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Sample records for genetic responsibility moral

  1. Morality, Moral Luck and Responsibility. Fortune's Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)......Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)...

  2. Rethinking Moral Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, A.H.; Johnson, D.; Moor, J.; Tavani, H.

    2000-01-01

    Questions regarding the moral responsibility of Internet access and service providers relating to possible negative aspects of information on the Internet call for a reassessment of the ways in which we think about attributing blame, guilt, and duties of reparation and compensation. They invite us t

  3. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer’s “historical principle” this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused. PMID:27668124

  4. Moral Fantasy in Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, C. Keith

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the main ethical issues generated by the new genetics and suggests ways to think about them. Concerns include "playing God," violation of the natural order of the universe, and abuse of genetic technology. Critical distinctions for making difficult decisions about genetic engineering issues are noted. (DH)

  5. Bioethics and Moral Agency: On Autonomy and Moral Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalko, John; Cherry, Mark J

    2016-10-01

    Two clusters of essays in this issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy provide a critical gaze through which to explore central moral, phenomenological, ontological, and political concerns regarding human moral agency and personal responsibility. The first cluster challenges common assumptions in bioethics regarding the voluntariness of human actions. The second set turns the debate towards morally responsible choice within the requirements of distributive justice. The force of their collective analysis leaves us with a well-founded basis critically to approach any account of bioethics or health policy that is insufficiently attentive to the central challenges of human freedom and responsible free choice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Identity and moral responsibility of healthcare organizations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenburg, M.A.M.; Gordijn, B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the moral responsibility of a Healthcare Organization (HCO) is conceived as an inextricable aspect of the identity of the HCO. We attempt to show that by exploring this relation a more profound insight in moral responsibility can be gained. Referring to Charles Taylor we explore the me

  7. Genetic ignorance, moral obligations and social duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, T; Häyry, M

    2000-02-01

    In a contribution to The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Professor Rosamond Rhodes argues that individuals sometimes have an obligation to know about their genetic disorders, because this is required by their status as autonomous persons. Her analysis, which is based on Kant's concept of autonomy and Aristotle's notion of friendship, is extended here to consequentialist concerns. These are of paramount importance if, as we believe and Professor Rhodes herself implies, the Kantian and Aristotelian doctrines can be helpful only in the sphere of private morality, not in the public realm. Better tools for assessing the right to genetic ignorance as an issue of public policy can, we contend, be found in Mill's ideas concerning liberty and the prevention of harm. Our own conclusion, based on the Millian way of thinking, is that individuals probably do have the right to remain in ignorance in the cases Professor Rhodes presents as examples of a duty to know.

  8. Faultless responsibility: on the nature and allocation of moral responsibility for distributed moral actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2016-12-28

    The concept of distributed moral responsibility (DMR) has a long history. When it is understood as being entirely reducible to the sum of (some) human, individual and already morally loaded actions, then the allocation of DMR, and hence of praise and reward or blame and punishment, may be pragmatically difficult, but not conceptually problematic. However, in distributed environments, it is increasingly possible that a network of agents, some human, some artificial (e.g. a program) and some hybrid (e.g. a group of people working as a team thanks to a software platform), may cause distributed moral actions (DMAs). These are morally good or evil (i.e. morally loaded) actions caused by local interactions that are in themselves neither good nor evil (morally neutral). In this article, I analyse DMRs that are due to DMAs, and argue in favour of the allocation, by default and overridably, of full moral responsibility (faultless responsibility) to all the nodes/agents in the network causally relevant for bringing about the DMA in question, independently of intentionality. The mechanism proposed is inspired by, and adapts, three concepts: back propagation from network theory, strict liability from jurisprudence and common knowledge from epistemic logic.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Responsabilidade moral razoável = Reasonable moral responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coitinho, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo desse artigo é responder a questão sobre o que constitui a responsabilidade moral. Tentaremos demonstrar que a responsabilidade moral tem duas características centrais, a saber, exigências internalistas e autoridade social. Para tal propósito, faremos uso de estratégias compatibilistas. O próximo passo será tentar descrever a concepção de responsabilidade substancial de Thomas Scanlon e, no final desse artigo, estipularemos um argumento sobre um tipo de responsabilidade moral razoável que pode estar contida na teoria da justiça como equidade de John Rawls

  10. Performance-enhancing technologies and moral responsibility in the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfendale, Jessica

    2008-02-01

    New scientific advances have created previously unheard of possibilities for enhancing combatants' performance. Future war fighters may be smarter, stronger, and braver than ever before. If these technologies are safe, is there any reason to reject their use? In this article, I argue that the use of enhancements is constrained by the importance of maintaining the moral responsibility of military personnel. This is crucial for two reasons: the military's ethical commitments require military personnel to be morally responsible agents, and moral responsibility is necessary for integrity and the moral emotions of guilt and remorse, both of which are important for moral growth and psychological well-being. Enhancements that undermined combatants' moral responsibility would therefore undermine the military's moral standing and would harm combatants' well-being. A genuine commitment to maintaining the military's ethical standards and the well-being of combatants therefore requires a careful analysis of performance-enhancing technologies before they are implemented.

  11. Gone with the Wind: Conceiving of Moral Responsibility in the Case of GMO Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaey, Zoë

    2016-06-01

    Genetically modified organisms are a technology now used with increasing frequency in agriculture. Genetically modified seeds have the special characteristic of being living artefacts that can reproduce and spread; thus it is difficult to control where they end up. In addition, genetically modified seeds may also bring about uncertainties for environmental and human health. Where they will go and what effect they will have is therefore very hard to predict: this creates a puzzle for regulators. In this paper, I use the problem of contamination to complicate my ascription of forward-looking moral responsibility to owners of genetically modified organisms. Indeed, how can owners act responsibly if they cannot know that contamination has occurred? Also, because contamination creates new and unintended ownership, it challenges the ascription of forward-looking moral responsibility based on ownership. From a broader perspective, the question this paper aims to answer is as follows: how can we ascribe forward-looking moral responsibility when the effects of the technologies in question are difficult to know or unknown? To solve this problem, I look at the epistemic conditions for moral responsibility and connect them to the normative notion of the social experiment. Indeed, examining conditions for morally responsible experimentation helps to define a range of actions and to establish the related epistemic virtues that owners should develop in order to act responsibly where genetically modified organisms are concerned.

  12. Moral responsibility for (un)healthy behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca C H

    2013-11-01

    Combatting chronic, lifestyle-related disease has become a healthcare priority in the developed world. The role personal responsibility should play in healthcare provision has growing pertinence given the growing significance of individual lifestyle choices for health. Media reporting focussing on the 'bad behaviour' of individuals suffering lifestyle-related disease, and policies aimed at encouraging 'responsibilisation' in healthcare highlight the importance of understanding the scope of responsibility ascriptions in this context. Research into the social determinants of health and psychological mechanisms of health behaviour could undermine some commonly held and tacit assumptions about the moral responsibility of agents for the sorts of lifestyles they adopt. I use Philip Petit's conception of freedom as 'fitness to be held responsible' to consider the significance of some of this evidence for assessing the moral responsibility of agents. I propose that, in some cases, factors outside the agent's control may influence behaviour in such a way as to undermine her freedom along the three dimensions described by Pettit: freedom of action; a sense of identification with one's actions; and whether one's social position renders one vulnerable to pressure from more powerful others.

  13. In Defence of Situational Morality: Genetic, Dispositional and Situational Determinants of Children's Donating to Charity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Pannebakker, Fieke; Out, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we argue that moral behaviour is largely situation-specific. Genetic make-up, neurobiological factors, attachment security and rearing experiences have only limited influence on individual differences in moral performance. Moral behaviour does not develop in a linear and cumulative fashion and individual morality is not stable across…

  14. The morality of assisted reproduction and genetic manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the pros and cons of various forms of assisted reproduction, including the use of so-called 'genetic manipulation'. He shows how in ethics the only arguments with any chance of reaching a consensus (or at least an agreement are those of the rational type, based on universally acceptable ethical principles or corroborated by empirical facts and real life experience (as the starting point for identifying problems requiring analysis. After an analysis in which he identifies the incoherence and inconsistency of arguments against assisted reproduction, the author defends the right of human beings to decide autonomously about the most healthy forms of procreation, including those involving genetic manipulation. His starting point is the moral principle by which it is morally preferable to intervene in natural processes (as opposed to not intervening whenever this implies preventing and reducing disease and suffering

  15. Roman Catholic beliefs produce characteristic neural responses to moral dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexas, Albert; de Miguel, Pedro; Cela-Conde, Camilo J.; Munar, Enric

    2014-01-01

    This study provides exploratory evidence about how behavioral and neural responses to standard moral dilemmas are influenced by religious belief. Eleven Catholics and 13 Atheists (all female) judged 48 moral dilemmas. Differential neural activity between the two groups was found in precuneus and in prefrontal, frontal and temporal regions. Furthermore, a double dissociation showed that Catholics recruited different areas for deontological (precuneus; temporoparietal junction) and utilitarian moral judgments [dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC); temporal poles], whereas Atheists did not (superior parietal gyrus for both types of judgment). Finally, we tested how both groups responded to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas: Catholics showed enhanced activity in DLPFC and posterior cingulate cortex during utilitarian moral judgments to impersonal moral dilemmas and enhanced responses in anterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal sulcus during deontological moral judgments to personal moral dilemmas. Our results indicate that moral judgment can be influenced by an acquired set of norms and conventions transmitted through religious indoctrination and practice. Catholic individuals may hold enhanced awareness of the incommensurability between two unequivocal doctrines of the Catholic belief set, triggered explicitly in a moral dilemma: help and care in all circumstances—but thou shalt not kill. PMID:23160812

  16. Roman Catholic beliefs produce characteristic neural responses to moral dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Flexas, Albert; de Miguel, Pedro; Cela-Conde, Camilo J; Munar, Enric

    2014-02-01

    This study provides exploratory evidence about how behavioral and neural responses to standard moral dilemmas are influenced by religious belief. Eleven Catholics and 13 Atheists (all female) judged 48 moral dilemmas. Differential neural activity between the two groups was found in precuneus and in prefrontal, frontal and temporal regions. Furthermore, a double dissociation showed that Catholics recruited different areas for deontological (precuneus; temporoparietal junction) and utilitarian moral judgments [dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC); temporal poles], whereas Atheists did not (superior parietal gyrus for both types of judgment). Finally, we tested how both groups responded to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas: Catholics showed enhanced activity in DLPFC and posterior cingulate cortex during utilitarian moral judgments to impersonal moral dilemmas and enhanced responses in anterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal sulcus during deontological moral judgments to personal moral dilemmas. Our results indicate that moral judgment can be influenced by an acquired set of norms and conventions transmitted through religious indoctrination and practice. Catholic individuals may hold enhanced awareness of the incommensurability between two unequivocal doctrines of the Catholic belief set, triggered explicitly in a moral dilemma: help and care in all circumstances-but thou shalt not kill.

  17. To delegate or not to delegate: Care robots, moral agency and moral responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wynsberghe, van, A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of robots in healthcare is on the rise, from robots to assist with lifting, bathing and feeding, to robots used for social companionship. Given that the tradition and professionalization of medicine and nursing has been grounded on the fact that care providers can assume moral responsibility for the outcome of medical interventions, we must ask whether or not a robot can assume moral responsibility for the outcome of its actions. In this paper I discuss the issue of moral agency and m...

  18. A behavioral genetic study of the dark triad of personality and moral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Villani, Vanessa C; Nguyen, Brenda; Vickers, Leanne; Vernon, Philip A

    2009-04-01

    The present study is the first behavioral genetic investigation of relationships between the Dark Triad of personality--Machiavellianism, narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy--and moral development. Participants were 154 monozygotic twin pairs and 82 same-sex dizygotic twin pairs. Higher scores on Machiavellianism and psychopathy were positively correlated with low levels of moral development; high psychopathy scores also correlated negatively with high levels of moral development. Individual differences in lower levels of moral development were attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental factors but, very interestingly, individual differences in the highest levels of moral development showed no genetic basis but were entirely attributable to shared and nonshared environmental factors. Finally, correlations between the Dark Triad and moral development variables showed no genetic basis while correlations among the moral development variables were variously attributable to correlated genetic and correlated environmental factors.

  19. Genetically-Driven Enhancement of Dopaminergic Transmission Affects Moral Acceptability in Females but Not in Males: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pellegrini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Moral behavior has been a key topic of debate for philosophy and psychology for a long time. In recent years, thanks to the development of novel methodologies in cognitive sciences, the question of how we make moral choices has expanded to the study of neurobiological correlates that subtend the mental processes involved in moral behavior. For instance, in vivo brain imaging studies have shown that distinct patterns of brain neural activity, associated with emotional response and cognitive processes, are involved in moral judgment. Moreover, while it is well-known that responses to the same moral dilemmas differ across individuals, to what extent this variability may be rooted in genetics still remains to be understood. As dopamine is a key modulator of neural processes underlying executive functions, we questioned whether genetic polymorphisms associated with decision-making and dopaminergic neurotransmission modulation would contribute to the observed variability in moral judgment. To this aim, we genotyped five genetic variants of the dopaminergic pathway [rs1800955 in the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 gene, DRD4 48 bp variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR, solute carrier family 6 member 3 (SLC6A3 40 bp VNTR, rs4680 in the catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT gene, and rs1800497 in the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1 gene] in 200 subjects, who were requested to answer 56 moral dilemmas. As these variants are all located in genes belonging to the dopaminergic pathway, they were combined in multilocus genetic profiles for the association analysis. While no individual variant showed any significant effects on moral dilemma responses, the multilocus genetic profile analysis revealed a significant gender-specific influence on human moral acceptability. Specifically, those genotype combinations that improve dopaminergic signaling selectively increased moral acceptability in females, by making their responses to moral dilemmas more

  20. Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidt, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is a rapidly growing field with two principle lineages. The main line began with Jean Piaget and includes developmental psychologists who have studied the acquisition of moral concepts and reasoning. The alternative line began in the 1990s with a new synthesis of evolutionary, neurological, and social-psychological research in which the central phenomena are moral emotions and intuitions. In this essay, I show how both of these lines have been shaped by an older debate between two 19th century narratives about modernity: one celebrating the liberation of individuals, the other mourning the loss of community and moral authority. I suggest that both lines of moral psychology have limited themselves to the moral domain prescribed by the liberation narrative, and so one future step for moral psychology should be to study alternative moral perspectives, particularly religious and politically conservative ones in which morality is, in part, about protecting groups, institutions, and souls. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  1. Good Tax Governance: A Matter of Moral Responsibility and Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribnau Hans J.L.M.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multinational corporations’ tax practices are hotly debated nowadays. Multinationals are accused of not paying their fair share of taxes. Apparently, acting within the limits set by law is not sufficient to qualify as morally responsible behavior anymore.

  2. Mastering moral misery: Emotional and coping responses to intragroup morality (vs. competence) evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, Romy; Ellemers, Naomi; Scheepers, Daan

    2016-01-01

    In social groups, individuals are often confronted with evaluations of their behaviour by other group members and are motivated to adapt their own behaviour accordingly. In two studies we examine emotional responses towards, and perceived coping abilities with, morality vs. competence evaluations individuals receive from other in-group members. In Study 1, we show that evaluations of one's immoral behaviour primarily induce guilt, whereas evaluations of incompetent behaviour raise anger. In Study 2, we elaborate on the psychological process associated with these emotional responses, and demonstrate that evaluations of immorality, compared to incompetence, diminish group members' perceived coping abilities, which in turn intensifies feelings of guilt. However, when anticipating an opportunity to restore one's self-image as a moral group member, perceived coping abilities are increased and the experience of guilt is alleviated. Together these studies demonstrate how group members can overcome their moral misery when restoring their self-image.

  3. Hippocampal Damage Increases Deontological Responses during Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cornelia; Rosenthal, Clive R; Miller, Thomas D; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2016-11-30

    Complex moral decision making is associated with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in humans, and damage to this region significantly increases the frequency of utilitarian judgments. Since the vmPFC has strong anatomical and functional links with the hippocampus, here we asked how patients with selective bilateral hippocampal damage would derive moral decisions on a classic moral dilemmas paradigm. We found that the patients approved of the utilitarian options significantly less often than control participants, favoring instead deontological responses-rejecting actions that harm even one person. Thus, patients with hippocampal damage have a strikingly opposite approach to moral decision making than vmPFC-lesioned patients. Skin-conductance data collected during the task showed increased emotional arousal in the hippocampal-damaged patients and they stated that their moral decisions were based on emotional instinct. By contrast, control participants made moral decisions based on the integration of an adverse emotional response to harming others, visualization of the consequences of one's action, and the rational re-evaluation of future benefits. This integration may be disturbed in patients with either hippocampal or vmPFC damage. Hippocampal lesions decreased the ability to visualize a scenario and its future consequences, which seemed to render the adverse emotional response overwhelmingly dominant. In patients with vmPFC damage, visualization might also be reduced alongside an inability to detect the adverse emotional response, leaving only the utilitarian option open. Overall, these results provide insights into the processes involved in moral decision making and highlight the complementary roles played by two closely connected brain regions. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is closely associated with the ability to make complex moral judgements. When this area is damaged, patients become more utilitarian (the ends justify the means) and have

  4. Control, intentional action, and moral responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Skill or control is commonly regarded as a necessary condition for intentional action. This received wisdom is challenged by experiments conducted by Joshua Knobe and Thomas Nadelhoffer, which suggest that moral considerations sometimes trump considerations of skill and control. I argue that this ef

  5. Perceived moral responsibility for attitude-based discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Liz; Ratliff, Kate A

    2016-06-01

    This research investigated judgements of moral responsibility for attitude-based discrimination, testing whether a wrongdoer's mental states - awareness and foresight - are central determinants of culpability. Participants read about and judged a target person who was described as consciously egalitarian, but harbouring negative attitudes that lead him to treat African Americans unfairly. Two studies showed that participants ascribed greater moral responsibility for discrimination when the target was aware of having negative attitudes than when he was unaware. Surprisingly, moral judgements were equally harsh towards a target who was explicitly aware that his bias could influence his behaviour as a target who was not. To explain this result, a second study showed that the path from awareness to moral responsibility was mediated by perceptions that the target had an obligation to foresee his discriminatory behaviour, but not by perceptions of the target's actual foresight. These results suggest that bias awareness influences moral judgements of those who engage in attitude-based discrimination because it obligates them to foresee harmful consequences. The current findings demonstrate that moral judges consider not just descriptive facts, but also normative standards regarding a wrongdoer's mental states.

  6. Mastering moral misery : Emotional and coping responses to intragroup morality (vs. competence) evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, Romy; Ellemers, Naomi; Scheepers, Daan

    2016-01-01

    In social groups, individuals are often confronted with evaluations of their behaviour by other group members and are motivated to adapt their own behaviour accordingly. In two studies we examine emotional responses towards, and perceived coping abilities with, morality vs. competence evaluations in

  7. To delegate or not to delegate: Care robots, moral agency and moral responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynsberghe, van Aimee

    2014-01-01

    The use of robots in healthcare is on the rise, from robots to assist with lifting, bathing and feeding, to robots used for social companionship. Given that the tradition and professionalization of medicine and nursing has been grounded on the fact that care providers can assume moral responsibility

  8. Does cleanliness influence moral judgments? Response effort moderates the effect of cleanliness priming on moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jason L

    2014-01-01

    Whether cleanliness influences moral judgments has recently become a topic of debate in the psychological literature. After the initial report that activating the notion of physical purity can result in less severe moral judgments (Schnall et al., 2008a), a direct replication (Johnson et al., 2014a) with much larger sample sizes failed to yield similar findings. The current paper examines the possibility that only non-conscious activation of the cleanliness concept, as achieved in participants with low response effort on priming materials, can produce the expected effect. An online replication (Study 1, N = 214) provided evidence that, when participants exerted low (yet still acceptable) levels of response effort to the experimental material, cleanliness priming led to more lenient moral judgments than neutral priming. An online experiment (Study 2, N = 440; replicated in Study 2a, N = 436) manipulating participants' effort on the priming task (low vs. high) supported the hypothesized mechanism. Specifically, respondents in the low response effort group were instructed to complete the priming task as quickly as possible without too much attention, and the cleanliness priming resulted in less extreme moral judgments than the neutral condition as expected. In contrast, respondents in the high response effort group were instructed to perform to the best of their ability on the priming task, with a non-significant difference on moral ratings between cleanliness and neutral conditions. In addition to helping resolve the controversy regarding the cleanliness hypothesis, the current paper calls into attention the role of response effort in the execution and replication of priming studies.

  9. Romanian president calls for responsible, moral use of internet

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Romania's President Ion Iliescu, present on Tuesday (9 December) in Geneva, Switzerland, at a conference at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) on the role of science in the IT society, said that the IT society must be based on morality in science and responsibility as citizen with regard to democracy and of peace" (2 paragraphs).

  10. Marriage, Sexuality and Moral Responsibility among the Tongu Mafi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-21

    Mar 21, 2016 ... natural death and living an exemplary life (Sarpong, 1971, p. 3;. Dzobo, 1985 ... The moral responsibility of the married couple, family and for that matter ... phenomenological study of the Tongu Mafi people of Ghana, mainly through ... Children of the same parents, including adopted siblings, step brothers ...

  11. Good tax governance: : A matter of moral responsibility and transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, Hans; Jallai, Ave-Geidi

    2017-01-01

    Multinational corporations’ tax practices are hotly debated nowadays. Multinationals are accused of not paying their fair share of taxes. Apparently, acting within the limits set by law is not sufficient to qualify as morally responsible behavior anymore. This article offers ethical reflection on

  12. Good tax governance: : A matter of moral responsibility and transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, Hans; Jallai, Ave-Geidi

    2017-01-01

    Multinational corporations’ tax practices are hotly debated nowadays. Multinationals are accused of not paying their fair share of taxes. Apparently, acting within the limits set by law is not sufficient to qualify as morally responsible behavior anymore. This article offers ethical reflection on th

  13. The Debate on the Moral Responsibilities of Online Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeo, Mariarosaria; Floridi, Luciano

    2016-12-01

    Online service providers (OSPs)-such as AOL, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Twitter-significantly shape the informational environment (infosphere) and influence users' experiences and interactions within it. There is a general agreement on the centrality of OSPs in information societies, but little consensus about what principles should shape their moral responsibilities and practices. In this article, we analyse the main contributions to the debate on the moral responsibilities of OSPs. By endorsing the method of the levels of abstract (LoAs), we first analyse the moral responsibilities of OSPs in the web (LoAIN). These concern the management of online information, which includes information filtering, Internet censorship, the circulation of harmful content, and the implementation and fostering of human rights (including privacy). We then consider the moral responsibilities ascribed to OSPs on the web (LoAON) and focus on the existing legal regulation of access to users' data. The overall analysis provides an overview of the current state of the debate and highlights two main results. First, topics related to OSPs' public role-especially their gatekeeping function, their corporate social responsibilities, and their role in implementing and fostering human rights-have acquired increasing relevance in the specialised literature. Second, there is a lack of an ethical framework that can (a) define OSPs' responsibilities, and (b) provide the fundamental sharable principles necessary to guide OSPs' conduct within the multicultural and international context in which they operate. This article contributes to the ethical framework necessary to deal with (a) and (b) by endorsing a LoA enabling the definition of the responsibilities of OSPs with respect to the well-being of the infosphere and of the entities inhabiting it (LoAFor).

  14. The neural correlates of moral decision-making: A systematic review and meta-analysis of moral evaluations and response decision judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigan, Beverley; Adlam, Anna L R; Langdon, Peter E

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this systematic review were to determine: (a) which brain areas are consistently more active when making (i) moral response decisions, defined as choosing a response to a moral dilemma, or deciding whether to accept a proposed solution, or (ii) moral evaluations, defined as judging the appropriateness of another's actions in a moral dilemma, rating moral statements as right or wrong, or identifying important moral issues; and (b) shared and significantly different activation patterns for these two types of moral judgements. A systematic search of the literature returned 28 experiments. Activation likelihood estimate analysis identified the brain areas commonly more active for moral response decisions and for moral evaluations. Conjunction analysis revealed shared activation for both types of moral judgement in the left middle temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus. Contrast analyses found no significant clusters of increased activation for the moral evaluations-moral response decisions contrast, but found that moral response decisions additionally activated the left and right middle temporal gyrus and the right precuneus. Making one's own moral decisions involves different brain areas compared to judging the moral actions of others, implying that these judgements may involve different processes.

  15. Consciousness, free will, and moral responsibility: Taking the folk seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-10-03

    In this paper, I offer evidence that folk views of free will and moral responsibility accord a central place to consciousness. In sections 2 and 3, I contrast action production via conscious states and processes with action in concordance with an agent's long-standing and endorsed motivations, values, and character traits. Results indicate that conscious action production is considered much more important for free will than is concordance with motivations, values, and character traits. In section 4, I contrast the absence of consciousness with the presence of consciousness in behaviorally identical agents. Most participants attribute free will to conscious agents, but not to nonconscious agents. Focusing in particular on two leading views of free will and moral responsibility, namely, Deep Self and Reasons-Responsive Views, I argue that these results present philosophers of mind and action with the following explanatory burden: develop a substantive theory of the connection between consciousness on the one hand and free will and moral responsibility on the other that takes folk views on this connection seriously.

  16. The morality of socioscientific issues: Construal and resolution of genetic engineering dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to negotiate and resolve socioscientific issues has been posited as integral components of scientific literacy. Although philosophers and science educators have argued that socioscientific issues inherently involve moral and ethical considerations, the ultimate arbiters of morality are individual decision-makers. This study explored the extent to which college students construe genetic engineering issues as moral problems. Twenty college students participated in interviews designed to elicit their ideas, reactions, and feelings regarding a series of gene therapy and cloning scenarios. Qualitative analyses revealed that moral considerations were significant influences on decision-making, indicating a tendency for students to construe genetic engineering issues as moral problems. Students engaged in moral reasoning based on utilitarian analyses of consequences as well as the application of principles. Issue construal was also influenced by affective features such as emotion and intuition. In addition to moral considerations, a series of other factors emerged as important dimensions of socioscientific decision-making. These factors included personal experiences, family biases, background knowledge, and the impact of popular culture. The implications for classroom science instruction and future research are discussed.

  17. Corporate Social Responsibility, Reputation, and Moral Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Conditions and notions of corporate reputation underwent in the last years a fundamental change. Economic and technological processes of globalization, modernization, and rationalization enforced the institutionalization of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the corporate world. It is often...... assumed, that CSR positively affects corporate reputation and leads to financial benefits, although empirical evidence and an appropriate conceptualization of reputation are often missing. This chapter discusses the relation between CSR and reputation by taking a meta-perspective: it presents...... and critically discusses insights from instrumental perspectives and from political-normative perspectives (legitimacy, business ethics). It alternatively develops a constructivist communication view on CSR, building on the “communication constitutes organizations” perspective and a non-dualist turn. It argues...

  18. The Relation Between Policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility and Philosophical Moral Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Claus S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? To address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based ...

  19. Moral Emotions and Morals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Orsi Portalo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to explore the ambivalent role played by the so called moral emotions in moral thinking, overall when the concept of responsibility is concerned. In the first part of this paper I show how moral emotions such as guilt and shame can appear in circumstances that are not under the agent’s control, and therefore the agent could be though of free or responsibility for them. By contrast, in the second part of this essay I put how the absence of moral emotions, or their twisted development, makes as well the flourishing of individual morality impossible.

  20. Responses to Sex-Bias Criticism in Cognitive Moral Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socoski, Patrick M.

    This paper explores the issue of sex bias in a contemporary major theory of moral development, cognitive moral theory. It explains critical reactions by Carol Gilligan and others questioning whether cognitive moral theory adequately accounts for female moral reasoning and behavior in its theory and research procedures. Several general…

  1. Scaling ethics up and down: moral craft in clinical genetics and in global health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper engages with the question of what it is to 'do good medical ethics' in two ways. It begins with an exploration of what it might mean to say that health professionals practise good medical ethics as part of practising good ethical medicine. Using the example of the Genethics Club, a well-established national ethics forum for genetics professionals in the UK, the paper develops an account of moral craftsmanship grounded in the concepts of shared moral commitments and practices, moral work, ethics and living morality. In the light of this discussion, the paper goes on to consider what it might mean for a specialist in medical ethics, a bioethicist, to do good medical ethics. Finally, a research agenda focusing on the challenges of thinking about good medical ethics in a global context and a proposal for an innovative approach to bioethics methodology is outlined.

  2. The Mismeasure of Morals: Antisocial Personality Traits Predict Utilitarian Responses to Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M.; Pizarro, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments…

  3. The Mismeasure of Morals: Antisocial Personality Traits Predict Utilitarian Responses to Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M.; Pizarro, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments…

  4. On the relation between moral, legal and evaluative justifications of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Georg

    2003-01-01

    In Germany the question whether to uphold or repeal the judicial prohibition on Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is being debated from quite different standpoints. This paper differentiates the major arguments according to their reasons as a) moral, b) evaluative (i.e. cultural/religious), and c) legal. The arguments for and against PGD can be divided by content into three groups: arguments relating to the status of the embryo, focusing on individual actions in the implementation of PGD, and relating to the foreseeable or probable consequences of PGD. In Germany, from a legal perspective, the status of the embryo does not permit the intervention of PGD; from a purely moral perspective, a prohibition on PGD does not appear defensible. It remains an open question, however, whether the moral argument permitting PGD should be restricted for evaluative (cultural) reasons. The paper discusses the species-ethical reasons, for which Jurgen Habermas sees worrisome consequences in the wake of PGD to the extent that we comprehend it as the forerunner of a 'positive eugenics'. It would so disrupt the natural preconditions of our universal morality. The question of whether to prohibit or allow PGD is not merely a question of simple moral and/or legal arguments, but demands a choice between evaluative, moral and (still to be specified) species-ethical arguments, and the question remains open.

  5. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

  6. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

  7. Genetic testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: responsibility and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Agincourt-Canning, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Genetic testing for hereditary breast-ovarian cancer has become an important part of clinical genetics practice. Although considerable work has focused on the psychological impact of this technology, there has been little research into the moral implications of genetic information on hereditary cancer families. In this article, the author examines moral issues related to individuals' decisions to seek or decline testing. In-depth interviews with 53 participants make up the core of the research. Analysis of participants' accounts illustrates how the decision to be tested (or not) interconnects with moral agency and aspects of self (embodied, familial-relational, and civic self). The findings form the foundation for inquiry into conceptualization of moral responsibility, autonomy, and choice. They also provide insight that might assist clinicians to understand more fully the needs and responses of those who seek genetic testing for hereditary breast-ovarian cancer.

  8. Expertise, wisdom and moral philosophers: a response to Gesang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Christopher

    2012-07-01

    In a recent issue of Bioethics, Bernard Gesang asks whether a moral philosopher possesses greater moral expertise than a non-philosopher, and his answer is a qualified yes, based not so much on his infallible access to the truth, but on the quality of his theoretically-informed moral justifications. I reject Gesang's claim that there is such a thing as moral expertise, although the moral philosopher may well make a valid contribution to the ethics committee as a concerned and educated citizen. I suggest that wisdom is a lot more interesting to examine than moral expertise. Again, however, moral philosophers have no monopoly on wisdom, and the study of philosophy may even impede its cultivation.

  9. The mismeasure of morals: antisocial personality traits predict utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Pizarro, David A

    2011-10-01

    Researchers have recently argued that utilitarianism is the appropriate framework by which to evaluate moral judgment, and that individuals who endorse non-utilitarian solutions to moral dilemmas (involving active vs. passive harm) are committing an error. We report a study in which participants responded to a battery of personality assessments and a set of dilemmas that pit utilitarian and non-utilitarian options against each other. Participants who indicated greater endorsement of utilitarian solutions had higher scores on measures of Psychopathy, machiavellianism, and life meaninglessness. These results question the widely-used methods by which lay moral judgments are evaluated, as these approaches lead to the counterintuitive conclusion that those individuals who are least prone to moral errors also possess a set of psychological characteristics that many would consider prototypically immoral. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Students' Sense of Responsibility in Event Planning: The Moral Aspect of Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powellson, Tina Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Many scholars have asserted that college should contribute to the moral development of students, developing them into people who can think and act morally (Chickering, 1969; Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Mathaisen, 2005). This responsibility applies not only to the classroom, but to the co-curricular experience as well. The…

  11. Students' Sense of Responsibility in Event Planning: The Moral Aspect of Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powellson, Tina Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Many scholars have asserted that college should contribute to the moral development of students, developing them into people who can think and act morally (Chickering, 1969; Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Mathaisen, 2005). This responsibility applies not only to the classroom, but to the co-curricular experience as well. The…

  12. Moral perfectionism and democratic responsiveness: reading Cavell with Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta J. Norval

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from existing interpretations of Cavell's account of moral perfectionism, this article seeks to elaborate an account of democratic responsiveness that foregrounds notions of ‘turning’ and ‘manifesting for another’. In contrast to readings of Cavell that privilege reason-giving, the article draws on the writings of Cavell as well as on Foucault's work on parrēsia to elaborate a grammar of responsiveness that is attentive to a wider range of practices, forms of embodiment and modes of subjectivity. The article suggests that a focus on the notions of ‘turning’ and ‘manifesting for another’ is crucial if we are to account for the processes through which political imagination is opened up so as to bring about novel ways of being and acting. The arguments are illustrated with reference to recent events in the Arab Spring as well as to the politics of redress in a post-transitional social movement, Khulumani.

  13. A business to change the world – moral responsibility in textbooks for International Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Pernilla Andersson; Johan Öhman; Leif Östman

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an empirical analysis of textbooks for International Economics in upper secondary schools with a focus on moral responsibility for environment and society. The purpose is to analyse the meanings offered to students regarding the scope of taking moral responsibility in relation to the role of a business person. Four different meanings are formulated as a result of the study: one states that a business only can take responsibility inorder to obey laws and respond to consum...

  14. The Relation Between Policies Concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Philosophical Moral Theories - An Empirical Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Claus Strue

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind...... philosophical moral theories and the ethical content of business activities have mainly concentrated on the ethical decision-making of managers. Some of the most prominent investigations in that regard propose that managers mainly act in accordance with utilitarian moral theory (Fritzsche, D. J. and H. Becker......: 1984, Academy of Management Journal27(1), 166–175; Premeaux, S. and W. Mony: 1993, Journal of Business Ethics12, 349–357; Premeaux, S.: 2004, Journal of Business Ethics52, 269–278). I conclude that CSR policies are not based on utilitarian thinking, but instead, on some kind of common-sense morality...

  15. Oxytocin influences intuitions about the relationship between belief in free will and moral responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Kimberly; Lee, Mary R; O'Hara, Martin; Chernyak, Sergey; Walter, Henrik; Parasuraman, Raja; Krueger, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Philosophers have proposed that laypeople can have deterministic or indeterministic intuitions about the relationship between free will and moral responsibility. However, the psychophysiological mechanisms that generate these extreme intuitions are still underexplored. Exogenous oxytocin offers a unique opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of these underlying mechanisms, since this neuropeptide influences a wide range of outcomes related to social cognition and prosociality. This study investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin on intuitions about the relationship between free will and moral responsibility by applying a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subject design. Healthy male participants rated the moral responsibility of a hypothetical offender, who committed crimes in either a primed deterministic or an indeterministic universe. Under placebo, participants held the offender more morally responsible when acting in an indeterministic compared to a deterministic universe, which could be accredited to recognition of the offender's freely chosen action to commit the crimes. Under oxytocin, participants rated the offender's actions with greater leniency and similarly assigned lower moral responsibility in both universes. These findings strengthen the assumption that a person can have different intuitions about the relationship between free will and moral responsibility, which can be presumably dependent on motivational states associated with affiliation.

  16. Evolutionary neurology, responsive equilibrium, and the moral brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant; Franz, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    The relation between morality and the brain is a topic usefully examined through the evolutionary neurology of John Hughlings-Jackson, who considered higher mental function to be progressively inclusive integration of sensori-motor processes. His view, based on careful observations of patients with neurological disorders, implies that moral reasoning involves integration and coordination of behaviour through a process of representation and re-representation encompassing broader and broader types of information sensitive to environmental contingencies. The relevant information is processed in diverse brain areas: superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPF) areas, as well as anterior temporal (AT) structures. Moral function can be regarded as maximally integrating emotion, social cognition, and other-regarding sensibilities using propositionally organised cognitive structures that map a shared world of human activity and relationships so that they take account of what in social and personal life counts as something.

  17. Design for responsibility: safeguarding moral perception via a partnership architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Greef, T.E.; Leveringhaus, A.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced warfare technologies (AWT) create unprecedented capabilities to control the delivery of military force up to the point, some argue, that we are loosing humanity. But dependence on them generates difficult moral challenges impacting the decision-making process, which are only beginning to be

  18. Doing the right thing: relief agencies, moral dilemmas and responsibility in political emergencies and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, H

    1997-09-01

    In recent years a new generation of relief workers and relief agencies has become embroiled in the heat of civil wars and political emergencies, and the humanitarian community has had to revisit its fundamental principles and address the ethics of what it does. This paper sets out to continue this important debate by emphasising that ethical analysis should always be an essential part of humanitarian practice. The paper seeks to recognise the difficult moral choices relief agencies are facing today and gives some practical guidelines to relief agency staff when confronting the ethics of a given situation. In particular, it hopes to introduce some ethical principles into the debate about humanitarianism and contribute to the moral vocabulary which is being developed to improve relief agencies' ethical analysis. The paper starts by looking at the essential characteristics of a moral dilemma, and the way in which other types of tough choice can masquerade as moral dilemmas. It then introduces some basic moral principles surrounding the key ethical notions of action consequences and moral responsibility in an effort to show how relief agencies might begin to develop a process of ethical analysis in their work. Finally, it explores how relief agencies might develop a more intuitive form of ethical analysis based on an organisational conscience and moral role models.

  19. Response to Marie Paz Morales' ``Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-12-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  20. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  1. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  2. The social responsibility of scientists: moonshine and morals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, L

    1989-04-01

    Two historical cases are used to explore the nature of the scientist's obligations to society on technological issues. The physicist Leo Szilard is praised as a moral scientist and a moral citizen for contributing to the development of the atomic bomb in the Manhattan Project and then arguing against its testing when the danger that Germany might use the bomb against the United States subsided. On the other hand, the scientists, including physicians, who promoted the views of the eugenics movement in Nazi Germany were immoral in not considering the social implications of their scientific conclusions. Wolpert maintains that, while there are no areas that should not be subject to research, the scientist's obligations are to make the reliability of the research clear and to inform the public about its possible ramifications.

  3. Social psychology. Response to Comment on "Morality in everyday life".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Wisneski, Daniel C; Brandt, Mark J; Skitka, Linda J

    2015-05-15

    Voelkle challenges our conclusions regarding the relationship between morality and momentary happiness/sense of purpose based on methodological concerns. We show that our main conclusions are not affected by this methodological critique and clarify that the discrepancies between our and Voelkle's effect size estimates can be reconciled by the realization that two different (but compatible) research questions are being asked. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Children's Moral Emotion Attribution in the Happy Victimizer Task: The Role of Response Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummerum, Michaela; López-Pérez, Belén; Ambrona, Tamara; Rodríguez-Cano, Sonia; Dellaria, Giulia; Smith, Gary; Wilson, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in the happy victimizer tradition indicated that preschool and early elementary school children attribute positive emotions to the violator of a moral norm, whereas older children attribute negative (moral) emotions. Cognitive and motivational processes have been suggested to underlie this developmental shift. The current research investigated whether making the happy victimizer task less cognitively demanding by providing children with alternative response formats would increase their attribution of moral emotions and moral motivation. In Study 1, 93 British children aged 4-7 years old responded to the happy victimizer questions either in a normal condition (where they spontaneously pointed with a finger), a wait condition (where they had to wait before giving their answers), or an arrow condition (where they had to point with a paper arrow). In Study 2, 40 Spanish children aged 4 years old responded to the happy victimizer task either in a normal or a wait condition. In both studies, participants' attribution of moral emotions and moral motivation was significantly higher in the conditions with alternative response formats (wait, arrow) than in the normal condition. The role of cognitive abilities for emotion attribution in the happy victimizer task is discussed.

  5. Putting Emotion into the Self: A Response to the 2008 "Journal of Moral Education" Special Issue on Moral Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the Journal of Moral Education Special Issue (September, 2008, 37[3]) "Towards an integrated model of moral reasoning". Although explicitly post-Kohlbergian, the authors in this Special Issue do not, I argue, depart far enough from Kohlberg's impoverished notion of the role of the affective in moral life--or…

  6. Moral Responsibility, Technology, and Experiences of the Tragic: From Kierkegaard to Offshore Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The standard response to engineering disasters like the Deepwater Horizon case is to ascribe full moral responsibility to individuals and to collectives treated as individuals. However, this approach is inappropriate since concrete action and experience in engineering contexts seldom meets the crite

  7. Childhood disability and parental moral responsibility in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the roles played by parents living in Hanoi, Vietnam, in shaping the subjectivities of children who are categorized as physically or intellectually impaired. In an effort to comprehend disability in terms of an active and embodied engagement with the world, I employ...... a phenomenologically inspired 'intercorporeal' perspective as a conceptual alternative to 'medical' and 'social' models of disability. Through this approach I show how, in northern Vietnam, disability in children brings into question the moral integrity of their parents and how this compels parents to define...

  8. 'Please, sir, can I have some more?' Food, lifestyle, diets: respect and moral responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaufort, Inez

    2014-04-01

    This article is about respect for food, responsibility for lifestyle and diet and responsibility for those who suffer from lack of food. After some general reflections on food, feasts, flatulence, taboos and waste, I argue that we have a responsibility to live a healthy lifestyle, but that there are also morally good reasons for taking risks with our health as we cherish other goals and values. Then I discuss situations, using the example of obesity, in which people are not free to choose their lifestyle. Governments and doctors have responsibilities in enabling people to chose healthy eating habits, e.g. by facilitating access to healthy foods and by criticizing scientifically unfounded weight loss diets. I continue to defend that we need to respect food and those who prepare it, and that we have a moral responsibility to contribute to the solution of the food gap in the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethical Justification of Moral Norms in Scientific Research: Scientists' External Responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AKÖZER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists' moral responsibilities have become a focus for the scientific community over the postwar decades. International and regional networks of leading academic bodies have responded to a widely perceived increase in scientific fraud and the ensued loss of public trust in science during the 1980s, and initiated a discussion with a view to codifying good practice in research. While scientists' “external” responsibilities towards society and the humankind have been variously addressed, codes drafted since then mainly dwell on problems of misconduct concerning scientists' “internal” responsibilities towards science and to the scientific community. They also reflect an ethical pluralism, which declines justifying moral standards in research with reference to universal ethical principles. However, the need for such justification has been first recognized decades ago, during the Doctor's Trial in Nuremberg, where the shortcomings of the established ethos of science and the inadequacy of the Hippocratic ethics in safeguarding human rights in research had become flagrant, with the resultant Nuremberg Code of 1947 introducing a human rights perspective into Hippocratic ethics. This paper argues for the necessity of an integral ethical justification of scientists' both external and inner responsibilities, as put down or assumed by internationally acclaimed codes of conduct. Such necessity is validated by the evidence that a historical current to monopolize ethical thinking in the name of science and nullify philosophical ethics lies at the root of an anti–morality that relativized human worth and virtually legitimized human rights violations in scientific practice. Kantian ethics based on humans' absolute inner worth, and Popperian epistemology rooted in respect for truth and for humans as rational beings, pledge an ethical justification of moral norms in science so as to reinforce the latter against intrusions of anti–morality. The paper

  10. Is moral bioenhancement dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Moral Responsibility in the Context of Prenatal Testing: What can be Expected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemoine, Marie-Eve

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors have suggested that considering the ethical and social aspects of prenatal testing could be seen as an individual responsibility for patients, but no conceptual grounds have been provided for this thesis. I argue that Candace Cummins Gauthier’s account of “moral responsibility as a virtue”, developed as an attempt to reconcile notions of autonomy and community, provides such basis.

  12. Moral responsibility, technology, and experiences of the tragic: from Kierkegaard to offshore engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The standard response to engineering disasters like the Deepwater Horizon case is to ascribe full moral responsibility to individuals and to collectives treated as individuals. However, this approach is inappropriate since concrete action and experience in engineering contexts seldom meets the criteria of our traditional moral theories. Technological action is often distributed rather than individual or collective, we lack full control of the technology and its consequences, and we lack knowledge and are uncertain about these consequences. In this paper, I analyse these problems by employing Kierkegaardian notions of tragedy and moral responsibility in order to account for experiences of the tragic in technological action. I argue that ascription of responsibility in engineering contexts should be sensitive to personal experiences of lack of control, uncertainty, role conflicts, social dependence, and tragic choice. I conclude that this does not justify evading individual and corporate responsibility, but inspires practices of responsibility ascription that are less 'harsh' on those directly involved in technological action, that listen to their personal experiences, and that encourage them to gain more knowledge about what they are doing.

  13. Gender differences in responses to moral dilemmas: a process dissociation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesdorf, Rebecca; Conway, Paul; Gawronski, Bertram

    2015-05-01

    The principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on its consistency with moral norms; the principle of utilitarianism implies that the morality of an action depends on its consequences. Previous research suggests that deontological judgments are shaped by affective processes, whereas utilitarian judgments are guided by cognitive processes. The current research used process dissociation (PD) to independently assess deontological and utilitarian inclinations in women and men. A meta-analytic re-analysis of 40 studies with 6,100 participants indicated that men showed a stronger preference for utilitarian over deontological judgments than women when the two principles implied conflicting decisions (d = 0.52). PD further revealed that women exhibited stronger deontological inclinations than men (d = 0.57), while men exhibited only slightly stronger utilitarian inclinations than women (d = 0.10). The findings suggest that gender differences in moral dilemma judgments are due to differences in affective responses to harm rather than cognitive evaluations of outcomes.

  14. The Morality of Socioscientific Issues: Construal and Resolution of Genetic Engineering Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to negotiate and resolve socioscientific issues has been posited as integral components of scientific literacy. Although philosophers and science educators have argued that socioscientific issues inherently involve moral and ethical considerations, the ultimate arbiters of morality are individual decision-makers. This study explored…

  15. Weighing in on Genetic Engineering and Morality: Students Reveal Their Ideas, Expectations, and Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    The ability to negotiate and resolve socioscientific issues has been posited as integral components of scientific literacy. Although philosophers and science educators have argued that socioscientific issues inherently involve moral and ethical considerations, the ultimate arbiters of morality are individual decision-makers. This study explored…

  16. The Alignment of Morality and Profitability in Corporate Social Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Semeniuk (Joanna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractNowadays most of the big companies pride themselves on their social responsibility. When visiting the websites of IBM, Cisco, ING, Philips, BP, etc., one will easily find a tab called ‘corporate social responsibility’, or ‘sustainability’.1 Here, companies describe how they contribute to

  17. The Alignment of Morality and Profitability in Corporate Social Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Semeniuk (Joanna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractNowadays most of the big companies pride themselves on their social responsibility. When visiting the websites of IBM, Cisco, ING, Philips, BP, etc., one will easily find a tab called ‘corporate social responsibility’, or ‘sustainability’.1 Here, companies describe how they contribute

  18. Moral Responsibility: The Missing Element in Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasillopulos, Christopher; Denney, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    We intend to deepen the understanding of leadership in general and educational leadership in particular by an analysis of Chester Barnard's (1938) concept of executive responsibility. By so doing we believe that we will reveal how an educational leader can foster the environment in which competent teachers can optimize their students' learning…

  19. Neural correlates of experienced moral emotion: an fMRI investigation of emotion in response to prejudice feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Melike M; Thomas, Kevin G F; Amodio, David M; Warton, Christopher M R; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2014-01-01

    Guilt, shame, and embarrassment are quintessential moral emotions with important regulatory functions for the individual and society. Moral emotions are, however, difficult to study with neuroimaging methods because their elicitation is more intricate than that of basic emotions. Here, using functional MRI (fMRI), we employed a novel social prejudice paradigm to examine specific brain regions associated with real-time moral emotion, focusing on guilt and related moral-negative emotions. The paradigm induced intense moral-negative emotion (primarily guilt) in 22 low-prejudice individuals through preprogrammed feedback indicating implicit prejudice against Black and disabled people. fMRI data indicated that this experience of moral-negative emotion was associated with increased activity in anterior paralimbic structures, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula, in addition to areas associated with mentalizing, including the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus. Of significance was prominent conflict-related activity in the supragenual ACC, which is consistent with theories proposing an association between acute guilt and behavioral inhibition. Finally, a significant negative association between self-reported guilt and neural activity in the pregenual ACC suggested a role of self-regulatory processes in response to moral-negative affect. These findings are consistent with the multifaceted self-regulatory functions of moral-negative emotions in social behavior.

  20. Genetic Testing Accounts of Autonomy, Responsibility and Blame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arribas-Ayllon, M.; Sarangi, Srikant; Clarke, Angus

    Advances in molecular genetics have led to the increasing availability of genetic testing for a variety of inherited disorders. While this new knowledge presents many obvious health benefits to prospective individuals and their families it also raises complex ethical and moral dilemmas for families...

  1. The Gaia Commission: Climate Change and Moral Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, James

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This short story is set in the future. In it, Francis, a retired professor of bioethics, is scheduled to appear before the Gaia Commission to account for his carbon emissions. Because his carbon emissions contributed to climate change, which harmed people and destroyed ecosystems, he is charged with recklessness, negligence, and indifference. He seems to have lived a modest and responsible life, except for the carbon emissions that he generated by flying long distances to attend ethics conferences and to give lectures. The narrator of the story is assigned to defend Francis before the Gaia Commission, so he contacts Francis to learn more about the case and to prepare a defense. The two of them examine Francis’ conduct and thinking. This fictional account raises ethical issues for all of us who have high carbon footprints, but especially for those of us who work in bioethics.

  2. Moral Responsibility and Confidence as Factors that Influence Teacher Involvement in Educational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Cecilio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Various factors that are not easily observed have a strong impact on educational change. In this paper, I examine some of the issues that emerged from the data collected while exploring my informants’ perceptions and attitudes towards their changing roles when confronted with curriculum innovation. This research demonstrates that the experience teachers acquire during their career may often enable them to participate in the design of a new study plan. However, this experience does not always justify their role as curriculum-designers in either the eyes of their colleagues or in their own eyes, particularly when coerced into playing this or other roles. The results indicate that teachers, depending on their levels of moral responsibility and confidence, become involved in different roles during their teaching career. Key words: Change, confidence, curriculum, innovation, moral responsibility Existen diversos factores que tienen un fuerte impacto en el cambio educativo y que no se observan fácilmente. En este artículo examino algunos de los temas que emergieron de los datos recogidos mientras exploraba las opiniones y las actitudes de mis informantes hacia sus roles siempre cambiantes cuando se enfrentan a la innovación curricular. Esta investigación demuestra que los profesores, con la experiencia que adquieren durante su carrera, pueden permitirse a menudo participar en el diseño de un nuevo plan de estudios. Sin embargo, para sus colegas o para ellos mismos, esta experiencia no justifica siempre su papel como diseñadores de un plan de estudios particularmente cuando están obligados a jugar éste u otros roles. Los resultados indican que los profesores se involucran en diversos roles durante su carrera como profesores, dependiendo de sus niveles de responsabilidad moral y de confianza. Palabras clave: cambio, confianza, currículo, innovación, responsabilidad moral

  3. Effects of Manipulation on Attributions of Causation, Free Will, and Moral Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Dylan; Lombrozo, Tania

    2017-03-01

    If someone brings about an outcome without intending to, is she causally and morally responsible for it? What if she acts intentionally, but as the result of manipulation by another agent? Previous research has shown that an agent's mental states can affect attributions of causal and moral responsibility to that agent, but little is known about what effect one agent's mental states can have on attributions to another agent. In Experiment 1, we replicate findings that manipulation lowers attributions of responsibility to manipulated agents. Experiments 2-7 isolate which features of manipulation drive this effect, a crucial issue for both philosophical debates about free will and attributions of responsibility in situations involving social influence more generally. Our results suggest that "bypassing" a manipulated agent's mental states generates the greatest reduction in responsibility, and we explain our results in terms of the effects that one agent's mental states can have on the counterfactual relations between another agent and an outcome. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Does Moral Case Deliberation Help Professionals in Care for the Homeless in Dealing with Their Dilemmas? A Mixed-Methods Responsive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijkerboer, R P; van der Stel, J C; Widdershoven, G A M; Molewijk, A C

    2017-03-01

    Health care professionals often face moral dilemmas. Not dealing constructively with moral dilemmas can cause moral distress and can negatively affect the quality of care. Little research has been documented with methodologies meant to support professionals in care for the homeless in dealing with their dilemmas. Moral case deliberation (MCD) is a method for systematic reflection on moral dilemmas and is increasingly being used as ethics support for professionals in various health-care domains. This study deals with the question: What is the contribution of MCD in helping professionals in an institution for care for the homeless to deal with their moral dilemmas? A mixed-methods responsive evaluation design was used to answer the research question. Five teams of professionals from a Dutch care institution for the homeless participated in MCD three times. Professionals in care for the homeless value MCD positively. They report that MCD helped them to identify the moral dilemma/question, and that they learned from other people's perspectives while reflecting and deliberating on the values at stake in the dilemma or moral question. They became aware of the moral dimension of moral dilemmas, of related norms and values, of other perspectives, and learned to formulate a moral standpoint. Some experienced the influence of MCD in the way they dealt with moral dilemmas in daily practice. Half of the professionals expect MCD will influence the way they deal with moral dilemmas in the future. Most of them were in favour of further implementation of MCD in their organization.

  5. Moral Communities and Moral Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2015-01-01

    The American College of Dentists is embarking on a multiyear project to improve ethics in dentistry. Early indications are that the focus will be on actual moral behavior rather than theory, that we will include organizations as ethical units, and that we will focus on building moral leadership. There is little evidence that the "telling individuals how to behave" approach to ethics is having the hoped-for effect. As a profession, dentistry is based on shared trust. The public level of trust in practitioners is acceptable, but could be improved, and will need to be strengthened to reduce the risk of increasing regulation. While feedback from the way dentists and patients view ethics is generally reassuring, dentists are often at odds with patients and their colleagues over how the profesion manages itself. Individuals are an inconsistent mix of good and bad behavior, and it may be more helpful to make small improvements in the habits of all dentists than to try to take a few certifiably dishonest ones off the street. A computer simulation model of dentistry as a moral community suggests that the profession will always have the proportion of bad actors it will tolerate, that moral leadership is a difficult posture to maintain, that massive interventions to correct imbalances through education or other means will be wasted unless the system as a whole is modified, and that most dentists see no compelling benefit in changing the ethical climate of the profession because they are doing just fine. Considering organiza-tions as loci of moral behavior reveals questionable practices that otherwise remain undetected, including moral distress, fragmentation, fictitious dentists, moral fading, decoupling, responsibility shifting, and moral priming. What is most needed is not phillosophy or principles, but moral leadership.

  6. The efficacy of teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization: The mediational role of moral disengagement for bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaert, Kristel; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2017-03-20

    Teachers respond differently to bullying and victimization. Socio-cognitive and moral domain theory suggest that students process teachers' behavior cognitively and that teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization could affect students' level of moral disengagement. We examined the mediating effect of students' moral disengagement between types of teachers' responses to situations of bullying and victimization and individual bullying using multilevel mediation modelling. Participants were 609 students (50% boys, age M = 11.47, SD = 1.14) of central Italy, nested in 34 classes. Students rated the frequency of self-reported bullying and of teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization on a 5-point Likert scale. Teachers' responses to bullying included non-intervention, mediation, group discussion, and sanctions. Teachers' responses to victimization included non-intervention, mediation, group discussion, and victim support. Results indicated that in the teachers' responses to incidents of bullying model, a significant indirect effect of non-intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.01, .05]) and of sanctions (β = -.02; 95%CI [-.04, -.01]) on bullying through moral disengagement was found at the individual level. Similarly, in the model on teachers' responses toward victims there was a significant indirect effect through moral disengagement of non-intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.02, .04]) and victim support (β = -.01; 95%CI [-.02, -.001]). At the class level there were no significant indirect effects. In sum, results indicated that moral disengagement is an important mediator at the individual level and suggest including teachers in anti-bullying interventions with a specific focus on their role for moral development.

  7. A business to change the world – moral responsibility in textbooks for International Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Andersson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an empirical analysis of textbooks for International Economics in upper secondary schools with a focus on moral responsibility for environment and society. The purpose is to analyse the meanings offered to students regarding the scope of taking moral responsibility in relation to the role of a business person. Four different meanings are formulated as a result of the study: one states that a business only can take responsibility inorder to obey laws and respond to consumer demands, a second and third meaning imply that, a business can make demands, to different extents, on subcontractors. A fourth meaning includes that a business (apart from making profit also can be a tool for change. The different meanings are discussed in relation to different functions of education (Biesta 2008, Säfström 2005 and Education for Sustainable Development. The main argument is that a tool forchange-meaning, contributing to a subjectification function of education, ought to have an increased space in education, if we want students who are engaged in sustainability issues regarding the environment and the society also to see a future working within the business world. This is equally important if we want business students to see a future working for sustainable development.

  8. Genetic control of the innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweet Matthew

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to infectious diseases is directed, in part, by the interaction between the invading pathogen and host macrophages. This study examines the influence of genetic background on host-pathogen interactions, by assessing the transcriptional responses of macrophages from five inbred mouse strains to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a major determinant of responses to gram-negative microorganisms. Results The mouse strains examined varied greatly in the number, amplitude and rate of induction of genes expressed in response to LPS. The response was attenuated in the C3H/HeJlpsd strain, which has a mutation in the LPS receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Variation between mouse strains allowed clustering into early (C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J and delayed (BALB/c and C3H/ARC transcriptional phenotypes. There was no clear correlation between gene induction patterns and variation at the Bcg locus (Slc11A1 or propensity to bias Th1 versus Th2 T cell activation responses. Conclusion Macrophages from each strain responded to LPS with unique gene expression profiles. The variation apparent between genetic backgrounds provides insights into the breadth of possible inflammatory responses, and paradoxically, this divergence was used to identify a common transcriptional program that responds to TLR4 signalling, irrespective of genetic background. Our data indicates that many additional genetic loci control the nature and the extent of transcriptional responses promoted by a single pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP, such as LPS.

  9. Sustainability as Social Contract: Textile and Apparel Professionals’ Value Conflicts within the Corporate Moral Responsibility Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel LoMonaco-Benzing

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current discussions of sustainability in the textile and apparel (T&A supply chain tend to focus on consumer behavior or methods of production. Few studies investigate how T&A supply chain members experience corporate sustainability initiatives within their own moral value spectrum. This study was designed to describe the gaps that might exist between personal and corporate moral values of T&A supply chain members, and how individuals manage such gaps to align personal and corporate identities. The researchers investigated the views of ten T&A supply chain members residing in the United States, both as employees and consumers of T&A companies, through semi-structured interviews. Dunfee’s extant social contracts and Schwartz’s theory of basic values were used as theoretical frameworks to better understand the participants’ lived experiences in negotiating personal and corporate expectations. The findings revealed three themes: (a nature of the value gap; (b frustration due to the value gap; and (c strategies to manage the value gap. The strategies used to realign values split into either those that held sustainability as their responsibility and worked to move corporate values toward their personal values; or those that shifted the blame to others so that their values could remain untouched.

  10. Moral Identity as Moral Ideal Self: Links to Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…

  11. Moral Identity as Moral Ideal Self: Links to Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…

  12. When therapists do not acknowledge their moral values: Green's response as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosik, Christopher H

    2003-01-01

    In this rejoinder to Green's (this issue) commentary on my article, I clarify several points of agreement and divergence with his critique. The failure of Green to be forthcoming about the sociopolitical and moral framework that infuses his response is unfortunately all too common in this literature. This places a limitation on the degree to which his comments can be contextually evaluated, though they remain didactically useful. Marriage and family therapists (MFTs) must realize that their underlying belief systems exact a profound influence on their conceptions about what constitutes mental health, valid treatment goals, and the best means to achieve these aims. These value frameworks may or may not be shared by religiously conservative and other clients who seek to develop their heterosexual potential. This has important, but often unrecognized, implications for clinical practice.

  13. Morality vs. Legality: European Responses to the Changing Norms of Military Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Krakiewicz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the diverging European positions on the Iraq intervention reflected distinct approaches to the international normative framework regulating the use of force. New security threats by global terrorist networks as well as calls for intervention in cases of human rights violations have challenged the existing criteria for legitimate military intervention. It identifies two types of positions – legal and moral. Evidence for the validity of this distinction is provided by an examination of the foreign policy lines adopted by Germany, Poland and the United Kingdom. Their contending approaches to the use of force can be expected to cause considerable difficulty in formulating a concerted European response to the changing norms of military intervention.

  14. The micropolitics of responsibility vis-à-vis autonomy: parental accounts of childhood genetic testing and (non)disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Ayllon, Michael; Sarangi, Srikant; Clarke, Angus

    2008-03-01

    Genetic testing and (non)disclosure of genetic information present ethical and moral dilemmas for the management of parental responsibility vis-à-vis the child's autonomy. Ethical guidelines aimed at professionals currently seek to defer childhood testing where there is no clear medical or psychosocial benefit. This version of autonomy is derived from a bioethical paradigm which brackets the individual rights and capacities of the child. In this paper we focus on situated parental accounts of responsibility/autonomy to understand the complex forms of relational work -i.e. the micropolitics of balancing rights and responsibilities - involving a range of inherited genetic disorders. Interviews (n= 20) were conducted with parents whose genetic condition may have had consequences for their children. Using rhetorical discourse analysis, we show how parents draw upon a number of rhetorical/discoursal devices to produce accounts where genetic responsibility is actually or potentially transmitted to the child. We identify three kinds of accounting practice: (1) aligned responsibility; (2) deferred responsibility; and (3) misaligned responsibility. Each of these practices demonstrates how parents position themselves responsibly by foregrounding figures and events onto which the child's autonomy is selectively mapped. Rather than simple representations, we regard these accounts as complex moral performances that seek alignment with broader bioethical discourses.

  15. Moral distress and moral conflict in clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Carina

    2015-02-01

    Much research is currently being conducted on health care practitioners' experiences of moral distress, especially the experience of nurses. What moral distress is, however, is not always clearly delineated and there is some debate as to how it should be defined. This article aims to help to clarify moral distress. My methodology consists primarily of a conceptual analysis, with especial focus on Andrew Jameton's influential description of moral distress. I will identify and aim to resolve two sources of confusion about moral distress: (1) the compound nature of a narrow definition of distress which stipulates a particular cause, i.e. moral constraint, and (2) the distinction drawn between moral dilemma (or, more accurately, moral conflict) and moral distress, which implies that the two are mutually exclusive. In light of these concerns, I argue that the definition of moral distress should be revised so that moral constraint should not be a necessary condition of moral distress, and that moral conflict should be included as a potential cause of distress. Ultimately, I claim that moral distress should be understood as a specific psychological response to morally challenging situations such as those of moral constraint or moral conflict, or both.

  16. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.M.; Olivieri, I.; Waller, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how...... for selection and establishing clear links between genetic and environmental change. We then review a few exemplary studies that explore adaptive responses to climate change in Drosophila, selective responses to hunting and fishing, and contemporary evolution in Daphnia using resurrected resting eggs. We...

  17. Moral Teachers, Moral Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Rick

    2003-01-01

    Argues that schools will largely fail in their efforts to improve the moral and emotional growth of students if they do not attend to the moral and ethical development of teachers, especially urban teachers, who suffer from depression and disillusionment, the two primary causes of which are isolation and stress induced by problem students.…

  18. Una nota sobre la responsabilidad moral individual frente a la calamidad del hambre (A note on the moral individual responsibility against the calamity of hunger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macario Alemany García

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El texto da cuenta sucintamente del viejo problema de la responsabilidad moral de los ricos frente a las calamidades del hambre y la pobreza absoluta. Para ello, se presentan las propuestas de Ernesto Garzón y Peter Singer sobre el nivel de responsabilidad exigible y se señalan algunas críticas plausibles a las mismas. A continuación, se explica la última iniciativa de Singer para promover el fin de la pobreza absoluta y las tensiones que la misma entraña para su propia teoría. Finalmente, se aboga por considerar el asunto desde el punto de vista de la ética de las virtudes.ABSTRACTThe text briefly approaches the old problem of moral responsibility of the rich over the calamities of hunger and absolute poverty. To this end, it presents Ernesto Garzón and Peter Singer’s proposals about the level of accountability and it identifies some plausible critiques to them. Then, it explains Singer’s latest initiative to promote an end to absolute poverty and the tensions it poses to his own theory. Finally, it advocates for considering the matter from the point of view of virtue ethics.

  19. Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning: Response to Walker's (1984) Conclusion That There Are None.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1986-01-01

    Takes issue with Lawrence Walker's literature review on developmental and individual differences in moral reasoning which found no consistent evidence for sex differences in moral development. Argues instead that the source and specific nature of these differences have yet to be established. (HOD)

  20. Sex Differences in Moral Reasoning: Response to Walker's (1984) Conclusion That There Are None.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1986-01-01

    Takes issue with Lawrence Walker's literature review on developmental and individual differences in moral reasoning which found no consistent evidence for sex differences in moral development. Argues instead that the source and specific nature of these differences have yet to be established. (HOD)

  1. Moral concerns increase attention and response monitoring during IAT performance : ERP evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nunspeet, Félice; Ellemers, Naomi; Derks, Belle; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that people value morality as a more important person characteristic than competence. In this study, we tested whether people adjust their less explicit behavior more to moral than competence values. Participants performed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that was ei

  2. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  3. The sadistic trait predicts minimization of intention and causal responsibility in moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trémolière, Bastien; Djeriouat, Hakim

    2016-01-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that specific socially aversive traits-subclinical sadism in particular-are associated with an impaired judgment of moral wrongness, guilt, and punishment in various moral scenarios manipulating intent, cause and consequence of harm. In three online studies (total N=1069), participants completed a battery of tests scaled to assess sadism and the Dark Triad constructs, then faced different situations involving moral issues (attempted harm, intentional harm, accidental harm). Study 1 revealed that a sadistic personality trait was associated with minimization of the importance of harmful intent in moral judgment. Study 2 showed that a sadistic personality trait predicted minimization of the importance of causal mechanisms to harmful consequences in moral judgment. Study 3 showed that these effects were mediated by enjoyment of cruelty, a characteristic unique to sadists. In the light of Cushman's (2008) two-process model of moral judgment, this set of studies provides the first evidence that deficits in the integration of the theory of mind and causality can be observed in personality traits. The independent predictive value of sadism highlights that features other than emotional deficits are essential in explaining impaired moral evaluations.

  4. Social and Moral Development in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhaver, Dorothy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the shift of emphasis from the cognitive to the moral and ethical in secondary and higher education. Considers the possibility of a genetic basis for morality and the importance of understanding the social context for transmitting moral values in the academic setting. Suggests techniques for facilitating moral development in…

  5. Reproductive cloning, genetic engineering and the autonomy of the child: the moral agent and the open future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M

    2007-02-01

    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second version, these biotechnologies would undermine autonomy by violating these people's right to an open future. There is no evidence to show that people conceived through cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general be unable to assume responsibility for their actions; there is also no evidence for the claim that cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general rob the child of the possibility to choose from a sufficiently large array of life plans.

  6. Evidence for Absolute Moral Opposition to Genetically Modified Food in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sydney E; Inbar, Yoel; Rozin, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Public opposition to genetic modification (GM) technology in the food domain is widespread (Frewer et al., 2013). In a survey of U.S. residents representative of the population on gender, age, and income, 64% opposed GM, and 71% of GM opponents (45% of the entire sample) were "absolutely" opposed-that is, they agreed that GM should be prohibited no matter the risks and benefits. "Absolutist" opponents were more disgust sensitive in general and more disgusted by the consumption of genetically modified food than were non-absolutist opponents or supporters. Furthermore, disgust predicted support for legal restrictions on genetically modified foods, even after controlling for explicit risk-benefit assessments. This research suggests that many opponents are evidence insensitive and will not be influenced by arguments about risks and benefits. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Moral responsibility in R&D networks: a procedural approach to distributing responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, N.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies can be accompanied by risks and unforeseen side-effects, often with high impact. If no-one is responsible for addressing these risks and side-effects, the implementation of technologies might result in harmful consequences for society. It is therefore desirable t

  8. Seeing responsibility: can neuroimaging teach us anything about moral and legal responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, David; Johnston, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    As imaging technologies help us understand the structure and function of the brain, providing insight into human capabilities as basic as vision and as complex as memory, and human conditions as impairing as depression and as fraught as psychopathy, some have asked whether they can also help us understand human agency. Specifically, could neuroimaging lead us to reassess the socially significant practice of assigning and taking responsibility? While responsibility itself is not a psychological process open to investigation through neuroimaging, decision-making is. Over the past decade, different researchers and scholars have sought to use neuroimaging (or the results of neuroimaging studies) to investigate what is going on in the brain when we make decisions. The results of this research raise the question whether neuroscience-especially now that it includes neuroimaging-can and should alter our understandings of responsibility and our related practice of holding people responsible. It is this question that we investigate here. © 2014 by The Hastings Center.

  9. Moral responsibility in R&D networks: a procedural approach to distributing responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, N.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies can be accompanied by risks and unforeseen side-effects, often with high impact. If no-one is responsible for addressing these risks and side-effects, the implementation of technologies might result in harmful consequences for society. It is therefore desirable

  10. Victims, vectors and villains: are those who opt out of vaccination morally responsible for the deaths of others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; Handfield, Toby; Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    Mass vaccination has been a successful public health strategy for many contagious diseases. The immunity of the vaccinated also protects others who cannot be safely or effectively vaccinated-including infants and the immunosuppressed. When vaccination rates fall, diseases like measles can rapidly resurge in a population. Those who cannot be vaccinated for medical reasons are at the highest risk of severe disease and death. They thus may bear the burden of others' freedom to opt out of vaccination. It is often asked whether it is legitimate for states to adopt and enforce mandatory universal vaccination. Yet this neglects a related question: are those who opt out, where it is permitted, morally responsible when others are harmed or die as a result of their decision? In this article, we argue that individuals who opt out of vaccination are morally responsible for resultant harms to others. Using measles as our main example, we demonstrate the ways in which opting out of vaccination can result in a significant risk of harm and death to others, especially infants and the immunosuppressed. We argue that imposing these risks without good justification is blameworthy and examine ways of reaching a coherent understanding of individual moral responsibility for harms in the context of the collective action required for disease transmission. Finally, we consider several objections to this view, provide counterarguments and suggest morally permissible alternatives to mandatory universal vaccination including controlled infection, self-imposed social isolation and financial penalties for refusal to vaccinate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Moral Education in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where....... It places moral education within the context of globalization and cosmopolitanism and shows, that moral education in Japan is a useful key to understanding how globalization and cosmopolitanism can work within a specific system, in this case Japanese values education. In recent years various changes...... political focus on moral education in Japan, particularly by the two Abe-administrations. Changes include for example increased emphasis on patriotism, on respect for life and the environment, on individual responsibility, on respecting differences and other countries and on a general strengthening of moral...

  12. Moral realism in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Steven D

    2014-04-01

    For more than 15 years Professor Per Nortvedt has been arguing the case for moral realism in nursing and the health-care context more generally. His arguments focus on the clinical contexts of nursing and medicine and are supplemented by a series of persuasive examples. Following a description of moral realism, and the kinds of considerations that support it, criticisms of it are developed that seem persuasive. It is argued that our moral responses are explained by our beliefs as opposed to moral realities. In particular, two key arguments presented by Nortvedt are challenged: the so-called argument from convergence and the argument from clinical sensitivity. Both of these key planks in the case for moral realism are rejected, and an alternative 'social conditioning' account briefly sketched, which, it is claimed, has the same explanatory power as Nortvedt's thesis but does not rest on an appeal to independently existing moral properties.

  13. Ignorance Is No Excuse: Moral Judgments Are Influenced by a Genetic Variation on the Oxytocin Receptor Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Nora T.; Montag, Christian; Markett, Sebastian; Felten, Andrea; Voigt, Gesine; Reuter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Perspective-taking has become a main focus of studies on moral judgments. Recent fMRI studies have demonstrated that individual differences in brain activation predict moral decision making. In particular, pharmacological studies highlighted the crucial role for the neuropeptide oxytocin in social behavior and emotional perception. In the present…

  14. Doing the right thing for one's children: deciding whether to take the genetic test for Huntington's disease as a moral dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J A; Stephenson, M; Jacobs, C; Quarrell, O

    2013-05-01

    This is a qualitative examination of candidates' decision-making in relation to the genetic test for Huntington's disease. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine participants who were asked about factors influencing their decision whether to take up predictive genetic testing. Transcripts of interviews were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis to elicit emergent themes. A key factor for participants was to do the right thing for their children. Interestingly, this factor presents a moral dilemma to participants and can direct them either towards or away from testing. This article offers a detailed examination of how participants think through this dilemma.

  15. From moral agents to moral factors: the structural ethics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Kroes, P.; Verbeek, P.P.C.C.

    2014-01-01

    It has become a popular position in the philosophy of technology to claim that some or all technological artifacts can qualify as moral agents. This position has been developed to account for the moral role of technological artifacts in society and to help clarify the moral responsibility of

  16. From moral agents to moral factors: the structural ethics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, P.A.E.; Kroes, P.; Verbeek, P.P.C.C.

    2014-01-01

    It has become a popular position in the philosophy of technology to claim that some or all technological artifacts can qualify as moral agents. This position has been developed to account for the moral role of technological artifacts in society and to help clarify the moral responsibility of enginee

  17. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  18. 可要求個人為品格負責嗎?道德運氣對於個體品格責任的挑戰 Can an Individual Be Held Responsible for His/Her Own Personal (Moral Character: How Moral Luck Challenges the Notion that Individuals Are Responsible for Their Own (Moral Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳伊琳 Yi-Lin Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available 道德品格的建構向來被視為個體的責任,但在主體有意識地選擇成為什麼樣子的人以前,其道德品格似已受習慣養成、道德教養的影響,而大致成形。就此而言,我們如何能夠主張個體應為自身的道德品格負責?究竟在何種程度上,個體可為自身的道德品格承擔責任?本文即以「道德運氣」這個概念來指稱諸如外在環境、道德教養、個人稟賦等對道德品格的型塑具有實質影響力,但卻屬於個 人自主控制能力以外的因素。道德運氣對於「品格建構之個體責任」的挑戰,當有助於釐清個體可為自身的道德品格負責的真正意涵與限度。明確而言,品格的建構既非為主體所能全然掌控,也非絲毫不受任何條件所囿限;品格建構本質上就是一種協同合作的事業,無法由主體單獨完成。最後,透過Aristotle關於自主性與責任的發展性觀點,可明確說明個體是如何擔負起品格建構的責任。 It has long been an unwritten rule that individuals are responsible for the development of their personal moral character. However, the way in which people typically develop moral character is often the result of habits and moral upbringing, which are imposed before individuals start to shape their moral character by conscious effort. If this is the case, an individual should not be held completely responsible for his or her own moral character. This paper draws on the idea of “moral luck” to designate non-voluntary variables such as one’s background, circumstances, upbringing, temperament, and other similar factors, which one cannot control but which can have substantial influence on the formation of moral character. Moral luck and its challenge to the notion that one must always be responsible for his or her own moral character helps to clarify the degree to which one should be held responsible for his or her own moral

  19. Why there is no supernatural morality: response to Miller's opening statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Michael

    2016-11-01

    If one is going to argue that objective morality depends on an Archimedean point outside the natural world, then it would seem to imply that this source is necessarily supernatural. Thus, Christian Miller begins by defining precisely who he thinks this supernatural moral law giver is: the omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent creator of the universe who is still actively involved with human affairs-Elohim, Jehovah, Yahweh, or Allah-aka God. Already I'm skeptical. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Moral and Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    specific situations. Kohlberg (1969, 1983) similarly suggested that general moral principles arise from rational processes, and that everyday moral...Cognitive Science, 7, 320-324. [17] Hare, R. (1981). Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Method, and Point. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. [18] Kohlberg , L...pp. 347- 480). Chicago: Rand McNally and Co. [19] Kohlberg , L., Levine, C., & Hewer, A. (1983). Moral Stages: A Current Formulation and a Response

  1. On Genies and Bottles: Scientists’ Moral Responsibility and Dangerous Technology R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koepsell, D.

    2009-01-01

    The age-old maxim of scientists whose work has resulted in deadly or dangerous technologies is: scientists are not to blame, but rather technologists and politicians must be morally culpable for the uses of science. As new technologies threaten not just populations but species and biospheres, scient

  2. At the heart of egalitariansim : how morality framing shapes whites' responses to social inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, Serena Rosa Susanna

    2013-01-01

    I theorized that if redressing inequality becomes a way for dominant group members (i.e., Whites) to boost their group‘s moral standing (i.e., as fair and just), resistance to increased equality among these group members might decrease, thereby increasing opportunities for social change. Thus, I exa

  3. On Genies and Bottles: Scientists’ Moral Responsibility and Dangerous Technology R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koepsell, D.

    2009-01-01

    The age-old maxim of scientists whose work has resulted in deadly or dangerous technologies is: scientists are not to blame, but rather technologists and politicians must be morally culpable for the uses of science. As new technologies threaten not just populations but species and biospheres,

  4. Political Identity and Moral Education: A Response to Jonathan Haidt's "The Righteous Mind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    In "The Righteous Mind," Jonathan Haidt claims that liberals have a narrower moral outlook than conservatives--they are concerned with fairness and relief of suffering, which Haidt sees as individualistic values, while conservatives care about authority and loyalty too, values concerned with holding society together. I question…

  5. Dilemas morales

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Realpe Quintero

    2001-01-01

    Antes del siglo XX la tradición filosófica moral ha reconocido la existencia de los conflictos morales pero ha rechazado la posibilidad de los auténticos dilemas morales. Para poder entender por qué hoy el tema de los dilemas morales ha reclamado para sí tanta atención, es importante ponernos de acuerdo en la definición de algunos conceptos. Un conflicto moral es una situación en la que un(a) agente se ve confrontado(a) con dos obligaciones morales que le i...

  6. Moral Hard-Wiring and Moral Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2017-05-01

    We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat. When this is not present, we are inclusivist. They conclude that moral bioenhancement is unnecessary or less effective than socio-cultural interventions. We argue that Powell and Buchanan underestimate the hard-wiring features of moral psychology; their appeal to adaptively plastic, conditionally expressed responses accounts for only a fragment of our moral psychology. In addition to restrictions on our altruistic concern that their account addresses - such as racism and sexism - there are ones it is ill-suited to address: that our concern is stronger for kin and friends and for concrete individuals rather than for statistical lives; also our bias towards the near future. Hard-wired features of our moral psychology that are not clearly restrictions in altruistic concern also include reciprocity, tit-for-tat, and others. Biomedical means are not the only, and maybe not the most important, means of moral enhancement. Socio-cultural means are of great importance and there are currently no biomedical interventions for many hard-wired features. Nevertheless research is desirable because the influence of these features is greater than our critics think. © 2017 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sex differences in moral reasoning: response to Walker's (1984) conclusion that there are none.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, D

    1986-04-01

    Data from the Family Socialization and Developmental Competence Project are used to probe Walker's conclusion that there are no sex differences in moral reasoning. Ordinal and nominal nonparametric statistics result in a complex but theoretically meaningful network of relationships among sex, educational level, and Kohlberg stage score level, with the presence and direction of sex differences in stage score level dependent on educational level. The effects on stage score level of educational level and working status are also shown to differ for men and women. Reasons are considered for not accepting Walker's dismissal of studies that use (a) a pre-1983 scoring manual, or (b) fail to control for education. The problems presented to Kohlberg's theory by the significant relationship between educational and stage score levels in the general population are discussed, particularly as these apply to the postconventional level of moral reasoning.

  8. Moral knowledge and moral factuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n1p69For naturalistic and non-intuitionistic moral realists, moral knowledge is more problematic than ordinary and scientific factual knowledge. For without special faculties of moral discernment, how could we ever detect moral facts and properties? Physical facts and properties may be accessible to perceptual recognition. But how could moral facts and properties ever be similarly accessible? To address this challenge, we need a meta-ethical account that does two things. First, it must explain how the discernment of moral facts and properties ultimately consists only of the detection of appropriate physical items. Second, it must explain why, despite this fact, moral perception seems so very puzzling. In this paper I endeavor to provide such an account. It is largely because of the relational nature of moral properties, and the corresponding externalistically determined normative content of moral property terms, I argue, that our epistemic access to moral knowledge appears mysterious. The metaphysics of moral factuality does a lot to explain the seeming elusiveness of moral knowledge, and in ways that are surprisingly mundane.

  9. Moral Impression Management : Evaluation by an In-Group Member During a Moral IAT Affects Perceptual Attention and Conflict and Response Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nunspeet, Félice; Derks, Belle; Ellemers, Naomi; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Previous research revealed that emphasizing morality increases motivational processes that improve people’s task performance. Here we examined whether this emphasis differentially affects people’s performance in the presence of an in-group compared to an out-group member. Ostensibly while being eval

  10. Genetic polymorphisms and lipid response to dietary changes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Ramos-Galluzzi, J.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies on the effects of genetic polymorphisms on the serum cholesterol response to dietary treatments were often inconsistent and frequently involved small numbers of subjects. We studied the effect of 10 genetic polymorphisms on the responses of serum cholesterol to saturated and trans f

  11. The influence of genetic constitution on migraine drug responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Francke; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Werge, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    a stronger signal when analyzed together. The associations between response to triptans and genetic load and rs2651899 were partially confirmed in the independent sample. CONCLUSION: We show for the first time an association between genetic constitution and migraine drug response. This is a first step toward...

  12. Gone with the Wind: Conceiving of Moral Responsibility in the Case of GMO Contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robaey, Z.H.

    2016-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms are a technology now used with increasing frequency in agriculture. Genetically modified seeds have the special characteristic of being living artefacts that can reproduce and spread; thus it is difficult to control where they end up. In addition, genetically modified

  13. DILEMAS MORALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Realpe Quintero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes del siglo XX la tradición filosófica moral ha reconocido la existencia de los conflictos morales pero ha rechazado la posibilidad de los auténticos dilemas morales. Para poder entender por qué hoy el tema de los dilemas morales ha reclamado para sí tanta atención, es importante ponernos de acuerdo en la definición de algunos conceptos. Un conflicto moral es una situación en la que un(a agente se ve confrontado(a con dos obligaciones morales que le instan a actuar. Un dilema moral es una situación extrema de conflicto moral en la que nuestro(a agente no puede seguir un curso de acción que sea conforme con sus dos obligaciones en conflicto. Para que un conflicto moral tenga el carácter de ser un auténtico dilema moral (genuine moral dilemma y no simplemente un aparente dilema moral (apparent moral di- DILEMAS MORALES SANDRA REALPE Licenciada en Filosofía, Univalle, Maestría en Filosofía, Univalle, Diplomado en Psicología Aplicada, Universidad de Londres, Diplomado en Etica de los Negocios Universidad de Colorado, profesora Universidad Icesi, Facultad de Derecho y Humanidades. E-mail: sandrarealpe@hotmail.com lemma, ninguna de las obligaciones en conflicto es en efecto más fuerte o logra invalidar a la otra obligación. A raíz de un artículo escrito en 1962 por E. J. Lemmon, titulado precisamente “Dilemas morales” (Moral Dilemmas, se abrió un debate entre los filósofos anglosajones contemporáneos acerca de la existencia o no de los auténticos dilemas morales. Informar sobre este debate reciente, esclarecer los argumentos de sus principales protagonistas, y hacer presente en nuestro medio un novedoso debate que es importante para reflexionar sobre un buen número de problemas morales, son nuestros principales propósitos en el presente ensayo. ...

  14. 'The deserving': Moral reasoning and ideological dilemmas in public responses to humanitarian communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seu, Irene Bruna

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates everyday moral reasoning in relation to donations and prosocial behaviour in a humanitarian context. The discursive analysis focuses on the principles of deservingness which members of the public use to decide who to help and under what conditions. The study discusses three repertoires of deservingness - 'seeing a difference', 'waiting in queues', and 'something for nothing' - to illustrate participants' dilemmatic reasoning and to examine how the position of 'being deserving' is negotiated in humanitarian crises. Discursive analyses of these dilemmatic repertoires of deservingness identify the cultural and ideological resources behind these constructions and show how humanitarianism intersects and clashes with other ideologies and value systems. The data suggest that a neoliberal ideology, which endorses self-gratification, materialistic and individualistic ethics, and cultural assimilation of helper and receiver play important roles in decisions about humanitarian helping. The study argues for the need for psychological research to engage more actively with the dilemmas involved in the moral reasoning related to humanitarianism and to contextualize decisions about giving and helping within the sociocultural and ideological landscape in which the helper operates.

  15. Arguing for an immersive method: Reflexive meaning-making, the visible researcher, and moral responses to gameplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Cuttell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the adoption of an immersive-participatory method when analysing interactive media. It builds upon and extends existing theorisations of immersion and applies them to the development of new methods of analysis. This paper theorises immersion during gameplay as an affective, embodied state, which is both active and passive and achieved via both visual and imaginative engagement with the game world and haptic communication with the player character. This article’s argument is fourfold: firstly, it situates and negotiates the tensions surrounding the major debates, discussions and analyses in the study of immersion, both within gaming and in wider contexts; secondly, it argues for the inclusion of a participatory immersive method to be undertaken by the researcher when analysing media (especially interactive media such as video games; thirdly, it outlines the ways in which this method could be implemented by researchers, and finally, it draws on examples from my own research journal and discusses the possibility of a moral habitus which allows the player to engage in violent gameplay without experiencing the moral dissonance that can disrupt immersive states. Ultimately, this article aims to render the position of the researcher visible in order that we might gain critical purchase on the immersive praxis of gaming and the ethical/political responses of the player. In so doing, it is hoped that this article will aid theoretical and methodological innovation in this field and provoke discussion in a wider media studies context.

  16. Moral virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spielthenner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much has been published on virtues in recent years, there is still considerable uncertainty in philosophy (and even more among philosophical laymen about the concept of a virtue and especially about moral virtues. In this article, I will try to clarify these notions. In particular, I want to answer the question: When are virtues moral virtues? Clearly, not every practical virtue is a moral virtue. Why was the courage of the Nazi soldiers in the second world war not a moral virtue, but yet is presumably one if included among the cardinal virtues? To clarify this question, this article will deal with the concept of a virtue but I will also investigate the notion of virtues being of a moral nature. To this end, I propose and explain (I a definition of moral virtues and clarify this definition further in section (II, by explaining why I did not include qualities, which others have considered as essential.

  17. Stress alters personal moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Dookeeram, Karine; Basdeo, Vasant; Francis, Emmanuel; Doman, Mekaeel; Mamed, Danielle; Maloo, Stefan; Degannes, Joel; Dobo, Linda; Ditshotlo, Phatsimo; Legall, George

    2012-04-01

    While early studies of moral decision making highlighted the role of rational, conscious executive processes involving frontal lobe activation more recent work has suggested that emotions and gut reactions have a key part to play in moral reasoning. Given that stress can activate many of the same brain regions that are important for and connected to brain centres involved in emotional processing we sought to evaluate if stress could influence moral decision making. Sixty-five undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to control (n=33) and experimental groups (n=32). The latter underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and induction of stress was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Subjects were then required to provide a response to thirty moral dilemmas via a computer interface that recorded both their decision and reaction time. Three types of dilemmas were used: non-moral, impersonal moral and personal moral. Using a binary logistic model there were no significant predicators of utilitarian response in non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. However the stressed group and females were found to predict utilitarian responses to personal moral dilemmas. When comparing percentage utilitarian responses there were no significant differences noted for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas but the stressed group showed significantly less utilitarian responses compared to control subjects. The stress response was significantly negatively correlated with utilitarian responses. Females also showed significantly less utilitarian responses than males. We conclude that activation of the stress response predisposed participants to less utilitarian responses when faced with high conflict personal moral dilemmas and suggest that this offers further support for dual process theory of moral judgment. We also conclude that females tend to make less utilitarian personal moral decisions compared to males, providing further evidence that there are

  18. Values at stake: autonomy, responsibility, and trustworthiness in relation to genetic testing and personalized nutrition advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Karin; Juth, Niklas; Kjellström, Sofia; Meijboom, Franck L B; Görman, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Personalized nutrition has the potential to enhance individual health control. It could be seen as a means to strengthen people's autonomy as they learn more about their personal health risks, and receive dietary advice accordingly. We examine in what sense personalized nutrition strengthens or weakens individual autonomy. The impact of personalized nutrition on autonomy is analyzed in relation to responsibility and trustworthiness. On a societal level, individualization of health promotion may be accompanied by the attribution of extended individual responsibility for one's health. This constitutes a dilemma of individualization, caused by a conflict between the right to individual freedom and societal interests. The extent to which personalized nutrition strengthens autonomy is consequently influenced by how responsibility for health is allocated to individuals. Ethically adequate allocation of responsibility should focus on prospective responsibility and be differentiated with regard to individual differences concerning the capacity of adults to take responsibility. The impact of personalized nutrition on autonomy also depends on its methodological design. Owing to the complexity of information received, personalized nutrition through genetic testing (PNTGT) is open to misinterpretation and may not facilitate informed choices and autonomy. As new technologies, personalized nutrition and PNTGT are subject to issues of trust. To strengthen autonomy, trust should be approached in terms of trustworthiness. Trustworthiness implies that an organization that develops or introduces personalized nutrition can show that it is competent to deal with both the technical and moral dimensions at stake and that its decisions are motivated by the interests and expectations of the truster.

  19. Genetic mapping of abiotic stress responses in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to rich genetic diversity for tolerance to various abiotic stress conditions, sorghum is an ideal system for genetic mapping and elucidation of genome regions that confer such response among cereal crops. Coupled with the development of DNA marker technologies and most recently the sequencing o...

  20. Moral Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their respecti

  1. The HIV/AIDS crisis and corporate moral responsibility in the light of the Levinasian notions of proximity and the third

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Conceição

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the set of problems regarding the HIV/AIDS crisis in the specific domain of corporate moral responsibility within a context of the Levinasian notion of proximity (infinite responsibility) and the Third. Against a totalitarian, homogeneous society, Levinas opens the way to a social pluralism, which has its sources in the disquiet provoked by the strangeness of the Other's face. Corporate responsibility, understood from this point of view, would not reduce institutional re...

  2. Moral expansiveness: Examining variability in the extension of the moral world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimston, Daniel; Bain, Paul G; Hornsey, Matthew J; Bastian, Brock

    2016-10-01

    The nature of our moral judgments-and the extent to which we treat others with care-depend in part on the distinctions we make between entities deemed worthy or unworthy of moral consideration-our moral boundaries. Philosophers, historians, and social scientists have noted that people's moral boundaries have expanded over the last few centuries, but the notion of moral expansiveness has received limited empirical attention in psychology. This research explores variations in the size of individuals' moral boundaries using the psychological construct of moral expansiveness and introduces the Moral Expansiveness Scale (MES), designed to capture this variation. Across 6 studies, we established the reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity of the MES. Moral expansiveness was related (but not reducible) to existing moral constructs (moral foundations, moral identity, "moral" universalism values), predictors of moral standing (moral patiency and warmth), and other constructs associated with concern for others (empathy, identification with humanity, connectedness to nature, and social responsibility). Importantly, the MES uniquely predicted willingness to engage in prosocial intentions and behaviors at personal cost independently of these established constructs. Specifically, the MES uniquely predicted willingness to prioritize humanitarian and environmental concerns over personal and national self-interest, willingness to sacrifice one's life to save others (ranging from human out-groups to animals and plants), and volunteering behavior. Results demonstrate that moral expansiveness is a distinct and important factor in understanding moral judgments and their consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Una nota sobre la responsabilidad moral individual frente a la calamidad del hambre (A note on the moral individual responsibility against the calamity of hunger)

    OpenAIRE

    Macario Alemany García

    2012-01-01

    El texto da cuenta sucintamente del viejo problema de la responsabilidad moral de los ricos frente a las calamidades del hambre y la pobreza absoluta. Para ello, se presentan las propuestas de Ernesto Garzón y Peter Singer sobre el nivel de responsabilidad exigible y se señalan algunas críticas plausibles a las mismas. A continuación, se explica la última iniciativa de Singer para promover el fin de la pobreza absoluta y las tensiones que la misma entraña para su propia teoría. Finalmente, se...

  4. Moral integrity and moral courage: can you teach it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Ruth A; Hartley, Patricia Lynn; Hodges, Patricia Jeanne; Hoffpauir, Rebecca; Newbanks, Shirlene; Kelley, Jane H

    2013-04-01

    Nursing has been spared the ethical scandal of many other professions, but issues of compromised moral integrity are growing in practice and education. This study was structured to investigate faculty perceptions of the challenges encountered regarding moral integrity in academia and strategies to promote nursing students' moral integrity and moral courage. A content analysis of the responses to questions about challenges and strategies was completed. Themes identified from the data on student and instructor beliefs and behaviors correspond to those found in the literature. The need for instructors to model a high level of integrity and to create high-integrity classrooms and a community of learning were identified as essential. A finding different from other study results is that beliefs drive moral behaviors and must be the focus of strategies for change. A consensus was expressed that mechanisms are urgently needed to further identify and integrate strategies to enhance student moral integrity.

  5. Academic freedom and the obligation to ensure morally responsible scholarship in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2012-06-01

    Academic freedom is generally regarded as being of critical importance to the development, improved understanding, and dissemination of new knowledge in a field. Although of obvious importance to the discipline of nursing, the nature, extent and value of academic freedom and the controversies surrounding it have rarely been considered in the nursing literature. It is a key aim of this paper to redress this oversight by providing a brief examination of: (i) the principle of academic freedom; (ii) the distinction between academic freedom, freedom of speech, and the academic freedom to publish; (iii) the problem of ideological judgments being dressed up as scientific or discipline judgments to supports 'bad' conclusions; and (iv) the standards that might otherwise be appealed to for determining whether maverick manuscripts supporting morally abhorrent conclusions should be accepted for publication. It is suggested that the tenets of academic freedom require robust international debate, with due attention being given to such issues as the development of an international declaration on academic freedom to publish in nursing, how to ensure a robust rebuttal system in nursing journals to counter specious scholarship, and how to better promote the letters pages of nursing journals as a venue for facilitating debate on controversial issues. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Implicit moral evaluations: A multinomial modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C Daryl; Payne, B Keith; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Scheffer, Julian A; Inzlicht, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Implicit moral evaluations-i.e., immediate, unintentional assessments of the wrongness of actions or persons-play a central role in supporting moral behavior in everyday life. Yet little research has employed methods that rigorously measure individual differences in implicit moral evaluations. In five experiments, we develop a new sequential priming measure-the Moral Categorization Task-and a multinomial model that decomposes judgment on this task into multiple component processes. These include implicit moral evaluations of moral transgression primes (Unintentional Judgment), accurate moral judgments about target actions (Intentional Judgment), and a directional tendency to judge actions as morally wrong (Response Bias). Speeded response deadlines reduced Intentional Judgment but not Unintentional Judgment (Experiment 1). Unintentional Judgment was stronger toward moral transgression primes than non-moral negative primes (Experiments 2-4). Intentional Judgment was associated with increased error-related negativity, a neurophysiological indicator of behavioral control (Experiment 4). Finally, people who voted for an anti-gay marriage amendment had stronger Unintentional Judgment toward gay marriage primes (Experiment 5). Across Experiments 1-4, implicit moral evaluations converged with moral personality: Unintentional Judgment about wrong primes, but not negative primes, was negatively associated with psychopathic tendencies and positively associated with moral identity and guilt proneness. Theoretical and practical applications of formal modeling for moral psychology are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Moral education: School as a just community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miočinović Ljiljana Đ.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Kohlberg’s view of moral education, how it was developing and changing over time. Starting from a theoretical postulate that thinking constitutes the essence of morality and from empirical findings of the stage development of moral judgment, in his early works Kohlberg defines moral education as "encouraging the natural course of moral judgment development". As a principal method of work, Kohlberg recommends the encouragement of a cognitive conflict by means of discussing hypothetic moral dilemmas. Criticisms that he is over-intellectualizing moral education, getting acquainted with a collective upbringing in kibbutz's, active participation in work in schools and prisons and finding that moral judgment and acting in everyday life is a response to the prevailing moral atmosphere of a group are leading to the changes in moral education goals and development of a new approach known as "just community". Now a group is in the focus of moral education, not an individual any longer, the major area of studies being group norms and expectations. The "just community" approach does not remain only at the classroom level discussing hypothetical moral dilemmas but directly influences the structure of school justice i.e. its rules and discipline, processes they are passed as well as the rights and duties of both teachers and students. Its goal is no longer to develop moral judgment of an individual student but to develop a group as moral community founded upon the norms of trust, participation and collective responsibility.

  8. Ocean acidification genetics - Genetics and genomics of response to ocean acidification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are applying a variety of genetic tools to assess the response of our ocean resources to ocean acidification, including gene expression techniques, identification...

  9. The Measurement of Morale among Belgian Military Personnel Deployed in Crisis Response Operations: A Longitudinal Survey Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    theoretical puzzle to an empirical illustration – An Israeli example. Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 16, 549-564. Gal, R. & Manning, F. J. (1987...Morale and its components: A cross-national comparison. Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 17, 369-391. Manning, F. J. (1991). Morale

  10. The morality of assisted reproduction and genetic manipulation A moralidade da reprodução assistida e da manipulação genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the pros and cons of various forms of assisted reproduction, including the use of so-called 'genetic manipulation'. He shows how in ethics the only arguments with any chance of reaching a consensus (or at least an agreement are those of the rational type, based on universally acceptable ethical principles or corroborated by empirical facts and real life experience (as the starting point for identifying problems requiring analysis. After an analysis in which he identifies the incoherence and inconsistency of arguments against assisted reproduction, the author defends the right of human beings to decide autonomously about the most healthy forms of procreation, including those involving genetic manipulation. His starting point is the moral principle by which it is morally preferable to intervene in natural processes (as opposed to not intervening whenever this implies preventing and reducing disease and sufferingO autor se propõe a analisar os argumentos pró e contra as várias formas de reprodução assistida, inclusive aquela dependente da assim chamada manipulação genética. Mostra como os únicos argumentos com chance de chegar ao consenso, ou, pelo menos, a um acordo, sejam os argumentos racionais, embasados em princípios éticos (universalmente aceitáveis, ou corroborados por fatos empíricos e experiências de vida (como ponto de partida para identificar os problemas que requerem análise. Após uma parte desconstrutiva, na qual aponta a incoerência e a inconsistência dos argumentos contrários, o autor defende o direito dos humanos em decidir autonomamente acerca das formas mais saudáveis de procriação, inclusive aquelas que envolvem manipulações genéticas. Para tanto, baseia-se no princípio moral segundo o qual é moralmente preferível interferir nos processos naturais que não intervir quando isso implica prevenir e reduzir doenças e sofrimento.

  11. Challenge Brought by Brain Imaging Technology for the Judgment of Moral Responsibility%脑成像技术对道德责任判定的挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛新志; 刘星

    2011-01-01

    The judgment of moral responsibility was based on the existence of free will and the consequence of the action.However, brain imaging technology indicates the real free will does not really exist.Emotions and memory play an important role in moral judgments, and sometimes a decisive role.Therefore, for the moral evaluation,free will is not a reasonable prerequisite and the consequence of the action not a reliable basis, all of which raise a great challenge for the traditional criteria of judging moral responsibility.%道德责任评判以自由意志的存在为前提,以行动的后果为依据.然而,脑成像技术的发展表明真正的自由意志是不存在的,情感以及记忆在道德判断中扮演了重要角色,有时甚至起决定性作用.因此,自由意志并非道德责任判定的合理前提,行动的直接后果也并非道德责任评判的可靠依据,这给传统道德责任判定提出了极大的挑战.

  12. Students' Choices and Moral Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joan F.

    2006-01-01

    Can schools encourage children to become independent moral decision-makers, maintaining controlled environments suitable to instructing large numbers of children? Two opposing responses are reviewed: one holds that the road to morality is through discipline and obedience, the other through children's experimentation and choice-making.…

  13. Moral transhumanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2010-12-01

    In its basic sense, the term "human" is a term of biological classification: an individual is human just in case it is a member of the species Homo sapiens. Its opposite is "nonhuman": nonhuman animals being animals that belong to other species than H. sapiens. In another sense of human, its opposite is "inhuman," that is cruel and heartless (cf. "humane" and "inhumane"); being human in this sense is having morally good qualities. This paper argues that biomedical research and therapy should make humans in the biological sense more human in the moral sense, even if they cease to be human in the biological sense. This serves valuable biomedical ends like the promotion of health and well-being, for if humans do not become more moral, civilization is threatened. It is unimportant that humans remain biologically human, since they do not have moral value in virtue of belonging to H. sapiens.

  14. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  15. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  16. Moral Judgment Reloaded: A Moral Dilemma validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F. Christensen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability and Intention and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan and Danish. The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  17. Moral transgressions corrupt neural representations of value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Molly J; Siegel, Jenifer Z; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2017-06-01

    Moral systems universally prohibit harming others for personal gain. However, we know little about how such principles guide moral behavior. Using a task that assesses the financial cost participants ascribe to harming others versus themselves, we probed the relationship between moral behavior and neural representations of profit and pain. Most participants displayed moral preferences, placing a higher cost on harming others than themselves. Moral preferences correlated with neural responses to profit, where participants with stronger moral preferences had lower dorsal striatal responses to profit gained from harming others. Lateral prefrontal cortex encoded profit gained from harming others, but not self, and tracked the blameworthiness of harmful choices. Moral decisions also modulated functional connectivity between lateral prefrontal cortex and the profit-sensitive region of dorsal striatum. The findings suggest moral behavior in our task is linked to a neural devaluation of reward realized by a prefrontal modulation of striatal value representations.

  18. Integrating Moral in a Dynamic Model of Corporate Social Responsibility in Islamic Economics and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Nor, Shifa

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Islamic Economics and finance. The escalating social and economic problems in particular during the current financial crisis have raised new questions as well as expectations about corporate governance, ethical and social responsibilities. Commentators have raised "ethical" as the missing link in financing and also in running financial institutions. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has emerged and developed with the aim of co...

  19. Genetic Testing Accounts of Autonomy, Responsibility and Blame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arribas-Ayllon, M.; Sarangi, Srikant; Clarke, Angus

    as well as genetic professionals. This book explores the ways in which genetic testing generates not only probabilities of potential futures, but also enjoys new forms of social, individual and professional responsibility. Concerns about confidentiality and informed consent involving children......, the assessment of competence and maturity, the ability to engage in shared decision-making through acts of disclosure and choice, are just some of the issues that are examined in detail....

  20. Genetic restriction of humoral immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The review provides information about immune response initiation against foreign agents. Significance of separate molecules of major histocompatibility complex in antibodies formation after blood transfusion, during pregnancy, after organ transplantation due to incompatibility of the antigenic structures of donor and recipient, mother and child was shown. Detailed description of platelet antigens protein structure significance in immunocompetent cells recognition of them is provided.

  1. Genetic restriction of humoral immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The review provides information about immune response initiation against foreign agents. Significance of separate molecules of major histocompatibility complex in antibodies formation after blood transfusion, during pregnancy, after organ transplantation due to incompatibility of the antigenic structures of donor and recipient, mother and child was shown. Detailed description of platelet antigens protein structure significance in immunocompetent cells recognition of them is provided.

  2. Morality and Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  3. Psychiatric Aspects of Reason and Morality of Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reason allows us to arrive at knowledge of what is good and true and what is wrong and evil. Reason-ing is a process to reach a conclusion by taking all related factors into account if there are enough evidence and information. Humans who have reasoning skills must analyze new situation which are faced in all aspects, explore, make logical inferences, explain his thoughts, reach conclusions and protect his conclusions. Some thinkers argue that reason is the source of morality that makes the distinction between right and wrong behaviour. In this respect, everyone who has mind and will has morality responsibility for their actions. This paper aims to emphasize the importance of received education and subculture on the moral development that can be directly or indirectly influenced by genetic and environmental factors. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(1.000: 115-121

  4. A historical view of social responsibility in genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckwith, J. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Today the science of genetics presents society with a double-edged sword between scientific research and social responsibility. There are parallels between conditions no and in the early part of the century in the USA. In both periods dramatic breakthroughs generated highly productive genetics research. In the early 1900s, this was accompanied by a powerful eugenics movement; today public attention is shifting to genetic explainations and genetic solutions to health and social problems. The article gives an overview of the eugenics movement, summarizes the changes in views and the growth of molecular biology in the 1950s and 1960s, mentions the technical breakthroughs of the 1970s, and summarizes the attitudes during the recominant DNA era and about the Human Genome Project. The author points out that the overextension of the applications of genetics can have profound effects on society. He concludes that concerns about the social consequences of the new genetics and the Human Genome project are being relegated to ethicists, social scientists, lawyers, and other nonscientists. Scientists have a key role to play and a responsibility to ensure that progress in their field is not used to harm rather than benefit people. 57 refs.

  5. Educating Citizens: Preparing America's Undergraduates for Lives of Moral and Civic Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Anne; Ehrlich, Thomas; Beaumont, Elizabeth; Stephens, Jason

    This book provides concrete advice on how campuses can meet the challenges of educating thoughtful, committed, and socially responsible college graduates. The chapters are: (1) "Educating Citizens in a Pluralistic Society"; (2) "The Broader Undergraduate Context"; (3) "When Educating Citizens Is a Priority"; (4) "The Multiple Dimensions of Moral…

  6. Moral Responsibility, Authenticity, and Education. Routledge International Studies in the Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this book is to explain the distinction, on the one hand, between indoctrination and education, and, on the other, between responsibility-subverting manipulation and mere causation. Both are elucidated by an appeal to common ground, an account of when our motivations and other springs of action are "truly our own" or…

  7. Fading Barriers to Potentially Harmful Information : Moral Responsibilities of Internet Providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, A.H.; D'Atri, A.; Marturano, A.; Rogerson, S.; Ward Bynum, T.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that providers have responsibilities relating to the textual information, images and sound recordings, accessible through their services. Apart from the people who, themselves, put information on the net, providers are the only ones who are in a position to fend off certain po

  8. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Erin W; Tahmasebi, Amir; French, Leon; Kovacevic, Natasa; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Juergen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Nichols, Thomas; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcela; Smolka, Michal N; Ströhle, Andreas; Toro, Roberto; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-08-01

    Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML), we related this global genetic variance to that in the brain response to facial expressions, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a community-based sample of adolescents (n = 1,620). Brain response to facial expressions was measured in 25 regions constituting a face network, as defined previously. In 9 out of these 25 regions, common genetic variance explained a significant proportion of phenotypic variance (40-50%) in their response to ambiguous facial expressions; this was not the case for angry facial expressions. Across the network, the strength of the genotype-phenotype relationship varied as a function of the inter-individual variability in the number of functional connections possessed by a given region (R(2) = 0.38, p<0.001). Furthermore, this variability showed an inverted U relationship with both the number of observed connections (R2 = 0.48, p<0.001) and the magnitude of brain response (R(2) = 0.32, p<0.001). Thus, a significant proportion of the brain response to facial expressions is predicted by common genetic variance in a subset of regions constituting the face network. These regions show the highest inter-individual variability in the number of connections with other network nodes, suggesting that the genetic model captures variations across the adolescent brains in co-opting these regions into the face network.

  9. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin W Dickie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML, we related this global genetic variance to that in the brain response to facial expressions, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in a community-based sample of adolescents (n = 1,620. Brain response to facial expressions was measured in 25 regions constituting a face network, as defined previously. In 9 out of these 25 regions, common genetic variance explained a significant proportion of phenotypic variance (40-50% in their response to ambiguous facial expressions; this was not the case for angry facial expressions. Across the network, the strength of the genotype-phenotype relationship varied as a function of the inter-individual variability in the number of functional connections possessed by a given region (R(2 = 0.38, p<0.001. Furthermore, this variability showed an inverted U relationship with both the number of observed connections (R2 = 0.48, p<0.001 and the magnitude of brain response (R(2 = 0.32, p<0.001. Thus, a significant proportion of the brain response to facial expressions is predicted by common genetic variance in a subset of regions constituting the face network. These regions show the highest inter-individual variability in the number of connections with other network nodes, suggesting that the genetic model captures variations across the adolescent brains in co-opting these regions into the face network.

  10. Emerging Powers and the Notion of International Responsibility: moral duty or shifting goalpost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Michael Kenkel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of new powers and attendant shifts in the global balance of power have led to calls for UN Security Council reform. Established powers have often responded by linking increased influence in the international system with the assumption of more international responsibility by aspirant powers. Based on ethical and philosophical approaches from the individual and state levels, and a case study of Brazil, this article analyses the way in which the notion of responsibility is discursively constructed, demonstrating the manner in which it has been used as an ever-shifting goalpost to deny emerging powers participation at the highest levels of global strategic decision-making. Most often, this is done by equating “responsibility” with the ability and willingness to use robust military force.

  11. Considering Moral Intelligence as Part of a Holistic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2010-01-01

    Morality and moral intelligence are important in our society and schools. Moral intelligence is discussed in the context of Gardener's theory of multiple intelligences. Moral intelligence helps apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. It consists of four competencies related to integrity, three to responsibility, two to…

  12. Cassandra in the Classroom: Teaching and Moral Madness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Doris A.

    2017-01-01

    Moral madness is a symptom of the moral violence experienced by teachers who are expected to exercise responsibility for their students and their work, but whose moral voice is misrecognized as self-interest and whose moral agency is suppressed. I conduct a feminist ethical analysis of the figure of Cassandra to examine the ways in which teachers…

  13. Cassandra in the Classroom: Teaching and Moral Madness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Doris A.

    2017-01-01

    Moral madness is a symptom of the moral violence experienced by teachers who are expected to exercise responsibility for their students and their work, but whose moral voice is misrecognized as self-interest and whose moral agency is suppressed. I conduct a feminist ethical analysis of the figure of Cassandra to examine the ways in which teachers…

  14. On situated and embodied knowledge regarding moral issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, R.

    2010-01-01

    When analyzing people’s moral compass it can be noticed that moral responses often are malleable. People find it difficult to respond to moral issues, because in many moral situations the right course of action is not quite clear. Furthermore, people have to choose between alternative actions with g

  15. [Active anti-smoking policy is a moral duty of government; responsibility for reducing smoking lies with both the individual and society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, M

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco discouragement, smoking cessation and tobacco endgame policies are sometimes criticised for being unduly paternalistic: governments should respect citizens' freedom and not take over their individual responsibility for healthy behaviour. In this commentary, I argue that very strict tobacco policies can be justified on multiple grounds, including the harm principle, the public good of maintaining a healthy society, and the reduction of health inequities. The moral reasons governments have to protect people against the harms of smoking do not limit or infringe upon the responsibility of each individual to take care of her own health: responsibility for healthy behaviour is not a zero-sum game.

  16. Global genetic variations predict brain response to faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickie, Erin W; Tahmasebi, Amir; French, Leon;

    2014-01-01

    Face expressions are a rich source of social signals. Here we estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance in the brain response to facial expressions explained by common genetic variance captured by ∼ 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximu...

  17. Moral fictions and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin G; Truog, Robert D; Brock, Dan W

    2010-11-01

    Conventional medical ethics and the law draw a bright line distinguishing the permitted practice of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from the forbidden practice of active euthanasia by means of a lethal injection. When clinicians justifiably withdraw life-sustaining treatment, they allow patients to die but do not cause, intend, or have moral responsibility for, the patient's death. In contrast, physicians unjustifiably kill patients whenever they intentionally administer a lethal dose of medication. We argue that the differential moral assessment of these two practices is based on a series of moral fictions - motivated false beliefs that erroneously characterize withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in order to bring accepted end-of-life practices in line with the prevailing moral norm that doctors must never kill patients. When these moral fictions are exposed, it becomes apparent that conventional medical ethics relating to end-of-life decisions is radically mistaken. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Neurocomputational model of moral behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebe, Alessio

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of human morality has dramatically improved in the last decades, thanks to efforts carried out with scientific methods, in addition to the traditional speculative approach. Substantial contributions and relevant empirical data have come from neuroscience, psychology, genetics, comparative ethology, anthropology, and the social sciences. In this fruitful synergy, one useful approach is still missing: computational modeling. More precisely, a neurocomputational model aimed at simulating forms of moral behavior, to our knowledge, has not yet been designed. The purpose of this work is to start filling this gap, proposing MOral Neural Engine (MONE), a model that simulates the emergence of moral cognition. The neural engine in this model is assumed to be based in frontal areas, specifically the orbitofrontal and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and in connections to limbic areas involved in emotions and reward, such as the ventral striatum and the amygdala. Moral cognition is probably the result of a collection of several different neural processes, activated depending on the type of moral problem, each associated with a variety of emotions. This model, in its first implementation, deals with only a single moral situation: stealing someone's food, a transgression that typically elicits guilt, learned in the model from the angry facial expressions of the victim.

  19. Authentic moral conflicts and students' moral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Wei-li

    2006-01-01

    This research deals with the different psychological processes people undergo when they experience firsthand authentic moral conflicts.It also discusses the value of authentic moral conflicts in students' moral development,and reasons for the ineffectiveness of moral education in China.The main reason for the unsatisfactory effects of moral education in China over a period of time lies in the predominance of virtual moral education.In authentic situations,the proper arrangement of moral conflicts requires careful analysis of values hidden in the prearranged or generated moral conflicts so as to utilize,guide,and control them properly.Such arrangement of moral conflicts should be adapted to students' life experience for deepening their understanding of the moral aspects of life.Also,special attention should be attached to students' varied requirements,thus leaving enough options and space for their independent participation in activities of moral education.

  20. Expected genetic response for oleic acid content in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros-Freixedes, R; Reixach, J; Tor, M; Estany, J

    2012-12-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) and oleic acid (C18:1) content in pork are important issues for the pig industry and consumers. Data from a purebred Duroc line were used to i) estimate the genetic parameters of IMF and C18:1 and their genetic correlations with lean growth components, and ii) evaluate the opportunities for genetically improving C18:1 in IMF. The data set used for estimating genetic parameters consisted of 93,920 pigs, from which 85,194 had at least 1 record for BW or backfat thickness (BT) at 180 d and 943 for IMF and C18:1 at 205 d. Intramuscular fat content and C18:1, expressed as percentage of total fatty acids, were determined in the gluteus medius muscle by gas chromatography. Genetic parameters for C18:1 were estimated under a Bayesian 4-trait multivariate animal mixed model. Heritability of C18:1 was 0.50, with a probability of 95% of being greater than 0.37. Genetic correlations of C18:1 with BW, BT, and IMF were 0.11, 0.22, and 0.47, respectively (with a probability of 95% of being greater than -0.07, 0.04, and 0.27, respectively). Genetic responses were evaluated by deterministic simulation using a half-sib recording scheme for C18:1 and the previously estimated parameters. The C18:1 content is expected to exhibit only minor changes in selection programs directed at growth rate but to decrease in those focusing on lean content. Maximum expected response in C18:1 at no lean growth loss (i.e., at no change in BW and BT) was 0.44%, with a resulting correlated response in IMF of 0.15%. However, because lean growth is emphasized in the breeding goal, the resulting response scenarios are more constrained. We concluded that there is evidence to support the idea that C18:1 in IMF is genetically determined and defined selection strategies can lead to response scenarios in which C18:1, IMF, BT, and BW can be simultaneously improved. However, if adopted, the potential for lean growth would be reduced. The extent to which it is affordable relies on how much

  1. From Ethics, Integrity and Moral Probity to Responsible Research and Innovation in Current Educational Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Monica GORGHIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As other social domains, the area of education is in a strong interdependence with environmental contexts, being in accordance with the economic conditions, political decisions, technological development and, not in the end, the demographic dynamics. Changes in all the above-mentioned aspects lead to modification of several educational variables. However, the actual educational settings and practices must take into consideration the future, projecting and addressing in this respect, the major challenges that will occur in the society in the following decades. In education, there were recorded a series of changes in theoretical frameworks or paradigms over the past decades. We have to admit that not all of them proved to be good or welcome, mostly in the cases when some of them were introduced considering the temporary social changes, limiting their evolution to a specific era or developmental goal or educational cult (Lindgren, 2013. But, it is obvious that paradigms or concepts which answer to the actual societal developments, which help the students in the process of becoming future responsible citizens, are more than welcome and beneficial. In this respect, this number of the Romanian Journal of Multidimensional Education tries to offer some answers to possible educational values of equity, integrity or relevance principles, together with the possibilities of exploiting the dimensions of Responsible Research and Innovation in the actual education.

  2. Moral Understanding in the Psychopath*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesti, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A pressing and difficult practical problem concerns the general issue of the right social response to offenders classified as having antisocial personality disorder. This paper approaches this general problem by focusing, from a philosophical perspective, on the still relevant but more approachable question whether psychopathic offenders are morally responsible. In particular, I investigate whether psychopaths possess moral understanding. A plausible way to approach the last question requires a satisfactory philosophical interpretation of the empirical evidence that appears to show that psychopaths fail to draw the distinction between conventional and moral norms. Specifically, I will consider a recent philosophical debate polarized between supporters of rationalist and sentimentalist accounts of moral understanding. These opponents have discussed whether the case of psychopathy offers empirical support for their account and undermine the rival view. I will argue that the available empirical data leave the outcome of this discussion indeterminate. However, this implies that both these principal theories of moral understanding, if independently motivated, would imply that psychopaths have certain deficits that might affect their moral understanding and, consequently, their moral responsibility. PMID:21151766

  3. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced.

  4. A perspective on balancing the legal and moral rights and responsibilities of HIV positive and HIV negative individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. le Roux

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa HIV/AIDS is no longer being described as an epidemic, but rather as a pandemic due to the devastating impact that it is having on all spheres of societal life. HIV/AIDS is not exclusively a health issue – it has also become a matter of political, economic, moral and legal concern and debate. One of the issues that consequently needs to be addressed is the establishment of an effective and equitable approach to dealing with HIV/AIDS issues – based on principles of justice and equity – that acknowledges the legal and moral rights and duties of both HIV positive and HIV negative persons. Legislation is a useful instrument in protecting and upholding the rights of citizens irrespective of their HIV status. However, because HIV/AIDS has an underlying socio-moral dimension it follows that important processes in understanding the epidemic and in establishing perspectives on confronting the issue include the identification of and enquiry into the perceived moral rights and obligations of those affected by the disease. Furthermore, in a country where Christianity is one of the predominant religions with distinctive moral tenets, a Christian community stance on HIV/AIDS issues should be probed.

  5. Moral Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahel, Kenneth

    1976-01-01

    Explains the rationale that there should be a kind of harmony between moral understanding or reasoning on the one hand, and the feeling dispositions on the other hand. Considers the views of Kant and Schopenhauer as they apply to the subject. (Author/RK)

  6. MORALE Assignment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carienvt

    also important in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) for ensuring .... having a negative influence on morale, and Table 3 lists consequences or .... stated in the introduction, military training aims to prepare soldiers for battle. Skills ... the whole person.41 This includes mind, body, emotions, character and spirit.

  7. Moral Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahel, Kenneth

    1976-01-01

    Explains the rationale that there should be a kind of harmony between moral understanding or reasoning on the one hand, and the feeling dispositions on the other hand. Considers the views of Kant and Schopenhauer as they apply to the subject. (Author/RK)

  8. Genetic and epigenetic control of plant heat responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzhong eLiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved sophisticated genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems to respond quickly to unfavorable environmental conditions such as heat, cold, drought, and pathogen infections. In particular, heat greatly affects plant growth and development, immunity and circadian rhythm, and poses a serious threat to the global food supply. According to temperatures exposing, heat can be usually classified as warm ambient temperature (about 22-27℃, high temperature (27-30℃ and extremely high temperature (37-42℃, also known as heat stress for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The genetic mechanisms of plant responses to heat have been well studied, mainly focusing on elevated ambient temperature-mediated morphological acclimation and acceleration of flowering, modulation of plant immunity and circadian clock by high temperatures, and thermotolerance to heat stress. Recently, great progress has been achieved on epigenetic regulation of heat responses, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, histone variants, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, histone chaperones, small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and other undefined epigenetic mechanisms. These epigenetic modifications regulate the expression of heat-responsive genes and function to prevent heat-related damage. This review focuses on recent progresses regarding the genetic and epigenetic control of heat responses in plants, and pays more attention to the role of the major epigenetic mechanisms in plant heat responses. Further research perspectives are also discussed.

  9. Emotional Reactions and Moral Judgment: the Effects of Morally Challenging Interactions in Military Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.C.; Schut, M; Verweij, D.E.M.; Vermetten, H.G.J.M.; Giebels, E.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the association between different types of morally challenging interactions during military deployment and response strategies (e.g., moral justification), as well as the mediating role of moral emotions. Interviews with Dutch servicemen who participated in military operations (e

  10. Genetics of caffeine consumption and responses to caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Amy; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Caffeine is widely consumed in foods and beverages and is also used for a variety of medical purposes. Despite its widespread use, relatively little is understood regarding how genetics affects consumption, acute response, or the long-term effects of caffeine. Objective This paper reviews the literature on the genetics of caffeine from the following: (1) twin studies comparing heritability of consumption and of caffeine-related traits, including withdrawal symptoms, caffeine-induced insomnia, and anxiety, (2) association studies linking genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes and target receptors to variations in caffeine response, and (3) case-control and prospective studies examining relationship between polymorphisms associated with variations in caffeine response to risks of Parkinson’s and cardiovascular diseases in habitual caffeine consumers. Results Twin studies find the heritability of caffeine-related traits to range between 0.36 and 0.58. Analysis of poly-substance use shows that predisposition to caffeine use is highly specific to caffeine itself and shares little common disposition to use of other substances. Genome association studies link variations in adenosine and dopamine receptors to caffeine-induced anxiety and sleep disturbances. Polymorphism in the metabolic enzyme cytochrome P-450 is associated with risk of myocardial infarction in caffeine users. Conclusion Modeling based on twin studies reveals that genetics plays a role in individual variability in caffeine consumption and in the direct effects of caffeine. Both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic polymorphisms have been linked to variation in response to caffeine. These studies may help guide future research in the role of genetics in modulating the acute and chronic effects of caffeine. PMID:20532872

  11. Plant genetic and molecular responses to water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Salvi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is severely affected by unfavourable environmental conditions (biotic and abiotic stresses. Among others, water deficit is the plant stress condition which mostly limits the quality and the quantity of plant products. Tolerance to water deficit is a polygenic trait strictly dependent on the coordinated expression of a large set of genes coding for proteins directly involved in stress-induced protection/repair mechanisms (dehydrins, chaperonins, enzymes for the synthesis of osmoprotectants and detoxifying compounds, and others as well as genes involved in transducing the stress signal and regulating gene expression (transcription factors, kinases, phosphatases. Recently, research activities in the field evolved from the study of single genes directly involved in cellular stress tolerance (functional genes to the identification and characterization of key regulatory genes involved in stress perception and transduction and able to rapidly and efficiently activate the complex gene network involved in the response to stress. The complexity of the events occurring in response to stress have been recently approached by genomics tools; in fact the analysis of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of a plant tissue/cell in response to stress already allowed to have a global view of the cellular and molecular events occurring in response to water deficit, by the identification of genes activated and co-regulated by the stress conditions and the characterization of new signalling pathways. Moreover the recent application of forward and reverse genetic approaches, trough mutant collection development, screening and characterization, is giving a tremendous impulse to the identification of gene functions with key role in stress tolerance. The integration of data obtained by high-throughput genomic approaches, by means of powerful informatic tools, is allowing nowadays to rapidly identify of major genes/QTLs involved in stress tolerance

  12. On Moral Luck and Nonideal Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the Kantian principle that we are morally accountable only for those actions over which we have control, Bernard Williams, Thomas Nagel, and others have argued that luck plays a significant role in the moral life. Put briefly, moral luck is at play when we are appropriately praised or blamed for our moral actions despite the fact…

  13. On Moral Luck and Nonideal Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the Kantian principle that we are morally accountable only for those actions over which we have control, Bernard Williams, Thomas Nagel, and others have argued that luck plays a significant role in the moral life. Put briefly, moral luck is at play when we are appropriately praised or blamed for our moral actions despite the fact…

  14. Grounding Moralism: Moral Flaws and Aesthetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuts, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Can moral flaws lessen an artwork's aesthetic value? Answering yes to this question requires both that artworks can be morally flawed and that moral flaws within a work of art can have an aesthetic impact. For present purposes, the author will assume that artworks can be morally flawed by such means as endorsing immoral perspectives, culpably…

  15. Ethics in science education: responsabilities and commitments with the child's moral development in the discussion of controversial subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Castilho Razera

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent research outcomes presents in a sample of Science Education journals, shows that ethics and moral development issues have been neglected in the Science Education research. Based in theoretical referential directed toward this theme, and in a research carried out on controversial issues in the Science Teaching, such as those related to the debate creationism versus evolutionism, this paper tries to show the necessity and possibilities to take into consideration questions of this nature in classroom, in order to help developing the moral in students.

  16. The community of nursing: moral friends, moral strangers, moral family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabs, Carolyn A

    2008-10-01

    Unlike bioethicists who contend that there is a morality common to all, H. Tristan Engelhardt (1996) argues that, in a pluralistic secular society, any morality that does exist is loosely connected, lacks substantive moral content, is based on the principle of permission and, thus, is a morality between moral strangers. This, says Engelhardt, stands in contrast to a substance-full morality that exists between moral friends, a morality in which moral content is based on shared beliefs and values and exists in communities that tend to be closely knit and religiously based. Of what value does Engelhardt's description of ethics as moral friends and moral strangers have for nursing? In this essay, I attempt to show how Engelhardt's description serves to illustrate how the nursing community historically had been one of moral friends but has gradually become one of moral strangers and, hence, at risk of failing to protect patients in their vulnerability and of compromising the integrity of nursing. Building on Engelhardt's concepts, I suggest we might consider modern nursing like a moral family to the extent that members might at times relate to one another as moral strangers but still possess a desire and a need to reconnect with the common thread that binds us as moral friends. Nursing is a practice discipline. Given the challenges of modern bioethics, an applied ethic is needed to give moral direction to clinicians as we strive to conduct ourselves ethically in the practice of our profession. To that end, nursing should reflect upon and seek to reconnect with the content-full morality that is historically and religiously based.

  17. Antenatal screening and the gendering of genetic responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Kate

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to explore men's and women's perceptions of antenatal blood screening. The study will assess the impact of these perceptions on decision-making regarding diagnostic testing and selective abortion, and on parental feelings of genetic responsibility. By exploring gender and antenatal screening in this way, the research aims to contribute to our understanding of lay perceptions of genetic screening and increase our knowledge of the decision-making process in screening. Research design This qualitative study will be based on semi-structured interviews with twenty pregnant women and twenty male partners in the post-industrial city of Sheffield, UK. All interviews will be taped, transcribed and analysed thematically using NVIVO, a qualitative software package. Discussion The findings of this study have relevance to existing debates on the social and ethical implications of reproductive genetics. A better understanding of male and female perceptions of the screening process could improve guidance and practice in antenatal screening and genetic counselling. It will also inform and contribute to the development of theory on gender and genetic screening.

  18. Evolutionary response when selection and genetic variation covary across environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Corlett W; Brodie, Edmund D

    2016-10-01

    Although models of evolution usually assume that the strength of selection on a trait and the expression of genetic variation in that trait are independent, whenever the same ecological factor impacts both parameters, a correlation between the two may arise that accelerates trait evolution in some environments and slows it in others. Here, we address the evolutionary consequences and ecological causes of a correlation between selection and expressed genetic variation. Using a simple analytical model, we show that the correlation has a modest effect on the mean evolutionary response and a large effect on its variance, increasing among-population or among-generation variation in the response when positive, and diminishing variation when negative. We performed a literature review to identify the ecological factors that influence selection and expressed genetic variation across traits. We found that some factors - temperature and competition - are unlikely to generate the correlation because they affected one parameter more than the other, and identified others - most notably, environmental novelty - that merit further investigation because little is known about their impact on one of the two parameters. We argue that the correlation between selection and genetic variation deserves attention alongside other factors that promote or constrain evolution in heterogeneous landscapes.

  19. If it makes you feel bad, don't do it! Egoistic rather than altruistic empathy modulates neural and behavioral responses in moral dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlo, Michela; Lotto, Lorella; Rumiati, Rino; Palomba, Daniela

    2014-05-10

    According to Greene et al.'s dual-process theory, the differential involvement of emotional processes would explain the different patterns of moral judgments people typically produce when faced with Trolley- and Footbridge-type dilemmas. As a relevant factor, dispositional empathy is known to motivate prosocial behaviors, thus playing a central role in moral judgment and behavior. The present study was aimed at investigating how behavioral and neural correlates of moral decision-making are modulated by the cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy. Thirty-seven participants were presented with 30 Footbridge-type and 30 Trolley-type dilemmas. Participants were required to decide between two options: letting some people die (non-utilitarian) vs. killing one person to save more people (utilitarian). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded stimulus-locked to a "decision slide". Response choices and ratings of valence and arousal were also collected. Trait empathy was measured through the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), assessing both the cognitive and affective dimensions. Scores on the Empathic Concern affective subscale of the IRI positively predicted unpleasantness experienced during decision-making for all dilemmas. On the other hand, for Footbridge-type dilemmas only, scores on the Personal Distress affective subscale predicted negatively the mean percentages of utilitarian choices and positively the mean amplitudes of the P260, an ERP component reflecting an immediate emotional reaction during decision-making. It is concluded that "self-oriented" feelings of anxiety and unease, rather than "other-oriented" feelings of concern, affect behavioral choices and emotion-related cortical activity in Footbridge-type moral dilemmas.

  20. Building and Sustaining Hope. A Response to "Meaningful Hope for Teachers in a Time of High Anxiety and Low Morale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I respond to Carrie Nolan and Sarah M. Stitzlein's article "Meaningful Hope for Teachers in a Time of High Anxiety and Low Morale" and support their argument for meaningful hope grounded in pragmatist philosophy. I agree that while hope is routinely called for in the educational literature, it is often done so in superficial and…

  1. Relationships among Play Behaviors Reported by College Students and Their Responses to Moral Issues: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Darrel R.; Bergen, Doris

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the types and amount of playful activity and thought exhibited from early childhood to adulthood are related to aspects of moral development, such as empathy, behavior, and reasoning. It explored whether the assertions of theorists such as Piaget, Vygotsky, and Erikson regarding the facilitative effect of games with…

  2. Serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR predicts utilitarian moral judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail A Marsh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgment have been the focus of extensive recent research. Here we show that serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR genotype predicts responses to moral dilemmas featuring foreseen harm to an innocent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants in this study judged the acceptability of actions that would unintentionally or intentionally harm an innocent victim in order to save others' lives. An analysis of variance revealed a genotype × scenario interaction, F(2, 63 = 4.52, p = .02. Results showed that, relative to long allele homozygotes (LL, carriers of the short (S allele showed particular reluctance to endorse utilitarian actions resulting in foreseen harm to an innocent individual. LL genotype participants rated perpetrating unintentional harm as more acceptable (M = 4.98, SEM = 0.20 than did SL genotype participants (M = 4.65, SEM = 0.20 or SS genotype participants (M = 4.29, SEM = 0.30. No group differences in moral judgments were observed in response to scenarios featuring intentional harm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that inherited variants in a genetic polymorphism that influences serotonin neurotransmission influence utilitarian moral judgments as well. This finding is interpreted in light of evidence that the S allele is associated with elevated emotional responsiveness.

  3. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  4. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  5. Moral Development in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…

  6. [Genetic test for cancer and intra-family communication: freedom vs. responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, M L; Di Raimo, F R; Teleman, A A; Refolo, P

    2015-01-01

    Genetic tests affect not only single patients but also their genetic relatives. In some cases, they in fact allow to acquire information not only about a single patient, but also about those who are genetically linked (genetic relatives). By appealing to the principle of autonomy, the patient can refuse to be informed of the test result, or to inform their relatives on the risk of a pathology. How might the relatives' right to know be reconciled with the will of a patient who refuses to know or to inform? Among the large number of moral dilemmas that this field can raise, the article aims to reply to the above mentioned question and to analyse in depth some aspects of intra-family communication within the field of genetic tests for cancer.

  7. Moral Resilience: Managing and Preventing Moral Distress and Moral Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Vicki D

    2016-01-01

    Moral resilience is the ability to deal with an ethically adverse situation without lasting effects of moral distress and moral residue. This requires morally courageous action, activating needed supports and doing the right thing. Morally resilient people also have developed self-confidence by confronting such situations so they can maintain their self-esteem, no matter what life delivers. Finally, the ability to adapt to changing circumstances with a sense of humor is at the heart of their flexibility. Morally resilient nurses are not naïve about the price of moral integrity. They know it does not come without pain of dealing with adversity, but they believe the virtue of moral courage is necessary to meet the ethical obligations of their profession (ANA, 2015b).

  8. Corporate moral responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, F.W.A.; Bakker, de H.C.M.; Deblonde, M.K.; Graaff, de R.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decennia economic enterprises in the food chain have increasingly been confronted with concerns of different stakeholders, such as consumers, governments, pressure groups and others, related to technological innovations and modern biotechnologies. As a consequence, a growing number of co

  9. Genetic influences on response to alcohol and response to pharmacotherapies for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2014-08-01

    Although very many individuals drink alcohol at safe levels, a significant proportion escalates their consumption with addiction as the end result. Alcoholism is a common, moderately heritable, psychiatric disorder that is accompanied by considerable morbidity and mortality. Variation in clinical presentation suggests inter-individual variation in mechanisms of vulnerability including genetic risk factors. The development of addiction is likely to involve numerous functional genetic variants of small effects. The first part of this review will focus on genetic factors underlying inter-individual variability in response to alcohol consumption, including variants in alcohol metabolizing genes that produce an aversive response (the flushing syndrome) and variants that predict the level of subjective and physiological response to alcohol. The second part of this review will report on genetic variants that identify subgroups of alcoholics who are more likely to respond to pharmacotherapy to reduce levels of drinking or maintain abstinence. Genetic analyses of the level of response to alcohol, particularly of the functional OPRM1 A118G polymorphism and 5' and 3' functional polymorphisms in SLC6A4, are beginning to provide insights into the etiology of alcoholism and also genotype-stratified subgroup responses to naltrexone and SSRIs/ondansetron respectively. Because of large inter-ethnic variation in allele frequencies, the relevance of these functional polymorphisms will vary between ethnic groups. However there are relatively few published studies in this field, particularly with large sample sizes in pharmacogenetic studies, therefore it is premature to draw any conclusions at this stage.

  10. Aims and harvest of moral case deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Froukje C; Molewijk, Bert A C; Kamsteeg, Frans; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (N = 78) and harvest (N = 255). A naturalistic data collection included interviews with managers and evaluation questionnaires of moral case deliberation participants (nurses). From the analysis, moral case deliberation appeals for cooperation, team bonding, critical attitude towards routines and nurses' empowerment. Differences are that managers aim to foster identity of the nursing profession, whereas nurses emphasize learning processes and understanding perspectives. We conclude that moral case deliberation influences team cooperation that cannot be controlled with traditional management tools, but requires time and dialogue. Exchanging aims and harvest between manager and team could result in co-creating (moral) practice in which improvements for daily cooperation result from bringing together perspectives of managers and team members.

  11. Habitat specialization predicts genetic response to fragmentation in tropical birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimoun, Aurélie; Eraud, Cyril; Ollivier, Anthony; Arnoux, Emilie; Rocheteau, Vincent; Bely, Marine; Lefol, Emilie; Delpuech, Martin; Carpentier, Marie-Laure; Leblond, Gilles; Levesque, Anthony; Charbonnel, Anaïs; Faivre, Bruno; Garnier, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the most severe threats to biodiversity as it may lead to changes in population genetic structure, with ultimate modifications of species evolutionary potential and local extinctions. Nonetheless, fragmentation does not equally affect all species and identifying which ecological traits are related to species sensitivity to habitat fragmentation could help prioritization of conservation efforts. Despite the theoretical link between species ecology and extinction proneness, comparative studies explicitly testing the hypothesis that particular ecological traits underlies species-specific population structure are rare. Here, we used a comparative approach on eight bird species, co-occurring across the same fragmented landscape. For each species, we quantified relative levels of forest specialization and genetic differentiation among populations. To test the link between forest specialization and susceptibility to forest fragmentation, we assessed species responses to fragmentation by comparing levels of genetic differentiation between continuous and fragmented forest landscapes. Our results revealed a significant and substantial population structure at a very small spatial scale for mobile organisms such as birds. More importantly, we found that specialist species are more affected by forest fragmentation than generalist ones. Finally, our results suggest that even a simple habitat specialization index can be a satisfying predictor of genetic and demographic consequences of habitat fragmentation, providing a reliable practical and quantitative tool for conservation biology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. THE PRACTICAL STRATEGIES AND METHODS OF THE MORAL RESPONSIBILITY EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES IN THE NEW AGE%新时期高校道德责任教育的实践策略与方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周家华

    2012-01-01

    The status and function of the moral responsibility education are becoming more and more important in universities in our country in the new age. The moral responsibility education in universities in our country faces important contemporary issues on how to enhance the contemporary university students' sense and ability of the moral responsibility, and to explore effective strategies and methods of the moral responsibility education in universities actively according to China's social practice in the new era. According to the needs of the times and the practice of China's social development, the moral responsibility' education in universities should train the university students' ability of the moral responsibility analysis and judgment on the basis of respecting the university students' subjectivity, and promote the university students' consciousness and practical ability of the moral responsibility through practice.%新时期我国高校道德责任教育的地位与作用越来越重要,如何提升当代大学生的道德责任感与道德责任能力。根据我国新时期的社会实践,积极探索高校道德责任教育的有效策略与方法是我国高校道德责任教育面临重要的时代课题。根据时代需要与我国社会发展实践,高校道德责任教育要围绕尊重大学生的主体性地位,培养大学生的道德责任分析与判断能力,在实践中提升大学生的道德责任意识与道德责任实践能力。

  13. Impact of genetic polymorphisms on clinical response to antithrombotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kena J Lanham

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Kena J Lanham1,2, Julie H Oestreich3, Steven P Dunn1,2, Steven R Steinhubl41Pharmacy Services, UK HealthCare, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA; 3Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska, USA; 4The Medicines Company, Zurich, Switzerland and The Geisinger Clinic, Danville, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Antithrombotic therapy, including anticoagulants as well as antiplatelet drugs, is an important component in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Variability in response to such medications, of which pharmacogenetic response is a major source, can decrease or enhance the benefits expected. This review is a comprehensive assessment of the literature published to date on the effects of genetic polymorphisms on the actions of a variety of antithrombotic medications, including warfarin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, and aspirin. Literature evaluating surrogate markers in addition to the impact of pharmacogenetics on clinical outcomes has been reviewed. The results of the studies are conflicting as to what degree pharmacogenetics will affect medication management in cardiovascular disease. Additional research is necessary to discover, characterize, and prospectively evaluate genetic and non-genetic factors that impact antithrombotic treatment in order to maximize the effectiveness and limit the harmful effects of these valuable agents.Keywords: aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, prasugrel, pharmacogenetic, antithrombotic, antiplatelet

  14. The genetic regulation of infant immune responses to vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eNewport

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors are recognised to influence immune responses to vaccinations including age, gender, the dose and quality of the antigen used, the number of doses given, the route of administration and the nutritional status of the recipient. Additionally, several immunogenetic studies have identified associations between polymorphisms in genes encoding immune response proteins, both innate and adaptive, and variation in responses to vaccines. Variants in the genes encoding Toll-like receptors, HLA molecules, cytokines, cytokine receptors have associated with heterogeneity of responses to a wide range of vaccines including measles, hepatitis B, influenza A, BCG, Haemophilus influenzae type b and certain Neisseria meningitidis serotypes, amongst others. However, the vast majority of these studies have been conducted in older children and adults and there are very few data available from studies conducted in infants. This paper reviews the evidence to date that host genes influencing vaccines responses in these older population and identifies a large gap in our understanding of the genetic regulation of responses in early life. . Given the high mortality from infection in early life and the challenges of developing vaccines that generate effective immune responses in the context of the developing immune system further research on infant populations is required.

  15. Moral Education in a Postmodern World: Continuing Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    Examines moral education in a postmodern cultural context, where there is a privatization of moral responsibility. Building upon a critique of modernist ethics and moral education, five types of response to privatization are postulated and evaluated. Presents the notion of situational sensitivity as defining an appropriate curriculum for…

  16. A genetically encoded biosensor for visualising hypoxia responses in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Tvisha; Baccino-Calace, Martin; Meyenhofer, Felix; Rodriguez-Crespo, David; Akarsu, Hatice; Armenta-Calderón, Ricardo; Gorr, Thomas A.; Frei, Christian; Cantera, Rafael; Egger, Boris

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cells experience different oxygen concentrations depending on location, organismal developmental stage, and physiological or pathological conditions. Responses to reduced oxygen levels (hypoxia) rely on the conserved hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Understanding the developmental and tissue-specific responses to changing oxygen levels has been limited by the lack of adequate tools for monitoring HIF-1 in vivo. To visualise and analyse HIF-1 dynamics in Drosophila, we used a hypoxia biosensor consisting of GFP fused to the oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODD) of the HIF-1 homologue Sima. GFP-ODD responds to changing oxygen levels and to genetic manipulations of the hypoxia pathway, reflecting oxygen-dependent regulation of HIF-1 at the single-cell level. Ratiometric imaging of GFP-ODD and a red-fluorescent reference protein reveals tissue-specific differences in the cellular hypoxic status at ambient normoxia. Strikingly, cells in the larval brain show distinct hypoxic states that correlate with the distribution and relative densities of respiratory tubes. We present a set of genetic and image analysis tools that enable new approaches to map hypoxic microenvironments, to probe effects of perturbations on hypoxic signalling, and to identify new regulators of the hypoxia response. PMID:28011628

  17. Intelligence and the Development of Moral Judgment in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Seymour

    1977-01-01

    A moral judgment interview was administered to 100 elementary parochial school children. The relationship of intelligence, age, and sex to the quality of response in four areas of moral judgment was assessed. (MS)

  18. Genetic analysis of superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaton, C; Koeck, A; Sargolzaei, M; Malchiodi, F; Price, C A; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F

    2016-05-01

    Superovulation of dairy cattle is frequently used in Canada. The cost of this protocol is high, and so is the variability of the outcome. Knowing the superovulatory potential of a donor cow could influence the breeder's decision to superovulate it or not. The main objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis for superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada, and to investigate if these data could be used for genetic evaluation. Data contained the total number of embryos and the number of viable embryos from every successful flushing performed across Canada. After editing, 137,446 records of superovulation performed between 1992 and 2014 were analyzed. A univariate repeatability animal model analysis was performed for both total number of embryos and number of viable embryos. Because both data and residuals did not follow a normal distribution, records were subject to either logarithmic or Anscombe transformation. Using logarithmic transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.15 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. Using Anscombe transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.17 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was estimated at 0.97 using logarithmic transformation and 0.95 using Anscombe transformation. Breeding values were estimated for 54,463 cows, and 3,513 sires. Only estimated breeding values of sires having a reliability higher than 40% were considered for estimated breeding values correlations with other routinely evaluated traits. The results showed that selection for a higher response to superovulation would lead to a slight decrease in milk production, but an improvement for functional traits, including all reproduction traits. In all cases, the estimated correlations are either low or modest. We conclude that

  19. Moral Motivation, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeff; Bock, Tonia; Narvaez, Darcia

    2013-01-01

    The link between judgment and action is weak throughout psychology, including moral psychology. That is, people often do not act in accordance with their reasoning. Might moral judgment development be better viewed as a capacity that inhibits "immoral" behavior? One model that helps account for the moral judgment-action gap is Rest's…

  20. Accident Emergency Response And Routing Software (AERARS using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Ramachandran,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AERARS is a response and routing software for accident emergency requirement. A method has been proposed in this project for using a genetic algorithm to find the shortest route between a source and adestination. It make use of genetic algorithms ability to search the opt solution from the population helping to solve spatially addressed problem. The numbers of accident spots are plotted in ArcGISenvironment and ten major accident spots are identified. The software package is designed with closest facility estimation and shortest route generation along with other basic software facilities in Visual Basic environment. Genetic algorithm provided a great optimality to the solutions. The closest facility tool helps to estimate the nearest hospital, ambulance, police station and fire station. The shortest route estimation tool generates shortest path between a locations to the hospital or ambulance spot. The various risk zonesare assessed and more safety measures can be taken to reduce the frequency of accident. The software efficiency can be further increased by incorporating GPS and satellite technology.

  1. Atypical moral judgment following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Muresan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown an association between emotions, particularly social emotions, and moral judgments. Some studies suggested an association between blunted emotion and the utilitarian moral judgments observed in patients with prefrontal lesions. In order to investigate how prefrontal brain damage affects moral judgment, we asked a sample of 29 TBI patients (12 females and 17 males and 41 healthy participants (16 females and 25 males to judge 22 hypothetical dilemmas split into three different categories (non-moral, impersonal and personal moral. The TBI group presented a higher proportion of affirmative (utilitarian responses for personal moral dilemmas when compared to controls, suggesting an atypical pattern of utilitarian judgements. We also found a negative association between the performance on recognition of social emotions and the proportion of affirmative responses on personal moral dilemmas. These results suggested that the preference for utilitarian responses in this type of dilemmas is accompanied by difficulties in social emotion recognition. Overall, our findings suggest that deontological moral judgments are associated with normal social emotion processing and that frontal lobe plays an important role in both emotion and moral judgment.

  2. Moral identity and emotion in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavussanu, Maria; Willoughby, Adrian; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of moral identity on physiological responses to affective pictures, namely, the startle blink reflex and pain-related evoked potential. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 46) athletes participating in contact team sports were randomly assigned to either a moral identity group or a non-moral identity group and viewed a series of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant sport-specific pictures. During picture viewing, a noxious electrocutaneous stimulus was delivered as the startle probe and the startle blink and pain-related evoked potential were measured. Upon completion of physiological measures, participants reviewed the pictures and rated them for valence and arousal. ANOVAs revealed that participants in the moral identity group displayed larger startle blinks and smaller pain-related potentials than did those in the non-moral identity group across all picture valence categories. However, the difference in the magnitude of startle blinks between the moral and non-moral identity groups was larger in response to unpleasant than pleasant and neutral pictures. Our findings suggest that moral identity affects physiological responses to sport-specific affective pictures, thereby providing objective evidence for the link between moral identity and emotion in athletes.

  3. Discussion on the Behavior of Entrepreneurial Social Responsibility in Moral Motivation%试论企业家社会责任行为的道德动因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿学峰

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy, it frequently occurs the disharmonies in today's society, which hamper the social development. Such as loss of entrepreneurial moral conscience, lack of business integrity, increasing environmental pollution and so on. The crux of these problems, can be mainly attributed to the lack of entrepreneurs' social responsible behaviors. Through the analysis of micro level and macro level, we can have a brief understanding of the moral motivation of entrepreneurs' social responsible behaviors, and hope to have a benefit for more in-depth study of scholars.%随着我国经济的飞速发展,当今社会频繁出现企业家道德良知丧失、企业诚信匮乏与环境污染加剧等有碍社会发展的不和谐现象.这些问题的症结所在,大多可归结为企业家社会责任行为的缺乏.通过微观层面与宏观层面的分析,我们可以对企业家社会责任行为的道德动因略作了解,还望能对学者们更深入的研究有所裨益.

  4. Conscientious Objection in Healthcare and Moral Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicclair, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There are several reasons for accommodating health professionals' conscientious objections. However, several authors have argued that among the most important and compelling reasons is to enable health professionals to maintain their moral integrity. Accommodation is said to provide "moral space" in which health professionals can practice without compromising their moral integrity. There are, however, alternative conceptions of moral integrity and corresponding different criteria for moral-integrity-based claims. It is argued that one conception of moral integrity, the identity conception, is sound and suitable in the specific context of responding to health professionals' conscientious objections and their requests for accommodation. According to the identity conception, one maintains one's moral integrity if and only if one's actions are consistent with one's core moral convictions. The identity conception has been subject to a number of criticisms that might call into question its suitability as a standard for determining whether health professionals have genuine moral-integrity-based accommodation claims. The following five objections to the identity conception are critically examined: (1) it does not include a social component, (2) it is a conception of subjective rather than objective integrity, (3) it does not include a reasonableness condition, (4) it does not include any substantive moral constraints, and (5) it does not include any intellectual integrity requirement. In response to these objections, it is argued that none establishes the unsuitability of the identity conception in the specific context of responding to health professionals' conscientious objections and their requests for accommodation.

  5. Refining moral agency: Insights from moral psychology and moral philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Aimee

    2017-08-11

    Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory. In this paper, I review some of Paley's (Nursing Philosophy, 13, 2012, 80) critique, focusing on the argument that theories of nursing ethics have failed to account for the role of context; both in terms of its impact on the way nurses make moral judgements and in terms of the environment's influence on the way the mind works. I then examine nursing literature on moral agency, and focus on the role of the environment and context play within existing theory. I argue that theories of moral agency have often accounted for the role of context on the way nurses make decisions; however, less attention has been paid to its impact on the mind. With this background, I use insights from the fields of moral philosophy and moral psychology to refine the conceptualization of nurse moral agency in a way that is reflective of current cognitive, philosophical and nursing practice-based science. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Status and Response of the Moral Teaching in Rural Primary%农村小学品德课程教学的现状与应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟亚

    2012-01-01

    当前农村小学《品德与生活(社会)》教学由于一些主客观原因,存在许多不容乐观的现状,课程在德育课程体系中的作用没有得到很好的发挥。我们应该针对这一现状进行认真分析和研究,找出原因。结合实际从制度保障、教师结构、课堂教学等方面想出策略,作出应对,力求通过改变,使教学更好地满足学生成长的需要和满足国家与社会对青少年思想道德成长新的要求。%Due to some objective and subjective reasons,Moral Character and Life(Society) teaching in rural primary schools is in the situation that can not be optimistic,so the role of curriculum in the system of moral education courses do not play very well.In response to this situation,we should conduct a careful analysis and research to find out the reason.We come up with some strategies form the factors of the protection system,the structure of teachers,classroom teaching etc,so that teaching can better meet the needs of the student development,and meet the new demands of teenagers' ideological and moral growth.

  7. Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…

  8. Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…

  9. Genetic control of immune responsiveness in the chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijpp, van der A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Disease can be combated by medication, vaccination, hygienic measures, eradication and genetic resistance. Genetic resistance to infectious diseases is advantageous because of its permanent character in contrast with the aforementioned procedures. In the chicken genetic resistance to specific diseas

  10. Morality in everyday life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, W.; Wisneski, D.C.; Brandt, M.J.; Skitka, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The science of morality has drawn heavily on well-controlled but artificial laboratory settings. To study everyday morality, we repeatedly assessed moral or immoral acts and experiences in a large (N = 1252) sample using ecological momentary assessment. Moral experiences were surprisingly frequent

  11. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...

  12. Measuring nurses' moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R S

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the moral reasoning of nurses yield inconsistent findings. Using Cronbach and Meehl's interpretive framework, the author demonstrates the lack of construct validity for Kohlberg's theory of moral development and related measures of moral reasoning. Gilligan's relational theory of moral orientations is proposed as an alternative theory worth testing in nurse samples.

  13. Moral disengagement in the corporate world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jenny; Bandura, Albert; Bero, Lisa A

    2009-01-01

    We analyze mechanisms of moral disengagement used to eliminate moral consequences by industries whose products or production practices are harmful to human health. Moral disengagement removes the restraint of self-censure from harmful practices. Moral self-sanctions can be selectively disengaged from harmful activities by investing them with socially worthy purposes, sanitizing and exonerating them, displacing and diffusing responsibility, minimizing or disputing harmful consequences, making advantageous comparisons, and disparaging and blaming critics and victims. Internal industry documents and public statements related to the research activities of these industries were coded for modes of moral disengagement by the tobacco, lead, vinyl chloride (VC), and silicosis-producing industries. All but one of the modes of moral disengagement were used by each of these industries. We present possible safeguards designed to protect the integrity of research.

  14. Selection on Moral Hazard in Health Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Ryan, Stephen; Schrimpf, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We use employee-level panel data from a single firm to explore the possibility that individuals may select insurance coverage in part based on their anticipated behavioral (“moral hazard”) response to insurance, a phenomenon we label “selection on moral hazard.” Using a model of plan choice and medical utilization, we present evidence of heterogeneous moral hazard as well as selection on it, and explore some of its implications. For example, we show that, at least in our context, abstracting from selection on moral hazard could lead to over-estimates of the spending reduction associated with introducing a high-deductible health insurance option. PMID:24748682

  15. Curious cases: Altered dose-response relationships in addiction genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, George R; Drgonova, Jana; Hall, F Scott

    2014-03-01

    Dose-response relationships for most addictive substances are "inverted U"-shaped. Addictive substances produce both positive features that include reward, euphoria, anxiolysis, withdrawal-relief, and negative features that include aversion, dysphoria, anxiety and withdrawal symptoms. A simple model differentially associates ascending and descending limbs of dose-response curves with rewarding and aversive influences, respectively. However, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) diagnoses of substance dependence fail to incorporate dose-response criteria and don't directly consider balances between euphoric and dysphoric drug effects. Classical genetic studies document substantial heritable influences on DSM substance dependence. Linkage and genome-wide association studies identify modest-sized effects at any locus. Nevertheless, clusters of SNPs within selected genes display 10(-2)>p>10(-8) associations with dependence in many independent samples. For several of these genes, evidence for cis-regulatory, level-of-expression differences supports the validity of mouse models in which levels of expression are also altered. This review documents surprising, recently defined cases in which convergent evidence from humans and mouse models supports central influences of altered dose-response relationships in mediating the impact of relevant genomic variation on addiction phenotypes. For variation at loci for the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, cadherin 13, receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase Δ and neuronal cell adhesion molecule genes, changed dose-response relationships conferred by gene knockouts in mice are accompanied by supporting human data. These observations emphasize desirability of carefully elucidating dose-response relationships for both rewarding and aversive features of abused substances wherever possible. They motivate consideration of individual differences in dose-response relationships in addiction nosology and therapeutics.

  16. Individual morality and the morality of institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanlon Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relationship between moral philosophy and political philosophy. It holds that political philosophy in some way is part of moral philosophy as the former deals with the content of moral standards governing the relations between individuals and institutions. That would be the purpose of the „morality of institutions“, while the so-called "individual morality" would inform the standards applicable to individuals. On the basis of a conception of individual morality as it relates to contractualism and a discussion of the morality of institutions that closely follows John Rawls’ theory of justice, the paper addresses the question of the foundations of the obligation to comply with institution-defined standards that are directed towards individuals. At the end, it focuses in particular on the difficulty of rationalizing that obligation in the case of unjust institutions.

  17. Naturalistic Moral Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Susnik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is probably the most influential version of moral realism, known as “moral realism naturalism”. After I propose what seems to be the most appropriate formulation of moral realism, I discuss whether it is possible to show that moral properties and natural properties can be identified a posteriori. In the second part I try to show that moral realists naturalists cannot refute wellknown Mackie’s “argument from querness” (or at least one version of that argument. In the end I discuss whether moral realists naturalists can ascribe the explanatory power to moral properties.

  18. Treatment heterogeneity in asthma: genetics of response to leukotriene modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, John J

    2007-01-01

    Despite advances in treatment, asthma continues to be a significant health and economic burden. Although asthma cannot be cured, several drugs, including beta2 agonists, corticosteroids, and leukotriene (LT) modifiers, are well tolerated and effective in minimizing symptoms, improving lung function, and preventing exacerbations. However, inter-patient variability in response to asthma drugs limits their effectiveness. It has been estimated that 60-80% of this inter-patient variability may be attributable to genetic variation. LT modifiers, in particular, have been associated with heterogeneity in response. These drugs exert their action by inhibiting the activity of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), which are potent bronchoconstrictors and pro-inflammatory agents. Two classes of LT modifiers are 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) inhibitors (zileuton) and leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) [montelukast, pranlukast, and zarfirlukast]. LT modifiers can be used as alternatives to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in mild persistent asthma, as add-on therapy to low- to medium-dose ICS in moderate persistent asthma, and as add-on to high-dose ICS and a long-acting ss2 agonist in severe persistent asthma. At least six genes encode key proteins in the LT pathway: arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), ALOX5 activating protein (ALOX5AP [FLAP]), leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), LTC4 synthase (LTC4S), the ATP-binding cassette family member ABCC1 (multidrug resistance protein 1 [MRP1]), and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CYSLTR1). Studies have reported that genetic variation in ALOX5, LTA4H, LTC4S, and ABCC1 influences response to LT modifiers. Plasma concentrations of LTRAs vary considerably among patients. Physio-chemical characteristics make it likely that membrane efflux and uptake transporters mediate the absorption of LTRAs into the systemic circulation following oral administration. Genes that encode efflux and uptake transport proteins harbor many variants that could

  19. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  20. Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Joseph M.; Ungar, Leo; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian…

  1. The Moral Philosopher Looks at Values Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, William Augustus

    1980-01-01

    William James, Kierkegaard, Kant, and Arnold, among others, warrant attention as the responsibilities of colleges for the moral education of students are reassessed. It is suggested that the issue of culture as a moral enterprise is at the heart of the argument. (Author/MSE)

  2. 传媒问责:推进传媒道德责任的一种可行路径%Media Accountability:A Viable Path to Promote Media Moral Responsibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭平剑

    2012-01-01

    传媒问责是实现和谐传媒伦理关系及传媒道德责任自律性与他律性相统一的必然要求,有利于促进传媒道德责任与道德自由相统一及提升传媒公共服务质量,是推进传媒道德责任的一种可行的制度安排。%Media accountability is the necessary requirement to achieve a harmonious media ethics relationship and achieve the unity of self-discipline and heteronomy of media moral responsibility.Media accountability is conducive to promoting the unity of media moral freedom and media moral responsibility and to enhancing the quality of public service media.

  3. Enhancing Moral Conformity and Enhancing Moral Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It is plausible that we have moral reasons to become better at conforming to our moral reasons. However, it is not always clear what means to greater moral conformity we should adopt. John Harris has recently argued that we have reason to adopt traditional, deliberative means in preference to means that alter our affective or conative states directly-that is, without engaging our deliberative faculties. One of Harris' concerns about direct means is that they would produce only a superficial kind of moral improvement. Though they might increase our moral conformity, there is some deeper kind of moral improvement that they would fail to produce, or would produce to a lesser degree than more traditional means. I consider whether this concern might be justified by appeal to the concept of moral worth. I assess three attempts to show that, even where they were equally effective at increasing one's moral conformity, direct interventions would be less conducive to moral worth than typical deliberative alternatives. Each of these attempts is inspired by Kant's views on moral worth. Each, I argue, fails.

  4. Plasmodium genetic loci linked to host cytokine and chemokine responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaradilokrat, S; Li, J; Wu, J; Qi, Y; Eastman, R T; Zilversmit, M; Nair, S C; Huaman, M C; Quinones, M; Jiang, H; Li, N; Zhu, J; Zhao, K; Kaneko, O; Long, C A; Su, X-z

    2014-01-01

    Both host and parasite factors contribute to disease severity of malaria infection; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the disease and the host-parasite interactions involved remain largely unresolved. To investigate the effects of parasite factors on host immune responses and pathogenesis, we measured levels of plasma cytokines/chemokines (CCs) and growth rates in mice infected with two Plasmodium yoelii strains having different virulence phenotypes and in progeny from a genetic cross of the two parasites. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis linked levels of many CCs, particularly IL-1β, IP-10, IFN-γ, MCP-1 and MIG, and early parasite growth rate to loci on multiple parasite chromosomes, including chromosomes 7, 9, 10, 12 and 13. Comparison of the genome sequences spanning the mapped loci revealed various candidate genes. The loci on chromosomes 7 and 13 had significant (P<0.005) additive effects on IL-1β, IL-5 and IP-10 responses, and the chromosome 9 and 12 loci had significant (P=0.017) interaction. Infection of knockout mice showed critical roles of MCP-1 and IL-10 in parasitemia control and host mortality. These results provide important information for a better understanding of malaria pathogenesis and can be used to examine the role of these factors in human malaria infection.

  5. Response to lithium in bipolar disorder: clinical and genetic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2014-06-18

    The use of lithium is a cornerstone for preventing recurrences in bipolar disorder (BD). The response of patients with bipolar disorder to lithium has different levels of magnitude. About one-third of lithium-treated patients are excellent lithium responders (ELR), showing total prevention of the episodes. A number of clinical characteristics were delineated in patients with favorable response to lithium as regards to clinical course, family history of mood disorders, and psychiatric comorbidity. We have also demonstrated that temperamental features of hypomania (a hyperthymic temperament) and a lack of cognitive disorganization predict the best results of lithium prophylaxis. A degree of prevention against manic and depressive episodes has been regarded as an endophenotype for pharmacogenetic studies. The majority of data have been gathered from so-called "candidate" gene studies. The candidates were selected on the basis of neurobiology of bipolar disorder and mechanisms of lithium action including, among others, neurotransmission, intracellular signaling, neuroprotection or circadian rhythms. We demonstrated that response to lithium has been connected with the genotype of BDNF gene and serum BDNF levels and have shown that ELR have normal cognitive functions and serum BDNF levels, even after long-term duration of the illness. A number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of BD have been also performed in recent years, some of which also focused on lithium response. The Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) has established the large sample for performing the genome-wide association study (GWAS) of lithium response in BD, and the first results have already been published.

  6. Explanatory Limitations of Cognitive-Developmental Approaches to Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Dennis L.; Denton, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    In response to Gibbs' (see record 2006-08257-011) defense of neo-Kohlbergian models of morality, the authors question whether revisions in Kohlberg's model constitute a coherent refinement of the cognitive-developmental approach. The authors argue that neo-Kohlbergian measures of moral development assess an aspect of morality (the most…

  7. Bone response to fluoride exposure is influenced by genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia A N Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Genetic factors influence the effects of fluoride (F on amelogenesis and bone homeostasis but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. A label-free proteomics approach was employed to identify and evaluate changes in bone protein expression in two mouse strains having different susceptibilities to develop dental fluorosis and to alter bone quality. In vivo bone formation and histomorphometry after F intake were also evaluated and related to the proteome. Resistant 129P3/J and susceptible A/J mice were assigned to three groups given low-F food and water containing 0, 10 or 50 ppmF for 8 weeks. Plasma was evaluated for alkaline phosphatase activity. Femurs, tibiae and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated using micro-CT analysis and mineral apposition rate (MAR was measured in cortical bone. For quantitative proteomic analysis, bone proteins were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS, followed by label-free semi-quantitative differential expression analysis. Alterations in several bone proteins were found among the F treatment groups within each mouse strain and between the strains for each F treatment group (ratio ≥1.5 or ≤0.5; p<0.05. Although F treatment had no significant effects on BMD or bone histomorphometry in either strain, MAR was higher in the 50 ppmF 129P3/J mice than in the 50 ppmF A/J mice treated with 50 ppmF showing that F increased bone formation in a strain-specific manner. Also, F exposure was associated with dose-specific and strain-specific alterations in expression of proteins involved in osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. In conclusion, our findings confirm a genetic influence in bone response to F exposure and point to several proteins that may act as targets for the differential F responses in this tissue.

  8. Early genetic responses in rat vascular tissue after simulated diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftedal, Ingrid; Jørgensen, Arve; Røsbjørgen, Ragnhild; Flatberg, Arnar; Brubakk, Alf O

    2012-12-18

    Diving causes a transient reduction of vascular function, but the mechanisms behind this are largely unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze genetic reactions that may be involved in acute changes of vascular function in divers. Rats were exposed to 709 kPa of hyperbaric air (149 kPa Po(2)) for 50 min followed by postdive monitoring of vascular bubble formation and full genome microarray analysis of the aorta from diving rats (n = 8) and unexposed controls (n = 9). Upregulation of 23 genes was observed 1 h after simulated diving. The differential gene expression was characteristic of cellular responses to oxidative stress, with functions of upregulated genes including activation and fine-tuning of stress-responsive transcription, cytokine/cytokine receptor signaling, molecular chaperoning, and coagulation. By qRT-PCR, we verified increased transcription of neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (Nr4a3), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Serpine1), cytokine TWEAK receptor FN14 (Tnfrsf12a), transcription factor class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 40 (Bhlhe40), and adrenomedullin (Adm). Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF1 subunit HIF1-α was stabilized in the aorta 1 h after diving, and after 4 h there was a fivefold increase in total protein levels of the procoagulant plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) in blood plasma from diving rats. The study did not have sufficient power for individual assessment of effects of hyperoxia and decompression-induced bubbles on postdive gene expression. However, differential gene expression in rats without venous bubbles was similar to that of all the diving rats, indicating that elevated Po(2) instigated the observed genetic reactions.

  9. Gender-related differences in moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, M; Ferrucci, R; Mameli, F; Marceglia, S; Mrakic-Sposta, S; Zago, S; Lucchiari, C; Consonni, D; Nordio, F; Pravettoni, G; Cappa, S; Priori, A

    2010-08-01

    The moral sense is among the most complex aspects of the human mind. Despite substantial evidence confirming gender-related neurobiological and behavioral differences, and psychological research suggesting gender specificities in moral development, whether these differences arise from cultural effects or are innate remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of gender, education (general education and health education) and religious belief (Catholic and non-Catholic) on moral choices by testing 50 men and 50 women with a moral judgment task. Whereas we found no differences between the two genders in utilitarian responses to non-moral dilemmas and to impersonal moral dilemmas, men gave significantly more utilitarian answers to personal moral (PM) dilemmas (i.e., those courses of action whose endorsement involves highly emotional decisions). Cultural factors such as education and religion had no effect on performance in the moral judgment task. These findings suggest that the cognitive-emotional processes involved in evaluating PM dilemmas differ in men and in women, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying neural mechanisms. Gender-related determinants of moral behavior may partly explain gender differences in real-life involving power management, economic decision-making, leadership and possibly also aggressive and criminal behaviors.

  10. Gender a morálka (Gender and Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Lajčiaková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the importance of gender dimensions for moral development. The paper brings some discussions about two distinct moral orientations (of justice and care and two types of moral reasoning elaborated by Carol Gilligan. The study introduces the main features of Gilligan’s conception as the critical response to the conception of Lawrence Kohlberg. It also points out the limits of Gilligan's theory of moral orientations.

  11. Investigating moral identity in child-headed households / J. Pretorius.

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    The development of a moral identity has been closely linked with parental care. Within the HIV/Aids context, concern about the moral actions of South Africans inspired an investigation into the Gestalt field of Zulu child-headed households, as the lack of adequate parental care threatens the development of moral identity in these households. As substitute parents, the adolescents in the Zulu child-headed households are responsible for enhancing moral identity in their siblings while their own...

  12. Moral identity in psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Glenn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several scholars have recognized the limitations of theories of moral reasoning in explaining moral behavior. They have argued that moral behavior may also be influenced by moral identity, or how central morality is to one's sense of self. This idea has been supported by findings that people who exemplify moral behavior tend to place more importance on moral traits when defining their self-concepts (Colby and Damon, 1995. This paper takes the next step of examining individual variation in a construct highly associated with IMMORAL behavior --- psychopathy. In Study 1, we test the hypothesis that individuals with a greater degree of psychopathic traits have a weaker moral identity. Within a large online sample, we found that individuals who scored higher on a measure of psychopathic traits were less likely to base their self-concepts on moral traits. In Study 2, we test whether this reduced sense of moral identity can be attributed to differences in moral judgment, which is another factor that could influence immoral behavior. Our results indicated that the reduced sense of moral identity among more psychopathic individuals was independent of variation in moral judgment. These results suggest that individuals with psychopathic traits may display immoral behavior partially because they do not construe their personal identities in moral terms.

  13. Nathaniel Hawthorne And The Social Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mahmoud Rowshanzamir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nathaniel Hawthorne (1800- 1864 who grew in the puritan environment of Salem, Massachusetts nourished worries regarding man and his relationship with the society on one hand and with his God on the other. On the whole he had some moral responsibility to fulfill in his writing carrier; the moral responsibility that he grew and tried to fulfill in his works of literature. This article tried to have a closer look at some of his major short stories to find his moral concerns regarding the social life. The analysis of the tales in this article suggested the supremacy and priority of social moral matters over individualistic moral concerns for Nathaniel Hawthorne as a social moralist.

  14. The Contrabassist and the CEO: Moral Judgment and Collective Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pinzani

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How much is a moral judgment on a single act influenced by circumstances which have little to do with the nature of the act itself? How much have certain moral judgments to do with the common history and shared experience of a certain group of individuals? Using two cases taken from life (a German musician and a German CEO behaving both in a morally wrong way but with very different consequences from the point of view of moral judgement and with very different reactions from the German public, the article tries to give an answer to these questions, touching issues like: guilt, moral responsibility, collective responsibility, and collective identity.

  15. Genetic Testing and Psychology: New Roles, New Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Guttmacher, Alan E.; Collins, Francis S.

    2002-01-01

    Advances in genetics and genetic testing promise to catalyze a fundamental change in the practice of medicine. Psychologists have much to offer as psychotherapists, researchers, educators, and policymakers to a society heavily influenced by the genetic revolution. To make the most of new opportunities available to mental health professionals in…

  16. DIMENSI MORAL DALAM KEKUASAAN POLITIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchson AR * **

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The oldest legitimation of authority is religious legitimation, a doctrine of the Middle Ages. King is believed as the figure manifested of God authority. like the religious concept, the Javanese mystical concepts believe that the King authority comes from the supernatural power, not from people support. Although that opinion is considered as religious legitimation, but Islam is not like it. The Holy Qur'an more emphasizes for justice and morality in political system. In the Javanese mystical perception, King is looked as a microcosm who can reserves the power of a macrocosm and then emanates it. The King's character should indicate natural power, such as power of the sun, moon, star, etc. The other side of harmony with whole world, the King must be able to create a social harmony. Political ethics in democracy political system based on Pancasila also emphasizes that the legitimation of authority comes from people mandate, as a principle of democracy. Even though, the authority's moral and moral responsibility of authority must be appreciated and respected. The opinion that authority is not a moral legitimation and the authority is not personification of moral goodness should be rejected

  17. Your morals depend on language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Costa

    Full Text Available Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.

  18. Genetic background determines response to hemostasis and thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Annie E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombosis is the fatal and disabling consequence of cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. Two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and A/J, have marked differences in susceptibility to obesity, atherosclerosis, and vessel remodeling. However, it is unclear how these diverse genetic backgrounds influence pathways known to regulate thrombosis and hemostasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate thrombosis and hemostasis in these two inbred strains and determine the phenotypic response of A/J chromosomes in the C57BL/6J background. Methods A/J and C57Bl/6J mice were evaluated for differences in thrombosis and hemostasis. A thrombus was induced in the carotid artery by application of the exposed carotid to ferric chloride and blood flow measured until the vessel occluded. Bleeding and rebleeding times, as surrogate markers for thrombosis and hemostasis, were determined after clipping the tail and placing in warm saline. Twenty-one chromosome substitution strains, A/J chromosomes in a C57BL/6J background, were screened for response to the tail bleeding assay. Results Thrombus occlusion time was markedly decreased in the A/J mice compared to C57BL/6J mice. Tail bleeding time was similar in the two strains, but rebleeding time was markedly increased in the A/J mice compared to C57BL/6J mice. Coagulation times and tail morphology were similar, but tail collagen content was higher in A/J than C57BL/6J mice. Three chromosome substitution strains, B6-Chr5A/J, B6-Chr11A/J, and B6-Chr17A/J, were identified with increased rebleeding time, a phenotype similar to A/J mice. Mice heterosomic for chromosomes 5 or 17 had rebleeding times similar to C57BL/6J mice, but when these two chromosome substitution strains, B6-Chr5A/J and B6-Chr17A/J, were crossed, the A/J phenotype was restored in these doubly heterosomic progeny. Conclusion These results indicate that susceptibility to arterial

  19. Rethinking moral reasoning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, K M

    1989-01-01

    Many nursing studies on moral reasoning and ethics have used Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The body of knowledge that resulted from these studies indicated that nurses and nursing students had consistently lower than expected levels of moral reasoning. Educational offerings were developed to assist nurses to improve their moral reasoning. This article explores the cognitive-developmental theory of moral development as one way of determining the moral development of nurses. Since this theory of moral reasoning focuses on the rational thought of the individual and does not consider the impact of the environment, it is of limited applicability in nursing. A new theory of morality needs to be developed--a more holistic one that will include both universal principles and contextual tissues.

  20. Moral Luck from Bernard Williams’ Point of View

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    Zahra Khazai ; Fatemeh Tamaddon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Moral luck is an important issue in meta- ethics. Its conflict to principle of control make challenges to moral moral assessment, moral judgment and moral responsibility. Bernard Williams is the first philosopher who uses the expression "moral luck" and tries to show that the contradiction between “moral” and “luck” is not so serious. Against Kantian’s idea and also our intuitions Williams doesn’t believe that morality is immune of luck and that unlike other values, is accessible to all people. If moral value is accessible to all, according to his idea, it should be not only immune of luck but also supreme. Giving some examples, Williams by concepts like justification, regret and retrospective, shows that morality hasn’t these characteristics. Dividing moral luck into four types: resultant, circumstantial, constitutive and causal, Thomas Nagel puts Williams' moral luck under the first type and criticizes it. This study seeks to explain Bernard Williams’ viewpoint on moral luck. At first it clears types of moral luck, principle of control and its contradiction with moral luck, then after explaining Williams’ account of moral luck criticizes it. Nagel’s criticisms and others show that although they accept the existence of moral luck and also their account is compatible to williams’ but they deny williams’ success in defending of this phenomenon. Finally, despite of all critiques, it seems that Williams’ failure in defense of moral luck didn’t decrease the importance of this matter, but made some stronger ideas were appeared by Thomas Nagel in this regard.

  1. Reactions to morally motivated deviance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramwinckel, F.M.; Van den Bos, K.; Van Dijk, E.

    2015-01-01

    People value morality in themselves and others. They want to be moral and good individuals, associate themselves with others who share their moral values, and belong to moral groups. As an ironic consequence of the importance of morality, people sometimes respond negatively to morally motivated

  2. The Anatomy of Moral Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Judith A.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that moral intelligence is one of the separate, autonomous multiple intelligences. The essay discusses moral development as a function of cognitive/analytical development, the relationship between moral reasoning and moral conduct, the biological basis of moral intelligence, moral intelligence as a function of social intelligence, and…

  3. Adequate trust avails, mistaken trust matters: on the moral responsibility of doctors as proxies for patients' trust in biobank research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different set of countermeasures. First, trust is mistaken when necessary competence is lacking; the competence must be developed or the illusion dispelled. Second, trust is irrational whenever the patient is mistaken about his actual reasons for trusting. Care must therefore be taken to support the patient's reasoning and moral agency. Third, some patients inappropriately trust doctors to recommend only research that will benefit them directly. Such trust should be counteracted by nurturing a culture where patients expect to be asked occasionally to contribute to the common good.

  4. Patient accounts of diagnostic testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia: comparing responses to genetic and non-genetic testing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollands Gareth J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuing developments in genetic testing technology together with research revealing gene-disease associations have brought closer the potential for genetic screening of populations. A major concern, as with any screening programme, is the response of the patient to the findings of screening, whether the outcome is positive or negative. Such concern is heightened for genetic testing, which it is feared may elicit stronger reactions than non-genetic testing. Methods This paper draws on thematic analysis of 113 semi-structured interviews with 39 patients being tested for familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH, an inherited predisposition to early-onset heart disease. It examines the impact of disease risk assessments based on both genetic and non-genetic information, or solely non-genetic information. Results The impact of diagnostic testing did not seem to vary according to whether or not genetic information was used. More generally, being given a positive or negative diagnosis of FH had minimal discernible impact on people's lives as they maintained the continuity of their beliefs and behaviour. Conclusions The results suggest that concerns about the use of genetic testing in this context are unfounded, a conclusion that echoes findings from studies in this and other health contexts.

  5. Deconstructing the Elephant and the Flag in the Lavatory: Promises and Problems of Moral Foundations Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Moral Foundations research offers rich promise, opening up key questions about how affect and cognition are integrated in moral response, and exploring how different moral discourses may supply meaning and valence to moral experience. Haidt and his colleagues also associate different discourses with different political positions. However I address…

  6. Deconstructing the Elephant and the Flag in the Lavatory: Promises and Problems of Moral Foundations Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Moral Foundations research offers rich promise, opening up key questions about how affect and cognition are integrated in moral response, and exploring how different moral discourses may supply meaning and valence to moral experience. Haidt and his colleagues also associate different discourses with different political positions. However I address…

  7. Moral Reasoning and Emotion Attributions of Adolescent Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, Sonja; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline; Malti, Tina; Hymel, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated different facets of moral development in bullies, victims, and bully-victims among Swiss adolescents. Extending previous research, we focused on both bullying and victimization in relation to adolescents' morally disengaged and morally responsible reasoning as well as moral emotion attributions. A total of 516 adolescents…

  8. Moral appearances: emotions, robots, and human morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Can we build ‘moral robots’? If morality depends on emotions, the answer seems negative. Current robots do not meet standard necessary conditions for having emotions: they lack consciousness, mental states, and feelings. Moreover, it is not even clear how we might ever establish whether robots satis

  9. The moral problem of worse actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and institutions sometimes have morally stringent reasons to not do a given action. For example, an oil company might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing revenue to a genocidal regime, or an engineer might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing her expertise in the development of weapons of mass destruction. But in some cases, if the agent does not do the action, another actor will do it with much worse consequences. For example, the oil company might know their assets will be bought by a company with worse environmental and labor practices. Or the engineer might know her position will be filled by a more ambitious and amoral engineer. I call this the moral problem of worse actors (MPWA. MPWA gives reason, at least some of the time, to consider otherwise morally impermissible actions permissible or even obligatory. On my account, doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA remains morally objectionable even if permissible or obligatory, and this brings additional moral responsibilities and obligations to the actor. Similarly, not doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA may also bring additional (but different moral responsibilities and obligations. Acknowledging MPWA creates considerable challenges, as many bad actors may appeal to it to justify morally objectionable action. In this paper, I develop a set of strategies for individuals and institutions to handle MPWA. This includes appeals to integrity and the proper attribution of expressive responsibility, regulatory responsibility, and compensatory responsibility. I also address a set of related concerns, including worries about incentivizing would-be bad actors, concerns about epistemic uncertainty, and the problem of mala in se exceptions.

  10. Are Psychopaths Morally Sensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Bruce; Le Sage, Leonie

    2009-01-01

    Philosophical and psychological opinion is divided over whether moral sensitivity, understood as the ability to pick out a situation's morally salient features, necessarily involves emotional engagement. This paper seeks to offer insight into this question. It reasons that if moral sensitivity does draw significantly on affective capacities of…

  11. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  12. Parenting for Moral Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Ralph L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory of moral development and provides examples of how Kohlberg's theoretical principles can be employed in everyday family interaction. Holds that parents are always moral educators and must therefore consciously implement moral development strategies in the home environment. (GC)

  13. Compassion and Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susky, John E.

    1979-01-01

    Critiquing Skinner's and Kohlberg's moral development theories as inadequate, the author asserts that affective development (compassion, empathy, caring) is necessary to moral action. While saying that schools are limited in their ability to provide moral education, he outlines qualities of an educational environment which could facilitate moral…

  14. Moral Education and Caring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Michael Slote's very interesting work on moral sentimentalism and moral education raises some important questions on the meaning of empathy, the limitations of "inductions", and the development of moral education from the perspective of care ethics. These questions are addressed in this commentary. (Contains 5 notes.)

  15. Sentimentalist Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Care ethics, and moral sentimentalism more generally, have not developed a picture of moral education that is comparable in scope or depth to the rationalist/Kantian/Rawlsian account of moral education that has been offered by Lawrence Kohlberg. But it is possible to do so if one borrows from the work of Martin Hoffman and makes systematic use of…

  16. Character and Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Johnnie

    1997-01-01

    Reflects on the ways in which children develop character as well as ways to foster moral development in elementary education communities. Includes a brief discussion of Robert Coles' documentation of moral intelligence in children, and lists several ways to aid the moral life of children in Montessori classrooms. (EV)

  17. Evaluating moral reasoning in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod-Sordjan, Renee

    2014-06-01

    Evidence-based practice suggests the best approach to improving professionalism in practice is ethics curricula. However, recent research has demonstrated that millennium graduates do not advocate for patients or assert themselves during moral conflicts. The aim of this article is the exploration of evaluation techniques to evaluate one measurable outcome of ethics curricula: moral reasoning. A review of literature, published between 1995 and 2013, demonstrated that the moral orientations of care and justice as conceptualized by Gilligan and Kohlberg are utilized by nursing students to solve ethical dilemmas. Data obtained by means of reflective journaling, Ethics of Care Interview (ECI) and Defining Issues Test (DIT), would objectively measure the interrelated pathways of care-based and justice-based moral reasoning. In conclusion, educators have an ethical responsibility to foster students' ability to exercise sound clinical judgment, and support their professional development. It is recommended that educators design authentic assessments to demonstrate student's improvement of moral reasoning.

  18. The ethical desirability of moral bioenhancement: a review of reasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The debate on the ethical aspects of moral bioenhancement focuses on the desirability of using biomedical as opposed to traditional means to achieve moral betterment. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the ethical reasons presented in the literature for and against moral bioenhancement. Discussion A review was performed and resulted in the inclusion of 85 articles. We classified the arguments used in those articles in the following six clusters: (1) why we (don’t) need moral bioenhancement, (2) it will (not) be possible to reach consensus on what moral bioenhancement should involve, (3) the feasibility of moral bioenhancement and the status of current scientific research, (4) means and processes of arriving at moral improvement matter ethically, (5) arguments related to the freedom, identity and autonomy of the individual, and (6) arguments related to social/group effects and dynamics. We discuss each argument separately, and assess the debate as a whole. First, there is little discussion on what distinguishes moral bioenhancement from treatment of pathological deficiencies in morality. Furthermore, remarkably little attention has been paid so far to the safety, risks and side-effects of moral enhancement, including the risk of identity changes. Finally, many authors overestimate the scientific as well as the practical feasibility of the interventions they discuss, rendering the debate too speculative. Summary Based on our discussion of the arguments used in the debate on moral enhancement, and our assessment of this debate, we advocate a shift in focus. Instead of speculating about non-realistic hypothetical scenarios such as the genetic engineering of morality, or morally enhancing ‘the whole of humanity’, we call for a more focused debate on realistic options of biomedical treatment of moral pathologies and the concrete moral questions these treatments raise. PMID:25227512

  19. Unifying Kohlberg with Information Integration: The Moral Algebra of Recompense and of Kohlbergian Moral Informers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommers, Wilfried; Lee, Wha-Yong

    2010-01-01

    In order to unify two major theories of moral judgment, a novel task is employed which combines elements of Kohlberg's stage theory and of the theory of information integration. In contrast to the format of Kohlberg's moral judgment interview, a nonverbal and quantitative response which makes low demands on verbal facility was used. Moral…

  20. Behavioral genetics and criminal responsibility at the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarelli, Roberto; Del Casale, Antonio; Tatarelli, Caterina; Serata, Daniele; Rapinesi, Chiara; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    Several questions arise from the recent use of behavioral genetic research data in the courtroom. Ethical issues concerning the influence of biological factors on human free will, must be considered when specific gene patterns are advocated to constrain court's judgment, especially regarding violent crimes. Aggression genetics studies are both difficult to interpret and inconsistent, hence, in the absence of a psychiatric diagnosis, genetic data are currently difficult to prioritize in the courtroom. The judge's probabilistic considerations in formulating a sentence must take into account causality, and the latter cannot be currently ensured by genetic data.

  1. Socially responsible genetic research with descendants of the First Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Holst Pellekaan Sheila M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal Australians, one of the world’s indigenous peoples now outnumbered through colonization, are the most under-represented in genetic research because they feel that the benefits do not outweigh the social cost of involvement. Descendants of the First Australians have survived a period of European occupation during which time they were dispossessed of land, language and cultural identity resulting in inequities in health, education, and employment opportunities. Compared to Maori and Native American peoples, the ability to form organizations that help to control their affairs is very recent. The desire to control is understandably strong yet the ‘gate-keeping’ role of some organizations risks shifting the control away from smaller communities and has become increasingly politicized. In the past, research practices by Western scientists were poorly presented and have resulted in resistance to proposals that are perceived to have no beneficial outcomes for participants. In this age of advanced technological expertise in genetics, benefits to all humanity are clear to those carrying out research projects, yet not always to those being asked to participate, presenting extra challenges. Excellent guidelines for ethical conduct in research are available to assist researchers, prospective participants, and ethics committees or review boards that approve and monitor procedures. The essence of these guidelines are that research should be carried out with a spirit of integrity, respect, reciprocity, parity, recognition of survival and protection of social and cultural values, a need for control and shared responsibility. Specific Aboriginal organizations, with which researchers need to work to negotiate partnerships, vary within and between Australian states and will always expect Aboriginal personnel to be involved. People experienced in the consultation process are necessary as part of a team. By working patiently through lengthy

  2. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  3. Exposing college students to exercise: the training interventions and genetics of exercise response (TIGER) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age ...

  4. DMPD: The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10669111 The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysa...ccharide. Qureshi ST, Gros P, Malo D. Inflamm Res. 1999 Dec;48(12):613-20. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The... Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. PubmedID 10669111 Title The

  5. Raciocínio moral na tomada de decisões em relação a questões sociocientíficas: o exemplo do melhoramento genético humano Moral reasoning in decision-making regarding socioscientific issues: the human genetic improvement example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Andrei Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, os avanços nas Ciências Biológicas têm levado a sociedade a discutir diversas questões no campo da moral e da ética. Questões como engenharia genética, clonagem e pesquisas com células-tronco são questões chamadas de sociocientíficas por estarem na interface entre a ciência e a sociedade. Nesse trabalho buscamos entender como estudantes de Ensino Médio percebem e interpretam questões relacionadas à manipulação genética em seres humanos. Houve divisão de opiniões em relação à eugenia negativa, que se destina a remover características desfavoráveis das pessoas; mas a eugenia positiva, que busca melhoramento de características estéticas, foi rejeitada por todos os estudantes. As variações nas opiniões em relação ao assunto tratado podem ser, em grande medida, devidas às representações sociais dos estudantes.In the recent years the advances in biological sciences has been convincing society to discuss issues concerning moral and ethics. Issues as cloning, stem-cell research and genetic engineering are called socioscientific issues because they put into evidence the interface between science and society. In this paper we aimed at understanding how High School students realize and interpret issues regarding human genetic improvement. As a result we have found divergent opinions regarding negative eugenics, specifically about its attempts of taking out undesirable characteristics of individuals; but there was an agreement among all the students in rejecting positive eugenics, that aims at improving individuals esthetical characteristics. The divergences and differences of opinions may be related to the students' social representations.

  6. Religion, morality, evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    How did religion evolve? What effect does religion have on our moral beliefs and moral actions? These questions are related, as some scholars propose that religion has evolved to enhance altruistic behavior toward members of one's group. I review here data from survey studies (both within and across countries), priming experiments, and correlational studies of the effects of religion on racial prejudice. I conclude that religion has powerfully good moral effects and powerfully bad moral effects, but these are due to aspects of religion that are shared by other human practices. There is surprisingly little evidence for a moral effect of specifically religious beliefs.

  7. Moral cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jonathan; Langdon, Robyn; Brüne, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Disordered moral behaviour and understanding of moral rules were described early in the literature on schizophrenia; however, moral cognition has received scant attention in spite of a large literature focused on social cognitive impairments and violent behaviour in schizophrenia. We conducted a narrative synthesis of the literature on violence, moral judgement and schizophrenia. Initial empirical research into moral cognition in schizophrenia did not fully account for the basic- and social-cognitive deficits now known to characterise schizophrenia. Importantly, research into moral cognition in autism and psychopathy, disorders in part characterised by social cognitive impairments indicates subtle patterns of difference to the moral cognition of control participants. Recent neuroeconomic studies of moral cognition in schizophrenia have indicated that individuals with schizophrenia display subtle dysfunction in their fairness-related behaviours, but not in their propensity to engage in altruistic punishment. Further research has the potential to broaden our understanding of what is intact and what is impaired in moral cognition in schizophrenia and also to inform our theories of the structures subserving moral judgement in the general population. Furthermore, a more thorough understanding of moral cognitive impairments in schizophrenia may have implications for both legal process and psychosocial rehabilitation.

  8. Nurse moral distress: A survey identifying predictors and potential interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathert, Cheryl; May, Douglas R; Chung, Hye Sook

    2016-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas and conflicts are inherent in today's health care organizations and may lead to moral distress, which is often associated with physical and psychological symptoms. Although the existence of moral distress has been observed by scholars for decades, most of the research has been descriptive and has examined what types of health care conflicts lead to distress. This study tested a comprehensive model, underpinned by Social Cognitive Theory, that examined work environment and intrapersonal variables that may influence moral distress. We surveyed nursing staff employed in a U.S. acute care hospital (response rate=45%; n=290). More than half of the respondents reported they experience ethical dilemmas and conflicts from several times a month to daily, and nearly half reported they experience moral distress at least several times a month. Structural equation modeling analysis simultaneously examined the effects of five independent variables on moral distress and moral voice: (a) frequency of ethical dilemmas and conflicts; (b) moral efficacy; (c) ethics communication; (d) ethical environment; and (e) organizational ethics support. Results revealed significant independent effects of the frequency of ethics issues and organizational ethics support on moral distress. Bootstrapping analysis indicated that voice fully mediated the relationship between moral efficacy and moral distress, and partially mediated the relationship between organizational ethics support and distress. Supplemental analysis revealed that organizational ethics support moderated the moral efficacy-voice-moral distress relationship such that when organizational support was low, moral efficacy was negatively related to moral distress via voice. Although it may be impossible to eliminate all ethical dilemmas and conflicts, leaders and organizations may wish to help improve nurses' moral efficacy, which appears to give rise to voice, and reduced moral distress. Increasing organizational

  9. Brogaard's Moral Contextualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassme

    2008-01-01

    Brogaard's non-indexical version of moral contextualism has two related problems. It is unable to account for the function of truth-governed assertoric moral discourse, since it leaves two (semantically clearheaded) disputants without any incentive to resolve seemingly contradictory moral claims....... The moral contextualist could explain why people do feel such an incentive by ascribing false beliefs about the semantic workings of their own language. But, secondly, this leaves Brogaard's moral contextualism looking weaker than a Mackie-style invariantist error theory about morals. The latter is equally...... non-objectivist, but less revisionist, since it takes the semantics of moral discourse at face value, and can also explain all of Brogaard's other linguistic evidence....

  10. Egalitarianism and moral bioenhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A number of philosophers working in applied ethics and bioethics are now earnestly debating the ethics of what they term "moral bioenhancement." I argue that the society-wide program of biological manipulations required to achieve the purported goals of moral bioenhancement would necessarily implicate the state in a controversial moral perfectionism. Moreover, the prospect of being able to reliably identify some people as, by biological constitution, significantly and consistently more moral than others would seem to pose a profound challenge to egalitarian social and political ideals. Even if moral bioenhancement should ultimately prove to be impossible, there is a chance that a bogus science of bioenhancement would lead to arbitrary inequalities in access to political power or facilitate the unjust rule of authoritarians; in the meantime, the debate about the ethics of moral bioenhancement risks reinvigorating dangerous ideas about the extent of natural inequality in the possession of the moral faculties.

  11. 'My child will never initiate Ultimate Harm': an argument against moral enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkens, Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Recently, there has been a lot of philosophical work published on the morality of moral enhancement. One thing that tends to get overlooked in this literature is that there are many different potential methods of morally enhancing humans, and a blanket moral assessment of them may not be warranted. Here I focus on one mode of moral enhancement, namely, prenatal genetic moral enhancement, and offer a normative assessment of it. I argue that there is good reason to adopt a parent-centred perspective (as opposed to a social or state-centred perspective) towards the ethics of prenatal genetic moral enhancement, and, once we do so, that there is good reason to argue that prenatal genetic attempts at moral enhancement are morally problematic and ought not to be pursued. The main reasons for this have to do with the nature of moral enhancement research, and the idea that prospective parents are justified in not assuming that their children will be morally depraved. I leave it open as to whether other modes of morally enhancing humans fare better, morally speaking.

  12. Alcohol Dependence Associated with Increased Utilitarian Moral Judgment: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Guterstam, Joar; Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that emotional processes, mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), are of great importance for moral judgment. Neurological patients with VMPC dysfunction have been shown to generate increased utilitarian moral judgments, i.e. are more likely to endorse emotionally aversive actions in order to maximize aggregate welfare, when faced with emotionally salient personal moral dilemmas. Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) also exhibit impairments in functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex, but whether they exhibit increased utilitarian moral reasoning has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate moral judgment in AD patients (n = 20) compared to healthy controls (n = 20) matched by sex, age and education years. Each subject responded to a battery of 50 hypothetical dilemmas categorized as non-moral, moral impersonal and moral personal. They also responded to a questionnaire evaluating explicit knowledge of social and moral norms. Results confirmed our hypothesis that AD patients generated increased utilitarian moral judgment compared to controls when faced with moral personal dilemmas. Crucially, there was no difference in their responses to non-moral or impersonal moral dilemmas, nor knowledge of explicit social and moral norms. One possible explanation is that damage to the VMPC, caused by long term repeated exposure to alcohol results in emotional dysfunction, predisposing to utilitarian moral judgment. This work elucidates a novel aspect of the neuropsychological profile of AD patients, namely a tendency to generate utilitarian moral judgment when faced with emotionally salient moral personal dilemmas. PMID:22761922

  13. Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, A

    1999-01-01

    Moral agency is manifested in both the power to refrain from behaving inhumanely and the proactive power to behave humanely. Moral agency is embedded in a broader sociocognitive self theory encompassing self-organizing, proactive, self-reflective, and self-regulatory mechanisms rooted in personal standards linked to self-sanctions. The self-regulatory mechanisms governing moral conduct do not come into play unless they are activated, and there are many psychosocial maneuvers by which moral self-sanctions are selectively disengaged from inhumane conduct. The moral disengagement may center on the cognitive restructuring of inhumane conduct into a benign or worthy one by moral justification, sanitizing language, and advantageous comparison; disavowal of a sense of personal agency by diffusion or displacement of responsibility; disregarding or minimizing the injurious effects of one's actions; and attribution of blame to, and dehumanization of, those who are victimized. Many inhumanities operate through a supportive network of legitimate enterprises run by otherwise considerate people who contribute to destructive activities by disconnected subdivision of functions and diffusion of responsibility. Given the many mechanisms for disengaging moral control, civilized life requires, in addition to humane personal standards, safeguards built into social systems that uphold compassionate behavior and renounce cruelty.

  14. Genetic Barriers to Resistance and Impact on Clinical Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luber Andrew D

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of drug resistance and cross-resistance continues to pose a challenge to successful long-term antiretroviral therapy despite the availability of new antiretroviral agents. The genetic barrier to resistance of a regimen does not directly correlate with its effectiveness. For some regimens with a low genetic barrier to resistance, however, the emergence of only 1 or 2 key resistance mutations may confer drug resistance not only to that regimen but also to other agents, thereby limiting subsequent treatment options. In addition to the genetic barrier to resistance, factors such as efficacy, safety, tolerability, convenience, and adherence must be considered when choosing a regimen.

  15. How Moral Codes Evolve in a Trust Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paul Rabanal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamic stability of moral codes in a two population trust game. Guided by a moral code, members of one population, the Trustors, are willing to punish members of the other population, the Trustees, who defect. Under replicator dynamics, adherence to the moral code has unstable oscillations around an interior Nash Equilibrium (NE, but under smoothed best response dynamics we obtain convergence to Quantal Response Equilibrium (QRE.

  16. Genetics and criminal behaviour: recent accomplishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoa, Arlindo; Santos, Agostinho; Pinheiro, M Fátima; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in research in the fields of violence and behavioural genetics. Advances in human genetics have raised the possibility that genetic mechanisms can explain various aspects of human criminal and aggressive behaviour. However, this new knowledge can pose enormous challenges concerning the moral and legal conceptions of free will and responsibility. This paper reviews the main aspects of behavioural genetics, focusing on criminal and aggressive behaviour and describes the most important genes known to influence this behaviour.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome is a rare condition characterized by hearing ...

  18. Moral distress among Norwegian doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førde, R; Aasland, O G

    2008-07-01

    Medicine is full of value conflicts. Limited resources and legal regulations may place doctors in difficult ethical dilemmas and cause moral distress. Research on moral distress has so far been mainly studied in nurses. To describe whether Norwegian doctors experience stress related to ethical dilemmas and lack of resources, and to explore whether the doctors feel that they have good strategies for the resolution of ethical dilemmas. Postal survey of a representative sample of 1497 Norwegian doctors in 2004, presenting statements about different ethical dilemmas, values and goals at their workplace. The response rate was 67%. 57% admitted that it is difficult to criticize a colleague for professional misconduct and 51% for ethical misconduct. 51% described sometimes having to act against own conscience as distressing. 66% of the doctors experienced distress related to long waiting lists for treatment and to impaired patient care due to time constraints. 55% reported that time spent on administration and documentation is distressing. Female doctors experienced more stress that their male colleagues. 44% reported that their workplace lacked strategies for dealing with ethical dilemmas. Lack of resources creates moral dilemmas for physicians. Moral distress varies with specialty and gender. Lack of strategies to solve ethical dilemmas and low tolerance for conflict and critique from colleagues may obstruct important and necessary ethical dialogues and lead to suboptimal solutions of difficult ethical problems.

  19. The 'morality' of occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2002-01-01

    Both ethics and law are based on value systems. George Lakoff has contributed to our understanding of the value systems that influence attitudes toward public issues in his book, Moral Politics: What Conservatives Know That Liberals Don't (University of Chicago Press, 1996). He argues that two antagonistic but co-existing moral systems influence attitudes toward public issues. Both are derived from metaphors of family life and child development and the "morality" of allowing certain actions. One moral system stresses individual responsibility and risk-taking, the other empathy and mutual assistance. The tension between these value systems explains much in political debate; issues generally tend to fall on one side or the other. Occupational health and related issues, almost uniquely, have the unfortunate characteristic of falling short in both. Our best efforts may be judged "immoral" by the strictest interpretations of both systems, even when they are successful. The practical implication is that we must not accept this pattern of thinking. The work relationship is not like a family. It is important to separate issues in occupational health from this pattern of thinking in both professional and public discourse.

  20. Taking a Stand: The Genetics Community's Responsibility for Intelligence Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Shawneequa L; Bonham, Vence L

    2015-01-01

    There is a longstanding debate about genetics research into intelligence. Some scholars question the value of focusing on genetic contributions to intelligence in a society where social and environmental determinants powerfully influence cognitive ability and educational outcomes. Others warn that censoring certain research questions, such as inquiries about genetic differences in intellectual potential, compromises academic freedom. Still others view interest in this subject as a corollary to a long and troublesome history of eugenics research. The dawn of a new era in genome sequencing as a commodity will sustain scientific interest in the genetics of intelligence for the foreseeable future, but deep-rooted challenges threaten the scientific merit of the research. The use of imprecise definitions of study populations, the difficult nature of studying the environment, and the potential of researcher bias are inextricably linked with concerns about the trustworthiness and utility of research in this area. Leadership by the genetics community is essential to ensure the value and trustworthiness of these studies.

  1. Observers' reactions to genetic testing: the role of hindsight bias and judgements of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menec, V H; Weiner, B

    2000-08-01

    In 3 studies, we examined the effect of birth outcome on observers' reactions to genetic testing. Participants read a scenario in which a woman declined to take a genetic screening test and subsequently gave birth to a child with a genetic disorder (negative outcome) or a healthy child (positive outcome). Retrospective judgments of the likelihood that the child would have a genetic disorder were higher given negative than positive outcome knowledge under conditions of high genetic risk. Moreover, the more likely a negative outcome was perceived to be, the more responsible the mother was held for not taking the genetic screening test. Consistent with Weiner's (1993) theory, responsibility judgments were linked to displeasure and sympathy, with sympathy in turn being related to help judgments.

  2. Are You Morally Modified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Douglas, Thomas; Kahane, Guy; Terbeck, Sylvia; Cowen, Philip J.; Hewstone, Miles; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A number of concerns have been raised about the possible future use of pharmaceuticals designed to enhance cognitive, affective, and motivational processes, particularly where the aim is to produce morally better decisions or behavior. In this article, we draw attention to what is arguably a more worrying possibility: that pharmaceuticals currently in widespread therapeutic use are already having unintended effects on these processes, and thus on moral decision making and morally significant behavior. We review current evidence on the moral effects of three widely used drugs or drug types: (i) propranolol, (ii) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and (iii) drugs that effect oxytocin physiology. This evidence suggests that the alterations to moral decision making and behavior caused by these agents may have important and difficult-to-evaluate consequences, at least at the population level. We argue that the moral effects of these and other widely used pharmaceuticals warrant further empirical research and ethical analysis. PMID:25892904

  3. Prudence and morality: Socrates versus moral philosophers1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott Berman

    2014-01-01

      Socrates thinks that morality is identical to prudence. Many contemporary moral philosophers would give roughly three reasons for postulating the existence of a morality that is distinct from prudence...

  4. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Julia F; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors...

  5. Moral Concepts and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, Mark

    2009-01-01

    I first argue that standard versions of moral internalism are untenable in light of a type of example that has not previously been considered in metaethical discussions. As a consequence of having unusual views, a good-willed thinker could make moral judgments and recognize moral facts without having a disposition to be motivated to act accordingly (and without believing himself to have reasons for action). Moreover, on a familiar conception of irrationality as incoherence, the thinker in q...

  6. Gratitude and Responsibility Education in Junior High School Ideological and Moral Classroom%初中思想品德课堂中的感恩与责任教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少锐

    2015-01-01

    感恩与责任是初中思想品德教育中的两个基本内容,对于青少年人格的树立起着至关重要的作用。本次研究阐述了感恩与责任教育的必要性,通过实际访谈探寻出初中生感恩与责任意识的现状及其原因,并总结出初中思想品德课堂中的相关教学资源与培养感恩与责任意识的实际措施。文章对于提升初中思想品德课堂的教学效果,树立良好的道德标准有着一定的参考价值和实际意义。%Thanksgiving and responsibilities are ideological and moral education in junior high school two basic elements, for young people to establish personality plays a vital role. This study discusses the necessity of gratitude and responsibility of education, junior high school students through the actual interview to explore the status of gratitude and a sense of respon-sibility and reason, and summed junior high ideological and moral classroom teaching resources and training related to the actual sense of gratitude and responsibility measures. Articles for enhancing teaching effectiveness junior high moral char-acter classes, establish good moral standards have a certain reference value and practical significance.

  7. [Morality and contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gakwaya, D

    1988-08-01

    The conflict of morality and natural law come into focus when contraception and procreation are examined despite the religious pronouncements of Charles de Koninck. Man, having mastered nature, confronts interminable new problems in the pursuit of physical, economic, moral, and material happiness. The population explosion in Rwanda make it indispensable that the prevention of undesired pregnancy is the right of a man and a women choosing the appropriate method. Man's morality allows the violation of natural law in order to pursue one's own goal of survival using counterbalancing means whenever under- or overpopulation may threaten its existence or portend extinction. Natural law could be the guiding principle in man's moral development.

  8. Moral Agency, Moral Imagination, and Moral Community: Antidotes to Moral Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traudt, Terri; Liaschenko, Joan; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia

    Moral distress has been covered extensively in the nursing literature and increasingly in the literature of other health professions. Cases that cause nurses' moral distress that are mentioned most frequently are those concerned with prolonging the dying process. Given the standard of aggressive treatment that is typical in intensive care units (ICUs), much of the existing moral distress research focuses on the experiences of critical care nurses. However, moral distress does not automatically occur in all end-of-life circumstances, nor does every critical care nurse suffer its damaging effects. What are the practices of these nurses? What specifically do they do to navigate around or through the distressing situations? The nursing literature is lacking an answer to these questions. This article reports a study that used narrative analysis to explore the reported practices of experienced critical care nurses who are skilled at and comfortable working with families and physicians regarding the withdrawal of aggressive treatment. A major finding was that these nurses did not report experiencing the damaging effects of moral distress as described in the nursing literature. The verbal communication and stated practices relevant to this finding are organized under three major themes: (1) moral agency, (2) moral imagination, and (3) moral community. Further, a total of eight subthemes are identified. The practices that constitute these themes and subthemes are further detailed and discussed in this article. Understanding these practices can help mitigate critical care nurses' moral distress. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  9. Moral Values In America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁珍

    2005-01-01

    Do Americans have any morals? That’s a good question.Many people insist that ideas about right and wrong are merely personal opinions.Some voices,though,are calling Americans back to traditional moral values.William J.Bennett,former U.S.Secretary of Education,edited The Book of Virtues in 1993 to do just that.Bennett suggests that great moral stories can build character.The success of Bennett's book shows that many Americans still believe in moral values.But what are they?

  10. The morality of homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, S L

    1993-01-01

    Homosexuality has been considered a form of mental illness, morally wrong and socially deviant. The purpose of this paper is to present both sides of the homosexuality issue from a religious standpoint: opponents of homosexuality versus supporters of homosexuality. It is proposed that how one interprets the morality of homosexuality will depend upon one's level of moral development according to Kohlberg's theory. Ten churches in the Raleigh area of North Carolina completed a questionnaire designed to ascertain the church's position on the issue of homosexuality. Specifically, questions were asked to ascertain the church's level of moral development.

  11. Charisma and Moral Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Flanigan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Charisma is morally problematic insofar as it replaces followers’ capacity to engage in genuine moral reasoning. When followers defer to charismatic leaders and act in ways that are morally wrong they are not only blameworthy for wrongdoing but for failing in their deliberative obligations. Even when followers defer to charismatic leaders and do the right thing, their action is less praiseworthy to the extent that it was the result of charisma rather than moral deliberation. Therefore, effective charismatic leadership reliably undermines the praiseworthiness and amplifies the blameworthiness of follower’s actions.

  12. Genetic Regulation of Maternal Oxytocin Response and Its Influences on Maternal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We interrogated the genetic modulation of maternal oxytocin response and its association with maternal behavior using genetic risk scores within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene. We identified a novel SNP, rs968389, to be significantly associated with maternal oxytocin response after a challenging mother-infant interaction task (Still Face Paradigm and maternal separation anxiety from the infant. Performing a multiallelic analysis across OXTR by calculating a cumulative genetic risk score revealed a significant gene-by-environment (G×E interaction, with OXTR genetic risk score interacting with adult separation anxiety to modulate levels of maternal sensitivity. Mothers with higher OXTR genetic risk score and adult separation anxiety showed significantly reduced levels of maternal sensitivity during free play with the infant. The same G×E interaction was also observed for the extended OXTR cumulative genetic risk score that included rs968389. Moreover, the extended cumulative OXTR genetic risk score itself was found to be significantly associated with maternal separation anxiety as it specifically relates to the infant. Our results suggest a complex montage of individual and synergistic genetic mediators of maternal behavior. These findings add to specific knowledge about genetic regulation of maternal oxytocin response in relation to maternal adjustment and infant bonding through the first few months of life.

  13. Genetic Regulation of Maternal Oxytocin Response and Its Influences on Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Kohlhoff, Jane; Mendoza Diaz, Antonio; Barnett, Bryanne; Silove, Derrick; Dadds, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    We interrogated the genetic modulation of maternal oxytocin response and its association with maternal behavior using genetic risk scores within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene. We identified a novel SNP, rs968389, to be significantly associated with maternal oxytocin response after a challenging mother-infant interaction task (Still Face Paradigm) and maternal separation anxiety from the infant. Performing a multiallelic analysis across OXTR by calculating a cumulative genetic risk score revealed a significant gene-by-environment (G × E) interaction, with OXTR genetic risk score interacting with adult separation anxiety to modulate levels of maternal sensitivity. Mothers with higher OXTR genetic risk score and adult separation anxiety showed significantly reduced levels of maternal sensitivity during free play with the infant. The same G × E interaction was also observed for the extended OXTR cumulative genetic risk score that included rs968389. Moreover, the extended cumulative OXTR genetic risk score itself was found to be significantly associated with maternal separation anxiety as it specifically relates to the infant. Our results suggest a complex montage of individual and synergistic genetic mediators of maternal behavior. These findings add to specific knowledge about genetic regulation of maternal oxytocin response in relation to maternal adjustment and infant bonding through the first few months of life. PMID:27872764

  14. Genetic erosion impedes adaptive responses to stressful environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity is increasingly subjected to human-induced changes of the environment. To persist, populations continually have to adapt to these often stressful changes including pollution and climate change. Genetic erosion in small populations, owing to fragmentation of natural habitats, is expected

  15. Power to identify a genetic predictor of antihypertensive drug response using different methods to measure blood pressure response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Stephen T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether office, home, ambulatory daytime and nighttime blood pressure (BP responses to antihypertensive drug therapy measure the same signal and which method provides greatest power to identify genetic predictors of BP response. Methods We analyzed office, home, ambulatory daytime and nighttime BP responses in hypertensive adults randomized to atenolol (N = 242 or hydrochlorothiazide (N = 257 in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses Study. Since different measured BP responses may have different predictors, we tested the "same signal" model by using linear regression methods to determine whether known predictors of BP response depend on the method of BP measurement. We estimated signal-to-noise ratios and compared power to identify a genetic polymorphism predicting BP response measured by each method separately and by weighted averages of multiple methods. Results After adjustment for pretreatment BP level, known predictors of BP response including plasma renin activity, race, and sex were independent of the method of BP measurement. Signal-to-noise ratios were more than 2-fold greater for home and ambulatory daytime BP responses than for office and ambulatory nighttime BP responses and up to 11-fold greater for weighted averages of all four methods. Power to identify a genetic polymorphism predicting BP response was directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio and, therefore, greatest with the weighted averages. Conclusion Since different methods of measuring BP response to antihypertensive drug therapy measure the same signal, weighted averages of the BP responses measured by multiple methods minimize measurement error and optimize power to identify genetic predictors of BP response.

  16. Healthcare provider moral distress as a leadership challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jennifer; Breslin, Jonathan M

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare leaders are responsible for using strategies to promote an organizational ethical climate. However, these strategies are limited in that they do not directly address healthcare provider moral distress. Since healthcare provider moral distress and the establishment of a positive ethical climate are both linked to an organization's ability to retain healthcare professionals and increase their level of job satisfaction, leaders have a corollary responsibility to address moral distress. We recommend that leaders should provide access to ethics education and resources, offer interventions such as ethics debriefings, establish ethics committees, and/or hire a bioethicist to develop ethics capacity and to assist with addressing healthcare provider moral distress.

  17. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  18. The functional brain architecture of human morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chadd M; Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Human morality provides the foundation for many of the pillars of society, informing political legislation and guiding legal decisions while also governing everyday social interactions. In the past decade, researchers in the field of cognitive neuroscience have made tremendous progress in the effort to understand the neural basis of human morality. The emerging insights from this research point toward a model in which automatic processing in parallel neural circuits, many of which are associated with social emotions, evaluate the actions and intentions of others. Through various mechanisms of competition, only a subset of these circuits ultimately causes a decision or an action. This activity is experienced consciously as a subjective moral sense of right or wrong, and an interpretive process offers post hoc explanations designed to link the social stimulus with the subjective moral response using whatever explicit information is available.

  19. Genetic factors affecting patient responses to pancreatic cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is a malignancy with a high lethal rate. Surgical resection is the only possible curative mode of treatment. Metastatic pancreatic cancer is incurable with modest results from the current treatment options. New genomic information could prove treatment efficacy. An independent review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed up to March 2016, using combinations of terms such pancreatic exocrine cancer, chemotherapy, genomic profile, pancreatic cancer pharmacogenomics, genomics, molecular pancreatic pathogenesis, and targeted therapy. Recent genetic studies have identified new markers and therapeutic targets. Our current knowledge of pancreatic cancer genetics must be further advanced to elucidate the molecular basis and pathogenesis of the disease, improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and guide tailor-made therapies. PMID:27708512

  20. Potential for homosexual response is prevalent and genetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Harlaar, Nicole; Varjonen, Markus; Alanko, Katarina; von der Pahlen, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the potential to engage in homosexual behavior in 6001 female and 3152 male twins and their siblings finding that 32.8% of the men and 65.4% of the women reported such potential (phomosexual behavior during the preceding 12 months. The potential to engage in homosexual behavior was influenced by genetic effects for both men (37.4%) and women (46.4%) and these overlapped only partly with those for overt homosexual behavior.

  1. The joint effects of kin, multilevel selection and indirect genetic effects on response to genetic selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, P.; Wade, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Kin and levels-of-selection models are common approaches for modelling social evolution. Indirect genetic effect (IGE) models represent a different approach, specifying social effects on trait values rather than fitness. We investigate the joint effect of relatedness, multilevel selection and IGEs o

  2. Averting a Moral Landslide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Premier Wen Jiabao said food safety scandals in China indicate serious moral degradation Incidents related to food safety indicate that"dishonesty and moral degradation"have become a very serious problem in the country,Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao said on April 14.Wen made the remark during a

  3. Moral og videnproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    Research report concerning moral and ethical problems inherent in the consulting engineers' profession. Based upon 25 in-depth interviews in 11 firms, the report is contributing to the understanding of the concepts and meaning of moral and ethics in a world of technical rationality. The objectivity...

  4. Moral og Videnproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    En analyse af relationerne mellem viden og moral i de tekniske rådgivningskulturer. Publikationen beskriver de moralske og etiske overvejelser der præger rådgivernes professionelle univers i den praktiske udførelse af konsulentprojekter, og eftersporer den gensidige konstruktion af viden, moral og...

  5. Moral Education versus Indoctrination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, David

    2016-01-01

    Moral education is open to worries about indoctrination given the controversies there are about a wide range of ethical matters. I argue, however, that moral education is no more liable to being "indoctrinal" than education in history or science. I begin by proposing an account of what indoctrination involves. I then note that moral…

  6. Moral Education versus Indoctrination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, David

    2016-01-01

    Moral education is open to worries about indoctrination given the controversies there are about a wide range of ethical matters. I argue, however, that moral education is no more liable to being "indoctrinal" than education in history or science. I begin by proposing an account of what indoctrination involves. I then note that moral…

  7. Gender and Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kathryn P.

    Because of widespread acceptance of Kohlberg's theory of moral development other aspects of moral thinking and behavior linked with the feminine voice have not received attention. Four areas of Kohlberg's theory relevant to the gender issue are critiqued, and work by Carol Gilligan, suggesting alternative theories for thinking and behavior, is…

  8. Groups as moral anchors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellemers, N.; van der Toorn, J

    2015-01-01

    Morality indicates what is the ‘right’ and the ‘wrong’ way to behave. However, what people see as moral can shift, depending on defining norms and distinctive features of the groups to which they belong. Acting in ways that are considered ‘moral’ by the group secures inclusion and elicits respect

  9. The Breakdown of Morale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Vikander (Nick)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies how morale in teams can break down. It interprets high morale as team members working together productively, either because of a sense of fairness or because of implicit incentives from repeated interactions. Team members learn that lay-offs will occur at a fixed

  10. Music and Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Scruton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [ES] El presente ensayo hace una reflexión sobre la relación entre la música y la moral, y en particular, ofrece una respuesta filosófica a dos cuestiones importantes: ¿Puede atribuirse un carácter moral concreto a la música?, y, de ser así, ¿cómo afecta este carácter moral musical al sentido moral de las personas que escuchan esa música? Estas preguntas llevan a una reflexión final sobre los límites de la interpretación crítica de la obra musical. ; [EN]This essay reflects on the relationship between music and morality, and in particular, provides a philosophical answer to two important questions: Can moral character be specifically attributed to music?, and, if so, how does this moral musical character affect on the moral sense of the people who listen to this music? These questions lead to a final reflection on the limits of critical interpretation of the musical work.

  11. Psychotherapy, Postmodernism, and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitwood, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Proposes a postmodern ethics based on mutual respect and trust, derived from psychotherapy, and recognizing the primacy of individual subjectivity. Develops the concept of free attention to one another creating moral space. Stresses affect over reason and practice over theory. Sees moral space as fundamental to the social fabric. (CH)

  12. The Breakdown of Morale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Vikander (Nick)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies how morale in teams can break down. It interprets high morale as team members working together productively, either because of a sense of fairness or because of implicit incentives from repeated interactions. Team members learn that lay-offs will occur at a fixed futur

  13. Handbook of Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Smetana, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The psychological study of moral development has expanded greatly, both in terms of the diversity of theoretical perspectives that are represented in the field, as well as in the range of topics that have been studied. This "Handbook of Moral Development" represents the diversity and multidisciplinary influences on current theorizing about the…

  14. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  15. Moral Thinking in Male Elementary Pupils as Reflected by Perception of Basketball Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Richard K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of this study support Piaget's contention of different levels of moral thinking in elementary school children. The findings indicate a lower level of moral responses in grades one and two than in grades three through six. (RC)

  16. Construction of a scale for measuring development of moral judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comunian, Anna Laura

    2004-04-01

    The present research is a part of a study done to develop an objective measure of the development of moral judgement according to Kohlberg's theoretical construct. The Padua Scale of Moral Judgement and the relationship between empirical data and theory are presented. The scale was constructed from responses to the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form derived from Kohlberg's Moral Judgement Interview. Reliability and validity of the new scale as well as group age and sex differences were examined.

  17. Whistleblowing Behavior in Organizations and Work Morality Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    KIZILOĞLU, Esra; ÇELIK, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Whistleblowing behavior has become an important subject in internal and external stakeholders of an enterprise today, when morality values become conscientious responsibility. News about the enterprises in which malpractice, bribery and inappropriate behaviors to work morality in recent years, has increased the importance of this concept. This study aimed to theoretically explain the interaction between whistleblowing behaviors and work morality in the organizations. For this purpose, first o...

  18. EMOCIONES MORALES Y MORALIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Orsi Portalo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este escrito me propongo examinar el papel ambiguo que pueden desempeñar las que solemos llamar "emociones morales" en la reflexión moral y, en especial, en lo que atañe al concepto de responsabilidad. En la primera parte muestro cómo dichas emociones "morales", la culpa y la vergüenza, pueden aparecer en circunstancias que no están bajo el control del agente y que, por tanto, son en buena medida independientes de su responsabilidad. En la segunda parte, sin embargo, lo que pretendo examinar es cómo su ausencia, o un desarrollo truncado de esas emociones, imposibilita a su vez la pertenencia del individuo a una comunidad moral y, con ello, la atribución de responsabilidad moral.

  19. [Moral development in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malá, E

    1989-08-01

    In child psychiatry the developmental aspect is emphasized. Recognition of normal sequence of development in so-called "normal children" makes it possible to reveal pathological conditions (either retardation or acceleration of development, distortion or atypical development). Change-motion-development are philosophical categories considered a manifestation or life--of psychobiological maturation and growth. When investigating the moral development three theories were applied: the developmental theory (Piaget)--learning (Kohlberg), the dynamic theory (Sandler). Among factors which influence in a certain way the moral behaviour the following were selected: age, sex, temperament, family environment. The author describes three stages of moral development in children: preventional stage (moral heteronomy) up to the age of 8 years, conventional and pst conventional (moral autonomy) in adolescence.

  20. Direct vs. Indirect Moral Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G Owen

    2015-09-01

    Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. Who wouldn't want people to become more moral? Still, the project's approach is crucial. We can distinguish between two approaches for moral enhancement: direct and indirect. Direct moral enhancements aim at bringing about particular ideas, motives or behaviors. Indirect moral enhancements, by contrast, aim at making people more reliably produce the morally correct ideas, motives or behaviors without committing to the content of those ideas, motives and/or actions. I will argue, on Millian grounds, that the value of disagreement puts serious pressure on proposals for relatively widespread direct moral enhancement. A more acceptable path would be to focus instead on indirect moral enhancements while staying neutral, for the most part, on a wide range of substantive moral claims. I will outline what such indirect moral enhancement might look like, and why we should expect it to lead to general moral improvement.

  1. Heritability of brain activity related to response inhibition: A longitudinal genetic study in adolescent twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P; Golosheykin, Simon; Grant, Julia D; Heath, Andrew C

    2017-05-01

    The ability to inhibit prepotent but context- or goal-inappropriate responses is essential for adaptive self-regulation of behavior. Deficits in response inhibition, a key component of impulsivity, have been implicated as a core dysfunction in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as ADHD and addictions. Identification of genetically transmitted variation in the neural underpinnings of response inhibition can help to elucidate etiological pathways to these disorders and establish the links between genes, brain, and behavior. However, little is known about genetic influences on the neural mechanisms of response inhibition during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by weak self-regulation of behavior. Here we investigated heritability of ERPs elicited in a Go/No-Go task in a large sample of adolescent twins assessed longitudinally at ages 12, 14, and 16. Genetic analyses showed significant heritability of inhibition-related frontal N2 and P3 components at all three ages, with 50 to 60% of inter-individual variability being attributable to genetic factors. These genetic influences included both common genetic factors active at different ages and novel genetic influences emerging during development. Finally, individual differences in the rate of developmental changes from age 12 to age 16 were significantly influenced by genetic factors. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for genetic influences on neural correlates of response inhibition during adolescence and suggests that ERPs elicited in the Go/No-Go task can serve as intermediate neurophysiological phenotypes (endophenotypes) for the study of disinhibition and impulse control disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neural correlates of moral and non-moral emotion in female psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla L Harenski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first neuroimaging investigation of female psychopathy in an incarcerated population. Prior studies have found that male psychopathy is associated with reduced limbic and paralimbic activation when processing emotional stimuli and making moral judgments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether these findings extend to female psychopathy. During fMRI scanning, 157 incarcerated and 46 non-incarcerated female participants viewed unpleasant pictures, half which depicted moral transgressions, and neutral pictures. Participants rated each picture on moral transgression severity. Psychopathy was assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R in all incarcerated participants. Non-incarcerated participants were included as a control group to derive brain regions of interest associated with viewing unpleasant versus neutral pictures (emotion contrast, and unpleasant pictures depicting moral transgressions versus unpleasant pictures without moral transgressions (moral contrast. Regression analyses in the incarcerated group examined the association between PCL-R scores and brain activation in the emotion and moral contrasts. Results of the emotion contrast revealed a negative correlation between PCL-R scores and activation in the right amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate. Results of the moral contrast revealed a negative correlation between PCL-R scores and activation in the right temporo-parietal junction. These results indicate that female psychopathy, like male psychopathy, is characterized by reduced limbic activation during emotion processing. In contrast, reduced temporo-parietal activation to moral transgressions has been less observed in male psychopathy. These results extend prior findings in male psychopathy to female psychopathy, and reveal aberrant neural responses to morally-salient stimuli that may be unique to female psychopathy.

  3. Genetic modification and genetic determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-06-26

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  4. Children's Moral Emotions and Moral Cognition: Towards an Integrative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Latzko, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief introduction to the developmental and educational literature linking children's moral emotions to cognitive moral development. A central premise of the chapter is that an integrative developmental perspective on moral emotions and moral cognition provides an important conceptual framework for understanding children's…

  5. Moral Psychology and the Problem of Moral Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended as an initial investigation into the foundations of moral psychology. I primarily examine a recent work in moral education, Daniel Lapsley's and Darcia Narvaez"s "Character education", whose authors seem to assume at points that criteria for discerning moral actions and moral traits can be derived apart from ethics or…

  6. Why Be Moral? Moral Identity Motivation and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Victor, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    Moral identity research to date has largely failed to provide evidence for developmental trends in moral identity, presumably because of restrictions in the age range of studies and the use of moral identity measures that are insensitive to age-related change. The present study investigated moral identity motivation across a broad age range (14-65…

  7. Cultural Conceptions of Morality: Examining Laypeople's Associations of Moral Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Wilson, Marc; Fischer, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Whether moral conceptions are universal or culture-specific is controversial in moral psychology. One option is to refrain from imposing theoretical constraints and to ask laypeople from different cultures how "they" conceptualize morality. Our article adopts this approach by examining laypeople's associations of moral character in…

  8. Moral Philosophy, Moral Expertise, and the Argument from Disagreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Several recent articles have weighed in on the question of whether moral philosophers can be counted as moral experts. One argument denying this has been rejected by both sides of the debate. According to this argument, the extent of disagreement in modern moral philosophy prevents moral philosophers from being classified as moral experts. Call this the Argument From Disagreement (AD). In this article, I defend a version of AD. Insofar as practical issues in moral philosophy are characterized by disagreement between moral philosophers who are more or less equally well credentialed on the issue, non-philosophers have no good reasons to defer to their views. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Moral Development of Moral Philosophers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzl, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg thinks that Utilitarianism and Rawls' theory of justice are formal elaborations of different stages in the psychological development of moral reasoning. Also that there are psychological reasons to favor the stage of reasoning of which he thinks Rawls' theory is an elaboration. Attempts to show that Kohlberg has confused ethics…

  10. The Media: Moral Lessons and Moral Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Sue

    1993-01-01

    A lesson on female stereotypes in advertising begins a discussion of the mass media's role in the lives of young women. It is suggested that conventional moral wisdom about media education for children does not reflect the complexity of the media's influence but is narrow and ethnocentric. (MSE)

  11. Huck Finn, Moral Language and Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. Against the traditional interpretation of "the conscience of Huckleberry Finn" (for which Jonathan Bennett's article with this title is the locus classicus) as a conflict between conscience and sympathy, I propose a new interpretation of Huck's inner conflict, in terms of Huck's mastery of (the) moral language…

  12. The Moral Development of Moral Philosophers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzl, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg thinks that Utilitarianism and Rawls' theory of justice are formal elaborations of different stages in the psychological development of moral reasoning. Also that there are psychological reasons to favor the stage of reasoning of which he thinks Rawls' theory is an elaboration. Attempts to show that Kohlberg has confused ethics…

  13. Religion and morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose "religion" and "morality" into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts-in particular, sanitized conceptions of "prosocial" behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories "religion" and "morality" must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality.

  14. Role of Genetic Polymorphisms in Therapeutic Response to Anti-Asthma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppenheimer John

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several decades, significant advances have been seen in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma. Recent research has focused on potential phenotypic and genotypic predictors of response to therapy. In this review, we will examine each of the three major therapeutic classes of asthma therapy, focusing on a potential genetic clue to medication response.

  15. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  16. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  17. Felt Moral Obligation and the Moral Judgement-Moral Action Gap: Toward a Phenomenology of Moral Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard N.; Gantt, Edwin E.

    2012-01-01

    The step-off point for this article is the problem of the "moral judgement-moral action gap" as found in contemporary literature of moral education and moral development. We argue that this gap, and the conceptual problems encountered by attempts to bridge it, reflects the effect of a different, deeper and more problematic conceptual gap: the…

  18. Improving moral judgments: philosophical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalis, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823244

    2010-01-01

    In contemporary moral psychology, an often-heard claim is that knowing how we make moral judgments can help us make better moral judgments. Discussions about moral development and improvement are often framed in terms of the question of which mental processes have a better chance of leading to good

  19. Kant's Account of Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas…

  20. Felt Moral Obligation and the Moral Judgement-Moral Action Gap: Toward a Phenomenology of Moral Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard N.; Gantt, Edwin E.

    2012-01-01

    The step-off point for this article is the problem of the "moral judgement-moral action gap" as found in contemporary literature of moral education and moral development. We argue that this gap, and the conceptual problems encountered by attempts to bridge it, reflects the effect of a different, deeper and more problematic conceptual gap: the…

  1. Kant's Account of Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas…

  2. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  3. Judging the morality of utilitarian actions: How poor utilitarian accessibility makes judges irrational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusev, Petko; van Schaik, Paul; Alzahrani, Shrooq; Lonigro, Samantha; Purser, Harry

    2016-12-01

    Is it acceptable and moral to sacrifice a few people's lives to save many others? Research on moral dilemmas in psychology, experimental philosophy, and neuropsychology has shown that respondents judge utilitarian personal moral actions (footbridge dilemma) as less appropriate than equivalent utilitarian impersonal moral actions (trolley dilemma). Accordingly, theorists (e.g., Greene et al., 2001) have argued that judgments of appropriateness in personal moral dilemmas are more emotionally salient and cognitively demanding (taking more time to be rational) than impersonal moral dilemmas. Our novel findings show an effect of psychological accessibility (driven by partial contextual information; Kahneman, 2003) on utilitarian moral behavior and response time for rational choices. Enhanced accessibility of utilitarian outcomes through comprehensive information about moral actions and consequences boosted utility maximization in moral choices, with rational choices taking less time. Moreover, our result suggests that previous results indicating emotional interference, with rational choices taking more time to make, may have been artifacts of presenting partial information.

  4. Tainting the soul: purity concerns predict moral judgments of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottman, Joshua; Kelemen, Deborah; Young, Liane

    2014-02-01

    Moral violations are typically defined as actions that harm others. However, suicide is considered immoral even though the perpetrator is also the victim. To determine whether concerns about purity rather than harm predict moral condemnation of suicide, we presented American adults with obituaries describing suicide or homicide victims. While harm was the only variable predicting moral judgments of homicide, perceived harm (toward others, the self, or God) did not significantly account for variance in moral judgments of suicide. Instead, regardless of political and religious views and contrary to explicit beliefs about their own moral judgments, participants were more likely to morally condemn suicide if they (i) believed suicide tainted the victims' souls, (ii) reported greater concerns about purity in an independent questionnaire, (iii) experienced more disgust in response to the obituaries, or (iv) reported greater trait disgust. Thus, suicide is deemed immoral to the extent that it is considered impure.

  5. La educación moral en Aranguren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Carles RINCÓN I VERDERA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La educación moral del hombre constituye, en Aranguren, una pieza indispensable en la formación integral de su personalidad. Una educación moral, cívica y política. En este artículo nos ocupamos de la primera dimensión: el hombre como responsabilidad personal.ABSTRACT: The moral education of man is for Aranguren a very important aspect in the integral formation of man's personality. A moral, civic and political education. In this article we study the first dimensión: man as a personal responsibility.

  6. The sense of responsibility in the context of professional activities in Medical Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Teles, Natália

    2011-11-01

    Medical Genetics is a relatively new field of scientific work that involves a lot of enthusiastic professionals, both in routine (clinical) and research (scientific projects). In either field, different geneticists feel different responsibilities for their work, either because they are different people (personal responsibility) or because they have a different rank in the respective departments (professional responsibility). This paper presents the philosophical views of several authors on the sense of responsibility from the Classical times until the present and reveals the practical, daily responsibilities that are met by these professionals, in four areas of responsibility: personal, professional, scientific and sociatal framework.

  7. Infanticide and moral consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this essay is to show that there are no easy options for those who are disturbed by the suggestion that infanticide may on occasion be morally permissible. The belief that infanticide is always wrong is doubtfully compatible with a range of widely shared moral beliefs that underlie various commonly accepted practices. Any set of beliefs about the morality of abortion, infanticide and the killing of animals that is internally consistent and even minimally credible will therefore unavoidably contain some beliefs that are counterintuitive.

  8. Moral Hazard and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  9. Moral, tiempo y cristianismo

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Cañizares, J. (Javier)

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan algunas reflexiones sobre la dimensión moral del ser humano y su estructura temporal. La acción moral modifica de forma inmanente a la persona, pero también se desarrolla de modo transitivo. La temporaliclad del actuar revela un desarrollo histórico del ser humano, coherente con su naturaleza pero distinto de ésta. La moral cristiana mantiene el equilibro entre los diversos polos antropológicos implicados en un actuar bueno, que hace bueno y tendrá, eventualmente, ...

  10. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  11. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  12. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    of morality • Confronts the “naturalistic fallacy” in contemporary psychology. • Explains why moral science need not be separated from social science. • Addresses challenges and critiques to the author’s work from both formalist and relativist theories of morality. With its bold call to reason, Psychology......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...

  13. Moral Education in Schools Challenge and the First Response%学校“德育为先”面临的挑战及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包华军

    2011-01-01

    Economic globalization and world multi-polarization to moral education in schools of social and cultural environment has undergone profound changes, the students of the world, life and values under attack, in practice, the process of moral education in schools facing unprecedented challenges. Challenges we must cultivate a high degree of socialist builders and successors to understand the strategic position of moral education in schools, on the one hand to strengthen the party~ s leadership on moral education in schools, on the other hand must always adhere to the socialist ideology of Marxism in the field of the dominant position.%经济全球化和世界多极化使学校德育的社会文化环境发生了深刻变化,学生的世界观、人生观、价值观受到冲击,学校德育在实践的过程中面临前所未有的挑战。面对挑战,我们必须从培养社会主义建设者和接班人的高度来认识学校德育战略地位,一方面要加强党对学校德育的领导,另一方面要始终坚持马克思主义在社会主义意识形态领域的主导地位。

  14. The Epistemology of Moral Bioenhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Parker

    2016-07-01

    Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e.g. beliefs) and that which manipulates other, non-representational states (e.g. motivations). Either way, I argue, the enhanced moral psychology will fail to conform to epistemic norms, and the only way to resolve this failure and allow the moral bioenhancement to be effective in addressing the targeted moral issues is to make the moral bioenhancement covert.

  15. Genetically Determined Response to Artemisinin Treatment in Western Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebon, Lorna J.; Ngalah, Bidii S.; Ingasia, Luicer A.; Juma, Dennis W.; Muiruri, Peninah; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Opot, Benjamin; Mbuba, Emmanuel; Imbuga, Mabel; Akala, Hoseah M.; Bulimo, Wallace; Andagalu, Ben; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Genetically determined artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been described in Southeast Asia. The relevance of recently described Kelch 13-propeller mutations for artemisinin resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa parasites is still unknown. Southeast Asia parasites have low genetic diversity compared to Sub-Saharan Africa, where parasites are highly genetically diverse. This study attempted to elucidate whether genetics provides a basis for discovering molecular markers in response to artemisinin drug treatment in P. falciparum in Kenya. The genetic diversity of parasites collected pre- and post- introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in western Kenya was determined. A panel of 12 microsatellites and 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the P. falciparum genome were genotyped. Parasite clearance rates were obtained for the post-ACT parasites. The 12 microsatellites were highly polymorphic with post-ACT parasites being significantly more diverse compared to pre-ACT (p resistance in Kenya. PMID:27611315

  16. Genetic dissection of the maize (Zea mays L.) MAMP response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are highly conserved molecules commonly found in microbes which can be recognized by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Recognition triggers a suite of responses including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) and ex...

  17. Design of artificial genetic regulatory networks with multiple delayed adaptive responses

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluza, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Genetic regulatory networks with adaptive responses are widely studied in biology. Usually, models consisting only of a few nodes have been considered. They present one input receptor for activation and one output node where the adaptive response is computed. In this work, we design genetic regulatory networks with many receptors and many output nodes able to produce delayed adaptive responses. This design is performed by using an evolutionary algorithm of mutations and selections that minimizes an error function defined by the adaptive response in signal shapes. We present several examples of network constructions with a predefined required set of adaptive delayed responses. We show that an output node can have different kinds of responses as a function of the activated receptor. Additionally, complex network structures are presented since processing nodes can be involved in several input-output pathways.

  18. Infanticide, moral status and moral reasons: the importance of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie; Silvers, Anita

    2013-05-01

    Giubilini and Minerva ask why birth should be a critical dividing line between acceptable and unacceptable reasons for terminating existence. Their argument is that birth does not change moral status in the sense that is relevant: the ability to be harmed by interruption of one's aims. Rather than question the plausibility of their position or the argument they give, we ask instead about the importance to scholarship or policy of publishing the article: does it to any extent make a novel or needed addition to the literature? Giubilini and Minerva's argument is remarkably similar to one advanced by Michael Tooley in 'Abortion and Infanticide,' almost 40 years ago. There have been immense changes in the intervening 40 years: in the ability to diagnose conditions early in pregnancy, in genetics and in the availability of in vitro fertilization; in understanding of the capabilities of persons with disabilities; in law; in economic support and access to healthcare for pregnant women and their children; in social customs and arrangements; and even in philosophy, with developments in feminist thought, bioethics and cognitive science. Some of these changes have been for the better, but others, such as the unravelling of social safety nets, have arguably been for the worse. Any or all of these changes might give rise to moral reasons for the relevance of birth that were not available 40 years ago. These changes might also be relevant to the identification of cases, if any, in which 'after-birth abortion' might be considered. If context is relevant to the applicability of moral reasons-as for theorists of justice in the non-idealised world it surely should be-it is questionable whether a view of the birth-line that ignores contextualising change can be adequate.

  19. Genetic and physiological bases for phenological responses to current and predicted climates

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczek, A. M.; Burghardt, L. T.; Cobb, A. R.; Cooper, M D; Welch, S. M.; Schmitt, J

    2010-01-01

    We are now reaching the stage at which specific genetic factors with known physiological effects can be tied directly and quantitatively to variation in phenology. With such a mechanistic understanding, scientists can better predict phenological responses to novel seasonal climates. Using the widespread model species Arabidopsis thaliana, we explore how variation in different genetic pathways can be linked to phenology and life-history variation across geographical regions and seasons. We sho...

  20. Once Dishonest, Always Dishonest? The Impact of Perceived Pervasiveness of Moral Evaluations of the Self on Motivation to Restore a Moral Reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano ePagliaro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Four studies specify how moral evaluations of the self regulate behavior aimed at restoring a moral reputation. We propose that people care about evaluations of themselves as moral or immoral because these are perceived as more consequential than other types of information. Therefore people are more inclined to restore their image after being negatively evaluated in terms of morality rather than competence. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that moral information was perceived as having a more enduring impact on one’s reputation, and was more strongly related to anticipated intra-group respect and self-views, than competence and sociability information. This perceived pervasiveness of moral (versus competence evaluations mediated intentions to justify and explain one’s behavior (Study 3. Study 4 finally showed that being seen as lacking in morality elicited threat and coping responses, which induced subsequent tendencies to repair one’s moral reputation.

  1. Fostering Nurses' Moral Agency and Moral Identity: The Importance of Moral Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaschenko, Joan; Peter, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    It may be the case that the most challenging moral problem of the twenty-first century will be the relationship between the individual moral agent and the practices and institutions in which the moral agent is embedded. In this paper, we continue the efforts that one of us, Joan Liaschenko, first called for in 1993, that of using feminist ethics as a lens for viewing the relationship between individual nurses as moral agents and the highly complex institutions in which they do the work of nursing. Feminist ethics, with its emphasis on the inextricable relationship between ethics and politics, provides a useful lens to understand the work of nurses in context. Using Margaret Urban Walker's and Hilde Lindemann's concepts of identity, relationships, values, and moral agency, we argue that health care institutions can be moral communities and profoundly affect the work and identity and, therefore, the moral agency of all who work within those structures, including nurses. Nurses are not only shaped by these organizations but also have the power to shape them. Because moral agency is intimately connected to one's identity, moral identity work is essential for nurses to exercise their moral agency and to foster moral community in health care organizations. We first provide a brief history of nursing's morally problematic relationship with institutions and examine the impact institutional master narratives and corporatism exert today on nurses' moral identities and agency. We close by emphasizing the significance of ongoing dialogue in creating and sustaining moral communities, repairing moral identities, and strengthening moral agency.

  2. Ordering within Moral Orders to Manage Classroom Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Catherine; McGregor, Rowena; Shield, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how classroom trouble warranting teacher intervention can stem from transgressions in different layers of the complex moral order regulating classroom interactions. The paper builds from Durkheim's treatment of schooling as the institution responsible for the inculcation of a shared moral order, Bernstein's distinction…

  3. Woman's Moral Development in Search of Philosophical Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichel, Betty A.

    1985-01-01

    Examined is Carol Gilligan's thesis that men and women use different moral languages to resolve moral dilemmas, i.e., women speak a language of caring and responsibility, and men speak a language of rights and justice. Her thesis is not grounded with adequate philosophical assumptions. (Author/RM)

  4. Ordering within Moral Orders to Manage Classroom Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Catherine; McGregor, Rowena; Shield, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how classroom trouble warranting teacher intervention can stem from transgressions in different layers of the complex moral order regulating classroom interactions. The paper builds from Durkheim's treatment of schooling as the institution responsible for the inculcation of a shared moral order, Bernstein's distinction…

  5. Absoluteness or relativity of morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kadievskaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to the case study of absoluteness or relativity of morals. The questions are in a new way comprehended: Can exist absolute morals? Is how its content? Is necessary it for humanity? Is moral personality absolute value? Does justify the purpose of means? It is substantiated, that reflecting about the problem of absoluteness or relativity of morals, one ought not to be abstracted from the religion ­ billions of people find in it the basis of their morals. Accumulated ethical experience is infinitely rich and diverse in humanity: it includes and the proclaimed prophets godly revelations, and the brilliant enlightenment of secular philosophers. Are analyzed such concepts, as morals, absolute morals, relativity, moral rigorizm, moral personality, formal ethics. The specific character of the moral relativity, which proclaims historicity and changeability of standards and standards of human behavior, is established. Moral rigorizm is understood as the principle, according to which the man must act only from the considerations of moral debt, whereas all other external motivations (interest, happiness, friendship, etc have no moral value. Is shown the priority significance of the nerigoristskoy formal ethics, in which strong idealizations and abstractions of the ethics of moral rigorizma are substituted by the weaker ­ more realistic and more humane. In the nerigoristskoy formal ethics, as in the life, moral estimations completely can be and in the overwhelming majority of the cases are relative.

  6. Moral Purpose Writ Large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullan, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Argues that moral and spiritual leaders strive to make a difference in the lives of students; to reduce the achievement gap in one's school, district, and the larger educational environment; and to foster growth opportunities and leadership in others. (PKP)

  7. Explaining moral religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality.

  8. Conciencia moral y gesinnung

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio La Rocca

    2012-01-01

    Kant ha subrayado el carácter problemático del auto-conocimiento en el campo de la antropología y la psicología: desde sus primeras obras insistió en la imposibilidad de conocer con certeza, sobre la base de las acciones, la disposición moral subjetiva, la única que da a la acción un valor moral. Esta dificultad no se atenúa cuando el juicio moral es dirigido sobre el sujeto mismo. A los problemas cognitivos se añade una tendencia al auto-engaño que está activa en toda la vida moral. Si se ma...

  9. Twentieth Century Moral Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, Rowland

    2008-01-01

    Despite being somewhat long in the tooth at the time, Aristotle, Hume and Kant were still dominating twentieth century moral philosophy. Much of the progress made in that century came from a detailed working through of each of their approaches by the expanding and increasingly professionalized corps of academic philosophers. And this progress can be measured not just by the quality and sophistication of moral philosophy at the end of that century, but also by the narrowing of s...

  10. Neural basis of moral verdict and moral deliberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Jana Schaich; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2011-01-01

    How people judge something to be morally right or wrong is a fundamental question of both the sciences and the humanities. Here we aim to identify the neural processes that underlie the specific conclusion that something is morally wrong. To do this, we introduce a novel distinction between “moral deliberation,” or the weighing of moral considerations, and the formation of a “moral verdict,” or the commitment to one moral conclusion. We predict and identify hemodynamic activity in the bilateral anterior insula and basal ganglia that correlates with committing to the moral verdict “this is morally wrong” as opposed to “this is morally not wrong,” a finding that is consistent with research from economic decision-making. Using comparisons of deliberation-locked vs. verdict-locked analyses, we also demonstrate that hemodynamic activity in high-level cortical regions previously implicated in morality—including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and temporoparietal junction—correlates primarily with moral deliberation as opposed to moral verdicts. These findings provide new insights into what types of processes comprise the enterprise of moral judgment, and in doing so point to a framework for resolving why some clinical patients, including psychopaths, may have intact moral judgment but impaired moral behavior. PMID:21590588

  11. ACCOUNTING BETWEEN LAW, ETHICS AND MORALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca-Simona N. HROMEI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fact that nowadays, society and business, show high expectations regarding the accounting discipline, and therefore professionals in this area should expand their horizons to meet all requirements. First of all, accounting assumed a certain responsibility to the public interest, by its fundamental purpose, namely to provide financial-accounting information, information that will form the basis of decision making. Second of all, for the successful fulfilment of the public responsibilities, accountants must rely on elements of doctrine, ethics, or ethics and morality. The study wants to show the importance of the accounting discipline, which has begun to increasingly focus on the creation of a moral or ethical basis, putting these issues on the same level with respecting the law. The boundary between what is legal but not ethical or moral is very small, and there were many business cases where unethical behaviour led to business failure.

  12. Discourse, the moral imperative and Faraday's candle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne

    2013-03-01

    This commentary considers two lines of inquiry into the work of Ideland and Malmberg: the role of discourse in shaping teachers' responses to Roberts' (2011) Visions of Science and the moral imperatives that will accompany any shifts between Vision I and II. Vision I of science has accreted to itself great power and prestige, both of which shape notions of a `good' science education. Any shift towards Vision II will require serious engagement in a Foucaultian discourse into the issues of power, inclusion and exclusion that Ideland and Malmberg describe. Similarly, the moral imperatives that arise require courage to both contest the status quo in science education, and develop a reasoned, morally defensible, response to the challenge that Vision II is really a form of ideological activism.

  13. Effect of professional expertise and exposure to everyday life decision-making on moral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Verde, Paola; Angelino, Gregorio; Carrozzo, Paolo; Vecchi, Diego; Piccardi, Laura; Colangeli, Stefano; Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Giannini, Anna Maria

    2017-07-27

    Moral sense is defined as a feeling of fairness or unfairness of an action that knowingly causes harm to people other than the subject. It is crucial in determining human behavior and becomes pivotal in operational environments. Here we assessed whether professional daily life experience in an operational environment affects moral judgment by asking 41 military pilots of the Italian Air Force (P) and 69 controls (C) to solve 40 moral dilemmas. We found that P gave more morally acceptable utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas. Interestingly, men and women in P equally accepted utilitarian resolutions of moral dilemmas, whereas in C women were less prone than men to accept utilitarian responses. We conclude that professional daily life experience of P, in an operational environment, affects moral judgment and mitigates gender predisposition towards moral dilemmas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Blaming, praising, and protecting our humanity: the implications of everyday dehumanization for judgments of moral status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Laham, Simon M; Wilson, Sam; Haslam, Nick; Koval, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Being human implies a particular moral status: having moral value, agency, and responsibility. However, people are not seen as equally human. Across two studies, we examine the consequences that subtle variations in the perceived humanness of actors or groups have for their perceived moral status. Drawing on Haslam's two-dimensional model of humanness and focusing on three ways people may be considered to have moral status - moral patiency (value), agency, or responsibility - we demonstrate that subtly denying humanness to others has implications for whether they are blamed, praised, or considered worthy of moral concern and rehabilitation. Moreover, we show that distinct human characteristics are linked to specific judgments of moral status. This work demonstrates that everyday judgments of moral status are influenced by perceptions of humanness.

  15. Rethinking Moral Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priaulx, Nicky; Weinel, Martin; Wrigley, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    We argue that the way in which the concept of expertise is understood and invoked has prevented progress in the debate as to whether moral philosophers can be said to be 'moral experts'. We offer an account of expertise that draws on the role of tacit knowledge in order to provide a basis upon which the debate can progress. Our analysis consists of three parts. In the first part we highlight two specific problems in the way that the concept of expertise has been invoked in the moral expertise debate, namely the understanding of expertise as an exclusive concept and the conflation of expertise with the idea of 'authority'. In the second part we suggest an alternative way of approaching the concept of expertise. This is based on Collins and Evans' sociological theory of expertises. This theory provides a valuable analytical framework for thinking about claims to expertise and for drawing the kinds of distinctions which allow for different kinds of moral expertises and competencies. In the final part, we show how the application of this theory helps to avoid some of the problematic conclusions which theorists have arrived at to date and provides a common platform for debate. Ultimately, it permits the argument to be made that moral philosophers could be considered specialist members of an expert community of moral decision-makers.

  16. Moral status, justice, and the common morality: challenges for the principlist account of moral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Kevin E; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2013-09-01

    The theory of principlism elaborated by Beauchamp and Childress in Principles of Biomedical Ethics has become extremely influential in bioethics. The theory employs the idea of the common morality as a foundation for the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. According to this account, the content of the common morality is universal and constant, while variability in morals is due to the fact that the issue of who is included within the scope of moral status evolves over time. This suggests that issues of moral status are not part of the common morality at all, and this presents a conundrum: questions of moral status seem central to any substantive account of justice, and any conception of the common morality that excludes moral status therefore seems inadequate for supporting a robust principle of justice. We argue that proponents of common morality theory are left with four options: (1) making moral status a part of the objective common morality and ignoring evidence that views about moral status do seem to vary over time and place; (2) excluding justice from the substantive content of the common morality; (3) taking common morality to be an imperfect approximation of an independently justified and universal foundationalist ethic against which the common morality is judged; or (4) weakening claims about the universality of common morality, thereby allowing the common morality to support a variety of principles of justice applicable only within particular communities that have specified the scope of moral status. We suspect that proponents of common morality theory will not view any of these options favorably, which raises questions about the ultimate contribution of that account.

  17. The Moral Agency of the Educational Leader in Times of National Crisis and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doscher, Stephanie Paul; Normore, Anthony H.

    2008-01-01

    Many researchers have called for educational leaders to develop a moral grounding for their work. This essay begins a discussion of how Starratt's (2005) spiraling framework of moral responsibility represents a process through which educational leaders can evolve from taking a transactional approach to problem solving, to using moral and…

  18. Metaphysics and Methods in Moral Enquiry and Education: Some Old Philosophical Wine for New Theoretical Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2014-01-01

    If we reject sentimentalist accounts of the nature of moral motivation and education, then we may regard some form of reason as intrinsic to any genuine moral response. The large question for moral education is therefore that of the nature of such reason--perhaps more especially of its status as knowledge. In this regard, there is evidence of some…

  19. Principals' Moral Agency and Ethical Decision-Making: Toward a Transformational Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkowski, Sabre; Walker, Keith D.; Kutsyuruba, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study provides a rich portrait of moral agency and ethical decision-making processes among a sample of Canadian school principals. Using an ethical responsibility framework linking moral agency and transformational leadership, the researchers found that (1) modeling moral agency is important for encouraging others to engage their…

  20. Pedagogical Formation Students' Resistance Behaviors towards Teaching-Learning Processes and Their Moral Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Türkan; Sezen-Gültekin, Gözde

    2016-01-01

    Moral maturity, defined as the competence in moral emotions, thoughts, judgments, attitudes and behaviors, is one of the most important qualities that the would-be teachers at Faculties of Education must possess. Teachers with moral maturity will train students with the qualities of reliability, responsibility, fairness, objectivity, consistency…

  1. Metaphysics and Methods in Moral Enquiry and Education: Some Old Philosophical Wine for New Theoretical Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2014-01-01

    If we reject sentimentalist accounts of the nature of moral motivation and education, then we may regard some form of reason as intrinsic to any genuine moral response. The large question for moral education is therefore that of the nature of such reason--perhaps more especially of its status as knowledge. In this regard, there is evidence of some…

  2. A Comparative Study of Moral Development of Korean and British Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hye-Jeong

    2002-01-01

    Explores Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development in relation to Korean and British children. Illustrates cultural differences in moral orientations. Notes it was not possible to match responses from Korean children to Kohlberg's manual. Suggests that interpretation of children's moral reasoning should be based on consideration of cultural…

  3. TMS affects moral judgment, showing the role of DLPFC and TPJ in cognitive and emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, Danique; Sack, Alexander T; Roebroeck, Alard; Russ, Brian E; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making involves a complex interplay of emotional responses and reasoning processes. In this study, we use TMS to explore the neurobiological substrates of moral decisions in humans. To examining the effects of TMS on the outcome of a moral-decision, we compare the decision outcome of moral-

  4. Systematic review genetic biomarkers associated with anti-TNF treatment response in inflammatory bowel diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Signe Bek; Nielsen, J V; Bo Bojesen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    : To identify polymorphisms and candidate genes from the literature that are associated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment response in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. METHODS: We performed a PubMed literature search and retrieved...... studies reporting original data on association between polymorphisms and anti-TNF treatment response and conducted a meta-analysis. RESULTS: A functional polymorphism in FCGR3A was significantly associated with anti-TNF treatment response among CD patients using biological response criterion (decrease...... in an explorative analysis. CONCLUSIONS: There are no genetic markers currently available which are adequately predictive of anti-TNF response for use in the clinic. Genetic markers bear the advantage that they do not change over time. Therefore, hypothesis-free approaches, testing a large number of polymorphisms...

  5. CE: Moral Distress: A Catalyst in Building Moral Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Caldwell, Meredith; Kurtz, Melissa

    2016-07-01

    : Moral distress is a pervasive problem in the nursing profession. An inability to act in alignment with one's moral values is detrimental not only to the nurse's well-being but also to patient care and clinical practice as a whole. Moral distress has typically been seen as characterized by powerlessness and victimization; we offer an alternate view. Ethically complex situations and experiences of moral distress can become opportunities for growth, empowerment, and increased moral resilience. This article outlines the concept and prevalence of moral distress, describes its impact and precipitating factors, and discusses promising practices and interventions.

  6. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  7. The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Shane

    2016-04-01

    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory.

  8. Moral (or ethical education in Slovakia and its theoretical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluchman Vasil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to existing concept of the moral education (ethics in Slovakia, the questions of ethics and morals are only one of the partial sections. The dominant role is played by psychology based on Roberto Olivar’s concept with emphasis on pro-socialization and on Erickson’s concept of the psychosocial development. From the philosophy basis point of view, only Aristotle, even in reduced form and Spranger’s concept of the life forms are mentioned. Philosophy and ethics are only complements to more psychologically based educational program which is resulting from the problematic division of a social and moral experience into egoistic and prosocial. Egoism is presented in a distorted form and is characterized as the cause of all moral evil. However, there are several different types of understanding of the term egoism in philosophy and ethics as for example psychological and ethical egoism, or self-interest. Ethical egoism or self-interest cannot be identified with selfishness. The main aim of moral education should not be only to form the desired children and youth moral orientation but on the other hand, to form morally self-confident individuals who are able to solve the moral problems, to help the others to solve them as well and to be able to bear moral responsibility for their own deeds.

  9. INTERVENING DEONTOLOGI MORAL EVALUATION AUDITOR DALAM PENGARUHNYA PEMBUATAN KEPUTUSAN BERBASIS ETIS DENGAN PERKEMBANGAN MORAL COGNITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrinaldi Nur DP

    2014-12-01

    consistent about their responsible and ethics. Population of this research is all independent auditors working in KAP in Pekanbaru, Padang and Batam. While sample are those who work in KAP kotaPekanbaru, Padang and Batam. Sampling was done by purposive sampling method. The numbers of sample used are 69 respondents. Data is analyzed by PLS analysis technique (Partial Least Square using SmartPLS software.Result shows that time pressure has significant effect to audit procedure’s premature sign off, cognitive moral development and deontology moral evaluation have non-significant negative effect to audit procedure’s premature sign off. Besides that, there is also a significant connection between somebody’s cognitive moral development and deontology moral evaluation. Fifth T-Statistic tes simultaneously has no effect to audit procedure’s premature sign off. Only 23,8% variability construct premature stopping attitude of audit procedure, and the rest 76.2% explaine by other variable outside this research.

  10. School bullying and the mechanisms of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Jungert, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine to what degree different mechanisms of moral disengagement were related to age, gender, bullying, and defending among school children. Three hundred and seventy-two Swedish children ranging in age from 10 to 14 years completed a questionnaire. Findings revealed that boys expressed significantly higher levels of moral justification, euphemistic labeling, diffusion of responsibility, distorting consequences, and victim attribution, as compared with girls. Whereas boys bullied others significantly more often than girls, age was unrelated to bullying. Moral justification and victim attribution were the only dimensions of moral disengagement that significantly related to bullying. Furthermore, younger children and girls were more likely to defend victims. Diffusion of responsibility and victim attribution were significantly and negatively related to defending, while the other dimensions of moral disengagement were unrelated to defending.

  11. Nurses' moral experiences of assisted death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, James; Wright, David Kenneth; Paradis, Maude

    2016-01-01

    Legislative changes are resulting in assisted death as an option for people at the end of life. Although nurses' experiences and perspectives are underrepresented within broader ethical discourses about assisted death, there is a small but significant body of literature examining nurses' experiences of caring for people who request this option. To synthesize what has been learned about nurses' experiences of caring for patients who request assisted death and to highlight what is morally at stake for nurses who undertake this type of care. Qualitative meta-synthesis. Six databases were searched: CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, Joanna Briggs Institute, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. The search was completed on 22 October 2014 and updated in February 2016. Of 879 articles identified from the database searches, 16 articles were deemed relevant based on inclusion criteria. Following quality appraisal, 14 studies were retained for analysis and synthesis. The moral experience of the nurse is (1) defined by a profound sense of responsibility, (2) shaped by contextual forces that nurses navigate in everyday end-of-life care practice, and (3) sustained by intra-team moral and emotional support. The findings of this synthesis support the view that nurses are moral agents who are deeply invested in the moral integrity of end-of-life care involving assisted death. The findings further demonstrate that to fully appreciate the ethics of assisted death from a nursing standpoint, it is necessary to understand the broader constraints on nurses' moral agency that operate in everyday end-of-life care. Ethical considerations: Research ethics board approval was not required for this synthesis of previously published literature. In order to understand how to enact ethical practice in the area of assisted death, the moral experiences of nurses should be investigated and foregrounded.

  12. SOCIÉTÉ ET MORALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan HUMÃ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The moral is also a field of options. We can not hope about the moral pride of Superman; where there isn’t any compassion, dedication, understanding and sacrifice, there isn’t any moral. Also we do not believe in any false moral of solvent egalitarianism and of abstract universal love. At the same time, we do not retain the moral quotient of the technical license, producer of uncivilized “freedoms”. On the contrary we believe that the moral is born minute by minute on the grueling road of the daily tension, disinterested commitment in the communion.

  13. Law and policy in the era of reproductive genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, T; Knowles, L; Meslin, E M

    2004-08-01

    The extent to which society utilises the law to enforce its moral judgments remains a dominant issue in this era of embryonic stem cell research, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and human reproductive cloning. Balancing the potential health benefits and diverse moral values of society can be a tremendous challenge. In this context, governments often adopt legislative bans and prohibitions and rely on the inflexible and often inappropriate tool of criminal law. Legal prohibitions in the field of reproductive genetics are not likely to reflect adequately the depth and diversity of competing stakeholder positions. Rather, a comprehensive and readily responsive regulatory policy is required. Such a policy must attend to the evolving scientific developments and ethical considerations. We outline a proposal for effective, responsive, and coherent oversight of new reproductive genetic technologies.

  14. Counterfactual thinking in moral judgement: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eMigliore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Counterfactual thinking is thinking about a past that did not happen. This is often the case in 'if only...' situations, where we wish something had or had not happened. To make a choice in a moral decision-making situation is particularly hard and, therefore, may be often associated with the imagination of a different outcome. The main aim of the present study is to investigate counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning. We used a modified version of Greene’s moral dilemmas test, studying both the time needed to provide a counterfactual in the first and third person and the type of given response (in context-out of context in a sample of 90 healthy subjects.We found a longer response time for personal vs. impersonal moral dilemmas. This effect was enhanced in the first person perspective, while in the elderly there was an overall slowing of response time. Out of context/omissive responses were more frequent in the case of personal moral dilemmas presented in the first person version, with females showing a marked increase in this kind of response.These findings suggest that gender and perspective have a critical role in counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning, and may have implications for the understanding of gender-related inclinations as well as differences in moral judgement.

  15. The Genetic Influences on Oxycodone Response Characteristics in Human Experimental Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Estrup; Sato, Hiroe; Nielsen, Lecia Møller

    2015-01-01

    PTT (n = 41) were included. Genetic associations with pain outcomes were explored. Nineteen opioid receptor genetic polymorphisms were included in this study. Variability in oxycodone response to skin heat was associated with OPRM1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs589046 (P ...Human experimental pain studies are of value to study basic pain mechanisms under controlled conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic variation across selected mu-, kappa- and delta-opioid receptor genes (OPRM1, OPRK1and OPRD1, respectively) influenced analgesic response...... to oxycodone in healthy volunteers. Experimental multimodal, multitissue pain data from previously published studies carried out in Caucasian volunteers were used. Data on thermal skin pain tolerance threshold (PTT) (n = 37), muscle pressure PTT (n = 31), mechanical visceral PTT (n = 43) and thermal visceral...

  16. Engineering Values Into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela L; Cho, Mildred K

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have been used to "edit" genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing the Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a "gene drive" that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA techniques. The scientific and bioethics communities have built substantial literatures about the ethical and policy implications of genetic engineering, especially in the age of bioterrorism. However, recent CRISPr/Cas experiments have triggered a rehashing of previous policy discussions, suggesting that the scientific community requires guidance on how to think about social responsibility. We propose a framework to enable analysis of social responsibility, using two examples of genetic engineering experiments.

  17. Genetic risk for obesity predicts nucleus accumbens size and responsivity to real-world food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapuano, Kristina M; Zieselman, Amanda L; Kelley, William M; Sargent, James D; Heatherton, Todd F; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2017-01-03

    Obesity is a major public health concern that involves an interaction between genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental cues (e.g., food marketing); however, the mechanisms that link these factors and contribute to unhealthy eating are unclear. Using a well-known obesity risk polymorphism (FTO rs9939609) in a sample of 78 children (ages 9-12 y), we observed that children at risk for obesity exhibited stronger responses to food commercials in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) than children not at risk. Similarly, children at a higher genetic risk for obesity demonstrated larger NAcc volumes. Although a recessive model of this polymorphism best predicted body mass and adiposity, a dominant model was most predictive of NAcc size and responsivity to food cues. These findings suggest that children genetically at risk for obesity are predisposed to represent reward signals more strongly, which, in turn, may contribute to unhealthy eating behaviors later in life.

  18. Genetic risk for obesity predicts nucleus accumbens size and responsivity to real-world food cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapuano, Kristina M.; Zieselman, Amanda L.; Kelley, William M.; Sargent, James D.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern that involves an interaction between genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental cues (e.g., food marketing); however, the mechanisms that link these factors and contribute to unhealthy eating are unclear. Using a well-known obesity risk polymorphism (FTO rs9939609) in a sample of 78 children (ages 9–12 y), we observed that children at risk for obesity exhibited stronger responses to food commercials in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) than children not at risk. Similarly, children at a higher genetic risk for obesity demonstrated larger NAcc volumes. Although a recessive model of this polymorphism best predicted body mass and adiposity, a dominant model was most predictive of NAcc size and responsivity to food cues. These findings suggest that children genetically at risk for obesity are predisposed to represent reward signals more strongly, which, in turn, may contribute to unhealthy eating behaviors later in life. PMID:27994159

  19. Kohlberg and the Resolution of Moral Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressler, Marvin

    1976-01-01

    Author challenged Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development with its conjoint moral standards. One's knowledge of the principle of moral justice, he said, does not offer him directives for dealing with specific moral conflicts. (Editor/RK)

  20. Weighing both sides: morality, mortality, and framing contests over obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C; Riley, Kevin W

    2005-10-01

    Despite recent and growing media attention surrounding obesity in the United States, the so-called obesity epidemic remains a highly contested scientific and social fact. This article examines the contemporary obesity debate through systematic examination of the claims and claimants involved in the controversy. We argue that four primary groups-antiobesity researchers, antiobesity activists, fat acceptance researchers, and fat acceptance activists-are at the forefront of this controversy and that these groups are fundamentally engaged in framing contests over the nature and consequences of excess body weight. While members of the fat acceptance groups embrace a body diversity frame, presenting fatness as a natural and largely inevitable form of diversity, members of the antiobesity camp frame higher weights as risky behavior akin to smoking, implying that body weight is under personal control and that people have a moral and medical responsibility to manage their weight. Both groups sometimes frame obesity as an illness, which limits blame by suggesting that weight is biologically or genetically determined but simultaneously stigmatizes fat bodies as diseased. While the antiobesity camp frames obesity as an epidemic to increase public attention, fat acceptance activists argue that concern over obesity is distracting attention from a host of more important health issues for fat Americans. We examine the strategies claimants use to establish their own credibility or discredit their opponents, and explain how the fat acceptance movement has exploited structural opportunities and cultural resources created by AIDS activism and feminism to wield some influence over U.S. public health approaches. We conclude that notions of morality play a central role in the controversy over obesity, as in many medical disputes, and illustrate how medical arguments about body weight can be used to stymie rights claims and justify morality-based fears.

  1. Investigating Morals and Values in Today's Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Paul D.

    This responsibility education activity book for grades 5-10 offers a set of materials that reflect students' interests and motivation for values education. The book is built around three moral principles: (1) "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you" (Confucius, 513 B.C.); (2) "The end does not justify the means" (Immanuel Kant, "The…

  2. Conduct Systems Designed to Promote Moral Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, those responsible for administration of student conduct resolution in U.S. higher education have sought some manner of moral development for students, whether labeled as such or not. It is clear that contemporary conduct officers are more deeply concerned with such student development as an extension of their practice. Many such…

  3. Unconditional Love as a Critical Moral Ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Gretchen

    1996-01-01

    Family deficiencies are driving today's youth to search for unconditional love. The cultural denigration of love has become an unrecognized school problem. By using literature and personal writings that portray responsible loving, English teachers can help students overcome indifference to learning and create moral criticisms that are relevant to…

  4. The Moral Judgments of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Gerald E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Preschoolers' responses to Piagetian moral judgment stories indicate that they respond differentially to good and bad intent (punishing the bad intentions but not responding to good or neutral intentions), but that only older children respond reliably and differentially to consequences. (RL)

  5. Discourse, the Moral Imperative and Faraday's Candle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This commentary considers two lines of inquiry into the work of Ideland and Malmberg: the role of discourse in shaping teachers' responses to Roberts' (2011) Visions of Science and the moral imperatives that will accompany any shifts between Vision I and II. Vision I of science has accreted to itself great power and prestige, both of which shape…

  6. Oscillatory correlates of moral decision-making: Effect of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Savostyanov, Alexander N; Bocharov, Andrey V; Dorosheva, Elena A; Tamozhnikov, Sergey S; Saprigyn, Alexander E

    2016-01-01

    The role of emotion in moral decision-making is still a matter of debate. Greene, Sommerville, Nystrom, Darley, and Cohen (2001) argue that 'personal' moral judgments are driven by emotional responses, while 'impersonal' judgments are largely driven by cognitive processes. In this study, oscillatory correlates of decision-making were compared in moral personal, moral impersonal, and nonmoral conditions, as well as in trials associated with utilitarian (i.e., favoring the 'greater good' over individual rights) and non-utilitarian choices. Event-related synchronization in delta and theta bands was greater in the right temporal lobe in personal than in both nonmoral and impersonal moral condition. Graph-theoretical analysis of connectivity patterns showed the prominent role of the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices in personal moral decision-making, implying greater emotional and self-processing. Higher conscientiousness and intellect and lower behavioral activation were associated with greater difference in oscillatory responses between utilitarian and non-utilitarian choices in personal than in impersonal condition, indicating that sensitivity to moral issues and the ability to grasp the nuances of moral situation are essential for understanding the implications of utilitarian choices in personal and impersonal conditions.

  7. [Orbitofrontal cortex and morality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Michitaka; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-10-01

    Research on the neural substrates of morality is a recently emerging field in neuroscience. The anatomical structures implicated to play a role in morality include the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. In particular, the orbitofrontal or ventromedial prefrontal areas are thought to be involved in decision-making, and damage to these areas is likely to cause decision-making deficits and/or problems in impulsive control, which may lead to antisocial and less moral behaviors. In this article, we focus on case presentation and theory development with regard to moral judgment. First, we discuss notable cases and syndromes developing after orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal damage, such as the famous cases of Gage and EVR, cases of childhood orbitofrontal damage, forced collectionism, squalor syndrome, and hypermoral syndrome. We then review the proposed theories and neuropsychological mechanisms underlying decision-making deficits following orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal damage, including the somatic-marker hypothesis, reversal learning, preference judgment, theory of mind, and moral dilemma.

  8. Conciencia moral y Gesinnung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio La Rocca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kant ha subrayado el carácter problemático del auto-conocimiento en el campo de la antropología y la psicología: desde sus primeras obras insistió en la imposibilidad de conocer con certeza, sobre la base de las acciones, la disposición moral subjetiva, la única que da a la acción un valor moral. Esta dificultad no se atenúa cuando el juicio moral es dirigido sobre el sujeto mismo. A los problemas cognitivos se añade una tendencia al auto-engaño que está activa en toda la vida moral. Si se mantiene la importancia de este argumento, puede emerger una caracterización de la Gesinnung que la distingue de cualquier “intención” subjetiva. Aquella puede ser concebida más bien como una estructura “objetiva”, independiente de la conciencia subjetiva y análoga a una idea regulativa, que obliga a interpretar las acciones morales sobre la base de un principio que es necesario asumir, pero que no es posible conocer.

  9. Apolipoprotein B genetic variants modify the response to fenofibrate: a GOLDN study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertriglyceridemia, defined as a triglyceride measurement > 150 mg/dl, occurs in up to 34% of adults. Fenofibrate is a commonly used drug to treat hypertriglyceridemia, but response to fenofibrate varies considerably among individuals. We sought to determine if genetic variation in apolipoprotein...

  10. Ship Appearance Optimal Design on RCS Reduction Using Response Surface Method and Genetic Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG De-qing; GUO Feng-jun

    2008-01-01

    Radar cross section (RCS) reduction technologies are very important in survivability of the militarynaval vessels. Ship appearance shaping as an effective countermeasure of RCS reduction redirects the scatteredenergy from one angular region of interest in space to another region of little interest. To decrease the scatteringelectromagnetic signals from ship scientifically, optimization methods should be introduced in shaping design.Based on the assumption of the characteristic section design method, mathematical formulations for optimalshaping design were established. Because of the computation-intensive analysis and singularity in shapingoptimization, the response surface method (RSM) combined genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed. The poly-nomial response surface method was adopted in model approximation. Then genetic algorithms were employedto solve the surrogate optimization problem. By comparison RCS of the conventional and the optimal design,the superiority and effectiveness of proposed design methodology were verified.Ky words: radar cross section (RCS); characteristic section design method; response surface method; genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed. The polynomial response surface method was adopted in model approximation. Then genetic algorithms were employed to solve the surrogate optimization problem. By comparison RCS of the conventional and the optimal design, the superiority and effectiveness of proposed design methodology were verified.

  11. Multilevel selection 1: Quantitative genetics of inheritance and response to selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, P.; Muir, W.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Interaction among individuals is universal, both in animals and in plants, and substantially affects evolution of natural populations and responses to artificial selection in agriculture. Although quantitative genetics has successfully been applied to many traits, it does not provide a general theor

  12. Genetic dissection of basal defence responsiveness in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, S.; Hulten, M. van; Martin, J.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Wees, S.C.M. van; Ton, J.

    2011-01-01

    Basal resistance involves a multitude of pathogen- and herbivore-inducible defence mechanisms, ranging from localized callose deposition to systemic defence gene induction by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). In this study, we have explored and dissected genetic variation in the responsive

  13. The alignment between phenotypic plasticity, the major axis of genetic variation and the response to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Martin I; Yarlett, Kylie; Reger, Julia; Carter, Mauricio J; Beckerman, Andrew P

    2015-10-07

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce more than one phenotype in order to match the environment. Recent theory proposes that the major axis of genetic variation in a phenotypically plastic population can align with the direction of selection. Therefore, theory predicts that plasticity directly aids adaptation by increasing genetic variation in the direction favoured by selection and reflected in plasticity. We evaluated this theory in the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex, facing predation risk from two contrasting size-selective predators. We estimated plasticity in several life-history traits, the G matrix of these traits, the selection gradients on reproduction and survival, and the predicted responses to selection. Using these data, we tested whether the genetic lines of least resistance and the predicted response to selection aligned with plasticity. We found predator environment-specific G matrices, but shared genetic architecture across environments resulted in more constraint in the G matrix than in the plasticity of the traits, sometimes preventing alignment of the two. However, as the importance of survival selection increased, the difference between environments in their predicted response to selection increased and resulted in closer alignment between the plasticity and the predicted selection response. Therefore, plasticity may indeed aid adaptation to new environments.

  14. Statistical methods for genetic association studies with response-selective sampling designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balliu, Brunilda

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes new statistical methods designed to improve the power of genetic association studies. Of particular interest are studies with a response-selective sampling design, i.e. case-control studies of unrelated individuals and case-control studies of family members. The

  15. Moral sensitivity and moral distress in Iranian critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohamadi, Elham; Ghasemi, Erfan; Hoseinabad-Farahani, Mohammad Javad

    2017-06-01

    Moral sensitivity is the foremost prerequisite to ethical performance; a review of literature shows that nurses are sometimes not sensitive enough for a variety of reasons. Moral distress is a frequent phenomenon in nursing, which may result in paradoxes in care, dealing with patients and rendering high-quality care. This may, in turn, hinder the meeting of care objectives, thus affecting social healthcare standards. The present research was conducted to determine the relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress of nurses in intensive care units. This study is a descriptive-correlation research. Lutzen's moral sensitivity questionnaire and Corley Moral Distress Questionnaire were used to gather data. Participants and research context: A total of 153 qualified nurses working in the hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were selected for this study. Subjects were selected by census method. Ethical considerations: After explaining the objectives of the study, all the participants completed and signed the written consent form. To conduct the study, permission was obtained from the selected hospitals. Nurses' average moral sensitivity grade was 68.6 ± 7.8, which shows a moderate level of moral sensitivity. On the other hand, nurses also experienced a moderate level of moral distress (44.8 ± 16.6). Moreover, there was no meaningful statistical relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress (p = 0.26). Although the nurses' moral sensitivity and moral distress were expected to be high in the intensive care units, it was moderate. This finding is consistent with the results of some studies and contradicts with others. As moral sensitivity is a crucial factor in care, it is suggested that necessary training be provided to develop moral sensitivity in nurses in education and practical environments. Furthermore, removing factors that contribute to moral distress may help decrease it in nurses.

  16. Plasticity and genetic adaptation mediate amphibian and reptile responses to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Mark C; Richardson, Jonathan L; Freidenfelds, Nicole A

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation are predicted to mitigate some of the negative biotic consequences of climate change. Here, we evaluate evidence for plastic and evolutionary responses to climate variation in amphibians and reptiles via a literature review and meta-analysis. We included studies that either document phenotypic changes through time or space. Plasticity had a clear and ubiquitous role in promoting phenotypic changes in response to climate variation. For adaptive evolution, we found no direct evidence for evolution of amphibians or reptiles in response to climate change over time. However, we found many studies that documented adaptive responses to climate along spatial gradients. Plasticity provided a mixture of adaptive and maladaptive responses to climate change, highlighting that plasticity frequently, but not always, could ameliorate climate change. Based on our review, we advocate for more experiments that survey genetic changes through time in response to climate change. Overall, plastic and genetic variation in amphibians and reptiles could buffer some of the formidable threats from climate change, but large uncertainties remain owing to limited data.

  17. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  18. Genetics of animal temperament: aggressive behaviour at mixing is genetically associated with the response to handling in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eath, R B; Roehe, R; Turner, S P; Ison, S H; Farish, M; Jack, M C; Lawrence, A B

    2009-11-01

    Aggression when pigs are mixed into new social groups has negative impacts on welfare and production. Aggressive behaviour is moderately heritable and could be reduced by genetic selection. The possible wider impacts of selection for reduced aggressiveness on handling traits and activity in the home pen were investigated using 1663 male and female pedigree pigs (898 purebred Yorkshire and 765 Yorkshire × Landrace). Aggressive behaviour was observed over 24 h after pigs were mixed at 10 weeks of age into groups balanced for unfamiliarity and weight. Aggression was highly heritable (duration of involvement in reciprocal fighting h2 = 0.47 ± 0.03, and duration of delivering one-sided aggression h2 = 0.34 ± 0.03). Three weeks after mixing, home pen inactivity (indicated by the frequency of lying) was observed over 24 h. Inactivity was weakly heritable (h2 = 0.05 ± 0.01) but showed no significant genetic association with aggression. Pigs' behaviour during handling by humans was assessed on entry to, whilst inside and on exit from a weigh crate at both mixing and end of test at 22 weeks. Pigs were generally easy to handle, moving easily into and out of the crate. Scores indicating 'very difficult to move' were rare. Handling scores at weighing were weakly heritable (h2 = 0.03 to 0.17), and moderately correlated across the two weighings (rg = 0.28 to 0.76). Aggressive behaviour at mixing was genetically associated with handling at the end of test weighing: pigs that fought and delivered one-sided aggression had handling scores indicating more active behaviour at weighing (e.g. moving quickly into the crate v. fighting rg = 0.41 ± 0.05 and v. bullying rg = 0.60 ± 0.04). Also, there was a genetic association between receiving one-side aggression at mixing and producing high-pitched vocalisations in the weigh crate (rg = 0.78 ± 0.08). Correlated behavioural responses occurring across different challenging situations (e.g. social mixing and human handling) have been

  19. Moral Disengagement Among Bystanders to School Bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obermann, Marie-Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the use of moral disengagement among children indirectly involved in bullying (bystanders). A sample of Danish adolescents (N = 660, M age 12.6 years) were divided into four groups depending on their bystander status: (a) outsiders, who did not experience bullying among...... their peers; (b) defenders, who were likely to help the victims in bullying episodes; (c) guilty bystanders, who did nothing to help bullied peers but felt guilty about it; and (d) unconcerned bystanders, who witnessed peers being bullied, without feeling responsible. Results indicated that, besides from...... active personal involvement in bullying others, being an unconcerned bystander to bullying also associates with moral disengagement. Unconcerned bystanders had significantly higher moral disengagement than guilty bystanders and defenders. Outsiders also showed significant higher disengagement than...

  20. Popper's Third World: Moral Habits, Moral Habitat and Their Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis

    2010-01-01

    If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…

  1. Personal Moral Development: Perceptions of 14 Moral Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Nancy; Efinger, Joan; Lacey, Candace H.

    This qualitative study investigated perceptions of 14 contemporary moral leaders regarding primary influences on their moral development. Findings indicated a number of important factors influenced the participants' moral development, including parents, spirituality, education/mentors/friends, and peak experiences. This study has implications for…

  2. Selective Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the issue of selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Argues that moral functioning is governed by self-reactive selfhood rather than by dispassionate abstract reasoning. Concludes that the massive threats to human welfare stem mainly from deliberate acts of principle rather than from unrestrained acts of impulse.…

  3. Genetic variation in the endocannabinoid system and response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for child anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Coleman, Jonathan R I; Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Breen, Gerome; Bögels, Susan; Creswell, Cathy; Hudson, Jennifer L; McKinnon, Anna; Nauta, Maaike; Rapee, Ronald M; Schneider, Silvia; Silverman, Wendy K; Thastum, Mikael; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne H; Eley, Thalia C

    2017-03-01

    Extinction learning is an important mechanism in the successful psychological treatment of anxiety. Individual differences in response and relapse following Cognitive Behavior Therapy may in part be explained by variability in the ease with which fears are extinguished or the vulnerability of these fears to re-emerge. Given the role of the endocannabinoid system in fear extinction, this study investigates whether genetic variation in the endocannabinoid system explains individual differences in response to CBT. Children (N = 1,309) with a primary anxiety disorder diagnosis were recruited. We investigated the relationship between variation in the CNR1, CNR2, and FAAH genes and change in primary anxiety disorder severity between pre- and post-treatment and during the follow-up period in the full sample and a subset with fear-based anxiety disorder diagnoses. Change in symptom severity during active treatment was nominally associated (P < 0.05) with two SNPs. During the follow-up period, five SNPs were nominally associated with a poorer treatment response (rs806365 [CNR1]; rs2501431 [CNR2]; rs2070956 [CNR2]; rs7769940 [CNR1]; rs2209172 [FAAH]) and one with a more favorable response (rs6928813 [CNR1]). Within the fear-based subset, the effect of rs806365 survived multiple testing corrections (P < 0.0016). We found very limited evidence for an association between variants in endocannabinoid system genes and treatment response once multiple testing corrections were applied. Larger, more homogenous cohorts are needed to allow the identification of variants of small but statistically significant effect and to estimate effect sizes for these variants with greater precision in order to determine their potential clinical utility. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by

  4. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view.

  5. Pharmacogenetics and anticoagulant therapy: two cases of genetically determined response to warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-Dias, Nuno; Correia, Maria José; Coutinho, Ana; Fernandes, Catarina; Diogo, A Nunes; Lopes, Mário G

    2009-09-01

    Inter- and intra-individual variability of response to warfarin means that its anticoagulant effect must be monitored, given the risk of thromboembolic complications and bleeding. This variability is influenced by gender, age, body mass index, smoking, diet, comorbid conditions, drug interactions and genetic factors. Pharmacogenetics refers to the study of genetic background to predict drug response, effectiveness and risk of adverse effects in a given patient. The authors illustrate its relevance in two case reports. A 40-year-old woman admitted for massive pulmonary thromboembolism underwent anticoagulant and fibrinolytic therapy, following which warfarin was needed in unusually high doses to achieve effective anticoagulation. The genetic variants c.430CC and c.1075AA of the CYP2C9 gene were identified, predisposing to rapid warfarin metabolism, as well as the c.-1639GG variant of the VKORC1 gene, associated with low sensitivity to the drug. Together, these variants give high resistance to warfarin. In the second case, a 76-year-old man with permanent atrial fibrillation developed excessive prolongation of prothrombin time after being treated with 5 mg/day warfarin for 5 days. The genetic variants c.430CC and c.1075AC of the CYP2C9 gene and 1639AA of the VKORC1 gene were identified. Together, these polymorphisms confer high sensitivity to warfarin, necessitating smaller doses to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation levels. The authors review the relevance of the study of genetic polymorphisms related to anticoagulant therapy and discuss its potential usefulness in clinical practice.

  6. The allergy adjuvant effect of particles – genetic factors influence antibody and cytokine responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løvik Martinus

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing epidemiological and experimental evidence for an aggravating effect of particulate air pollution on asthma and allergic symptoms and, to a lesser extent, on allergic sensitization. Genetic factors appear to influence not only the magnitude, but also the quality of the adjuvant effect of particles with respect to allergen-specific IgE (Th2-associated and IgG2a (Th1-associated responses. In the present study, we aimed to investigate how the genetic background influences the responses to the allergen and particles alone and in combination. We examined how polystyrene particles (PSP affected the IgE and IgG2a responses against the model allergen ovalbumin (OVA, after subcutaneous injection into the footpad of BALB/cA, BALB/cJ, NIH and C3H/HeN mice, Further, ex vivo IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokine secretion by Con A-stimulated cells from the draining popliteal lymph node (PLN five days after injection of OVA and PSP separately or in combination was determined. Results PSP injected with OVA increased the levels of OVA-specific IgE antibodies in all strains examined. In contrast, the IgG2a levels were significantly increased only in NIH and C3H/HeN mice. PSP in the presence of OVA increased cell numbers and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels in BALB/cA, NIH and C3H/HeN mice, with the exception of IFN-γ in NIH mice. However, each mouse strain had their unique pattern of response to OVA+PSP, OVA and PSP, and also their unique background cytokine response (i.e. the cytokine response in cells from mice injected with buffer only. Conclusion Genetic factors (i.e. the strain of mice influenced the susceptibility to the adjuvant effect of PSP on both secondary antibody responses and primary cellular responses in the lymph node, as well as the cellular responses to both OVA and PSP given separately. Interestingly, PSP alone induced cytokine responses in the lymph node in some of the mouse strains. Furthermore, we found that

  7. Altruismo e morale, percorsi separati?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Margoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcune delle più note teorie evolutive della morale affermano che il giudizio e il comportamento morale sono funzionali all’aumento del benessere del gruppo di appartenenza. Questo tipo di spiegazione dell’emergenza della morale, che sarebbe funzionale alla massimizzazione del benessere del gruppo di appartenenza, poggia su teorie come la selezione parentale. La semplice osservazione del giudizio morale umano ci dice però che...

  8. Altruismo e morale, percorsi separati?

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Margoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcune delle più note teorie evolutive della morale affermano che il giudizio e il comportamento morale sono funzionali all’aumento del benessere del gruppo di appartenenza. Questo tipo di spiegazione dell’emergenza della morale, che sarebbe funzionale alla massimizzazione del benessere del gruppo di appartenenza, poggia su teorie come la selezione parentale. La semplice osservazione del giudizio morale umano ci dice però che...

  9. Genetic effects on source level evoked and induced oscillatory brain responses in a visual oddball task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakakis, Marios; Zervakis, Michalis; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; De Geus, Eco J C; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Smit, Dirk J A

    2016-02-01

    Stimuli in simple oddball target detection paradigms cause evoked responses in brain potential. These responses are heritable traits, and potential endophenotypes for clinical phenotypes. These stimuli also cause responses in oscillatory activity, both evoked responses phase-locked to stimulus presentation and phase-independent induced responses. Here, we investigate whether phase-locked and phase-independent oscillatory responses are heritable traits. Oscillatory responses were examined in EEG recordings from 213 twin pairs (91 monozygotic and 122 dizygotic twins) performing a visual oddball task. After group Independent Component Analysis (group-ICA) and time-frequency decomposition, individual differences in evoked and induced oscillatory responses were compared between MZ and DZ twin pairs. Induced (phase-independent) oscillatory responses consistently showed the highest heritability (24-55%) compared to evoked (phase-locked) oscillatory responses and spectral energy, which revealed lower heritability at 1-35.6% and 4.5-32.3%, respectively. Since the phase-independent induced response encodes functional aspects of the brain response to target stimuli different from evoked responses, we conclude that the modulation of ongoing oscillatory activity may serve as an additional endophenotype for behavioral phenotypes and psychiatric genetics.

  10. When the topic is you: genetic counselor responses to prenatal patients' requests for self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcom, Jessica R; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Bemmels, Heather; Redlinger-Grosse, Krista; LeRoy, Bonnie S

    2013-06-01

    A limited amount of research indicates patient requests play a major role in genetic counselors' self-disclosure decisions and that disclosure and non-disclosure responses to patient requests may differentially affect genetic counseling processes. Studies further suggest patient requests may be more common in prenatal settings, particularly when counselors are pregnant. Empirical evidence is limited however, concerning the nature of patient requests. This study explored genetic counselors' experiences of prenatal patients' requests for self-disclosure. Four major research questions were: (1) What types of questions do prenatal patients ask that invite self-disclosure?; (2) Do pregnant genetic counselors have unique experiences with prenatal patient disclosure requests?; (3) How do genetic counselors typically respond to disclosure requests?; and (4) What strategies are effective and ineffective in responding to disclosure requests? One hundred seventy-six genetic counselors completed an online survey and 40 also participated in telephone interviews. Inductive analysis of 21 interviews revealed patient questions vary, although questions about counselor demographics are most common, and patients are more likely to ask pregnant counselors questions about their personal pregnancy decisions. Participants reported greater discomfort with self-disclosure requests during pregnancy, yet also disclosing more frequently during pregnancy. Counselor responses included personal self-disclosure, professional self-disclosure, redirection, and declining to disclose. Factors perceived as influencing disclosure included: topic, patient motivations, timing of request, quality of counseling relationship, patient characteristics, and ethical/legal responsibilities. Disclosure practices changed over time for most counselors. Additional findings, practice implications, and research recommendations are discussed.

  11. Emociones responsables

    OpenAIRE

    Valdecantos, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    A properly moral responsibility is currently distinguished from other uses of this concept. It is orthodox to attribute three traits to moral responsibility: the obligation to answer with reasons, the obligation to compensate for the damage, and the withdrawal of such a responsibility once the retrieval has been paid. It is also fraquently assumed that the analysis of so called moral emotions confirms the validity of the orthodox notion. I maintain that the description of indignation (a carac...

  12. Negotiating Moral Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Lene; Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, twelve capuchin monkeys were moved from the labs of the Danish psychiatric hospital of Sankt Hans to a small private-owned zoo in another part of Denmark in order to be rehabilitated. These monkeys were the last nonhuman primates to be used as research animals in Danish biomedical...... being considered a biological resource serving as a model of man, the monkeys had become moral subjects with a claim to a life suiting their natural needs. Simultaneously, the monkeys became instrumental in creating moral legitimacy for the actors involved in their rescue. What we see is an instance...

  13. Moralizing Food Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2015-01-01

    Food technologies are common on many levels in society and used by both food professionals and consumers. Food technologies are not neutral. They inform and shape the behaviour of people. This paper presents a theoretical framework for analysing the mediating role of food technology and its...... influence on food ethics. Post-phenomenology and the idea of a technologically mediated morality are central theoretical approaches. Four elements are included in the analytical framework: perception, interpretation, intentionality, and mediated morality. The framework is applied to two cases; food safety...

  14. Moral Development and Treatment Potential of Youths under Eighteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, Deborah

    1979-01-01

    This paper examines Piaget's and Kohlberg's theories of moral development stages and environmental effects on behavior in relation to criminal responsibility in juveniles and the effectiveness of delinquent rehabilitation programs. (SJL)

  15. Multilevel selection 1: Quantitative genetics of inheritance and response to selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijma, Piter; Muir, William M; Van Arendonk, Johan A M

    2007-01-01

    Interaction among individuals is universal, both in animals and in plants, and substantially affects evolution of natural populations and responses to artificial selection in agriculture. Although quantitative genetics has successfully been applied to many traits, it does not provide a general theory accounting for interaction among individuals and selection acting on multiple levels. Consequently, current quantitative genetic theory fails to explain why some traits do not respond to selection among individuals, but respond greatly to selection among groups. Understanding the full impacts of heritable interactions on the outcomes of selection requires a quantitative genetic framework including all levels of selection and relatedness. Here we present such a framework and provide expressions for the response to selection. Results show that interaction among individuals may create substantial heritable variation, which is hidden to classical analyses. Selection acting on higher levels of organization captures this hidden variation and therefore always yields positive response, whereas individual selection may yield response in the opposite direction. Our work provides testable predictions of response to multilevel selection and reduces to classical theory in the absence of interaction. Statistical methodology provided elsewhere enables empirical application of our work to both natural and domestic populations.

  16. Autonomic correlates of physical and moral disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Cristina; Mancini, Francesco; Petrocchi, Nicola; Medea, Barbara; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro

    2013-07-01

    Given that the hypothesis of a common origin of physical and moral disgust has received sparse empirical support, this study aimed to shed light on the subjective and autonomic signatures of these two facets of the same emotional response. Participants (20 men, 20 women) were randomly assigned to physical or moral disgust induction by the use of audio scripts while their electrocardiogram was continuously recorded. Affect ratings were obtained before and after the induction. Time and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV) measures were obtained. After controlling for disgust sensitivity (DS-R) and obsessive-compulsive (OCI-R) tendencies, both scripts elicited disgust but whereas the physical script elicited a feeling of dirtiness, the moral script evoked more indignation and contempt. The disgust-induced subjective responses were associated with opposite patterns of autonomic reactivity: enhanced activity of the parasympathetic nervous system without concurrent changes in heart rate (HR) for physical disgust and decreased vagal tone and increased HR and autonomic imbalance for moral disgust. Results suggest that immorality relies on the same biological root of physical disgust only in subjects with obsessive compulsive tendencies. Disgust appears to be a heterogeneous response that varies based on the individuals' contamination-based appraisal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between Genetic Polymorphisms and Response to Anti-TNFs in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Prieto-Pérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha is a major proinflammatory cytokine involved in the immune response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Anti-TNF drugs such as infliximab and adalimumab are used to treat IBD; however, approximately 30% of patients do not respond to treatment. Individual genetic differences could contribute to lack of efficacy. Genetic studies have tried to uncover the factors underlying differences in response, however, knowledge remains limited, and the results obtained should be validated, so that pharmacogenetic information can be applied in clinical practice. In this review, we gather current knowledge in the pharmacogenetics of anti-TNF drugs in patients with IBD. We observed a connection between the major genes described as possible predictors of response to anti-TNF drugs in IBD and the cytokines and molecules involved in the T helper (Th 17 pathway.

  18. Association between Genetic Polymorphisms and Response to Anti-TNFs in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Pérez, Rocío; Almoguera, Berta; Cabaleiro, Teresa; Hakonarson, Hakon; Abad-Santos, Francisco

    2016-02-06

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha is a major proinflammatory cytokine involved in the immune response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Anti-TNF drugs such as infliximab and adalimumab are used to treat IBD; however, approximately 30% of patients do not respond to treatment. Individual genetic differences could contribute to lack of efficacy. Genetic studies have tried to uncover the factors underlying differences in response, however, knowledge remains limited, and the results obtained should be validated, so that pharmacogenetic information can be applied in clinical practice. In this review, we gather current knowledge in the pharmacogenetics of anti-TNF drugs in patients with IBD. We observed a connection between the major genes described as possible predictors of response to anti-TNF drugs in IBD and the cytokines and molecules involved in the T helper (Th) 17 pathway.

  19. Testing for a genetic response to sexual selection in a wild Drosophila population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosden, T P; Thomson, J R; Blows, M W; Schaul, A; Chenoweth, S F

    2016-06-01

    In accordance with the consensus that sexual selection is responsible for the rapid evolution of display traits on macroevolutionary scales, microevolutionary studies suggest sexual selection is a widespread and often strong form of directional selection in nature. However, empirical evidence for the contemporary evolution of sexually selected traits via sexual rather than natural selection remains weak. In this study, we used a novel application of quantitative genetic breeding designs to test for a genetic response to sexual selection on eight chemical display traits from a field population of the fly, Drosophila serrata. Using our quantitative genetic approach, we were able to detect a genetically based difference in means between groups of males descended from fathers who had either successfully sired offspring or were randomly collected from the same wild population for one of these display traits, the diene (Z,Z)-5,9-C27 : 2 . Our experimental results, in combination with previous laboratory studies on this system, suggest that both natural and sexual selection may be influencing the evolutionary trajectories of these traits in nature, limiting the capacity for a contemporary evolutionary response.

  20. RAGE genetic polymorphisms are associated with risk, chemotherapy response and prognosis in patients with advanced NSCLC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the association between genetic polymorphisms of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE and susceptibility, chemotherapy response rate and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. METHOD: This is a prospective study in which 562 patients with NSCLC and 764 healthy controls were enrolled. Three RAGE genetic polymorphisms, namely, -429T/C, -374T/A and 82G/S were genotyped. Platinum-based chemotherapy was given to 432 subjects with advanced inoperable NSCLC and their responses to chemotherapy were evaluated. RESULTS: All the polymorphic genotypes of RAGE polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility for NSCLC. Only the 82G/S polymorphisms denoted a significant difference between responders and non-responders to chemotherapy. The 82SS genotype and 82S allele distribution not only increased the NSCLC risk, but also was associated with a lower chemotherapy response rate and poor prognosis, indicated by overall survival and progression free survival. CONCLUSION: The 82G/S genetic polymorphism of RAGE gene might be used as a genetic marker to screen for patients sensitive to thermotherapy and to predict the prognosis of NSCLC.

  1. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  2. Philosophy, Casuistry, and Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullinwider, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    Moral educators have little to learn from the moral theories in which philosophers routinely trade. These theories--including those by Slote, Hume, and Kant--leave behind the concrete world in which the moral educator labors. As interesting as they may be, they merely devise alternative routes to the same destination--to the main general features…

  3. Public Spaces and Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    The questions of how and where to do moral education have been with us since antiquity. But, over the past couple of hundred years we have sent moral education to the margins within higher education. Using the historical analysis of Julie Reuben, the moral psychological work of Augusto Blasi, and the educational philosophical work of John Dewey, I…

  4. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  5. Race, Culture and Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummett, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the great need in moral education is to consider general moral standards and arguments first and apply these to behavior affecting racial inequality, rather than to start from a concentration on racism, working back towards morality. Considers the consequences of confusing race with culture or viewing religion only as a…

  6. Distributed Cognition and Distributed Morality: Agency, Artifacts and Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heersmink, Richard

    2017-04-01

    There are various philosophical approaches and theories describing the intimate relation people have to artifacts. In this paper, I explore the relation between two such theories, namely distributed cognition and distributed morality theory. I point out a number of similarities and differences in these views regarding the ontological status they attribute to artifacts and the larger systems they are part of. Having evaluated and compared these views, I continue by focussing on the way cognitive artifacts are used in moral practice. I specifically conceptualise how such artifacts (a) scaffold and extend moral reasoning and decision-making processes, (b) have a certain moral status which is contingent on their cognitive status, and (c) whether responsibility can be attributed to distributed systems. This paper is primarily written for those interested in the intersection of cognitive and moral theory as it relates to artifacts, but also for those independently interested in philosophical debates in extended and distributed cognition and ethics of (cognitive) technology.

  7. Confronting moral distress in Nursing: recognizing nurses as moral agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco A. Carnevale

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of moral distress has brought forth a substantively different way of understanding some of the difficulties confronted by nurses in their practice. This concept highlights that nurses' distress can be an indication of nurses' conscientious moral engagement with their professional practice that has confronted practices or an environment that impedes them from acting according to their own ethical standards. Moral distress can be an indicator of problems in nurses' practice environments. This concept is described and related to moral agency in nursing practice. Selected research on moral distress is reviewed, followed by a discussion of recommendations for addressing this problem.

  8. Theological ethics, moral philosophy, and public moral discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsen, Albert R

    1994-03-01

    The advent and growth of bioethics in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s precipitated an era of public moral discourse, that is, the deliberate attempt to analyze and formulate moral argument for use in public policy. The language for rational discussion of moral matters evolved from the parent disciplines of moral philosophy and theological ethics, as well as from the idioms of a secular, pluralistic world that was searching for policy answers to difficult bioethical questions. This article explores the basis and content of the unique contributions of both theological and philosophical ethics to the development of public moral discourse.

  9. Early host gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the intestine of chickens with different genetic background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smith, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    So far the responses of chickens to Salmonella have not been studied in vivo on a whole genome-wide scale. Furthermore, the influence of the host genetic background on gene expression responses is unknown. In this study gene expression profiles in the chicken (Gallus gallus) intestine of two genetic

  10. Moral knowledge: some reflections on moral controversies, incompatible moral epistemologies, and the culture wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2004-01-01

    An authentic Christian bioethical account of abortion must take into consideration the conflicting epistemologies that separate Christian moral theology from secular moral philosophy. Moral epistemologies directed to the issue of abortion that fail to appreciate the orientation of morality to God will also fail adequately to appreciate the moral issues at stake. Christian accounts of the bioethics of abortion that reduce moral-theological considerations to moral-philosophical considerations will not only fail to appreciate fully the offense of abortion, but morally mislead. This article locates the bioethics of abortion within the theology of the Church of the first millennium, emphasizing that abortion was prohibited, whether or not one considered the embryo or fetus to be ensouled.

  11. Moral panic, moral regulation, and the civilizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hier, Sean

    2016-09-01

    This article compares two analytical frameworks ostensibly formulated to widen the focus of moral panic studies. The comparative analysis suggests that attempts to conceptualize moral panics in terms of decivilizing processes have neither substantively supplemented the explanatory gains made by conceptualizing moral panic as a form of moral regulation nor provided a viable alternative framework that better explains the dynamics of contemporary moral panics. The article concludes that Elias's meta-theory of the civilizing process potentially provides explanatory resources to investigate a possible historical-structural shift towards the so-called age of (a)moral panic; the analytical demands of such a project, however, require a sufficiently different line of inquiry than the one encouraged by both the regulatory and decivilizing perspectives on moral panic. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  12. [Genetic regulation of T-lymphocyte responsiveness to PHA is independent of culture conditions (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffel, C; Liacopoulos-Briot, M; Decreusefond, C; Lambert, F

    1979-01-01

    A maximal interline separation has been obtained after 10 consecutive generations of selective breeding for the character "quantitative in vitro response of lymph node lymphocytes to the mitogenic effect of phytohaemagglutinin". At the selection limit the difference between high and low responder lines was about 20-fold. A similar interline separation has been demonstrated for the T-mitogen effect of concanavalin A. The identical response to PPD (purified protein derivative of tuberculin), a B mitogen, proved that the genetic selection has only modified the potentialities of T lymphocytes. During the selective breeding, responsiveness to PHA stimulation has been always measured under identical culture conditions. To demonstrate that the interline difference in responsiveness was due essentially to genetic factors independent of environmental effects, a systematic study of various culture conditions has been undertaken. The optimal stimulation was found after two days of culture for high line cells and after three days for low line cells. The difference between maximal responses was only slightly lower than that obtained after a two-day culture as used for the selection test. Increase in cell concentrations produced higher thymidine incorporation. In the two lines, a linear correlation was established between the cell concentration and the response produced. The maximal response given by the highest number of low line lymphocytes was equivalent to that given by a number, 11-fold smaller, of high line cells. Within certain limits, changes in the amount of tritiated thymidine added to the culture did not affect the interline separation. With a thymidine of high specific activity, a sub-evaluation of uptake by high line cells decreased the interline difference. Results in mixed culture of lymph node cells from high and low lines indicated that the low response was not due to the release of inhibiting factors or to the presence of suppressive cells in low responder mice

  13. Relative Contribution of Odour Intensity and Valence to Moral Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Cinzia; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Parma, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analytic evidence showed that the chemical senses affect moral decisions. However, how odours impact on morality is currently unclear. Through a set of three studies, we assess whether and how odour intensity biases moral choices (Study 1a), its psychophysiological responses (Study 1b), as well as the behavioural and psychophysiological effects of odour valence on moral choices (Study 2). Study 1a suggests that the presence of an odour plays a role in shaping moral choice. Study 1b reveals that of two iso-pleasant versions of the same neutral odour, only the one presented sub-threshold (vs. supra-threshold) favours deontological moral choices, those based on the principle of not harming others even when such harm provides benefits. As expected, this odour intensity effect is tracked by skin conductance responses, whereas no difference in cardiac activity - proxy for the valence dimension - is revealed. Study 2 suggests that the same neutral odour presented sub-threshold increases deontological choices even when compared to iso-intense ambiguous odour, perceived as pleasant or unpleasant by half of the participants, respectively. Skin conductance responses, as expected, track odour pleasantness, but cardiac activity fails to do so. Results are discussed in the context of mechanisms alternative to disgust induction underlying moral choices.

  14. Study on Hydroxyurea Response in Hemoglobinopathies Patients Using Genetic Markers and Liquid Erythroid Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Serena; Agrigento, Veronica; Troia, Antonio; Di Maggio, Rosario; Sacco, Massimiliano; Maggio, Aurelio; D’Alcamo, Elena; Di Marzo, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) may ameliorate the clinical course of hemoglobinopathies. Hydroxyurea (HU) is the only inducer approved for the treatment of these diseases able to stimulate HbF production but patients’ response is highly variable indicating the utility of the identification of pharmacogenomic biomarkers in order to predict pharmacological treatment efficacy. To date few studies to evaluate the role of genetic determinants in HU response have been conducted showing contradictory results. In this study we analyzed BCL11A, GATA-1, KLF-1 genes and γ-globin promoter in 60 alleles from 30 hemoglobinopathies patients under HU treatment to assess the role of these markers in HU response. We did not find any association between these genetic determinants and HU response. Before treatment started, the same patients were analyzed in vitro using liquid erythroid cultures in a test able to predict their response to HU. The results of our analysis confirm the absence of pharmacogenomic biomarker associated to HU response indicating that, the quantification of γ-globin mRNA fold increase remains the only method able to predict in vivo patients response to the drug. PMID:28053695

  15. Sustainability as Moral Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  16. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium...

  17. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments...

  18. Hospice: Morality and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Donald E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines hospice concepts and proposals to identify moral problems presented. Particular attention is given to the relationship between the hospice concept's alleged humanitarianism and emphasis on cost-efficiency. Suggests that cost emphasis raises serious questions about the meaning of hospice concepts. (JAC)

  19. Discourse and tractable morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.

    2013-01-01

    When managerial decisions are examined, somehow the business context must be included in the analysis. In this chapter, causalities that transcend individuals are promoted as unit of analysis in empirical moral research, namely, discourse. Studying managerial decisions in their discursive context is

  20. The Morality of Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the…

  1. Moral behavior in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavussanu, Maria; Stanger, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    In this review paper, we provide an overview of recent research on prosocial and antisocial behaviors, in the context of sport, focusing mainly on antecedents and consequences of these behaviors. Motivational variables such as task orientation, mastery climate, autonomous motivation, and autonomy supportive climate are likely to promote prosocial behavior, whereas ego orientation, performance climate, controlled motivation, and controlling climate may lead to antisocial behavior. The effects of some motivational variables (i.e., controlled motivation and controlling climate) on antisocial behavior may be mediated by moral disengagement, which has been consistently linked to antisocial behavior across a number of studies. Two moral variables, moral identity and empathy have been found to inhibit antisocial behavior, and their effects are due to anticipated guilt for acting antisocially. With respect to consequences of teammate behavior, some evidence suggests that prosocial behavior may enhance the recipient's enjoyment, effort, commitment, and performance, whereas antisocial behavior could lead to anger. Finally, the frequency of prosocial and antisocial behaviors varies as a function of context: Student athletes display more antisocial behavior towards their opponents compared to their fellow students but also more prosocial behavior towards their teammates than towards their fellow students. In sum, both motivational and moral variables predict prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport, and these behaviors can have important consequences for the recipient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Moral and metaphors:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    2005-01-01

    This summary is based on a workshop discussion at the conference "Elusive Consumtion", Gothenburg, June 2002. The workshop took it point of departure in a keynote speech held by Richard Wilk, Indiana University, USA, on 'Morals and Metaphors'. Consumption is not an exact, but a fuzzy concept. Thus...

  3. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  4. Moral Education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Luhmer

    1990-01-01

    Explores how religion is a pervasive influence in moral education in both the home and school in Japan, despite an official secular policy. Points out that after 1945 nationalism was replaced by secular social studies. Finds western thought included with Buddhism and Confucianism in government decrees on the curriculum. Places newly reemerging…

  5. Moral Leadership in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, William D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The genesis of the moral leadership concept in educational administration and examples of studies exploring this idea during the 1979-2003 period are discussed. The author recommends more contextually sensitive descriptive studies with a focus on the social relations among school leaders and others, giving particular attention, in a…

  6. Discourse and tractable morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.

    2013-01-01

    When managerial decisions are examined, somehow the business context must be included in the analysis. In this chapter, causalities that transcend individuals are promoted as unit of analysis in empirical moral research, namely, discourse. Studying managerial decisions in their discursive context is

  7. Philosophy and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…

  8. Ethics, Morality, and Mores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Royal

    It is possible to approach, but not to achieve, the goal of perfection. To the three traditional philosophical values of truth, goodness, and beauty it is appropriate to append the important values of wisdom, humanness, and grace. Among the resources available toward the perfection of behavior are ethics, morality, and mores. The first chapter of…

  9. Striving for the moral self : The effects of recalling past moral actions on future moral behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, J.; Mullen, E.; Murnighan, J.K.

    People's desires to see themselves as moral actors can contribute to their striving for and achievement of a sense of self-completeness. The authors use self-completion theory to predict (and show) that recalling one's own (im)moral behavior leads to compensatory rather than consistent moral action

  10. Striving for the moral self : The effects of recalling past moral actions on future moral behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, J.; Mullen, E.; Murnighan, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    People's desires to see themselves as moral actors can contribute to their striving for and achievement of a sense of self-completeness. The authors use self-completion theory to predict (and show) that recalling one's own (im)moral behavior leads to compensatory rather than consistent moral action

  11. Defining Features of Moral Sensitivity and Moral Motivation: Pathways to Moral Reasoning in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kelly R.; Worthley, Joanna S.; Testerman, John K.; Mahoney, Marita L.

    2006-01-01

    Kohlberg's theory of moral development explores the roles of cognition and emotion but focuses primarily on cognition. Contemporary post-formal theories lead to the conclusion that skills resulting from cognitive-affective integration facilitate consistency between moral judgement and moral behaviour. Rest's four-component model of moral…

  12. Molecular genetic response to varied wavelengths of light in Xiphophorus maculatus skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jordan; Lu, Yuan; Boswell, William T; Boswell, Mikki; Caballero, Kaela L; Walter, Ronald B

    2015-12-01

    Xiphophorus fishes represent a model often utilized to study UVB induced tumorigenesis. Recently, varied genetic responses to UVB exposure have been documented in the skin of female and male Xiphophorus, as have differences in UVB response in the skin of different parental species and for interspecies hybrids produced from crossing them. Additionally, it has been shown that exposure to "cool white" fluorescent light induces a shift in the genetic profiles of Xiphophorus skin that is nearly as robust as the UVB response, but involves a fundamentally different set of genes. Given these results and the use of Xiphophorus interspecies hybrids as an experimental model for UVB inducible melanoma, it is of interest to characterize genes that may be transcriptionally modulated in a wavelength specific manner. The global molecular genetic response of skin upon exposure of the intact animal to specific wavelengths of light has not been investigated. Herein, we report results of RNA-Seq experiments from the skin of male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B following exposure to varied 50nm wavelengths of light ranging from 300-600nm. We identify two specific wavelength regions, 350-400nm (88 genes) and 500-550nm (276 genes), that exhibit transcriptional modulation of a significantly greater number of transcripts than any of the other 50nm regions in the 300-600nm range. Observed functional sets of genes modulated within these two transcriptionally active light regions suggest different mechanisms of gene modulation.

  13. Genetic polymorphism and immune response to tuberculosis in indigenous populations: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maronna Praça Longhi

    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed studies of the immune response to tuberculosis and the genetic polymorphisms associated with Th1-or Th2-mediated cytokine expression in indigenous populations. A bibliographic search was performed on the Medline and ISI databases and included studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. The search terms were tuberculosis, American Indians, Amerindian, indigenous, Indians, native people, aboriginal, immun*, host immune, immune response, cytokine*, polymorphism*, and gene. Regardless of their design, studies that evaluated immunoglobulin, cytokine levels and genetic polymorphisms that altered cytokine expression were included. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were performed in Latin America, and five investigated the Warao ethnic group of Venezuela. Most of the investigations indirectly evaluated the immune response. Higher anergy to the tuberculin skin test, higher IgG4 and IgM levels, higher IL-5 production and lower TNF-a, IL-12p40 and IFN-I production were found in the indigenous populations. The studies also reported a predominantly Th2-type response in these populations and a possibly higher susceptibility to tuberculosis. A better understanding of the relevant genetic polymorphisms and their role in immune regulation would help to clarify the immunogenetic mechanisms of TB infection in these populations. This information would be useful for identifying new treatments and preventing infection and progression to active disease.

  14. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollis C. Karoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812 were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969 were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max. The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions.

  15. [The moral values of Malthus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilquin, E

    1998-01-01

    "More than his other writing, Malthus' first essay 'Essay on the Principle of Population' is a militant text, its arguments based more strongly on moral positions than scientific data.... In Malthusian demographic theory, 'vice' and 'moral constraint', factors in human behaviour, play a fundamental role that is indissociable from their moral significance. With his primary concern to preserve human freedom, but torn between his tendency toward idealism and his demand for realism, Malthus developed a pragmatic morality, a morality of the lesser evil, today described as 'Malthusian pessimism'." (EXCERPT)

  16. Socrates, discussion and moral education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Ron B.

    1995-01-01

    For Socrates, as he appears in Plato's dialogues, the process of discussion is essential for preparing human beings to lead a moral life. Only through discussion, Socrates maintains, can we be led to an understanding of such concepts as wisdom, courage and justice. The author of this article believes that the Socratic notion of the moral value of discussion is still valid. In support of this view, he examines two recent works: Dialogues on Moral Education by John Wilson and Barbara Cowell, and Moral Education, Secular and Religious by John L. Elias. Finally, the author suggests how the Socratic concept of dialogue might be used in moral education today.

  17. Law and Morals. Prolegomena (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae V. DURĂ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the pages of this study we have emphasized the relation between Law and Morals, between what is just and in just, talking thus not only about the nature of the Law and of the Morals, but also about the relation between the juridical norms and the moral principles. An evaluation of the historical process of the emergence of Law and Morals – be it brief – has enabled us to notice that the Law has evolved step by step from the Moral norms and from the customs of a moral nature, hence the conclusion that the positive juridical norms should also express, in their content, values of a moral nature. In fact, from an ontological point of view, between Law and Morals could not be a divorce, since the notions of “righteousness” and of “justice” themselves are categories of Morals. That is why the theory of juridical positivism, according to which the rule of Law can exist in the absence of Morals since the state is the only source of Law, has no credibility both from a historical and philosophical and from a juridical point of view. Finally, the increasingly higher interest of the philosophers and jurists of our time to perceive and express the content of the nature of Law adequately and, ipso facto, the relation between this one and Morals, was also determined by the international and European legislation regarding the human fundamental rights and liberties.

  18. Structural flexibility of moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, D L; Denton, K L; Vermeulen, S C; Carpendale, J I; Bush, A

    1991-12-01

    One of the central assumptions of Kohlberg's theory of moral development--that moral judgment is organized in structures of the whole--was examined. Thirty men and 30 women were given 2 dilemmas from Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview, a 3rd involving prosocial behavior, and a 4th involving impaired driving. Half the Ss responded to the prosocial and impaired-driving dilemmas from the perspective of a hypothetical character, and half responded from the perspective of the self. No sex or perspective differences in moral maturity were observed. Ss scored highest in moral maturity on Kohlberg's dilemmas, intermediate on the prosocial dilemma, and lowest on the impaired-driving dilemma. In partial support of Kohlberg's contention that his test assesses moral competence, there was a negative linear relationship between scores on his test and the proportion of Stage 2 judgments on the 2 other dilemmas. An interactional model of moral judgment is advanced.

  19. The erosion of moral education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses two closely related themes: first, the lack of provision of moral education; second, the loss of moral direction in society. The author argues that a proper moral education is one that provides an adequate understanding of the "moral sphere", just as the study of mathematics involves acquiring a grasp of mathematical thinking. While moral norms appear to differ from one culture to another, the author contends that there is a basic commonality at the level of essential moral principles. The paper concludes by arguing against any system where rights — particularly those of "any loosely definable minority" — restrict the freedom of others. The author laments that "justice" has become limited to a political definition of what is just. Thus politics has replaced morality as the arbiter of our behaviour.

  20. Design of artificial genetic regulatory networks with multiple delayed adaptive responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Inoue, Masayo

    2016-06-01

    Genetic regulatory networks with adaptive responses are widely studied in biology. Usually, models consisting only of a few nodes have been considered. They present one input receptor for activation and one output node where the adaptive response is computed. In this work, we design genetic regulatory networks with many receptors and many output nodes able to produce delayed adaptive responses. This design is performed by using an evolutionary algorithm of mutations and selections that minimizes an error function defined by the adaptive response in signal shapes. We present several examples of network constructions with a predefined required set of adaptive delayed responses. We show that an output node can have different kinds of responses as a function of the activated receptor. Additionally, complex network structures are presented since processing nodes can be involved in several input-output pathways. Supplementary material in the form of one nets file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70172-9