Y; Béna, G

    2014-09-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing bacteria as an inoculum in association with legume crops is a common practice in agriculture. However, the question of the evolution of these introduced microorganisms remains crucial, both in terms of microbial ecology and agronomy. We explored this question by analyzing the genetic and symbiotic evolution of two Bradyrhizobium strains inoculated on Acacia mangium in Malaysia and Senegal 15 and 5 years, respectively, after their introduction. Based on typing of several loci, we showed that these two strains, although closely related and originally sampled in Australia, evolved differently. One strain was recovered in soil with the same five loci as the original isolate, whereas the symbiotic cluster of the other strain was detected with no trace of the three housekeeping genes of the original inoculum. Moreover, the nitrogen fixation efficiency was variable among these isolates (either recombinant or not), with significantly high, low, or similar efficiencies compared to the two original strains and no significant difference between recombinant and nonrecombinant isolates. These data suggested that 15 years after their introduction, nitrogen-fixing bacteria remain in the soil but that closely related inoculant strains may not evolve in the same way, either genetically or symbiotically. In a context of increasing agronomical use of microbial inoculants (for biological control, nitrogen fixation, or plant growth promotion), this result feeds the debate on the consequences associated with such practices. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of an integrated hatchery program: Can genetic-based performance differences between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael C.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Drake, Deanne C.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Young, Sewall F.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of wild (W) and hatchery (H) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was evaluated for a sixth generation hatchery program. Management techniques to minimize genetic divergence from the wild stock included regular use of wild broodstock and volitional releases of juveniles. Performance of HH, WW, and HW (hatchery female spawned with wild male) crosses was compared in hatchery and stream environments. The WW juveniles emigrated from the hatchery at two to three times the rate of HH fish in the fall (HW intermediate) and 35% more HH than WW adults returned (27% more HW than WW adults). Performance in the stream did not differ statistically between HH and WW fish, but outmigrants (38% WW, 30% HW, and 32% HH fish) during the first 39 days of the 16-month sampling period composed 74% of total outmigrants. Differences among hatchery-reared crosses were partially due to additive genetic effects, were consistent with domestication (increased fitness for the hatchery population in the hatchery program), and suggested that selection against fall emigration from the hatchery was a possible mechanism of domestication.

  17. Genetic differences in the two main groups of the Japanese population based on autosomal SNPs and haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Hosono, Naoya; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki

    2012-05-01

    Although the Japanese population has a rather low genetic diversity, we recently confirmed the presence of two main clusters (the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters) through principal component analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes. Understanding the genetic differences between the two main clusters requires further genome-wide analyses based on a dense SNP set and comparison of haplotype frequencies. In the present study, we determined haplotypes for the Hondo cluster of the Japanese population by detecting SNP homozygotes with 388,591 autosomal SNPs from 18,379 individuals and estimated the haplotype frequencies. Haplotypes for the Ryukyu cluster were inferred by a statistical approach using the genotype data from 504 individuals. We then compared the haplotype frequencies between the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters. In most genomic regions, the haplotype frequencies in the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters were very similar. However, in addition to the human leukocyte antigen region on chromosome 6, other genomic regions (chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 12) showed dissimilarities in haplotype frequency. These regions were enriched for genes involved in the immune system, cell-cell adhesion and the intracellular signaling cascade. These differentiated genomic regions between the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters are of interest because they (1) should be examined carefully in association studies and (2) likely contain genes responsible for morphological or physiological differences between the two groups.

  18. Genetic variations of live attenuated plague vaccine strains (Yersinia pestis EV76 lineage) during laboratory passages in different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yujun; Yang, Xianwei; Xiao, Xiao; Anisimov, Andrey P; Li, Dongfang; Yan, Yanfeng; Zhou, Dongsheng; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Carniel, Elisabeth; Achtman, Mark; Yang, Ruifu; Song, Yajun

    2014-08-01

    Plague, one of the most devastating infectious diseases in human history, is caused by the bacterial species Yersinia pestis. A live attenuated Y. pestis strain (EV76) has been widely used as a plague vaccine in various countries around the world. Here we compared the whole genome sequence of an EV76 strain used in China (EV76-CN) with the genomes of Y. pestis wild isolates to identify genetic variations specific to the EV76 lineage. We identified 6 SNPs and 6 Indels (insertions and deletions) differentiating EV76-CN from its counterparts. Then, we screened these polymorphic sites in 28 other strains of EV76 lineage that were stored in different countries. Based on the profiles of SNPs and Indels, we reconstructed the parsimonious dissemination history of EV76 lineage. This analysis revealed that there have been at least three independent imports of EV76 strains into China. Additionally, we observed that the pyrE gene is a mutation hotspot in EV76 lineages. The fine comparison results based on whole genome sequence in this study provide better understanding of the effects of laboratory passages on the accumulation of genetic polymorphisms in plague vaccine strains. These variations identified here will also be helpful in discriminating different EV76 derivatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the Optimal Customization Degree of Different Service Industries by Integrating the Neural Network and the Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Tsu Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Customers have different emotions towards service industries of different natures, leading to inconsistent service quality characteristic items and levels of demands. Different emotions would affect customer perceptions of the customization degree of a hospital (the emotion is relatively sad and a theme park (the emotion is relatively joyful; while different service quality characteristic-related contents of the budget-limited DOH (Department of Health hospitals and theme parks also affect the customization degree. Therefore, this study established the PZB (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry service quality characteristic scale for different DOH hospitals and theme parks, conducted a questionnaire survey (qualitative and integrated the neural network and genetic algorithm in order to analyze the service quality gap item rankings of different services. Next, this study incorporated the quantitative contents of the top five service quality gap items into a quantitative customized mathematical model. The model considers the occurrence of demand in unit time as a Poisson distribution, the demand in normal distribution and the uncertain parameter subject to the effect of the boom countermeasure signals. This study then established and verified the correct method for a customization degree profit model. Decision-makers can determine improvement items according to the optimal customization degree. The research findings can serve as the basis for DOH hospital and theme park operational improvements. In addition, this study analyzed the managerial implications of the research findings in different service industries.

  20. Effects of different simplified milk recording methods on genetic evaluation with Test-Day animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cacioppo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to compare estimated breeding values (EBV for milk yield using different testing schemes with a test-day anim