WorldWideScience

Sample records for genetic relationships deduced

  1. Inter-relationships of haplosporidians deduced from ultrastructural studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hine, P.M.; Carnegie, R.B.; Burreson, E.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed papers reporting haplosporidian ultrastructure to compare inter-relationships based on ultrastructure with those based on molecular data, to identify features that may be important in haplosporidian taxonomy, and to consider parasite taxonomy in relation to host taxonomy. There were

  2. Phylogenetic relationships between Sarcocystis species from reindeer and other Sarcocystidae deduced from ssu rRNA gene sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, S.S.; Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Gjerde, B.

    2008-01-01

    any effect on previously inferred phylogenetic relationships within the Sarcocystidae. The complete small subunit (ssu) rRNA gene sequences of all six Sarcocystis species from reindeer were used in the phylogenetic analyses along with ssu rRNA gene sequences of 85 other members of the Coccidea. Trees...... the six species in phylogenetic analyses of the Sarcocystidae, and also to investigate the phylogenetic relationships between the species from reindeer and those from other hosts. The study also aimed at revealing whether the inclusion of six Sarcocystis species from the same intermediate host would have....... tarandivulpes, formed a sister group to other Sarcocystis species with a canine definitive host. The position of S. hardangeri on the tree suggested that it uses another type of definitive host than the other Sarcocystis species in this clade. Considering the geographical distribution and infection intensity...

  3. Genetic variations and evolutionary relationships among radishes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vera 1

    To determine the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among red radishes, 37 accessions ... determined that plant height, fresh leaf weight, and root ... Flower-shaped. Red .... according to Levan's karyotype classification standards.

  4. Molecular diversity and genetic relationships in Secale

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular diversity and genetic relationships in Secale. E. Santos, M. Matos, P. Silva, A. M. Figueiras, C. Benito and O. Pinto-Carnide. J. Genet. 95, 273–281. Table 1. RAPD and ISSR primers used in this study. Primer. 5 –3. Primer. 5 –3. RAPDs (Operon). A1. CAGGCCCTTC. C5. CATGACCGCC. A4. AATCGGGCTG. C6.

  5. Genetic variations and evolutionary relationships among radishes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among red radishes, 37 accessions with different flesh colors were analyzed in terms of the red pigment content, karyotypes, and simple sequence repeat markers. Red pigment content of red radish was 3.4 to 28.8% with an average of 15.62%. The karyotype ...

  6. Molecular diversity and genetic relationships in Secale

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The objective of this study was to quantify the molecular diversity and to determine the genetic relationships amongSecalespp. and among cultivars ofSecale ... Faculty of Sciences, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de Genética, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense, C/ José Antonio Novais, 12, ...

  7. Multi-population Genomic Relationships for Estimating Current Genetic Variances Within and Genetic Correlations Between Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjes, Yvonne C J; Bijma, Piter; Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L

    2017-10-01

    Different methods are available to calculate multi-population genomic relationship matrices. Since those matrices differ in base population, it is anticipated that the method used to calculate genomic relationships affects the estimate of genetic variances, covariances, and correlations. The aim of this article is to define the multi-population genomic relationship matrix to estimate current genetic variances within and genetic correlations between populations. The genomic relationship matrix containing two populations consists of four blocks, one block for population 1, one block for population 2, and two blocks for relationships between the populations. It is known, based on literature, that by using current allele frequencies to calculate genomic relationships within a population, current genetic variances are estimated. In this article, we theoretically derived the properties of the genomic relationship matrix to estimate genetic correlations between populations and validated it using simulations. When the scaling factor of across-population genomic relationships is equal to the product of the square roots of the scaling factors for within-population genomic relationships, the genetic correlation is estimated unbiasedly even though estimated genetic variances do not necessarily refer to the current population. When this property is not met, the correlation based on estimated variances should be multiplied by a correction factor based on the scaling factors. In this study, we present a genomic relationship matrix which directly estimates current genetic variances as well as genetic correlations between populations. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Comparing estimates of genetic variance across different relationship models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarra, Andres

    2016-02-01

    Use of relationships between individuals to estimate genetic variances and heritabilities via mixed models is standard practice in human, plant and livestock genetics. Different models or information for relationships may give different estimates of genetic variances. However, comparing these estimates across different relationship models is not straightforward as the implied base populations differ between relationship models. In this work, I present a method to compare estimates of variance components across different relationship models. I suggest referring genetic variances obtained using different relationship models to the same reference population, usually a set of individuals in the population. Expected genetic variance of this population is the estimated variance component from the mixed model times a statistic, Dk, which is the average self-relationship minus the average (self- and across-) relationship. For most typical models of relationships, Dk is close to 1. However, this is not true for very deep pedigrees, for identity-by-state relationships, or for non-parametric kernels, which tend to overestimate the genetic variance and the heritability. Using mice data, I show that heritabilities from identity-by-state and kernel-based relationships are overestimated. Weighting these estimates by Dk scales them to a base comparable to genomic or pedigree relationships, avoiding wrong comparisons, for instance, "missing heritabilities". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross species amplification ability of novel microsatellites isolated from Jatropha curcas and genetic relationship with sister taxa : Cross species amplification and genetic relationship of Jatropha using novel microsatellites

    KAUST Repository

    Pamidimarri, D. V N N Sudheer

    2010-07-30

    The present investigation was undertaken with an aim to check the ability of cross species amplification of microsatellite markers isolated from Jatropha curcas-a renewable source of biodiesel to deduce the generic relationship with its six sister taxa (J. glandulifera, J. gossypifolia, J. integerrima, J. multifida, J. podagrica, and J. tanjorensis). Out of the 49 markers checked 31 markers showed cross species amplification in all the species studied. JCDS-30, JCDS-69, JCDS-26, JCMS-13 and JCMS-21 amplified in J. curcas. However, these markers did not show any cross species amplification. Overall percentage of polymorphism (PP) among the species studied was 38% and the mean genetic similarity (GS) was found to be 0.86. The highest PP (24) and least GS (0.76) was found between J. curcas/J. podagrica and J. curcas/J. multifida and least PP (4.44) and highest GS (0.96) was found between J. integerrima/J. tanjorensis. Dendrogram analysis showed good congruence to RAPD and AFLP than nrDNA ITS data reported earlier. The characterized microsatellites will pave way for intraspecies molecular characterization which can be further utilized in species differentiation, molecular identification, characterization of interspecific hybrids, exploitation of genetic resource management and genetic improvement of the species through marker assisted breeding for economically important traits. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Genetic diversity and relationships among cabbage ( Brassica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integration of our data with historical documents confirmed that traditional cabbage landraces cultivated in North of China were first introduced from Russia. Key words: Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), genetic diversity, cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), landraces, population structure.

  11. Perceived genetic knowledge, attitudes towards genetic testing, and the relationship between these among patients with a chronic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Rijken, M.; Baanders, A.N.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Genetics increasingly permeate everyday medicine. When patients want to make informed decisions about genetic testing, they require genetic knowledge. This study examined the genetic knowledge and attitudes of patients with chronic diseases, and the relationship between both. In addition,

  12. Perceived genetic knowledge, attitudes toward genetic testing, and the relationship between these among patients with a chronic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Rijken, M.; Baanders, A.N.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetics increasingly permeate everyday medicine. When patients want to make informed decisions about genetic testing, they require genetic knowledge. This study examined the genetic knowledge and attitudes of patients with chronic diseases, and the relationship between both. In addition,

  13. Genetic parameters and relationships of faecal worm egg count with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-07-09

    Jul 9, 2014 ... Genetic parameter estimates for FEC and its relationship with wool traits were assessed in ...... (Table 4). Studies in Australian Merinos yielded a lower rg estimate of −0.20 where regression analysis was ..... Stochastic model.

  14. Genetic relationships among West African okra ( Abelmoschus caillei )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abelmoschus caillei) and 43 Asian genotypes (A. esculentus) were assessed for genetic distinctiveness and relationships using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The molecular analysis showed that all the thirteen primers used ...

  15. Phylogenetic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona of horses and opossums to other cyst-forming coccidia deduced from SSU rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M; Lacher, David W; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the nuclear-encoded small subunit rRNA (ssurRNA) gene were performed to examine the origin, phylogeny, and biogeographic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona isolates from opossums and horses from the State of Michigan, USA, in relation to other cyst-forming coccidia. A total of 31 taxa representing all recognized subfamilies and genera of Sarcocystidae were included in the analyses with clonal isolates of two opossum and two horse S. neurona. Phylogenies obtained by the four tree-building methods were consistent with the classical taxonomy based on morphological criteria. The "isosporid" coccidia Neospora, Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, Isospora lacking stieda bodies, and Hyaloklossia formed a sister group to the Sarcocystis spp. Sarcocystis species were divided into three main lineages; S. neurona isolates were located in the second lineage and clustered with S. mucosa, S. dispersa, S. lacertae, S. rodentifelis, S. muris, and Frenkelia spp. Alignment of S. neurona SSU rRNA gene sequences of Michigan opossum isolates (MIOP5, MIOP20) and a S. neurona Michigan horse isolate (MIH8) showed 100% identity. These Michigan isolates differed in 2/1085 bp (0.2%) from a Kentucky S. neurona horse isolate (SN5). Additionally, S. neurona isolates from horses and opossums were identical based on the ultrastructural features and PCR-RFLP analyses thus forming a phylogenetically indistinct group in these regions. These findings revealed the concordance between the morphological and molecular data and confirmed that S. neurona from opossums and horses originated from the same phylogenetic origin.

  16. Variety identification and genetic relationships of mungbean and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... yielding potential of the varieties from lack of genetic variability, absence of .... study the genetic relationships among these genotypes and (iii) to generate ...... from Chile based on RAPD and morphological data. Crop Sci. 37: 605-613. .... 20 January 2000, pp 6-12 (in Thai, with English abstract). Prevost A ...

  17. Simulating pattern-process relationships to validate landscape genetic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. J. Shirk; S. A. Cushman; E. L. Landguth

    2012-01-01

    Landscapes may resist gene flow and thereby give rise to a pattern of genetic isolation within a population. The mechanism by which a landscape resists gene flow can be inferred by evaluating the relationship between landscape models and an observed pattern of genetic isolation. This approach risks false inferences because researchers can never feasibly test all...

  18. Genetic relationships and diversity of Jatropha curcas accessions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has been undertaken to assess the extent of genetic diversity in a representative set of 16 accessions of Jatropha curcas. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to establish the genetic relationship among the accessions. From the eight ISSR primers used, the number of amplicons per primers ...

  19. Genetic relationships among buckwheat (Fagopyrum) species from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-12-08

    Dec 8, 2014 ... from southwest China based on chloroplast and nuclear. SSR markers ..... A similarity matrix was calculated separately based on. cpSSR and nSSR ... The research was supported by International Cooperation Projects from Science and ... 2003 Genetic structure and reproduction dynamics of Salix reinii.

  20. Genetic relationship among Musa genotypes revealed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... A banana germplasm was established containing 44 Musa genotypes collected from various locations in Malaysia. To detect their genetic variation and to rule out duplicates among cultivar, microsatellite markers were used in their analysis. The microsatellite profiles of 44 Musa genotypes of various origins.

  1. Delineating genetic relationships among the Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Rivera, Lisa; Mirabal, Sheyla; Regueiro, Manuela M; Herrera, Rene J

    2008-03-01

    By 250 AD, the Classic Maya had become the most advanced civilization within the New World, possessing the only well-developed hieroglyphic writing system of the time and an advanced knowledge of mathematics, astronomy and architecture. Though only ruins of the empire remain, 7.5 million Mayan descendants still occupy areas of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras. Although they inhabit distant and distinct territories, speak more than 28 languages, and have been historically divided by warfare and a city-state-like political system, and they share characteristics such as rituals, artistic, architectural motifs that distinguish them as unequivocally Maya. This study was undertaken to determine whether these similarities among Mayan communities mirror genetic affinities or are merely a reflection of their common culture. Four Mayan populations were investigated (i.e., the K'iche and Kakchikel from Guatemala and the Campeche and Yucatan from Mexico) and compared with previously published populations across 15 autosomal STR loci. As a whole, the Maya emerge as a distinct group within Mesoamerica, indicating that they are more similar to each other than to other Mesoamerican groups. The data suggest that although geographic and political boundaries existed among Mayan communities, genetic exchanges between the different Mayan groups have occurred, supporting theories of extensive trading throughout the empire. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Genetic Relationships Between Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardno, Alastair G.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence for partial overlap of genetic influences on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, with family, twin, and adoption studies showing a genetic correlation between the disorders of around 0.6. Results of genome-wide association studies are consistent with commonly occurring genetic risk variants, contributing to both the shared and nonshared aspects, while studies of large, rare chromosomal structural variants, particularly copy number variants, show a stronger influence on schizophrenia than bipolar disorder to date. Schizoaffective disorder has been less investigated but shows substantial familial overlap with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A twin analysis is consistent with genetic influences on schizoaffective episodes being entirely shared with genetic influences on schizophrenic and manic episodes, while association studies suggest the possibility of some relatively specific genetic influences on broadly defined schizoaffective disorder, bipolar subtype. Further insights into genetic relationships between these disorders are expected as studies continue to increase in sample size and in technical and analytical sophistication, information on phenotypes beyond clinical diagnoses are increasingly incorporated, and approaches such as next-generation sequencing identify additional types of genetic risk variant. PMID:24567502

  3. Genetic relationships between three indigenous cattle breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and both the Bovine de Tete and the Angone breeds, whereas the smallest genetic distance was observed between the Bovine de Tete and the Angone. These results show the intermediate relationship of Bovine de Tete with the Angone and Landim breeds and show that the Bovine de Tete is an admixture of taurine and ...

  4. Genetic relationships among alfalfa gemplasms resistant to common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationships among 26 alfalfa cultivars, of which, 12 were of high resistance to common leaf spot (CLS), were assessed using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. 34 SRAP primer combinations were selected for fingerprinting of these cultivars and a total of 281 bands were observed, among ...

  5. Genetic parameters and relationships of faecal worm egg count with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The costs of internal parasite control and treatment are potentially very high in grazing sheep. Faecal worm egg count (FEC) has been suggested as a suitable criterion for selection for resistance to nematode infestation in livestock. Genetic parameter estimates for FEC and its relationship with wool traits were assessed in ...

  6. The Relationship Between Burnout and Occupational Stress in Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Brittney; Kaiser, Amy; Injeyan, Marie C; Sappleton, Karen; Chitayat, David; Stephens, Derek; Shuman, Cheryl

    2016-08-01

    Burnout represents a critical disruption in an individual's relationship with work, resulting in a state of exhaustion in which one's occupational value and capacity to perform are questioned. Burnout can negatively affect an individual's personal life, as well as employers in terms of decreased work quality, patient/client satisfaction, and employee retention. Occupational stress is a known contributor to burnout and occurs as a result of employment requirements and factors intrinsic to the work environment. Empirical research examining genetic counselor-specific burnout is limited; however, existing data suggests that genetic counselors are at increased risk for burnout. To investigate the relationship between occupational stress and burnout in genetic counselors, we administered an online survey to members of three genetic counselor professional organizations. Validated measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (an instrument measuring burnout on three subscales: exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) and the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised (an instrument measuring occupational stress on 14 subscales). Of the 353 respondents, more than 40 % had either considered leaving or left their job role due to burnout. Multiple regression analysis yielded significant predictors for burnout risk. The identified sets of predictors account for approximately 59 % of the variance in exhaustion, 58 % of the variance in cynicism, and 43 % of the variance in professional efficacy. Our data confirm that a significant number of genetic counselors experience burnout and that burnout is correlated with specific aspects of occupational stress. Based on these findings, practice and research recommendations are presented.

  7. Genetic relationships among Arachis species based on AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenes Marcos A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP was used to establish the genetic relationships among 20 species from seven of the nine sections of genus Arachis. The level of polymorphism among nine accessions of the cultivated peanut, A. hypogaea L., was also evaluated. Three combinations of primers were used to amplify the AFLPs. The fragments were separated in 6% denaturing acrylamide gels. A total of 408 fragments were analyzed. An average of 135.3 fragments per primer combination were scored, and the largest number of fragments was 169 using primer combination Eco RI - ACC / Mse I - CTG, while the lowest was 108, with Eco RI - ACT / Mse I - CTT. In general, the genetic relationships established using AFLPs agreed with the classification established using morphology and crossability data. The results indicated that AFLPs are good markers for establishing the relationships among Arachis species. The polymorphism detected in A. hypogaea by this method was higher than the one found with other markers, like RAPDs and RFLPs. However, our data suggest that the polymorphism detected be using AFLP with only three primer combinations is still too low to be used for any kind of genetic study in this species.

  8. Genetic counselors’ implicit racial attitudes and their relationship to communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaa, Kendra L; Roter, Debra L; Biesecker, Barbara B; Cooper, Lisa A; Erby, Lori H

    2015-01-01

    Objective Implicit racial attitudes are thought to shape interpersonal interactions and may contribute to health care disparities. This study explored the relationship between genetic counselors’ implicit racial attitudes and their communication during simulated genetic counseling sessions. Methods A nationally representative sample of genetic counselors completed a web-based survey that included the Race Implicit Association Test (IAT). A subset of these counselors (n=67) had participated in an earlier study in which they were video recorded counseling Black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White simulated clients (SC) about their prenatal or cancer risks. The counselors’ IAT scores were related to their session communication through robust regression modeling. Results Genetic counselors showed a moderate to strong pro-White bias on the Race IAT (M=0.41, SD=0.35). Counselors with stronger pro-White bias were rated as displaying lower levels of positive affect (pcommunication (pcommunication in minority client sessions and may contribute to racial disparities in processes of care related to genetic services. PMID:25622081

  9. The genetic architecture of leaf number and its genetic relationship to flowering time in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xufeng; Zhang, Xiangbo; Chen, Qiuyue; Xu, Guanghui; Xu, Dingyi; Wang, Chenglong; Liang, Yameng; Wu, Lishuan; Huang, Cheng; Tian, Jinge; Wu, Yaoyao; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    The number of leaves and their distributions on plants are critical factors determining plant architecture in maize (Zea mays), and leaf number is frequently used as a measure of flowering time, a trait that is key to local environmental adaptation. Here, using a large set of 866 maize-teosinte BC2 S3 recombinant inbred lines genotyped by using 19,838 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we conducted a comprehensive genetic dissection to assess the genetic architecture of leaf number and its genetic relationship to flowering time. We demonstrated that the two components of total leaf number, the number of leaves above (LA) and below (LB) the primary ear, were under relatively independent genetic control and might be subject to differential directional selection during maize domestication and improvement. Furthermore, we revealed that flowering time and leaf number are commonly regulated at a moderate level. The pleiotropy of the genes ZCN8, dlf1 and ZmCCT on leaf number and flowering time were validated by near-isogenic line analysis. Through fine mapping, qLA1-1, a major-effect locus that specifically affects LA, was delimited to a region with severe recombination suppression derived from teosinte. This study provides important insights into the genetic basis of traits affecting plant architecture and adaptation. The genetic independence of LA from LB enables the optimization of leaf number for ideal plant architecture breeding in maize. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Genetic relationships among strains of the Aspergillus niger aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferracin, L.M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taniwaki, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic relationships between 51 fungal isolates previously identified as A. niger aggregate, obtained from dried fruit samples from worldwide origin and 7 A. tubingensis obtained from Brazilian coffee beans samples. Greater fungal diversity was found in black sultanas. Aspergillus...... niger sensu stricto was the most prevalent species. It was found in all fruit substrates of all geographical origins. Based on Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and beta-tubulin sequences data two groups of A. niger were found. In spite of the small number of isolates from Group IV...

  11. Assessment of the genetic diversity and pattern of relationship of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An understanding of the extent, distribution and patterns of genetic variation is useful for estimation of any possible loss of genetic diversity and assessment of genetic variability and its potential use in breeding programs, including establishment of heterotic groups. This study assessed patterns of genetic diversity and ...

  12. Analysis of genetic structure and relationship among nine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These results indicated that the clustering analysis using the Structure program might provide an ..... of the current genetic relations among the breeds, and con- tribute to ... sis of the genetic structure of the Canary goat populations using.

  13. Analysis of genetic relationships of mulberry (Morus L.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Analysis of genetic ... Key words: Mulberry, molecular marker, genetic diversity, SRAP. ... Europe, North and South America, and Africa, and it is cultivated ... Xingjiang autonomous region, China.

  14. Genetics of host-parasite relationships and the stability of resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eenink, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Between host and parasite there is an intimate relationship controlled by matching gene systems. Stability of resistance is determined by the genetics of this relationship and not by the genetics of resistance. Both monogenic and polygenic resistances can be stable or unstable. Research on the backgrounds of stable resistances is of great importance. (author)

  15. Relationship among the repair mechanisms and the genetic recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara D, D.

    1987-12-01

    In accordance with the previous reports of the Project BZ87 of the Department of Radiobiology, a dependent stimulation of the system exists in E.coli SOS, of the recombination of the bacteriophage Lambda whose genetic material has not been damaged. This stimulation is not due to the increase of the cellular concentration of the protein RecA and the mechanism but probable for which we find that it is carried out, it is through a cooperation among the product of the gene rec N of E. coli and the system Net of recombination of Lambda. The gene recN belongs to the group of genes SOS and its expression is induced when damaging the bacterial DNA where it intervenes in the repair of breaks of the double helix of the molecule (Picksley et, 1984). If the repair of breaks of this type is a factor that limits the speed with which it happens the recombination among viral chromosomes, then the biggest readiness in the protein RecN, due to the induction of the functions SOS, would facilitate the repair of such ruptures. In this new project it is to enlarge the knowledge about this phenomenon, it was, on one hand of corroborating in a way but he/she specifies the relationship between the recombinogenic response of Lambda and the System SOS of E. coli and for the other one to determine the effect that has the inhibition of the duplication of the DNA on the stimulation of the viral recombination. Everything it with the idea of making it but evident and to be able to use it as a system of genotoxic agents detection in E. coli. (Author)

  16. Relationship between genetic similarity and some productive traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was applied to detect genetic similarity between five local chicken strains that have been selected for eggs and meat production in Egypt. Based on six oligonucleotide primers, the genetic similarity between the egg-producing strains (Anshas, Silver. Montazah and ...

  17. Genetic relationships between calving interval and linear type traits in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic correlations between first calving interval (CI) and linear type traits in South African Holstein and Jersey cattle were estimated to assess the possibility of using type information as selection criteria for CI. All linear type traits routinely evaluated under the National Genetic Evaluation Programme (18 for Jersey and 17 ...

  18. Phenotypic and genetic relationship of Acinetobacter Baumannii isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovska-Dokic, E; Kotevska, V; Kaftandzieva, A; Jankoska, G; Mircevska, G; Petrovska, M; Panovski, N

    2011-01-01

    The interest in Acinetobacter continues to rise. One of the main reasons is the emergence of multi-resistant strains, which cause outbreaks of infection involving several patients in a ward, in the intensive care unit and in different areas of the hospital. Many outbreaks of its infection or colonization in surgical, neonatal and burn intensive care units have been reported, but the epidemiology of these infections remains unclear. To investigate the relationship among the isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii, comparing some of their phenotypic and genetic features. A total of 20 Acinetobacter baumanni isolates were included in the study. 12 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii were obtained within a week in July 2010, from neonates hospitalized at the paediatric intensive care unit and on the neonatal ward. Three strains were isolated from neonates at the paediatric intensive care unit three months ago. All the Acinetobacter baumannii strains were isolated from tracheal aspirates obtained from neonates with infection of the lower respiratory tract. Five additional Acinetobacter baumannii strains were included in the study as controls. They were isolated from wound swabs taken from adult patients with wound infection, hospitalized at the University Traumatology Clinic. Susceptibility of the bacterial strains to 13 different antimicrobial agents was determined by the disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer). Additional testing of the susceptibility was performed by the VITEK 2 system. RAPD-PCR fingerprinting was carried out using the following primer (5' GAAACAGCTATGACCATG -3'). All A. baumannii isolates were multi-drug resistant. Antibiotic susceptibility-testing by the disk-diffusion method and automated VITEK 2 system showed 3 and 2 antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, respectively. RAPD-PCR assay of A. baumannii strains revealed two different RAPD-fingerprints. All the strains of A. baumannii isolated within a week in July 2010 from tracheal aspirates taken from

  19. Exploring Relationships Among Belief in Genetic Determinism, Genetics Knowledge, and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas; Carver, Rebecca; Castéra, Jérémy; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; Marre, Claire Coiffard; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-12-01

    Genetic determinism can be described as the attribution of the formation of traits to genes, where genes are ascribed more causal power than what scientific consensus suggests. Belief in genetic determinism is an educational problem because it contradicts scientific knowledge, and is a societal problem because it has the potential to foster intolerant attitudes such as racism and prejudice against sexual orientation. In this article, we begin by investigating the very nature of belief in genetic determinism. Then, we investigate whether knowledge of genetics and genomics is associated with beliefs in genetic determinism. Finally, we explore the extent to which social factors such as gender, education, and religiosity are associated with genetic determinism. Methodologically, we gathered and analyzed data on beliefs in genetic determinism, knowledge of genetics and genomics, and social variables using the "Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics" (PUGGS) instrument. Our analyses of PUGGS responses from a sample of Brazilian university freshmen undergraduates indicated that (1) belief in genetic determinism was best characterized as a construct built up by two dimensions or belief systems: beliefs concerning social traits and beliefs concerning biological traits; (2) levels of belief in genetic determination of social traits were low, which contradicts prior work; (3) associations between knowledge of genetics and genomics and levels of belief in genetic determinism were low; and (4) social factors such as age and religiosity had stronger associations with beliefs in genetic determinism than knowledge. Although our study design precludes causal inferences, our results raise questions about whether enhancing genetic literacy will decrease or prevent beliefs in genetic determinism.

  20. Assessment of the genetic diversity and pattern of relationship of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... Cluster and principal coordinate analysis of the 30 ... The FST value (0.63) indicated a very high genetic differentiation as expected for ..... diversity) using Markov chain method showed that the ..... WL, Lee M, Porter K (2000).

  1. Social Relationships Moderate Genetic Influences on Heavy Drinking in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Peter B; Salvatore, Jessica E; Maes, Hermine H; Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Aliev, Fazil; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M

    2017-11-01

    Social relationships, such as committed partnerships, limit risky behaviors like heavy drinking, in part, because of increased social control. The current analyses examine whether involvement in committed relationships or social support extend beyond a main effect to limit genetic liability in heavy drinking (gene-environment interaction) during young adulthood. Using data from the young adult wave of the Finnish Twin Study, FinnTwin12 (n = 3,269), we tested whether involvement in romantic partnerships or social support moderated genetic influences on heavy drinking using biometric twin modeling for gene-environment interaction. Involvement in a romantic partnership was associated with a decline in genetic variance in both males and females, although the overall magnitude of genetic influence was greater in males. Sex differences emerged for social support: increased social support was associated with increased genetic influence for females and reduced genetic influence for males. These findings demonstrate that social relationships are important moderators of genetic influences on young adult alcohol use. Mechanisms of social control that are important in limiting genetic liability during adolescence extend into young adulthood. In addition, although some relationships limit genetic liability equally, others, such as extensive social networks, may operate differently across sex.

  2. Genetic diversity and relationships of Vietnamese and European pig breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, N T.D. [Department of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Institute of Biotechnology (IBT), National Center for Natural Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Melchinger, E; Kuss, A W; Peischl, T; Bartenschlager, H; Geldermann, H [Department of Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Cuong, N V [Institute of Biotechnology (IBT), National Center for Natural Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2005-07-01

    Indigenous resources of the Asian pig population are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. In this study, five indigenous pig breeds from Viet Nam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Viet Nam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar were chosen for evaluation and comparison of genetic diversity. Samples and data from 317 animals were collected and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected according to the recommendations of the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS; http://www.fao.org/dad-is/). Effective number of alleles, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), within-breed diversity, estimated heterozygosities and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were determined. Breed differentiation was evaluated using the fixation indices of Wright (1951). Genetic distances between breeds were estimated according to Nei (1972) and used for the construction of UPGMA dendrograms which were evaluated by bootstrapping. Heterozygosity was higher in indigenous Vietnamese breeds than in the other breeds. The Vietnamese indigenous breeds also showed higher genetic diversity than the European breeds and all genetic distances had a strong bootstrap support. The European commercial breeds, in contrast, were closely related and bootstrapping values for genetic distances among them were below 60%. European Wild Boar displayed closer relation with commercial breeds of European origin than with the native breeds from Viet Nam. This study is one of the first to contribute to a genetic characterization of autochthonous Vietnamese pig breeds and it clearly demonstrates that these breeds harbour a rich reservoir of genetic diversity. (author)

  3. Genetic diversity and relationships of Vietnamese and European pig breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy, N.T.D.; Melchinger, E.; Kuss, A.W.; Peischl, T.; Bartenschlager, H.; Geldermann, H.; Cuong, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    Indigenous resources of the Asian pig population are less defined and only rarely compared with European breeds. In this study, five indigenous pig breeds from Viet Nam (Mong Cai, Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na), two exotic breeds kept in Viet Nam (Large White, Landrace), three European commercial breeds (Pietrain, Landrace, Large White), and European Wild Boar were chosen for evaluation and comparison of genetic diversity. Samples and data from 317 animals were collected and ten polymorphic microsatellite loci were selected according to the recommendations of the FAO Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS; http://www.fao.org/dad-is/). Effective number of alleles, Polymorphism Information Content (PIC), within-breed diversity, estimated heterozygosities and tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were determined. Breed differentiation was evaluated using the fixation indices of Wright (1951). Genetic distances between breeds were estimated according to Nei (1972) and used for the construction of UPGMA dendrograms which were evaluated by bootstrapping. Heterozygosity was higher in indigenous Vietnamese breeds than in the other breeds. The Vietnamese indigenous breeds also showed higher genetic diversity than the European breeds and all genetic distances had a strong bootstrap support. The European commercial breeds, in contrast, were closely related and bootstrapping values for genetic distances among them were below 60%. European Wild Boar displayed closer relation with commercial breeds of European origin than with the native breeds from Viet Nam. This study is one of the first to contribute to a genetic characterization of autochthonous Vietnamese pig breeds and it clearly demonstrates that these breeds harbour a rich reservoir of genetic diversity. (author)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF AQUATIC MODELS FOR TESTING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION EXTINCTION RISK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between population adaptive potential and extinction risk in a changing environment is not well understood. Although the expectation is that genetic diversity is directly related to the capacity of populations to adapt, the statistical and predictive aspects of ...

  5. Analysis of genetic relationships of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) landraces from Zimbabwe, using microsatellites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakauya, E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available and indigenous farmer given names. Analysis was done by PAGE stained with ethidium bromide. Simple matching coefficients were compared and the genetic relationships between genotypes were clarified on dendrograms by unweighted pair-group averages (UPGMA). Two...

  6. Nutrients, technological properties and genetic relationships among twenty cowpea landraces cultivated in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.E.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Vosman, B.J.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van T.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic relationships among twenty phenotypically different cowpea landraces were unravelled regarding their suitability for preparing West African dishes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism classified unpigmented landraces (UPs) as highly similar (65%, one cluster), contrary to pigmented

  7. Is there a positive relationship between naturalness and genetic diversity in forest tree communities?

    OpenAIRE

    Wehenkel, C.; Corral-Rivas, J. J.; Castellanos-Bocaz, H. A.; Pinedo-Alvarez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of genetic diversity and naturalness are well known as measures of conservation values and as descriptors of state or condition. A lack of research evaluating the relationship between genetic diversity and naturalness in biological communities, along with the possible implications in terms of evolutionary aspects and conservation management, make this subject particularly important as regards forest tree communities.We therefore examined the following hypothesis: the genetic dive...

  8. Relationships among walleye population characteristics and genetic diversity in northern Wisconsin Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Matthew D.; Sloss, Brian L.; Isermann, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic integrity is an important goal of fisheries management, yet little is known regarding the effects of management actions (e.g., stocking, harvest regulations) on the genetic diversity of many important fish species. Furthermore, relationships between population characteristics and genetic diversity remain poorly understood. We examined relationships among population demographics (abundance, recruitment, sex ratio, and mean age of the breeding population), stocking intensity, and genetic characteristics (heterozygosity, effective number of alleles, allelic richness, Wright's inbreeding coefficient, effective population size [Ne], mean d2 [a measure of inbreeding], mean relatedness, and pairwise population ΦST estimates) for 15 populations of Walleye Sander vitreus in northern Wisconsin. We also tested for potential demographic and genetic influences on Walleye body condition and early growth. Combinations of demographic variables explained 47.1–79.8% of the variation in genetic diversity. Skewed sex ratios contributed to a reduction in Ne and subsequent increases in genetic drift and relatedness among individuals within populations; these factors were correlated to reductions in allelic richness and early growth rate. Levels of inbreeding were negatively related to both age-0 abundance and mean age, suggesting Ne was influenced by recruitment and generational overlap. A negative relationship between the effective number of alleles and body condition suggests stocking affected underlying genetic diversity of recipient populations and the overall productivity of the population. These relationships may result from poor performance of stocked fish, outbreeding depression, or density-dependent factors. An isolation-by-distance pattern of genetic diversity was apparent in nonstocked populations, but was disrupted in stocked populations, suggesting that stocking affected genetic structure. Overall, demographic factors were related to genetic

  9. Genetic Thinking in the Study of Social Relationships: Five Points of Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, David

    2010-09-01

    For nearly a generation, researchers studying human behavioral development have combined genetically informed research designs with careful measures of social relationships such as parenting, sibling relationships, peer relationships, marital processes, social class stratifications, and patterns of social engagement in the elderly. In what way have these genetically informed studies altered the construction and testing of social theories of human development? We consider five points of entry where genetic thinking is taking hold. First, genetic findings suggest an alternative scenario for explaining social data. Associations between measures of the social environment and human development may be due to genes that influence both. Second, genetic studies add to other prompts to study the early developmental origins of current social phenomena in midlife and beyond. Third, genetic analyses promise to shed light on understudied social systems, such as sibling relationships, that have an impact on human development independent of genotype. Fourth, genetic analyses anchor in neurobiology individual differences in resilience and sensitivity to both adverse and favorable social environments. Finally, genetic analyses increase the utility of laboratory simulations of human social processes and of animal models. © The Author(s) 2010.

  10. Using Genetic Buffering Relationships Identified in Fission Yeast To Elucidate the Molecular Pathology of Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    tsc1 and tsc2 loss of function mutations in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Northeast Regional Yeast Meeting, June 16-17, University at Buffalo, The State...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0169 TITLE: Using Genetic Buffering Relationships Identified in Fission Yeast To Elucidate the Molecular Pathology of...SUBTITLE Using Genetic Buffering Relationships Identified in Fission 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0169 Yeast to Elucidate the Molecular Pathology

  11. Genetic relationship between feed efficiency and profitability traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce the cost of feeding ... Feed costs represent approximately one-half the total cost of production for ... FCR and the energy required for growth and maintenance, assumed in the .... benefit to overall herd productivity has been questioned seriously (Archer et al., 1998).

  12. Analysis of genetic relationships of mulberry ( Morus L. ) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... bands and 6.9 bands per primer combination. Mean gene diversity and PIC were 0.1611 and 0.1353, respectively. The genetic similarity coefficient ranged from 0.6905 to 0.9524, with an average of 0.8330. The phylogenetic tree was obtained using the UPGMA method using the total number of amplified SRAP fragments.

  13. Genetic variability and relationship between MT-1 elephant grass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tein, 28 to 40 per cent in crude fiber, 10 to 16 per cent in ash, 0.9 ... and forage production in the alley cropping system of agro- ... Keywords. genetic diversity; cluster analysis; DNA markers; Shannon information index; Pennisetum purpureum.

  14. Genetic relationships among Rosa species based on random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the genetic diversity of Rosa accessions, random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) approach was employed. Nine of ten primers amplified 138 scorable RAPD loci with 111 polymorphic bands (80%). Percentages of polymorphic bands ranged from 75 to 100%. Sizes of amplified DNA fragments ranged ...

  15. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, we isolated 11 microsatellite DNA markers, and analysed the genetic diversity and differentiation between cultured stocks and wild populations of the giant grouper originating from the South China Sea. A total of 390 alleles at 11 microsatellite loci were detected in 130 individuals from five different ...

  16. Variety identification and genetic relationships of mungbean and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity and relatedness were measured in 17 mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) and 5 blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) genotypes by means of inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis and morphological characters. Unweighted pair-group method arithmetic average (UPGMA) analysis of 19 ...

  17. Exploring Relationships among Belief in Genetic Determinism, Genetics Knowledge, and Social Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas; Carver, Rebecca; Castéra, Jérémy; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; Marre, Claire Coiffard; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic determinism can be described as the attribution of the formation of traits to genes, where genes are ascribed more causal power than what scientific consensus suggests. Belief in genetic determinism is an educational problem because it contradicts scientific knowledge, and is a societal problem because it has the potential to foster…

  18. Inverse relationship between genetic diversity and epigenetic complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Huang

    2008-01-01

    Early studies of molecular evolution revealed a correlation between genetic distance and time of species divergence. This observation provoked the molecular clock hypothesis and in turn the ‘Neutral Theory’, which however remains an incomplete explanation since it predicts a constant mutation rate per generation whereas empirical evidence suggests a constant rate per year. Data inconsistent with the molecular clock hypothesis have steadily accumulated in recent years that show...

  19. Genetic relationship between the Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto cysts located in lung and liver of hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Cabaret, Jacques; M'rad, Selim; Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Mekki, Mongi; Zmantar, Sofien; Nouri, Abdellatif; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    G1 genotype of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto is the major cause of hydatidosis in Northern Africa, Tunisia included. The genetic relationship between lung and liver localization were studied in ovine, bovine and human hydatid cysts in Tunisia. Allozyme variation and single strand conformation polymorphism were used for genetic differentiation. The first cause of genetic differentiation was the host species and the second was the localization (lung or liver). The reticulated genetic relationship between the liver or the lung human isolates and isolates from bovine lung, is indicative of recombination (sexual reproduction) or lateral genetic transfer. The idea of two specialized populations (one for the lung one for the liver) that are more or less successful according to host susceptibility is thus proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Genetic relationship analysis of Ephedra intermedia from different habitat in Gansu by ISSR analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tian-Tian; Jin, Ling; Du, Tao; Cui, Zhi-Jia; Zhang, Xian-Fei; Wu, Di

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the genetic relationship of Ephedra intermedia from different habitats in Gansu. The genetic diversity and genetic relationship of E. intermedia from different habitats in Gansu were studied by ISSR molecular marker technique. Twelve ISSR primers were selected from 70 ISSR primers and used for ISSR amplification. Total 112 loci were amplified, in which 81 were polymorphic loci, the average percentage of polymorphie bands (PPB) was 72.32%. Clustering results indicated that the wild species and cultivating species were clustered into different group. The wild species, which had closer distance, were clustered into a group. E. intermedia of different habitats in Gansu have rich genetic diversities among species, it is the reason that E. intermedia has strong adaptability and wide distribution. Further, the genetic distance of E. intermedia is associated with geographical distance, the further distance can hinder the gene flow.

  1. Demography, genetic diversity, and population relationships among Argentinean Mapuche Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia S. Goicoechea

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Fertility, mortality and migration data from four Mapuche Indian communities located along a 215-km NE-SW linear area in the Province of Río Negro, Argentina, were collated with genetic information furnished by nine blood group systems and by mtDNA haplogroups. The demographic and genetic data indicated a clear dichotomy, which split the four populations into two groups of two. Differing degrees of non-Indian exchanges was probably the main determining factor for this separation. Total genetic variability was very similar in all groups, and the interpopulational variability accounted for only 10% of the total variability. A low prevalence of the Diego(a antigen among the Mapuche was confirmed. The fact that significant genetic heterogeneity and population clusters were found in such a small territorial region attests to the sensitivity of demographic and genetic approaches in unraveling human history.Dados relativos a fertilidade, mortalidade e migração de quatro comunidades de índios Mapuche localizadas em uma área linear na direção nordeste-sudoeste com 215 km de extensão na Província de Rio Negro, Argentina, foram associados com a informação genética fornecida por nove sistemas de grupos sangüíneos e os haplogrupos do DNA mitocondrial. Ambos os tipos de informação apontam claramente para uma dicotomia, as quatro populações sendo divididas em grupos de duas. O principal fator responsável por esta separação é provavelmente graus diferentes de mistura com não-índios. A variabilidade genética total foi muito similar em todos os grupos, aquela entre populações sendo de apenas 10% deste valor. Foi confirmada a baixa prevalência do antígeno Diego(a entre os Mapuche. O fato de que heterogeneidade genética significativa e conjuntos populacionais diversos foram observados em uma região territorial tão pequena demonstra a sensibilidade dos enfoques demográfico e genético no esclarecimento da história humana.

  2. Phenotypic, genetic, and environmental relationships between self-reported talents and measured intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Julie Aitken; Johnson, Andrew M; Jang, Kerry L; Vernon, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between self-report abilities and measured intelligence was examined at both the phenotypic (zero-order) level as well as at the genetic and environmental levels. Twins and siblings (N = 516) completed a timed intelligence test and a self-report ability questionnaire, which has previously been found to produce 10 factors, including: politics, interpersonal relationships, practical tasks, intellectual pursuits, academic skills, entrepreneur/business, domestic skills, vocal abilities, and creativity. At the phenotypic level, the correlations between the ability factor scores and intelligence ranged from 0.01 to 0.42 (between self-report academic abilities and verbal intelligence). Further analyses found that some of the phenotypic relationships between self-report ability scores and measured intelligence also had significant correlations at the genetic and environmental levels, suggesting that some of the observed relationships may be due to common genetic and/or environmental factors.

  3. Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwon Suh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Four Korean native cattle (KNC breeds—Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black—are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120 and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56. Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources.

  4. Smallpox virus plaque phenotypes: genetic, geographical and case fatality relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Victoria A; Karem, Kevin L; Smith, Scott K; Hughes, Christine M; Damon, Inger K

    2009-04-01

    Smallpox (infection with Orthopoxvirus variola) remains a feared illness more than 25 years after its eradication. Historically, case-fatality rates (CFRs) varied between outbreaks (<1 to approximately 40 %), the reasons for which are incompletely understood. The extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) form of orthopoxvirus progeny is hypothesized to disseminate infection. Investigations with the closely related Orthopoxvirus vaccinia have associated increased comet formation (EEV production) with increased mouse mortality (pathogenicity). Other vaccinia virus genetic manipulations which affect EEV production inconsistently support this association. However, antisera against vaccinia virus envelope protect mice from lethal challenge, further supporting a critical role for EEV in pathogenicity. Here, we show that the increased comet formation phenotypes of a diverse collection of variola viruses associate with strain phylogeny and geographical origin, but not with increased outbreak-related CFRs; within clades, there may be an association of plaque size with CFR. The mechanisms for variola virus pathogenicity probably involves multiple host and pathogen factors.

  5. Genetic diversity and relationship analysis of Gossypium arboreum accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Zhou, Z L; Wang, C Y; Wang, Y H; Cai, X Y; Wang, X X; Zhang, Z S; Wang, K B

    2015-11-19

    Simple sequence repeat techniques were used to identify the genetic diversity of 101 Gossypium arboreum accessions collected from India, Vietnam, and the southwest of China (Guizhou, Guangxi, and Yunnan provinces). Twenty-six pairs of SSR primers produced a total of 103 polymorphic loci with an average of 3.96 polymorphic loci per primer. The average of the effective number of alleles, Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon's information index were 0.59, 0.2835, and 0.4361, respectively. The diversity varied among different geographic regions. The result of principal component analysis was consistent with that of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering analysis. The 101 G. arboreum accessions were clustered into 2 groups.

  6. Assisted procreation and its relationship to genetics and eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Mariella Lombardi

    2009-01-01

    The article below is intended to reflect on whether or not a eugenic tendency constitutes an intrinsic element of human fertilization in vitro. The author outlines ideas and circumstances which characterized the foundation and propagation of eugenics between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A brief discussion follows on some of the standard procedures of in vitro fertilization, and in particular, those which manifest a trace or hint of eugenics--heterologous fertilization and sperm banking, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and embryo selection--practices which, nonetheless, are used on a large scale and shed light on both the essence of procreative medicine and on the current cultural environment. The objective of the article is to explore whether it is possible to eliminate the eugenic connotations without foregoing the benefits of technical and scientific progress.

  7. Relationship between genetic and environmental factors and hypercholesterolemia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Jorge A; Siccardi, Leonardo J

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric hypercholesterolemia has increased over the past decades. Knowing the environmental and genetic factors that have an impact on it would allow establishing more adequate screening guidelines. To determine if there is an association between genetic and environmental factors and hypercholesterolemia in children. To assess the predictive qualities of outcome measures associated with hypercholesterolemia. Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study. students from all schools located in Jovita. Age: > 6 and hypercholesterolemia. Three hundred and eighty-two students were included. Their mean cholesterol level was 168 mg/dL, and 13.4% had hypercholesterolemia. A sedentary lifestyle was observed in 22.8%, and obesity, in 10.5%. A positive FMH, a high/ middle SEL, and obesity were associated with hypercholesterolemia (OR: 2.10, 2.10 and 2.05, respectively). No association was found between physical activity and fat/cholesterol intake and hypercholesterolemia. A positive FMH and a high/middle SEL were sensitive enough (75% and 88%) to predict hypercholesterolemia. The presence of hypercholesterolemia inboth parents in relation to hypercholesterolemia in their child showed an OR of 9.59, a sensitivity of 73%, a specificity of 71%, a positive predictive value of 57%, and a negative predictive value of 83%. A positive FMH, a high/ middle SEL, and obesity were associated with hypercholesterolemia in children. The presence of hypercholesterolemia in both parents was associated with hypercholesterolemia in their child and showed itself to be a great potential predictor and screening criterion. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  8. Genetic diversity and relationship of Indian cattle inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rekha; Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, Manishi; Ahlawat, Sonika; Maitra, Avishek; Pandey, Ashwni Kumar; Tantia, Madhu Sudan

    2015-06-30

    Indian agriculture is an economic symbiosis of crop and livestock production with cattle as the foundation. Sadly, the population of indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) is declining (8.94% in last decade) and needs immediate scientific management. Genetic characterization is the first step in the development of proper management strategies for preserving genetic diversity and preventing undesirable loss of alleles. Thus, in this study we investigated genetic diversity and relationship among eleven Indian cattle breeds using 21 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial D loop sequence. The analysis of autosomal DNA was performed on 508 cattle which exhibited sufficient genetic diversity across all the breeds. Estimates of mean allele number and observed heterozygosity across all loci and population were 8.784 ± 0.25 and 0.653 ± 0.014, respectively. Differences among breeds accounted for 13.3% of total genetic variability. Despite high genetic diversity, significant inbreeding was also observed within eight populations. Genetic distances and cluster analysis showed a close relationship between breeds according to proximity in geographic distribution. The genetic distance, STRUCTURE and Principal Coordinate Analysis concluded that the Southern Indian Ongole cattle are the most distinct among the investigated cattle populations. Sequencing of hypervariable mitochondrial DNA region on a subset of 170 cattle revealed sixty haplotypes with haplotypic diversity of 0.90240, nucleotide diversity of 0.02688 and average number of nucleotide differences as 6.07407. Two major star clusters for haplotypes indicated population expansion for Indian cattle. Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes show a similar pattern of genetic variability and genetic differentiation. Various analyses concluded that the Southern breed 'Ongole' was distinct from breeds of Northern/ Central India. Overall these results provide basic information about genetic diversity and structure of Indian cattle which

  9. Characterization of four salsola species and their genetic relationship by aflp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amal, M.E.; Hamid, A.

    2016-01-01

    Amplified length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to characterize and detect molecular genetic markers for four Salsola species collected from Al Jouf region in the northern of Saudi Arabia and to shed light on their genetic relationships. Three primer combinations were used for AFLP analysis of the four Salsola species, they generated a total of 181 fragments of which 133 were species specific markers scored across Salsola species. The dendogram produced by Jaccard's coefficient and the UPGMA clustering method showed one main cluster, subdivided into two subclusters. The first sub cluster included Salsola schweinfurthii and Salsola tetrandra. The second sub cluster included Salsola villosa and Salsola cyclophylla. It is worth mentioning that this is the first study to use AFLP markers to characterize and detect molecular genetic markers for the four Salsola species and their genetic relationships. (author)

  10. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  11. Integrating Nonadditive Genomic Relationship Matrices into the Study of Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Alireza; Gezan, Salvador A

    2016-03-01

    The study of genetic architecture of complex traits has been dramatically influenced by implementing genome-wide analytical approaches during recent years. Of particular interest are genomic prediction strategies which make use of genomic information for predicting phenotypic responses instead of detecting trait-associated loci. In this work, we present the results of a simulation study to improve our understanding of the statistical properties of estimation of genetic variance components of complex traits, and of additive, dominance, and genetic effects through best linear unbiased prediction methodology. Simulated dense marker information was used to construct genomic additive and dominance matrices, and multiple alternative pedigree- and marker-based models were compared to determine if including a dominance term into the analysis may improve the genetic analysis of complex traits. Our results showed that a model containing a pedigree- or marker-based additive relationship matrix along with a pedigree-based dominance matrix provided the best partitioning of genetic variance into its components, especially when some degree of true dominance effects was expected to exist. Also, we noted that the use of a marker-based additive relationship matrix along with a pedigree-based dominance matrix had the best performance in terms of accuracy of correlations between true and estimated additive, dominance, and genetic effects. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. RAPD-SCAR marker and genetic relationship analysis of three Demodex species (Acari: Demodicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping

    2012-06-01

    For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been mainly based on their hosts and phenotype characteristics. The study was the first to conduct molecular identification and genetic relationship analysis for six isolates of three Demodex species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Totally, 239 DNA fragments were amplified from six Demodex isolates with 10 random primers in RAPD, of which 165 were polymorphic. Using a single primer, at least five fragments and at most 40 in the six isolates were amplified, whereas within a single isolate, a range of 35-49 fragments were amplified. DNA fingerprints of primers CZ 1-9 revealed intra- and interspecies difference in six Demodex isolates, whereas primer CZ 10 only revealed interspecies difference. The genetic distance and dendrogram showed the intraspecific genetic distances were closer than the interspecific genetic distances. The interspecific genetic distances of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex canis (0.7931-0.8140) were shorter than that of Demodex brevis and D. canis (0.8182-0.8987). The RAPD-SCAR marker displayed primer CZ 10 could be applied to identify the three Demodex species. The 479-bp fragment was specific for D. brevis, and the 261-bp fragment was specific for D. canis. The conclusion was that the RAPD-SCAR multi-marker was effective in molecular identification of three Demodex species. The genetic relationship between D. folliculorum and D. canis was nearer than that between D. folliculorum and D. brevis.

  13. CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  14. Investigating the genetic relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and cancer using GWAS summary statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Yen Chen Anne; Cho, Kelly; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Cormack, Jean; Blalock, Kendra; Campbell, Peter T.; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Figueiredo, Jane; James Gauderman, W.; Gong, Jian; Green, Roger C.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Harju, John F.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Jacobs, Eric J; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jiao, Shuo; Li, Li; Lin, Yi; Manion, Frank J.; Moreno, Victor; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Peters, Ulrike; Raskin, Leon; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Seminara, Daniela; Severi, Gianluca; Stenzel, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Hunter, David J.; Lindström, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Ahsan, Habib; Whittemore, Alice S.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckman, Lars; Crisponi, Laura; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Easton, Douglas F.; Turnbull, Clare A.; Rahman, Nazneen; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher; Schumacher, Fred; Travis, Ruth C.; Riboli, Elio; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Han, Younghun; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S.; Caporaso, Neil E; Landi, Maria Teresa; Heinrich, Joachim; Risch, Angela; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; Christiani, David C.; Amos, Christopher I; Liang, Liming; Driver, Jane A.; IGAP Consortium, Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study (CORECT); Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE)

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence from both epidemiology and basic science suggest an inverse association between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cancer. We examined the genetic relationship between AD and various cancer types using GWAS summary statistics from the IGAP and GAME-ON consortia. Sample size ranged from

  15. Bayesian methods for meta-analysis of causal relationships estimated using genetic instrumental variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Stephen; Thompson, Simon G; Thompson, Grahame

    2010-01-01

    Genetic markers can be used as instrumental variables, in an analogous way to randomization in a clinical trial, to estimate the causal relationship between a phenotype and an outcome variable. Our purpose is to extend the existing methods for such Mendelian randomization studies to the context o...

  16. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam A Mosing

    Full Text Available Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control. We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of

  17. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Nakamura, Jeanne; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious) and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control). We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of dopaminergic neural

  18. Genetic variation in Aquaporin-4 moderates the relationship between sleep and brain Aβ-amyloid burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Mazzucchelli, Gavin N; Villemagne, Victor L; Brown, Belinda M; Porter, Tenielle; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Milicic, Lidija; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Taddei, Kevin; Ames, David; Maruff, Paul; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher C; Salvado, Olivier; Martins, Ralph N; Laws, Simon M

    2018-02-26

    The glymphatic system is postulated to be a mechanism of brain Aβ-amyloid clearance and to be most effective during sleep. Ablation of the astrocytic end-feet expressed water-channel protein, Aquaporin-4, in mice, results in impairment of this clearance mechanism and increased brain Aβ-amyloid deposition, suggesting that Aquaporin-4 plays a pivotal role in glymphatic function. Currently there is a paucity of literature regarding the impact of AQP4 genetic variation on sleep, brain Aβ-amyloid burden and their relationship to each other in humans. To address this a cross-sectional observational study was undertaken in cognitively normal older adults from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study. Genetic variants in AQP4 were investigated with respect to self-reported Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index sleep parameters, positron emission tomography derived brain Aβ-amyloid burden and whether these genetic variants moderated the sleep-Aβ-amyloid burden relationship. One AQP4 variant, rs72878776, was associated with poorer overall sleep quality, while several SNPs moderated the effect of sleep latency (rs491148, rs9951307, rs7135406, rs3875089, rs151246) and duration (rs72878776, rs491148 and rs2339214) on brain Aβ-amyloid burden. This study suggests that AQP4 genetic variation moderates the relationship between sleep and brain Aβ-amyloid burden, which adds weight to the proposed glymphatic system being a potential Aβ-amyloid clearance mechanism and suggests that AQP4 genetic variation may impair this function. Further, AQP4 genetic variation should be considered when interpreting sleep-Aβ relationships.

  19. The Relationship Between the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Common Externalizing Psychopathology and Mental Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Myers, John M.; Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed with the Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing. PMID:22506307

  20. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Brocker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Chhstl J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Riedijk, Samantha R.; van Dooren, Silvia; Tibben, Aad

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N = 271) rated the

  1. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Bröcker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Riedijk, Samantha R.; van Dooren, Silvia; Tibben, Aad

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N=271) rated the

  2. A prospective study of the impact of genetic susceptibility testing for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC on family relationships.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Riedijk, S.R.; Dooren, S. van; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the impact of genetic testing for cancer susceptibility on family relationships and determinants of adverse consequences for family relationships. Applicants for genetic testing of a known familial pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 or a HNPCC related gene (N=271) rated the

  3. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Collard Landraces and their Relationship to Other Brassica oleracea Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. Pelc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Landraces have the potential to provide a reservoir of genetic diversity for crop improvement to combat the genetic erosion of the food supply. A landrace collection of the vitamin-rich specialty crop collard ( L. var. was genetically characterized to assess its potential for improving the diverse crop varieties of . We used the Illumina 60K SNP BeadChip array with 52,157 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to (i clarify the relationship of collard to the most economically important crop types, (ii evaluate genetic diversity and population structure of 75 collard landraces, and (iii assess the potential of the collection for genome-wide association studies (GWAS through characterization of genomic patterns of linkage disequilibrium. Confirming the collection as a valuable genetic resource, the collard landraces had twice the polymorphic markers (11,322 SNPs and 10 times the variety-specific alleles (521 alleles of the remaining crop types examined in this study. On average, linkage disequilibrium decayed to background levels within 600 kilobase (kb, allowing for sufficient coverage of the genome for GWAS using the physical positions of the 8273 SNPs polymorphic among the landraces. Although other relationships varied, the previous placement of collard with the cabbage family was confirmed through phylogenetic analysis and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA.

  4. Genetic diversity and relationships among different tomato varieties revealed by EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, N K; Diao, W; Tao, R; Li, X; Kayesh, E; Li, A; Zhen, W; Wang, S

    2014-01-08

    The genetic diversity and relationship of 42 tomato varieties sourced from different geographic regions was examined with EST-SSR markers. The genetic diversity was between 0.18 and 0.77, with a mean of 0.49; the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.17 to 0.74, with a mean of 0.45. This indicates a fairly high degree of diversity among these tomato varieties. Based on the cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA), all the tomato varieties fell into 5 groups, with no obvious geographical distribution characteristics despite their diverse sources. The principal component analysis (PCA) supported the clustering result; however, relationships among varieties were more complex in the PCA scatterplot than in the UPGMA dendrogram. This information about the genetic relationships between these tomato lines helps distinguish these 42 varieties and will be useful for tomato variety breeding and selection. We confirm that the EST-SSR marker system is useful for studying genetic diversity among tomato varieties. The high degree of polymorphism and the large number of bands obtained per assay shows that SSR is the most informative marker system for tomato genotyping for purposes of rights/protection and for the tomato industry in general. It is recommended that these varieties be subjected to identification using an SSR-based manual cultivar identification diagram strategy or other easy-to-use and referable methods so as to provide a complete set of information concerning genetic relationships and a readily usable means of identifying these varieties.

  5. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Brassica oleracea in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Esawi, Mohamed A; Germaine, Kieran; Bourke, Paula; Malone, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea L. is one of the most economically important vegetable crop species of the genus Brassica L. This species is threatened in Ireland, without any prior reported genetic studies. The use of this species is being very limited due to its imprecise phylogeny and uncompleted genetic characterisation. The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of a set of 25 Irish B. oleracea accessions using the powerful amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. A total of 471 fragments were scored across all the 11 AFLP primer sets used, out of which 423 (89.8%) were polymorphic and could differentiate the accessions analysed. The dendrogram showed that cauliflowers were more closely related to cabbages than kales were, and accessions of some cabbage types were distributed among different clusters within cabbage subgroups. Approximately 33.7% of the total genetic variation was found among accessions, and 66.3% of the variation resided within accessions. The total genetic diversity (HT) and the intra-accessional genetic diversity (HS) were 0.251 and 0.156, respectively. This high level of variation demonstrates that the Irish B. oleracea accessions studied should be managed and conserved for future utilisation and exploitation in food and agriculture. In conclusion, this study addressed important phylogenetic questions within this species, and provided a new insight into the inclusion of four accessions of cabbages and kales in future breeding programs for improving varieties. AFLP markers were efficient for assessing genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Irish B. oleracea species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A genetically informative developmental study of the relationship between conduct disorder and peer deviance in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K. S.; Jacobson, K.; Myers, J. M.; Eaves, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Conduct disorder (CD) and peer deviance (PD) both powerfully predict future externalizing behaviors. Although levels of CD and PD are strongly correlated, the causal relationship between them has remained controversial and has not been examined by a genetically informative study. Method Levels of CD and PD were assessed in 746 adult male–male twin pairs at personal interview for ages 8–11, 12–14 and 15–17 years using a life history calendar. Model fitting was performed using the Mx program. Results The best-fit model indicated an active developmental relationship between CD and PD including forward transmission of both traits over time and strong causal relationships between CD and PD within time periods. The best-fit model indicated that the causal relationship for genetic risk factors was from CD to PD and was constant over time. For common environmental factors, the causal pathways ran from PD to CD and were stronger in earlier than later age periods. Conclusions A genetically informative model revealed causal pathways difficult to elucidate by other methods. Genes influence risk for CD, which, through social selection, impacts on the deviance of peers. Shared environment, through family and community processes, encourages or discourages adolescent deviant behavior, which, via social influence, alters risk for CD. Social influence is more important than social selection in childhood, but by late adolescence social selection becomes predominant. These findings have implications for prevention efforts for CD and associated externalizing disorders. PMID:17935643

  7. Genetic parameters for ewe reproductive performance and peri-parturient fecal egg counts and their genetic relationships with lamb body weights and fecal egg counts in Katahdin sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic parameters for ewe reproductive traits [number of lambs born (NLB) and number of lambs weaned (NLW)] and ewe peri-parturient rise (PPR) fecal egg counts (FEC) at lambing (PPR0) and at 30-d post lambing (PPR30), and their genetic relationships with lamb BW and FEC in Katahdin sheep were estim...

  8. Genetic parameters for ewe reproductive performance and peri-parturient fecal egg counts and their genetic relationships with lamb body weights and fecal egg counts in Katahdin sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study estimated genetic parameters for ewe reproductive traits [number of lambs born (NLB) and weaned (NLW) per ewe lambing] and peri-parturient (PPR) fecal egg counts (FEC) at lambing (PPR0) and 30 d postpartum (PPR30), and their genetic relationships with lamb BW and FEC in Katahdin sheep. Th...

  9. A putative causal relationship between genetically determined female body shape and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimanti, Renato; Amstadter, Ananda B; Stein, Murray B; Almli, Lynn M; Baker, Dewleen G; Bierut, Laura J; Bradley, Bekh; Farrer, Lindsay A; Johnson, Eric O; King, Anthony; Kranzler, Henry R; Maihofer, Adam X; Rice, John P; Roberts, Andrea L; Saccone, Nancy L; Zhao, Hongyu; Liberzon, Israel; Ressler, Kerry J; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Koenen, Karestan C; Gelernter, Joel

    2017-11-27

    The nature and underlying mechanisms of the observed increased vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women are unclear. We investigated the genetic overlap of PTSD with anthropometric traits and reproductive behaviors and functions in women. The analysis was conducted using female-specific summary statistics from large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a cohort of 3577 European American women (966 PTSD cases and 2611 trauma-exposed controls). We applied a high-resolution polygenic score approach and Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate genetic correlations and causal relationships. We observed an inverse association of PTSD with genetically determined anthropometric traits related to body shape, independent of body mass index (BMI). The top association was related to BMI-adjusted waist circumference (WC adj ; R = -0.079, P body shape and PTSD, which could be mediated by evolutionary mechanisms involved in human sexual behaviors.

  10. Assessment of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Korean native chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hee Seo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the basic information on genetic structure and characteristics of Korean Native chickens (NC and foreign breeds through the analysis of the pure chicken populations and commercial chicken lines of the Hanhyup Company which are popular in the NC market, using the 20 microsatellite markers. Methods In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 445 NC from five different breeds (NC, Leghorn [LH], Cornish [CS], Rhode Island Red [RIR], and Hanhyup [HH] commercial line were investigated by performing genotyping using 20 microsatellite markers. Results The highest genetic distance was observed between RIR and LH (18.9%, whereas the lowest genetic distance was observed between HH and NC (2.7%. In the principal coordinates analysis (PCoA illustrated by the first component, LH was clearly separated from the other groups. The correspondence analysis showed close relationship among individuals belonging to the NC, CS, and HH lines. From the STRUCTURE program, the presence of 5 clusters was detected and it was found that the proportion of membership in the different clusters was almost comparable among the breeds with the exception of one breed (HH, although it was highest in LH (0.987 and lowest in CS (0.578. For the cluster 1 it was high in HH (0.582 and in CS (0.368, while for the cluster 4 it was relatively higher in HH (0.392 than other breeds. Conclusion Our study showed useful genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship data that can be utilized for NC breeding and development by the commercial chicken industry to meet consumer demands.

  11. Compression distance can discriminate animals by genetic profile, build relationship matrices and estimate breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicholas J; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Kijas, James W; Reverter, Antonio

    2015-10-13

    Genetic relatedness is currently estimated by a combination of traditional pedigree-based approaches (i.e. numerator relationship matrices, NRM) and, given the recent availability of molecular information, using marker genotypes (via genomic relationship matrices, GRM). To date, GRM are computed by genome-wide pair-wise SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) correlations. We describe a new estimate of genetic relatedness using the concept of normalised compression distance (NCD) that is borrowed from Information Theory. Analogous to GRM, the resultant compression relationship matrix (CRM) exploits numerical patterns in genome-wide allele order and proportion, which are known to vary systematically with relatedness. We explored properties of the CRM in two industry cattle datasets by analysing the genetic basis of yearling weight, a phenotype of moderate heritability. In both Brahman (Bos indicus) and Tropical Composite (Bos taurus by Bos indicus) populations, the clustering inferred by NCD was comparable to that based on SNP correlations using standard principal component analysis approaches. One of the versions of the CRM modestly increased the amount of explained genetic variance, slightly reduced the 'missing heritability' and tended to improve the prediction accuracy of breeding values in both populations when compared to both NRM and GRM. Finally, a sliding window-based application of the compression approach on these populations identified genomic regions influenced by introgression of taurine haplotypes. For these two bovine populations, CRM reduced the missing heritability and increased the amount of explained genetic variation for a moderately heritable complex trait. Given that NCD can sensitively discriminate closely related individuals, we foresee CRM having possible value for estimating breeding values in highly inbred populations.

  12. Genetic relationships between six eastern Pyrenean sheep breeds assessed using microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Ferrando

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the genetic composition and relationships among livestock breeds is a necessary step for the implementation of management and conservation plans. This study aims to characterise the genetic diversity and relationships among six sheep breeds of meat aptitude that are spread through the eastern Pyrenees: Tarasconnaise, Castillonnaise and Rouge du Roussillon from France, and Aranesa, Xisqueta and Ripollesa from Spain. All but Tarasconnaise are catalogued as endangered. These breeds do not share the same ancestral origin but commercial trades and gene flow between herds are known to have occurred for centuries. Additionally, two outgroup breeds were included: the Guirra, from a different geographical location, and the Lacaune, a highly selected breed of dairy aptitude. A total of 410 individuals were typed using a panel of 12 microsatellite markers. Statistical, phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses showed that eastern Pyrenean breeds retained high levels of genetic diversity and low, but significant, levels of genetic differentiation (FST = 4.1%. While outgroups were clearly differentiated from other breeds, Pyrenean breeds tended to form two clusters. The first encompassed Tarasconnaise and Aranesa, which probably descend from a common meta-population. The second tended to group the other four breeds. However, none reached high mean Q-values of membership to a discrete cluster. This is consistent with the recent past gene flow between breeds, despite different ancestral genetic origins. The genetic characterisation carried out of the eastern Pyrenean sheep populations provides useful information to support decision making on their conservation and focusing efforts and resources to more singular breeds.

  13. Deducing magnetic resonance neuroimages based on knowledge from samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuwei; Liu, Feng; Fan, Mingxia; Li, Xuzhou; Zhao, Zhiyong; Zeng, Zhaoling; Wang, Yi; Xu, Dongrong

    2017-12-01

    Because individual variance always exists, using the same set of predetermined parameters for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not be exactly suitable for each participant. We propose a knowledge-based method that can repair MRI data of undesired contrast as if a new scan were acquired using imaging parameters that had been individually optimized. The method employed a strategy called analogical reasoning to deduce voxel-wise relaxation properties using morphological and biological similarity. The proposed framework involves steps of intensity normalization, tissue segmentation, relaxation time deducing, and image deducing. This approach has been preliminarily validated using conventional MRI data at 3T from several examples, including 5 normal and 9 clinical datasets. It can effectively improve the contrast of real MRI data by deducing imaging data using optimized imaging parameters based on deduced relaxation properties. The statistics of deduced images shows a high correlation with real data that were actually collected using the same set of imaging parameters. The proposed method of deducing MRI data using knowledge of relaxation times alternatively provides a way of repairing MRI data of less optimal contrast. The method is also capable of optimizing an MRI protocol for individual participants, thereby realizing personalized MR imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of Genetic Relationship in the Tree of Life of Some Quail Through Molecular Markers Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Elsayed Mokhtar Deef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Quail is an important and interesting group of galliform birds. The Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica; the Panda quail (Coturnix japonica; the Dotted white quail (Coturnix japonica and the Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus were used in this study. PCR-RFLP and SDS-proteins were performed to reveal the genetic characterization and genetic relationship of the studied quails. Analysis of fragments generated by digestion of PCR product with restriction enzyme NlaIII recorded highly polymorphic restriction profiles. There is a wide intraspecific COI, SEMA3E and TLX genes variability among the studied quails. Protein bands varied from10 to 18 between quails with minimum number of bands were in the Dotted white quail (10 bands and the maximum were in the Japanese quail (18 bands as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Dotted white quail revealed the lowest similarity to the Bobwhite with a coefficient of 0.18 while The similarity coefficients between the Common quail and each one of the other quails were 0.67, 0.62, 0.45 and 0.42 for the Japanese, Panda, Dotted white and the Bobwhite quails, respectively. The results indicate that, PCR-RFLP and protein analyses are good techniques to evaluate genetic characterization and genetic relationship of these quails.

  15. Genetic relationships among Vietnamese local pigs investigated using genome-wide SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, S; Arakawa, A; Taniguchi, M; Luu, Q M; Pham, D L; Nguyen, B V; Mikawa, S; Kikuchi, K

    2018-02-01

    Vietnam is one of the most important countries for pig domestication, and a total of 26 local breeds have been reported. In the present study, genetic relationships among the various pig breeds were investigated using 90 samples collected from local pigs (15 breeds) in 15 distantly separated, distinct areas of the country and six samples from Landrace pigs in Hanoi as an out-group of a common Western breed. All samples were genotyped using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 v2 Genotyping BeadChip. We used 15 160-15 217 SNPs that showed a high degree of polymorphism in the Vietnamese breeds for identifying genetic relationships among the Vietnamese breeds. Principal components analysis showed that most pigs indigenous to Vietnam formed clusters correlated with their original geographic locations. Some Vietnamese breeds formed a cluster that was genetically related to the Western breed Landrace, suggesting the possibility of crossbreeding. These findings will be useful for the conservation and management of Vietnamese local pig breeds. © 2018 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Genetic diversity and relationship of global faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm revealed by ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Fei; Zong, Xu-Xiao; Guan, Jian-Ping; Yang, Tao; Sun, Xue-Lian; Ma, Yu; Redden, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of 802 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces and varieties from different geographical locations of China and abroad were examined using ISSR markers. A total of 212 repeatable amplified bands were generated with 11 ISSR primers, of which 209 were polymorphic. Accessions from North China showed highest genetic diversity, while accessions from central China showed low level of diversity. Chinese spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from Chinese winter faba bean, based on principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering analysis. Winter accessions from Zhejiang (East China), Jiangxi (East China), Sichuan (Southwest China) and Guizhou (Southwest China) were quite distinct to that from other provinces in China. Great differentiation between Chinese accessions and those from rest of the world was shown with a UPGMA dendrogram. AMOVA analyses demonstrated large variation and differentiation within and among groups of accessions from China. As a continental geographic group, accessions from Europe were genetically closer to those from North Africa. Based on ISSR data, grouping results of accessions from Asia, Europe and Africa were obviously associated with their geographical origin. The overall results indicated that the genetic relationship of faba bean germplasm was closely associated with their geographical origin and their ecological habit.

  17. The use of genetic markers to estimate relationships between dogs in the course of criminal investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampolini, Roberta; Cecchi, Francesca; Spinetti, Isabella; Rocchi, Anna; Biscarini, Filippo

    2017-08-17

    Attacks on humans by dogs in a pack, though uncommon, do happen, and result in severe, sometimes fatal, injuries. We describe the role that canine genetic markers played during the investigation of a fatal dog-pack attack involving a 50-year-old male truck driver in a parking lot in Tuscany (Italy). Using canine specific STR genetic markers, the local authorities, in the course of their investigations, reconstructed the genetic relationships between the dogs that caused the deadly aggression and other dogs belonging to the owner of the parking who, at the moment of the aggression, was located in another region of Italy. From a Bayesian clustering algorithm, the most likely number of clusters was two. The average relatedness among the dogs responsible for the aggression was higher than the average relatedness among the other dogs or between the two groups. Taken together, all these results indicate that the two groups of dogs are clearly distinct. Genetic relationships showed that the two groups of dogs were not related. It was therefore unlikely that the murderous dogs belonged to the owner of the parking lot who, on grounds of this and additional evidence, was eventually acquitted.

  18. Genetic and environmental influences on relationship between anxiety sensitivity and anxiety subscales in children

    OpenAIRE

    Waszczuk, M.A.; Zavos, H.M.S.; Eley, T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, a belief that symptoms of anxiety are harmful, has been proposed to influence development of panic disorder. Recent research suggests it may be a vulnerability factor for many anxiety subtypes. Moderate genetic influences have been implicated for both anxiety sensitivity and anxiety, however, little is known about the aetiology of the relationship between these traits in children. Self-reports of anxiety sensitivity and anxiety symptoms were collected from approximately 3...

  19. Genetic recombination in escherichia coli and its relationship with DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, O.

    1974-01-01

    Relationship of DNA replication with genetic recombination in Escherichia Coli was investigated by mating Hfr donors labelled with H 3 -thymine, C 13 and N 15 to C 13 N 15 labelled recipients. The DNA extracted from the zygotes was analysed on CsCl density gradients. The results show that all of the biparentally labelled DNA arises from the single strand insertions of the donor DNA. (M.G.B.)

  20. Epigenetic differentiation and relationship to adaptive genetic divergence in discrete populations of the violet Viola cazorlensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carlos M; Bazaga, Pilar

    2010-08-01

    *In plants, epigenetic variations based on DNA methylation are often heritable and could influence the course of evolution. Before this hypothesis can be assessed, fundamental questions about epigenetic variation remain to be addressed in a real-world context, including its magnitude, structuring within and among natural populations, and autonomy in relation to the genetic context. *Extent and patterns of cytosine methylation, and the relationship to adaptive genetic divergence between populations, were investigated for wild populations of the southern Spanish violet Viola cazorlensis (Violaceae) using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique, a modification of the amplified fragment length polymorphism method (AFLP) based on the differential sensitivity of isoschizomeric restriction enzymes to site-specific cytosine methylation. *The genome of V. cazorlensis plants exhibited extensive levels of methylation, and methylation-based epigenetic variation was structured into distinct between- and within- population components. Epigenetic differentiation of populations was correlated with adaptive genetic divergence revealed by a Bayesian population-genomic analysis of AFLP data. Significant associations existed at the individual genome level between adaptive AFLP loci and the methylation state of methylation-susceptible MSAP loci. *Population-specific, divergent patterns of correlated selection on epigenetic and genetic individual variation could account for the coordinated epigenetic-genetic adaptive population differentiation revealed by this study.

  1. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship in different genotypes of cotton for future breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To make the plants well adapted and more resistant to diseases and other environmental stresses there is always a need to improve the quality of plant’s genome i.e. to increase its genetic diversity. Methods: In the present study six variety and six lines of cotton were investigated for their genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship. For this purpose 35 different RAPD primers obtained from the Gene Link Technologies, USA were used. Results: Among 35 RAPD primers, 13 primers produced reproducible PCR bands while the rest failed to show any amplification product. Our results indicated that the total count of the reproducible bands was 670 and polymorphic loci were counted to be 442 which constitute 66% of total loci. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major groups each consists of 7 and 5 genotypes respectively. Genotypes Lp1 and Tp4 were placed at maximum genetic distance and in separate groups and could be utilized for future cotton breeding. Conclusions: RAPD analysis is a cheaper and time saving technique for the determination of genetic diversity of different cotton genotypes. Cotton genotype Lp1 and Tp4 could be the best candidates for future breeding programs as both genotypes are genetically distant from each other.

  2. Shared Genetic Architecture in the Relationship between Adult Stature and Subclinical Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Sheedy, Patrick F.; Turner, Stephen T.; Chu, Julia S.; Peyser, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Short stature is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD); although the mechanisms for this relationship are unknown, shared genetic factors have been proposed. Subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC), is associated with CHD events and represents part of the biological continuum to overt CHD. Many molecular mechanisms of CAC development are shared with bone growth. Thus, we examined whether there was evidence of shared genes (pleiotropy) between adult stature and CAC. Methods 877 asymptomatic white adults (46% men) from 625 families in a community-based sample had computed tomography measures of CAC. Pleiotropy between height and CAC was determined using maximum-likelihood estimation implemented in SOLAR. Results Adult height was significantly and inversely associated with CAC score (P=0.01). After adjusting for age, sex, and CHD risk factors, the estimated genetic correlation between height and CAC score was -0.37 and was significantly different than 0 (P=0.001) and -1 (P<0.001). The environmental correlation between height and CAC score was 0.60 and was significantly different than 0 (P=0.024). Conclusions Further studies of shared genetic factors between height and CAC may provide important insight into the complex genetic architecture of CHD, in part through increased understanding of the molecular pathways underlying the process of both normal growth and disease development. Bivariate genetic linkage analysis may provide a powerful mechanism for identifying specific genomic regions associated with both height and CAC. PMID:21937044

  3. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Leonardo D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The

  4. Genetic disparity and relationship among quantitatively inherited yield related traits in diallel crosses of upland cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, M.; Khan, N.U.; Mohammad, F.; Gul, R.; Idrees, M.; Sayal, O.U.; Khakwani, A.A.; Khan, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    In quantitative genetics, development of high yielding genotypes from parental cultivars of same ancestry is some what confusing as compared to genetically diverse parents. However, sufficient recombinations through allelic variations in mating of closely-related populations result in superior agronomic performance. Development of improved cotton genotypes is one of the prime objectives of any cotton breeding programmes. Genetic divergence and yield potential of parental cotton genotypes versus their diallel hybrids, relationship of yield with various morpho-yield traits and their heritability were studied in 8 X 8 F/sub 1/ diallel hybrids and their parental cultivars in Gossypium hirsutum L. during 2008-09 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Highly significant (p less than or equal to 0.01) differences were observed among parental genotypes and F/sub 1/ populations for all the traits. Results revealed that F/sub 1/ hybrids i.e., CIM-506 X CIM-554, CIM-473 X CIM-554, CIM-446 X CIM-496 and CIM-446 X CIM-554 produced significantly higher number of sympodia, bolls per populations showed incredible performance for plant height, locules per boll and seeds plant and seed cotton yield. Some F/sub 1/ per locule. Seed cotton yield manifested positive association with morpho-yield traits which also accounted for greater genetic variations to yield being dependent trait. Heritabilities (broad sense) were moderate to high in magnitude for all populations with larger genetic potential, positive relationship between yield and yield traits. Results revealed that F1 contributing traits and moderate to high heritability can guide intensive selection and improvement per se in segregating populations. (author)

  5. Short tandem repeat (STR based genetic diversity and relationship of indigenous Niger cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grema

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of cattle in Niger is predominantly represented by three indigenous breeds: Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri. This study aimed at characterizing the genetic diversity and relationship of Niger cattle breeds using short tandem repeat (STR marker variations. A total of 105 cattle from all three breeds were genotyped at 27 STR loci. High levels of allelic and gene diversity were observed with an overall mean of 8.7 and 0.724 respectively. The mean inbreeding estimate within breeds was found to be moderate with 0.024, 0.043 and 0.044 in Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri cattle respectively. The global F statistics showed low genetic differentiation among Niger cattle with about 2.6 % of total variation being attributed to between-breed differences. Neighbor-joining tree derived from pairwise allele sharing distance revealed Zebu Arabe and Kuri clustering together while Zebu Bororo appeared to be relatively distinct from the other two breeds. High levels of admixture were evident from the distribution of pairwise inter-individual allele sharing distances that showed individuals across populations being more related than individuals within populations. Individuals were assigned to their respective source populations based on STR genotypes, and the percent correct assignment of Zebu Bororo (87.5 to 93.8 % was consistently higher than Zebu Arabe (59.3 to 70.4 % and Kuri (80.0 to 83.3 % cattle. The qualitative and quantitative tests for mutation drift equilibrium revealed absence of genetic bottleneck events in Niger cattle in the recent past. High genetic diversity and poor genetic structure among indigenous cattle breeds of Niger might be due to historic zebu–taurine admixture and ongoing breeding practices in the region. The results of the present study are expected to help in formulating effective strategies for conservation and genetic improvement of indigenous Niger cattle breeds.

  6. Genetic relationship of body energy and blood metabolites with reproduction in holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, G; Arsenos, G; Valergakis, G E; Tsiaras, A; Zygoyiannis, D; Banos, G

    2008-11-01

    Body condition score (BCS), energy content (EC), cumulative effective energy balance (CEEB), and blood serum concentrations of glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were measured throughout first lactation in 497 Holstein cows raised on a large commercial farm in northern Greece. All these traits are considered to be indicators of a cow's energy balance. An additional measure of BCS, EC, and blood serum glucose, BHBA, and NEFA concentrations were taken approximately 2 mo (61 +/- 23 d) before first calving. During first lactation, first service conception rate, conception rate in the first 305 d of lactation, interval from calving to conception, number of inseminations per conception, incidence of metritis, and incidence of reproductive problems of these cows were recorded; interval between first and second calving, and second lactation first service conception rate were also recorded. Random regression models were used to calculate weekly animal breeding values for first lactation BCS, EC, CEEB, glucose, BHBA, and NEFA. Single trait animal models were used to calculate breeding values for these traits measured on pregnant heifers before calving. Reproductive records were then regressed on animal breeding values for these energy balance-related traits to derive estimates of their genetic correlations. Several significant estimates were obtained. In general, traits that are known to be positively correlated with energy balance (BCS, EC, CEEB, and glucose) were found to have a favorable genetic relationship with reproduction, meaning that increased levels of the former will lead to an enhancement of the latter. On the other hand, traits known to be negatively correlated with energy balance (BHBA and NEFA) were found to have an unfavorable genetic association with reproductive traits. Body condition score, BHBA, and NEFA recorded early in lactation, and glucose concentrations measured in pregnant heifers had the highest genetic

  7. Estimation in a multiplicative mixed model involving a genetic relationship matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccleston John A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic models partitioning additive and non-additive genetic effects for populations tested in replicated multi-environment trials (METs in a plant breeding program have recently been presented in the literature. For these data, the variance model involves the direct product of a large numerator relationship matrix A, and a complex structure for the genotype by environment interaction effects, generally of a factor analytic (FA form. With MET data, we expect a high correlation in genotype rankings between environments, leading to non-positive definite covariance matrices. Estimation methods for reduced rank models have been derived for the FA formulation with independent genotypes, and we employ these estimation methods for the more complex case involving the numerator relationship matrix. We examine the performance of differing genetic models for MET data with an embedded pedigree structure, and consider the magnitude of the non-additive variance. The capacity of existing software packages to fit these complex models is largely due to the use of the sparse matrix methodology and the average information algorithm. Here, we present an extension to the standard formulation necessary for estimation with a factor analytic structure across multiple environments.

  8. Genetic relationship among nine Rhododendron species in Qinling mountains, China using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, B.; Zheng, X.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic relationships of nine species of Rhododendron in the Qinling Mountains were evaluated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A total of 440 amplification products were obtained using nine selected AFLP markers, of which 421 (95.40%) showed polymorphism. With these polymorphic products, a dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). R. calophytum, R. hypoglaucum and R. clementinae, belonging to Subgen Hymenanthes, gathered together, and the species derived from Subgen Rhododendron and Subgen Tsutsusi formed another two groups. R. tsinlingense, R. purdomii, R. Taibaiense and R. capitatum (Subsect. Lapponica), and R. concinnum (Subsect. Triflora) were clustered as one group, but they belong to difference subsect. and R. purdomii and R. Taibaiense showed the closest genetic distance, but both species differed greatly in morphological characteristics.These results showed that the genetic relationships among nine Rhododendron species, determined by AFLP markers, were partially related to their taxonomic position, geography distribution and morphological classification. The present study will benefit the identification and conservation of Rhododendron, and the development of new Rhododendron cultivar. (author)

  9. Transferability of STS markers in studying genetic relationships of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Raghvendra; Chandra, Amaresh

    2011-11-01

    Transferability of sequence-tagged-sites (STS) markers was assessed for genetic relationships study among accessions of marvel grass (Dichanthium annulatum Forsk.). In total, 17 STS primers of Stylosanthes origin were tested for their reactivity with thirty accessions of Dichanthium annulatum. Of these, 14 (82.4%) reacted and a total 106 (84 polymorphic) bands were scored. The number of bands generated by individual primer pairs ranged from 4 to 11 with an average of 7.57 bands, whereas polymorphic bands ranged from 4 to 9 with an average of 6.0 bands accounts to an average polymorphism of 80.1%. Polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.222 to 0.499 and marker index (MI) from 1.33 to 4.49. Utilizing Dice coefficient of genetic similarity dendrogram was generated through un-weighted pairgroup method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) algorithm. Further, clustering through sequential agglomerative hierarchical and nested (SAHN) method resulted three main clusters constituted all accessions except IGBANG-D-2. Though there was intermixing of few accessions of one agro-climatic region to another, largely groupings of accessions were with their regions of collections. Bootstrap analysis at 1000 scale also showed large number of nodes (11 to 17) having strong clustering (> 50). Thus, results demonstrate the utility of STS markers of Stylosanthes in studying the genetic relationships among accessions of Dichanthium.

  10. Genetic Relationships Among Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars Native to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Bakir, Melike; Ulas, Mehmet; Sakar, Zeynep Mujde

    2016-08-01

    Olive is a widely cultivated, mainly in the Mediterranean region, and economically important fruit species used as both olive oil and table olive consumption. In Turkey, more than 50 olive cultivars have been authorized for commercial plantations, representing the developmental base for the olive industry. The aim of the present study was to identify genetic relationships among the most widely grown 27 olive cultivars in Turkey, using microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers. Nine well-known foreign olive cultivars from different countries are also included in the study to compare the Turkish cultivars. To determine genetic relationship and diversity, 10 SSR loci (DCA3, DCA9, DCA15, DCA18, UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO24, UDO28) were used. Jaccard's similarity coefficient and the UPGMA method for cluster analysis were performed using the software NTSYSpc. The results showed that the number of alleles per locus ranging from 4 (UDO4, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, DCA15) to 12 (DCA9) presenting high polymorphism. There were no identical cultivars. High similarity was shown by cultivars Maviand Adana topağı (0.754). The most genetically divergent cultivars, Domat-Meski (0.240) and Domat-NizipYağlık (0.245), were also identified.

  11. Genetic relationship of organic bases of the quinoline and isoquinoline series from lignite semicoking tars with the initial biological material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Podshibyakin, S.I.; Domogatskii, V.V.; Shvykin, A.Y.; Shavyrina, O.A.; Chilachava, K.B. [Leo Tolstoy State Pedagog University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    The genetic relationship of quinoline and isoquinoline compounds present in semicoking tars of Kimovsk lignites (near-Moscow fields) with the initial vegetable material is discussed. Transformation pathways of the native compounds in the course of lignite formation are suggested.

  12. Heritability and Genetic Relationship of Adult Self-Reported Stuttering, Cluttering and Childhood Speech-Language Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic influence and mutual genetic relationship for adult self-reported childhood speech-language disorders, stuttering, and cluttering were studied. Using nationwide questionnaire answers from 34,944 adult Danish twins, a multivariate biometric analysis based on the liability-threshold model w...

  13. An investigation of relationships among genetic counselors' supervision skills and multicultural counseling competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung Lee, Hyun; McCarthy Veach, Patricia; LeRoy, Bonnie S

    2009-06-01

    As racial and ethnic diversity increase in the U.S., genetic counselor multicultural competence is growing in importance. In mental health counseling, supervisor multicultural competence has been shown to promote supervisees' multicultural competence. Moreover, developmentally-advanced supervisors tend to be more effective. This study was designed to investigate relationships among genetic counselor supervisors' perceived multicultural counseling competence and development as supervisors, and their ability to evaluate a supervisee's multicultural skills. One hundred twenty-two supervisors completed an online survey of demographics, the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale, the Supervisor Development Scale, and a hypothetical vignette in which they evaluated a supervisee's multicultural skills and provided written feedback. Stepwise multiple regression yielded five significant predictors accounting for 31% of the variance in accuracy of supervisor evaluations of the student: multicultural awareness, multicultural knowledge, age, supervision experience, and supervisor development. Six feedback themes were identified from written responses. Practice and research suggestions are provided.

  14. Genetic relationships of extant brown bears (Ursus arctos) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and brown bears (Ursus arctos) are closely related species for which extensive mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic comparisons have been made. We used previously published genotype data for 8 microsatellite DNA loci from 930 brown bears in 19 populations and 473 polar bears in 16 populations to compare the population genetic relationships of extant populations of the species. Genetic distances (Nei standard distance = 1.157), the proportion of private alleles (52% of alleles are not shared by the species), and Bayesian cluster analysis are consistent with morphological and life-history characteristics that distinguish polar bears and brown bears as different species with little or no gene flow among extant populations.

  15. The Genetic Relationship between Leishmania aethiopica and Leishmania tropica Revealed by Comparing Microsatellite Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayter, Lena; Schnur, Lionel F; Schönian, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) aethiopica and L. (L.) tropica cause cutaneous leishmaniases and appear to be related. L. aethiopica is geographically restricted to Ethiopia and Kenya; L. tropica is widely dispersed from the Eastern Mediterranean, through the Middle East into eastern India and in north, east and south Africa. Their phylogenetic inter-relationship is only partially revealed. Some studies indicate a close relationship. Here, eight strains of L. aethiopica were characterized genetically and compared with 156 strains of L. tropica from most of the latter species' geographical range to discern the closeness. Twelve unlinked microsatellite markers previously used to genotype strains of L. tropica were successfully applied to the eight strains of L. aethiopica and their microsatellite profiles were compared to those of 156 strains of L. tropica from various geographical locations that were isolated from human cases of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, hyraxes and sand fly vectors. All the microsatellite profiles were subjected to various analytical algorithms: Bayesian statistics, distance-based and factorial correspondence analysis, revealing: (i) the species L. aethiopica, though geographically restricted, is genetically very heterogeneous; (ii) the strains of L. aethiopica formed a distinct genetic cluster; and (iii) strains of L. aethiopica are closely related to strains of L. tropica and more so to the African ones, although, by factorial correspondence analysis, clearly separate from them. The successful application of the 12 microsatellite markers, originally considered species-specific for the species L. tropica, to strains of L. aethiopica confirmed the close relationship between these two species. The Bayesian and distance-based methods clustered the strains of L. aethiopica among African strains of L. tropica, while the factorial correspondence analysis indicated a clear separation between the two species. There was no correlation between

  16. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Indonesian Local goats using microsatellite DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Syamsul Arifin Zein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important information in the process of conservation and sustainable utilization of animal genetic resources. Thirteen microsatellite markers were used to estimate the degree of genetic diversity on five Indonesian local goats. Results showed the highest average allele diversity present in the locus MAF70 (5.6 ± 2.9, and the lowest was in the locus MAF035 (1.6 ± 0.6, the average number of alleles per locus was 6 ± 2.3. The lowest average alleles diversity present was in the Gembrong goat (2.2 ± 1.1 and the highest was in the Jawarandu goat (4.9 ± 2.2. There is a unique alleles at loci MCM527 and present in all Indonesian local goat with the highest allele frequency on Peranakan Etawa (37.2% and lowest in Gembrong goat (7.9%. H0 ranged from 0.372 ± 0.173 (Gembrong to 0.540 ± 0.204 (Peranakan Etawa, and HE ranging from 0.249 ± 0.196 (Gembrong to 0.540 ± 0.212 (Peranakan Etawa.The genetic differentiation for inbreeding among population (FIS, within population (FIT, and average genetic differention (FST were 0,0208 (2,08%, 0,1532 (15,32%, and 0,1352 (13,52%, respectively. Locus ILSTS029, BMS1494, MAF035 and INRA0132 had a low PIC value (PIC 0.5. Phylogenetic relationship was consistent with the history of its development based on Kacang goat except was for Gembrong Goat. This research information can be used for conservation strategies and breeding programs on each population of Indonesian local goat.

  17. Genetic and other risk factors for suicidal ideation and the relationship with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, R; Ball, H A; Siribaddana, S H; Sumathipala, A; Samaraweera, S; McGuffin, P; Hotopf, M

    2017-10-01

    There is a genetic contribution to the risk of suicide, but sparse prior research on the genetics of suicidal ideation. Active and passive suicidal ideation were assessed in a Sri Lankan population-based twin registry (n = 3906 twins) and a matched non-twin sample (n = 2016). Logistic regression models were used to examine associations with socio-demographic factors, environmental exposures and psychiatric symptoms. The heritability of suicidal ideation was assessed using structural equation modelling. The lifetime prevalence of any suicidal ideation was 13.0% (11.7-14.3%) for men; 21.8% (20.3-23.2%) for women, with no significant difference between twins and non-twins. Factors that predicted suicidal ideation included female gender, termination of marital relationship, low education level, urban residence, losing a parent whilst young, low standard of living and stressful life events in the preceding 12 months. Suicidal ideation was strongly associated with depression, but also with abnormal fatigue and alcohol and tobacco use. The best fitting structural equation model indicated a substantial contribution from genetic factors (57%; CI 47-66) and from non-shared environmental factors (43%; CI 34-53) in both men and women. In women this genetic component was largely mediated through depression, but in men there was a significant heritable component to suicidal ideation that was independent of depression. These are the first results to show a genetic contribution to suicidal ideation that is independent of depression outside of a high-income country. These phenomena may be generalizable, because previous research highlights similarities between the aetiology of mental disorders in Sri Lanka and higher-income countries.

  18. Chicken meat quality: genetic variability and relationship with growth and muscle characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santé-Lhoutellier Véronique

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The qualitative properties of the meat are of major importance for poultry breeding, since meat is now widely consumed as cuts or as processed products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers. Results Significant levels of heritability (averaging 0.3 were obtained for breast meat quality traits such as pH at 15 min post-slaughter, ultimate pH (pHu, color assessed by lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss and shear-force. The rate of decrease in pH early post-mortem and the final pH of the meat were shown to be key factors of chicken meat quality. In particular, a decrease in the final pH led to paler, more exudative and tougher breast meat. The level of glycogen stored in breast muscle estimated by the Glycolytic Potential (GP at slaughter time was shown to be highly heritable (h2 0.43. There was a very strong negative genetic correlation (rg with ultimate meat pH (rg -0.97, suggesting a common genetic control for GP and pHu. While breast muscle weight was genetically positively correlated with fiber size (rg 0.76, it was negatively correlated with the level of glycogen stored in the muscle (rg -0.58, and as a consequence it was positively correlated with the final pH of the meat (rg 0.84. Conclusion This genetic study confirmed that selection should be useful to improve meat characteristics of meat-type chickens without impairing profitability because no genetic conflict was detected between meat quality and meat quantity. Moreover, the results suggested relevant selection criteria such as ultimate pH, which is strongly related to color, water-holding capacity and texture of the meat in this heavy chicken line.

  19. Genetic variation analysis and relationships among environmental strains of Scedosporium apiospermum sensu stricto in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanwa Wongsuk

    Full Text Available The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex is an emerging filamentous fungi that has been isolated from environment. It can cause a wide range of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. We aimed to study the genetic variation and relationships between 48 strains of S. apiospermum sensu stricto isolated from soil in Bangkok, Thailand. For PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, we used the following genes: actin; calmodulin exons 3 and 4; the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II; ß-tubulin exon 2-4; manganese superoxide dismutase; internal transcribed spacer; transcription elongation factor 1α; and beta-tubulin exons 5 and 6. The present study is the first phylogenetic analysis of relationships among S. apiospermum sensu stricto in Thailand and South-east Asia. This result provides useful information for future epidemiological study and may be correlated to clinical manifestation.

  20. Genetic origin of the relationship between parental negativity and behavior problems from early childhood to adolescence: A longitudinal genetically sensitive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Silvia; Rijsdijk, Frühling V.; Haworth, Claire Margaret Alison; Fañanás, Lourdes; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how genetic and environmental factors contribute to the association between parental negativity and behavior problems from early childhood to adolescence. The current study fitted a cross-lagged model in a sample consisting of 4,075 twin pairs to explore (a) the role of genetic and environmental factors in the relationship between parental negativity and behavior problems from age 4 to age 12, (b) whether parent-driven and child-driven processes independently explain the association, and (c) whether there are sex differences in this relationship. Both phenotypes showed substantial genetic influence at both ages. The concurrent overlap between them was mainly accounted for by genetic factors. Causal pathways representing stability of the phenotypes and parent-driven and child-driven effects significantly and independently account for the association. Significant but slight differences were found between males and females for parent-driven effects. These results were highly similar when general cognitive ability was added asa covariate. In summary, the longitudinal association between parental negativity and behavior problems seems to be bidirectional and mainly accounted for by genetic factors. Furthermore, child-driven effects were mainly genetically mediated, and parent-driven effects were a function of both genetic and shared-environmental factors. PMID:23627958

  1. STRESS, RELATIONSHIP SATISFACTION, AND HEALTH AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: GENETIC MODERATION OF EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Barr, Ashley B.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether romantic relationship satisfaction would serve as a link between early and later stressors which in turn would influence the Thyroid Function Index (TFI), an indicator of physiological stress response. Using the framework of genetic susceptibility theory combined with hypotheses derived from the vulnerability-stress-adaptation and stress-generation models, we tested whether the hypothesized mediational model would be conditioned by 5-HTTLPR genotype, with greater effects and stronger evidence of mediation among carriers of the “s” allele. In a sample of African American women in romantic relationships (n = 270), we found that 5-HTTLPR moderated each stage of the hypothesized mediational model in a “for better or for worse” manner. That is genetic polymorphisms function to exacerbate not only the detrimental impact of negative environments (i.e. “for worse effects”) but also the beneficial impact of positive environments (i.e. “for better effects”). The effect of early stress on relationship satisfaction was greater among carriers of the “short” allele than among those who did not carry the short allele, and was significantly different in both the “for better” and “for worse” direction. Likewise, the effect of relationship satisfaction on later stressors was moderated in a “for better” or “for worse” manner. Finally, impact on physiological stress, indexed using TFI level, indicated that the impact of later stressors on TFI level was greater in the presence of the short allele, and also followed a “for better” or “for worse” pattern. As expected, the proposed mediational model provided a better fit for “s” allele carriers. PMID:26376424

  2. Polygenic risk score and heritability estimates reveals a genetic relationship between ASD and OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W; Samuels, J F; Wang, Y; Cao, H; Ritter, M; Nestadt, P S; Krasnow, J; Greenberg, B D; Fyer, A J; McCracken, J T; Geller, D A; Murphy, D L; Knowles, J A; Grados, M A; Riddle, M A; Rasmussen, S A; McLaughlin, N C; Nurmi, E L; Askland, K D; Cullen, B A; Piacentini, J; Pauls, D L; Bienvenu, O J; Stewart, S E; Goes, F S; Maher, B; Pulver, A E; Valle, D; Mattheisen, M; Qian, J; Nestadt, G; Shugart, Y Y

    2017-07-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that conceivably share genetic risk factors. However, the underlying genetic determinants remain largely unknown. In this work, the authors describe a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ASD and OCD. The OCD dataset includes 2998 individuals in nuclear families. The ASD dataset includes 6898 individuals in case-parents trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for potential enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions. The top ranked SNP is rs4785741 (chromosome 16) with P value=6.9×10 -7 in our re-analysis. Polygenic risk score analyses were conducted to investigate the genetic relationship within and across the two disorders. These analyses identified a significant polygenic component of ASD, predicting 0.11% of the phenotypic variance in an independent OCD data set. In addition, we examined the genomic architecture of ASD and OCD by estimating heritability on different chromosomes and different allele frequencies, analyzing genome-wide common variant data by using the Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) program. The estimated global heritability of OCD is 0.427 (se=0.093) and 0.174 (se=0.053) for ASD in these imputed data. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Genetic and environmental relationships between change in weight and insulin resistance: the Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Lee, Kayoung; Sung, Joohon

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between weight change from 20 years of age and insulin resistance (IR), and genetic and environmental relationships between these traits. In 594 Korean twins and family members (209 men, 385 women, 44.0 ± 10.8 years old), the percentage of weight change was calculated using self-reported body weight at 20 years of age and currently measured bodyweight. IR traits were assessed using fasting plasma glucose and insulin, the homeostasis model assessment of IR index (HOMA-IR), and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Linear mixed analysis was applied after adjusting for household, body mass index (BMI) at the age of 20 years, age, sex, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, and caloric intake. Heritabilities and genetic and environmental correlations were estimated after adjusting for covariates. In 55 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for HOMA-IR level by >0.3, a conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted regarding weight change. Increases in glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR and a decrease in QUICKI were associated with a higher percentage of weight change (p change since 20 years old, after adjusting for lifestyle-related factors. In conclusion, both genetic and environmental influences played significant roles in the positive association between weight change from 20 years of age and IR.

  4. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-11-25

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan.

  5. Analysis of large brain MRI databases for investigating the relationships between brain, cognitive, and genetic polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, B.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge for the years to come is the understanding of the brain-behaviour relationships, and in particular the investigation and quantification of the impact of genetic polymorphism on these relationships. In this framework, a promising experimental approach, which we will refer to as neuro-epidemiologic imaging, consists in acquiring multimodal (brain images, psychometric an d sociological data, genotypes) data in large (several hundreds or thousands ) cohorts of subjects. Processing of such large databases requires on first place the conception and implementation of automated 'pipelines', including image registration, spatial normalisation tissue segmentation, and multivariate statistical analysis. Given the number of images and data to be processed, such pipelines must be both fully automated and robust enough to be able to handle multi-center MRI data, e.g. having inhomogeneous characteristics in terms of resolution and contrast. This approach will be illustrated using two databases collected in aged healthy subjects, searching for the impact of genetic and environmental on two markers of brain aging, namely white matter hyper-signals, and grey matter atrophy. (author)

  6. Genetic Polymorphism at Acaca Locus and Its Relationship With Productive Performances in Ettawa Crossbred Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucik Maylinda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research with aim to estimate genetic polymorphism at ACACA (Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase locus in Ettawa Crossbred goat wan its relationship with production traits was done at goat population in Batu, Lawang and Ampel Gading. 46 female goats were taken it’s blood sample to isolate the DNA and continue with PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and RFLP (Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism. PCR was used to amplify ACACA gene fragment in intron 3’ about 200 bp with primer F : 5’ – AGT GTA GAA GGG ACA GCC CAG C – 3’ and R : 5’ – GTG GAA TGA CAC ATG GAG AGG G – 3’; RFLP was used to test mutation of that fragment in particular place (point using restriction enzyme RSA1. Variables were alelles and genotypes composition in population, milk and fat content, and birth weight of kid. Result showed that (a genetic polymorphism at locus ACACA in three location was high that is 44,22 %, with allele frequency of G (p = 33 % and allele T (q = 67 %; (b no relationship between the high polymorphism with productive performance of goat in fat and protein content, and birth weight of kid. It was concluded that in goat population there was a high polymorphism at ACACA gene, and that polymorphism was not related to production.

  7. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of the ectomycorrhizal Floccularia luteovirens on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Rui; Gao, Qing-Bo; Zhang, Fa-Qi; Fu, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Jiu-Li; Yan, Hui-Ying; Chen, Shi-Long

    2017-08-01

    Floccularia luteovirens, as an ectomycorrhizal fungus, is widely distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. As an edible fungus, it is famous for its unique flavor. Former studies mainly focus on the chemical composition and genetic structure of this species. However, the phylogenetic relationship between genotypes remains unknown. In this study, the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship between the genotypes of F. luteovirens in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was estimated through the analysis on two protein-coding genes (rpb1 and ef-1α) from 398 individuals collected from 24 wild populations. The sample covered the entire range of this species during all the growth seasons from 2011 to 2015. 13 genotypes were detected and moderate genetic diversity was revealed. Based on the results of network analysis, the maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses, the genotypes H-1, H-4, H-6, H-8, H-10, and H-11 were grouped into one clade. Additionally, a relatively higher genotype diversity (average h value is 0.722) and unique genotypes in the northeast edge of Qinghai- Tibet plateau have been found, combined with the results of mismatch analysis and neutrality tests indicated that Southeast Qinghai-Tibet plateau was a refuge for F. luteovirens during the historical geological or climatic events (uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau or Last Glacial Maximum). Furthermore, the present distribution of the species on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau has resulted from the recent population expansion. Our findings provide a foundation for the future study of the evolutionary history and the speciation of this species.

  8. Selection and genetic relationship of salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jae Young; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung Chul [National Academy of Agriculture and Science, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Song Joong [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Plants have evolved physiological, biochemical and metabolic mechanisms to increase their survival under the adverse conditions. This present study has been performed to select salt tolerant rice mutant lines through in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-rays. For the selection of the salt-tolerant rice mutants, we conducted three times of selection procedure using 1,500 gamma ray mutant lines resulted from an embryo culture of the original rice cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): first, selection in the a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: second, selection under in vitro condition with 171 mM NaCI: and third, selection in a reclaimed saline land. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of the mutant lines, two putative 2 salt tolerant (ST) rice mutant lines, ST-87 and ST-301, were finally selected. The survival rate of the WT, ST-87 and ST-301 were 36.6%, 60% and 66.3% after 7 days in 171 mM NaCI treatment, respectively. The WT and two salt tolerant mutant lines were used to analyze their genetic variations. A total of 21 EcoRI and Msel primer combinations were used to analyze the genetic relationship of among the two salt tolerant lines and the WT using the ABI3130 capillary electrophoresis system. In the AFLP analysis, a total of 1469 bands were produced by the 21 primer combinations, and 700 (47.6%) of them were identified as having polymorphism. The genetic similarity coefficients were ranged from 0.52 between the ST-87 and WT to 0.24 between the ST-301 and the WT. These rice mutant lines will be used as a control plot for physiological analysis and genetic research on salt tolerance.

  9. Genetic differentiation of Mexican Holstein cattle and its relationship with Canadian and U.S. Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe De Jesus Ruiz-Lopez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Holstein industry has imported Canadian and US (CAN+USA Holstein germplasm for use in two different production systems, the conventional (Conv and the low income system (Lowi. The objective of this work was to study the genetic composition and differentiation of the Mexican Holstein cattle, considering the production system in which they perform and their relationship with the Canadian and US Holstein populations. The analysis included information from 149, 303 and 173 unrelated or with unknown pedigree Holstein (HO animals from the Conv, Lowi and CAN+USA populations, respectively. Canadian and US Jersey (JE and Brown Swiss (BS genotypes (162 and 86, respectively were used to determine if Mexican Holsteins were hybridized with either of these breeds. After quality control filtering, a total of 6,617 out of 6,836 SNP markers were used. To describe the genetic diversity across the populations, principal component (PC, admixture composition, and linkage disequilibrium (r2 analyses were performed. Through the PC analysis, HOxJE and HOxBS crossbreeding was detected in the Lowi system. The Conv system appeared to be in between Lowi and CAN+USA populations. Admixture analysis differentiated between the genetic composition of the Conv and Lowi systems, and five ancestry groups associated to sire’s country of origin were identified. The minimum distance between markers to estimate a useful LD was found to be 54.5 kb for the Mexican HO populations. At this average distance, the persistence of phase across autosomes of Conv and Lowi systems was 0.94, for Conv and CAN+USA was 0.92 and for the Lowi and CAN+USA was 0.91. Results supported the flow of germplasm among populations being Conv a source for Lowi, and dependent on migration from CAN+USA. Mexican Holstein cattle in Conv and Lowi populations share common ancestry with CAN+USA but have different genetic signatures.

  10. Intra-specific genetic relationship analyses of Elaeagnus angustifolia based on RP-HPLC biochemical markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn. has various ecological, medicinal and economical uses. An approach was established using RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography) to classify and analyse the intra-specific genetic relationships of seventeen populations of E. angustifolia, collected from the Xinjiang areas of China. Chromatograms of alcohol-soluble proteins produced by seventeen populations ofE. angustifolia, were compared. Each chromatogram of alcohol-soluble proteins came from a single seed of one wild plant only. The results showed that when using a Waters Delta Pak. C18, 5 μm particle size reversed phase column (150 mm×3.9 mm), a linear gradient of 25%~60% solvent B with flow rate of 1 ml/min and run time of 67 min, the chromatography yielded optimum separation ofE. angustifolia alcohol-soluble proteins. Representative peaks in each population were chosen according to peak area and occurrence in every seed. The converted data on the elution peaks of each population were different and could be used to represent those populations. GSC (genetic similarity coefficients) of 41% to 62% showed a medium degree of genetic diversity among the populations in these eco-areas. Cluster analysis showed that the seventeen populations ofE. angustifolia could be divided into six clusters at the GSC=0.535 level and indicated the general and unique biochemical markers of these clusters. We suggest that E. angustifolia distribution in these eco-areas could be classified into six variable species. RP-HPLC was shown to be a rapid, repeatable and reliable method for E. angustifolia classification and identification and for analysis of genetic diversity.

  11. The relationship between the belief in a genetic cause for breast cancer and bilateral mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Keith J; Myrtveit, Solbjørg Makalani; Partridge, Ann H; Stephens, Melika; Stanton, Annette L

    2015-05-01

    Most women develop causal beliefs following diagnosis with breast cancer and these beliefs can guide decisions around their care and management. Bilateral mastectomy rates are increasing, although the benefits of this surgery are only established in a small percentage of women. In this study we investigated the relationship between causal beliefs and the decision to have a bilateral mastectomy. Women (N = 2,269) from the Army of Women's breast cancer research registry completed an online survey. Women were asked what they believed caused their cancer and responses were coded into 8 causal categories. Participants were also asked about the type of surgery they underwent following their breast cancer diagnosis. The odds ratios for having a double mastectomy were calculated for each causal category using random/bad luck as a referent category. Hormonal factors (22%) and genetics (19%) were the most common causal belief, followed by don't know (19%), environmental toxins (11%), negative emotions (9%), poor health behavior (8%), other (6%) and random/bad luck (6%). Compared with the referent category, the odds ratio of having a bilateral mastectomy was significantly higher in both the genetics and hormonal causal belief groups (OR = 2.36, 95% CI [1.38, 4.02] and OR = 1.98, 95% CI [1.16, 3.38], respectively). Beliefs in a genetic cause for breast cancer are common and are associated with high rates of bilateral mastectomy. This is despite evidence that the actual genetic contribution to breast cancer is much lower than perceived and that bilateral mastectomy is, in most cases, unlikely to improve survival. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Thin and fat cows, and the nonlinear genetic relationship between body condition score and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiezzi, F; Maltecca, C; Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Bittante, G

    2013-10-01

    (-0.392 to 0.248) lactation. The fat cow trait was scarcely related to fertility, particularly in first-parity cows (-0.203 to 0.281). Finally, the genetic relationships between thin cows and fertility were higher than those between BCS and fertility, both in first (-0.456 to 0.431) and second (-0.335 to 0.524) lactation. Body condition score can be considered a predictor of fertility, and it could be included in evaluation either as linear measure or as thin cow. In the second case, the genetic relationship with fertility was stronger, exacerbating the poorest body condition and considering the possible nonlinearity between fertility and energy reserves of the cow. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. GENETIC OF DIVERSITY AND RELATIONSHIP BAMBARA GROUNDNUT (Vigna Subteranea L. GENOTYPE LANDRACES OF WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enceng Sobari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subteranea L. is one of underutliized crops in Indonesia. Bambara groundnut is potential to be developed and can be utilized as an alternative food source in Indonesia. Bambara groundnut greatly varies and has a very wide area of adaptation. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field station at Ciparanje in Padjadjaran University. Starting on September 2014 until March 2015 with Randomized Block Design (RBD and repeated two times. The research used 30 accessions originally from various locations in West Java (Bandung, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Sumedang, Bogor, Majalengka and East Java (Lamongan, Madura. Genetic variability of Bambara groundnut landrace  in some West Java showed broad criteria on the characters fresh pod weight, dry pod weight, weight of 100 seeds, and weight per plot. Genotypes which had many similarities in some characters based on euclidian distance coefficient had close relationship.

  14. Current situation, genetic relationship and control measures of infectious bronchitis virus variants circulating in African regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Khataby

    2016-08-01

    Three S1 gene hypervariable regions were studied and compared to the reference genotypes/serotypes that found emerging in African regions. This comparison was based on phylogenetic trees, nucleotide and amino-acid sequence analysis. It clearly appears that IBV variants reported in Africa, display a low genetic relationship between them and with the majority of the reference strains emerging in neighboring countries, except the case of variants from Libya and Egypt that show a high relatedness. Also the Massachusetts serotypes were the most prevalent co-circulating with both serotypes, Italy02 type in Morocco and Qx-like genotype in South part of the African continent. In order to control the IBV variants in African regions, an efficient vaccination strategy program should be implemented.

  15. Applications of genetic algorithms on the structure-activity relationship analysis of some cinnamamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T J; Wang, J M; Liao, N; Xu, X J

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for 35 cinnamamides were studied. By using a genetic algorithm (GA), a group of multiple regression models with high fitness scores was generated. From the statistical analyses of the descriptors used in the evolution procedure, the principal features affecting the anticonvulsant activity were found. The significant descriptors include the partition coefficient, the molar refraction, the Hammet sigma constant of the substituents on the benzene ring, and the formation energy of the molecules. It could be found that the steric complementarity and the hydrophobic interaction between the inhibitors and the receptor were very important to the biological activity, while the contribution of the electronic effect was not so obvious. Moreover, by construction of the spline models for these four principal descriptors, the effective range for each descriptor was identified.

  16. Genetic relationship between methane emissions and conformation traits in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetouni, Larissa; Kargo, Morten; Lassen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Conformation traits have been widely explored in dairy cattle evaluation, being a part of the total merit index for Holstein cows in different countries. They have been used as a way to access the cow’s condition in general, based on its body features. Lots of studies have analyzed the relationship...... traits in Holstein cows: height (H), body depth (BD), chest width (CW), dairy character (DC) and body condition score (BCS). Data was collected on 1114 Holstein cows from 11 commercial herds in Denmark. Methane emission was measured during milking in milking robots, and then quantifed using information...... between conformation traits and other traits of interest in dairy cattle, such as fertility, longevity and feed effciency, but little is known about how methane emissions correlate with conformation traits. Therefore, our goal was to evaluate the genetic correlations between methane and six conformation...

  17. Phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the Polypedates leucomystax complex in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Buddhachat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic uncertainty of the Asian tree frog Polypedates leucomystax complex presents the challenging task of inferring its biogeographical history. Here, we describe its dispersion and the genetic relationships among different populations in Thailand, where we connect the population of the P. leucomystax complex of the Sunda Islands to the Indochina (mainland population based on analyses of 266 sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene. Our maternal genealogy implies that there are four well-supported lineages in Thailand, consisting of Northern A (clade A: Polypedates sp., Nan (clade B: P. cf. impresus, Southern (clade C: P. cf. leucomystax and Northern D (clade D: P. cf. megacephalus, with Bayesian posterior probability >0.9. Phylogeny and haplotype networks indicate that clades A, B and D are sympatric. In contrast, clade C (P. cf. leucomystax and clade D (P. cf. megacephalus are genetically divergent due to the geographical barrier of the Isthmus of Kra, resulting in an allopatric distribution. Climatic conditions, in particular differences in rainfall on each side of the Isthmus of Kra, may play an important role in limiting the immigration of both clades. For the within-populations of either clades C or D, there was no significant correlation between geographic and genetic distance by the isolation-by-distance test, indicating intraspecific-dispersal of each clade. Population expansion occurred in clade C, whereas clade D showed a constant population. Taken together, the P. leucomystax complex in South East Asia may have diversified under climatic pressure, leading to allopatric and/or sympatric speciation.

  18. Genetic variation and relationships of old maize genotypes (Zea mays l. detected using SDS-page

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vivodík

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of genetic diversity among the members of a species is of vital importance for successful breeding and adaptability. In the present study 40 old genotypes of maize from Hungary, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Slovak Republic  were evaluated for the total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE through vertical slab unit. The number of total scorable protein bands was twentythree as a result of SDS-PAGE technique but those that were not cosistent in reproducibility and showed occasional variation in sharpness and density were not considered. Out of twentythree polypeptide bands, 6 (31% were commonly present in all accessions and considered as monomorphic, while 17 (65% showed variations and considered as polymorphic. On the basis of banding profiles of proteins of different kDa, gel was divided into zones A, B and C. The major protein bands were lied in zones A and B, while minor bands were present in zones C. In zone A out of 10 protein bands, 1 were monomorphic and 9 were polymorphic. In zone B out of 8 protein bands, 3 was monomorphic and 5 was polymorphic and in zone C out of 5 protein bands, 2 were monomorphic whereas 3 polymorphic. The dendrogram tree demonstrated the relationship among the forty registered old maize genotypes according to the similarity index, using UPGMA cluster analysis. The dendrogram was divided into two main clusters. The first one contained eleven genotypes from maize, while the second cluster contained the twentynine genotypes of maize. Similarly the present study of genetic variability in the seed storage polypeptide determined by SDS-PAGE technique proved that it is fruitful to identify genetic diversity among accessions of maize. 

  19. Genetic diversity and relationships in mulberry (genus Morus as revealed by RAPD and ISSR marker assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Morus, known as mulberry, is a dioecious and cross-pollinating plant that is the sole food for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Traditional methods using morphological traits for classification are largely unsuccessful in establishing the diversity and relationships among different mulberry species because of environmental influence on traits of interest. As a more robust alternative, PCR based marker assays including RAPD and ISSR were employed to study the genetic diversity and interrelationships among twelve domesticated and three wild mulberry species. Results RAPD analysis using 19 random primers generated 128 discrete markers ranging from 500–3000 bp in size. One-hundred-nineteen of these were polymorphic (92%, with an average of 6.26 markers per primer. Among these were a few putative species-specific amplification products which could be useful for germplasm classification and introgression studies. The ISSR analysis employed six anchored primers, 4 of which generated 93 polymorphic markers with an average of 23.25 markers per primer. Cluster analysis of RAPD and ISSR data using the WINBOOT package to calculate the Dice coefficient resulted into two clusters, one comprising polyploid wild species and the other with domesticated (mostly diploid species. Conclusion These results suggest that RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for mulberry genetic diversity analysis and germplasm characterization, and that putative species-specific markers may be obtained which can be converted to SCARs after further studies.

  20. Genetic Relationships among Hylocereus and Selenicereus Vine Cacti (Cactaceae): Evidence from Hybridization and Cytological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEL-ZUR, NOEMI; ABBO, SHAHAL; BAR-ZVI, DUDY; MIZRAHI, YOSEF

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Hylocereus and Selenicereus are native to tropical and sub-tropical America. Based on its taxonomic status and crossability relations it was postulated that H. megalanthus (syn. S. megalanthus) is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 44) derived from natural hybridization between two closely related diploid taxa. The present work aimed at elucidating the genetic relationships between species of the two genera. • Methods Crosses were performed and the putative hybrids were analysed by chromosome counts and morphological traits. The ploidy level of hybrids was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of rDNA sites. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used in an attempt to identify the putative diploid genome donors of H. megalanthus and an artificial interploid hybrid. • Key Results Reciprocal crosses among four diploid Hylocereus species (H. costaricensis, H. monacanthus (syn. H. polyrhizus), H. undatus and Hylocereus sp.) yielded viable diploid hybrids, with regular chromosome pairing. Reciprocal crosses between these Hylocereus spp. and H. megalanthus yielded viable triploid, pentaploid, hexaploid and aneuploid hybrids. Morphological and phenological traits confirm the hybrid origin. In situ detection of rDNA sites was in accord with the ploidy status of the species and hybrid studied. GISH results indicated that overall sequence composition of H. megalanthus is similar to that of H. ocamponis and S. grandiflorus. High sequence similarity was also found between the parental genomes of H. monacanthus and H. megalanthus in one triploid hybrid. • Conclusions The ease of obtaining partially fertile F1 hybrids and the relative sequence similarity (in GISH study) suggest close genetic relationships among the taxa analysed. PMID:15329334

  1. Genetic variations and relationships of cultivated and weedy types of perilla species in Korea and Japan using multi DNA markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.; Zheng, S.; Lee, J.; Hong, S.

    2017-01-01

    The genus Perilla, known as an oil crop or a Chinese medicine, vegetable crop, is widely cultivated in East Asia. It occurs in two distinct varieties, var. frutescens and var. crispa, and their genetic relationship is still obscure. To understand the genetic diversity and relationships of the cultivated and weedy types of Perilla crops in Korea, Japan and China, we evaluated the genetic variation of 20 accessions by 3 rDNA markers. Among these three markers, the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of Perilla crops showed less sequence variations than the 5S and 18S genes. There were abundant variable nucleotide sites appearing in the 5S and 18S genes. Especially in the 18S gene, the variable nucleotide sites showed specificity between some Perilla type and other varieties. JPN1 showed 6 special variable nucleotide sites differing from other varieties, resulting in the farthest phylogenetic relationship in the 18S tree. CHI15 shared 8 special variable sites, also showing far phylogenetic relationship with other varieties. According to the sequence analysis result, the cultivated types of Korean var. frutescens showed relatively more genetic diversity than those of Japanese var. frutescens, while Korean var. crispa showed lower genetic diversity than those of Japanese var. crispa. However, the intra- or inter-variety genetic distance did not have significant difference. This work provided more sequence resources of Perilla crops and evidences to evaluate the genetic variation and relationships. Our result would help molecular type identification, functional plant breeding and trait improvement of Perilla crops. (author)

  2. Relationship between heavy metals pollution and genetic diversity in Mediterranean populations of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator (Montagu) (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungherese, G.; Mengoni, A.; Somigli, S.; Baroni, D.; Focardi, S.; Ugolini, A.

    2010-01-01

    Trace metals are one of the groups of pollutants that reduce genetic variability in natural populations, causing the phenomenon known as 'genetic erosion'. In this study we evaluate the relationship between trace metals contamination (Hg, Cd and Cu) and genetic variability, assessed using fluorescent Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (fISSRs). We used eight populations of a well-established biomonitor of trace metals on sandy beaches: the amphipod Talitrus saltator. The trace metals analysis confirmed the ability of sandhoppers to accumulate Hg, Cd and Cu. Moreover, populations from sites with high Hg availability had the lowest values of genetic diversity. Our results validate the use of fISSR markers in genetic studies in sandhoppers and support the 'genetic erosion' hypothesis by showing the negative influence of Hg contamination on sandhopper genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic variability assessed with fISSR markers could be successfully employed as a biomarker of Hg exposure. - Genetic variability of sandhoppers is affected by heavy metals contamination.

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationships between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood: sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, K C; Rowe, D C

    1999-07-01

    This study investigated (a) genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between family and school environment and depressed mood and (b) potential sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to both variation in and covariation between family connectedness, school connectedness, and adolescent depressed mood. Data are from 2,302 adolescent sibling pairs (mean age = 16 years) who were part of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Although genetic factors appeared to be important overall, model-fitting analyses revealed that the best-fitting model was a model that allowed for different parameters for male and female adolescents. Genetic contributions to variation in all 3 variables were greater among female adolescents than male adolescents, especially for depressed mood. Genetic factors also contributed to the correlations between family and school environment and adolescent depressed mood, although, again, these factors were stronger for female than for male adolescents.

  4. Evaluation of Mungbean Mutant Lines to Drought Stress and Their Genetic Relationships Using SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliasti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of mungbean cultivarstolerant to drought stress through mutation breeding approach would enable us to anticipate the crop yield-reducing effects of climate changes. The objective of this research was to evaluate the yield performance of mungbean mutant lines that showed tolerance to drought stress, and to analyze their genetic diversity and relationship among mutant lines using SSR markers. The study was conducted during the dry season of 2012 in the Muneng experimental farm, Probolinggo, East Java. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with four replications. Five mutant lines and two parental lines as control were tested for evaluation of yield and drought tolerance under twoenvironments of two irrigation systems as treatment. The two environmental conditions consisted of optimal irrigation (at least three times: at planting, flowering and during pod filling and suboptimal irrigation (two times at planting and flowering. To evaluate genetic variation among selected mutant lines and their discrimination from parental lines in molecular level, a cluster analysis was performed using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA in the NTSYS software. The results showed that three mutant lines, including PsJ30, PsJ31, PsJ32 produced the highest grain yields of 1.17, 1.01, and 1.04 ton/ha, respectively, compared to the other mutant lines and the parents Gelatik (0.85 ton/ha and Perkutut (0.87 ton/ha as control check. Of those mutant lines, PSJ31 was the most tolerant to drought with sensitivity index value of 0.47. The PSJ31 has now been officially released as a new variety ( 2013, named as Muri which was identified to have high yield and tolerant to drought. Based on 23 SSR markers used for clustering analysis of those 3 selected mutant lines,9SSR markers (MBSS R033; satt137; MBSSR008; MBSSR203; MBSSR013; MBSSR021; MBSSR016; MBSSR136; and DMBSSR013 were successfully identified the three mungbean mutant

  5. Using aflp to identify genetic relationships in cassia species from Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihanat, A.; Rungsihirunrat, K.; Chareonsap, P. P.; Ruangrungsi, N.

    2017-01-01

    Several species of Cassia are used in Thai folk medicine as a laxative and a treatment for skin infections. However, the taxonomy of the GenusCassia is quite complex and intriguing. Thus, the correct identification of the species of this genus is necessary for efficacy and safety. The phylogenetic relationships among the 16 species of Cassiagenus existing in Thailand were evaluated using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Combinations of 70 primers were screened and eleven primer combinations produced a total of 849 distinct and reproducible bands ranging from 60 to 100 bands with an average of 77.18 bands per primer combination. The genetic distances were calculated based on the AFLP bands that had been amplified using the eleven primer combinations. The similarity indices (SI) ranged from 0.25 to 0.78. The dendrogram was created using the Unweighted Pair Group Method of the Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) and the genotypes were divided into two major groups. The results indicate that the phylogenetic relationships are associated with the morphological characterization. In conclusion, an AFLP marker could be an efficient and reliable tool for the identification of a Cassia species. (author)

  6. Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship analysis of Jatropha curcas L. inferred from nrDNA ITS sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guo-Ye; Chen, Fang; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Tian, Yin-Shuai; Yu, Mao-Qun; Han, Xue-Qin; Yuan, Li-Chun; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships among 102 Jatropha curcas accessions from Asia, Africa, and the Americas were assessed using the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA ITS). The average G+C content (65.04%) was considerably higher than the A+T (34.96%) content. The estimated genetic diversity revealed moderate genetic variation. The pairwise genetic divergences (GD) between haplotypes were evaluated and ranged from 0.000 to 0.017, suggesting a higher level of genetic differentiation in Mexican accessions than those of other regions. Phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific divergence were inferred by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum parsimony (MP), and median joining (MJ) network analysis and were generally resolved. The J. curcas accessions were consistently divided into three lineages, groups A, B, and C, which demonstrated distant geographical isolation and genetic divergence between American accessions and those from other regions. The MJ network analysis confirmed that Central America was the possible center of origin. The putative migration route suggested that J. curcas was distributed from Mexico or Brazil, via Cape Verde and then split into two routes. One route was dispersed to Spain, then migrated to China, eventually spreading to southeastern Asia, while the other route was dispersed to Africa, via Madagascar and migrated to China, later spreading to southeastern Asia. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Leaf area index, biomass carbon and growth rate of radiata pine genetic types and relationships with LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter N. Beets; Stephen Reutebuch; Mark O. Kimberley; Graeme R. Oliver; Stephen H. Pearce; Robert J. McGaughey

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between discrete-return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and radiata pine leaf area index (LAI), stem volume, above ground carbon, and carbon sequestration were developed using 10 plots with directly measured biomass and leaf area data, and 36 plots with modelled carbon data. The plots included a range of genetic types established on north- and...

  8. [Genetic diversity and kin relationships among wild and cultivated populations of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) using microsatellite markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, José Alfredo Hernández; Urpí, Jorge Mora; Nuñez, Oscar Rocha

    2008-03-01

    Genetic diversity and kin relationships among wild and cultivated populations of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) using microsatellite markers. The genetic diversity of the peach palm (Pejibaye, Bactris gasipaes Kunth) was evaluated using four nuclear DNA microsatellites in an effort to elucidate the evolution and domestication of this crop. A total of 258 samples from seven wild populations and eleven races were analyzed. All loci were polymorphic and a total of 50 alleles were identified. Average genetic diversity (0.67) and genetic differentiation among populations (Fst=0.16) were high when all populations were considered. Genetic differentiation was lower when the populations were grouped according to their origin into Western and Eastern populations (Fst=0.13 for both). Gene flow was slightly higher among Western populations (Nm=1.71) than among Eastern populations (Nm=1.62). The Putumayo, Yurimaguas, Vaupés, Tucurrique and Guatuso races seem to have been subjected to intense human selection. Hybrid populations exist in Azuero, Tuira, Cauca, Vaupés, Puerto Ayacucho and Solimões, probably resulting from exchange and introgressions among sympatric wild and cultivated populations. Genetic distance (Dm) was estimated to determine the degree of relationship among populations using the neighbor-joining method; the wild populations from Maracaibo were used as the outgroup. The populations were divided into three general groups: Maracaibo (B. caribaea, B. macana var veragua and B. macana var arapuey), Eastern Amazon (Tembe, Pará and Acre) and a third group with two subgroups, Western (Azuero, Chontilla, Tuira, Cauca, Tucurrique and Guatuso) and Upper Amazon (B. dahlgreniana, Puerto Ayacucho, Solimões, Vaupés and Putumayo). The genetic relationships strongly support the hypothesis that peach palm was brought into cultivation independently in no less than three areas: the Western Andes (extending into lower Central America); Upper Amazon (extending

  9. Cross species amplification ability of novel microsatellites isolated from Jatropha curcas and genetic relationship with sister taxa : Cross species amplification and genetic relationship of Jatropha using novel microsatellites

    KAUST Repository

    Pamidimarri, D. V N N Sudheer; Mastan, Shaik G.; Rahman, Hifzur; Ravi Prakash, Ch; Singh, Sweta V.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2010-01-01

    -21 amplified in J. curcas. However, these markers did not show any cross species amplification. Overall percentage of polymorphism (PP) among the species studied was 38% and the mean genetic similarity (GS) was found to be 0.86. The highest PP (24

  10. Evaluation of the relationship and genetic overlap between Kashin-Beck disease and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y; Hao, J; Xiao, X; Guo, X; Wang, W; Yang, T; Shen, H; Tian, Q; Tan, L; Deng, H-W; Zhang, F

    2016-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is one of the major factors affecting the development of osteoarthritis (OA) but there is currently no information available regarding the relationship between BMI and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationship and genetic overlap between BMI and KBD. A total of 2050 Han Chinese subjects participated in this study. Using a cohort of 333 grade I KBD patients, logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between BMI and KBD. Another independent sample of 1717 subjects was genotyped for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Affymetrix Human SNP 6.0 Arrays. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effect concordance analysis (SECA) was applied to the GWAS summaries of KBD and BMI for pleiotropy analysis. Genome-wide bivariate association analysis (GWBAA) of KBD and BMI was carried out to identify the genes with pleiotropic effects on KBD and BMI. The relevance of identified genes with KBD was validated by gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry. BMI correlated positively with knee movement disorder in KBD (coefficient β = 0.068, p = 0.045). SECA identified a significant pleiotropic effect (empirical p = 0.021) between KBD and BMI. In the GWBAA, the rs1893577 of the ADAMTS1 gene achieved the most significant association signal (p = 7.38 × 10 -9 ). ADAMTS1 was also up-regulated in KBD vs. normal (ratio = 2.64 ± 2.80) and KBD vs. OA (ratio = 2.31 ± 2.01). The rate of ADAMTS1-positive chondrocytes in KBD was significantly higher than that in OA (p < 0.05) and healthy controls (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that ADAMTS1 is a novel susceptibility gene for KBD.

  11. TAXONOMY AND GENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF PANGASIIDAE, ASIAN CATFISHES, BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudhy Gustiano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pangasiids are economically important riverine catfishes generally residing in freshwater from the Indian subcontinent to the Indonesian Archipelago. The systematics of this family are still poorly known. Consequently, lack of such basic information impedes the understanding of the biology of the Pangasiids and the study of their aquaculture potential as well as improvement of seed production and growth performance. The objectives of the present study are to clarify phylogeny of this family based on a biometric analysis and molecular evidence using 12S ribosomal mtDNA on the total of 1070 specimens. The study revealed that 28 species are recognised as valid in Pangasiidae. Four genera are also recognized as Helicophagus Bleeker 1858, Pangasianodon Chevey 1930, Pteropangasius Fowler 1937, and Pangasius Valenciennes 1840 instead of two as reported by previous workers. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the recognised genera, and genetic relationships among taxa. Overall, trees from the different analyses show similar topologies and confirm the hypothesis derived from geological history, palaeontology, and similar models in other taxa of fishes from the same area. The oldest genus may already have existed when the Asian mainland was still connected to the islands in the southern part about 20 million years ago.

  12. Assessing the genetic relationships of Curcuma alismatifolia varieties using simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, S; Abdullah, T L; Abdullah, N A P; Ahmad, Z; Karimi, E; Shabanimofrad, M R

    2014-09-05

    The genus Curcuma is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) that has recently become popular for use as flowering pot plants, both indoors and as patio and landscape plants. We used PCR-based molecular markers (SSRs) to elucidate genetic variation and relationships between five varieties of Curcuma (Curcuma alismatifolia) cultivated in Malaysia. Of the primers tested, 8 (of 17) SSR primers were selected for their reproducibility and high rates of polymorphism. The number of presumed alleles revealed by the SSR analysis ranged from two to six alleles, with a mean value of 3.25 alleles per locus. The values of HO and HE ranged from 0 to 0.8 (mean value of 0.2) and 0.1837 to 0.7755 (mean value of 0.5102), respectively. Eight SSR primers yielded 26 total amplified fragments and revealed high rates of polymorphism among the varieties studied. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.26 to 0.73. Dice's similarity coefficient was calculated for all pairwise comparisons and used to construct an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram. Similarity coefficient values from 0.2105 to 0.6667 (with an average of 0.4386) were found among the five varieties examined. A cluster analysis of data using a UPGMA algorithm divided the five varieties/hybrids into 2 groups.

  13. Genetic relationship between body condition score, fertility, type and production traits in Brown Swiss dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS, calving interval (CI, angularity (ANG, strength (FV and milk yield (MY on Brown Swiss cattle using data collected in the alpine provinces of Bolzano- Bozen and Trentino. The data set consisted of 28,538 test day records of BCS and MY from 3,282 Brown Swiss cows in lactation reared in 109 herds; production traits were merged with 13,796 repeated individual calving interval records and 38,711 type traits records. A multi-traits REML animal model was used to estimate (covariance components, with repeated observations. Heritability estimates for BCS, FV and ANG was 18%, 18% and 27%, respectively, while estimates for CI was very low (2%. Genetic correlations between CI and BCS was -0.44; between BCS and ANG was - 0.64; between BCS and MY was -0.35; between ANG and CI was 0.12. In conclusion, the selection for MY and ANG negatively affect fertility and average condition score of Brown cows. BCS recorded during lactation could be proposed as a useful trait for indirect selection aimed to improve fertility of cows.

  14. Genetic relationships between temperament of calves at auction and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazuya; Uchida, Hiroshi; Inoue, Keiichi

    2017-10-01

    Correlations of calves' temperament with carcass traits were estimated to clarify the genetic relationships between them in Japanese Black cattle. The temperament records for 3128 calves during auction at a calf market were scored on a scale of 1 (calm) to 5 (nervous) as temperament score (TS), and the TS were divided into two groups (TSG): TS 1 and 2 comprised TSG 1, and 3 to 5 constituted TSG 2. Carcass data were obtained from 33 552 fattened cattle. A threshold animal model was used for analyzing the underlying liability for TSG, whereas a linear one was used for TS and carcass traits. The heritability estimates for TS and TSG were 0.12 and 0.11, respectively. On the other hand, moderate to high heritability estimates were obtained for carcass traits (0.40 to 0.68). The temperament scores were negatively correlated with carcass weight, rib thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.13 to -0.59). In contrast, weak to moderate positive correlations were found between the temperament scores and rib eye area or yield estimate (0.16 to 0.45). The temperament scores and beef marbling score had no correlation. These results showed that it is possible to improve temperament and carcass traits simultaneously. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Temporal variability of TEC deduced from groundbased measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosert, M.; Ezquer, R.G.; Jadur, C.; Radicella, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the behaviour of the integrated total electron content (ITEC) deduced from electron density profiles of two Argentine stations: Tucuman (26.9 S; 294.6 E) and San Juan (31.5 S; 290.4 E). The ITEC values have been obtained by the technique proposed by Reinisch and Huang (2000). The database includes electron density profiles derived from ionograms recorded at 4 typical hours of the day (00.00, 06.00, 12.00 and 18.00 LT) during different seasonal and solar activity conditions. An analysis of the day to day variability of ITEC has also been done. (author)

  16. Deducing Energy Consumer Behavior from Smart Meter Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Heick, Rune; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting...... the results in a natural language. The framework allows a fast exploration and integration of a variety of machine learning algorithms combined with data recovery mechanisms for improving the recognition’s accuracy. Consequently, the framework generates natural language reports of the user’s behavior from...

  17. Genetic analysis reveals diversity and genetic relationship among Trichoderma isolates from potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Al-Oweisi, Fatma A; Edwards, Simon G; Al-Nadabi, Hamed; Al-Fahdi, Ahmed M

    2015-07-28

    Trichoderma is one of the most common fungi in soil. However, little information is available concerning the diversity of Trichoderma in soil with no previous history of cultivation. This study was conducted to investigate the most common species and the level of genetic relatedness of Trichoderma species from uncultivated soil in relation to cultivated soil and potting media. A total of 24, 15 and 13 Trichoderma isolates were recovered from 84 potting media samples, 45 cultivated soil samples and 65 uncultivated soil samples, respectively. Analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the translation elongation factor gene (EF1) indicated the presence of 9 Trichoderma species: T. harzianum (16 isolates), T. asperellum (13), T. citrinoviride (9), T. orientalis (3), T. ghanense (3), T. hamatum (3), T. longibrachiatum (2), T. atroviride (2), and T. viride (1). All species were found to occur in potting media samples, while five Trichoderma species were recovered from the cultivated soils and four from the uncultivated soils. AFLP analysis of the 52 Trichoderma isolates produced 52 genotypes and 993 polymorphic loci. Low to moderate levels of genetic diversity were found within populations of Trichoderma species (H = 0.0780 to 0.2208). Analysis of Molecular Variance indicated the presence of very low levels of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.0002 to 0.0139) among populations of the same Trichoderma species obtained from the potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil. The study provides evidence for occurrence of Trichoderma isolates in soil with no previous history of cultivation. The lack of genetic differentiation among Trichoderma populations from potting media, cultivated soil and uncultivated soil suggests that some factors could have been responsible for moving Trichoderma propagules among the three substrates. The study reports for the first time the presence of 4 Trichoderma species in Oman: T

  18. Genetic relationships in the desert watermelon citrullus colocynthis as viewed with high-frequency, oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. are a viable source for enhancing disease and pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. However, there is information about their genetic diversity and relationships to watermelon cultivars. Genetic diversity and relationships were ...

  19. Genetic Vulnerability and the Relationship of Commercial Germplasms of Maize in Brazil with the Nested Association Mapping Parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rogério Braatz de Andrade

    Full Text Available A few breeding companies dominate the maize (Zea mays L. hybrid market in Brazil: Monsanto® (35%, DuPont Pioneer® (30%, Dow Agrosciences® (15%, Syngenta® (10% and Helix Sementes (4%. Therefore, it is important to monitor the genetic diversity in commercial germplasms as breeding practices, registration and marketing of new cultivars can lead to a significant reduction of the genetic diversity. Reduced genetic variation may lead to crop vulnerabilities, food insecurity and limited genetic gains following selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic vulnerability risk by examining the relationship between the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms and the Nested Association Mapping (NAM Parents. For this purpose, we used the commercial hybrids with the largest market share in Brazil and the NAM parents. The hybrids were genotyped for 768 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, using the Illumina Goldengate® platform. The NAM parent genomic data, comprising 1,536 SNPs for each line, were obtained from the Panzea data bank. The population structure, genetic diversity and the correlation between allele frequencies were analyzed. Based on the estimated effective population size and genetic variability, it was found that there is a low risk of genetic vulnerability in the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms. However, the genetic diversity is lower than those found in the NAM parents. Furthermore, the Brazilian germplasms presented no close relations with most NAM parents, except B73. This indicates that B73, or its heterotic group (Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic, contributed to the development of the commercial Brazilian germplasms.

  20. Genetic Vulnerability and the Relationship of Commercial Germplasms of Maize in Brazil with the Nested Association Mapping Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luciano Rogério Braatz de; Fritsche Neto, Roberto; Granato, Ítalo Stefanine Correia; Sant'Ana, Gustavo César; Morais, Pedro Patric Pinho; Borém, Aluízio

    2016-01-01

    A few breeding companies dominate the maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid market in Brazil: Monsanto® (35%), DuPont Pioneer® (30%), Dow Agrosciences® (15%), Syngenta® (10%) and Helix Sementes (4%). Therefore, it is important to monitor the genetic diversity in commercial germplasms as breeding practices, registration and marketing of new cultivars can lead to a significant reduction of the genetic diversity. Reduced genetic variation may lead to crop vulnerabilities, food insecurity and limited genetic gains following selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic vulnerability risk by examining the relationship between the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms and the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) Parents. For this purpose, we used the commercial hybrids with the largest market share in Brazil and the NAM parents. The hybrids were genotyped for 768 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), using the Illumina Goldengate® platform. The NAM parent genomic data, comprising 1,536 SNPs for each line, were obtained from the Panzea data bank. The population structure, genetic diversity and the correlation between allele frequencies were analyzed. Based on the estimated effective population size and genetic variability, it was found that there is a low risk of genetic vulnerability in the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms. However, the genetic diversity is lower than those found in the NAM parents. Furthermore, the Brazilian germplasms presented no close relations with most NAM parents, except B73. This indicates that B73, or its heterotic group (Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic), contributed to the development of the commercial Brazilian germplasms.

  1. Genetic Vulnerability and the Relationship of Commercial Germplasms of Maize in Brazil with the Nested Association Mapping Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche Neto, Roberto; Granato, Ítalo Stefanine Correia; Sant’Ana, Gustavo César; Morais, Pedro Patric Pinho; Borém, Aluízio

    2016-01-01

    A few breeding companies dominate the maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid market in Brazil: Monsanto® (35%), DuPont Pioneer® (30%), Dow Agrosciences® (15%), Syngenta® (10%) and Helix Sementes (4%). Therefore, it is important to monitor the genetic diversity in commercial germplasms as breeding practices, registration and marketing of new cultivars can lead to a significant reduction of the genetic diversity. Reduced genetic variation may lead to crop vulnerabilities, food insecurity and limited genetic gains following selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic vulnerability risk by examining the relationship between the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms and the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) Parents. For this purpose, we used the commercial hybrids with the largest market share in Brazil and the NAM parents. The hybrids were genotyped for 768 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), using the Illumina Goldengate® platform. The NAM parent genomic data, comprising 1,536 SNPs for each line, were obtained from the Panzea data bank. The population structure, genetic diversity and the correlation between allele frequencies were analyzed. Based on the estimated effective population size and genetic variability, it was found that there is a low risk of genetic vulnerability in the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms. However, the genetic diversity is lower than those found in the NAM parents. Furthermore, the Brazilian germplasms presented no close relations with most NAM parents, except B73. This indicates that B73, or its heterotic group (Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic), contributed to the development of the commercial Brazilian germplasms. PMID:27780247

  2. Potential of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT Markers to Estimate Genetic Diversity and Relationships among Chinese Elymus sibiricus Accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elymus sibiricus as an important forage grass and gene pool for improving cereal crops, that is widely distributed in West and North China. Information on its genetic diversity and relationships is limited but necessary for germplasm collection, conservation and future breeding. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT markers were used for studying the genetic diversity and relationships among 53 E. sibiricus accessions from its primary distribution area in China. A total of 173 bands were generated from 16 SCoT primers, 159 bands of which were polymorphic with the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB of 91.91%. Based upon population structure analysis five groups were formed. The cluster analysis separated the accessions into two major clusters and three sub-clusters, similar to results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA. The molecular variance analysis (AMOVA showed that genetic variation was greater within geographical regions (50.99% than between them (49.01%. Furthermore, the study also suggested that collecting and evaluating E. sibiricus germplasm for major geographic regions and special environments broadens the available genetic base and illustrates the range of variation. The results of the present study showed that SCoT markers were efficient in assessing the genetic diversity among E. sibiricus accessions.

  3. Analysis of the genetic basis of disease in the context of worldwide human relationships and migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Corona

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity across different human populations can enhance understanding of the genetic basis of disease. We calculated the genetic risk of 102 diseases in 1,043 unrelated individuals across 51 populations of the Human Genome Diversity Panel. We found that genetic risk for type 2 diabetes and pancreatic cancer decreased as humans migrated toward East Asia. In addition, biliary liver cirrhosis, alopecia areata, bladder cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, membranous nephropathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, ulcerative colitis, and vitiligo have undergone genetic risk differentiation. This analysis represents a large-scale attempt to characterize genetic risk differentiation in the context of migration. We anticipate that our findings will enable detailed analysis pertaining to the driving forces behind genetic risk differentiation.

  4. Morphological and genetic divergence between Agave inaequidens, A. cupreata and the domesticated A. hookeri. Analysis of their evolutionary relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen J Figueredo-Urbina

    Full Text Available Agave inaequidens and A. cupreata are wild species with some populations under incipient management, while A. hookeri is exclusively cultivated, used for producing the fermented beverage pulque. These species are closely related and sympatric members of the Crenatae group, but taxonomists have previously hypothesized that A. inaequidens is the most probable ancestor of A. hookeri. Our study aims at evaluating patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the three species, in order to analyze their ecological and possible evolutionary relationships. We studied 24 agave populations, 16 of them of Agave inaequidens, four of A. cupreata and four of A. hookeri. Population morphometric and genetics studies were performed using 39 morphological characters and 10 nuclear microsatellites, respectively. We estimated levels of morphological and genetic diversity and dissimilarity, as well as genetic structure and gene flow among populations and species. The three species were clearly differentiated by general plant size, lateral teeth, terminal spines, flowers and fruit size. The largest plants were those of A. hookeri followed by A. inaequidens and the smallest were A. cupreata. Multivariate analyses indicated greater morphological similarity between A. hookeri and cultivated A. inaequidens, while A. cupreata consistently appeared as a separate group. We identified similar levels of morphological diversity index (MDI in the three species, but higher genetic diversity in A. inaequidens (MDI = 0.401-0.435; HE = 0.704-0.733, than in A. cupreata (MDI = 0.455-0.523; HE = 0.480-0.510 and the predominantly vegetative propagated crop A. hookeri (MDI = 0.335-0.688; HE = 0.450-0.567, a pattern consistent with our expectations. The morphological and genetic similarities between cultivated A. inaequidens and A. hookeri support the hypothetical evolutionary relationships among these species, but studies with cpDNA and SNPs, and including other

  5. Morphological and genetic divergence between Agave inaequidens, A. cupreata and the domesticated A. hookeri. Analysis of their evolutionary relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo-Urbina, Carmen J; Casas, Alejandro; Torres-García, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Agave inaequidens and A. cupreata are wild species with some populations under incipient management, while A. hookeri is exclusively cultivated, used for producing the fermented beverage pulque. These species are closely related and sympatric members of the Crenatae group, but taxonomists have previously hypothesized that A. inaequidens is the most probable ancestor of A. hookeri. Our study aims at evaluating patterns of morphological and genetic divergence among populations of the three species, in order to analyze their ecological and possible evolutionary relationships. We studied 24 agave populations, 16 of them of Agave inaequidens, four of A. cupreata and four of A. hookeri. Population morphometric and genetics studies were performed using 39 morphological characters and 10 nuclear microsatellites, respectively. We estimated levels of morphological and genetic diversity and dissimilarity, as well as genetic structure and gene flow among populations and species. The three species were clearly differentiated by general plant size, lateral teeth, terminal spines, flowers and fruit size. The largest plants were those of A. hookeri followed by A. inaequidens and the smallest were A. cupreata. Multivariate analyses indicated greater morphological similarity between A. hookeri and cultivated A. inaequidens, while A. cupreata consistently appeared as a separate group. We identified similar levels of morphological diversity index (MDI) in the three species, but higher genetic diversity in A. inaequidens (MDI = 0.401-0.435; HE = 0.704-0.733), than in A. cupreata (MDI = 0.455-0.523; HE = 0.480-0.510) and the predominantly vegetative propagated crop A. hookeri (MDI = 0.335-0.688; HE = 0.450-0.567), a pattern consistent with our expectations. The morphological and genetic similarities between cultivated A. inaequidens and A. hookeri support the hypothetical evolutionary relationships among these species, but studies with cpDNA and SNPs, and including other member of the

  6. Integrative analysis reveals relationships of genetic and epigenetic alterations in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine H Kresse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteosarcomas are the most common non-haematological primary malignant tumours of bone, and all conventional osteosarcomas are high-grade tumours showing complex genomic aberrations. We have integrated genome-wide genetic and epigenetic profiles from the EuroBoNeT panel of 19 human osteosarcoma cell lines based on microarray technologies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cell lines showed complex patterns of DNA copy number changes, where genomic copy number gains were significantly associated with gene-rich regions and losses with gene-poor regions. By integrating the datasets, 350 genes were identified as having two types of aberrations (gain/over-expression, hypo-methylation/over-expression, loss/under-expression or hyper-methylation/under-expression using a recurrence threshold of 6/19 (>30% cell lines. The genes showed in general alterations in either DNA copy number or DNA methylation, both within individual samples and across the sample panel. These 350 genes are involved in embryonic skeletal system development and morphogenesis, as well as remodelling of extracellular matrix. The aberrations of three selected genes, CXCL5, DLX5 and RUNX2, were validated in five cell lines and five tumour samples using PCR techniques. Several genes were hyper-methylated and under-expressed compared to normal osteoblasts, and expression could be reactivated by demethylation using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment for four genes tested; AKAP12, CXCL5, EFEMP1 and IL11RA. Globally, there was as expected a significant positive association between gain and over-expression, loss and under-expression as well as hyper-methylation and under-expression, but gain was also associated with hyper-methylation and under-expression, suggesting that hyper-methylation may oppose the effects of increased copy number for detrimental genes. CONCLUSIONS: Integrative analysis of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic alterations identified dependencies and relationships between

  7. Genetic structure and relationships of an associated population in ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud evaluated by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyuan Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud is one of the most important natural fibre crops. For enhanced crop development, it is necessary to understand its population structure and genetic relationships. In this study, we assessed the genetic diversity and population structure of 134 ramie accessions (with three plants per accession from 12 regions by using 36 simple sequence repeat markers. The 36 microsatellite primers revealed 149 alleles in 134 ramie populations, with an average of 4.14 alleles per locus. The structure analysis divided the 134 ramie accessions into three groups (I, II and III, and into further six subgroups (a, b, c, d, e and f. In Subgroup b, 13 accessions were from Guizhou Province, 9 accessions were from Sichuan Province and the remaining 20 accessions were from Chongqing (4, Hunan (8, Guangxi (4, Jiangxi (2, Yunan (1 and Taiwan (1. In Subgroup d, 22 accessions were from Guizhou Province and the remaining 17 accessions were from Chongqing (6, Sichuan (5 and Yunnan (6. It can be inferred that the genetic background of these ramie accessions did not always correlate with their geographical regions. Similar results were found in Subgroups a and f. The pair-wise genetic similarity coefficients between the 134 accessions ranged from 0.390 to 0.939, which suggested that there was abundant genetic diversity in the ramie accessions. These markers have provided important information about the genetic structure of ramie, which can contribute to future breeding and improvement programmes for these resources.

  8. Genetic relationships between body condition score and reproduction traits in Canadian Holstein and Ayrshire first-parity cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, C; Loker, S; Gengler, N; Sewalem, A; Miglior, F

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic relationship between body condition score (BCS) and reproduction traits for first-parity Canadian Ayrshire and Holstein cows. Body condition scores were collected by field staff several times over the lactation in herds from Québec, and reproduction records (including both fertility and calving traits) were extracted from the official database used for the Canadian genetic evaluation of those herds. For each breed, six 2-trait animal models were run; they included random regressions that allowed the estimation of genetic correlations between BCS over the lactation and reproduction traits that are measured as a single lactation record. Analyses were undertaken on data from 108 Ayrshire herds and 342 Holstein herds. Average daily heritabilities of BCS were close to 0.13 for both breeds; these relatively low estimates might be explained by the high variability among herds and BCS evaluators. Genetic correlations between BCS and interval fertility traits (days from calving to first service, days from first service to conception, and days open) were negative and ranged between -0.77 and -0.58 for Ayrshire and between -0.31 and -0.03 for Holstein. Genetic correlations between BCS and 56-d nonreturn rate at first insemination were positive and moderate. The trends of these genetic correlations over the lactation suggest that a genetically low BCS in early lactation would increase the number of days that the primiparous cow was not pregnant and would decrease the chances of the primiparous cow to conceive at first service. Genetic correlations between BCS and calving traits were generally the strongest at calving and decreased with increasing days in milk. The correlation between BCS at calving and maternal calving ease was 0.21 for Holstein and 0.31 for Ayrshire and emphasized the relationship between fat cows around calving and dystocia. Genetic correlations between calving traits and BCS during the subsequent

  9. The relationship between species diversity and genetic structure in the rare Picea chihuahuana tree species community, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Rodríguez, Sergio Leonel; Quiñones-Pérez, Carmen Zulema; Moya, Daniel; Hernández-Tecles, Enrique; López-Sánchez, Carlos Antonio; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Species diversity and genetic diversity, the most basic elements of biodiversity, have long been treated as separate topics, although populations evolve within a community context. Recent studies on community genetics and ecology have suggested that genetic diversity is not completely independent of species diversity. The Mexican Picea chihuahuana Martínez is an endemic species listed as "Endangered" on the Red List. Forty populations of Chihuahua spruce have been identified. This species is often associated with tree species of eight genera in gallery forests. This rare Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area no more than 300 ha and has been subject of several studies involving different topics such as ecology, genetic structure and climate change. The overall aim of these studies was to obtain a dataset for developing management tools to help decision makers implement preservation and conservation strategies. However, this unique forest tree community may also represent an excellent subject for helping us to understand the interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes in determining community structure and dynamics. The AFLP technique and species composition data were used together to test the hypothesis that species diversity is related to the adaptive genetic structure of some dominant tree species (Picea chihuahuana, Pinus strobiformis, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides) of the Picea chihuahuana tree community at fourteen locations. The Hill numbers were used as a diversity measure. The results revealed a significant correlation between tree species diversity and genetic structure in Populus tremuloides. Because the relationship between the two levels of diversity was found to be positive for the putative adaptive AFLP detected, genetic and species structures of the tree community were possibly simultaneously adapted to a combination of ecological or environmental factors. The present findings indicate that interactions between

  10. Genetic programming based quantitative structure-retention relationships for the prediction of Kovats retention indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Purva; Bapat, Sanket; Vyas, Renu; Tambe, Amruta; Tambe, Sanjeev S

    2015-11-13

    The development of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) aims at constructing an appropriate linear/nonlinear model for the prediction of the retention behavior (such as Kovats retention index) of a solute on a chromatographic column. Commonly, multi-linear regression and artificial neural networks are used in the QSRR development in the gas chromatography (GC). In this study, an artificial intelligence based data-driven modeling formalism, namely genetic programming (GP), has been introduced for the development of quantitative structure based models predicting Kovats retention indices (KRI). The novelty of the GP formalism is that given an example dataset, it searches and optimizes both the form (structure) and the parameters of an appropriate linear/nonlinear data-fitting model. Thus, it is not necessary to pre-specify the form of the data-fitting model in the GP-based modeling. These models are also less complex, simple to understand, and easy to deploy. The effectiveness of GP in constructing QSRRs has been demonstrated by developing models predicting KRIs of light hydrocarbons (case study-I) and adamantane derivatives (case study-II). In each case study, two-, three- and four-descriptor models have been developed using the KRI data available in the literature. The results of these studies clearly indicate that the GP-based models possess an excellent KRI prediction accuracy and generalization capability. Specifically, the best performing four-descriptor models in both the case studies have yielded high (>0.9) values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) and low values of root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for training, test and validation set data. The characteristic feature of this study is that it introduces a practical and an effective GP-based method for developing QSRRs in gas chromatography that can be gainfully utilized for developing other types of data-driven models in chromatography science

  11. Relationships between genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related factor gene and the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan-Li; Yu, Hong; Chen, Yan-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Xia; Chen, Guang-Jun; Bai, Lu; Liu, Dan; Su, Hong-Xin; Wang, He-Tong

    2014-09-01

    Our study aims to discuss the association between inflammation-related factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility and recurrence in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We used Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to characterize the genetic variation of five SNPs in 194 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients and 231 healthy subjects. All statistical analysis is performed with statistical product and service solutions v13.0; odds ratio (OR) value and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated. There is no relationship between TGFβ1 -869 T/C, IL-6 -634C/G, TGFβ1 -509C/T, IL1 -511C/T and nasopharyngeal carcinoma susceptibility. Both single factor and multiple factors analysis showed that IL1a -889 T/T genotype is significantly associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in decreasing the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A highly significant association was found between IL1a -889 T/T genotype and protective genotype as defined by various pathological types. This is more obvious in the protective genotype of the non-keratin-type squamous carcinoma undifferentiated type. We also discovered that genotype G/G and C/G + G/G of IL6 -634 gene are associated with reduced recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. IL1a -889 gene polymorphism and susceptibility is related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma and can potentially decrease the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Han Chinese population in north China. IL1-889 TT genotype is protective genotype for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We have provided evidence that the GG genotype of the IL6 -634 gene is associated with recurrent risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The G allele is the protective gene of nasopharyngeal carcinoma recurrence.

  12. Genetic relationships among native americans based on beta-globin gene cluster haplotype frequencies

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    Rita de Cassia Mousinho-Ribeiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of b-globin gene haplotypes was studied in 209 Amerindians from eight tribes of the Brazilian Amazon: Asurini from Xingú, Awá-Guajá, Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Zoé, Kayapó (Xikrin from the Bacajá village, Katuena, and Tiriyó. Nine different haplotypes were found, two of which (n. 11 and 13 had not been previously identified in Brazilian indigenous populations. Haplotype 2 (+ - - - - was the most common in all groups studied, with frequencies varying from 70% to 100%, followed by haplotype 6 (- + + - +, with frequencies between 7% and 18%. The frequency distribution of the b-globin gene haplotypes in the eighteen Brazilian Amerindian populations studied to date is characterized by a reduced number of haplotypes (average of 3.5 and low levels of heterozygosity and intrapopulational differentiation, with a single clearly predominant haplotype in most tribes (haplotype 2. The Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Tiriyó and Xavante tribes constitute exceptions, presenting at least four haplotypes with relatively high frequencies. The closest genetic relationships were observed between the Brazilian and the Colombian Amerindians (Wayuu, Kamsa and Inga, and, to a lesser extent, with the Huichol of Mexico. North-American Amerindians are more differentiated and clearly separated from all other tribes, except the Xavante, from Brazil, and the Mapuche, from Argentina. A restricted pool of ancestral haplotypes may explain the low diversity observed among most present-day Brazilian and Colombian Amerindian groups, while interethnic admixture could be the most important factor to explain the high number of haplotypes and high levels of diversity observed in some South-American and most North-American tribes.

  13. Genetic Diversity and Relationships of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb. Bosser progenies through cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Preethi Shree

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity analysis was conducted for biometric attributes in 20 progenies of Neolamarckia cadamba. The application of D2 clustering technique in Neolamarckia cadamba genetic resources resolved the 20 progenies into five clusters. The maximum intra cluster distance was shown by the cluster II. The maximum inter cluster distance was recorded between cluster III and V which indicated the presence of wider genetic distance between Neolamarckia cadamba progenies. Among the growth attributes, volume (36.84 % contributed maximum towards genetic divergence followed by bole height, basal diameter, tree height, number of branches in Neolamarckia cadamba progenies.

  14. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  15. Examination of the Relationship between Oral Health and Arterial Sclerosis without Genetic Confounding through the Study of Older Japanese Twins.

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    Yuko Kurushima

    Full Text Available Although researchers have recently demonstrated a relationship between oral health and arterial sclerosis, the genetic contribution to this relationship has been ignored even though genetic factors are expected to have some effect on various diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health as a significant risk factor related to arterial sclerosis after eliminating genetic confounding through study of older Japanese twins.Medical and dental surveys were conducted individually for 106 Japanese twin pairs over the age of 50 years. Maximal carotid intima-media thickness (IMT-Cmax was measured as a surrogate marker of arterial sclerosis. IMT-Cmax > 1.0 mm was diagnosed as arterial sclerosis. All of the twins were examined for the number of remaining teeth, masticatory performance, and periodontal status. We evaluated each measurement related with IMT-Cmax and arterial sclerosis using generalized estimating equations analysis adjusted for potential risk factors. For non-smoking monozygotic twins, a regression analysis using a "between within" model was conducted to evaluate the relationship between IMT-Cmax and the number of teeth as the environmental factor controlling genetic and familial confounding.We examined 91 monozygotic and 15 dizygotic twin pairs (males: 42, females: 64 with a mean (± standard deviation age of 67.4 ± 10.0 years. Out of all of the oral health-related measurements collected, only the number of teeth was significantly related to arterial sclerosis (odds ratio: 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.99 per five teeth. Regression analysis showed a significant association between the IMT-Cmax and the number of teeth as an environmental factor (p = 0.037.Analysis of monozygotic twins older than 50 years of age showed that having fewer teeth could be a significant environmental factor related to arterial sclerosis, even after controlling for genetic and familial confounding.

  16. Genetic variability of the length of postpartum anoestrus in Charolais cows and its relationship with age at puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ménissier François

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fertility records (n = 1 802 were collected from 615 Charolais primiparous and multiparous cows managed in an experimental herd over an 11-year period. The objectives of the study were to describe the genetic variability of the re-establishment of postpartum reproductive activity and the relationship with body weight (BW and body condition score (BCS at calving and age at puberty. The length of postpartum anoestrus was estimated based on weekly blood progesterone assays and on twice daily detection of oestrus behaviour. The first oestrus behaviour was observed 69 days (± 25 days s.d. post-calving and the first positive progesterone measurement (≥ 1 ng mL-1 was observed at 66 days (± 22 days s.d. for the group of easy-calving multiparous suckling cows. Estimates of heritability and repeatability were h2 = 0.12 and r = 0.38 respectively, for the interval from calving to first oestrus (ICO. Corresponding values were h2 = 0.35 and r = 0.60 for the interval from calving to the first positive progesterone test (ICP. The genetic correlation between both criteria was high (rg = 0.98. The genetic relationships between postpartum intervals and BW and BCS of the female at calving were negative: the genetic aptitude to be heavier at calving and to have high body reserves was related to shorter postpartum intervals. A favourable genetic correlation between age at puberty and postpartum intervals was found (rg between 0.45 and 0.70. The heifers which were genetically younger at puberty also had shorter postpartum intervals.

  17. Cryptic changes in the genetic structure of a highly clonal coral population and the relationship with ecological performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dana E.; Miller, M. W.; Baums, I. B.

    2014-09-01

    Elkhorn coral , Acropora palmata, relies heavily on clonal propagation and often displays low genotypic (clonal) diversity. Populations in the Florida Keys experienced rapid declines in tissue cover between 2004 and 2006, largely due to hurricanes and disease, but remained stable from 2006 to 2010. All elkhorn colonies in 150 m2 permanent study plots were genotyped in 2006 ( n = 15 plots) and 2010 ( n = 24 plots), and plots sampled in both years were examined for changes in allelic and genotypic diversity during this period of stable ecological abundance. Overall, genetic diversity of Florida plots was low and declined further over the 4-yr period; seven of the 36 original genets and two of 67 alleles (among five microsatellite loci) were lost completely from the sampled population, and an additional 15 alleles were lost from individual reefs. In 2010, Florida plots (~19 colonies) contained an average of 2.2 ± 1.38 (mean ± SD) genets with a significant negative correlation between colony abundance and genotypic diversity. When scaled to total tissue abundance, genotypic diversity is even lower, with 43 % of genets below the size of sexual maturity. We examined the hypothesized positive relationship of local genotypic diversity with ecological performance measures. In Florida plots ( n = 15), genotypic diversity was not significantly correlated with tissue loss associated with chronic predation, nor with acute disease and storm-fragmentation events, though this relationship may be obscured by the low range of observed diversity and potential confounding with abundance. When more diverse plots in Curaçao ( n = 9) were examined, genotypic diversity was not significantly correlated with resistance during an acute storm disturbance or rate of recovery following disturbance. Cryptic loss of genetic diversity occurred in the apparently stable Florida population and confirms that stable or even increasing abundance does not necessarily indicate genetic stability.

  18. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  19. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.H.; Ripke, S.; Neale, B.; Faraone, S.V.; Purcell, S.M.; Perlis, R.H.; Mowry, B. J.; Thapar, A.; Goddard, M.E.; Witte, J.S.; Absher, D.; Agartz, I.; Akil, H.; Amin, F.; Andreassen, O.A.; Anjorin, A.; Anney, R.; Anttila, V.; Arking, D.E.; Asherson, P.; Azevedo, M.H.; Backlund, L.; Badner, J.A.; Bailey, A.J.; Banaschewski, T.; Barchas, J.D.; Barnes, M.R.; Barrett, T.B.; Bass, N.; Battaglia, A.; Bauer, M.; Bayés, M.; Bellivier, F.; Bergen, S.E.; Berrettini, W.; Betancur, C.; Bettecken, T.; Biederman, J; Binder, E.B.; Black, D.W.; Blackwood, D.H.; Bloss, C.S.; Boehnke, M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Breen, G.; Breuer, R.; Bruggeman, R.; Cormican, P.; Buccola, N.G.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Bunney, W.E.; Buxbaum, J.D.; Byerley, W. F.; Byrne, E.M.; Caesar, S.; Cahn, W.; Cantor, R.M.; Casas, M.; Chakravarti, A.; Chambert, K.; Choudhury, K.; Cichon, S.; Cloninger, C. R.; Collier, D.A.; Cook, E.H.; Coon, H.; Corman, B.; Corvin, A.; Coryell, W.H.; Craig, D.W.; Craig, I.W.; Crosbie, J.; Cuccaro, M.L.; Curtis, D.; Czamara, D.; Datta, S.; Dawson, G.; Day, R.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Degenhardt, F.; Djurovic, S.; Donohoe, G.; Doyle, A.E.; Duan, J.; Dudbridge, F.; Duketis, E.; Ebstein, R.P.; Edenberg, H.J.; Elia, J.; Ennis, S.; Etain, B.; Fanous, A.; Farmer, A.E.; Ferrier, I.N.; Flickinger, M.; Fombonne, E.; Foroud, T.; Frank, J.; Franke, B.; Fraser, C.; Freedman, R.; Freimer, N.B.; Freitag, C.; Friedl, M.; Frisén, L.; Gallagher, L.; Gejman, P.V.; Georgieva, L.; Gershon, E.S.; Geschwind, D.H.; Giegling, I.; Gill, M.; Gordon, S.D.; Gordon-Smith, K.; Green, E.K.; Greenwood, T.A.; Grice, D.E.; Gross, M.; Grozeva, D.; Guan, W.; Gurling, H.; de Haan, L.; Haines, J.L.; Hakonarson, H.; Hallmayer, J.; Hamilton, S.P.; Hamshere, M.L.; Hansen, T.F.; Hartmann, A.M.; Hautzinger, M.; Heath, A.C.; Henders, A.K.; Herms, S.; Hickie, I.B.; Hipolito, M.; Hoefels, S.; Holmans, P.A.; Holsboer, F.; Hoogendijk, W.J.G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Hultman, C. M.; Hus, V.; Ingason, A.; Ising, M.; Jamain, S.; Jones, E.G.; Jones, I.; Jones, L.; Tzeng, J.Y.; Kähler, A.K.; Kahn, R.S.; Kandaswamy, R.; Keller, M.C.; Kennedy, J.L.; Kenny, E.; Kent, L.; Kim, Y.; Kirov, G. K.; Klauck, S.M.; Klei, L.; Knowles, J.A.; Kohli, M.A.; Koller, D.L.; Konte, B.; Korszun, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Krasucki, R.; Kuntsi, J.; Kwan, P.; Landén, M.; Langstrom, N.; Lathrop, M.; Lawrence, J.; Lawson, W.B.; Leboyer, M.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Lee, P.H.; Lencz, T.; Lesch, K.P.; Levinson, D.F.; Lewis, C.M.; Li, J.; Lichtenstein, P.; Lieberman, J. A.; Lin, D.Y.; Linszen, D.H.; Liu, C.; Lohoff, F.W.; Loo, S.K.; Lord, C.; Lowe, J.K.; Lucae, S.; MacIntyre, D.J.; Madden, P.A.F.; Maestrini, E.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Mahon, P.B.; Maier, W.; Malhotra, A.K.; Mane, S.M.; Martin, C.L.; Martin, N.G.; Mattheisen, M.; Matthews, K.; Mattingsdal, M.; McCarroll, S.A.; McGhee, K.A.; McGough, J.J.; McGrath, P.J.; McGuffin, P.; McInnis, M.G.; McIntosh, A.; McKinney, R.; McLean, A.W.; McMahon, F.J.; McMahon, W.M.; McQuillin, A.; Medeiros, H.; Medland, S.E.; Meier, S.; Melle, I.; Meng, F.; Meyer, J.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Middleton, L.; Milanova, V.; Miranda, A.; Monaco, A.P.; Montgomery, G.W.; Moran, J.L.; Moreno-De Luca, D.; Morken, G.; Morris, D.W.; Morrow, E.M.; Moskvina, V.; Muglia, P.; Mühleisen, T.W.; Muir, W.J.; Müller-Myhsok, B.; Murtha, M.; Myers, R.M.; Myin-Germeys, I.; Neale, M.C.; Nelson, S.F.; Nievergelt, C.M.; Nikolov, I.; Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Nolen, W.A.; Nöthen, M.M.; Nurnberger, J.I.; Nwulia, E.A.; Nyholt, DR; O'Dushlaine, C.; Oades, R.D.; Olincy, A.; Oliveira, G.; Olsen, L.; Ophoff, R.A.; Osby, U.; Owen, M.J.; Palotie, A.; Parr, J.R.; Paterson, A.D.; Pato, C.N.; Pato, M.T.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Pergadia, M.L.; Pericak-Vance, M.A.; Pickard, B.S.; Pimm, J.; Piven, J.; Posthuma, D.; Potash, J.B.; Poustka, F.; Propping, P.; Puri, V.; Quested, D.; Quinn, E.M.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Rasmussen, H.B.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Rehnström, K.; Reif, A.; Ribasés, M.; Rice, J.P.; Rietschel, M.; Roeder, K.; Roeyers, H.; Rossin, L.; Rothenberger, A.; Rouleau, G.; Ruderfer, D.; Rujescu, D.; Sanders, A.R.; Sanders, S.J.; Santangelo, S.; Sergeant, J.A.; Schachar, R.; Schalling, M.; Schatzberg, A.F.; Scheftner, W.A.; Schellenberg, G.D.; Scherer, S.W.; Schork, N.J.; Schulze, T.G.; Schumacher, J.; Schwarz, M.; Scolnick, E.; Scott, L.J.; Shi, J.; Shilling, P.D.; Shyn, S.I.; Silverman, J.M.; Slager, S.L.; Smalley, S.L.; Smit, J.H.; Smith, E.N.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.; St Clair, D.; State, M.; Steffens, M; Steinhausen, H.C.; Strauss, J.; Strohmaier, J.; Stroup, T.S.; Sutcliffe, J.; Szatmari, P.; Szelinger, S.; Thirumalai, S.; Thompson, R.C.; Todorov, A.A.; Tozzi, F.; Treutlein, J.; Uhr, M.; van den Oord, E.J.C.G.; Grootheest, G.; van Os, J.; Vicente, A.; Vieland, V.; Vincent, J.B.; Visscher, P.M.; Walsh, C.A.; Wassink, T.H.; Watson, S.J.; Weissman, M.M.; Werge, T.; Wienker, T.F.; Wijsman, E.M.; Willemsen, G.; Williams, N.; Willsey, A.J.; Witt, S.H.; Xu, W.; Young, A.H.; Yu, T.W.; Zammit, S.; Zandi, P.P.; Zhang, P.; Zitman, F.G.; Zöllner, S.; Devlin, B.; Kelsoe, J.; Sklar, P.; Daly, M.J.; O'Donovan, M.C.; Craddock, N.; Sullivan, P.F.; Smoller, J.W.; Kendler, K.S.; Wray, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases

  20. Genetic relationship between wool shedding in ewe-lambs and ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in reducing labor costs related to shearing has led to the development of breeds that naturally shed their wool annually. This goal has been achieved by introducing hair-sheep genetics. These developments are relatively recent and thus the genetic underpinnings of wool shedding (WS) are not...

  1. Relationships between parenting and adolescent adjustment over time: genetic and environmental contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiderhiser, J M; Reiss, D; Hetherington, E M; Plomin, R

    1999-05-01

    The predictive association between parenting and adolescent adjustment has been assumed to be environmental; however, genetic and environmental contributions have not been examined. This article represents one effort to examine these associations in which a genetically informative design was used. Participants were 395 families with adolescent siblings who participated in the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development (D. Reiss et al., 1994) project at 2 times of assessment, 3 years apart. There were 5 sibling types in 2 types of families: 63 identical twins, 75 fraternal twins, and 58 full siblings in nondivorced families and 95 full, 60 half, and 44 genetically unrelated siblings in stepfamilies. Results indicate that the cross-lagged associations between parental conflict-negativity and adolescent antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms can be explained primarily by genetic factors. These findings emphasize the need to recognize and examine the impact that adolescents have on parenting and the contribution of genetic factors to developmental change.

  2. Haplotype and genetic relationship of 27 Y-STR loci in Han population of Chaoshan area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-hua TIAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the genetic polymorphisms of 27 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STR loci included in Yfiler® Plus kit in Han population of Chaoshan area, and explore the population genetic relationships and evaluate its application value on forensic medicine. Methods  By detecting 795 unrelated Chaoshan Han males with Yfiler® Plus kit, haplotype frequencies and population genetics parameters of the 27 Y-STR loci were statistically analyzed and compared with available data of other populations from different races and regions for analyzing the genetic distance and clustering relation of Chaoshan Han population. Results  Seven hundred and eighty-seven different haplotypes were observed in 795 unrelated male individuals, of which 779 haplotypes were unique, and 8 haplotypes occurred twice. The haplotype diversity (HD was 0.999975 with discriminative capacity (DC of 98.99%. The gene diversity (GD at the 27 Y-STR loci ranged from 0.3637(DYS391 to 0.9559(DYS385a/b. Comparing with Asian reference populations, the genetic distance (Rst between Chaoshan Han and Guangdong Han was the smallest (0.0036, while it was relatively larger between Chaoshan Han and Gansu Tibetan population (0.0935. The multi-dimensional scaling (MDS plot based on Rst values was similar to the results of clustering analysis. Conclusion  Multiplex detection of the 27 Y-STR loci reveals a highly polymorphic genetic distribution in Chaoshan Han population, which demonstrates the important significance of Yfiler® Plus kit for establishing a Y-STR database, studying population genetics, and for good practice in forensic medicine. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.03.08

  3. Genetic Relationships of Carcass Traits with Retail Cut Productivity of Hanwoo Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeyoung Koh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate genetic correlation between carcass grading and retail productivity traits and to estimate the correlated response on retail productivity traits through selection for carcass grading traits in order to assess the efficacy of indirect selection. Genetic parameters were estimated with the data from 4240 Hanwoo steers using mixed models, and phenotypes included carcass weight (CWT, back fat thickness (BFT, eye muscle area (EMA, marbling (MAR, and estimated lean yield percentage (ELP as the carcass grading traits, and weight and portion of retail cuts (RCW and RCP, trimmed fats (TFW and TFP and trimmed bones (TBW and TBP as the lean productivity traits. The CWT had positive genetic correlations with RCW (0.95 and TFW (0.73, but its genetic correlation with RCP was negligible (0.02. The BFT was negatively correlated with RCP (−0.63, but positively correlated with TFW and TFP (0.77 and 0.70. Genetic correlations of MAR with TFW and TFP were low. Among the carcass grading traits, only EMA was positively correlated with both RCW (0.60 and RCP (0.72. The EMA had a relatively strong negative genetic correlation with TFW (−0.64. The genetic correlation coefficients of ELP with RCP, TFW, and TFP were 0.76, −0.90, and −0.82, respectively. These correlation coefficients suggested that the ELP and EMA might be favorable traits in regulating lean productivity of carcass.

  4. Genetic relationships among body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Buckley, F; Dillon, P; Evans, R D; Rath, M; Veerkamp, R F

    2003-06-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving grass-based farms throughout southern Ireland. Of the cows included in the analysis, 4402 had repeated records across the 2 yr of the study. Genetic correlations between level of BCS at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were negative (-0.51 to -0.14). Genetic correlations between BW at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were all close to zero but became positive (0.01 to 0.39) after adjusting BW for differences in BCS. Body condition score at different stages of lactation correlated favorably with improved fertility; genetic correlations between BCS and pregnant 63 d after the start of breeding season ranged from 0.29 to 0.42. Both BW at different stages of lactation and milk production tended to exhibit negative genetic correlations with pregnant to first service and pregnant 63 d after the start of the breeding season and positive genetic correlations with number of services and the interval from first service to conception. Selection indexes investigated illustrate the possibility of continued selection for increased milk production without any deleterious effects on fertility or average BCS, albeit, genetic merit for milk production would increase at a slower rate.

  5. Biofilm synthesis and its relationship with genetic characteristics in clinical methicillin-resistant staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Giormezis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus can cause a broad range of infections, including skin infections, pneumonia and bacteraemia. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, mainly S. epidermidis, have also emerged as important pathogens, especially in immunocompromised patients or those with prosthetic devices, such as intravascular catheters or biomaterials. Of great importance in the initiation of these infections is the ability of staphylococci to adhere to various surfaces, such as host tissues and prosthetic devices and to form biofilm. The staphylococcal adhesins are encoded by a number of genes such as fnbA (S. aureus fibronectin binding protein A, sasG (S. aureus surface protein G, aap (S. epidermidis accumulation associated protein, bhp (Bap homologue protein and fbe (fibrinogen binding protein epidermidis. In this study, 106 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, 145 methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE and 70 non-epidermidis methicillin-resistant CNS (MR-CNS; 58 S. haemolyticus, 10 S. hominis and two S. lugdunensis were compared in terms of biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance, clonal distribution and adhesin genes carriage. Isolates were classified into pulsotypes by PFGE and assigned to sequence types by MLST. In total, 121/321 isolates (37.7% produced biofilm and 219 (68.2% carried ica operon. The majority was multidrug resistant (94.7% and carried one or more adhesin genes. MRSE and all other MR-CNS prevailed in biofilm formation (P < 0.001 and antimicrobial resistance (P < 0.05 as compared to MRSA. MRSE also prevailed in ica carriage compared to the other methicillin-resistant staphylococci (P ≤ 0.007 Among MRSE, isolates from bacteraemias prevailed in biofilm formation (P = 0.031, whereas, strains from prosthetic device-associated infections carried more frequently aap (P = 0.003. Even though PFGE showed genetic diversity among MRSE, MLST revealed three major clones (ST2, ST5, ST16. MRSA isolates were less diverse, with five PFGE

  6. Genetic and environmental relationships of metabolic and weight phenotypes to metabolic syndrome and diabetes: the healthy twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun-Mi; Sung, Joohon; Lee, Kayoung

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to examine the relationships, including genetic and environmental correlations, between metabolic and weight phenotypes and factors related to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Participants of the Healthy Twin Study without diabetes (n=2687; 895 monozygotic and 204 dizygotic twins, and 1588 nontwin family members; mean age, 42.5±13.1 years) were stratified according to body mass index (BMI) (metabolic syndrome categories at baseline. The metabolic traits, namely diabetes and metabolic syndrome, metabolic syndrome components, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were assessed after 2.5±2.1 years. In a multivariate-adjusted model, those who had metabolic syndrome or overweight phenotypes at baseline were more likely to have higher HbA1C and HOMA-IR levels and abnormal metabolic syndrome components at follow-up as compared to the metabolically healthy normal weight subgroup. The incidence of diabetes was 4.4-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy but normal weight individuals and 3.3-fold higher in the metabolically unhealthy and overweight individuals as compared with the metabolically healthy normal weight individuals. The heritability of the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes was 0.40±0.03. Significant genetic and environmental correlations were observed between the metabolic syndrome/weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up, except for incident diabetes, which only had a significant common genetic sharing with the baseline phenotypes. The genetic and environmental relationships between the metabolic and weight phenotypes at baseline and the metabolic traits at follow-up suggest pleiotropic genetic mechanisms and the crucial role of lifestyle and behavioral factors.

  7. IQ and schizophrenia in a Swedish national sample: their causal relationship and the interaction of IQ with genetic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    The authors sought to clarify the relationship between IQ and subsequent risk for schizophrenia. IQ was assessed at ages 18-20 in 1,204,983 Swedish males born between 1951 and 1975. Schizophrenia was assessed by hospital diagnosis through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate future risk for schizophrenia in individuals as a function of their IQ score, and then stratified models using pairs of relatives were used to adjust for familial cluster. Finally, regression models were used to examine the interaction between IQ and genetic liability on risk for schizophrenia. IQ had a monotonic relationship with schizophrenia risk across the IQ range, with a mean increase in risk of 3.8% per 1-point decrease in IQ; this association was stronger in the lower than the higher IQ range. Co-relative control analyses showed a similar association between IQ and schizophrenia in the general population and in cousin, half-sibling, and full-sibling pairs. A robust interaction was seen between genetic liability to schizophrenia and IQ in predicting schizophrenia risk. Genetic susceptibility for schizophrenia had a much stronger impact on risk of illness for those with low than high intelligence. The IQ-genetic liability interaction arose largely from IQ differences between close relatives. IQ assessed in late adolescence is a robust risk factor for subsequent onset of schizophrenia. This association is not the result of a declining IQ associated with insidious onset. In this large, representative sample, we found no evidence for a link between genius and schizophrenia. Co-relative control analyses showed that the association between lower IQ and schizophrenia is not the result of shared familial risk factors and may be causal. The strongest effect was seen with IQ differences within families. High intelligence substantially attenuates the impact of genetic liability on the risk for schizophrenia.

  8. The relationship between genetic risk variants with brain structure and function in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Licia P; Köhler, Cristiano A; de Sousa, Rafael T

    2017-01-01

    Genetic-neuroimaging paradigms could provide insights regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Nevertheless, findings have been inconsistent across studies. A systematic review of gene-imaging studies involving individuals with BD was conducted across electronic major databases fro...

  9. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, S Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases...... and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17......-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD...

  10. Genetic Structure and Relationship Analysis of an Association Population in Jute (Corchorus spp. Evaluated by SSR Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwu Zhang

    Full Text Available Population structure and relationship analysis is of great importance in the germplasm utilization and association mapping. Jute, comprised of white jute (C. capsularis L and dark jute (C. olitorius L, is second to cotton in its commercial significance in the world. Here, we assessed the genetic structure and relationship in a panel of 159 jute accessions from 11 countries and regions using 63 SSRs. The structure analysis divided the 159 jute accessions from white and dark jute into Co and Cc group, further into Co1, Co2, Cc1 and Cc2 subgroups. Out of Cc1 subgroup, 81 accessions were from China and the remaining 10 accessions were from India (2, Japan (5, Thailand, Vietnam (2 and Pakistan (1. Out of Cc2 subgroup, 35 accessions were from China, and the remaining 3 accessions were from India, Pakistan and Thailand respectively. It can be inferred that the genetic background of these jute accessions was not always correlative with their geographical regions. Similar results were found in Co1 and Co2 subgroups. Analysis of molecular variance revealed 81% molecular variation between groups but it was low (19% within subgroups, which further confirmed the genetic differentiation between the two groups. The genetic relationship analysis showed that the most diverse genotypes were Maliyeshengchangguo and Changguozhongyueyin in dark jute, BZ-2-2, Aidianyehuangma, Yangjuchiyuanguo, Zijinhuangma and Jute 179 in white jute, which could be used as the potential parents in breeding programs for jute improvement. These results would be very useful for association studies and breeding in jute.

  11. A behavioral-genetic investigation of bulimia nervosa and its relationship with alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace, Sara Elizabeth; Thornton, Laura Marie; Baker, Jessica Helen; Root, Tammy Lynn; Janson, Lauren Elizabeth; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy Lee; Bulik, Cynthia Marie

    2013-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur and may share genetic factors; however, the nature of their association is not fully understood. We assessed the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors contribute to liability to BN and AUD. A bivariate structural equation model using a Cholesky decomposition was fit to data from 7,241 women who participated in the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment. The proportion of variance accounted for by genetic and environmental factors for BN and AUD and the genetic and environmental correlations between these disorders were estimated. In the best-fitting model, the heritability estimates were 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37; 0.70) for BN and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54; 0.70) for AUD. Unique environmental factors accounted for the remainder of variance for BN. The genetic correlation between BN and AUD was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.01; 0.44), and the correlation between the unique environmental factors for the two disorders was 0.35 (95% CI: 0.08; 0.61), suggesting moderate overlap in these factors. Findings from this investigation provide additional support that some of the same genetic factors may influence liability to both BN and AUD. PMID:23790978

  12. Evaluation of ISSR markers to assess genetic variability and relationship among winter triticale (x triticosecale wittmack) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozen, E [Anadolu University Yunusemre Campus, Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Biology

    2010-08-15

    The ISSR technique was used to identify genetic relationships in 11 winter hexaploid triticale cultivars Lasko, Stan-1, Malno, Purdy, AN-34, Tatlicak-97, Karma-2000, Presto, Melez-2001, Mikham-2002, Samur Sorti. Twenty ISSR primers were tested and twelve of them amplified clear and reproducible bands. The number of ISSR fragments generated per primer set ranged from 5 to 31 with fragment sizes varying from 320 to 2700bp. A total of 209 ISSR fragments were detected, of which 159 were polymorphic (76.07%). All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their ISSR fingerprints. Based on UPGMA analysis a dendrogram was constructed and 11 triticale cultivars were grouped in two clusters. Cluster I was the largest, comprising 10 cultivars which can be divided into four subclusters. Only one cultivar, Stan-1 was positioned in Cluster II. The polymorphic patterns generated by ISSR profiles showed different degrees of genetic relationship among the cultivars studied. Similarity values between cultivars ranged from 0.59 to 0.89. The results indicate that ISSRs may constitute a relatively simple and efficient method for analysing genetic variation in triticale. (author)

  13. Evaluation of ISSR markers to assess genetic variability and relationship among winter triticale (x triticosecale wittmack) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozen, E.

    2010-01-01

    The ISSR technique was used to identify genetic relationships in 11 winter hexaploid triticale cultivars Lasko, Stan-1, Malno, Purdy, AN-34, Tatlicak-97, Karma-2000, Presto, Melez-2001, Mikham-2002, Samur Sorti. Twenty ISSR primers were tested and twelve of them amplified clear and reproducible bands. The number of ISSR fragments generated per primer set ranged from 5 to 31 with fragment sizes varying from 320 to 2700bp. A total of 209 ISSR fragments were detected, of which 159 were polymorphic (76.07%). All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their ISSR fingerprints. Based on UPGMA analysis a dendrogram was constructed and 11 triticale cultivars were grouped in two clusters. Cluster I was the largest, comprising 10 cultivars which can be divided into four subclusters. Only one cultivar, Stan-1 was positioned in Cluster II. The polymorphic patterns generated by ISSR profiles showed different degrees of genetic relationship among the cultivars studied. Similarity values between cultivars ranged from 0.59 to 0.89. The results indicate that ISSRs may constitute a relatively simple and efficient method for analysing genetic variation in triticale. (author)

  14. Physical distance, genetic relationship, age, and leprosy classification are independent risk factors for leprosy in contacts of patients with leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moet, F Johannes; Pahan, David; Schuring, Ron P; Oskam, Linda; Richardus, Jan H

    2006-02-01

    Close contacts of patients with leprosy have a higher risk of developing leprosy. Several risk factors have been identified, including genetic relationship and physical distance. Their independent contributions to the risk of developing leprosy, however, have never been sufficiently quantified. Logistic-regression analysis was performed on intake data from a prospective cohort study of 1037 patients newly diagnosed as having leprosy and their 21,870 contacts. Higher age showed an increased risk, with a bimodal distribution. Contacts of patients with paucibacillary (PB) leprosy with 2-5 lesions (PB2-5) and those with multibacillary (MB) leprosy had a higher risk than did contacts of patients with single-lesion PB leprosy. The core household group had a higher risk than other contacts living under the same roof and next-door neighbors, who again had a higher risk than neighbors of neighbors. A close genetic relationship indicated an increased risk when blood-related children, parents, and siblings were pooled together. Age of the contact, the disease classification of the index patient, and physical and genetic distance were independently associated with the risk of a contact acquiring leprosy. Contact surveys in leprosy should be not only focused on household contacts but also extended to neighbors and consanguineous relatives, especially when the patient has PB2-5 or MB leprosy.

  15. Start codon targeted (SCoT) and target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) for evaluating the genetic relationship of Dendrobium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; He, Refeng; Yang, Sai; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Mengying; Lu, Jiangjie; Wang, Huizhong

    2015-08-10

    Two molecular marker systems, start codon targeted (SCoT) and target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP), were used for genetic relationship analysis of 36 Dendrobium species collected from China. Twenty-two selected SCoT primers produced 337 loci, of which 324 (96%) were polymorphic, whereas 13 TRAP primer combinations produced a total of 510 loci, with 500 (97.8%) of them being polymorphic. An average polymorphism information content of 0.953 and 0.983 was detected using the SCoT and TRAP primers, respectively, showing that a high degree of genetic diversity exists among Chinese Dendrobium species. The partition of clusters in the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis plot based on the SCoT and TRAP markers was similar and clustered the 36 Dendrobium species into four main groups. Our results will provide useful information for resource protection and will also be useful to improve the current Dendrobium breeding programs. Our results also demonstrate that SCoT and TRAP markers are informative and can be used to evaluate genetic relationships between Dendrobium species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Atmospheric response to Saharan dust deduced from ECMWF reanalysis increments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, P.; Alpert, P.; Barkan, J.; Kirchner, I.; Machenhauer, B.

    2003-04-01

    This study focuses on the atmospheric temperature response to dust deduced from a new source of data - the European Reanalysis (ERA) increments. These increments are the systematic errors of global climate models, generated in reanalysis procedure. The model errors result not only from the lack of desert dust but also from a complex combination of many kinds of model errors. Over the Sahara desert the dust radiative effect is believed to be a predominant model defect which should significantly affect the increments. This dust effect was examined by considering correlation between the increments and remotely-sensed dust. Comparisons were made between April temporal variations of the ERA analysis increments and the variations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer aerosol index (AI) between 1979 and 1993. The distinctive structure was identified in the distribution of correlation composed of three nested areas with high positive correlation (> 0.5), low correlation, and high negative correlation (Forecast(ECMWF) suggests that the PCA (NCA) corresponds mainly to anticyclonic (cyclonic) flow, negative (positive) vorticity, and downward (upward) airflow. These facts indicate an interaction between dust-forced heating /cooling and atmospheric circulation. The April correlation results are supported by the analysis of vertical distribution of dust concentration, derived from the 24-hour dust prediction system at Tel Aviv University (website: http://earth.nasa.proj.ac.il/dust/current/). For other months the analysis is more complicated because of the essential increasing of humidity along with the northward progress of the ITCZ and the significant impact on the increments.

  17. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Relationship Between Legendary Vechur Cattle and Crossbred Cattle of Kerala State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, G; Aravindakshan, T V; Jinty, S; Ramya, K

    2018-01-02

    The legendary Vechur cattle of Kerala, described as a very short breed, and the crossbred (CB) Sunandini cattle population exhibited great phenotypic variation; hence, the present study attempted to analyze the genetic diversity existing between them. A set of 14 polymorphic microsatellites were chosen from FAO-ISAG panel and amplified from genomic DNA isolated from blood samples of 30 Vechur and 64 unrelated crossbred cattle, using fluorescent labeled primers. Both populations revealed high genetic diversity as evidenced from high observed number of alleles, Polymorphic Information Content and expected heterozygosity. Observed heterozygosity was lesser (0.699) than expected (0.752) in Vechur population which was further supported by positive F IS value of 0.1149, indicating slight level of inbreeding in Vechur population. Overall, F ST value was 0.065, which means genetic differentiation between crossbred and Vechur population was 6.5%, indicating that the crossbred cattle must have differentiated into a definite population that is different from the indigenous Vechur cows. Structure analysis indicated that the two populations showed distinct differences, with two underlying clusters. The present study supports the separation between Taurine and Zebu cattle and throws light onto the genetic diversity and relationship between native Vechur and crossbred cattle populations in Kerala state.

  18. Relationship of Genetics and Cs-137 in Asian Green Mussel (Perna viridis from Nuclear Activities in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwiwa Tumnoi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the relationship of genetics and Cs-137 radiation doses in Asian green mussel (Perna viridis collected from Chonburi province, Thailand. They might accumulate the radiocaesium from the nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region including the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant via their routine or accidental releases. The radiation doses, estimated using ERICA Tool in the bivalves categorized into 3 different size classes including 4-6, 6-8, and 8-10 cm, were below 0.02 nGy/h. In parallel, Micronucleus test and Comet assay were used to investigate genetic responses in the mussels. They revealed minimum micronucleus frequency (MNF and %Tail DNA varying from 1.80-2.90% and 1.36-1.70%, respectively. The result indicates that neither particular accumulation of Cs-137 nor genetic responses among different size classes of the animals were observed. Furthermore, the radiation doses in the mussels were below the dose limit of 10 µGy/h. Therefore, no radiation effect caused by Cs-137 was found and it was also confirmed by minimal genetic damages. Data obtained can be used as site-specific data for radiological dose and impact assessment and as baseline data to establish the national radiation safety levels to protect Thai marine biota from any possible future nuclear accidents.

  19. Assessment of genetic relationship between Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca samples isolated from a dental office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MV Pimenta-Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the genetic similarity between genomic profiles of thirteen Klebsiella oxytoca and seven Klebsiella pneumoniae samples isolated from two different collections carried out in different places of dental offices. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique and similarity coefficients (calculated by Sorensen-Dice and simple matching were applied to determine their genetic profile of randomic DNA sequences. The majority of the isolates of K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca presented similar coefficient values (e" 0.80. Thus, it was possible to identify that strain dissemination occurred mainly via the hands of the surgeon-dentists and, finally, to determine the genetic similarity of the strains from dental office environments.

  20. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L; De Silva, N Maneka G; Wood, Andrew R; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A; McCarthy, Mark I; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Martin, Nicholas G; Spector, Tim D; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F A; Nohr, Ellen A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T; Scholtens, Denise M; Davey Smith, George; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L; Frayling, Timothy M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Freathy, Rachel M

    2016-03-15

    Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies were analyzed. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies in Europe, North America, or Australia and were part of the Early Growth Genetics Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, vitamin D status, and adiponectin level. Offspring birth weight from 18 studies. Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The maternal genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2-g (95% CI, 0 to 3 g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P = .008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were also associated with birth weight with effect sizes of 8 g (95% CI, 6 to 10 g) per glucose-raising allele (P = 7 × 10(-14)) and -4 g (95% CI, -6 to -2 g) per SBP-raising allele (P = 1×10(-5)), respectively. A 1-SD ( ≈ 4 points) genetically higher maternal BMI was associated with a 55-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 17 to 93 g). A 1-SD ( ≈ 7.2 mg/dL) genetically higher maternal fasting glucose concentration was associated with 114-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 80 to 147 g). However, a 1-SD ( ≈ 10 mm Hg) genetically higher maternal SBP was associated with a 208-g

  1. Genetic parameters for androstenone and skatole as indicators of boar taint and their relationship to production and litter size traits in Danish Landrace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Velander, I. H.; Mark, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Boar taint is an offensive odor, which affects the smell and taste of cooked pork, resulting mainly from the accumulation of skatole and androstenone in the back fat of intact males. The aim of the study was to estimate genetic parameters for skatole and androstenone and their genetic relationship...

  2. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.R. Tyrrell; R.C. Richmond (Rebecca C.); T.M. Palmer (Tom); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); J. Rangarajan (Janani); S. Metrustry (Sarah); A. Cavadino (Alana); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); L.L. Armstrong (Loren L.); N.M.G. De Silva (N. Maneka G.); A.R. Wood (Andrew); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); F. Geller (Frank); R. Myhre (Ronny); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); I. Huikari (Ille); J.N. Painter (Jodie N.); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); C. Allard (Catherine); D. Berry (Diane); L. Bouchard (Luigi); S. Das (Shikta); D.M. Evans (David); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); M.G. Hayes (M. Geoffrey); J. Heikkinen (Jani); A. Hofman (Albert); B.A. Knight (Bridget); P.A. Lind (Penelope); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); G. Mcmahon (George); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M. Melbye (Mads); A.P. Morris (Andrew); M. Nodzenski (Michael); C. Reichetzeder (Christoph); S.M. Ring (Susan); S. Sebert (Sylvain); V. Sengpiel (Verena); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C. Power (Christine); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); H. Bisgaard (Hans); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); C. Nohr (Christian); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); B. Jacobsson (Bo); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey C.); B. Hocher (Berthold); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); D.M. Scholtens (Denise M.); G.D. Smith; M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J.F. Felix (Janine); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.L. Lowe Jr. (William); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); R.M. Freathy (Rachel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To test for genetic

  3. Exploring Middle School Students' Conceptions of the Relationship between Genetic Inheritance and Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle; DeBarger, Angela Haydel; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Zhou, Xuechun; Tate, Erika

    2012-01-01

    This study examines students' understanding of the normative connections between key concepts of cell division, including both mitosis and meiosis, and underlying biological principles that are critical for an in-depth understanding of genetic inheritance. Using a structural equation modeling method, we examine middle school students'…

  4. The Neurobiology and Genetics of Impulse Control Disorders: Relationships to Drug Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2008-01-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs), including pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania and others, have been conceptualized to lie along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum. Recent data have suggested that these disorders may be considered addictions. Here we review the genetic and neuropathological bases of the impulse control disorders and consider the disorders within these non-mutually exclusive frameworks. PMID:17719013

  5. Egg shell quality in Japanese quail: characteristics, heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narinc, D; Aygun, A; Karaman, E; Aksoy, T

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate heritabilities as well as genetic and phenotypic correlations for egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell ratio, egg shell strength, egg length, egg width and shell weight in Japanese quail eggs. External egg quality traits were measured on 5864 eggs of 934 female quails from a dam line selected for two generations. Within the Bayesian framework, using Gibbs Sampling algorithm, a multivariate animal model was applied to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for external egg quality traits. The heritability estimates for external egg quality traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.29 to 0.81. The heritability estimates for egg and shell weight of 0.81 and 0.76 were fairly high. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between egg shell strength with specific gravity, shell ratio and shell weight ranging from 0.55 to 0.79 were relatively high. It can be concluded that it is possible to determine egg shell quality using the egg specific gravity values utilizing its high heritability and fairly high positive correlation with most of the egg shell quality traits. As a result, egg specific gravity may be the choice of selection criterion rather than other external egg traits for genetic improvement of egg shell quality in Japanese quails.

  6. Genetic parameters for fecal egg counts and their relationship with body weights in Katahdin lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliance on anthelminthic drugs to control internal parasites in sheep is no longer sustainable because of the development of resistance to these drugs in parasite populations. Genetic selection may offer an alternative long-term solution, as differences in parasite resistance exist both within and ...

  7. Genetic relationships among Body condition score, Body weight, Milk yield and Fertility in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving

  8. Genetic relationships among three species of the genus @iSardinella@@ (Clupeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    no alleles. Nei's genetic distance values ranged from 0.31 + or - 0.15 to 1.68 + or - 0.51. Four loci were polymorphic in @iS. albella@@, and three in @iS. fimbriata@@ at P=0.95 level. No locus was polymorphic by the 95% criterion in @iS. longiceps@@. Average...

  9. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Relationship between Violent Victimization and Criminal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaske, Jamie; Boisvert, Danielle; Wright, John Paul

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a significant association between violent victimization and criminal behavior. One potential explanation for this association is that genetically mediated processes contribute to both violent victimization and criminal behavior. The current study uses data from the twin sample of the National Longitudinal Study of…

  10. The relationships between chemical and genetic differentiation and environmental factors across the distribution of Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Peng, Li-yan; Zhang, Shu-dong; Zhao, Qin-shi; Yi, Ting-shuang

    2013-01-01

    Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. is an important, widely used Chinese herb with scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B being its major active compounds. We aimed to resolve the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the concentrations of these compounds and to determine appropriate cultivation methods to improve the yields of the four compounds in this herb. In order to detect the major genetic and natural environmental factors affecting the yields of these four compounds, we applied AFLP markers to investigate the population genetic differentiation and HPLC to measure the concentrations of four major active compounds among 23 wild populations which were located across almost the entire distribution of this species in China. The meteorological data including annual average temperature, annual average precipitation and annual average hours of sunshine were collected. The relationships among the concentrations of four compounds and environmental factors and genetic differentiation were studied. Low intraspecific genetic differentiation is detected, and there is no obvious correlation between the genetic differentiation and the contents of the chemical compounds. We investigated the correlation between the concentrationsof four compounds (scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B) and environmental factors. Concentrations of two compounds (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) were correlated with environmental factors. The concentration of 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with latitude, and is negatively correlated with the annual average temperature. The concentration of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with annual average precipitation. Therefore, changing cultivation conditions may significantly improve the yields of these two compounds. We found the concentration of scutellarin positively correlated with that of

  11. The relationships between chemical and genetic differentiation and environmental factors across the distribution of Erigeron breviscapus (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available AIMS: Erigeron breviscapus (Vant. Hand.-Mazz. is an important, widely used Chinese herb with scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B being its major active compounds. We aimed to resolve the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on the concentrations of these compounds and to determine appropriate cultivation methods to improve the yields of the four compounds in this herb. METHODS: In order to detect the major genetic and natural environmental factors affecting the yields of these four compounds, we applied AFLP markers to investigate the population genetic differentiation and HPLC to measure the concentrations of four major active compounds among 23 wild populations which were located across almost the entire distribution of this species in China. The meteorological data including annual average temperature, annual average precipitation and annual average hours of sunshine were collected. The relationships among the concentrations of four compounds and environmental factors and genetic differentiation were studied. IMPORTANT FINDINGS: Low intraspecific genetic differentiation is detected, and there is no obvious correlation between the genetic differentiation and the contents of the chemical compounds. We investigated the correlation between the concentrationsof four compounds (scutellarin, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and erigoster B and environmental factors. Concentrations of two compounds (1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid were correlated with environmental factors. The concentration of 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with latitude, and is negatively correlated with the annual average temperature. The concentration of 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid is positively correlated with annual average precipitation. Therefore, changing cultivation conditions may significantly improve the yields of these two compounds. We found the concentration

  12. The Relationship between Mating System and Genetic Diversity in Diploid Sexual Populations of Cyrtomium falcatum in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Imai

    Full Text Available The impact of variation in mating system on genetic diversity is a well-debated topic in evolutionary biology. The diploid sexual race of Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern shows mating system variation, i.e., it displays two different types of sexual expression (gametangia formation in gametophytes: mixed (M type and separate (S type. We examined whether there is variation in the selfing rate among populations of this species, and evaluated the relationship between mating system, genetic diversity and effective population size using microsatellites. In this study, we developed eight new microsatellite markers and evaluated genetic diversity and structure of seven populations (four M-type and three S-type. Past effective population sizes (Ne were inferred using Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC. The values of fixation index (FIS, allelic richness (AR and gene diversity (h differed significantly between the M-type (FIS: 0.626, AR: 1.999, h: 0.152 and the S-type (FIS: 0.208, AR: 2.718, h: 0.367 populations (when admixed individuals were removed from two populations. Although evidence of past bottleneck events was detected in all populations by ABC, the current Ne of the M-type populations was about a third of that of the S-type populations. These results suggest that the M-type populations have experienced more frequent bottlenecks, which could be related to their higher colonization ability via gametophytic selfing. Although high population differentiation among populations was detected (FST = 0.581, F'ST = 0.739, there was no clear genetic differentiation between the M- and S-types. Instead, significant isolation by distance was detected among all populations. These results suggest that mating system variation in this species is generated by the selection for single spore colonization during local extinction and recolonization events and there is no genetic structure due to mating system.

  13. Maternal phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation among Arabian horse populations using whole mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanshour, Anas M; Cothran, Ernest Gus

    2013-09-13

    Maternal inheritance is an essential point in Arabian horse population genetics and strains classification. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing is a highly informative tool to investigate maternal lineages. We sequenced the whole mtDNA D-loop of 251 Arabian horses to study the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Arabian populations and to examine the traditional strain classification system that depends on maternal family lines using native Arabian horses from the Middle East. The variability in the upstream region of the D-loop revealed additional differences among the haplotypes that had identical sequences in the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). While the American-Arabians showed relatively low diversity, the Syrian population was the most variable and contained a very rare and old haplogroup. The Middle Eastern horses had major genetic contributions to the Western horses and there was no clear pattern of differentiation among all tested populations. Our results also showed that several individuals from different strains shared a single haplotype, and individuals from a single strain were represented in clearly separated haplogroups. The whole mtDNA D-loop sequence was more powerful for analysis of the maternal genetic diversity in the Arabian horses than using just the HVR1. Native populations from the Middle East, such as Syrians, could be suggested as a hot spot of genetic diversity and may help in understanding the evolution history of the Arabian horse breed. Most importantly, there was no evidence that the Arabian horse breed has clear subdivisions depending on the traditional maternal based strain classification system.

  14. Do Genetic Markers of Inflammation Modify the Relationship between Periodontitis and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease? Findings from the SHIP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkugbe, A A; Avery, C L; Barritt, A S; Cole, S R; Lerch, M; Mayerle, J; Offenbacher, S; Petersmann, A; Nauck, M; Völzke, H; Slade, G D; Heiss, G; Kocher, T; Holtfreter, B

    2017-11-01

    An association between periodontitis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been reported by experimental animal and epidemiologic studies. This study investigated whether circulating levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and a weighted genetic CRP score representing markers of inflammatory burden modify the association between periodontitis and NAFLD. Data came from 2,481 participants of the Study of Health in Pomerania who attended baseline examination that occurred between 1997 and 2001. Periodontitis was defined as the percentage of sites (0%, 3 mg/L. Periodontitis was positively associated with higher prevalence odds of NAFLD, and this relationship was modified by serum CRP levels.

  15. Genetic relationship and diversity in a sesame (Sesamum indicum L. germplasm collection using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlovsky Petr

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesame is an important oil crop in tropical and subtropical areas. Despite its nutritional value and historic and cultural importance, the research on sesame has been scarce, particularly as far as its genetic diversity is concerned. The aims of the present study were to clarify genetic relationships among 32 sesame accessions from the Venezuelan Germplasm Collection, which represents genotypes from five diversity centres (India, Africa, China-Korea-Japan, Central Asia and Western Asia, and to determine the association between geographical origin and genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. Results Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. A total of 457 AFLP markers were recorded, 93 % of them being polymorphic. The Jaccard similarity coefficient ranged from 0.38 to 0.85 between pairs of accessions. The UPGMA dendrogram grouped 25 of 32 accessions in two robust clusters, but it has not revealed any association between genotype and geographical origin. Indian, African and Chinese-Korean-Japanese accessions were distributed throughout the dendrogram. A similar pattern was obtained using principal coordinates analysis. Genetic diversity studies considering five groups of accessions according to the geographic origin detected that only 20 % of the total diversity was due to diversity among groups using Nei's coefficient of population differentiation. Similarly, only 5% of the total diversity was attributed to differences among groups by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA. This small but significant difference was explained by the fact that the Central Asia group had a lower genetic variation than the other diversity centres studied. Conclusion We found that our sesame collection was genetically very variable and did not show an association between geographical origin and AFLP patterns. This result suggests that there was considerable gene flow among diversity centres

  16. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feed intake and measures of efficiency with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Li, C; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Crews, D H; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feed intake and efficiency of growth are economically important traits of beef cattle. This study determined the relationships of daily DMI, feed:gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F) and therefore increases as the efficiency of gain decreases and vice versa, residual feed intake (RFI), and partial efficiency of growth (efficiency of ADG, PEG) with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle. Residual feed intake was calculated from phenotypic regression (RFIp) or genetic regression (RFIg) of ADG and metabolic BW on DMI. An F1 half-sib pedigree file containing 28 sires, 321 dams, and 464 progeny produced from crosses between Alberta Hybrid cows and Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls was used. Families averaged 20 progeny per sire (range = 3 to 56). Performance, ultrasound, and DMI data was available on all progeny, of which 381 had carcass data. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were obtained using SAS and ASREML software, respectively. Differences in RFIp and RFIg, respectively, between the most and least efficient steers (i.e., steers with the lowest PEG) were 5.59 and 6.84 kg of DM/d. Heritabilities for DMI, F:G, PEG, RFIp, and RFIg were 0.54 +/- 0.15, 0.41 +/- 0.15, 0.56 +/- 0.16, 0.21 +/- 0.12, and 0.42 +/- 0.15, respectively. The genetic (r = 0.92) and phenotypic (r = 0.97) correlations between RFIp and RFIg indicated that the 2 indices are very similar. Both indices of RFI were favorably correlated phenotypically (P 0.50), but only DMI had strong genetic (r = 0.87 +/- 0.10) and phenotypic (r = 0.65) correlations with metabolic BW. Generally, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with carcass merit were not different from zero, except genetic correlations of RFI with ultrasound and carcass LM area and carcass lean yield and phenotypic correlations of RFI with backfat thickness (P < 0.01). Daily DMI had moderate to high phenotypic (P < 0.01) and genetic correlations with all the ultrasound and carcass traits

  17. Genetic structure, relationships and admixture with wild relatives in native pig breeds from Iberia and its islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Luis T; Martínez, Amparo M; Carolino, Inês; Landi, Vincenzo; Delgado, Juan V; Vicente, Antonio A; Vega-Pla, José L; Cortés, Oscar; Sousa, Conceição O

    2013-06-14

    Native pig breeds in the Iberian Peninsula are broadly classified as belonging to either the Celtic or the Mediterranean breed groups, but there are other local populations that do not fit into any of these groups. Most of the native pig breeds in Iberia are in danger of extinction, and the assessment of their genetic diversity and population structure, relationships and possible admixture between breeds, and the appraisal of conservation alternatives are crucial to adopt appropriate management strategies. A panel of 24 microsatellite markers was used to genotype 844 animals representing the 17 most important native swine breeds and wild populations existing in Portugal and Spain and various statistical tools were applied to analyze the results. Genetic diversity was high in the breeds studied, with an overall mean of 13.6 alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.80. Signs of genetic bottlenecks were observed in breeds with a small census size, and population substructure was present in some of the breeds with larger census sizes. Variability among breeds accounted for about 20% of the total genetic diversity, and was explained mostly by differences among the Celtic, Mediterranean and Basque breed groups, rather than by differences between domestic and wild pigs. Breeds clustered closely according to group, and proximity was detected between wild pigs and the Mediterranean cluster of breeds. Most breeds had their own structure and identity, with very little evidence of admixture, except for the Retinto and Entrepelado varieties of the Mediterranean group, which are very similar. Genetic influence of the identified breed clusters extends beyond the specific geographical areas across borders throughout the Iberian Peninsula, with a very sharp transition from one breed group to another. Analysis of conservation priorities confirms that the ranking of a breed for conservation depends on the emphasis placed on its contribution to the between- and

  18. Genetic relationships between feed efficiency in growing males and beef cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J J; Evans, R D; Mc Hugh, N; Kenny, D A; McGee, M; Crews, D H; Berry, D P

    2011-11-01

    Most studies on feed efficiency in beef cattle have focused on performance in young animals despite the contribution of the cow herd to overall profitability of beef production systems. The objective of this study was to quantify, using a large data set, the genetic covariances between feed efficiency in growing animals measured in a performance-test station, and beef cow performance including fertility, survival, calving traits, BW, maternal weaning weight, cow price, and cull cow carcass characteristics in commercial herds. Feed efficiency data were available on 2,605 purebred bulls from 1 test station. Records on cow performance were available on up to 94,936 crossbred beef cows. Genetic covariances were estimated using animal and animal-dam linear mixed models. Results showed that selection for feed efficiency, defined as feed conversion ratio (FCR) or residual BW gain (RG), improved maternal weaning weight as evidenced by the respective genetic correlations of -0.61 and 0.57. Despite residual feed intake (RFI) being phenotypically independent of BW, a negative genetic correlation existed between RFI and cow BW (-0.23; although the SE of 0.31 was large). None of the feed efficiency traits were correlated with fertility, calving difficulty, or perinatal mortality. However, genetic correlations estimated between age at first calving and FCR (-0.55 ± 0.14), Kleiber ratio (0.33 ± 0.15), RFI (-0.29 ± 0.14), residual BW gain (0.36 ± 0.15), and relative growth rate (0.37 ± 0.15) all suggest that selection for improved efficiency may delay the age at first calving, and we speculate, using information from other studies, that this may be due to a delay in the onset of puberty. Results from this study, based on the estimated genetic correlations, suggest that selection for improved feed efficiency will have no deleterious effect on cow performance traits with the exception of delaying the age at first calving.

  19. Physics-based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-07

    knowledge and capabilities in the use and development of inverse problem techniques to deduce atmospheric parameters. WORK COMPLETED The research completed...please find the Final Technical Report with SF 298 for Dr. Erin E. Hackett’s ONR grant entitled Physics -based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine...From- To) 07/03/2017 Final Technica l Dec 2012- Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Physics -based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine

  20. Genetic Relationship between Culling, Milk Production, Fertility, and Health Traits in Norwegian Red Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtsmark, M; Heringstad, B; Madsen, P

    2008-01-01

    First-lactation records on 836,452 daughters of 3,064 Norwegian Red sires were used to examine associations between culling in first lactation and 305-d protein yield, susceptibility to clinical mastitis, lactation mean somatic cell score (SCS), nonreturn rate within 56 d in heifers and primiparous......, including functional traits such as health and fertility, most of the genetic variation in culling will probably be covered by other traits in the breeding goal. However, in populations where data on health and fertility is scarce or not available at all, selection against early culling may be useful...... cows, and interval from calving to first insemination. A Bayesian multivariate threshold-linear model was used for analysis. Posterior mean of heritability of liability to culling of primiparous cows was 0.04. The posterior means of the genetic correlations between culling and the other traits were -0...

  1. Genetic parameters for male fertility and its relationship to skatole and androstenone in Danish Landrace boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Velander, I.H.; Mark, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding selection against the boar taint compounds, androstenone and skatole, due to potential unfavorable genetic correlations with important male fertility traits (i.e., selection of boars with low levels of these boar taint compounds might also reduce male fertility......). Hence, the objective of this investigation was to study the genetic association between direct measures of male fertility and the boar taint compounds in Danish Landrace pigs. Concentrations of skatole and androstenone in the back fat were available for approximately 6,000 and 1,000 Landrace boars......, and total number of sperm were available from 95,267 ejaculates. These ejaculates were collected between 2005 and 2012 and originated from 3,145 Landrace boars from 12 AI stations in Denmark. The traits were analyzed using single and multitrait animal models including univariate random regression models...

  2. Assessment of diversity and genetic relationships of Neonectria ditissima: the causal agent of fruit tree canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemkhani, Marjan; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Liljeroth, Erland; Nybom, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Neonectria ditissima is one of the most important fungal pathogens of apple trees, where it causes fruit tree canker. Information about the amount and partitioning of genetic variation of this fungus could be helpful for improving orchard management strategies and for breeding apple cultivars with high levels of genetically determined resistance. In this study single-spore Neonectria isolates originating from both the same and from different perithecia, apple cultivars and apple orchards in Sweden and Belgium, were evaluated for AFLP- and SSR-based genetic similarity and for mating system. Seven SSR loci produced a total of 31 alleles with an average of 4 alleles per locus, while 11 AFLP primer combinations produced an average of 35 fragments per primer combination and 71 % polymorphic fragments. An AFLP-based analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89 % of the variation was found within orchards and 11 % between orchards. Genetic similarity among the studied isolates was illustrated with a principal coordinate analyseis (PCoA) and a dendrogram. AFLP-based Jaccard's similarity coefficients were the highest when single-ascospore isolates obtained from the same perithecium were compared, medium-high for isolates from different perithecia on the same tree, and lowest when isolates from different trees were compared. Based on the results of PCoA and AMOVA analysis, isolates from the same or geographically close orchards did not group together. Since AFLP profiles differed also when single-ascospore isolates from the same perithecium were compared, the mating system of N. ditissima is most likely heterothallic.

  3. Genetic relationships and epidemiological links between wild type 1 poliovirus isolates in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angez, Mehar; Shaukat, Shahzad; Alam, Muhammad M; Sharif, Salmaan; Khurshid, Adnan; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2012-02-22

    Efforts have been made to eliminate wild poliovirus transmission since 1988 when the World Health Organization began its global eradication campaign. Since then, the incidence of polio has decreased significantly. However, serotype 1 and serotype 3 still circulate endemically in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Both countries constitute a single epidemiologic block representing one of the three remaining major global reservoirs of poliovirus transmission. In this study we used genetic sequence data to investigate transmission links among viruses from diverse locations during 2005-2007. In order to find the origins and routes of wild type 1 poliovirus circulation, polioviruses were isolated from faecal samples of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) patients. We used viral cultures, two intratypic differentiation methods PCR, ELISA to characterize as vaccine or wild type 1 and nucleic acid sequencing of entire VP1 region of poliovirus genome to determine the genetic relatedness. One hundred eleven wild type 1 poliovirus isolates were subjected to nucleotide sequencing for genetic variation study. Considering the 15% divergence of the sequences from Sabin 1, Phylogenetic analysis by MEGA software revealed that active inter and intra country transmission of many genetically distinct strains of wild poliovirus type 1 belonged to genotype SOAS which is indigenous in this region. By grouping wild type 1 polioviruses according to nucleotide sequence homology, three distinct clusters A, B and C were obtained with multiple chains of transmission together with some silent circulations represented by orphan lineages. Our results emphasize that there was a persistent transmission of wild type 1 polioviruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2005-2007. The epidemiologic information provided by the sequence data can contribute to the formulation of better strategies for poliomyelitis control to those critical areas, associated with high risk population groups which include migrants

  4. Use of molecular hybridization to explore genetic relationships. Progress report, July 1, 1974--March 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on DNA distribution in pygmy chimpanzees, mountain gorillas, Catarrhine monkeys, baboons, spider monkeys, and marmosets; chromosome mapping of human 5S RNA using 3 H or 125 I labelled RNA; hybridization of 125 I-RNA to chromosomes in mice; mapping of low-multiplicity genes by hybridization in situ; technical improvements in iodination of RNA; formation of RNA aggregates; genetics of DNA and RNA in Drosophila; and x-radioinduced chromosomal aberrations in Drosophila. (U.S.)

  5. Genetic relationships among okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cultivars in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir O. Bello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench cultivars at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. The objective was to evaluate the level of genetic divergence and heritability of eight characters in 2015 and 2016 dry seasons using irrigation. The results showed highly significant (p<0.01 differences in the ten okra cultivars for days to anthesis, plant height, fresh capsule length, fresh mass per capsule and fresh capsule diameter across the two years. A high genotypic coefficient of variation, heritability, and genetic advance were detected in all the characters except for days to anthesis and fresh capsule diameter. This implied that different genetic constitution and preponderance of additive effects governed these characters, thus presenting a significant opportunity for selection. The Mahanalobis D2 analysis allotted the ten cultivars into four clusters. The highest was cluster I comprising four cultivars, followed by cluster II containing three cultivars, cluster III consisting two cultivars, and cluster IV with mono genotypic. The three most superior okra cultivars (Salkade, Y’ar gagure and Kwadag for yield and related characters could be exploited directly or introgressed with other promising ones in future breeding programs.

  6. Probable relationship between partitions of the set of codons and the origin of the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Dino G; Gallardo, Mauricio O; Osorio, Manuel I

    2014-03-01

    Here we study the distribution of randomly generated partitions of the set of amino acid-coding codons. Some results are an application from a previous work, about the Stirling numbers of the second kind and triplet codes, both to the cases of triplet codes having four stop codons, as in mammalian mitochondrial genetic code, and hypothetical doublet codes. Extending previous results, in this work it is found that the most probable number of blocks of synonymous codons, in a genetic code, is similar to the number of amino acids when there are four stop codons, as well as it could be for a primigenious doublet code. Also it is studied the integer partitions associated to patterns of synonymous codons and it is shown, for the canonical code, that the standard deviation inside an integer partition is one of the most probable. We think that, in some early epoch, the genetic code might have had a maximum of the disorder or entropy, independent of the assignment between codons and amino acids, reaching a state similar to "code freeze" proposed by Francis Crick. In later stages, maybe deterministic rules have reassigned codons to amino acids, forming the natural codes, such as the canonical code, but keeping the numerical features describing the set partitions and the integer partitions, like a "fossil numbers"; both kinds of partitions about the set of amino acid-coding codons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic diversity within the morphological species Giardia intestinalis and its relationship to host origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monis, Paul T; Andrews, Ross H; Mayrhofer, Graham; Ey, Peter L

    2003-05-01

    A genetic analysis of Giardia intestinalis, a parasitic protozoan species that is ubiquitous in mammals worldwide, was undertaken using organisms derived from a variety of mammalian hosts in different geographical locations. The test panel of 53 Giardia isolates comprised 48 samples of G. intestinalis, including representatives of all known genetic subgroups, plus an isolate of G. ardeae and four isolates of G. muris. The isolates were compared by allozymic analysis of electrophoretic data obtained for 21 cytosolic enzymes, representing 23 gene loci. Neighbour Joining analysis of the allelic profiles supported the monophyly of G. intestinalis but showed that the species encompasses a rich population substructure. Seven major clusters were evident within G. intestinalis, corresponding to lineages designated previously as genetic assemblages A-G. Some genotypes, e.g. those defining assemblage A, are found in divergent host species and may be zoonotic. However other genotypes, e.g. those defining assemblages C-G, appear to be confined to particular hosts or host groups. The findings reinforce other evidence that G. intestinalis, which was defined on the basis of morphological criteria only, is a species complex.

  8. Relationship between Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense genetic diversity and clinical spectrum among sleeping sickness patients in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Charles D; Mugasa, Claire M; Nanteza, Ann; Matovu, Enock; Alibu, Vincent P

    2017-10-27

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in East and southern Africa is reported to be clinically diverse. We tested the hypothesis that this clinical diversity is associated with a variation in trypanosome genotypes. Trypanosome DNA isolated from HAT patients was genotyped using 7 microsatellite markers directly from blood spotted FTA cards following a whole genome amplification. All markers were polymorphic and identified 17 multi-locus genotypes with 56% of the isolates having replicate genotypes. We did not observe any significant clustering between isolates and bootstrap values across major tree nodes were insignificant. When genotypes were compared among patients with varying clinical presentation or outcome, replicate genotypes were observed at both extremes showing no significant association between genetic diversity and clinical outcome. Our study shows that T. b. rhodesiense isolates are homogeneous within a focus and that observed clinical diversity may not be associated with parasite genetic diversity. Other factors like host genetics and environmental factors might be involved in determining clinical diversity. Our study may be important in designing appropriate control measures that target the parasite.

  9. Study of Relationship between Genetic Pattern and Susceptibility to Fluconazole in Clinical Isolated of Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hadadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common pathogenic causes of dermatophytosis. One of the drugs prescribed for fungal infections is fluconazole which belongs to Azoles group of antifungal agents. Recently molecular typing methods have been developed for answering the epidemiological questions and disease recurrence problems. Current study has been conducted on 22 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum obtained from patients randomly. Our aim was the investigation of correlation between genetic pattern and sensitivity to Fluconazole in clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum .   Methods: Firstly the genus and species of isolated fungi from patients have been confirmed by macroscopic and microscopic methods. Then, the resistance and sensitivity of isolates against drug have been determined using culture medium containing defined amount of drug. In next step fungal DNA has been extracted by RAPD-PCR (random amplified polymorphic DNA with random sequences of 3 primers.   Results: Each primer produced different amplified pattern, and differences have been observed in genetic pattern of resistant and sensitive samples using each 3 primers, but there was no bond with 100% specificity.   Conclusion: The 12 sensitive isolates which didn’t grow in 50µg/ml concentration of drug, also had limited growth at the lower concentration of drug. Ten resistant isolates which grew in 50µg/ml of drug, also showed resistant to lower concentration of drug. There are differences in genetic pattern of resistant and sensitive samples. RAPD analysis for molecular typing of Trichophyton rubrum seems to be completely suitable.

  10. Genetic differentiation and geographical Relationship of Asian barley landraces using SSRs

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    Rehan Naeem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in 403 morphologically distinct landraces of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare originating from seven geographical zones of Asia was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from regions of medium to high recombination in the barley genome. The seven polymorphic SSR markers representing each of the chromosomes chosen for the study revealed a high level of allelic diversity among the landraces. Genetic richness was highest in those from India, followed by Pakistan while it was lowest for Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Out of the 50 alleles detected, 15 were unique to a geographic region. Genetic diversity was highest for landraces from Pakistan (0.70 ± 0.06 and lowest for those from Uzbekistan (0.18 ± 0.17. Likewise, polymorphic information content (PIC was highest for Pakistan (0.67 ± 0.06 and lowest for Uzbekistan (0.15 ± 0.17. Diversity among groups was 40% compared to 60% within groups. Principal component analysis clustered the barley landraces into three groups to predict their domestication patterns. In total 51.58% of the variation was explained by the first two principal components of the barley germplasm. Pakistan landraces were clustered separately from those of India, Iran, Nepal and Iraq, whereas those from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan were clustered together into a separate group.

  11. Population genetic relationships between Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) varieties occurring sympatrically and allopatrically in different ecosystems in south-east Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Marcelo Mattos; Gimenes, Marcos Aparecido; Billot, Claire; Torres, Roseli Buzanelli; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    Species delimitation can be problematic, and recently diverged taxa are sometimes viewed as the extremes of a species' continuum in response to environmental conditions. Using population genetic approaches, this study assessed the relationship between two Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) varieties, which occur sympatrically and allopatrically in the landscape of south-east Brazil, where intermediate types are also found. In total, 376 individuals from nine populations in four different ecosystems were sampled, and nine microsatellite markers were used to assess the relative effects of the ecosystems and varieties on the distribution of genetic diversity among populations of this species. As a by-product of this study, several PCR products with more than two alleles were observed. The possibility that extra bands represent non-specific amplification or PCR artefacts was discarded by sequencing a sample of these bands. We suggest that (partial) genome duplication in C. sylvestris most probably explains this phenomenon, which may be a key factor in the differentiation of the two taxa, as it was markedly more frequent in one of the varieties. AMOVA indicated that approx. 22 % of the total genetic diversity was found between the two varieties. Bayesian analysis identified varieties and ecosystems as evolutionary units, rather than the individual populations sampled. The results are in agreement with field observations and support the recognition of two varieties, as well as documenting the occurrence of hybridization between them.

  12. Quantitative genome-wide genetic interaction screens reveal global epistatic relationships of protein complexes in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Babu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale proteomic analyses in Escherichia coli have documented the composition and physical relationships of multiprotein complexes, but not their functional organization into biological pathways and processes. Conversely, genetic interaction (GI screens can provide insights into the biological role(s of individual gene and higher order associations. Combining the information from both approaches should elucidate how complexes and pathways intersect functionally at a systems level. However, such integrative analysis has been hindered due to the lack of relevant GI data. Here we present a systematic, unbiased, and quantitative synthetic genetic array screen in E. coli describing the genetic dependencies and functional cross-talk among over 600,000 digenic mutant combinations. Combining this epistasis information with putative functional modules derived from previous proteomic data and genomic context-based methods revealed unexpected associations, including new components required for the biogenesis of iron-sulphur and ribosome integrity, and the interplay between molecular chaperones and proteases. We find that functionally-linked genes co-conserved among γ-proteobacteria are far more likely to have correlated GI profiles than genes with divergent patterns of evolution. Overall, examining bacterial GIs in the context of protein complexes provides avenues for a deeper mechanistic understanding of core microbial systems.

  13. Genetic Determinism of Fearfulness, General Activity and Feeding Behavior in Chickens and Its Relationship with Digestive Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Bertin, Aline

    2017-01-01

    The genetic relationships between behavior and digestive efficiency were studied in 860 chickens from a cross between two lines divergently selected on digestive efficiency. At 2 weeks of age each chick was video-recorded in the home pen to characterize general activity and feeding behavior. Tonic immobility and open-field tests were also carried out individually to evaluate emotional reactivity (i.e. the propensity to express fear responses). Digestive efficiency was measured at 3 weeks. Genetic parameters of behavior traits were estimated. Birds were genotyped on 3379 SNP markers to detect QTLs. Heritabilities of behavioral traits were low, apart from tonic immobility (0.17-0.18) and maximum meal length (0.14). The genetic correlations indicated that the most efficient birds fed more frequently and were less fearful. We detected 14 QTL (9 for feeding behavior, 3 for tonic immobility, 2 for frequency of lying). Nine of them co-localized with QTL for efficiency, anatomy of the digestive tract, feed intake or microbiota composition. Four genes involved in fear reactions were identified in the QTL for tonic immobility on GGA1.

  14. Loss of heterozygosity in fibrocystic change of the breast: genetic relationship between benign proliferative lesions and associated carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, C; Dalbègue, F; Abreo, F; Taubenberger, J K; Lichy, J H

    2000-07-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH), a genetic change frequently detected in cancer, can also occur in benign epithelial foci in the breast. To characterize LOH in benign breast tissue, 32 cases containing the various components of fibrocystic change in the absence of malignancy were studied. Microdissected foci of ductal hyperplasia, apocrine metaplasia, sclerosing adenosis, and morphologically normal terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) were analyzed for LOH at 14 polymorphic loci representing seven chromosomal arms. LOH was detected in 22% of normal TDLUs (6/27), 17% of adenosis (4/23), 19% of hyperplasia (4/21), and 53% of apocrine metaplasia (10/19) specimens. Because of the high percentage of LOH in apocrine metaplasia in nonneoplastic specimens, the genetic relationship between apocrine metaplasia and cancer was studied in a panel of breast cancer cases. Of 14 examples of apocrine metaplasia adjacent to a carcinoma, seven were found to have LOH with at least one marker. In all seven cases, the tumor and apocrine metaplasia shared LOH at one or more markers. The results demonstrate that LOH occurs frequently in the components of fibrocystic change as well as in normal TDLUs and suggest that foci of apocrine metaplasia can share a genetically altered precursor cell with an associated carcinoma.

  15. Analysis of genetic relationships and identification of lily cultivars based on inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, G F; Wu, L F; Wang, X N; Jia, W J; Duan, Q; Ma, L L; Jiang, Y L; Wang, J H

    2014-07-29

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to discriminate 62 lily cultivars of 5 hybrid series. Eight ISSR primers generated 104 bands in total, which all showed 100% polymorphism, and an average of 13 bands were amplified by each primer. Two software packages, POPGENE 1.32 and NTSYSpc 2.1, were used to analyze the data matrix. Our results showed that the observed number of alleles (NA), effective number of alleles (NE), Nei's genetic diversity (H), and Shannon's information index (I) were 1.9630, 1.4179, 0.2606, and 0.4080, respectively. The highest genetic similarity (0.9601) was observed between the Oriental x Trumpet and Oriental lilies, which indicated that the two hybrids had a close genetic relationship. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means dendrogram showed that the 62 lily cultivars clustered into two discrete groups. The first group included the Oriental and OT cultivars, while the Asiatic, LA, and Longiflorum lilies were placed in the second cluster. The distribution of individuals in the principal component analysis was consistent with the clustering of the dendrogram. Fingerprints of all lily cultivars built from 8 primers could be separated completely. This study confirmed the effect and efficiency of ISSR identification in lily cultivars.

  16. Genetic mapping, marker assisted selection and allelic relationships for the Pu 6 gene conferring rust resistance in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, Mariano; Vergani, Pablo Nicolas; Altieri, Emiliano

    2014-09-01

    Rust resistance in the sunflower line P386 is controlled by Pu 6 , a gene which was reported to segregate independently from other rust resistant genes, such as R 4 . The objectives of this work were to map Pu 6 , to provide and validate molecular tools for its identification, and to determine the linkage relationship of Pu 6 and R 4 . Genetic mapping of Pu 6 with six markers covered 24.8 cM of genetic distance on the lower end of linkage Group 13 of the sunflower consensus map. The marker most closely linked to Pu 6 was ORS316 at 2.5 cM in the distal position. ORS316 presented five alleles when was assayed with a representative set of resistant and susceptible lines. Allelism test between Pu 6 and R 4 indicated that both genes are linked at a genetic distance of 6.25 cM. This is the first confirmation based on an allelism test that at least two members of the R adv /R 4 /R 11 / R 13a /R 13b /Pu 6 cluster of genes are at different loci. A fine elucidation of the architecture of this complex locus will allow designing and constructing completely new genomic regions combining genes from different resistant sources and the elimination of the linkage drag around each resistant gene.

  17. Income, personality, and subjective financial well-being: The role of gender in their genetic and environmental relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eZyphur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing levels of financial inequality prompt questions about the relationship between income and well-being. Using a twins sample from the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States and controlling for personality as core self-evaluations, we found that men, but not women, had higher subjective financial well-being when they had higher incomes. This relationship was due to ‘unshared environmental’ factors rather than genes, suggesting that the effect of income on subjective financial well-being is driven by unique experiences among men. Further, for women and men, we found that core self-evaluations influenced income and subjective financial well-being, and that both genetic and environmental factors explained this relationship. Given the relatively small and male-specific relationship between income and subjective financial well-being, and the determination of both income and subjective financial well-being by personality, we propose that policy makers focus on malleable factors beyond merely income in order to increase subjective financial well-being, including financial education and building self-regulatory capacity.

  18. Genetic contribution to the relationship between social role function and depressive symptoms in Japanese elderly twins: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Reiko; Inui, Fujio; Kato, Kenji; Tomizawa, Rie; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2011-03-01

    Social role function is the capacity to maintain interpersonal relationships and is essential for being independent in the community. Limitations in social role function often coexist with depressive symptoms, suggesting a possible common mechanistic basis. We investigated whether the observed association between these traits is mainly a result of genetic or environmental influences. In 2008, a questionnaire was sent to 745 male twins aged 65 years and older. Our sample included 397 male twins. The number of monozygotic twins was 302, and dizygotic was 95. Among the twin pairs for whom data were available for both twins, 75 twin pairs (150 individuals) were monozygotic and 28 pairs (56 individuals) were dizygotic. Social role function was assessed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Relative importance of genes and environments for the phenotypes was calculated using structural equation analyses. Our results show that genetic influence was the major contributor to the relationship between social role function and depressive symptoms, and non-shared environmental influence was important for overall variation in each trait. We concluded that focusing on a non-shared environment is an essential approach for maintaining social role function and psychological well-being. It is suggested that treatments specific to depressive symptoms are more effective than indirect intervention targeting social role function. © 2011 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2011 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  19. Relationship between HTRA1 polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of wet age-related macular degeneration in Han population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between high temperature essential factor A-1(HTRA1polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of wet age-related macular degeneration(AMDin Han population. METHODS: Totally 201 patients of wet AMD in Han population were selected from May 2014 to January 2017 in our hospital as disease group, and 201 healthy persons of Han were selected as health group. Blood samples of peripheral vein were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. HTRA1 polymorphism loci were detected, and the rs11200638 and rs2248799 loci of HTRA1 gene were detected by Sequenom mass spectrometry platform. Then the relationship between HTRA1 polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of wet AMD were analyzed. RESULTS: The grade distributions of the genotype of the rs11200638 and rs2248799 loci in the two groups subjects had significant differences(PPPOR values of rs11200638 genotype AA and AG were respectively 5.36 and 3.45, which were the risk factors of wet AMD(POR values of rs2248799 genotype TT and TC were respectively 2.36 and 1.98, which were the risk factors of wet AMD(PCONCLUSION: The rs11200638 and rs2248799 polymorphisms of HTRA1 gene are associated with the incidence of wet AMD, and the genotype AA and TT are closely related to the risk of wet AMD in Han population, of which the higher frequencies can increase the risk of wet AMD.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I in Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Populations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri Masran, Siti Nor Ain; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz

    2017-07-01

    The tropical bed bug is scientifically recognized as a significant public health problem. While there is an increased awareness about their resurgence by medical and life science committees, efficient bed bug management still remains unresolved. The solution may soon arise, as information about bed bugs' infestation dynamics and systematics are becoming more distinguishable. Recent developments in studies about bed bugs are based on molecular intervention by determining their genetic variation and phylogeography. The aim of this study is to assess the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among the populations of tropical bed bugs inhabiting Malaysia. A molecular genotyping study was conducted with 22 tropical bed bug populations composed of three individuals per population. The mitochondrial (COI) gene was used as a marker. The data obtained were analyzed using the T-Coffee, ClustalX, MEGA 6.0, and PAUP software. The results showed one main monophyletic clade that consisted of two groups: Ch01 and Ch02. Ch02 consists of samples from the Bandar Hilir population, differing from the other populations studied by one singleton base. However, as there were no changes in the amino acid, this singleton genetic variation was considered to have no effect on genetic differentiation. Ch01 shows similarity with some sequence of Cimex hemipterus (F.) from Thailand, suggesting an international diversity connection. The disparity index apparently suggests that all isolates are homogeneous populations and are supported by the low value of the mean pairwise distance between isolates. This study will increase the knowledge about phylogeographic diversity of tropical bed bug in Malaysia. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Genetic relationship and diversity among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions revealed through SCoT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, M K; Sabana, A A; Rachana, K E; Rahman, Shafeeq; Jerard, B A; Karun, Anitha

    2015-12-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the important palms grown both as a homestead and plantation crop in countries and most island territories of tropical regions. Different DNA-based marker systems have been utilized to assess the extent of genetic diversity in coconut. Advances in genomics research have resulted in the development of novel gene-targeted markers. In the present study, we have used a simple and novel marker system, start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT), for its evaluation as a potential marker system in coconut. SCoT markers were utilized for assessment of genetic diversity in 23 coconut accessions (10 talls and 13 dwarfs), representing different geographical regions. Out of 25 SCoT primers screened, 15 primers were selected for this study based on their consistent amplification patterns. A total of 102 scorable bands were produced by the 15 primers, 88 % of which were polymorphic. The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. The similarity coefficient values ranged between 0.37 and 0.91. These coefficients were utilized to construct a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group of arithmetic means (UPGMA). The extent of genetic diversity observed based on SCoT analysis of coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems. Tall and dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions from the same geographical region clustered together. The results indicate the potential of SCoT markers to be utilized as molecular markers to detect DNA polymorphism in coconut accessions.

  2. SEMEN PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVE LIFE OF SAHIWAL BULLS: RELATIONSHIP WITH GENETIC WORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. KHAN, A. A. BHATTI, S. A. BHATTI1 AND M. ASHIQ2

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to document the semen producing ability, productive life and genetic ability for lactation milk yield of Sahiwal bulls used for artificial insemination (AI in Punjab and to find the impact of AI bulls on the improvement of Sahiwal cattle. Data from Semen Production Unit (SPU, Qadirabad, Sahiwal, Pakistan were used for this purpose. A repeatability animal model was used for estimation of breeding values for lactation milk yield. Productive life of a bull was calculated as a difference between culling age and the age at first ejaculation. Number of bulls brought to SPU varied from 9 to 102 for any year. Average number of doses of semen produced by any bull for a year varied from 724 to 5745. On the average, 238 bulls produced 17143 ± 1164 semen doses during their average stay of 5.4 ± 0.2 years. About 50% of the bulls stayed for less than four years at the SPU; with a maximum range of 14 years. Progeny tested bulls (n=90 produced 5000 and 10000 semen doses (Y in three and four years of stay (X, respectively (Y = 24.8 + 2.3635 X - 0.0112 X2. To produce 20,000 doses, it is predicted that bulls need to stay for six and a half years at the SPU. There was no association between breeding values for lactation milk yield estimated under a repeatability animal model (EBVs and number of semen doses produced (r = 0.17 and EBVs and number of daughters. Lack of genetic superiority of bulls used indicated that AI did not bring desired genetic improvement in Sahiwal cattle in the present situation. Modifications for judicious utilization of bulls are suggested along with improvements in data recording.

  3. Genetic relationships and epidemiological links between wild type 1 poliovirus isolates in Pakistan and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angez Mehar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aim Efforts have been made to eliminate wild poliovirus transmission since 1988 when the World Health Organization began its global eradication campaign. Since then, the incidence of polio has decreased significantly. However, serotype 1 and serotype 3 still circulate endemically in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Both countries constitute a single epidemiologic block representing one of the three remaining major global reservoirs of poliovirus transmission. In this study we used genetic sequence data to investigate transmission links among viruses from diverse locations during 2005-2007. Methods In order to find the origins and routes of wild type 1 poliovirus circulation, polioviruses were isolated from faecal samples of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP patients. We used viral cultures, two intratypic differentiation methods PCR, ELISA to characterize as vaccine or wild type 1 and nucleic acid sequencing of entire VP1 region of poliovirus genome to determine the genetic relatedness. Results One hundred eleven wild type 1 poliovirus isolates were subjected to nucleotide sequencing for genetic variation study. Considering the 15% divergence of the sequences from Sabin 1, Phylogenetic analysis by MEGA software revealed that active inter and intra country transmission of many genetically distinct strains of wild poliovirus type 1 belonged to genotype SOAS which is indigenous in this region. By grouping wild type 1 polioviruses according to nucleotide sequence homology, three distinct clusters A, B and C were obtained with multiple chains of transmission together with some silent circulations represented by orphan lineages. Conclusion Our results emphasize that there was a persistent transmission of wild type1 polioviruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2005-2007. The epidemiologic information provided by the sequence data can contribute to the formulation of better strategies for poliomyelitis control to those critical areas

  4. Genetic relationship and biological status of the industrially important yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus Sampaio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I

    2017-03-01

    The genomes of the recently discovered yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus and traditional S. cerevisiae are known to be found in the yeast S. pastorianus (syn. S. carlsbergensis), which are essential for brewing. The cryotolerant yeast S. bayanus var. uvarum is of great importance for production of some wines. Based on ascospore viability and meiotic recombination of the control parental markers in hybrids, we have shown that there is no complete interspecies post-zygotic isolation between the yeasts S. eubayanus, S. bayanus var. bayanus and S. bayanus var. uvarum. The genetic data presented indicate that all of the three taxa belong to the same species.

  5. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence...... of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies...

  6. Structures Deduced From Gravity Data In The Lower Niger Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on a recent gravity data collected over the area, the Lower Niger and Lower Benue basins are interpreted to comprise five major structural zones. The locations, trends, extent and relationships between most previously known structures in the area are confirmed and detailed by the data. However, the structure ...

  7. Dose-effect relationships for malignancy in cells with different genetic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, K.H.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    By combining the proposals that malignancy behaves as a recessive genetic character, that a somatic mutation is an important step in the development of cancer, and that radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks are the critical lesions which may lead to cell death, mutation and chromosomal aberrations, considerations can be made and equations derived for the incidence of malignancy in cells having different genotypes. Equations are derived for diploid carrier cells and tetraploid carrier cells, and are compared with data in literature on cell transformation. It is shown that some differences in experimental results could be due to the different genetic character of the cells used. The theoretical considerations are extended to the population which is considered to be constituted of 'carriers' and 'non-carriers' of the recessive malignant genotype. The possible influence of radiation on 'non-carriers' is discussed as are the implications of the presence of two groups within the population for the estimation of risk to low doses of radiation. (author)

  8. Genetic characterization, molecular epidemiology, and phylogenetic relationships of insect-specific viruses in the taxon Negevirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Marcio R T; Contreras-Gutierrez, María Angélica; Guzman, Hilda; Martins, Livia C; Barbirato, Mayla Feitoza; Savit, Chelsea; Balta, Victoria; Uribe, Sandra; Vivero, Rafael; Suaza, Juan David; Oliveira, Hamilton; Nunes Neto, Joaquin P; Carvalho, Valeria L; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Cardoso, Jedson F; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santo; da Silva Lemos, Poliana; Wood, Thomas G; Widen, Steven G; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Fish, Durland; Vasilakis, Nikos; Tesh, Robert B

    2017-04-01

    The recently described taxon Negevirus is comprised of a diverse group of insect-specific viruses isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sandflies. In this study, a comprehensive genetic characterization, molecular, epidemiological and evolutionary analyses were conducted on nearly full-length sequences of 91 new negevirus isolates obtained in Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Panama, USA and Nepal. We demonstrated that these arthropod restricted viruses are clustered in two major phylogenetic groups with origins related to three plant virus genera (Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunevirus). Molecular analyses demonstrated that specific host correlations are not present with most negeviruses; instead, high genetic variability, wide host-range, and cross-species transmission were noted. The data presented here also revealed the existence of five novel insect-specific viruses falling into two arthropod-restrictive virus taxa, previously proposed as distinct genera, designated Nelorpivirus and Sandewavirus. Our results provide a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology, evolution, taxonomy and stability of this group of insect-restricted viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aibika (Abelmoschus manihot L.): Genetic variation, morphology and relationships to micronutrient composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiang-Yalambing, Lydia; Arcot, Jayashree; Greenfield, Heather; Holford, Paul

    2016-02-15

    Aibika (Abelmoschus manihot L.) is believed to be a good source of micronutrients. However, although many varieties of aibika are commonly consumed in Papua New Guinea, their micronutrient content is unknown. Therefore, the mineral (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn & Cu), folate composition and the genetic variation of 23 aibika accessions from the collection at the National Agricultural Research Institute were studied over a 3year period to provide data for nutritional studies and to inform breeding programs. The data showed that aibika is, potentially, a crop of high nutritional value with the potential to boost the micronutrient status of local PNG communities. However, there were substantial differences in the micronutrient concentrations of the accessions from year to year and accessions that had the highest concentration of a particular mineral in 1year did not have the high concentrations in other years. Clusters determined using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis (UPGMA) of the micronutrient contents differed in each of the 3years. Genetic analysis made using random amplification of polymorphic DNA and directed amplification of mini satellite region DNA placed the accessions into five groups. There was no correlation between these groups and leaf morphology, nor were there correlations with the clusters determined from the UPGMA analyses. There appears to be considerable interaction between genotype and environmental factors determining micronutrient composition and environmental factors may play a greater role than genotype in influencing micronutrient composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms in the DRD5 gene and paranoid schizophrenia in northern Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Ding, M; Pang, H; Xu, X M; Wang, B J

    2014-03-12

    Dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the pathophysiol-ogy of several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Thus, genes related to the dopaminergic (DAergic) system are good candidate genes for schizophrenia. One of receptors of the DA receptor system is dopa-mine receptor 5 (DRD5). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions of DRD5 gene may affect gene expression, influence biosynthesis of DA and underlie various neuropsychiatric disorders re-lated to DA dysfunction. The present study explored the association of SNPs within the DRD5 gene with paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. A total of 176 patients with schizophrenia and 206 healthy controls were genotyped for four DRD5 SNPs (rs77434921, rs2076907, rs6283, and rs1800762). Significant group differences were observed in the allele and genotype frequencies of rs77434921 and rs1800762 and in the frequen-cies of GC haplotypes corresponding to rs77434921-rs1800762. Our find-ings suggest that common genetic variations of DRD5 are likely to con-tribute to genetic susceptibility to paranoid schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Further studies in larger samples are needed to replicate this association.

  11. [Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of 3 SNP loci in 5-HTT gene and paranoid schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Jin-Feng; Ding, Mei; Pang, Hao; Xing, Jia-Xin; Sun, Yi-Hua; Yao, Jun; Zhao, Yi; Li, Chun-Mei; Wang, Bao-Jie

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the population genetic data of 3 SNP loci (rs25533, rs34388196 and rs1042173) of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT) gene and the association with paranoid schizophrenia. Three SNP loci of 5-HTT gene were examined in 132 paranoid schizophrenia patients and 150 unrelated healthy individuals of Northern Chinese Han population by PCR-RFLP technique. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test was performed using the chi-square test and the data of haplotype frequency and population genetics parameters were statistically analyzed. Among these three SNP loci, four haplotypes were obtained. There were no statistically significant differences between the patient group and the control group (P > 0.05). The DP values of the 3 SNP loci were 0.276, 0.502 and 0.502. The PIC of them were 0.151, 0.281 and 0.281. The PE of them were 0.014, 0.072 and 0.072. The three SNP loci and four haplotypes of 5-HTT gene have no association with paranoid schizophrenia, while the polymorphism still have high potential application in forensic practice.

  12. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  13. Study of Relationship between Genetic Pattern and Susceptibility to Terbinafine in Clinical Isolated of Trichophyton rubrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hadadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common pathogeniccause of dermatophytosis. One of the drugs which have been prescribed widely for fungal infections is terbinafine which belongs to allylamines group of antifungal agents. Recently molecular typing methods have been developed for answering the epidemiological questions and disease recurrence problems. Current study has been conducted on 22 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum obtained from patients randomly. Our aim was the investigation of correlation between genetic pattern and sensitivity to Terbinafine in clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum.   Methods: Firstly the genus and species of isolated fungi from patients have been confirmed by macroscopic and microscopic methods, then, the resistance and sensitivity of isolates against drug have been determined using culture medium containing defined amount of drug. In next step fungal DNA has been extracted by RAPD-PCR (random amplified polymorphic DNA with random sequences of 3 primers.   Results: Each primer produced different amplified pattern, and using each 3 primers differences have been observed in genetic pattern of resistant and sensitive samples using each 3 primers, but there was no bond with 100% specificity.   Conclusion: The 12 sensitive isolates which didn’t grow in 0.1 mg concentration of drug, also had limited growth at the low concentration of drug. Ten resistant isolates which grew in 0.1mg/ml of drug, in lower concentration of drug were resisted. RAPD analysis for molecular typing of Trichophyton rubrum seems to be completely suitable.

  14. Implementation of the Realized Genomic Relationship Matrix to Open-Pollinated White Spruce Family Testing for Disentangling Additive from Nonadditive Genetic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Gamal El-Dien

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The open-pollinated (OP family testing combines the simplest known progeny evaluation and quantitative genetics analyses as candidates’ offspring are assumed to represent independent half-sib families. The accuracy of genetic parameter estimates is often questioned as the assumption of “half-sibling” in OP families may often be violated. We compared the pedigree- vs. marker-based genetic models by analysing 22-yr height and 30-yr wood density for 214 white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench Voss] OP families represented by 1694 individuals growing on one site in Quebec, Canada. Assuming half-sibling, the pedigree-based model was limited to estimating the additive genetic variances which, in turn, were grossly overestimated as they were confounded by very minor dominance and major additive-by-additive epistatic genetic variances. In contrast, the implemented genomic pairwise realized relationship models allowed the disentanglement of additive from all nonadditive factors through genetic variance decomposition. The marker-based models produced more realistic narrow-sense heritability estimates and, for the first time, allowed estimating the dominance and epistatic genetic variances from OP testing. In addition, the genomic models showed better prediction accuracies compared to pedigree models and were able to predict individual breeding values for new individuals from untested families, which was not possible using the pedigree-based model. Clearly, the use of marker-based relationship approach is effective in estimating the quantitative genetic parameters of complex traits even under simple and shallow pedigree structure.

  15. BLAT2DOLite: An Online System for Identifying Significant Relationships between Genetic Sequences and Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cheng

    Full Text Available The significantly related diseases of sequences could play an important role in understanding the functions of these sequences. In this paper, we introduced BLAT2DOLite, an online system for annotating human genes and diseases and identifying the significant relationships between sequences and diseases. Currently, BLAT2DOLite integrates Entrez Gene database and Disease Ontology Lite (DOLite, which contain loci of gene and relationships between genes and diseases. It utilizes hypergeometric test to calculate P-values between genes and diseases of DOLite. The system can be accessed from: http://123.59.132.21:8080/BLAT2DOLite. The corresponding web service is described in: http://123.59.132.21:8080/BLAT2DOLite/BLAT2DOLiteIDMappingPort?wsdl.

  16. Epigenetics and genetics in endometrial cancer: new carcinogenic mechanisms and relationship with clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Kouji; Kisu, Iori; Yanokura, Megumi; Masuda, Kenta; Ueki, Arisa; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Daisuke

    2012-04-01

    Endometrial cancer is the seventh most common cancer worldwide among females. An increased incidence and a younger age of patients are also predicted to occur, and therefore elucidation of the pathological mechanisms is important. However, several aspects of the mechanism of carcinogenesis in the endometrium remain unclear. Associations with genetic mutations of cancer-related genes have been shown, but these do not provide a complete explanation. Therefore, epigenetic mechanisms have been examined. Silencing of genes by DNA hypermethylation, hereditary epimutation of DNA mismatch repair genes and regulation of gene expression by miRNAs may underlie carcinogenesis in endometrial cancer. New therapies include targeting epigenetic changes using histone deacetylase inhibitors. Some cases of endometrial cancer may also be hereditary. Thus, patients with Lynch syndrome which is a hereditary disease, have a higher risk for developing endometrial cancer than the general population. Identification of such disease-related genes may contribute to early detection and prevention of endometrial cancer.

  17. Exploring the relationship between lifestyles, diets and genetic adaptations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Cristina; Alvarez, Luis; Marks, Sarah J; Lopez-Parra, Ana M; Parson, Walther; Oosthuizen, Ockie; Oosthuizen, Erica; Amorim, António; Capelli, Cristian; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Gusmão, Leonor; Prata, Maria J

    2015-05-28

    One of the most important dietary shifts underwent by human populations began to occur in the Neolithic, during which new modes of subsistence emerged and new nutrients were introduced in diets. This change might have worked as a selective pressure over the metabolic pathways involved in the breakdown of substances extracted from food. Here we applied a candidate gene approach to investigate whether in populations with different modes of subsistence, diet-related genetic adaptations could be identified in the genes AGXT, PLRP2, MTRR, NAT2 and CYP3A5. At CYP3A5, strong signatures of positive selection were detected, though not connected to any dietary variable, but instead to an environmental factor associated with the Tropic of Cancer. Suggestive signals of adaptions that could indeed be connected with differences in dietary habits of populations were only found for PLRP2 and NAT2. Contrarily, the demographic history of human populations seemed enough to explain patterns of diversity at AGXT and MTRR, once both conformed the evolutionary expectations under selective neutrality. Accumulated evidence indicates that CYP3A5 has been under adaptive evolution during the history of human populations. PLRP2 and NAT2 also appear to have been modelled by some selective constrains, although clear support for that did not resist to a genome wide perspective. It is still necessary to clarify which were the biological mechanisms and the environmental factors involved as well as their interactions, to understand the nature and strength of the selective pressures that contributed to shape current patterns of genetic diversity at those loci.

  18. Heterozygosity level and its relationship with genetic variability mechanisms in beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Carolina de Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Heterozygosity is an extremely important resource in early breeding programs using autogamous plants because it is usually associated with the presence of genetic variability. Induced mutation and artificial hybridization can increase distinctly the proportion of loci in heterozygosis. This study aimed to compare segregating and mutant populations and relate the mechanisms used to generate variability with their respective heterozygosity levels tested. The treatments mutant populations (M2, M3, M4, M5, M6 and M7, segregating populations (F4, F5 and F6 and lines (BRS Pérola and IPR Uirapuru were evaluated by multivariate analysis and compared by orthogonal contrasts. The canonical discriminant analysis revealed which response variables contributed to differentiate the treatments assessed. All orthogonal contrasts involving the mutant populations showed significant differences, except the contrast between M2 vs. M3, M4, M5, M6, M7. The orthogonal contrast between the mutant and segregating populations denotes a significant variation in the interest in genetic breeding. The traits stem diameter (1.41 and number of legumes per plant (2.72 showed the highest canonical weight in this contrast. Conversely, number of grains per plant (-3.58 approached the mutant and segregating populations. No significant difference was observed in the linear comparison of means F5 vs. F6. The traits are fixed early in the segregant populations, unlike the mutant populations. Comparatively, induced mutation provides more loci in heterozygosis than artificial hybridization. Selection pressure should vary according to the variability creation mechanism used at the beginning of the breeding program.

  19. Exploration of a rare population of Chinese chestnut in North America: stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amy C; Woeste, Keith E; Anagnostakis, Sandra L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-10-20

    With the transport of plants around the globe, exotic species can readily spread disease to their native relatives; however, they can also provide genetic resistance to those relatives through hybrid breeding programmes. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was an abundant tree species in North America until its decimation by introduced chestnut blight. To restore chestnut in North America, efforts are ongoing to test putative blight-resistant hybrids of Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), but little is known about the ecology of C. mollissima. In a forest in northeastern USA in which C. mollissima has become established, we explored questions of stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships of C. mollissima offspring to an adjacent parent orchard. We found that C. mollissima was adapted and randomly distributed among native species in this relatively young forest. The genetics of the C. mollissima population compared with its parents indicated little effect of selection pressure as each of the parent trees contributed at least one offspring. The ease with which this exotic species proliferated calls to question why C. mollissima is rare elsewhere in forests of North America. It is likely that a time window of low animal predation allowed seedlings to establish, and the shallow soil at this site limited the maximum forest canopy height, permitting the characteristically short-statured C. mollissima to avoid suppression. Our results indicate that because C. mollissima exhibited pioneer species characteristics, hybrids between C. mollissima and C. dentata have the potential to be successful pioneer species of future forests in North America, and we challenge the paradigm that exotic tree species are wholly detrimental to native biodiversity. We contend that exotic tree species should be assessed not only by their level of threat to native species, but also by their potential positive impacts on ecosystems via hybrid breeding programmes

  20. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains isolated from water and clinical samples: antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazari-Hiríart, Marisa; Ponce de León, Sergio; Amieva-Fernández, Rosa I; Agis-Juárez, Raúl A; Huebner, Johannes; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area) and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation), respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species.

  1. Comparison of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Strains isolated from water and clinical samples: antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Castillo-Rojas

    Full Text Available Enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. These organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. The aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolates from clinical samples and from water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and treated water from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and to determine the genetic relationships among these isolates. A total of 121 enterococcus strains were studied; 31 and 90 strains were isolated from clinical samples and water (groundwater, water from the Xochimilco wetland, and water for agricultural irrigation, respectively. Identification to the species level was performed using a multiplex PCR assay, and antimicrobial profiles were obtained using a commercial kit. Twenty-eight strains were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. E. faecium strains isolated from water showed an atypical biochemical pattern. The clinical isolates showed higher resistance to antibiotics than those from water. Both the enterococci isolated from humans, and those isolated from water showed high genetic diversity according to the PFGE analysis, although some strains seemed to be closely related. In conclusion, enterococci isolated from humans and water are genetically different. However, water represents a potential route of transmission to the community and a source of antimicrobial resistance genes that may be readily transmitted to other, different bacterial species.

  2. Genetic relationships and evolution in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as revealed by simple sequence repeat polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Li; Paris, Harry S; Nee, Michael H; Stift, Gertraud; Pachner, Martin; Vollmann, Johann; Lelley, Tamas

    2012-03-01

    Genetic relationships among 104 accessions of Cucurbita pepo were assessed from polymorphisms in 134 SSR (microsatellite) and four SCAR loci, yielding a total of 418 alleles, distributed among all 20 linkage groups. Genetic distance values were calculated, a dendrogram constructed, and principal coordinate analyses conducted. The results showed 100 of the accessions as distributed among three clusters representing each of the recognized subspecies, pepo, texana, and fraterna. The remaining four accessions, all having very small, round, striped fruits, assumed central positions between the two cultivated subspecies, pepo and texana, suggesting that they are relicts of undescribed wild ancestors of the two domesticated subspecies. In both, subsp. texana and subsp. pepo, accessions belonging to the same cultivar-group (fruit shape) associated with one another. Within subsp. pepo, accessions grown for their seeds or that are generalists, used for both seed and fruit consumption, assumed central positions. Specialized accessions, grown exclusively for consumption of their young fruits, or their mature fruit flesh, or seed oil extraction, tended to assume outlying positions, and the different specializations radiated outward from the center in different directions. Accessions of the longest-fruited cultivar-group, Cocozelle, radiated bidirectionally, indicating independent selection events for long fruits in subsp. pepo probably driven by a common desire to consume the young fruits. Among the accessions tested, there was no evidence for crossing between subspecies after domestication.

  3. Novel approach of molecular genetic understanding of iridology: relationship between iris constitution and angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Jae-Young; An, Nyeon-Hyoung; Yang, Gui-Bi; Lee, Geon-Mok; Cho, Ju-Jang; Cho, Jae-Woon; Hwang, Woo-Jun; Chae, Han-Jung; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2005-01-01

    Iridology is the study of the iris of the eye to detect the conditions of the body and its organs, genetic strengths and weaknesses, etc. Although iridology is not widely used as a scientific tool for healthcare professionals to get to the source of people's health conditions, it has been used as a supplementary source to help the diagnosis of medical conditions by noting irregularities of the pigmentation in the iris among some Korean Oriental medical doctors. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism is one of the most well studied genetic markers of vascular disease. We investigated the relationship between iridological constitution and ACE polymorphism in hypertensives. We classified 87 hypertensives and 79 controls according to iris constitution and determined the ACE genotype of each individual. DD genotype was more prevalent in patients with a neurogenic constitution than in controls. This finding supports the hypothesis that D allele is a candidate gene for hypertension and demonstrates the association among ACE genotype, Korean hypertensives and iris constitution.

  4. Relationship of Genetic Variants With Procedural Pain, Anxiety, and Distress in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersig, Anne L; Schutte, Debra L; Standley, Jennifer; Leslie, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Bridget; Kleiber, Charmaine; Hanrahan, Kirsten; Murray, Jeffrey C; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2017-05-01

    This study used a candidate gene approach to examine genomic variation associated with pain, anxiety, and distress in children undergoing a medical procedure. Children aged 4-10 years having an IV catheter insertion were recruited from three Midwestern children's hospitals. Self-report measures of pain, anxiety, and distress were obtained as well as an observed measure of distress. Samples were collected from children and biological parents for analysis of genomic variation. Genotyped variants had known or suspected association with phenotypes of interest. Analyses included child-only association and family-based transmission disequilibrium tests. Genotype and phenotype data were available from 828 children and 376 family trios. Children were 50% male, had a mean age of 7.2 years, and were 84% White/non-Hispanic. In family-based analysis, one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1143629, interleukin ( IL1B) 1β) was associated with observed child distress at Bonferroni-corrected levels of significance ( p = .00013), while two approached significance for association with high state anxiety (rs6330 Nerve Growth Factor, Beta Subunit, [ NGFB]) and high trait anxiety (rs6265 brain-derived neurotrophic factor [ BDNF]). In the child-only analysis, multiple SNPs showed nominal evidence of relationships with phenotypes of interest. rs6265 BDNF and rs2941026 cholecystokinin B receptor had possible relationships with trait anxiety in child-only and family-based analyses. Exploring genomic variation furthers our understanding of pain, anxiety, and distress and facilitates genomic screening to identify children at high risk of procedural pain, anxiety, and distress. Combined with clinical observations and knowledge, such explorations could help guide tailoring of interventions to limit procedure-related distress and identify genes and pathways of interest for future genotype-phenotype studies.

  5. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of serum leptin concentration with performance, efficiency of gain, and carcass merit of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Keisler, D H; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Li, C; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Moore, S S

    2007-09-01

    Leptin is the hormone product of the obese gene that is synthesized and predominantly expressed by adipocytes. This study estimated the genetic variation in serum leptin concentration and evaluated the genetic and phenotypic relationships of serum leptin concentration with performance, efficiency of gain, and carcass merit. There were 464 steers with records for serum leptin concentration, performance, and efficiency of gain and 381 steers with records for carcass traits. The analyses included a total of 813 steers, including those without phenotypic records. Phenotypic and genetic parameter estimates were obtained using SAS and ASREML, respectively. Serum leptin concentration was moderately heritable (h2 = 0.34 +/- 0.13) and averaged 13.91 (SD = 5.74) ng/mL. Sire breed differences in serum leptin concentration correlated well with breed differences in body composition. Specifically, the serum leptin concentration was 20% greater in Angus-sired steers compared with Charolais-sired steers (P 0.10). Serum leptin concentration was correlated phenotypically with ultrasound backfat (r = 0.41; P < 0.001), carcass 12th-rib fat (r = 0.42; P < 0.001), ultrasound marbling (r = 0.25; P < 0.01), carcass marbling (r = 0.28; P < 0.01), ultrasound LM area (r = -0.19; P < 0.01), carcass LM area (r = -0.17; P < 0.05), lean meat yield (r = -0.38; P < 0.001), and yield grade (r = 0.32; P < 0.001). The corresponding genetic correlations were generally greater than the phenotypic correlations and included ultrasound backfat (r = 0.76 +/- 0.19), carcass 12th-rib fat (r = 0.54 +/- 0.23), ultrasound marbling (r = 0.27 +/- 0.22), carcass marbling (r = 0.76 +/- 0.21), ultrasound LM area (r = -0.71 +/- 0.19), carcass LM area (r = -0.75 +/- 0.20), lean meat yield (r = -0.59 +/- 0.22), and yield grade (r = 0.39 +/- 0.26). Serum leptin concentration can be a valuable tool that can be incorporated into appropriate selection programs to favorably improve the carcass merit of cattle.

  6. Adding injury to infection: The relationship between injury status and genetic diversity of Theileria infecting plains zebra, Equus quagga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King'ori, Edward M; Obanda, Vincent; Ndambiri, Ephantus M; Runo, Steven M; Chiyo, Patrick I

    2018-03-01

    Asymptomatic tick-borne infections are a common feature in wild herbivores. In human-dominated habitats, snare injuries to wild herbivores are common and are likely to co-occur with enzootic infections. The influence of injury on pattern, course and outcome of enzootic infection in wild herbivores is unknown. We identified Theileria species infecting zebra and assessed the relationship between host injury-status and parasitaemia, parasite diversity and selection regimes. We also determined host leucocyte differential as this can reveal mechanisms by which injuries influence infections. Theileria infecting zebra was identified using PCR and sequencing of the V4 region of the 18 s rRNA gene and confirmed with phylogenetic analyses. The influence of injury status on parasite infection patterns, genetic diversity and selection were assessed using population genetic tools. Parasitaemia estimated from prevalence and leucocyte differential were determined from microscopic examination of Giemsa stained thin blood smears. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses revealed that the zebra population studied was infected with three Theileria equi haplotypes. Parasitaemia was lower among injured compared to non-injured animals and lower during dry than wet season. Mean (±SD) genetic diversity was 0.386 (±0.128) in injured and 0.513 (±0.144) in non-injured zebra (P = .549). Neutrality tests indicated that T. equi is under strong purifying selection in injured females (Li & Fu's D* = -2.037) and demographic expansion in all zebra during the wet season (Tajima D = -1.904). Injured zebras had a higher median per cent of neutrophils (64% vs 37%) a lower median per cent of basophils (0% vs 1%) and eosinophils (2% vs 4.5%) than non-injured animals, suggesting a heightened immune response and a shift from a Th2 to Th1 T-Cell response favoring the elimination of intracellular parasites in injured animals. This study demonstrates the utility of population genetics in revealing

  7. The genetic basis of novel water utilisation and drinking behaviour traits and their relationship with biological performance in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakovica, Julija; Kremer, Valentin D; Plötz, Thomas; Rohlf, Paige; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2017-09-29

    There is increasing interest in the definition, measurement and use of traits associated with water use and drinking behaviour, mainly because water is a finite resource and its intake is an important part of animal health and well-being. Analysis of such traits has received little attention, due in part to the lack of appropriate technology to measure drinking behaviour. We exploited novel equipment to collect water intake data in two lines of turkey (A: 27,415 and B: 12,956 birds). The equipment allowed continuous recording of individual visits to the water station in a group environment. Our aim was to identify drinking behaviour traits of biological relevance, to estimate their genetic parameters and their genetic relationships with performance traits, and to identify drinking behaviour strategies among individuals. Visits to the drinkers were clustered into bouts, i.e. time intervals spent in drinking-related activity. Based on this, biologically relevant traits were defined: (1) number of visits per bout, (2) water intake per bout, (3) drinking time per bout, (4) drinking rate, (5) daily bout frequency, (6) daily bout duration, (7) daily drinking time and (8) daily water intake. Heritability estimates for most drinking behaviour traits were moderate to high and the most highly heritable traits were drinking rate (0.49 and 0.50) and daily drinking time (0.35 and 0.46 in lines A and B, respectively). Genetic correlations between drinking behaviour and performance traits were low except for moderate correlations between daily water intake and weight gain (0.46 and 0.47 in lines A and B, respectively). High estimates of breeding values for weight gain were found across the whole range of estimated breeding values for daily water intake, daily drinking time and water intake per bout. We show for the first time that drinking behaviour traits are moderately to highly heritable. Low genetic and phenotypic correlations with performance traits suggest that current

  8. Relationship of genetically transmitted alpha EEG traits to anxiety disorders and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoch, M.A.; Rohrbaugh, W.; Harris, C.R. [Washington School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    We tested the hypothesis that a heritable EEG trait, the low voltage alpha (LV), is associated with psychiatric disorders. Modest to moderate evidence for genetic linkage of both panic disorder and the low voltage alpha trait to the same region of chromosome 20q has recently been reported, raising the issue of whether there is a phenotypic correlation between these traits. A total of 124 subjects including 50 unrelated index subjects and 74 relatives were studied. Alpha EEG power was measured and EEG phenotypes were impressionistically classified. Subjects were psychiatrically interviewed using the SADS-L and blind-rated by RDC criteria. Alcoholics were four times more likely to be LV (including so-called borderline low voltage alpha) than were nonalcoholic, nonanxious subjects. Alcoholics with anxiety disorder are 10 times more likely to be LV. However, alcoholics without anxiety disorder were similar to nonalcoholics in alpha power. An anxiety disorder (panic disorder, phobia, or generalized anxiety) was found in 14/17 LV subjects as compared to 34/101 of the rest of the sample (P < 0.01). Support for these observations was found in the unrelated index subjects in whom no traits would be shared by familial clustering. Lower alpha power in anxiety disorders was not state-dependent, as indicated by the Spielberger Anxiety Scale. Familial covariance of alpha power was 0.25 (P < 0.01). These findings indicate there may be a shared factor underlying the transmissible low voltage alpha EEG variant and vulnerability to anxiety disorders with associated alcoholism. This factor is apparently not rare, because LV was found in approximately 10% of unrelated index subjects and 5% of subjects free of alcoholism and anxiety disorders. 43 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. High-throughput multiplex cpDNA resequencing clarifies the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among Brassica napus, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jiangwei; Cai, Mengxian; Yan, Guixin; Wang, Nian; Li, Feng; Chen, Binyun; Gao, Guizhen; Xu, Kun; Li, Jun; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus (rapeseed) is a recent allotetraploid plant and the second most important oilseed crop worldwide. The origin of B. napus and the genetic relationships with its diploid ancestor species remain largely unresolved. Here, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from 488 B. napus accessions of global origin, 139 B. rapa accessions and 49 B. oleracea accessions were populationally resequenced using Illumina Solexa sequencing technologies. The intraspecific cpDNA variants and their allelic frequencies were called genomewide and further validated via EcoTILLING analyses of the rpo region. The cpDNA of the current global B. napus population comprises more than 400 variants (SNPs and short InDels) and maintains one predominant haplotype (Bncp1). Whole-genome resequencing of the cpDNA of Bncp1 haplotype eliminated its direct inheritance from any accession of the B. rapa or B. oleracea species. The distribution of the polymorphism information content (PIC) values for each variant demonstrated that B. napus has much lower cpDNA diversity than B. rapa; however, a vast majority of the wild and cultivated B. oleracea specimens appeared to share one same distinct cpDNA haplotype, in contrast to its wild C-genome relatives. This finding suggests that the cpDNA of the three Brassica species is well differentiated. The predominant B. napus cpDNA haplotype may have originated from uninvestigated relatives or from interactions between cpDNA mutations and natural/artificial selection during speciation and evolution. These exhaustive data on variation in cpDNA would provide fundamental data for research on cpDNA and chloroplasts. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Genetic characterization of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds and analysis of their relationship to cosmopolitan dog breeds using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, D; Marelli, S P; Randi, E; Polli, M

    2015-12-01

    Very little research into genetic diversity of Italian native dog breeds has been carried out so far. In this study we aimed to estimate and compare the genetic diversity of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds: the Maremma, Bergamasco, Lupino del Gigante and Oropa shepherds. Therefore, some cosmopolitan dog breeds, which have been widely raised in Italy for a long time past, have also been considered to check possible influence of these dog populations on the Italian autochthonous breeds considered here. A total of 212 individuals, belonging to 10 different dog breeds, were sampled and genotyped using 18 autosomal microsatellite loci. We analyzed the genetic diversity of these breeds, within breed diversity, breed relationship and population structure. The 10 breeds considered in this study were clearly genetically differentiated from each other, regardless of current population sizes and the onset of separate breeding history. The level of genetic diversity explained 20% of the total genetic variation. The level of H E found here is in agreement with that found by other studies. The native Italian breeds showed generally higher genetic diversity compared with the long established, well-defined cosmopolitan dog breeds. As the Border Collie seems closer to the Italian breeds than the other cosmopolitan shepherd dogs considered here, a possible utilization of this breed to improve working performance in Italian traditional working shepherd dogs cannot be ignored. The data and information found here can be utilized in the organization of conservation programs planned to reduce inbreeding and to minimize loss of genetic variability.

  11. Comparison of transcripts in Phalaenopsis bellina and Phalaenopsis equestris (Orchidaceae) flowers to deduce monoterpene biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Kuoh, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Tian-Hsiang; Wang, Hei-Chia; Wu, Tian-Shung; Leu, Yann-Lii; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2006-07-13

    Floral scent is one of the important strategies for ensuring fertilization and for determining seed or fruit set. Research on plant scents has hampered mainly by the invisibility of this character, its dynamic nature, and complex mixtures of components that are present in very small quantities. Most progress in scent research, as in other areas of plant biology, has come from the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. Although volatile components have been identified in several orchid species, the biosynthetic pathways of orchid flower fragrance are far from understood. We investigated how flower fragrance was generated in certain Phalaenopsis orchids by determining the chemical components of the floral scent, identifying floral expressed-sequence-tags (ESTs), and deducing the pathways of floral scent biosynthesis in Phalaneopsis bellina by bioinformatics analysis. The main chemical components in the P. bellina flower were shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to be monoterpenoids, benzenoids and phenylpropanoids. The set of floral scent producing enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) to geraniol and linalool were recognized through data mining of the P. bellina floral EST database (dbEST). Transcripts preferentially expressed in P. bellina were distinguished by comparing the scent floral dbEST to that of a scentless species, P. equestris, and included those encoding lipoxygenase, epimerase, diacylglycerol kinase and geranyl diphosphate synthase. In addition, EST filtering results showed that transcripts encoding signal transduction and Myb transcription factors and methyltransferase, in addition to those for scent biosynthesis, were detected by in silico hybridization of the P. bellina unigene database against those of the scentless species, rice and Arabidopsis. Altogether, we pinpointed 66% of the biosynthetic steps from G3P to geraniol, linalool and their derivatives. This systems biology program combined

  12. PIK3CA Mutation in Colorectal Cancer: Relationship with Genetic and Epigenetic Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Nosho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Somatic PIK3CA mutations are often present in colorectal cancer. Mutant PIK3CA activates AKT signaling, which up-regulates fatty acid synthase (FASN. Microsatellite instability (MSI and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP are important molecular classifiers in colorectal cancer. However, the relationship between PIK3CA mutation, MSI and CIMP remains uncertain. Using Pyrosequencing technology, we detected PIK3CA mutations in 91 (15% of 590 population-based colorectal cancers. To determine CIMP status, we quantified DNA methylation in eight CIMP-specific promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1] by real-time polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight. PIK3CA mutation was significantly associated with mucinous tumors [P = .0002; odds ratio (OR = 2.44], KRAS mutation (P < .0001; OR = 2.68, CIMP-high (P = .03; OR = 2.08, phospho–ribosomal protein S6 expression (P = .002; OR = 2.19, and FASN expression (P = .02; OR = 1.85 and inversely with p53 expression (P = .01; OR = 0.54 and β-catenin (CTNNB1 alteration (P = .004; OR = 0.43. In addition, PIK3CA G-to-A mutations were associated with MGMT loss (P = .001; OR = 3.24 but not with MGMT promoter methylation. In conclusion, PIK3CA mutation is significantly associated with other key molecular events in colorectal cancer, and MGMT loss likely contributes to the development of PIK3CA G>A mutation. In addition, Pyrosequencing is useful in detecting PIK3CA mutation in archival paraffin tumor tissue. PIK3CA mutational data further emphasize heterogeneity of colorectal cancer at the molecular level.

  13. Deducing Electron Properties from Hard X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, E. P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G. D.; Hurford, G. J.; Kasparova, J.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Massone, A. M.; McConnell, M. L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron distribution function, through a deconvolution of this fundamental relationship. This review presents recent progress toward this goal using spectroscopic, imaging and polarization measurements, primarily from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Previous conclusions regarding the energy, angular (pitch angle) and spatial distributions of energetic electrons in solar flares are critically reviewed. We discuss the role and the observational evidence of several radiation processes: free-free electron-ion, free-free electron-electron, free-bound electron-ion, photoelectric absorption and Compton backscatter (albedo), using both spectroscopic and imaging techniques. This unprecedented quality of data allows for the first time inference of the angular distributions of the X-ray-emitting electrons and improved model-independent inference of electron energy spectra and emission measures of thermal plasma. Moreover, imaging spectroscopy has revealed hitherto unknown details of solar flare morphology and detailed spectroscopy of coronal, footpoint and extended sources in flaring regions. Additional attempts to measure hard X-ray polarization were not sufficient to put constraints on the degree of anisotropy of electrons, but point to the importance of obtaining good quality polarization data in the future.

  14. Deducing T, C, and P invariance for strong interactions in topological particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown here how the separate discrete invariances [time reversal (T), charge conjugation (C), and parity (P)] in strong interactions can be deduced as consequences of other S-matrix requirements in topological particle theory

  15. The Relationship Between Genetic Variations of the Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Gene and Coronary Artery Disease in Turkish Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Fuat; Gurlertop, Yekta; Pirim, Ibrahim; Sevimli, Serdar; Dogan, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Aksoy, Hulya; Karakelloglu, Sule; Senocak, Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although the relationship between cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and cholesterol metabolism has been characterized in recent years, the effect of CETP genetic variants associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between CETP gene polymorphism and levels of lipid in patients with CAD. Materials and Methods We conducted a case-control study that included 194 unrelated subjects who underwent coronary angiography for suspected ischemic heart disease. This group was divided into 96 patients with angiographically documented CAD and 98 subjects (individuals matched for age and gender) without angiographically documented CAD (CAD-free subjects), all of whom were studied to examine the genotypic distribution of the CETP gene polymorphism in CAD. Genotyping was performed via polymerase chain reaction. Results Of the 96 patients with CAD, 38 (40%) were B1B1, 42 (44%) B1B2 and 16 (16%) B2B2, compared with the control subjects, of which 35 (36%) were B1B1, 44 (45%) B1B2 and 19 (19%) B2B2. There were no significant differences between patients with CAD and control subjects in the distribution of the CETP gene polymorphism. Patients with the B1B1 genotype had lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and higher triglyceride (TG) levels than patients with the B2B2 genotype (p<0.05). In addition, among control subjects HDL-C levels were significantly higher in subjects with the B2B2 genotype than in subjects with the B1B1 genotype (p<0.01). Conclusion Our results suggest that genetic variations of the CTEP gene may be responsible for low HDL-C levels but may not be considered as a risk factor for CAD in the Turkish population. PMID:25610061

  16. Genetic diversity in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis and its relationship with Citrullus species as determined by high-frequency oligonucleotides-targeting active gene markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. is a viable source of genes for enhancing disease and pest resistance in the cultivated watermelon. However, there is little information in the literature about genetic diversity within C. colocynthis (CC) or the relationship of specific genotypes of CC to C. lanat...

  17. The genetic relationship between andesites and dacites at Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauret, F.; Samaniego, P.; Ancellin, M.-A.; Tournigand, P.-Y.; Le Pennec, J.-L.; Vlastelic, I.; Gannoun, A.; Hidalgo, S.; Schiano, P.

    2018-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions of intermediary and silica-rich magmas (andesites, dacites and rhyolites) in convergent arc settings generate voluminous and explosive eruptions that can strongly affect human activity and have significant environmental impacts. It is therefore crucial to understand how these magmas are generated in order to anticipate their potential impact. At convergent margins, primitive magmas (primitive basalts and/or andesites) are derived from the mantle wedge and they are progressively modified by physical and chemical processes operating between the melting zone and the surface to produce silica-rich magmas. In order to elucidate the relationship between andesites and dacites, we focus on Tungurahua volcano, located in the Ecuadorian Andes. We collected a set of samples comprising such lithologies that were erupted during the last 3000 year BP. This relatively short period of time allows us to assume that the geodynamic parameters remain constant. Petrology and major-trace element compositions of these lavas have already been examined, and so we performed a complementary Pb-Sr isotope study in order to determine the nature and origin of the components involved in andesite and dacite genesis. Sr isotopes range from 0.70417 to 0.70431, and Pb isotope compositions range from 18.889 to 19.154 for 206Pb/204Pb, from 15.658 to 15.696 for 207Pb/204Pb, and from 38.752 to 38.918 for 208Pb/204Pb. Dacites display a remarkably homogeneous Pb isotopic composition, with higher 206Pb/204Pb values for a given 207-208Pb/204Pb compared to andesites. Andesites show notable 207Pb/206Pb variations for a given SiO2 content, whereas dacites have lower and homogenous 207Pb/206Pb values. Andesite and dacite altogether plot in a roughly triangular distribution, with dacitic magmas systematically plotting at the high SiO2 and 87Sr/86Sr and low 207Pb/206Pb fields. Based on our new dataset, we show that at least 3 different components are required to explain the Tungurahua

  18. Analysis of the genetic relationships and diversity among 11 populations of Xanthoceras sorbifolia using phenotypic and microsatellite marker data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Shen

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Microsatellite markers can be used to efficiently distinguish X. sorbifolia populations and assess their genetic diversity. The information we have provided will contribute to the conservation and management of this important plant genetic resource.

  19. Associations between the parent-child relationship and adolescent self-worth: a genetically informed study of twin parents and their adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom A; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Eley, Thalia C

    2017-01-01

    Low self-worth during adolescence predicts a range of emotional and behavioural problems. As such, identifying potential sources of influence on self-worth is important. Aspects of the parent-child relationship are often associated with adolescent self-worth but to date it is unclear whether such associations may be attributable to familial confounding (e.g. genetic relatedness). We set out to clarify the nature of relationships between parental expressed affection and adolescent self-worth, and parent-child closeness and adolescent self-worth. We used data from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden, a children-of-twins sample comprising 909 adult twin pairs with adolescent children. Using these data we were able to apply structural equation models with which we could examine whether associations remained after accounting for genetic transmission. Results demonstrated that parent-child closeness and parental-expressed affection were both phenotypically associated with adolescent self-worth. Associations could not be attributed to genetic relatedness between parent and child. Parent-child closeness and parental affection are associated with adolescent self-worth above and beyond effects attributable to genetic relatedness. Data were cross-sectional, so the direction of effects cannot be confirmed but findings support the notion that positive parent-child relationships increase adolescent self-worth. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Genetic analysis of efficiency traits in Austrian dairy cattle and their relationships with body condition score and lameness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köck, A; Ledinek, M; Gruber, L; Steininger, F; Fuerst-Waltl, B; Egger-Danner, C

    2018-01-01

    This study is part of a larger project whose overall objective was to evaluate the possibilities for genetic improvement of efficiency in Austrian dairy cattle. In 2014, a 1-yr data collection was carried out. Data from 6,519 cows kept on 161 farms were recorded. In addition to routinely recorded data (e.g., milk yield, fertility, disease data), data of novel traits [e.g., body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), lameness score, body measurements] and individual feeding information and feed quality were recorded on each test-day. The specific objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for efficiency (related) traits and to investigate their relationships with BCS and lameness in Austrian Fleckvieh, Brown Swiss, and Holstein cows. The following efficiency (related) traits were considered: energy-corrected milk (ECM), BW, dry matter intake (DMI), energy intake (INEL), ratio of milk output to metabolic BW (ECM/BW 0.75 ), ratio of milk output to DMI (ECM/DMI), and ratio of milk energy output to total energy intake (LE/INEL, LE = energy in milk). For Fleckvieh, the heritability estimates of the efficiency (related) traits ranged from 0.11 for LE/INEL to 0.44 for BW. Heritabilities for BCS and lameness were 0.19 and 0.07, respectively. Repeatabilities were high and ranged from 0.30 for LE/INEL to 0.83 for BW. Heritability estimates were generally lower for Brown Swiss and Holstein, but repeatabilities were in the same range as for Fleckvieh. In all 3 breeds, more-efficient cows were found to have a higher milk yield, lower BW, slightly higher DMI, and lower BCS. Higher efficiency was associated with slightly fewer lameness problems, most likely due to the lower BW (especially in Fleckvieh) and higher DMI of the more-efficient cows. Body weight and BCS were positively correlated. Therefore, when selecting for a lower BW, BCS is required as additional information because, otherwise, no distinction between large animals with low BCS and smaller animals

  1. Pneumonia caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii among hospitalized patients: genetic relationships, risk factors and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu Jun; Pan, Chu Zhi; Fang, Chang Quan; Zhao, Zhu Xiang; Chen, Hui Ling; Guo, Peng Hao; Zhao, Zi Wen

    2017-05-30

    The clonal spread of multiple drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging problem in China. We analysed the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumanni isolates at three teaching hospitals and investigated the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) infection in Guangzhou, China. Fifty-two A. baumannii isolates were collected. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to assess the genetic relationships among the isolates. The bla OXA-51-like gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. The resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. A retrospective case-control study was performed to determine factors associated with XDRAB pneumonia. Most of the 52 A. baumannii isolates (N = 37, 71.2%) were collected from intensive care units (ICUs). The respiratory system was the most common bodily site from which A. baumannii was recovered (N = 45, 86.5%). Disc diffusion classified the isolates into 17 multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 35 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. MLST grouped the A. baumannii isolates into 5 existing sequence types (STs) and 7 new STs. ST195 and ST208 accounted for 69.2% (36/52) of the isolates. The clonal relationship analysis showed that ST195 and ST208 belonged to clonal complex (CC) 92. According to the sequence-based typing (SBT) of the bla OXA-51-like gene, 51 A. baumannii isolates carried OXA-66 and the rest carried OXA-199. There were no significant differences with respect to the resistance phenotype between the CC92 and non-CC92 strains (P = 0.767). The multivariate analysis showed that the APACHE II score, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiac disease were independent risk factors for XDRAB pneumonia (P < 0.05). The mortality rate of XDRAB pneumonia was high (up to 42.8%), but pneumonia caused by XDRAB was not associated with in

  2. Relationship among the repair mechanisms and the genetic recombination; Relacion entre los mecanismos de reparacion y la recombinacion genetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara D, D [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1987-12-15

    In accordance with the previous reports of the Project BZ87 of the Department of Radiobiology, a dependent stimulation of the system exists in E.coli SOS, of the recombination of the bacteriophage Lambda whose genetic material has not been damaged. This stimulation is not due to the increase of the cellular concentration of the protein RecA and the mechanism but probable for which we find that it is carried out, it is through a cooperation among the product of the gene rec N of E. coli and the system Net of recombination of Lambda. The gene recN belongs to the group of genes SOS and its expression is induced when damaging the bacterial DNA where it intervenes in the repair of breaks of the double helix of the molecule (Picksley et, 1984). If the repair of breaks of this type is a factor that limits the speed with which it happens the recombination among viral chromosomes, then the biggest readiness in the protein RecN, due to the induction of the functions SOS, would facilitate the repair of such ruptures. In this new project it is to enlarge the knowledge about this phenomenon, it was, on one hand of corroborating in a way but he/she specifies the relationship between the recombinogenic response of Lambda and the System SOS of E. coli and for the other one to determine the effect that has the inhibition of the duplication of the DNA on the stimulation of the viral recombination. Everything it with the idea of making it but evident and to be able to use it as a system of genotoxic agents detection in E. coli. (Author)

  3. Comparison of transcripts in Phalaenopsis bellina and Phalaenopsis equestris (Orchidaceae flowers to deduce monoterpene biosynthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tian-Shung

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Floral scent is one of the important strategies for ensuring fertilization and for determining seed or fruit set. Research on plant scents has hampered mainly by the invisibility of this character, its dynamic nature, and complex mixtures of components that are present in very small quantities. Most progress in scent research, as in other areas of plant biology, has come from the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. Although volatile components have been identified in several orchid species, the biosynthetic pathways of orchid flower fragrance are far from understood. We investigated how flower fragrance was generated in certain Phalaenopsis orchids by determining the chemical components of the floral scent, identifying floral expressed-sequence-tags (ESTs, and deducing the pathways of floral scent biosynthesis in Phalaneopsis bellina by bioinformatics analysis. Results The main chemical components in the P. bellina flower were shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to be monoterpenoids, benzenoids and phenylpropanoids. The set of floral scent producing enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P to geraniol and linalool were recognized through data mining of the P. bellina floral EST database (dbEST. Transcripts preferentially expressed in P. bellina were distinguished by comparing the scent floral dbEST to that of a scentless species, P. equestris, and included those encoding lipoxygenase, epimerase, diacylglycerol kinase and geranyl diphosphate synthase. In addition, EST filtering results showed that transcripts encoding signal transduction and Myb transcription factors and methyltransferase, in addition to those for scent biosynthesis, were detected by in silico hybridization of the P. bellina unigene database against those of the scentless species, rice and Arabidopsis. Altogether, we pinpointed 66% of the biosynthetic steps from G3P to geraniol, linalool and their derivatives

  4. Genetic and Environmental Basis of the Relationship Between Dissociative Experiences and Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Dimensions – Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domozych Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dissociation is commonly regarded as a disruption in the normally integrated functions of memory, knowledge, affect, sensation or behavior. The present study utilized behavioral genetics’ methodology to investigate genetic and environmental basis of the relationship between dissociation and Cloninger’s temperament and character traits. A sample of 83 monozygotic and 65 dizygotic twins were administered self-report measures which assessed dissociative experiences along with personality dimensions. Significant correlations and high loads of common genetic variance between dissociative experiences and personality traits of novelty seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence were identified. Heritability of dissociative experiences was estimated at 62%. The study shows that there exists a considerable amount of genetic variance overlap between dissociation and personality dimensions. It also supports the hypothesis that propensity to dissociate is highly heritable

  5. Method of estimating horizontal vectors of ionospheric electric field deduced from HF Doppler data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, M.; Ogawa, T.; Kamide, Y.; Kroehl, H.W.; Hausman, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    An HF Doppler method for estimating the time variations of the horizontal electric field in the ionosphere is presented which takes into account, for long-lasting variations in the electric field, the effect of electron decay due to attachment and/or recombination processes. The method is applied to an isolated substorm event, using equivalent ionospheric current systems deduced from worldwide magnetometer data in the estimations. The present results are found to agree with data deduced from current systems and high latitude electrojet activity. 18 references

  6. Cannabis Beyond Good and Evil. How genetic and epidemiological factors shape the relationship between cannabis and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubart, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis aimed to identify genetic and non-genetic (epidemiological) factors that shape the association between cannabis use and psychosis. We showed that the age of first use of cannabis is a determinant for the strength of the association between cannabis use and

  7. Relationships among genetic makeup, active ingredient content, and place of origin of the medicinal plant Gastrodia tuber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Luo, Zhi-yong; Msangi, Chikira Ismail; Shu, Xiao-shun; Wen, Li; Liu, Shui-ping; Zhou, Chang-quan; Liu, Rui-xin; Hu, Wei-xin

    2009-02-01

    Gastrodia tuber and its component gastrodin have many pharmacological effects. The chemical fingerprints and gastrodin contents of eight Gastrodia populations were determined, and the genomic DNA polymorphism of the populations was investigated. Genetic distance coefficients among the populations were calculated using the DNA polymorphism data. A dendrogram of the genetic similarities between the populations was constructed using the genetic distance coefficients. The results indicated that the genomic DNA of Gastrodia tubers was highly polymorphic; the eight populations clustered into three major groups, and the gastrodin content varied greatly among these groups. There were obvious correlations among genetic makeup, gastrodin content, and place of origin. The ecological environments in Guizhou and Shanxi may be conducive to evolution and to gastrodin biosynthesis, and more suitable for cultivation of Gastrodia tubers. These findings may provide a scientific basis for overall genetic resource management and for the selection of locations for cultivating Gastrodia tubers.

  8. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results: Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic......Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive...

  9. Genetic diversity and relationship of Hedychium from Northeast India as dissected using PCA analysis and hierarchical clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Supriyo; Ramesh, Aadi Moolam; Kesari, Vigya; Parida, Ajay; Mitra, Sudip; Rangan, Latha

    2014-12-01

    Molecular genetic fingerprints of eleven Hedychium species from Northeast India were developed using PCR based markers. Fifteen inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and five amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primers produced 547 polymorphic fragments. Positive correlation (r = 0.46) was observed between the mean genetic similarity and genetic diversity parameters at the inter-species level. AFLP and ISSR markers were able to group the species according to its altitude and intensity of flower aroma. Cophenetic correlation coefficients between the dendrogram and the original similarity matrix were significant for ISSR (r = 0.89) compared to AFLP (r = 0.83) markers. This genetic characterization of Hedychium from Northeast India contributes to the knowledge of genetic structure of the species and can be used to define strategies for their conservation and management.

  10. Genetic variation of metabolite and hormone concentration in UK Holstein-Frisian calves and the genetic relationship with economically important traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayhurst, C; Flint, A P F; Løvendahl, P

    2009-01-01

    The decline of dairy cattle fertility worldwide remains a major concern, with conception rates to first service commonly below 40%. The length and severity of negative energy balance postpartum are unfavorably correlated with fertility, suggesting that the length and severity of negative energy...... balance and fertility are linked via several hormones or metabolites. These compounds therefore have the potential to predict fertility at a genetic level. The addition of a predictor trait for fertility into present fertility indices would accelerate genetic gain, particularly if it was expressed before...... of free fatty acids (FFA), glucose, growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in male and female UK Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (average age ± SD; 126 ± 12.7 d) were analyzed during 2 studies: data set 1 (n = 496 females; 1996-2001; 7 commercial dairy herds) and data set 2...

  11. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250...

  12. Geoffroy's side-necked turtle [Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812), Testudines: Chelidae] as a model for evolutionary ecotoxicology: relationship between environmental contamination, conditions and genetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venancio, L P R; Zuccari, D A P C; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2013-12-19

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of human activity factors, such as environmental contamination and habitat changes, as drivers for changing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic diversity of Geoffroy's side-necked turtle populations in one of the most impacted watersheds in southeastern Brazil. The impact of chemical and organic contamination was determined by ecotoxicological analyses to assess the action of some of the major components involved in protection against oxidative stress, phase I and II detoxification metabolism, and antioxidant capacity. The results indicated the influence of domestic and industrial effluents on detoxification metabolism and oxidative stress. However, in spite of increased activity and effect of EROD (CYP1A1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, GST average values in the urban area agreed with those expected for hypoxic conditions according to the literature. This observation suggests that increased GST in response to ROS production due to the presence of pollutants increases the antioxidant defense network, controlling the oxidative damage caused by hypoxia and reperfusion. To determine the conditions that are reflected in individual ability (fitness), we evaluated the mathematical relationship between weight and length, and found that changes in body shape and weight increase, allowing inferences about animal health and welfare. The data obtained indicate differences in conditions that are associated with the area, but also with sex and reproductive period, and contamination gradient, indicating a strong influence of environmental stressors on the physiology of the specimens. The evaluation of genetic structure among populations of Preto River and Felicidade Stream, based on microsatellites, demonstrated that there was no genetic differentiation, due to extensive gene flow between the areas and high genetic diversity. However, after analysis of intrapopulation structure, we observed the existence

  13. Genetic structure and inter-generic relationship of closed colony of laboratory rodents based on RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mahadeo; Kumar, Sharad

    2014-11-01

    Molecular genetic analysis was performed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) on three commonly used laboratory bred rodent genera viz. mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) as sampled from the breeding colony maintained at the Animal Facility, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow. In this study, 60 samples, 20 from each genus, were analyzed for evaluation of genetic structure of rodent stocks based on polymorphic bands using RAPD markers. Thirty five random primers were assessed for RAPD analysis. Out of 35, only 20 primers generated a total of 56.88% polymorphic bands among mice, rats and guinea pigs. The results revealed significantly variant and distinct fingerprint patterns specific to each of the genus. Within-genera analysis, the highest (89.0%) amount of genetic homogeneity was observed in mice samples and the least (79.3%) were observed in guinea pig samples. The amount of genetic homogeneity was observed very high within all genera. The average genetic diversity index observed was low (0.045) for mice and high (0.094) for guinea pigs. The inter-generic distances were maximum (0.8775) between mice and guinea pigs; and the minimum (0.5143) between rats and mice. The study proved that the RAPD markers are useful as genetic markers for assessment of genetic structure as well as inter-generic variability assessments.

  14. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdirahman A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects. Genetic correlations between IBK incidence

  15. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdirahman A; O'Neill, Christopher J; Thomson, Peter C; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2012-07-27

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species) eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects). Genetic correlations between IBK incidence and tick and helminth egg counts were moderate and opposite between pre

  16. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrio, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C. Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniete; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L.; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Gruenblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Restrepo, Sandra C. Mesa; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlo N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosario, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Duarte, Ana V. Valencia; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Routeau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Stewart, Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  17. Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald W.; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C. Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L.; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M. J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The authors report a

  18. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Davis, Lea K; Gamazon, Eric R; Derks, Eske M; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C; Chavira, Denise A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H; Cookson, M R; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L; Girard, Simon L; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hezel, Dianne M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Konkashbaev, Anuar I; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark A; Robertson, Mary M; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113700644; Stein, Dan J; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R; Westenberg, Herman G M; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/194111423; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L; Conti, David V; Arnold, Paul D; Freimer, Nelson B; Stewart, S Evelyn; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy J; Pauls, David L

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  19. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette's Syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, D.M.; Mathews, C.A.; Scharf, J.M.; Neale, B.M.; Davis, L.K.; Gamazon, E.R.; Derks, E.M.; Evans, P.; Edlund, C.K.; Crane, J.; Osiecki, L.; Gallagher, P.; Gerber, G.; Haddad, S.; Illmann, C.; McGrath, L.M.; Mayerfeld, C.; Arepalli, S.; Barlassina, C.; Barr, C.L.; Bellodi, L.; Benarroch, F.; Berrio, G.B.; Bienvenu, O.J.; Black, D.W.; Bloch, M.H.; Brentani, H.; Bruun, R.D.; Budman, C.L.; Camarena, B.; Campbell, D.D.; Cappi, C.; Silgado, J.C.C.; Cavallini, M.C.; Chavira, D.A.; Chouinard, S.; Cook, E.H.; Cookson, M.R.; Coric, V.; Cullen, B.; Cusi, D.; Delorme, R.; Denys, D.; Dion, Y.; Eapen, V.; Egberts, K.; Falkai, P.; Fernandez, T.; Fournier, E.; Garrido, H.; Geller, D.; Gilbert, D.L.; Girard, S.L.; Grabe, H.J.; Grados, M.A.; Greenberg, B.D.; Gross-Tsur, V.; Grunblatt, E.; Hardy, J.; Heiman, G.A.; Hemmings, S.M.J.; Herrera, L.D.; Hezel, D.M.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Jankovic, J.; Kennedy, J.L.; King, R.A.; Konkashbaev, A.I.; Kremeyer, B.; Kurlan, R.; Lanzagorta, N.; Leboyer, M.; Leckman, J.F.; Lennertz, L.; Liu, C.Y.; Lochner, C.; Lowe, T.L.; Lupoli, S.; Macciardi, F.; Maier, W.; Manunta, P.; Marconi, M.; McCracken, J.T.; Restrepo, S.C.M.; Moessner, R.; Moorjani, P.; Morgan, J.; Muller, H.; Murphy, D.L.; Naarden, A.L.; Nurmi, E.; Ochoa, W.C.; Ophoff, R. A.; Pakstis, A.J.; Pato, M.T.; Pato, C.N.; Piacentini, J.; Pittenger, C.; Pollak, Y.; Smit, J.H.; Posthuma, D.; Cox, N.J.; Pauls, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identi fication of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  20. Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Dongmei; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, D.; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Heutink, Peter; Cox, Nancy J; Pauls, David L

    OBJECTIVE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The

  1. Genetic and environmental influences underlying the relationship between autistic traits and temperament and character dimensions in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Fagnani, Corrado; Medda, Emanuela; Toccaceli, Virgilia; Brambilla, Paolo; Stazi, Maria Antonietta

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, several twin studies adopted a dimensional approach to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and estimated the contribution of genetic and environmental influences to variation in autistic traits. However, no study was performed on adults over 18 years of age and all but two studies were based on parent or teacher ratings. Also, the genetic and environmental contributions to the interplay between autistic traits and adult personality dimensions have not been investigated. A sample of 266 complete twin pairs (30% males, mean age 40 ± 12 years) drawn from the population-based Italian Twin Register was administered the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Genetic structural equation modelling was performed with the Mx program. Estimates were adjusted for gender, age, and GHQ-12 score. Genetic factors accounted for 44% and 20%-49% of individual differences in autistic traits and TCI dimensions, respectively. Unshared environmental factors explained the remaining proportion of variance. Consistently with the notion of a personality profile in ASD characterised by obsessive temperament, autistic traits showed significant phenotypic correlations with several TCI dimensions (positive: HA; negative: NS, RD, SD, C). Genetic and unshared environmental correlations between AQ and these TCI dimensions were significant. The degree of genetic overlap was generally greater than the degree of environmental overlap. Despite some limitations, this study suggests that genetic factors contribute substantially to individual differences in autistic traits in adults, with unshared environmental influences also playing an important role. It also suggests that autistic traits and the majority of temperament and character dimensions share common genetic and environmental aetiological factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heterosis Is a Systemic Property Emerging From Non-linear Genotype-Phenotype Relationships: Evidence From in Vitro Genetics and Computer Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Fiévet

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis, the superiority of hybrids over their parents for quantitative traits, represents a crucial issue in plant and animal breeding as well as evolutionary biology. Heterosis has given rise to countless genetic, genomic and molecular studies, but has rarely been investigated from the point of view of systems biology. We hypothesized that heterosis is an emergent property of living systems resulting from frequent concave relationships between genotypic variables and phenotypes, or between different phenotypic levels. We chose the enzyme-flux relationship as a model of the concave genotype-phenotype (GP relationship, and showed that heterosis can be easily created in the laboratory. First, we reconstituted in vitro the upper part of glycolysis. We simulated genetic variability of enzyme activity by varying enzyme concentrations in test tubes. Mixing the content of “parental” tubes resulted in “hybrids,” whose fluxes were compared to the parental fluxes. Frequent heterotic fluxes were observed, under conditions that were determined analytically and confirmed by computer simulation. Second, to test this model in a more realistic situation, we modeled the glycolysis/fermentation network in yeast by considering one input flux, glucose, and two output fluxes, glycerol and acetaldehyde. We simulated genetic variability by randomly drawing parental enzyme concentrations under various conditions, and computed the parental and hybrid fluxes using a system of differential equations. Again we found that a majority of hybrids exhibited positive heterosis for metabolic fluxes. Cases of negative heterosis were due to local convexity between certain enzyme concentrations and fluxes. In both approaches, heterosis was maximized when the parents were phenotypically close and when the distributions of parental enzyme concentrations were contrasted and constrained. These conclusions are not restricted to metabolic systems: they only depend on the

  3. Additive genetic variation in the craniofacial skeleton of baboons (genus Papio) and its relationship to body and cranial size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joganic, Jessica L; Willmore, Katherine E; Richtsmeier, Joan T; Weiss, Kenneth M; Mahaney, Michael C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Cheverud, James M

    2018-02-01

    Determining the genetic architecture of quantitative traits and genetic correlations among them is important for understanding morphological evolution patterns. We address two questions regarding papionin evolution: (1) what effect do body and cranial size, age, and sex have on phenotypic (V P ) and additive genetic (V A ) variation in baboon crania, and (2) how might additive genetic correlations between craniofacial traits and body mass affect morphological evolution? We use a large captive pedigreed baboon sample to estimate quantitative genetic parameters for craniofacial dimensions (EIDs). Our models include nested combinations of the covariates listed above. We also simulate the correlated response of a given EID due to selection on body mass alone. Covariates account for 1.2-91% of craniofacial V P . EID V A decreases across models as more covariates are included. The median genetic correlation estimate between each EID and body mass is 0.33. Analysis of the multivariate response to selection reveals that observed patterns of craniofacial variation in extant baboons cannot be attributed solely to correlated response to selection on body mass, particularly in males. Because a relatively large proportion of EID V A is shared with body mass variation, different methods of correcting for allometry by statistically controlling for size can alter residual V P patterns. This may conflate direct selection effects on craniofacial variation with those resulting from a correlated response to body mass selection. This shared genetic variation may partially explain how selection for increased body mass in two different papionin lineages produced remarkably similar craniofacial phenotypes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Genetic relationships between clinical and non-clinical strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A as revealed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and multilocus restriction typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virdi Jugsharan S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic relationships among 81 strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources were discerned by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE and multilocus restriction typing (MLRT using six loci each. Such studies may reveal associations between the genotypes of the strains and their sources of isolation. Results All loci were polymorphic and generated 62 electrophoretic types (ETs and 12 restriction types (RTs. The mean genetic diversity (H of the strains by MLEE and MLRT was 0.566 and 0.441 respectively. MLEE (DI = 0.98 was more discriminatory and clustered Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A strains into four groups, while MLRT (DI = 0.77 identified two distinct groups. BURST (Based Upon Related Sequence Types analysis of the MLRT data suggested aquatic serotype O:6,30-6,31 isolates to be the ancestral strains from which, clinical O:6,30-6,31 strains might have originated by host adaptation and genetic change. Conclusion MLEE revealed greater genetic diversity among strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A and clustered strains in four groups, while MLRT grouped the strains into two groups. BURST analysis of MLRT data nevertheless provided newer insights into the probable evolution of clinical strains from aquatic strains.

  5. Genetic relationships among wild and cultivated accessions of curry leaf plant (Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.), as revealed by DNA fingerprinting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2013-02-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), is an aromatic plant and much valued for its flavor, nutritive and medicinal properties. In this study, three DNA fingerprinting methods viz., random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), were used to unravel the genetic variability and relationships across 92 wild and cultivated M. koenigii accessions. A total of 310, 102, and 184, DNA fragments were amplified using 20 RAPD, 5 DAMD, and 13 ISSR primers, revealing 95.80, 96.07, and 96.73% polymorphism, respectively, across all accessions. The average polymorphic information content value obtained with RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers was 0.244, 0.250, and 0.281, respectively. The UPGMA tree, based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient generated from the cumulative (RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR) band data showed two distinct clusters, clearly separating wild and cultivated accessions in the dendrogram. Percentage polymorphism, gene diversity (H), and Shannon information index (I) estimates were higher in cultivated accessions compared to wild accessions. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances revealed a wide genetic base in M. koenigii accessions. The study suggests that RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers are highly useful to unravel the genetic variability in wild and cultivated accessions of M. koenigii.

  6. When gender matters: new insights into the relationships between social systems and the genetic structure of human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro Bisol, Giovanni; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Due to its important effects on the ecological dynamics and the genetic structure of species, biologists have long been interested in gender-biased dispersal, a condition where one gender is more prone to move from the natal site. More recently, this topic has attracted a great attention from human evolutionary geneticists. Considering the close relations between residential rules and social structure, gender-biased dispersal is, in fact, regarded as an important case study concerning the effects of socio-cultural factors on human genetic variation. It all started with the seminal paper by Mark Seielstad, Erich Minch and Luigi Luca Cavalli Sforza from Stanford University (Seielstad et al. 1998). They observed a larger differentiation for Y-chromosome than mitochondrial DNA between extant human populations, purportedly a consequence of the prevalence of long-term patrilocality in human societies. Subsequent studies, however, have highlighted the need to consider geographically close and culturally homogeneous groups, disentangle signals due to different peopling events and obtain unbiased estimates of genetic diversity. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, not only do Marks et al. (2012) adopt an experimental design which addresses these concerns, but they also take a further and important step forward by integrating the genetic analysis of two distant populations, the Basotho and Spanish, with data regarding migration rates and matrimonial distances. Using both empirical evidence and simulations, the authors show that female-biased migration due to patrilocality might shape the genetic structure of human populations only at short ranges and under substantial differences in migration rates between genders. Providing a quantitative framework for future studies of the effects of residential rules on the human genome, this study paves the way for further developments in the field. On a wider perspective, Marks et al.'s work demonstrates the power of approaches which

  7. Growth and Its Relationship to Individual Genetic Diversity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana at Alpine Treeline in Alaska: Combining Dendrochronology and Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S. Johnson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, alpine treelines are characterized as temperature-limited environments with strong controls on tree growth. However, at local scales spatially heterogeneous environments generally have more variable impacts on individual patterns of tree growth. In addition to the landscape spatial heterogeneity there is local variability in individual tree genetic diversity (level of individual heterozygosity. It has been hypothesized that higher individual heterozygosity will result in more consistent patterns of growth. In this article, we combine genomics and dendrochronology to explore the relationship between individual genetic diversity and tree growth at a mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana Bong. Carr alpine treeline on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, USA. We correlated average observed individual heterozygosity with average tree-ring width and variance in tree-ring width within individuals to test the hypothesis that trees with higher individual heterozygosity will also have more consistent growth patterns, suggesting that they may be more resilient to climate and environmental fluctuations at the alpine treeline. Our results showed that there was no significant relationship between tree growth and individual heterozygosity. However, there was a significant positive relationship between average tree-ring width and variance in tree-ring width implying that overall, fast growing trees in stressful environments, such as the alpine treeline, grow unstably regardless of the level of individual heterozygosity.

  8. Heavy-ion optical potential for sub-barrier fusion deduced from a dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.T.; Kim, H.C.; Park, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The heavy-ion energy-dependent optical potentials for the 16 O+ 208 Pb system are deduced from a dispersion relation. These potentials are used to analyze the elastic scattering, fusion, and spin distributions of compound nuclei for the system in a unified way based on the direct reaction theory. It turns out that the energy dependence of the optical potential is essential in explaining the data at near- and sub-barrier energies. The real part of the energy-dependent optical potential deduced was also used in calculating the elastic and fusion cross sections by the conventional barrier penetration model using an incoming wave boundary condition. The predictions of the elastic scattering, fusion cross sections, and the spin distributions of compound nuclei are not satisfactory compared with those from the direct reaction approach. It seems to originate from the fact that this model neglects absorption around the Coulomb barrier region

  9. Genetic relationship between placental and fetal weights and markers of the metabolic syndrome in rat recombinant inbred strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, M.; Zídek, Václav; Musilová, Alena; Šimáková, Miroslava; Fučíková, A.; Bílá, V.; Křen, Vladimír; Kazdová, L.; Di Nicolantonio, R.; Pravenec, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2006), s. 226-231 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0390; GA MZd(CZ) NR8495 Grant - others:Sixth Framework Programme(XE) LSHG-CT-2005-019015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : genetic analysis * thrifty phenotype * recombinant inbred strains Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.789, year: 2006

  10. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  11. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  12. Comparisons of Satellite-Deduced Overlapping Cloud Properties and CALIPSO CloudSat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to the overlapped cloud properties derived from polar-orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (GOES-12, -13, Meteosat-8, -9, etc.) meteorological satellites, which are produced at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) cloud research & development team (NASA lead scientist: Dr. Patrick Minnis). Comparison of the LaRC CERES MODIS Edition-3 overlapped cloud properties to the CALIPSO and the CloudSat active sensing data. High clouds and overlapped clouds occur frequently as deduced by CALIPSO (44 & 25%), CloudSat (25 & 4%), and MODIS (37 & 6%). Large fractions of optically-thin cirrus and overlapped clouds are deduced from CALIPSO, but much smaller fractions are from CloudSat and MODIS. For overlapped clouds, the averaged upper-layer CTHs are about 12.8 (CALIPSO), 10.9 (CloudSat) and 10 km (MODIS), and the averaged lower-layer CTHs are about 3.6 (CALIPSO), 3.2 (CloudSat) and 3.9 km (MODIS). Based on comparisons of upper and lower-layer cloud properties as deduced from the MODIS, CALIPSO and CloudSat data, more enhanced passive satellite methods for retrieving thin cirrus and overlapped cloud properties are needed and are under development.

  13. Coupling constants deduced for the resonances in kaon photo-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheoun, M. K.; Kim, K. S.; Choi, T. K.

    2004-01-01

    We deduced the coupling constants of nucleon and hyperon resonances, which participate in kaon productions as intermediate states that are formed by electro-magnetic probes and that finally decay into hadronic final states. We used an isobaric model based on an effective Lagrangian approach to describe the processes, in which relevant coupling constants regarding related resonances are effectively determined by fitting available experimental data. Our scheme to deduce the coupling constants was as follows: First, we calculated the lower and the upper limits on the coupling constants by using the experimental decay data available until now and/or theoretical predictions, such as those from quark models and SU(3) symmetry. Second, we exploited those limits as physical constraints on our fitting scheme for the kaon photo-production data. Finally, the deduced values and regions of the coupling constants, which satisfy not only the reaction data but also the decay data, are presented as figures with respect to the strong and the electro-magnetic coupling constants, and their multiplicative values. Our results for the coupling constants give physical values that are more restricted than those allowed by the experimental data nowadays.

  14. The DEDUCE Guided Query tool: providing simplified access to clinical data for research and quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction--the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a Guided Query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between the number of loci and the statistical support for the topology of UPGMA trees obtained from genetic distance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highton, R

    1993-12-01

    An analysis of the relationship between the number of loci utilized in an electrophoretic study of genetic relationships and the statistical support for the topology of UPGMA trees is reported for two published data sets. These are Highton and Larson (Syst. Zool.28:579-599, 1979), an analysis of the relationships of 28 species of plethodonine salamanders, and Hedges (Syst. Zool., 35:1-21, 1986), a similar study of 30 taxa of Holarctic hylid frogs. As the number of loci increases, the statistical support for the topology at each node in UPGMA trees was determined by both the bootstrap and jackknife methods. The results show that the bootstrap and jackknife probabilities supporting the topology at some nodes of UPGMA trees increase as the number of loci utilized in a study is increased, as expected for nodes that have groupings that reflect phylogenetic relationships. The pattern of increase varies and is especially rapid in the case of groups with no close relatives. At nodes that likely do not represent correct phylogenetic relationships, the bootstrap probabilities do not increase and often decline with the addition of more loci.

  16. Relationships between Milk Progesterone Profiles and Genetic Merit for Milk Production, Milking Frequency, and Feeding Regimen in Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Milk progesterone profiles were determined from samples obtained twice weekly for 100 d postpartum in 100 Holstein primiparous cows at a Dutch experimental farm. Three treatments were applied in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with high-low genetic merit for overall production, high-low caloric

  17. Genetic relationships among linear type traits, milk yield, body weight, fertility and somatic cell count in primiparous dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.P.; Evans, R.D.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic and genetic (co)variances among type traits, milk yield, body weight, fertility and somatic cell count were estimated. The data analysed included 3,058 primiparous spring-calving Holstein-Friesian cows from 80 farms throughout the south of Ireland. Heritability estimates for the type

  18. The influence of landscape characteristics and home-range size on the quantification of landscape-genetics relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabitha A. Graves; Tzeidle N. Wasserman; Milton Cezar Ribeiro; Erin L. Landguth; Stephen F. Spear; Niko Balkenhol; Colleen B. Higgins; Marie-Josee Fortin; Samuel A. Cushman; Lisette P. Waits

    2012-01-01

    A common approach used to estimate landscape resistance involves comparing correlations of ecological and genetic distances calculated among individuals of a species. However, the location of sampled individuals may contain some degree of spatial uncertainty due to the natural variation of animals moving through their home range ormeasurement error in plant or animal...

  19. Compatibility of pedigree-based and marker-based relationship matrices for single-step genetic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole Fredslund

    2012-01-01

    Single-step methods for genomic prediction have recently become popular because they are conceptually simple and in practice such a method can completely replace a pedigree-based method for routine genetic evaluation. An issue with single-step methods is compatibility between the marker-based rel...

  20. Genetic relationships among some subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus L.), inferred from mitochondrial DNA control-region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Clayton M.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Sage, George K.; Anderson, Clifford; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to successfully colonize and persist in diverse environments likely requires broad morphological and behavioral plasticity and adaptability, and this may partly explain why the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) exhibits a large range of morphological characteristics across their global distribution. Regional and local differences within Peregrine Falcons were sufficiently variable that ∼75 subspecies have been described; many were subsumed, and currently 19 are generally recognized. We used sequence information from the control region of the mitochondrial genome to test for concordance between genetic structure and representatives of 12 current subspecies and from two areas where subspecies distributions overlap. Haplotypes were broadly shared among subspecies, and all geographic locales shared a widely distributed common haplotype (FalconCR2). Haplotypes were distributed in a star-like phylogeny, consistent with rapid expansion of a recently derived species, with observed genetic patterns congruent with incomplete lineage sorting and/or differential rates of evolution on morphology and neutral genetic characters. Hierarchical analyses of molecular variance did not uncover genetic partitioning at the continental level, despite strong population-level structure (FST = 0.228). Similar analyses found weak partitioning, albeit significant, among subspecies (FCT = 0.138). All reconstructions placed the hierofalcons' (Gyrfalcon [F. rusticolus] and Saker Falcon [F. cherrug]) haplotypes in a well-supported clade either basal or unresolved with respect to the Peregrine Falcon. In addition, haplotypes representing Taita Falcon (F. fasciinucha) were placed within the Peregrine Falcon clade.

  1. Genotype variation and genetic relationship among Escherichia coli from nursery pigs located in different pens in the same farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Ahmed, Shahana; Hansen, Monica Hegstad

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: So far, little is known about the genetic diversity and relatedness among Escherichia coli (E. coli) populations in the gut of swine. Information on this is required to improve modeling studies on antimicrobial resistance aiming to fight its occurrence and development. This work evalu...

  2. Mediating Role of the Reward Network in the Relationship between the Dopamine Multilocus Genetic Profile and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Gong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple genetic loci in the dopamine (DA pathway have been associated with depression symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the polygenic effects of the DA pathway on depression remain unclear. We used an imaging genetic approach to investigate the polygenic effects of the DA pathway on the reward network in MDD. Fifty-three patients and 37 cognitively normal (CN subjects were recruited and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI scans. Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to measure the effects of disease and multilocus genetic profile scores (MGPS on the reward network, which was constructed using the nucleus accumbens (NAc functional connectivity (NAFC network. DA-MGPS was widely associated within the NAFC network, mainly in the inferior frontal cortex, insula, hypothalamus, superior temporal gyrus, and occipital cortex. The pattern of DA-MGPS effects on the fronto-striatal pathway differed in MDD patients compared with CN subjects. More importantly, NAc-putamen connectivity mediates the association between DA MGPS and anxious depression traits in MDD patients. Our findings suggest that the DA multilocus genetic profile makes a considerable contribution to the reward network and anxious depression in MDD patients. These results expand our understanding of the pathophysiology of polygenic effects underlying brain network abnormalities in MDD.

  3. Genetic relationships between carcass cut weights predicted from video image analysis and other performance traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabiou, T; Fikse, W F; Amer, P R; Cromie, A R; Näsholm, A; Berry, D P

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic associations between a range of carcass-related traits including wholesale cut weights predicted from video image analysis (VIA) technology, and a range of pre-slaughter performance traits in commercial Irish cattle. Predicted carcass cut weights comprised of cut weights based on retail value: lower value cuts (LVC), medium value cuts (MVC), high value cuts (HVC) and very high value cuts (VHVC), as well as total meat, fat and bone weights. Four main sources of data were used in the genetic analyses: price data of live animals collected from livestock auctions, live-weight data and linear type collected from both commercial and pedigree farms as well as from livestock auctions and weanling quality recorded on-farm. Heritability of carcass cut weights ranged from 0.21 to 0.39. Genetic correlations between the cut traits and the other performance traits were estimated using a series of bivariate sire linear mixed models where carcass cut weights were phenotypically adjusted to a constant carcass weight. Strongest positive genetic correlations were obtained between predicted carcass cut weights and carcass value (min r g(MVC) = 0.35; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.69), and animal price at both weaning (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.37; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.66) and post weaning (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.50; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.67). Moderate genetic correlations were obtained between carcass cut weights and calf price (min r g(HVC) = 0.34; max r g(LVC) = 0.45), weanling quality (min r(g(MVC)) = 0.12; max r (g(VHVC)) = 0.49), linear scores for muscularity at both weaning (hindquarter development: min r(g(MVC)) = -0.06; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.46), post weaning (hindquarter development: min r(g(MVC)) = 0.23; max r(g(VHVC)) = 0.44). The genetic correlations between total meat weight were consistent with those observed with the predicted wholesale cut weights. Total fat and total bone weights were generally negatively correlated with carcass value, auction

  4. Genetic and phenotypic relationships between immune defense, melanism and life-history traits at different temperatures and sexes in Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokkola, J; Roff, D; Kärkkäinen, T; Krams, I; Rantala, M J

    2013-08-01

    Insect cuticle melanism is linked to a number of life-history traits, and a positive relationship is hypothesized between melanism and the strength of immune defense. In this study, the phenotypic and genetic relationships between cuticular melanization, innate immune defense, individual development time and body size were studied in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) using three different temperatures with a half-sib breeding design. Both innate immune defense and cuticle darkness were higher in females than males, and a positive correlation between the traits was found at the lowest temperature. The effect of temperature on all the measured traits was strong, with encapsulation ability and development time decreasing and cuticle darkness increasing with a rise in temperature, and body size showing a curved response. The analysis showed a highly integrated system sensitive to environmental change involving physiological, morphological and life-history traits.

  5. Genetics of residual feed intake in growing pigs: Relationships with production traits, and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintilan, R; Mérour, I; Brossard, L; Tribout, T; Dourmad, J Y; Sellier, P; Bidanel, J; van Milgen, J; Gilbert, H

    2013-06-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed ADFI and the ADFI predicted from production and maintenance requirements. The objectives of this study were to evaluate RFI as a selection criterion to improve feed efficiency and its potential to reduce N and P excretion in 4 pig breeds. Data were collected between 2000 and 2009 in French central test stations for 2 dam breeds [French Landrace (LR) and Large White (LWD)], and 2 sire breeds [Large White (LWS) and Piétrain (PP)]. Numbers of recorded pigs were 6407, 10,694, 2342, and 2448 for the LR, LWD, LWS, and PP breeds, respectively. All PP animals were genotyped for the halothane mutation. This data set was used to calculate RFI equations for each of the 4 breeds, and to estimate genetic parameters for RFI together with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits, and N and P excretion during the test period (35 to 110 kg BW). The RFI explained 20.1% in PP, 26.5% in LWS, 27.6% in LWD, and 29.5% in LR of the phenotypic variability of ADFI. The PP breed differed from the others in this respect, probably due to a lower impact of the variation of body composition on ADFI. Heritability estimates of RFI ranged from 0.21 ± 0.03 (LWD) to 0.33 ± 0.06 (PP) depending on the breed. Heritabilities of N and P excretion traits ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.06. The RFI showed positive genetic correlations with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and excretion traits, these correlations being greater in the sire breeds (from 0.57 to 0.86) than in the dam breeds (from 0.38 to 0.53). Compared with FCR, RFI had weaker genetic correlations with carcass composition, growth rate, and excretion traits. Estimates of genetic correlations between FCR and excretion traits were very close to 1 for all breeds. Finally, excretion traits were, at the genetic level, correlated positively with ADFI, negatively with growth rate and carcass leanness, whereas the halothane n mutation in PP was shown to reduce N and P

  6. STR-based genetic structure of the Berber population of Bejaia (Northern Algeria) and its relationships to various ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nadir; Sahnoune, Mohamed; Chikhi, Lounes; Atmani, Djebbar

    2015-12-10

    Patterns of genetic variation in human populations have been described for decades. However, North Africa has received little attention and Algeria, in particular, is poorly studied, Here we genotyped a Berber-speaking population from Algeria using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA from the commercially available AmpF/STR Identifiler kit. Altogether 150 unrelated North Algerian individuals were sampled across 10 administrative regions or towns from the Bejaia Wilaya (administrative district). We found that all of the STR loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations, after Bonferroni correction and that the Berber-speaking population of Bejaia presented a high level of observed heterozygosity for the 15 STR system (>0.7). Genetic parameters of forensic interest such as combined power of discrimination (PD) and combined probability of exclusion (PE) showed values higher than 0.999, suggesting that this set of STRs can be used for forensic studies. Our results were also compared to those published for 42 other human populations analyzed with the same set. We found that the Bejaia sample clustered with several North African populations but that some geographically close populations, including the Berber-speaking Mozabite from Algeria were closer to Near-Eastern populations. While we were able to detect some genetic structure among samples, we found that it was not correlated to language (Berber-speaking versus Arab-speaking) or to geography (east versus west). In other words, no significant genetic differences were found between the Berber-speaking and the Arab-speaking populations of North Africa. The genetic closeness of European, North African and Near-Eastern populations suggest that North Africa should be integrated in models aiming at reconstructing the demographic history of Europe. Similarly, the genetic proximity with sub-Saharan Africa is

  7. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feeding behavior and temperament with performance, feed efficiency, ultrasound, and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Wang, Z; Li, C; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feeding behavior and temperament may be useful in genetic evaluations either as indicator traits for other economically relevant traits or because the behavior traits may have a direct economic value. We determined the variation in feeding behavior and temperament of beef cattle sired by Angus, Charolais, or Hybrid bulls and evaluated their associations with performance, efficiency, and carcass merit. The behavior traits were daily feeding duration, feeding head down (HD) time, feeding frequency (FF), and flight speed (FS, as a measure of temperament). A pedigree file of 813 animals forming 28 paternal half-sib families with about 20 progeny per sire was used. Performance, feeding behavior, and efficiency records were available on 464 animals of which 381 and 302 had records on carcass merit and flight speed, respectively. Large SE reflect the number of animals used. Direct heritability estimates were 0.28 +/- 0.12 for feeding duration, 0.33 +/- 0.12 for HD, 0.38 +/- 0.13 for FF, and 0.49 +/- 0.18 for FS. Feeding duration had a weak positive genetic (r(g)) correlation with HD (r(g) = 0.25 +/- 0.32) and FS (r(g) = 0.42 +/- 0.26) but a moderate negative genetic correlation with FF (r(g) = -0.40 +/- 0.30). Feeding duration had positive phenotypic (r(p)) and genetic correlations with DMI (r(p) = 0.27; r(g) = 0.56 +/- 0.20) and residual feed intake (RFI; r(p) = 0.49; r(g) = 0.57 +/- 0.28) but was unrelated phenotypically with feed conversion ratio [FCR; which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of growth (G:F)]. Feeding duration was negatively correlated with FCR (r(g) = -0.25 +/- 0.29). Feeding frequency had a moderate to high negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.74 +/- 0.15), FCR (r(g) = -0.52 +/- 0.21), and RFI (r(g) = -0.77 +/- 0.21). Flight speed was negatively correlated phenotypically with DMI (r(p) = -0.35) but was unrelated phenotypically with FCR or RFI. On the other hand, FS had a weak negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.11 +/- 0

  8. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Cardona Silgado, Julio C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M.J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Walkup, John; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G.M.; Yao, Yin; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette Syndrome (TS) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. Here, we report a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TS and OCD in 2723 cases (1310 with OCD, 834 with TS, 579 with OCD plus TS/chronic tics (CT)), 5667 ancestry-matched controls, and 290 OCD parent-child trios. Although no individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) achieved genome-wide significance, the GWAS signals were enriched for SNPs strongly associated with variations in brain gene expression levels, i.e. expression quantitative loci (eQTLs), suggesting the presence of true functional variants that contribute to risk of these disorders. Polygenic score analyses identified a significant polygenic component for OCD (p=2×10−4), predicting 3.2% of the phenotypic variance in an independent data set. In contrast, TS had a smaller, non-significant polygenic component, predicting only 0.6% of the phenotypic variance (p=0.06). No significant polygenic signal was detected across the two disorders, although the sample is likely underpowered to detect a modest shared signal. Furthermore, the OCD polygenic signal was significantly attenuated when cases with both OCD and TS/CT were included in the analysis (p=0.01). Previous work has shown that TS and OCD have some degree of shared genetic variation. However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct components to the genetic architectures of TS and OCD. Furthermore, OCD with co-occurring TS/CT may have different underlying genetic susceptibility compared to OCD alone. PMID:25158072

  9. Patients with an inherited syndrome characterized by immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and chromosomal instability: genetic relationship to ataxia telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspers, N.G.; Taalman, R.D.; Baan, C.

    1988-01-01

    Fibroblast cultures from six unrelated patients having a familial type of immunodeficiency combined with microcephaly, developmental delay, and chromosomal instability were studied with respect to their response to ionizing radiation. The cells from five of them resembled those from individuals with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) in that they were two to three times more radiosensitive on the basis of clonogenic cell survival. In addition, after exposure to either X-rays or bleomycin, they showed an inhibition of DNA replication that was less pronounced than that in normal cells and characteristic of AT fibroblasts. However, the patients are clinically very different from AT patients, not showing any signs of neurocutaneous symptoms. Genetic complementation studies in fused cells, with the radioresistant DNA synthesis used as a marker, showed that the patients' cells could complement representatives of all presently known AT complementation groups. Furthermore, they were shown to constitute a genetically heterogeneous group as well. It is concluded that these patients are similar to AT patients with respect to cytological parameters. The clinical differences between these patients and AT patients are a reflection of genetic heterogeneity. The data indicate that the patients suffer from a chromosome-instability syndrome that is distinct from AT

  10. Eating disorder-specific risk factors moderate the relationship between negative urgency and binge eating: A behavioral genetic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E; VanHuysse, Jessica L; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Neale, Michael C; Boker, Steven; Klump, Kelly L

    2017-07-01

    Theoretical models of binge eating and eating disorders include both transdiagnostic and eating disorder-specific risk factors. Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to act impulsively when distressed) is a critical transdiagnostic risk factor for binge eating, but limited research has examined interactions between negative urgency and disorder-specific variables. Investigating these interactions can help identify the circumstances under which negative urgency is most strongly associated with binge eating. We examined whether prominent risk factors (i.e., appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint) specified in well-established etiologic models of eating disorders moderate negative urgency-binge eating associations. Further, we investigated whether phenotypic moderation effects were due to genetic and/or environmental associations between negative urgency and binge eating. Participants were 988 female twins aged 11-25 years from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction, but not dietary restraint, significantly moderated negative urgency-binge eating associations, with high levels of these risk factors and high negative urgency associated with the greatest binge eating. Twin moderation models revealed that genetic, but not environmental, sharing between negative urgency and binge eating was enhanced at higher levels of these eating disorder-specific variables. Future longitudinal research should investigate whether eating disorder risk factors shape genetic influences on negative urgency into manifesting as binge eating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feed efficiency with growth performance, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F; Chen, L; Vinsky, M; Okine, E; Wang, Z; Basarab, J; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-05-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular importance to the beef industry, as feed costs represent the single largest variable cost in beef production systems. Selection for more efficient cattle will lead to reduction of feed related costs, but should not have adverse impacts on quality of the carcass. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic and genetic correlations of residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for end-of-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf), and RFI adjusted for ultrasound backfat thickness and LM area (RFIfr) with growth, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in an Angus population of 551 steers and in a Charolais population of 417 steers. In the Angus steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlation of RFI with carcass merit traits including HCW, carcass backfat, carcass LM area, lean meat yield, and carcass marbling were not significant or weak with correlations coefficients ranging from -0.0007 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.21. In the Charolais steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with the carcass merit traits were also weak, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.19 ± 0.18, except for the genetic correlation with carcass average backfat, which was moderate with a magnitude of 0.42 ± 0.29. Inclusion of ultrasound backfat thickness in the model to predict the expected daily DMI for maintenance explained on average an additional 0.5% variation of DMI in the Angus steers and 2.3% variation of DMI in the Charolais steer population. Inclusion of both the ultrasound backfat and LM area in the model explained only 0.7% additional variance in DMI in the Angus steer population and only 0.6% in the Charolais steer population on top of the RFIf model. We concluded that RFIf adjusted for ultrasound backfat at the end of the test will lead to decreases of both the phenotypic and genetic correlations with carcass backfat and marbling score to a greater extent for late-maturing beef breeds such as Charolais than

  12. Cross-disorder genome-wide analyses suggest a complex genetic relationship between Tourette's syndrome and OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Davis, Lea K; Gamazon, Eric R; Derks, Eske M; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Black, Donald W; Bloch, Michael H; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D; Budman, Cathy L; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D; Cappi, Carolina; Silgado, Julio C Cardona; Cavallini, Maria C; Chavira, Denise A; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H; Cookson, M R; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald L; Girard, Simon L; Grabe, Hans J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A; Hemmings, Sian M J; Herrera, Luis D; Hezel, Dianne M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L; King, Robert A; Konkashbaev, Anuar I; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L; Naarden, Allan L; Nurmi, Erika; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A; Pakstis, Andrew J; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I; Richter, Margaret A; Riddle, Mark A; Robertson, Mary M; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S; Smit, Jan H; Stein, Dan J; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R; Westenberg, Herman G M; Shugart, Yin Yao; Hounie, Ana G; Miguel, Euripedes C; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L; Conti, David V; Arnold, Paul D; Freimer, Nelson B; Stewart, S Evelyn; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy J; Pauls, David L

    2015-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette's syndrome are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. The authors report a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Tourette's syndrome and OCD. The authors conducted a GWAS in 2,723 cases (1,310 with OCD, 834 with Tourette's syndrome, 579 with OCD plus Tourette's syndrome/chronic tics), 5,667 ancestry-matched controls, and 290 OCD parent-child trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions. Polygenic score analyses were conducted to investigate the genetic architecture within and across the two disorders. Although no individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) achieved genome-wide significance, the GWAS signals were enriched for SNPs strongly associated with variations in brain gene expression levels (expression quantitative loci, or eQTLs), suggesting the presence of true functional variants that contribute to risk of these disorders. Polygenic score analyses identified a significant polygenic component for OCD (p=2×10(-4)), predicting 3.2% of the phenotypic variance in an independent data set. In contrast, Tourette's syndrome had a smaller, nonsignificant polygenic component, predicting only 0.6% of the phenotypic variance (p=0.06). No significant polygenic signal was detected across the two disorders, although the sample is likely underpowered to detect a modest shared signal. Furthermore, the OCD polygenic signal was significantly attenuated when cases with both OCD and co-occurring Tourette's syndrome/chronic tics were included in the analysis (p=0.01). Previous work has shown that Tourette's syndrome and OCD have some degree of shared genetic variation. However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct

  13. Influence of genetic diversity on cause and effect relationships in lens culinaris germplasm under rain-fed eco-agricultural system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, M.; Arshad, M.; Ghafoor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to emerging demands of organic foods, lentil, one of the most primitive legumes was investigated for genetic diversity including cause and effect relationships among various clusters under eco-agricultural system. The 73 lentil genotypes were investigated for qualitative and quantitative traits to identify the potential lines under rain-fed conditions for organic farming using no chemical fertilizers for crop production. Variation existed for all the qualitative traits including orange cotyledon colour in 27 genotypes which is a preferred trait by Asian consumers including Pakistan. Five clusters revealed that average intra-clusters distances were more or less similar, whereas inter-cluster distance indicated higher level of genetic diversity. First three PCs contributed more than 3/4 of the variability and the results were in coordination with clustering pattern amongst 73 genotypes. The populations contributing the first PC were late in maturity possessed higher number of branches, pods, better biomass and grain yield. The PC/sub 2/ was more contributed by seeds pod-1 and seed diameter, whereas pod length and harvest index contributed 13% variability. The cause and effect relationships indicated differential response for selection of lentil genotypes suitable for eco-agricultural system within each cluster. (author)

  14. Relationship Between the Estimated Breeding Values for Litter Traits at Birth and Ovarian and Embryonic Traits and Their Additive Genetic Variance in Gilts at 35 Days of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina L. A. Da Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated (1 the relationship between the estimated breeding values (EBVs for litter traits at birth and ovulation rate (OR, average corpora luteal weight, uterine length and embryonic survival and development traits in gilts at 35 days of pregnancy by linear regression, (2 the genetic variance of OR, average corpora lutea (CL weight, uterine length and embryonic survival and development traits at 35 days of pregnancy, and (3 the genetic correlations between these traits. Landrace (n = 86 and Yorkshire × Landrace (n = 304 gilts were inseminated and slaughtered at 35 days of pregnancy. OR was assessed by dissection of the CL on both ovaries. Individual CL was weighed and the average CL weight calculated. The number of embryos (total and vital were counted and the vital embryos were individually weighed for calculation of within litter average and standard deviation (SD of the embryo weight. Length of the uterine implantation site of the vital embryos was measured and the average per gilt calculated. Results suggests that increasing the EBV for total number of piglets born would proportionally increase OR and number of embryos, while decreasing the average CL weight. On the contrary, increasing the EBV for average piglet birth weight and for within litter birth weight standard deviation would increase the average CL weight. There was no relationship between the EBVs for BW and for BWSD and vital embryonic weight at 35 days of pregnancy. OR, average CL weight, number of embryos, average weight and implantation length of the vital embryos had all moderate to high heritabilities, ranging from 0.36 (±0.18 to 0.70 (±0.17. Thus, results indicate that there is ample genetic variation in OR, average CL weight and embryonic development traits. This knowledge could be used to optimize the balance between selection for litter size, average piglets birth weight and within litter birth weight uniformity.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among Egyptian mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivers grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hassan; Mekki, Laila E; Hussein, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    DNA-based RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) markers have been used extensively to study genetic diversity and relationships in a number of fruit crops. In this study, 10 (7 commercial mango cultivars and 3 accessions) mango genotypes traditionally grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region of Egypt, were selected to assess genetic diversity and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 30 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Of these, eleven primers were selected which gave 92 clear and bright fragments. A total of 72 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 92 bands, generating 78% polymorphisms. The mean PIC values scores for all loci were of 0.85. This reflects a high level of discriminatory power of a marker and most of these primers produced unique band pattern for each cultivar. A dendrogram based on Nei's Genetic distance co-efficient implied a moderate degree of genetic diversity among the cultivars used for experimentation, with some differences. The hybrid which had derived from cultivar as female parent was placed together. In the cluster, the cultivars and accessions formed separate groups according to bearing habit and type of embryo and the members in each group were very closely linked. Cluster analysis clearly showed two main groups, the first consisting of indigenous to the Delta of Egypt cultivars and the second consisting of indigenous to the Suez Canal and Sinai region. From the analysis of results, it appears the majority of mango cultivars originated from a local mango genepool and were domesticated later. The results indicated the potential of RAPD markers for the identification and management of mango germplasm for breeding purposes.

  16. Potential relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms used in forensic genetics and diseases or other traits in European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombar-Gomez, Maria; Lopez-Lopez, Elixabet; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Garcia-Orad Carles, Africa; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2015-05-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an interesting option to facilitate the analysis of highly degraded DNA by allowing the reduction of the size of the DNA amplicons. The SNPforID 52-plex panel is a clear example of the use of non-coding SNPs in forensic genetics. However, nonstop advances in studies of genetic polymorphisms are leading to the discovery of new associations between SNPs and diseases. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of the state of association between the 52 SNPs in the 52-plex panel and diseases or other traits related to their treatment, such as drug response characters. In order to achieve this goal, we have conducted a bioinformatic search for each SNP included in the panel and the SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with them in the European population (r (2)  > 0.8). A total of 424 SNPs (52 in the panel and 372 in LD) were investigated in PubMed, Scopus, and dbSNP databases. Our results show that three SNPs in the SNPforID 52-plex panel (rs2107612, rs1979255, rs1463729) have been associated with diseases such as hypertension or macular degeneration, as well as drug response. Similarly, three out of the 372 SNPs in LD (rs2107614, r (2)  = 0.859; rs765250, r (2)  = 0.858; rs11064560, r (2)  = 0,887) are also associated with various pathologies. In view of these results, we propose the need for a periodic review of the SNPs used in forensic genetics in order to keep their associations with diseases or related phenotypes updated and to evaluate their continuity in forensic panels for avoiding legal and ethical conflicts.

  17. Intrinsic neutrino properties: As deduced from cosmology, astrophysics, accelerator and non-accelerator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    I review the intrinsic properties of neutrinos as deduced from cosmological, astrophysical, and laboratory experiments. Bounds on magnetic moments and theoretical models which yield large moments but small masses are briefly discussed. The MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is reviewed in light of the existing data from the 37 Cl and Kamiokande II experiments. The combined data disfavor the adiabatic solution and tend to support either the large angle solution or the nonadiabatic one. In the former case the 71 Ga signal will be suppressed by the same factor as for 37 Cl, and in the latter case the suppression factor could be as large as 10 or more. 41 refs

  18. Dotaciones para la recuperación de activos revertibles como deducibles del impuesto sobre sociedades

    OpenAIRE

    Duplá Marín, María José

    2001-01-01

    El objetivo final que nos propusimos con este trabajo de investigación fue profundizar en el estudio jurídico-tributario de las dotaciones al fondo de reversión como gasto deducible para determinar la base imponible del impuesto sobre sociedades, en aquellas sociedades concesionarias de servicios públicos con cláusula de reversión de activos, partiendo de su realidad contable.En consecuencia el trabajo se ciñe al estudio crítico de la regulación jurídica del fondo de reversión como gasto fisc...

  19. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Kawamura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes.

  20. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2016-01-26

    It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event-the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids-as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  1. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ikehara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event—the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids—as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  2. A study of the genetic relationships within and among wolf packs using DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Niles; Clarkson, Peter; Mech, L. David; Meier, Thomas J.; Wayne, Robert K.

    1992-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial DNA analyses have not been used in combination to study relatedness in natural populations. We present an approach that involves defining the mean fingerprint similarities among individuals thought to be unrelated because they have different mtDNA genotypes. Two classes of related individuals are identified by their distance in standard errors above this mean value. The number of standard errors is determined by analysis of the association between fingerprint similarity and relatedness in a population with a known genealogy. We apply this approach to gray wolf packs from Minnesota, Alaska, and the Northwest Territories. Our results show that: (1) wolf packs consist primarily of individuals that are closely related genetically, but some packs contain unrelated, non-reproducing individuals; (2) dispersal among packs within the same area is common; and (3) short-range dispersal appears more common for female than male wolves. The first two of these genetically-based observations are consistent with behavioral data on pack structure and dispersal in wolves, while the apparent sex bias in dispersal was not expected.

  3. Genetic parameters of linear conformation type traits and their relationship with milk yield throughout lactation in mixed-breed dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, A; Mucha, S; Mrode, R; Coffey, M; Conington, J

    2016-07-01

    Conformation traits are of interest to many dairy goat breeders not only as descriptive traits in their own right, but also because of their influence on production, longevity, and profitability. If these traits are to be considered for inclusion in future dairy goat breeding programs, relationships between them and production traits such as milk yield must be considered. With the increased use of regression models to estimate genetic parameters, an opportunity now exists to investigate correlations between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation in more detail. The aims of this study were therefore to (1) estimate genetic parameters for conformation traits in a population of crossbred dairy goats, (2) estimate correlations between all conformation traits, and (3) assess the relationship between conformation traits and milk yield throughout lactation. No information on milk composition was available. Data were collected from goats based on 2 commercial goat farms during August and September in 2013 and 2014. Ten conformation traits, relating to udder, teat, leg, and feet characteristics, were scored on a linear scale (1-9). The overall data set comprised data available for 4,229 goats, all in their first lactation. The population of goats used in the study was created using random crossings between 3 breeds: British Alpine, Saanen, and Toggenburg. In each generation, the best performing animals were selected for breeding, leading to the formation of a synthetic breed. The pedigree file used in the analyses contained sire and dam information for a total of 30,139 individuals. The models fitted relevant fixed and random effects. Heritability estimates for the conformation traits were low to moderate, ranging from 0.02 to 0.38. A range of positive and negative phenotypic and genetic correlations between the traits were observed, with the highest correlations found between udder depth and udder attachment (0.78), teat angle and teat placement (0

  4. Deducing hybrid performance from parental metabolic profiles of young primary roots of maize by using a multivariate diallel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Feher

    Full Text Available Heterosis, the greater vigor of hybrids compared to their parents, has been exploited in maize breeding for more than 100 years to produce ever better performing elite hybrids of increased yield. Despite extensive research, the underlying mechanisms shaping the extent of heterosis are not well understood, rendering the process of selecting an optimal set of parental lines tedious. This study is based on a dataset consisting of 112 metabolite levels in young roots of four parental maize inbred lines and their corresponding twelve hybrids, along with the roots' biomass as a heterotic trait. Because the parental biomass is a poor predictor for hybrid biomass, we established a model framework to deduce the biomass of the hybrid from metabolite profiles of its parental lines. In the proposed framework, the hybrid metabolite levels are expressed relative to the parental levels by incorporating the standard concept of additivity/dominance, which we name the Combined Relative Level (CRL. Our modeling strategy includes a feature selection step on the parental levels which are demonstrated to be predictive of CRL across many hybrid metabolites. We demonstrate that these selected parental metabolites are further predictive of hybrid biomass. Our approach directly employs the diallel structure in a multivariate fashion, whereby we attempt to not only predict macroscopic phenotype (biomass, but also molecular phenotype (metabolite profiles. Therefore, our study provides the first steps for further investigations of the genetic determinants to metabolism and, ultimately, growth. Finally, our success on the small-scale experiments implies a valid strategy for large-scale experiments, where parental metabolite profiles may be used together with profiles of selected hybrids as a training set to predict biomass of all possible hybrids.

  5. Genetic relationship of lactation persistency with milk yield, somatic cell score, reproductive traits, and longevity in Slovak Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Strapáková, Eva; Candrák, Juraj; Strapák, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the breeding values (BVs) of lactation persistency, the test day of milk yield, the somatic cell score, reproductive traits (calving interval, days open), longevity in Slovak Holstein dairy cattle. BVs were used for the detection of relationships among the persistency of lactation and other selected traits. Data for the estimation of BVs of milk production and somatic cell score were collected from 855 240 cows. BVs for reproductive t...

  6. Genetic determination of adiponectin and its relationship with body fat topography in multigenerational families of African heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic-Gacic, Iva; Wang, Xiaojing; Kammerer, Candace M; Bunker, Clareann H; Wheeler, Victor W; Patrick, Alan L; Kuller, Lewis H; Evans, Rhobert W; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2007-02-01

    Adiponectin, an adipose-specific protein, is negatively associated with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and diabetes. Very few studies have examined the role of heredity in the regulation of adiponectin and its association with body fat among individuals of African heritage. Thus, we measured fasting serum adiponectin levels by radioimmunoassay and body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 402 individuals aged 18 to 103 years belonging to 7 multigenerational families of African heritage in the relatively homogeneous island population of Tobago. Heritability of adiponectin was 33.2% (P genetic factors are a significant source of interindividual differences in circulating adiponectin among Afro-Caribbeans. Adiponectin may serve as a promising quantitative intermediate trait in studies designed to map the genes underlying diabetes and obesity in this population.

  7. The long-term experiences of surrogates: relationships and contact with surrogacy families in genetic and gestational surrogacy arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imrie, Susan; Jadva, Vasanti

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the contact arrangements and relationships between surrogates and surrogacy families and whether these outcomes differed according to the type of surrogacy undertaken. Surrogates' motivations for carrying out multiple surrogacy arrangements were also examined, and surrogates' psychological health was assessed. Semi-structured interviews were administered to 34 women who had given birth to a child conceived through surrogacy approximately 7 years prior to interview. Some surrogates had carried out multiple surrogacy arrangements, and data were collected on the frequency, type of contact, and surrogate's feelings about the level of contact in each surrogacy arrangement, the surrogate's relationship with each child and parent, and her experience of, and motivation for, each surrogacy. Questionnaire measures of psychological health were administered. Surrogates had completed a total of 102 surrogacy arrangements and remained in contact with the majority of families, and reported positive relationships in most cases. Surrogates were happy with their level of contact in the majority of arrangements and most were viewed as positive experiences. Few differences were found according to surrogacy type. The primary motivation given for multiple surrogacy arrangements was to help couples have a sibling for an existing child. Most surrogates showed no psychological health problems at the time of data collection. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of selection pressure and genetic association on the relationship between antibiotic resistance and virulence in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixin; Levy, Karen; Trueba, Gabriel; Cevallos, William; Trostle, James; Foxman, Betsy; Marrs, Carl F; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic selection pressure and genetic associations may lead to the cooccurrence of resistance and virulence in individual pathogens. However, there is a lack of rigorous epidemiological evidence that demonstrates the cooccurrence of resistance and virulence at the population level. Using samples from a population-based case-control study in 25 villages in rural Ecuador, we characterized resistance to 12 antibiotics among pathogenic (n = 86) and commensal (n = 761) Escherichia coli isolates, classified by the presence or absence of known diarrheagenic virulence factor genes. The prevalences of resistance to single and multiple antibiotics were significantly higher for pathogenic isolates than for commensal isolates. Using a generalized estimating equation, antibiotic resistance was independently associated with virulence factor carriage, case status, and antibiotic use (for these respective factors: odds ratio [OR] = 3.0, with a 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.7 to 5.1; OR = 2.0, with a 95% CI of 1.3 to 3.0; and OR = 1.5, with a 95% CI of 0.9 to 2.5). Virulence factor carriage was more strongly related to antibiotic resistance than antibiotic use for all antibiotics examined, with the exception of fluoroquinolones, gentamicin, and cefotaxime. This study provides epidemiological evidence that antibiotic resistance and virulence factor carriage are linked in E. coli populations in a community setting. Further, these data suggest that while the cooccurrence of resistance and virulence in E. coli is partially due to antibiotic selection pressure, it is also genetically determined. These findings should be considered in developing strategies for treating infections and controlling for antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Genetic and serum biomarker evidence for a relationship between TNFα and PTSD in Vietnam war combat veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruenig, Dagmar; Mehta, Divya; Morris, Charles P; Harvey, Wendy; Lawford, Bruce; Young, Ross McD; Voisey, Joanne

    2017-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased inflammation and comorbid medical conditions. However, study findings for individual inflammatory marker levels have been inconsistent. Some research suggests that resilience may play a role in decreased inflammation. A polymorphism in the promoter region of the tumor necrosis factor α gene (TNFα), TNFA -308 (rs1800629) is associated with psychiatric illness but its role in PTSD is yet to be elucidated. This study investigates a key inflammatory marker, TNFα, for its role in PTSD severity. In a cohort of trauma-exposed Vietnam War veterans (n=299; 159 cases, 140 controls) TNF α serum levels and TNFα polymorphism rs1800629 were correlated with PTSD severity and resilience scores. The polymorphism was associated with PTSD severity (p=0.045). There were significant group differences between cases and controls with regards to serum TNFα levels (p=0.036). Significant correlations were found between PTSD severity and elevated TNFα levels (r=0.153; p=0.009), and between resilience and decreased TNFα levels at a trend level (p=0.08) across the entire cohort. These relationships were non-significant after controlling for covariates. In the PTSD diagnostic group, a correlation of TNFα and PTSD severity was observed on a trend level (p=0.06), the relationship between TNFα and resilience remained non-significant. To our knowledge, this is the first time rs1800629 has been investigated in PTSD contributing to a growing body of literature that identifies the GG as a risk genotype for psychiatric disorders in Caucasian cohorts. However, more research is needed to replicate our results in larger, equally well-characterized cohorts. The relationship between serum TNFα levels and PTSD severity and resilience requires further investigation. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships in grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae) based on PCR-RFLP analysis of mtDNA segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasotiropoulos, V; Klossa-Kilia, E; Kilias, G; Alahiotis, S

    2002-04-01

    The genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships among five species of the Mugilidae family (Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, and Liza saliens) were investigated at the mtDNA level, on samples taken from Messolongi lagoon-Greece. RFLP analysis of three PCR-amplified mtDNA gene segments (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I) was used. Ten, eight, and nine restriction enzymes were found to have at least one recognition site at 12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I genes, respectively. Several fragment patterns were revealed to be species-specific, and thus they could be useful in species taxonomy as diagnostic markers, as well as for further evolutionary studies. Seven different haplotypes were detected. The greatest amount of genetic differentiation was observed at the interspecific level, while little variation was revealed at the intraspecific level. The highest values of nucleotide sequence divergence were observed between M. cephalus and all the other species, while the lowest was found between C. labrosus and L. saliens. Dendrograms obtained by the three different methods (UPGMA, Neighbor-Joining, and Dollo parsimony), were found to exhibit in all cases the same topology. According to this, the most distinct species is M. cephalus, while the other species are clustered in two separate groups, thefirst one containing L. aurata and L. ramada, the other L. saliens and C. labrosus. This last clustering makes the monophyletic origin of the genus Liza questionable.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis, genetic diversity and relationships between the recently segregated species of Corynandra and Cleoserrata from the genus Cleome using DNA barcoding and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Asif Shabodin; Patil, Swapnil Mahadeo; Gholave, Avinash Ramchandra; Kadam, Suhas Kishor; Kotibhaskar, Shreya Vijaykumar; Yadav, Shrirang Ramchandra; Govindwar, Sanjay Prabhu

    2016-01-01

    Cleome is the largest genus in the family Cleomaceae and it is known for its various medicinal properties. Recently, some species from the Cleome genus (Cleome viscosa, Cleome chelidonii, Cleome felina and Cleome speciosa) are split into genera Corynandra (Corynandra viscosa, Corynandra chelidonii, Corynandra felina), and Cleoserrata (Cleoserrata speciosa). The objective of this study was to obtain DNA barcodes for these species for their accurate identification and determining phylogenetic relationships. Out of 10 screened barcoding regions, rbcL, matK and ITS1 regions showed higher PCR efficiency and sequencing success. This study added matK, rbcL and ITS1 barcodes for the identification of Corynandra chelidonii, Corynandra felina, Cleome simplicifolia and Cleome aspera species in existing barcode data. Corynandra chelidonii and Corynandra felina species belong to the Corynandra genus, but they are not grouped with the Corynandra viscosa species, however clustered with the Cleome species. Molecular marker analysis showed 100% polymorphism among the studied plant samples. Diversity indices for molecular markers were ranged from He=0.1115-0.1714 and I=0.2268-0.2700, which indicates a significant amount of genetic diversity among studied species. Discrimination of the Cleome and Corynandra species from Cleoserrata speciosa was obtained by two RAPD primers (OPA-4 and RAPD-17) and two ISSR primers (ISSR-1 and ISSR-2). RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for the genetic characterization of these studied species. The present investigation will be helpful to understand the relationships of Cleome lineages with Corynandra and Cleoserrata species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Deducing the kinetics of protein synthesis in vivo from the transition rates measured in vitro.

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    Sophia Rudorf

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular machinery of life relies on complex multistep processes that involve numerous individual transitions, such as molecular association and dissociation steps, chemical reactions, and mechanical movements. The corresponding transition rates can be typically measured in vitro but not in vivo. Here, we develop a general method to deduce the in-vivo rates from their in-vitro values. The method has two basic components. First, we introduce the kinetic distance, a new concept by which we can quantitatively compare the kinetics of a multistep process in different environments. The kinetic distance depends logarithmically on the transition rates and can be interpreted in terms of the underlying free energy barriers. Second, we minimize the kinetic distance between the in-vitro and the in-vivo process, imposing the constraint that the deduced rates reproduce a known global property such as the overall in-vivo speed. In order to demonstrate the predictive power of our method, we apply it to protein synthesis by ribosomes, a key process of gene expression. We describe the latter process by a codon-specific Markov model with three reaction pathways, corresponding to the initial binding of cognate, near-cognate, and non-cognate tRNA, for which we determine all individual transition rates in vitro. We then predict the in-vivo rates by the constrained minimization procedure and validate these rates by three independent sets of in-vivo data, obtained for codon-dependent translation speeds, codon-specific translation dynamics, and missense error frequencies. In all cases, we find good agreement between theory and experiment without adjusting any fit parameter. The deduced in-vivo rates lead to smaller error frequencies than the known in-vitro rates, primarily by an improved initial selection of tRNA. The method introduced here is relatively simple from a computational point of view and can be applied to any biomolecular process, for which we have

  13. Analysis of genetic diversity and genome relationships of four eggplant species (Solanum melongena L) using RAPD markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo; Setyaningsih, M.

    2018-01-01

    Solanum melongena (eggplant) is one of the diversity of the Solanum family which is grown and widely spread in Indonesia and widely used by the community. This research explored the genetic diversity of four local Indonesian eggplant species namely leuca, tekokak, gelatik and kopek by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA). The samples were obtained from Agricultural Technology Assessment Institute (BPTP) Bogor, Indonesia. The result of data observation was in the form of Solanum melongena plant’s DNA profile analyzed descriptively and quantitatively. 30 DNA bands (28 polymorphic and 2 monomorphic) were successfully scored by using four primers (OPF-01, OPF-02, OPF-03, and OPF-04). The Primers were used able to amplify all of the four eggplant samples. The result of PCR-RAPD visualization produces bands of 300-1500 bp. The result of cluster analysis showed the existence of three clusters (A, B, and C). Cluster A (coefficient of equal to 49%) consisted of a gelatik, cluster B (coefficient of 65% equilibrium) consisted of TPU (Kopek) and TK (Tekokak), and cluster C (55% equilibrium coefficient) consisted of LC (Leunca). These results indicated that the closest proximity is found in samples of TK (Tekokak) and TPU (Kopek).

  14. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  15. Deducing the pathogenic contribution of recessive ABCA4 alleles in an outbred population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Emily I; Nylen, Erik L; Ko, Audrey C; Affatigato, Louisa M; Heggen, Andrew C; Wang, Kai; Sheffield, Val C; Stone, Edwin M

    2010-10-01

    Accurate prediction of the pathogenic effects of specific genotypes is important for the design and execution of clinical trials as well as for meaningful counseling of individual patients. However, for many autosomal recessive diseases, it can be difficult to deduce the relative pathogenic contribution of individual alleles because relatively few affected individuals share the same two disease-causing variations. In this study, we used multiple regression analysis to estimate the pathogenicity of specific alleles of ABCA4 in patients with retinal phenotypes ranging from Stargardt disease to retinitis pigmentosa. This analysis revealed quantitative allelic effects on two aspects of the visual phenotype, visual acuity (P disease and will also aid in the optimal selection of subjects for clinical trials of new therapies.

  16. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D; Prideaux, Gavin J

    2016-02-15

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist.

  17. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; del Real, R. P.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Vá zquez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  18. Systematics of criticality data of special actinide nuclides deduced through the Trombay criticality formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; SubbaRao, K.; Garg, S.B.; Acharya, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a number of interesting systematics and correlations deduced by analyzing the criticality data of special actinide nuclides using concepts embodied in the Trombay critically formula (TCF). The κ ∞ of fast metal actinide nuclides gives a remarkable linear correlation with the fissility parameter Z 2 /A. The neutron leakage probability of all fast metal cores characterized using a constant parameter σ std enables computation of the critical mass value of any unknown fissile nuclide knowing only its Z 2 /A value. Since the neutron leakage probability from dilute fissile solutions is primarily governed by the scattering/slowing down properties of the hydrogen present in water, critical masses and subcritical limits can be predicted for any water-reflected system at any specified hydrogen-to-actinide atomic ratio knowing only the κ ∞ value of the given fissile solution

  19. An Evolutionary Perspective of the Relationship Between Corporate Strategy and Performance, Through the Use of Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic AlgorithmsHttp://Dx.Doi.Org/10.5585/Riae.V9i3.1689

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Teixeira Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between Corporate Strategy and Performance, from the perspective of the Evolutionary Theory. As methods of data processing, obtained in secondary databases, we used artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms. The results of processing neural networks and genetic algorithms demonstrate the importance of corporate strategies in determining performance. The evolutionary perspective emphasizes the importance of investing in operations as a factor influencing the adequacy of the organization, in order to achieve an improved performance, in addition to establishing relationships with other organizations, through members of the board.

  20. Genetic characterization in symptomatic female DMD carriers: lack of relationship between X-inactivation, transcriptional DMD allele balancing and phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brioschi Simona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, X-linked recessive myopathies, predominantly affect males, a clinically significant proportion of females manifesting symptoms have also been reported. They represent an heterogeneous group characterized by variable degrees of muscle weakness and/or cardiac involvement. Though preferential inactivation of the normal X chromosome has long been considered the principal mechanism behind disease manifestation in these females, supporting evidence is controversial. Methods Eighteen females showing a mosaic pattern of dystrophin expression on muscle biopsy were recruited and classified as symptomatic (7 or asymptomatic (11, based on the presence or absence of muscle weakness. The causative DMD gene mutations were identified in all cases, and the X-inactivation pattern was assessed in muscle DNA. Transcriptional analysis in muscles was performed in all females, and relative quantification of wild-type and mutated transcripts was also performed in 9 carriers. Dystrophin protein was quantified by immunoblotting in 2 females. Results The study highlighted a lack of relationship between dystrophic phenotype and X-inactivation pattern in females; skewed X-inactivation was found in 2 out of 6 symptomatic carriers and in 5 out of 11 asymptomatic carriers. All females were characterized by biallelic transcription, but no association was found between X-inactivation pattern and allele transcriptional balancing. Either a prevalence of wild-type transcript or equal proportions of wild-type and mutated RNAs was observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic females. Moreover, very similar levels of total and wild-type transcripts were identified in the two groups of carriers. Conclusions This is the first study deeply exploring the DMD transcriptional behaviour in a cohort of female carriers. Notably, no relationship between X-inactivation pattern and transcriptional behaviour of DMD gene was

  1. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feeding behavior with feed intake, growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Mao, F; Crews, D H; Vinsky, M; Li, C

    2014-03-01

    Feeding behavior traits including daily feeding duration (FD), daily feeding head down time (HD), average feeding duration per feeding event (FD_AVE), average feeding head down time per feeding event (HD_AVE), feeding frequency (FF), and meal eating rate (ER) were analyzed to estimate their phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake, growth performance, residual feed intake (RFI), ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais finishing steers. Heritability estimates for FD, HD, FD_AVE, HD_AVE, FF, and ER were 0.27 ± 0.09 (SE), 0.25 ± 0.09, 0.19 ± 0.06, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.24 ± 0.08, and 0.38 ± 0.10, respectively, in the Angus population and 0.49 ± 0.12, 0.38 ± 0.11, 0.31 ± 0.09, 0.29 ± 0.10, 0.43 ± 0.11, and 0.56 ± 0.13, respectively, in the Charolais population. In both the Angus and Charolais steer populations, FD and HD had relatively stronger phenotypic (0.17 ± 0.06 to 0.32 ± 0.04) and genetic (0.29 ± 0.17 to 0.54 ± 0.18) correlations with RFI in comparison to other feeding behavior traits investigated, suggesting the potential of FD and HD as indicators in assessing variation of RFI. In general, feeding behavior traits had weak phenotypic correlations with most of the ultrasound and carcass merit traits; however, estimated genetic correlations of the feeding behavior traits with some fat deposition related traits were moderate to moderately strong but differed in magnitude or sign between the Angus and Charolais steer populations, likely reflecting their different biological types. Genetic parameter estimation studies involving feeding behavior traits in beef cattle are lacking and more research is needed to better characterize the relationships between feeding behavior and feed intake, growth, feed utilization, and carcass merit traits, in particular with respect to different biological types of cattle.

  2. Targeted capture massively parallel sequencing analysis of LCIS and invasive lobular cancer: Repertoire of somatic genetic alterations and clonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Rita A; Schizas, Michail; Carniello, Jose V Scarpa; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Giri, Dilip; Andrade, Victor P; De Brot, Marina; Lim, Raymond S; Towers, Russell; Weigelt, Britta; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; King, Tari A

    2016-02-01

    Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) has been proposed as a non-obligate precursor of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Here we sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations in pure LCIS and in synchronous LCIS and ILC using targeted massively parallel sequencing. DNA samples extracted from microdissected LCIS, ILC and matched normal breast tissue or peripheral blood from 30 patients were subjected to massively parallel sequencing targeting all exons of 273 genes, including the genes most frequently mutated in breast cancer and DNA repair-related genes. Single nucleotide variants and insertions and deletions were identified using state-of-the-art bioinformatics approaches. The constellation of somatic mutations found in LCIS (n = 34) and ILC (n = 21) were similar, with the most frequently mutated genes being CDH1 (56% and 66%, respectively), PIK3CA (41% and 52%, respectively) and CBFB (12% and 19%, respectively). Among 19 LCIS and ILC synchronous pairs, 14 (74%) had at least one identical mutation in common, including identical PIK3CA and CDH1 mutations. Paired analysis of independent foci of LCIS from 3 breasts revealed at least one common mutation in each of the 3 pairs (CDH1, PIK3CA, CBFB and PKHD1L1). LCIS and ILC have a similar repertoire of somatic mutations, with PIK3CA and CDH1 being the most frequently mutated genes. The presence of identical mutations between LCIS-LCIS and LCIS-ILC pairs demonstrates that LCIS is a clonal neoplastic lesion, and provides additional evidence that at least some LCIS are non-obligate precursors of ILC. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic relationships between interspecific lines derived from Oryza glaberrima and Oryza sativa crosses using microsatellites and agro-morphological markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukoumbi, Y.D.; Kolade, O.; Drame, K.N.; Sie, M.; Ndjiondjo, M.N.

    2015-07-01

    New Rice(s) for Africa (NERICA) are high yielding rice varieties mostly cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa and developed by the Africa Rice Center. This study is aimed at investigating the proportion of introgression of parental genomic contribution of 60 lowland NERICA varieties and establishment of molecular profiling. Agro-morphological data from 17 characteristics was recorded and significant (p<0.05) to high significant (p<0.0001) differences were obtained with leaf length and width, plant height at maturity, days to heading, maturity, primary and secondary branching of panicles, and grain width and grain thickness. A total of 114 microsatellite polymorphic markers covering 2183.13 cM of the rice genome showed the proportions of alleles introgressed from the donor parent (Oryza glaberrima) into 52 lowland NERICA lines (TOG5681 and IR64) as follows: 11% for BC2, 6.07% for BC3, and 7.55% for BC4. The introgression proportions for the eight remaining lowland NERICA lines derived from other crosses ranged from 5.5 to 11.3%. The proportion recorded with the recurrent parent was 83.99%. The highest introgression proportions of the O. glaberrima allele for all 60 lowland NERICA lines were found on chromosomes 2, 6 and 12 (TOG5681/IR64) and on chromosome 3 with NERIC-L-29 (TOG5681/IR1529-680-3-2). Multivariate analyses performed using an association of agro-morphological and molecular data revealed two major groups according to the distribution of the lowland NERICAs including the lowland NERICAs released were found in cluster 1 of the dendrogram. Genetic and genomic studies, QTL identification and analysis using agro-morphologically significant traits revealed should be used to develop mega-varieties adapted in rice growth conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa. (Author)

  4. Non-genetic and non-gestational parenthood: consequences for parent-child relationships and the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers and children at age 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombok, S; Murray, C; Jadva, V; Lycett, E; MacCallum, F; Rust, J

    2006-07-01

    Findings are presented of the third phase of a longitudinal study of children conceived by assisted reproduction procedures involving surrogacy and/or donor conception. At the time of the child's third birthday, 34 surrogacy families, 41 donor insemination families and 41 oocyte donation families were compared with 67 natural conception families on standardized interview and questionnaire measures of the psychological well-being of the parents, mother-child relationships and the psychological well-being of the child. The differences found between family types reflected higher levels of warmth and interaction between mothers and their 3-year-old children in assisted reproduction families than in families with a naturally conceived child. A higher proportion of surrogacy parents than donor conception parents had told their children about the nature of their birth. It appears that the absence of a genetic and/or gestational link between parents and their child does not have a negative impact on parent-child relationships or the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers or children at age 3.

  5. Chloroplast genes as genetic markers for inferring patterns of change, maternal ancestry and phylogenetic relationships among Eleusine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Renuka; Agrawal, Nitin; Tandon, Rajesh; Raina, Soom Nath

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of phylogenetic relationships is an important component of any successful crop improvement programme, as wild relatives of the crop species often carry agronomically beneficial traits. Since its domestication in East Africa, Eleusine coracana (2n = 4x = 36), a species belonging to the genus Eleusine (x = 8, 9, 10), has held a prominent place in the semi-arid regions of India, Nepal and Africa. The patterns of variation between the cultivated and wild species reported so far and the interpretations based upon them have been considered primarily in terms of nuclear events. We analysed, for the first time, the phylogenetic relationship between finger millet (E. coracana) and its wild relatives by species-specific chloroplast deoxyribonucleic acid (cpDNA) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers/sequences. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the seven amplified chloroplast genes/intergenic spacers (trnK, psbD, psaA, trnH-trnK, trnL-trnF, 16S and trnS-psbC), nucleotide sequencing of the chloroplast trnK gene and chloroplast microsatellite polymorphism were analysed in all nine known species of Eleusine. The RFLP of all seven amplified chloroplast genes/intergenic spacers and trnK gene sequences in the diploid (2n = 16, 18, 20) and allotetraploid (2n = 36, 38) species resulted in well-resolved phylogenetic trees with high bootstrap values. Eleusine coracana, E. africana, E. tristachya, E. indica and E. kigeziensis did not show even a single change in restriction site. Eleusine intermedia and E. floccifolia were also shown to have identical cpDNA fragment patterns. The cpDNA diversity in Eleusine multiflora was found to be more extensive than that of the other eight species. The trnK gene sequence data complemented the results obtained by PCR-RFLP. The maternal lineage of all three allotetraploid species (AABB, AADD) was the same, with E. indica being the

  6. The relationship between tacrolimus concentration-dose ratio and genetic polymorphism in patients subjected to renal transplantation

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    Rančić Nemanja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tacrolimus concentration-dose ratio as a potential therapeutic drug monitoring strategy was suggested to be used for the patients subjected to renal transplantation. The aim of this study was examining the relationship between tacrolimus concentration-dose ratio, suggested to be used as a therapeutic drug monitoring strategy and the polymorphisms of genes encoding the most important enzymes, such as CYP3A5 and CYP3A4, as well as the transporter P-glycoprotein, for its metabolism and elimination. Methods. The study was designed as a prospective case series study, in which the unit of monitoring was the outpatient examination of 54 patients subjected to renal transplantation. Genotyping was performed by 7500 Real- Time PCR System by assessing allelic discrimination based on TaqMan® methodology. Results. Patients (n = 13 who were treated with less than 2 mg of tacrolimus/day (0.024 ± 0.006 mg/kg/day had the tacrolimus concentration-dose ratio larger than 150 ng/mL/mg/kg. In this group, 84.62% patients had CYP3А5 *3*3 allele. All of these patients had CYP3А4 *1*1/*1*1B allele. Regarding ABCB1 C3435T gene, 30.77% of patients had the TT gene variant, while 69.23% of our patients had CC and CT gene variants. Conclusion. Tacrolimus concentration-dose ratio greater than 150 ng/mL/mg/kg is cut-off value in patients subjected to renal transplantation which might point to patients who are poor CYP3A5 metabolizers and/or with dysfunctional P-glycoprotein.

  7. Evolutionary history of Calosomina ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabinae) of the world as deduced from sequence comparisons of the mitochondrial ND 5 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi-Hui; Imura, Yûki; Osawa, Syozo

    2005-11-07

    We deduced the phylogenetic relationships of 54 individuals representing 27 species of the Calosomina (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from various regions of the world from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND 5) gene sequences. The results suggest that these Calosomina radiated into 17 lineages within a short time about 30 million years ago (Mya). Most of the lineages are composed of a single genus containing only one or a few species. In some cases, several species classified into the same genus (e.g., Calosoma maximowiczi, Calos. inquisitor and Calos. frigidum) appear separately in independent lineages, while in others a series of species classified into different genera fall into one lineage (e.g., Chrysostigma calidum, Blaptosoma chihuahua, Microcallisthenes wilkesi and Callisthenes spp.). Based on this molecular phylogeny and morphological data, the probable evolutionary history and mode of morphological differentiation of the Calosomina are discussed.

  8. Impact delivery of organic matter on the acapulcoite-lodranite parent-body deduced from C, N isotopes and nanostructures of carbon phases in Acapulco and Lodran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, E.; Aléon, J.; Rouzaud, J.-N.

    2014-10-01

    The structure and nanostructures of carbon phases from the Acapulco and Lodran meteorites and their carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition were investigated at the nanometer and micrometer scale using a systematic combination of Raman microspectrometry, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry to determine their origin and thermal evolution. Several morphological types were recognized belonging to roughly two isotopic and structural families: coarse carbon grains and rosettes, only found in Acapulco, and vein-like carbon occurrences present in both Acapulco and Lodran. Carbon phases in Acapulco are highly graphitized, and show a genetic relationship with metal indicative of metal-assisted graphitization. By contrast, carbon phases in Lodran are exclusively disordered mesoporous turbostratic carbons, in spite of their inclusion in metal and the higher peak temperature experienced by the Lodran parent body. δ13C values range between -59‰ and +37‰ in Acapulco and between -38‰ and -1‰ in Lodran and show in both cases a peak in their distribution at the value of chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM, -10‰ to -15‰). N concentrations together with δ15N values indicate a mixing between a component akin to chondritic IOM in Lodran with a δ15N value around +10‰ to +20‰ and a component akin to that in the most N-poor Acapulco graphites. The latter are systematically depleted in 15N with a δ15N value constant at ∼-140‰ for N concentrations below ∼1.4 wt%. These observations can be explained if carbon phases in Acapulco and Lodran result from the late impact introduction of CI-CM like IOM, after significant cooling of the parent-body, and subsequent carbonization and graphitization of IOM by interaction with FeNi metal by the heat wave induced by the impact. Temperatures probably reached 900 °C in Acapulco, enough to achieve metal-assisted graphitization but were not significantly higher than 650 °C in

  9. Genic non-coding microsatellites in the rice genome: characterization, marker design and use in assessing genetic and evolutionary relationships among domesticated groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nagendra

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Completely sequenced plant genomes provide scope for designing a large number of microsatellite markers, which are useful in various aspects of crop breeding and genetic analysis. With the objective of developing genic but non-coding microsatellite (GNMS markers for the rice (Oryza sativa L. genome, we characterized the frequency and relative distribution of microsatellite repeat-motifs in 18,935 predicted protein coding genes including 14,308 putative promoter sequences. Results We identified 19,555 perfect GNMS repeats with densities ranging from 306.7/Mb in chromosome 1 to 450/Mb in chromosome 12 with an average of 357.5 GNMS per Mb. The average microsatellite density was maximum in the 5' untranslated regions (UTRs followed by those in introns, promoters, 3'UTRs and minimum in the coding sequences (CDS. Primers were designed for 17,966 (92% GNMS repeats, including 4,288 (94% hypervariable class I types, which were bin-mapped on the rice genome. The GNMS markers were most polymorphic in the intronic region (73.3% followed by markers in the promoter region (53.3% and least in the CDS (26.6%. The robust polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification efficiency and high polymorphic potential of GNMS markers over genic coding and random genomic microsatellite markers suggest their immediate use in efficient genotyping applications in rice. A set of these markers could assess genetic diversity and establish phylogenetic relationships among domesticated rice cultivar groups. We also demonstrated the usefulness of orthologous and paralogous conserved non-coding microsatellite (CNMS markers, identified in the putative rice promoter sequences, for comparative physical mapping and understanding of evolutionary and gene regulatory complexities among rice and other members of the grass family. The divergence between long-grained aromatics and subspecies japonica was estimated to be more recent (0.004 Mya compared to short

  10. Radial plasma drifts deduced from VLF whistler mode signals - A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, E. M.; Andrews, M. K.; Bailey, G. J.; Moffett, R. J.

    1984-05-01

    VLF whistler mode signals have previously been used to infer radial plasma drifts in the equatorial plane of the plasmasphere and the field-aligned ionosphere-protonosphere coupling fluxes. Physical models of the plasmasphere consisting of O(+) adn H(+) ions along dipole magnetic field lines, and including radial E x B drifts, are applied to a mid-latitude flux tube appropriate to whistler mode signals received at Wellington, New Zealand, from the fixed frequency VLF transmitter NLK (18.6 kHz) in Seattle, U.S.A. These models are first shown to provide a good representation of the recorded Doppler shift and group delay data. They are then used to simulate the process of deducing the drifts and fluxes from the recorded data. Provided the initial whistler mode duct latitude and the ionospheric contributions are known, the drifts at the equatorial plane can be estimated to about + or - 20 m/s (approximately 10-15 percent), and the two hemisphere ionosphere-protonosphere coupling fluxes to about + or - 10 to the 12th/sq m-sec (approximately 40 percent).

  11. Geodynamical behavior of some active area in Egypt, as deduced from geodetic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issawy, E.; Mrlina, J.; Radwan, A.; Mahmoud, S.; Rayan, A.

    2009-04-01

    Temporal gravity variation in parallel with the space geodetic technique (GPS) had been started in Egypt for real campaigns in 1997. The geodetic networks around the High Dam, Aswan area was the first net to be measured. More than five measurement epochs were performed. The results had a considerable limit of coincidence between gravity and GPS observations. The trend of gravity changes indicated a positive stress and had the vertical displacement observed for leveling points. The lowest gravity changes along Kalabsha fault reflect extensional and/or strike component of the stress field. Also, the areas around Cairo (Greater Cairo) and due to the occurrence of an earthquake of 1992, such type of measurements were useful for monitoring the recent activity. The data of the geodetic network around Cairo after 5 campaigns showed that, the estimated horizontal velocities for almost all points are 5.5± mm/year in approximately NW-SE direction. The non-tidal changes can explain the dynamic process within the upper crust related to the development of local stress conditions. The trends of gravity changes are more or less coincident with that deduced from GPS deformation analysis and the occurrence of the main shocks in the area. In additions, in 2005 the geodetic network around the southern part of Sinai and the Gulf of Suez were established. One campaign of measurements had been performed and the gravity values were obtained.

  12. Atmospheric response to Saharan dust deduced from ECMWF reanalysis (ERA) temperature increments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, P.; Alpert, P.; Barkan, J.; Kirchner, I.; Machenhauer, B.

    2003-09-01

    This study focuses on the atmospheric temperature response to dust deduced from a new source of data the European Reanalysis (ERA) increments. These increments are the systematic errors of global climate models, generated in the reanalysis procedure. The model errors result not only from the lack of desert dust but also from a complex combination of many kinds of model errors. Over the Sahara desert the lack of dust radiative effect is believed to be a predominant model defect which should significantly affect the increments. This dust effect was examined by considering correlation between the increments and remotely sensed dust. Comparisons were made between April temporal variations of the ERA analysis increments and the variations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer aerosol index (AI) between 1979 and 1993. The distinctive structure was identified in the distribution of correlation composed of three nested areas with high positive correlation (>0.5), low correlation and high negative correlation (Forecast (ECMWF) suggest that the PCA (NCA) corresponds mainly to anticyclonic (cyclonic) flow, negative (positive) vorticity and downward (upward) airflow. These findings are associated with the interaction between dust-forced heating/cooling and atmospheric circulation. This paper contributes to a better understanding of dust radiative processes missed in the model.

  13. Epitopes of human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase deduced from a cDNA sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, J.L.; Driscoll, C.E.; LeVan, K.M.; Goldberg, E.

    1987-01-01

    The sequence and structure of human testis-specific L-lactate dehydrogenase [LDHC 4 , LDHX; (L)-lactate:NAD + oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27] has been derived from analysis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone comprising the complete protein coding region of the enzyme. From the deduced amino acid sequence, human LDHC 4 is as different from rodent LDHC 4 (73% homology) as it is from human LDHA 4 (76% homology) and porcine LDHB 4 (68% homology). Subunit homologies are consistent with the conclusion that the LDHC gene arose by at least two independent duplication events. Furthermore, the lower degree of homology between mouse and human LDHC 4 and the appearance of this isozyme late in evolution suggests a higher rate of mutation in the mammalian LDHC genes than in the LDHA and -B genes. Comparison of exposed amino acid residues of discrete anti-genic determinants of mouse and human LDHC 4 reveals significant differences. Knowledge of the human LDHC 4 sequence will help design human-specific peptides useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine

  14. Modal effects on amplitude perturbations on subionospheric signals (trimpis) deduced from two-frequency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowden, R.L.; Adams, C.D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Interference between the first two modes of Earth-ionosphere waveguide propagation at the high end of the VLF band (> 18 kHz) increases with distance from the transmitter out to very large distances and can add amplitude perturbations to the phase perturbations (trimpis) produced by lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) on the great circle path. Since the two modes have slightly different phase velocities, an interference pattern or standing wave is formed which is shifted slightly along the propagation path by the LEP-induced change in differential phase velocity. The model effect at the receiver depends on the local gradient (along the great circle path) of amplitude with respect to the differential phase. Since this differential or mode beat phase varies with frequency, measurement of the resultant amplitude at two close frequencies enables an estimation of the modal effects. In this study, measurements were made at Dunedin at the two MSK frequencies, 22,250 Hz and 22,350 Hz, of the transmitter NWC, during a night of frequent one-dimensional trimpis (i.e., those produced by large-area LEP occurring close to the great circle path) and of strong and varying modal interference. Modal generation or modification of trimpi amplitude was related to the local gradient of amplitude as expected. From these results it was deduced that modal modification of echo trimpis (those produced by small area LEP occurring well off the great circle path), even under extreme conditions, is insignificant

  15. F-region Pedersen conductivity deduced using the TIMED/GUVI limb retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As a proxy of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate for equatorial plasma bubbles, we investigate the flux-tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity (ΣPF using the electron density profiles (EDPs provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED satellite. The investigation is conducted using the EDPs obtained in the Atlantic sector at 19:00-22:00 LT during 4–17 August and 6-16 December 2002. The seasonal difference of the strength and location of the equatorial ionization anomalies (EIAs induces a significant difference in the deduced ΣPF. Much stronger EIAs are created at higher altitudes and latitudes in December rather than in August. At 19:00–20:00 LT, the peak value of the ΣPF has 23 mhos at 1100 km apex height during 14–16 December and 18mhos at 600 km during 15–17 August. The ΣPF decreases as local time progresses. Therefore, ΣPF provides a preferred condition for the growth of bubbles to higher altitudes at 19:00-20:00 LT than at later hours, in December rather than in August in the Atlantic sector.

  16. Supercritical fluid in the mantle transition zone deduced from H-D interdiffusion of wadsleyite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yoshino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of water in the Earth's mantle is key to understanding the mantle convection and geochemical evolution of the Earth. As wadsleyite and ringwoodite can incorporate large amounts of water in their crystal structures, proton conduction has been invoked to account for the widespread conductive anomalies observed in the mantle wedge, where descending slab stagnates at the transition zone. However, there is a lot of controversy on whether proton conduction by itself is able to explain such anomalies, because of large discrepancy in the extent of the water effect deduced from previous electrical conductivity measurements on hydrous polycrystalline wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Here we report the hydrogen self-diffusion coefficient obtained from H-D interdiffusion experiments in wadsleyite single-crystal couples. Our results demonstrate that the effect of water on the electrical conductivity of wadsleyite is limited and hydrous wadsleyite by itself is unable to explain conductive anomalies in the transition zone. In contrast, the expected hydrogen effective diffusion does not allow the wide propagation of water between the stagnant slab and surrounding mantle, probably leading to persistence of local water saturation and continuous release of supercritical fluids at the stagnant slab roof on geological time scales. This phenomenon provides an alternative explanation for both the high-conductivity and seismic-velocity anomalies observed in the mantle wedge at the transition-zone depth.

  17. Atom bombs and genetic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Comments are made on a 1981 review on genetic damage in the off-spring of the atom bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The main criticisms of the review concerned, 1) the 'minimal' doubling dose value for radiation-induced mutation in man, 2) the gametic doubling dose value for sex chromosome aneuploidy and 3) the validity of trebling an observed acute doubling dose to measure the effect of chronic irradiation. The firmest conclusion which may be deduced from the studies on A-bomb survivors is that humans are fairly resistant to genetic damage from radiation. (U.K.)

  18. Close genetic relationship between Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from sputum specimens and puddles on roads, as determined by sequence-based typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatani, Jun-ichi; Isobe, Junko; Kimata, Keiko; Shima, Tomoko; Shimizu, Miwako; Kura, Fumiaki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Watahiki, Masanori

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Legionella species isolated from puddles on asphalt roads. In addition, we carried out sequence-based typing (SBT) analysis on the genetic relationship between L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (SG 1) isolates from puddles and from stock strains previously obtained from sputum specimens and public baths. Sixty-nine water samples were collected from puddles on roads at 6 fixed locations. Legionella species were detected in 33 samples (47.8%) regardless of season. Among the 325 isolates from puddles, strains of L. pneumophila SG 1, a major causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, were the most frequently isolated (n = 62, 19.1%). Sixty-two isolates of L. pneumophila SG 1 from puddles were classified into 36 sequence types (STs) by SBT. ST120 and ST48 were identified as major STs. Environmental ST120 strains from puddles were found for the first time in this study. Among the 14 STs of the clinical isolates (n = 19), 4 STs (n = 6, 31.6%), including ST120, were also detected in isolates from puddles on roads, and the sources of infection in these cases remained unclear. The lag-1 gene, a tentative marker for clinical isolates, was prevalent in puddle isolates (61.3%). Our findings suggest that puddles on asphalt roads serve as potential reservoirs for L. pneumophila in the environment.

  19. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  20. Characteristics of Turbulent Airflow Deduced from Rapid Surface Thermal Fluctuations: An Infrared Surface Anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, Milad; Breitenstein, Daniel; Or, Dani

    2017-12-01

    The intermittent nature of turbulent airflow interacting with the surface is readily observable in fluctuations of the surface temperature resulting from the thermal imprints of eddies sweeping the surface. Rapid infrared thermography has recently been used to quantify characteristics of the near-surface turbulent airflow interacting with the evaporating surfaces. We aim to extend this technique by using single-point rapid infrared measurements to quantify properties of a turbulent flow, including surface exchange processes, with a view towards the development of an infrared surface anemometer. The parameters for the surface-eddy renewal (α and β ) are inferred from infrared measurements of a single-point on the surface of a heat plate placed in a wind tunnel with prescribed wind speeds and constant mean temperatures of the surface. Thermally-deduced parameters are in agreement with values obtained from standard three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer measurements close to the plate surface (e.g., α = 3 and β = 1/26 (ms)^{-1} for the infrared, and α = 3 and β = 1/19 (ms)^{-1} for the sonic-anemometer measurements). The infrared-based turbulence parameters provide new insights into the role of surface temperature and buoyancy on the inherent characteristics of interacting eddies. The link between the eddy-spectrum shape parameter α and the infrared window size representing the infrared field of view is investigated. The results resemble the effect of the sampling height above the ground in sonic anemometer measurements, which enables the detection of larger eddies with higher values of α . The physical basis and tests of the proposed method support the potential for remote quantification of the near-surface momentum field, as well as scalar-flux measurements in the immediate vicinity of the surface.

  1. Deducing Electronic Unit Internal Response During a Vibration Test Using a Lumped Parameter Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    During random vibration testing of electronic boxes there is often a desire to know the dynamic response of certain internal printed wiring boards (PWBs) for the purpose of monitoring the response of sensitive hardware or for post-test forensic analysis in support of anomaly investigation. Due to restrictions on internally mounted accelerometers for most flight hardware there is usually no means to empirically observe the internal dynamics of the unit, so one must resort to crude and highly uncertain approximations. One common practice is to apply Miles Equation, which does not account for the coupled response of the board in the chassis, resulting in significant over- or under-prediction. This paper explores the application of simple multiple-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter modeling to predict the coupled random vibration response of the PWBs in their fundamental modes of vibration. A simple tool using this approach could be used during or following a random vibration test to interpret vibration test data from a single external chassis measurement to deduce internal board dynamics by means of a rapid correlation analysis. Such a tool might also be useful in early design stages as a supplemental analysis to a more detailed finite element analysis to quickly prototype and analyze the dynamics of various design iterations. After developing the theoretical basis, a lumped parameter modeling approach is applied to an electronic unit for which both external and internal test vibration response measurements are available for direct comparison. Reasonable correlation of the results demonstrates the potential viability of such an approach. Further development of the preliminary approach presented in this paper will involve correlation with detailed finite element models and additional relevant test data.

  2. Nuclear structure of light thallium isotopes as deduced from laser spectroscopy on a fast atom beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounds, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    After optimizing the system by experiments on /sup 201,203,205/Tl, the neutron-deficient isotopes 189-193 Tl have been studied using the collinear fast atom beam laser spectroscopy system at UNISOR on-line to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. A sensitive system for the measurements was developed since the light isotopes were available in mass-separated beams of only 7 x 10 4 to 4 x 10 5 atoms per second. By laser excitation of the 535 nm atomic transitions of atoms in the beam, the 6s 2 7s 2 S/sub 1/2/ and 6s 2 6s 2 P/sub 3/2/ hyperfine structures were measured, as were the isotope shifts of the 535 nm transitions. From these, the magnetic dipole moments, spectroscopic quadrupole moments and isotopic changes in mean-square charge radius were deduced. The magnetic dipole moments are consistent with previous data. The /sup 190,192/Tl isotopes show a considerable difference in quadrupole deformations as well as an anomalous isotope shift with respect to 194 Tl. A large isomer shift in 193 Tl is observed implying a larger deformation in the 9/2 - isomer than in the 1/2 + ground state. The /sup 189,191,193/Tl isomers show increasing deformation away from stability. A deformed shell model calculation indicates that this increase in deformation can account for the dropping of the 9/2 - band in these isotopes while an increase in neutron pairing correlations, having opposite and compensating effects on the rotational moment of inertia, maintains the 9/2 - strong-coupled band structure. 105 refs., 27 figs

  3. The Sidebands of the Equatorial Electrojet: General Characteristic of the Westward Currents, as Deduced From CHAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-Liang; Lühr, Hermann; Alken, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Based on 5 years (2001-2005) of magnetic field measurements made by the CHAMP satellite, latitudinal profiles of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) have been derived. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the reverse current EEJ sidebands. These westward currents peak at ±5° quasi-dipole latitude with typical amplitudes of 35% of the main EEJ. The diurnal amplitude variation is quite comparable with that of the EEJ. Similarly to the EEJ, the intensity is increasing with solar EUV flux, but with a steeper slope, indicating that not only the conductivity plays a role. For the longitude distribution we find, in general, larger amplitudes in the Western than in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is presently a common understanding that the reverse current EEJ sidebands are generated by eastward zonal winds at altitudes above about 120 km. In particular, a positive vertical gradient of wind speed generates westward currents at magnetic latitudes outside of 2° dip latitude. Interesting information about these features can be deduced from the sidebands' tidal characteristics. The longitudinal variation of the amplitude is dominated by a wave-1 pattern, which can primarily be attributed to the tidal components SPW1 and SW3. In case of the hemispheric amplitude differences these same two wave-1 components dominate. The ratio between sideband amplitude and main EEJ is largely controlled by the tidal features of the EEJ. The longitudinal patterns of the latitude, where the sidebands peak, resemble to some extent those of the amplitude. Current densities become larger when the peaks move closer to the magnetic equator.

  4. Inferring relationships between clinical mastitis, productivity and fertility: a recursive model application including genetics, farm associated herd management, and cow-specific antibiotic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Pia; Brügemann, Kerstin; Yin, Tong; V Borstel, U König; Wu, Xiao-Lin; König, Sven

    2013-10-01

    A dataset of test-day records, fertility traits, and one health trait including 1275 Brown Swiss cows kept in 46 small-scale organic farms was used to infer relationships among these traits based on recursive Gaussian-threshold models. Test-day records included milk yield (MY), protein percentage (PROT-%), fat percentage (FAT-%), somatic cell score (SCS), the ratio of FAT-% to PROT-% (FPR), lactose percentage (LAC-%), and milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Female fertility traits were defined as the interval from calving to first insemination (CTFS) and success of a first insemination (SFI), and the health trait was clinical mastitis (CM). First, a tri-trait model was used which postulated the recursive effect of a test-day observation in the early period of lactation on liability to CM (LCM), and further the recursive effect of LCM on the following test-day observation. For CM and female fertility traits, a bi-trait recursive Gaussian-threshold model was employed to estimate the effects from CM to CTFS and from CM on SFI. The recursive effects from CTFS and SFI onto CM were not relevant, because CM was recorded prior to the measurements for CTFS and SFI. Results show that the posterior heritability for LCM was 0.05, and for all other traits, heritability estimates were in reasonable ranges, each with a small posterior SD. Lowest heritability estimates were obtained for female reproduction traits, i.e. h(2)=0.02 for SFI, and h(2)≈0 for CTFS. Posterior estimates of genetic correlations between LCM and production traits (MY and MUN), and between LCM and somatic cell score (SCS), were large and positive (0.56-0.68). Results confirm the genetic antagonism between MY and LCM, and the suitability of SCS as an indicator trait for CM. Structural equation coefficients describe the impact of one trait on a second trait on the phenotypic pathway. Higher values for FAT-% and FPR were associated with a higher LCM. The rate of change in FAT-% and in FPR in the ongoing lactation with

  5. Using genetics to test the causal relationship of total adiposity and periodontitis: Mendelian randomization analyses in the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Dental Endpoints (GLIDE) Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Divaris, Kimon; Holtfreter, Birte; Shaffer, John R; Yu, Yau-Hua; Barros, Silvana P; Beck, James D; Biffar, Reiner; Boerwinkle, Eric A; Crout, Richard J.; Ganna, Andrea; Hallmans, Goran; Hindy, George; Hu, Frank B; Kraft, Peter; McNeil, Daniel W; Melander, Olle; Moss, Kevin L; North, Kari E; Orho-Melander, Marju; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ridker, Paul M; Rimm, Eric B; Rose, Lynda M; Rukh, Gull; Teumer, Alexander; Weyant, Robert J; Chasman, Daniel I; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Kocher, Thomas; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Marazita, Mary L; Nilsson, Peter; Offenbacher, Steve; Davey Smith, George; Lundberg, Pernilla; Palmer, Tom M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Johansson, Ingegerd; Franks, Paul W

    2015-01-01

    Background: The observational relationship between obesity and periodontitis is widely known, yet causal evidence is lacking. Our objective was to investigate causal associations between periodontitis and body mass index (BMI). Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses with BMI-associated loci combined in a genetic risk score (GRS) as the instrument for BMI. All analyses were conducted within the Gene-Lifestyle Interactions and Dental Endpoints (GLIDE) Consortium in 13 studies from Europe and the USA, including 49 066 participants with clinically assessed (seven studies, 42.1% of participants) and self-reported (six studies, 57.9% of participants) periodontitis and genotype data (17 672/31 394 with/without periodontitis); 68 761 participants with BMI and genotype data; and 57 871 participants (18 881/38 990 with/without periodontitis) with data on BMI and periodontitis. Results: In the observational meta-analysis of all participants, the pooled crude observational odds ratio (OR) for periodontitis was 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.24] per standard deviation increase of BMI. Controlling for potential confounders attenuated this estimate (OR = 1.08; 95% CI:1.03, 1.12). For clinically assessed periodontitis, corresponding ORs were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.42) and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.17), respectively. In the genetic association meta-analysis, the OR for periodontitis was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.03) per GRS unit (per one effect allele) in all participants and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.03) in participants with clinically assessed periodontitis. The instrumental variable meta-analysis of all participants yielded an OR of 1.05 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.38) per BMI standard deviation, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.46) in participants with clinical data. Conclusions: Our study does not support total adiposity as a causal risk factor for periodontitis, as the point estimate is very close to the null in the causal inference analysis, with wide

  6. Genetic diversity and relationships between wild and cultivated populations of the sea lettuce, Enteromorpha prolifera, in Korea revialed by RAPD markers

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Man; Lee, Hak; Lee, Bok; Choi, Joo

    2004-01-01

    RAPD analysis was conducted to estimate genetic diversity and population structure of the wild (natural) and cultivated sea lettuce, Enteromorpha prolifera. The objectives of this study were to estimate the levels of genetic diversity in the wild and cultivated populations and to describe how the genetic variation of this species is distributed within and among its populations. In wild sea lettuce, 93.2% of loci at the species level showed polymorphism. The cultivated populations were found t...

  7. Genome Survey Sequencing of Luffa Cylindrica L. and Microsatellite High Resolution Melting (SSR-HRM) Analysis for Genetic Relationship of Luffa Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jianyu; Yin, Mengqi; Zhang, Qin; Gong, Dongting; Jia, Xiaowen; Guan, Yajing; Hu, Jin

    2017-09-11

    Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem. is an economically important vegetable crop in China. However, the genomic information on this species is currently unknown. In this study, for the first time, a genome survey of L. cylindrica was carried out using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. In total, 43.40 Gb sequence data of L. cylindrica , about 54.94× coverage of the estimated genome size of 789.97 Mb, were obtained from HiSeq 2500 sequencing, in which the guanine plus cytosine (GC) content was calculated to be 37.90%. The heterozygosity of genome sequences was only 0.24%. In total, 1,913,731 contigs (>200 bp) with 525 bp N 50 length and 1,410,117 scaffolds (>200 bp) with 885.01 Mb total length were obtained. From the initial assembled L. cylindrica genome, 431,234 microsatellites (SSRs) (≥5 repeats) were identified. The motif types of SSR repeats included 62.88% di-nucleotide, 31.03% tri-nucleotide, 4.59% tetra-nucleotide, 0.96% penta-nucleotide and 0.54% hexa-nucleotide. Eighty genomic SSR markers were developed, and 51/80 primers could be used in both "Zheda 23" and "Zheda 83". Nineteen SSRs were used to investigate the genetic diversity among 32 accessions through SSR-HRM analysis. The unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA) dendrogram tree was built by calculating the SSR-HRM raw data. SSR-HRM could be effectively used for genotype relationship analysis of Luffa species.

  8. Complex relationships between occupation, environment, DNA adducts, genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer in a case-control study using a structural equation modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Porru

    Full Text Available DNA adducts are considered an integrate measure of carcinogen exposure and the initial step of carcinogenesis. Their levels in more accessible peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs mirror that in the bladder tissue. In this study we explore whether the formation of PBL DNA adducts may be associated with bladder cancer (BC risk, and how this relationship is modulated by genetic polymorphisms, environmental and occupational risk factors for BC. These complex interrelationships, including direct and indirect effects of each variable, were appraised using the structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. Within the framework of a hospital-based case/control study, study population included 199 BC cases and 213 non-cancer controls, all Caucasian males. Data were collected on lifetime smoking, coffee drinking, dietary habits and lifetime occupation, with particular reference to exposure to aromatic amines (AAs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. No indirect paths were found, disproving hypothesis on association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk. DNA adducts were instead positively associated with occupational cumulative exposure to AAs (p = 0.028, whereas XRCC1 Arg 399 (p<0.006 was related with a decreased adduct levels, but with no impact on BC risk. Previous findings on increased BC risk by packyears (p<0.001, coffee (p<0.001, cumulative AAs exposure (p = 0.041 and MnSOD (p = 0.009 and a decreased risk by MPO (p<0.008 were also confirmed by SEM analysis. Our results for the first time make evident an association between occupational cumulative exposure to AAs with DNA adducts and BC risk, strengthening the central role of AAs in bladder carcinogenesis. However the lack of an association between PBL DNA adducts and BC risk advises that these snapshot measurements are not representative of relevant exposures. This would envisage new scenarios for biomarker discovery and new challenges such as repeated measurements at different

  9. A quantitative structure–activity relationship study on HIV-1 integrase inhibitors using genetic algorithm, artificial neural networks and different statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Ghasemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR study has been done on tricyclic phthalimide analogues acting as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors. Forty compounds were used in this study. Genetic algorithm (GA, artificial neural network (ANN and multiple linear regressions (MLR were utilized to construct the non-linear and linear QSAR models. It revealed that the GA–ANN model was much better than other models. For this purpose, ab initio geometry optimization performed at B3LYP level with a known basis set 6–31G (d. Hyperchem, ChemOffice and Gaussian 98W softwares were used for geometry optimization of the molecules and calculation of the quantum chemical descriptors. To include some of the correlation energy, the calculation was done with the density functional theory (DFT with the same basis set and Becke’s three parameter hybrid functional using the LYP correlation functional (B3LYP/6–31G (d. For the calculations in solution phase, the polarized continuum model (PCM was used and also included optimizations at gas-phase B3LYP/6–31G (d level for comparison. In the aqueous phase, the root–mean–square errors of the training set and the test set for GA–ANN model using jack–knife method, were 0.1409, 0.1804, respectively. In the gas phase, the root–mean–square errors of the training set and the test set for GA–ANN model were 0.1408, 0.3103, respectively. Also, the R2 values in the aqueous and the gas phase were obtained as 0.91, 0.82, respectively.

  10. Profile of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs and cats and genetic relationships with isolates from cattle, meat and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentancor, A; Rumi, M V; Carbonari, C; Gerhardt, E; Larzábal, M; Vilte, D A; Pistone-Creydt, V; Chinen, I; Ibarra, C; Cataldi, A; Mercado, E C

    2012-05-04

    Pets can be reservoirs of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. The aim of this study was to examine nine strains belonging to several serotypes (O91:H21, O91:H16, O178:H19, O8:H19, O22:H8, O22:HNT, ONT:H8), previously recovered from cats or dogs. To this end, we assessed a set of additional virulence genes (stx(2) subtype, subAB, ehxA, eae and saa), cytotoxic activity, and genetic relationships with strains isolated from cattle, meat and humans using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Most of the isolates carried the stx(2) and/or stx(2vh-b) sequences, while only the O91:H21 isolate presented the mucus-activatable stx(2d) variant, as confirmed by sequencing the genes of subunits A and B. All the strains showed cytotoxic activity in cultured cells. One of the two O178:H19, selected for its high level of cytotoxicity in Vero cells, showed the ability to cause functional alterations in the human colon mucosa in vitro. None of the strains possessed the subAB, eae or saa genes and only the strains belonging to serotype O8:H19 carried the ehxA gene. The isolates shared 90-100% similarity by PFGE to epidemiologically unrelated strains of the corresponding serotypes recovered from cattle, meat or humans. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats may have a role in the infection of humans by STEC, probably serving as a vehicle for bovine strains in the cycle of human infection, and thus emphasize the health risks for owners and their families. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Active deformation processes of the Northern Caucasus deduced from the GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Rogozhin, Eugeny; Steblov, Grigory; Gabsatarov, Yury

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Caucasus, as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt, is a zone of complex tectonics associated with the interaction of the two major tectonic plates, Arabian and Eurasian. The first GPS study of the contemporary geodynamics of the Caucasus mountain system were launched in the early 1990s in the framework of the Russia-US joint project. Since 2005 observations of the modern tectonic motion of the Northern Caucasus are carried out using the continuous GPS network. This network encompasses the territory of three Northern Caucasian Republics of the Russian Federation: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and North Ossetia. In the Ossetian part of the Northern Caucasus the network of GPS survey-mode sites has been deployed as well. The GPS velocities confirm weak general compression of the Northern Caucasus with at the rate of about 1-2 mm/year. This horizontal motion at the boundary of the Northern Caucasus with respect to the Eurasian plate causes the higher seismic and tectonic activity of this transition zone. This result confirms that the source of deformation of the Northern Caucasus is the sub-meridional drift of the Arabian plate towards the adjacent boundary of the Eastern European part of the Eurasian lithospheric plate. The concept of such convergence implies that the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt is under compression, the layers of sedimentary and volcanic rocks are folded, the basement blocks are subject to shifts in various directions, and the upper crust layers are ruptured by reverse faults and thrusts. Weak deviation of observed velocities from the pattern corresponding to homogeneous compression can also be revealed, and numerical modeling of deformations of major regional tectonic structures, such as the Main Caucasus Ridge, can explain this. The deformation tensor deduced from the velocity field also exhibits the sub-meridional direction of the major compressional axes which coincides with the direction of

  12. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L. Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC, Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mendes Loiola

    Full Text Available The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF, Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe and West African Tall (WAT; the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT; the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT; and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT, Tonga Tall (TONT and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  13. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E C; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O; Santos, Pedro Henrique A D; Ramos, Helaine Christine C; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  14. Telomerase RNA Component (TERC) genetic variants interact with the mediterranean diet modifying the inflammatory status and its relationship with aging: CORDIOPREV study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) attrition has been associated with age-related diseases. Telomerase RNA Component (TERC) genetic variants have been associated with LTL; whereas fatty acids (FAs) can interact with genetic factors and influence in aging. We explore whether variability at t...

  15. Genetic variation in carbon isotope discrimination and its relationship to growth under field conditions in full-sib families of Picea mariana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence B. Flanagan; Kurt H. Johnsen

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the stable carbon isotope composition of leaf tissue were made on Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. trees from four full-sib families grown on three different field sites at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Ontario, Canada. The four families chosen exhibited genetic variation for growth characteristics. Genetic...

  16. Using genetic loci to understand the relationship between adiposity and psychological distress: a Mendelian Randomization study in the Copenhagen General Population Study of 53,221 adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Harbord, Roger M; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We used genetic variants that are robustly associated with adiposity to examine the causal association of adiposity with psychological distress.......We used genetic variants that are robustly associated with adiposity to examine the causal association of adiposity with psychological distress....

  17. Scientific imperatives, clinical implications, and theoretical underpinnings for the investigation of the relationship between genetic variables and patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Barsevick, Andrea; Chauhan, Cynthia; Dueck, Amylou C.; Raat, Hein; Shi, Quiling; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Abernethy, Amy P.; Baas, Frank; Barsevick, Andrea M.; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bottomley, Andrew; Brundage, Michael; Cella, David; Cleeland, Charles S.; Coens, Corneel; Frost, Marlene H.; Hall, Per; Halyard, Michele Y.; Klepstad, Pål; Martin, Nicholas G.; Miaskowski, Christine; Mosing, Miriam; Movsas, Benjamin; Oliveira, Joao R.; Ordoñana, Juan; Patrick, Donald L.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Reeve, Bryce; Ropka, Mary E.; Shinozaki, Gen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Swaab, Dick; Veenhoven, Ruut; Wagner, Gert; Yang, Ping; Zwinderman, Ailko H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives There is emerging evidence for a genetic basis of patient-reported quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes that can ultimately be incorporated into clinical research and practice. Objectives are (1) to provide arguments for the timeliness of investigating the genetic basis of QOL given the

  18. Genetic parameters for androstenone, skatole, indole, and human nose scores as measures of boar taint and their relationship with finishing traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Mulder, H.A.; Napel, ten J.; Knol, E.F.; Mathur, P.K.; Crump, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate measures of boar (Sus scrofa) taint as potential selection criteria to reduce boar taint so that castration of piglets will become unnecessary. Therefore, genetic parameters of boar taint measures and their genetic correlations with finishing traits were

  19. Deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chae-Wun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Choi, In-Soo

    2013-08-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1% and 88.2-91.8% identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4% and 87.8-90.7% identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.

  20. Genetics and Neuromuscular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing that reveals a young child’s genet- ic destiny may affect relationships within the family or may ... linked inheritance don’t apply at all. An embryo receives its mitochondria from the mother’s egg cell, ...

  1. CMB and the elementary particles structure deduced from QFT of non-dot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    In my paper ‘Planck Constant Deduced from Metrical Results of Doppler Effect of Moving Particle —Uncertainty Principle Caused by Collision of a Particle with CMB Photons and Virtual Photons (H05-0036-10)’ the absolute velocity is decided by CMB which as a mark of the vacuum. CMB come from the thermal radiation of stars via gravitational redshift about 10 (13) year (E14- 0032-08). In my paper ‘Quanta turn-advance ism, China Science && Technology Overview 131 192-210 (2011)’, QFT four-dimensional uncertainty principle and momentum-energy conservation law had been generalized as a five-dimensional equations: de Broglie wavelength as a position vector \\underline{q}= (i c t, r, s), momentum \\underline{P} = (i E / c, P, U c), \\underline{q} = i h / \\underline{P}, \\underline{q} \\underline{q} = 0, \\underline{P} \\underline{P} = 0, Sigma∑ \\underline{P} = \\underline{P} (0) . The five-dimensional time-space-spin had been quantized as a non-dot model basic cell, the lowest energy state vertical polarized left spin 1/2 neutrino and right spin 1/2 antineutrino are just the left, right advance unit quanta _{0}nuυ, nuυ _{0} and left, right back unit quanta (0) nuυ, nuυ (0) , it again compose into spin 1 unit advance photons _{0}nuυnuυ _{0} and back (0) nuυnuυ (0) , spin 0 unit rest mass nuυ _{0}nuυ (0) and anti-mass _{0}nuυ (0) nuυ, spin 0 unit positive charge _{0}nuυnuυ (0) and negative charge nuυ _{0} (0) nuυ. It accord to the high energy physics experimental results of the transformation among the photons, masses quanta and charges quanta. The physical vacuum is the even collocation of non-combinational nuυ _{0} or _{0}nuυ. QFT is no longer with divergence difficulty by the non-dot model. It is mathematically easy that from five-dimensional equations deduce out the Dirac, Klein-Gordan, Maxwell equations and Lorentz force formula, but appear some new results. The interactions between _{0}nuυ, nuυ _{0}, (0) nuυ, nuυ (0) , i.e., force f

  2. AFLP-Based Analysis of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Relationships with Agronomic Traits in Rice Germplasm from North Region of Iran and World Core Germplasm Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkheh, Karim; Masaeli, Mohammad; Chaleshtori, Maryam Hosseini; Adugna, Asfaw; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of crops is very important for use in breeding programs and for genetic resources conservation. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 47 rice genotypes from diverse origins using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and morphological characters. The 47 genotypes, which were composed of four populations: Iranian native varieties, Iranian improved varieties, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) rice varieties, and world rice collections, were analyzed using ten primer combinations. A total of 221 scorable bands were produced with an average of 22.1 alleles per pair of primers, of which 120 (54.30%) were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values varied from 0.32 to 0.41 with an average of 0.35. The high percentage of polymorphic bands (%PB) was found to be 64.71 and the resolving power (R p) collections were 63.36. UPGMA clustering based on numerical data from AFLP patterns clustered all 47 genotypes into three large groups. The genetic similarity between individuals ranged from 0.54 to 0.94 with an average of 0.74. Population genetic tree showed that Iranian native cultivars formed far distant cluster from the other populations, which may indicate that these varieties had minimal genetic change over time. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the largest proportion of the variation (84%) to be within populations showing the inbreeding nature of rice. Therefore, Iranian native varieties (landraces) may have unique genes, which can be used for future breeding programs and there is a need to conserve this unique diversity. Furthermore, crossing of Iranian genotypes with the genetically distant genotypes in the other three populations may result in useful combinations, which can be used as varieties and/or lines for future rice breeding programs.

  3. Post-exercise hypotension: possible relationship with ethnic and genetic factors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p353

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Pardono,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-exercise hypotension (PEH is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure (BP in relation to pre-exercise levels and has been intensively studied in different populations after different modes of exercise. Several mechanisms are associated with PEH, which makes it a multifactorial condition. However, over the last decade, some studies aimed to investigate the possible influence of ethnic and genetic factors on PEH. Thus, the purpose of this study was to review the environmental and, mainly, ethnic and genetic factors related to PEH. The studies used herein were obtained from a review of the following online databases: MEDLINE, SciELO and, Portal Capes. In relation to ethnicity, studies appear to indicate an unfavorable trend toward development of PEH in blacks as compared to whites, although this cannot be stated categorically. As for genetic studies and PEH, we stress the importance of these studies and highlight the need for selecting candidate genes for research on the basis of the physiological system implicated in BP regulation. Published studies have basically examined the relationship between PEH and mutations in genes that express proteins involved in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In this genetic sense, it seems that the greatest decline in PA occurs mainly after low-intensity aerobic exercise performed by normotensive or borderline hypertensive adult men. Further studies on the subject are required.

  4. Predictable 'meta-mechanisms' emerge from feedbacks between transpiration and plant growth and cannot be simply deduced from short-term mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris

    2017-06-01

    Growth under water deficit is controlled by short-term mechanisms but, because of numerous feedbacks, the combination of these mechanisms over time often results in outputs that cannot be deduced from the simple inspection of individual mechanisms. It can be analysed with dynamic models in which causal relationships between variables are considered at each time-step, allowing calculation of outputs that are routed back to inputs for the next time-step and that can change the system itself. We first review physiological mechanisms involved in seven feedbacks of transpiration on plant growth, involving changes in tissue hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance, plant architecture and underlying factors such as hormones or aquaporins. The combination of these mechanisms over time can result in non-straightforward conclusions as shown by examples of simulation outputs: 'over production of abscisic acid (ABA) can cause a lower concentration of ABA in the xylem sap ', 'decreasing root hydraulic conductance when evaporative demand is maximum can improve plant performance' and 'rapid root growth can decrease yield'. Systems of equations simulating feedbacks over numerous time-steps result in logical and reproducible emergent properties that can be viewed as 'meta-mechanisms' at plant level, which have similar roles as mechanisms at cell level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Genetic connectivity in scleractinian corals across the Northern Gulf of Mexico: oil/gas platforms, and relationship to the Flower Garden Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Sammarco

    Full Text Available The 3,000 oil/gas structures currently deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM provide hard substratum for marine organisms in a region where such has been rare since the Holocene. The major exception to this are the Flower Garden Banks (FGB. Corals are known to have colonized oil/gas platforms around the FGB, facilitating biogeographic expansion. We ask the question, what are the patterns of genetic affinity in these coral populations. We sampled coral tissue from populations of two species occurring on oil and gas platforms: Madracis decactis (hermatype and Tubastraea coccinea (invasive ahermatype. We sampled 28 platforms along four transects from 20 km offshore to the continental shelf edge off 1 Matagorda Island, TX; 2 Lake Sabine, TX; 3 Terrebonne Bay, LA; and 4 Mobile, AL. The entire population of M. decactis was sampled between depths of 5 m and 37 m. T. coccinea populations were sub-sampled. Genetic variation was assessed using the PCR-based Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs. Data were analyzed via AFLPOP and STRUCTURE. Genetic connectivity among M. decactis platform populations was highest near the FGB and decreased to the east. Connectivity increased again in the eastern sector, indicating isolation between the populations from different sides of the Mississippi River (Transects 3 and 4. A point-drop in genetic affinity (relatedness at the shelf edge south of Terrebonne Bay, LA indicated a population differing from all others in the northern GOM. Genetic affinities among T. coccinea were highest in the west and decreased to the east. Very low genetic affinities off Mobile, AL indicated a dramatic difference between those populations and those west of the Mississippi River, apparently a formidable barrier to larval dispersal.

  6. Genetic connectivity in scleractinian corals across the Northern Gulf of Mexico: oil/gas platforms, and relationship to the Flower Garden Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Paul W; Brazeau, Daniel A; Sinclair, James

    2012-01-01

    The 3,000 oil/gas structures currently deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide hard substratum for marine organisms in a region where such has been rare since the Holocene. The major exception to this are the Flower Garden Banks (FGB). Corals are known to have colonized oil/gas platforms around the FGB, facilitating biogeographic expansion. We ask the question, what are the patterns of genetic affinity in these coral populations. We sampled coral tissue from populations of two species occurring on oil and gas platforms: Madracis decactis (hermatype) and Tubastraea coccinea (invasive ahermatype). We sampled 28 platforms along four transects from 20 km offshore to the continental shelf edge off 1) Matagorda Island, TX; 2) Lake Sabine, TX; 3) Terrebonne Bay, LA; and 4) Mobile, AL. The entire population of M. decactis was sampled between depths of 5 m and 37 m. T. coccinea populations were sub-sampled. Genetic variation was assessed using the PCR-based Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs). Data were analyzed via AFLPOP and STRUCTURE. Genetic connectivity among M. decactis platform populations was highest near the FGB and decreased to the east. Connectivity increased again in the eastern sector, indicating isolation between the populations from different sides of the Mississippi River (Transects 3 and 4). A point-drop in genetic affinity (relatedness) at the shelf edge south of Terrebonne Bay, LA indicated a population differing from all others in the northern GOM. Genetic affinities among T. coccinea were highest in the west and decreased to the east. Very low genetic affinities off Mobile, AL indicated a dramatic difference between those populations and those west of the Mississippi River, apparently a formidable barrier to larval dispersal.

  7. Mining drug-disease relationships as a complement to medical genetics-based drug repositioning: Where a recommendation system meets genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Gu, Q; Wei, J; Cao, Z; Liu, Q

    2015-05-01

    A novel recommendation-based drug repositioning strategy is presented to simultaneously determine novel drug indications and side effects in one integrated framework. This strategy provides a complementary method to medical genetics-based drug repositioning, which reduces the occurrence of false positives in medical genetics-based drug repositioning, resulting in a ranked list of new candidate indications and/or side effects with different confidence levels. Several new drug indications and side effects are reported with high prediction confidences. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  8. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Juliana R; Nunes, Francis M F; Cristino, Alexandre S; Simões, Zilá L P; Bitondi, Márcia M G

    2010-03-26

    Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110) diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs) revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp), a target of juvenile hormone (JH). The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body and gonads suggest that, in addition to their primary

  9. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Juliana R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110 diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp, a target of juvenile hormone (JH. The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body

  10. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110) diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs) revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp), a target of juvenile hormone (JH). The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body and gonads suggest that

  11. Ambiguous genetic relationships among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) cultivars: the effects of outcrossing, sample source and size, and method of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A prior analysis of eight coconut cultivars with 15 microsatellite (SSR) markers drew unexpected relationships between two of the out-crossing tall cultivars evaluated: ‘Atlantic Tall’ and ‘Panama Tall’. We further investigated the relationships between these eight cultivars by increasing the number...

  12. The relic Criollo cacao in Belize- genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is native to the South American rainforest but it was domesticated in Mesoamerica. The relic Criollo cocoa in Belize has been well known in the premium chocolate market for its high-quality. Knowledge of genetic diversity in this variety is essential for efficient conserva...

  13. Genetic and morphological diversity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench.) genotypes and their possible relationships, with particular reference to Greek landraces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyriakopoulou, O.G.; Arens, P.F.P.; Pelgrom, K.T.B.; Karapanos, I.; Bebeli, P.; Passam, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its high economic value in many countries (especially in developing regions of the tropics and sub-tropics), okra has received little attention with respect to its source of origin and genetic diversity, particularly at the molecular level. Phenotypic description (morphology, pod

  14. Microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, differentiation, and genetic relationships of clones, cultivars, and varieties of six poplar species from three sections of the genus Populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad H; Rajora, Om P

    2002-12-01

    Accurate identification of Populus clones and cultivars is essential for effective selection, breeding, and genetic resource management programs. The unit of cultivation and breeding in poplars is a clone, and individual cultivars are normally represented by a single clone. Microsatellite DNA markers of 10 simple sequence repeat loci were used for genetic fingerprinting and differentiation of 96 clones/cultivars and varieties belonging to six Populus species (P. deltoides, P. nigra, P. balsamifera, P. trichocarpa, P. grandidentata, and P maximowiczii) from three sections of the genus. All 96 clones/cultivars could be uniquely fingerprinted based on their single- or multilocus microsatellite genotypes. The five P. grandidentata clones could be differentiated based on their single-locus genotypes, while six clones of P. trichocarpa and 11 clones of P. maximowiczii could be identified by their two-locus genotypes. Twenty clones of P. deltoides and 25 clones of P. nigra could be differentiated by their multilocus genotypes employing three loci, and 29 clones of P. balsamifera required the use of multilocus genotypes at five loci for their genetic fingerprinting and differentiation. The loci PTR3, PTR5, and PTR7 were found to be the most informative for genetic fingerprinting and differentiation of the clones. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 2.9 in P. trichocarpa or P. grandidentata to 6.0 in P. balsamifera and 11.2 in 96 clones of the six species. The mean number of observed genotypes per locus ranged from 2.4 in P. grandidentata to 7.4 in P. balsamifera and 19.6 in 96 clones of the six species. The mean number of unique genotypes per locus ranged from 1.3 in P. grandidentata to 3.9 in P. deltoides and 8.8 in 96 clones of the six species. The power of discrimination of the microsatellite DNA markers in the 96 clones ranged from 0.726 for PTR4 to 0.939 for PTR7, with a mean of 0.832 over the 10 simple sequence repeat loci. Clones/cultivars from the same

  15. Surface structure deduced differences of copper foil and film for graphene CVD growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Junjun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hu, Baoshan, E-mail: hubaoshan@cqu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wei, Zidong; Jin, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Luo, Zhengtang [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hongkong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xia, Meirong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Qingjiang [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Liu, Yunling [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • We demonstrate the significant differences between Cu foil and film in the surface morphology and crystal orientation distribution. • The different surface structure leads to the distinctive influences of the CH₄ and H₂ concentrations on the thickness and quality of as-grown graphene. • Nucleation densities and growth rate differences at the initial growth stages on the Cu foil and film were investigated and discussed. Abstract: Graphene was synthesized on Cu foil and film by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with CH₄ as carbon source. Electron backscattered scattering diffraction (EBSD) characterization demonstrates that the Cu foil surface after the H₂-assisted pre-annealing was almost composed of Cu(1 0 0) crystal facet with larger grain size of ~100 μm; meanwhile, the Cu film surface involved a variety of crystal facets of Cu(1 1 1), Cu(1 0 0), and Cu(1 1 0), with the relatively small grain size of ~10 μm. The different surface structure led to the distinctive influences of the CH₄ and H₂ concentrations on the thickness and quality of as-grown graphene. Further data demonstrate that the Cu foil enabled more nucleation densities and faster growth rates at the initial growth stages than the Cu film. Our results are beneficial for understanding the relationship between the metal surface structure and graphene CVD growth.

  16. Relationships between population density, fine-scale genetic structure, mating system and pollen dispersal in a timber tree from African rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duminil, J; Daïnou, K; Kaviriri, D K; Gillet, P; Loo, J; Doucet, J-L; Hardy, O J

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the reduction of population density and/or the environmental changes it induces, selective logging could affect the demography, reproductive biology and evolutionary potential of forest trees. This is particularly relevant in tropical forests where natural population densities can be low and isolated trees may be subject to outcross pollen limitation and/or produce low-quality selfed seeds that exhibit inbreeding depression. Comparing reproductive biology processes and genetic diversity of populations at different densities can provide indirect evidence of the potential impacts of logging. Here, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity, mating system and gene flow in three Central African populations of the self-compatible legume timber species Erythrophleum suaveolens with contrasting densities (0.11, 0.68 and 1.72 adults per ha). The comparison of inbreeding levels among cohorts suggests that selfing is detrimental as inbred individuals are eliminated between seedling and adult stages. Levels of genetic diversity, selfing rates (∼16%) and patterns of spatial genetic structure (Sp ∼0.006) were similar in all three populations. However, the extent of gene dispersal differed markedly among populations: the average distance of pollen dispersal increased with decreasing density (from 200 m in the high-density population to 1000 m in the low-density one). Overall, our results suggest that the reproductive biology and genetic diversity of the species are not affected by current logging practices. However, further investigations need to be conducted in low-density populations to evaluate (1) whether pollen limitation may reduce seed production and (2) the regeneration potential of the species.

  17. Genetic variation in transpiration efficiency and relationships between whole plant and leaf gas exchange measurements in Saccharum spp. and related germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Phillip; Basnayake, Jaya; Inman-Bamber, Geoff; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Natarajan, Sijesh; Stokes, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-one genotypes of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) or closely related germplasm were evaluated in a pot experiment to examine genetic variation in transpiration efficiency. Significant variation in whole plant transpiration efficiency was observed, with the difference between lowest and highest genotypes being about 40% of the mean. Leaf gas exchange measurements were made across a wide range of conditions. There was significant genetic variation in intrinsic transpiration efficiency at a leaf level as measured by leaf internal CO2 (Ci) levels. Significant genetic variation in Ci was also observed within subsets of data representing narrow ranges of stomatal conductance. Ci had a low broad sense heritability (Hb = 0.11) on the basis of single measurements made at particular dates, because of high error variation and genotype × date interaction, but broad sense heritability for mean Ci across all dates was high (Hb = 0.81) because of the large number of measurements taken at different dates. Ci levels among genotypes at mid-range levels of conductance had a strong genetic correlation (-0.92 ± 0.30) with whole plant transpiration efficiency but genetic correlations between Ci and whole plant transpiration efficiency were weaker or not significant at higher and lower levels of conductance. Reduced Ci levels at any given level of conductance may result in improved yields in water-limited environments without trade-offs in rates of water use and growth. Targeted selection and improvement of lowered Ci per unit conductance via breeding may provide longer-term benefits for water-limited environments but the challenge will be to identify a low-cost screening methodology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Relationships between population density, fine-scale genetic structure, mating system and pollen dispersal in a timber tree from African rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duminil, J; Daïnou, K; Kaviriri, D K; Gillet, P; Loo, J; Doucet, J-L; Hardy, O J

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the reduction of population density and/or the environmental changes it induces, selective logging could affect the demography, reproductive biology and evolutionary potential of forest trees. This is particularly relevant in tropical forests where natural population densities can be low and isolated trees may be subject to outcross pollen limitation and/or produce low-quality selfed seeds that exhibit inbreeding depression. Comparing reproductive biology processes and genetic diversity of populations at different densities can provide indirect evidence of the potential impacts of logging. Here, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity, mating system and gene flow in three Central African populations of the self-compatible legume timber species Erythrophleum suaveolens with contrasting densities (0.11, 0.68 and 1.72 adults per ha). The comparison of inbreeding levels among cohorts suggests that selfing is detrimental as inbred individuals are eliminated between seedling and adult stages. Levels of genetic diversity, selfing rates (∼16%) and patterns of spatial genetic structure (Sp ∼0.006) were similar in all three populations. However, the extent of gene dispersal differed markedly among populations: the average distance of pollen dispersal increased with decreasing density (from 200 m in the high-density population to 1000 m in the low-density one). Overall, our results suggest that the reproductive biology and genetic diversity of the species are not affected by current logging practices. However, further investigations need to be conducted in low-density populations to evaluate (1) whether pollen limitation may reduce seed production and (2) the regeneration potential of the species. PMID:26696137

  19. Changes in electron precipitation inferred from spectra deduced from D region electron densities during a post--magnetic storm effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montbriand, L.E.; Belrose, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of enhanced ionization after geomagnetic storms, commonly referred to as storm aftereffect, is investigated on the hypothesis that the enhancement is due to a 'drizzle' of energetic electrons from the radiation belts. The study utilized electron density-height profiles obtained from the partial reflection experiment at Ottawa and available information on the height profile of the steady state loss coefficient for energetic electron events in combination with the ion pair production treatments of Ress (1963) and Berger et al. (1974) to deduce two-component differential energy spectra of the electron drizzle. The period studied, December 13--20, 1970, was unique for examining poststorm effects in that the geomagnetic storm on December 14--15 was intense and brief, and it was preceded and followed by periods of geomagnetic calm. The results indicate that the drizzle deduced was minimal before the storm and on the storm day and maximized 2--3 days after the peak of the storm at a time when geomagnetic activity had returned to calm. The results also suggest that the spectrum was hardest shortly after the drizzle maximized. No satisfactory source for the enhanced ionization during the poststorm other than particle drizzle could be found that would produce both the magnitude and the diurnal variation of the effect observed, a conclusion which establishes the validity of the hypothesis made

  20. Deep ocean nutrients during the Last Glacial Maximum deduced from sponge silicon isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Katharine R.; Georg, R. Bastian; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Robinson, Laura F.; Halliday, Alex N.

    2010-04-01

    The relative importance of biological and physical processes within the Southern Ocean for the storage of carbon and atmospheric pCO 2 on glacial-interglacial timescales remains uncertain. Understanding the impact of surface biological production on carbon export in the past relies on the reconstruction of the nutrient supply from upwelling deep waters. In particular, the upwelling of silicic acid (Si(OH) 4) is tightly coupled to carbon export in the Southern Ocean via diatom productivity. Here, we address how changes in deep water Si(OH) 4 concentrations can be reconstructed using the silicon isotopic composition of deep-sea sponges. We report δ30Si of modern deep-sea sponge spicules and show that they reflect seawater Si(OH) 4 concentration. The fractionation factor of sponge δ30Si compared to seawater δ30Si shows a positive relationship with Si(OH) 4, which may be a growth rate effect. Application of this proxy in two down-core records from the Scotia Sea reveals that Si(OH) 4 concentrations in the deep Southern Ocean during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were no different than today. Our result does not support a coupling of carbon and nutrient build up in an isolated deep ocean reservoir during the LGM. Our data, combined with records of stable isotopes from diatoms, are only consistent with enhanced LGM Southern Ocean nutrient utilization if there was also a concurrent reduction in diatom silicification or a shift from siliceous to organic-walled phytoplankton.

  1. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  2. Genetic variation in Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels and its relationship with neuroticism, cognition and risk of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mark Mcintosh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels are encoded by four genes (HCN1-4 and, through activation by cyclic AMP (cAMP, represent a point of convergence for several psychosis risk genes. On the basis of positive preliminary data, we sought to test whether genetic variation in HCN1-4 conferred risk of depression or cognitive impairment in the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study. HCN1, HCN2, HCN3 and HCN4 were genotyped for 43 haplotype-tagging SNPs and tested for association with DSM-IV depression, neuroticism and a battery of cognitive tests assessing cognitive ability, memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor performance. No association was found between any HCN channel gene SNP and risk of depression, neuroticism or on any cognitive measure. The current study does not support a genetic role for HCN channels in conferring risk of depression or cognitive impairment in human subjects within the Scottish population.

  3. Analyses of genetic relationships between linear type traits, fat-to-protein ratio, milk production traits, and somatic cell count in first-parity Czech Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, V; Zavadilová, L; Lassen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . The number of animals for each linear type trait was 59 454, except for locomotion, for which 53 424 animals were recorded. The numbers of animals with records of milk production data were 43 992 for milk yield, fat percentage, protein percentage, and fat-to-protein percentage ratio and 43 978 for fat yield...... and protein yield. In total, 27 098 somatic cell score records were available. The strongest positive genetic correlation between production traits and linear type traits was estimated between udder width and fat yield (0.51 ± 0.04), while the strongest negative correlation estimated was between body......Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production traits, selected linear type traits, and somatic cell score were estimated. The results could be useful for breeding programs involving Czech Holstein dairy cows or other populations. A series of bivariate analyses was applied whereby (co...

  4. Coronal mass ejection kinematics deduced from white light (Solar Mass Ejection Imager) and radio (Wind/WAVES) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, M. J.; Jackson, B. V.; Webb, D. F.; Mizuno, D. R.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2005-09-01

    White-light and radio observations are combined to deduce the coronal and interplanetary kinematics of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that was ejected from the Sun at about 1700 UT on 2 November 2003. The CME, which was associated with an X8.3 solar flare from W56°, was observed by the Mauna Loa and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) coronagraphs to 14 R⊙. The measured plane-of-sky speed of the LASCO CME was 2600 km s-1. To deduce the kinematics of this CME, we use the plane-of-sky white light observations from both the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) all-sky camera on board the Coriolis spacecraft and the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph, as well as the frequency drift rate of the low-frequency radio data and the results of the radio direction-finding analysis from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft. In agreement with the in situ observations for this event, we find that both the white light and radio observations indicate that the CME must have decelerated significantly beginning near the Sun and continuing well into the interplanetary medium. More specifically, by requiring self-consistency of all the available remote and in situ data, together with a simple, but not unreasonable, assumption about the general characteristic of the CME deceleration, we were able to deduce the radial speed and distance time profiles for this CME as it propagated from the Sun to 1 AU. The technique presented here, which is applicable to mutual SMEI/WAVES CME events, is expected to provide a more complete description and better quantitative understanding of how CMEs propagate through interplanetary space, as well as how the radio emissions, generated by propagating CME/shocks, relate to the shock and CME. This understanding can potentially lead to more accurate predictions for the onset times of space weather events, such as those that were observed during this unique period of intense solar activity.

  5. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  6. Kekerabatan Genetik Caplak Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus microplus Asal IndonesiaBerdasarkan Sekuen Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (GENETIC RELATIONSHIP INDONESIAN RHIPHICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS TICK BASED ON INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER-2 SEQUENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus microplus is important obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites transmittingmany different viral, bacterial and protozoan and plays a role as a vector of Babesia sp., The leria sp. andAnaplasma sp. in cattle. The accuracy in identifying and distinguishing interspecies and intraspeciesdiversity among parasites is needed to understand the epidemiology, biology and capacity as a vector.Variations in the DNA base sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region2 (ITS 2 has been used asa molecular marker for identification in an effort to determine phylogenetic relationships. The aim of thisstudy was to determine the ITS 2 gene nucleotide sequence of R. microplus, which was expected to beuseful for accurate identification the parasite diversity and phylogenetic relationship among many differentspecies. DNA amplification was conducted using BOO2 forward dan BOO2 reverse primers. The DNAsamples containing ITS2 region fragment of 1099 nt were derived from the nucleotide sequence multiplealignments of R.microplus and other ticks genes obtained from Gene bank using Clustal W software, andthen analyzed using the MEGA program version 6. Genetic distances based on nucleotide sequence weredetermined with Kimura 2-parameter method producing the smallest genetic distance of 0 % and 1.2 %.Construction of phylogenetic trees using the Neighbor joining method showed that ticks from variousregions in Indonesia was species complex which have a closer with R.microplus isolates from India, Laos,South Africa, China and Australia R.australis origin.

  7. Genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the number of genetic tests performed more than tripled, and public concern about genetic privacy emerged. The majority of states and the U.S. government have passed regulations protecting genetic information. However, research has shown that concerns about genetic privacy are disproportionate to known instances of information misuse. Beliefs in genetic determinacy explain some of the heightened concern about genetic privacy. Discussion of the debate over genetic testing within families illustrates the most recent response to genetic privacy concerns.

  8. Use of activity measurements in the plume from Chernobyl to deduce fuel state before, during and after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, J.P.; Tobias, A.

    1986-07-01

    Work performed at Berkely Nuclear Laboratories both prior to the meeting in Vienna at which USSR gave full details of the Chernobyl accident and after that meeting is recorded. Plume data from Western Europe were used to deduce the likely damage to the fuel and its previous irradiation history. The note concludes that the source to the environment consisted of an initial dispersion of fuel particulate followed by a prolonged release at a lower rate, the total release being some 3% of the core inventory of fuel. Early and late in the release period it was enhanced in volatile species. Damage to the fuel was thus due both to mechanical disruption and to high temperatures. During the early dispersive event high temperatures (probably approaching fuel melting) were reached in some of the core, though the proportion of the fuel affected may have been small. (UK)

  9. Fracture-mechanics data deduced from thermal-shock and related experiments with LWR pressure-vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Canonico, D.A.; Iskander, S.K.; Bolt, S.E.; Holz, P.P.; Nanstad, R.K.; Stelzman, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are susceptible to certain types of hypothetical accidents that can subject the reactor pressure vessel to severe thermal shock, that is, a rapid cooling of the inner surface of the vessel wall. The thermal-shock loading, coupled with the radiation-induced reduction in the material fracture toughness, introduces the possibility of propagation of preexistent flaws and what at one time were regarded as somewhat unique fracture-oriented conditions. Several postulated reactor accidents have been analyzed to discover flaw behavior trends; seven intermediate-scale thermal-shock experiments with steel cylinders have been conducted; and corresponding materials characterization studies have been performed. Flaw behavior trends and related fracture-mechanics data deduced from these studies are discussed

  10. Deducing 2D Crystal Structure at the Solid/Liquid Interface with Atomic Resolution by Combined STM and SFG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Arthur; Ahn, Seokhoon; Matzger, Adam J.; Chen, Zhan

    2009-03-01

    Supplemented by computed models, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) can provide detailed structure of 2D crystals formed at the liquid/solid interface with atomic resolution. However, some structural information such as functional group orientations in such 2D crystals needs to be tested experimentally to ensure the accuracy of the deduced structures. Due to the limited sensitivity, many other experimental techniques such as Raman and infrared spectroscopy have not been allowed to provide such structural information of 2D crystals. Here we showed that Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy (SFG) can measure average orientation of functional groups in such 2D crystals, or physisorbed monolayers, providing key experimental data to aid in the modeling and interpretation of the STM images. The usefulness of combining these two techniques is demonstrated with a phthalate diesters monolayer formed at the 1-phenyloctane/ highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) interface. The spatial orientation of the ester C=O of the monolayer was successfully determined using SFG.

  11. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the LewisX antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, Ana; Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus

    1997-01-01

    1 H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-α-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-β-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)[3-O-α-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, 13 C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The 1 H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The 13 C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the 1 H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS 2 . Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data

  12. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the Lewis{sup X} antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Ana [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion (Spain); Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Organica, CSIC, Grupo de Carbohidratos (Spain)

    1997-07-15

    {sup 1}H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-{alpha}-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-(1{sup {yields}}4)[3-O-{alpha}-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, {sup 13}C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The {sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The{sup 13}C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the{sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS{sup 2}. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of Coevolving Symbiont-Harboring Insect Trypanosomatids, and Their Neotropical Dispersal by Invader African Blowflies (Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcilla C. Borghesan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of trypanosomatids of the genus Angomonas, and their association with Calliphoridae (blowflies in Neotropical and Afrotropical regions. Microscopic examination of 3,900 flies of various families, mostly Calliphoridae, revealed that 31% of them harbored trypanosomatids. Small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA barcoding showed that Angomonas predominated (46% over the other common trypanosomatids of blowflies of genera Herpetomonas and Wallacemonas. Among Angomonas spp., A. deanei was much more common than the two-other species, A. desouzai and A. ambiguus. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH and internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS rDNA sequences revealed a marked genetic diversity within A. deanei, which comprised four infraspecific genotypes (Dea1–Dea4, and four corresponding symbiont genotypes (Kcr1–Kcr4. Host and symbiont phylogenies were highly congruent corroborating their co-divergence, consistent with host-symbiont interdependent metabolism and symbiont reduced genomes shaped by a long coevolutionary history. We compared the diversity of Angomonas/symbionts from three genera of blowflies, Lucilia, Chrysomya and Cochliomyia. A. deanei, A. desouzai, and A. ambiguus were found in the three genera of blowflies in South America. In Africa, A. deanei and A. ambiguus were identified in Chrysomya. The absence of A. desouzai in Africa and its presence in Neotropical Cochliomyia and Lucilia suggests parasite spillback of A. desouzai into Chrysomya, which was most likely introduced four decades ago from Africa into the Neotropic. The absence of correlation between parasite diversity and geographic and genetic distances, with identical genotypes of A. deanei found in the Neotropic and Afrotropic, is consistent with disjunct distribution due to the recent human-mediated transoceanic dispersal of Angomonas by Chrysomya. This

  14. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of residual feed intake measures and their component traits with fatty acid composition in subcutaneous adipose of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Ekine-Dzivenu, C; Vinsky, M; Basarab, J A; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Li, C

    2017-07-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular interest to the beef industry because feed is the largest variable cost in production and fatty acid composition is emerging as an important trait, both economically and socially, due to the potential implications of dietary fatty acids on human health. Quantifying correlations between feed efficiency and fatty acid composition will contribute to construction of optimal multiple-trait selection indexes to maximize beef production profitability. In the present study, we estimated phenotypic and genetic correlations of feed efficiency measures including residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for final ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf); their component traits ADG, DMI, and metabolic BW; and final ultrasound backfat thickness measured at the end of feedlot test with 25 major fatty acids in the subcutaneous adipose tissues of 1,366 finishing steers and heifers using bivariate animal models. The phenotypic correlations of RFI and RFIf with the 25 individual and grouped fatty acid traits were generally low (ratio (0.52 ± 0.29 and 0.45 ± 0.31, respectively), 18:2-6 (0.45 ± 0.18 and 0.40 ± 0.19, respectively), -6 (0.43 ± 0.18 and 0.38 ± 0.19, respectively), PUFA (0.42 ± 0.18 and 0.36 ± 0.20, respectively), and 9-16:1 (-0.43 ± 0.20 and -0.33 ± 0.22, respectively) were observed. Hence, selection for low-RFI or more efficient beef cattle will improve fatty acid profiles by lowering the content of -6 PUFA, thus reducing the ratio of -6 to -3 along with increasing the amount of 9-16:1. Moderate to moderately high genetic correlations were also observed for DMI with 9-14:1 (-0.32 ± 0.17) and the sum of CLA analyzed (SumCLA; -0.45 ± 0.21), suggesting that selection of beef cattle with lower DMI will lead to an increase amount of 9-14:1 and SumCLA in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, unfavorable genetic correlations were detected for ADG with 11-18:1 (-0.38 ± 0.23) and SumCLA (-0.73 ± 0.26), implying that selection of beef

  15. Genetic Connectivity in Scleractinian Corals across the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Oil/Gas Platforms, and Relationship to the Flower Garden Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Sammarco, Paul W.; Brazeau, Daniel A.; Sinclair, James

    2012-01-01

    The 3,000 oil/gas structures currently deployed in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide hard substratum for marine organisms in a region where such has been rare since the Holocene. The major exception to this are the Flower Garden Banks (FGB). Corals are known to have colonized oil/gas platforms around the FGB, facilitating biogeographic expansion. We ask the question, what are the patterns of genetic affinity in these coral populations. We sampled coral tissue from populations of two s...

  16. Construction of the model for the Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 simulated data: genotype-phenotype relationships, gene interaction, linkage, association, disequilibrium, and ascertainment effects for a complex phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David A; Zhang, Junying; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Strug, Lisa J; Zimmerman, Regina; Singh, Veena; Marathe, Sudhir

    2005-12-30

    The Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 simulated dataset was designed 1) To test the ability to find genes related to a complex disease (such as alcoholism). Such a disease may be given a variety of definitions by different investigators, have associated endophenotypes that are common in the general population, and is likely to be not one disease but a heterogeneous collection of clinically similar, but genetically distinct, entities. 2) To observe the effect on genetic analysis and gene discovery of a complex set of gene x gene interactions. 3) To allow comparison of microsatellite vs. large-scale single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. 4) To allow testing of association to identify the disease gene and the effect of moderate marker x marker linkage disequilibrium. 5) To observe the effect of different ascertainment/disease definition schemes on the analysis. Data was distributed in two forms. Data distributed to participants contained about 1,000 SNPs and 400 microsatellite markers. Internet-obtainable data consisted of a finer 10,000 SNP map, which also contained data on controls. While disease characteristics and parameters were constant, four "studies" used varying ascertainment schemes based on differing beliefs about disease characteristics. One of the studies contained multiplex two- and three-generation pedigrees with at least four affected members. The simulated disease was a psychiatric condition with many associated behaviors (endophenotypes), almost all of which were genetic in origin. The underlying disease model contained four major genes and two modifier genes. The four major genes interacted with each other to produce three different phenotypes, which were themselves heterogeneous. The population parameters were calibrated so that the major genes could be discovered by linkage analysis in most datasets. The association evidence was more difficult to calibrate but was designed to find statistically significant association in 50% of datasets. We also

  17. Genetic relationships in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as viewed with high frequency oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly diverse, economically important member of the Cucurbitaceae. C. pepo encompasses hundreds of cultivars of pumpkins, squash, and gourds. Although C. pepo has been scrutinized with various types of DNA markers, the relationships among the cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. p...

  18. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics.......Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...

  19. What Are the Types of Genetic Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or catastrophe victims, rule out or implicate a crime suspect, or establish biological relationships between people (for example, paternity). For more information about the uses of genetic testing: A Brief Primer on Genetic Testing , which ...

  20. The relationship in Japanese infants between a genetic polymorphism in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor I gene and the plasma level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yumiko; Kizaki, Zenro; Ishihara, Yasunori; Nakajima, Hisakazu; Adachi, Shinsuke; Kosaka, Kitaro; Kinugasa, Akihiko; Sugimoto, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene polymorphism and low levels of IGF-I are associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and birth weight; however, the number of wild-type alleles is different in each country. This study aimed to examine the 737/738 marker, a cytosine-adenine repeat in the promoter region of the IGF-I gene polymorphism, and plasma IGF-I levels in Japanese infants and analyze the genetic background. Data were collected for 15 months in Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine. The body composition parameters of all infants were determined at birth. At 5 days after birth, we took blood samples to measure the product size of the promoter region of the IGF-I gene polymorphism and plasma IGF-I. In a population-based sample of 160 subjects, 6 different alleles and 16 genotypes were identified in the promoter region of the IGF-I gene polymorphism. The existence of a 196-bp allele has proved to result in a low plasma IGF-I level, a small head and chest circumference (p body composition parameters in Japanese infants. Our results suggest genetical influence on prenatal growth and serum IGF-I levels.

  1. Use of AFLP and RAPD molecular genetic markers and cytogenetic analysis to explore relationships among taxa of the Patagonian Bromus setifolius complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromus setifolius var. pictus (Hook Skottsb., B. setifolius var. setifolius Presl. and B. setifolius var. brevifolius Ness are three native Patagonian taxa in the section Pnigma Dumort of the genus Bromus L. AFLP and RAPD analysis, in conjunction with genetic distance measurements and statistical techniques, revealed variation within this group and indicated that B. setifolius var. brevifolius was closely related to B. setifolius var. pictus, with both taxa being more distantly related to B. setifolius var. setifolius. Cytogenetic analysis confirmed the chromosomal number of B. setifolius var. pictus (2n = 70 and B. setifolius var. setifolius (2n = 28 and showed for the first time that B. setifolius var. brevifolius had 2n = 70. The combination of molecular genetic and cytogenetic evidence supported a species status for two of the three taxa and suggested hypotheses for the evolutionary origin of these complex taxa. Species status was also indicated for B. setifolius var. setifolius. Based on these findings, we suggest that B. setifolius var. pictus be referred to as B. pictus Hook var. pictus, and B. setifolius var brevifolius as B. pictus Hook var brevifolius. The correlation between AFLP diversity and variation in ecological parameters suggested that this marker system could be used to assess breeding progress and to monitor the domestication of Patagonian Bromus species for agronomic use.

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in Indian and non-Indian genotypes of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) using genomic SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, M; Antony Ceasar, S; Duraipandiyan, V; Al-Dhabi, N A; Ignacimuthu, S

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic variation and population structure in Indian and non-Indian genotypes of finger millet using 87 genomic SSR primers. The 128 finger millet genotypes were collected and genomic DNA was isolated. Eighty-seven genomic SSR primers with 60-70 % GC contents were used for PCR analysis of 128 finger millet genotypes. The PCR products were separated and visualized on a 6 % polyacrylamide gel followed by silver staining. The data were used to estimate major allele frequency using Power Marker v3.0. Dendrograms were constructed based on the Jaccard's similarity coefficient. Statistical fitness and population structure analyses were performed to find the genetic diversity. The mean major allele frequency was 0.92; the means of polymorphic alleles were 2.13 per primer and 1.45 per genotype; the average polymorphism was 59.94 % per primer and average PIC value was 0.44 per primer. Indian genotypes produced an additional 0.21 allele than non-Indian genotypes. Gene diversity was in the range from 0.02 to 0.35. The average heterozygosity was 0.11, close to 100 % homozygosity. The highest inbreeding coefficient was observed with SSR marker UGEP67. The Jaccard's similarity coefficient value ranged from 0.011 to 0.836. The highest similarity value was 0.836 between genotypes DPI009-04 and GPU-45. Indian genotypes were placed in Eleusine coracana major cluster (EcMC) 1 along with 6 non-Indian genotypes. AMOVA showed that molecular variance in genotypes from various geographical regions was 4 %; among populations it was 3 % and within populations it was 93 %. PCA scatter plot analysis showed that GPU-28, GPU-45 and DPI009-04 were closely dispersed in first component axis. In structural analysis, the genotypes were divided into three subpopulations (SP1, SP2 and SP3). All the three subpopulations had an admixture of alleles and no pure line was observed. These analyses confirmed that all the genotypes were genetically diverse and had been grouped based on

  3. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show that in p......In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...

  4. An attempt to model the relationship between MMI attenuation and engineering ground-motion parameters using artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-A. Tselentis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex application domains involve difficult pattern classification problems. This paper introduces a model of MMI attenuation and its dependence on engineering ground motion parameters based on artificial neural networks (ANNs and genetic algorithms (GAs. The ultimate goal of this investigation is to evaluate the target-region applicability of ground-motion attenuation relations developed for a host region based on training an ANN using the seismic patterns of the host region. This ANN learning is based on supervised learning using existing data from past earthquakes. The combination of these two learning procedures (that is, GA and ANN allows us to introduce a new method for pattern recognition in the context of seismological applications. The performance of this new GA-ANN regression method has been evaluated using a Greek seismological database with satisfactory results.

  5. Use of inter-simple sequence repeats and amplified fragment length polymorphisms to analyze genetic relationships among small grain-infecting species of ustilago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, J G; Bakkeren, G; Matheson, F; Procunier, J D; Woods, S

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT In the smut fungi, few features are available for use as taxonomic criteria (spore size, shape, morphology, germination type, and host range). DNA-based molecular techniques are useful in expanding the traits considered in determining relationships among these fungi. We examined the phylogenetic relationships among seven species of Ustilago (U. avenae, U. bullata, U. hordei, U. kolleri, U. nigra, U. nuda, and U. tritici) using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to compare their DNA profiles. Fifty-four isolates of different Ustilago spp. were analyzed using ISSR primers, and 16 isolates of Ustilago were studied using AFLP primers. The variability among isolates within species was low for all species except U. bullata. The isolates of U. bullata, U. nuda, and U. tritici were well separated and our data supports their speciation. U. avenae and U. kolleri isolates did not separate from each other and there was little variability between these species. U. hordei and U. nigra isolates also showed little variability between species, but the isolates from each species grouped together. Our data suggest that U. avenae and U. kolleri are monophyletic and should be considered one species, as should U. hordei and U. nigra.

  6. cDNA, deduced polypeptide structure and chromosomal assignment of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid, SPL(pVal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.E.; Clark, J.C.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Meuth, J.; Fox, J.L.; Whitsett, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    In hyaline membrane disease of premature infants, lack of surfactant leads to pulmonary atelectasis and respiratory distress. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins of M/sub r/ = 5000-14,000 have been isolated from mammalian surfactants which enhance the rate of spreading and the surface tension lowering properties of phospholipids during dynamic compression. The authors have characterized the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of pulmonary proteolipids from ether/ethanol extracts of bovine, canine, and human surfactant. Two distinct peptides were identified and termed SPL(pVal) and SPL(Phe). An oligonucleotide probe based on the valine-rich amino-terminal amino acid sequence of SPL(pVal) was utilized to isolate cDNA and genomic DNA encoding the human protein, termed surfactant proteolipid SPL(pVal) on the basis of its unique polyvaline domain. The primary structure of a precursor protein of 20,870 daltons, containing the SPL(pVal) peptide, was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs. Hybrid-arrested translation and immunoprecipitation of labeled translation products of human mRNA demonstrated a precursor protein, the active hydrophobic peptide being produced by proteolytic processing. Two classes of cDNAs encoding SPL(pVal) were identified. Human SPL(pVal) mRNA was more abundant in the adult than in fetal lung. The SPL(pVal) gene locus was assigned to chromosome 8

  7. Deducing the temporal order of cofactor function in ligand-regulated gene transcription: theory and experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward J; Guo, Chunhua; Simons, S Stoney; Chow, Carson C

    2012-01-01

    Cofactors are intimately involved in steroid-regulated gene expression. Two critical questions are (1) the steps at which cofactors exert their biological activities and (2) the nature of that activity. Here we show that a new mathematical theory of steroid hormone action can be used to deduce the kinetic properties and reaction sequence position for the functioning of any two cofactors relative to a concentration limiting step (CLS) and to each other. The predictions of the theory, which can be applied using graphical methods similar to those of enzyme kinetics, are validated by obtaining internally consistent data for pair-wise analyses of three cofactors (TIF2, sSMRT, and NCoR) in U2OS cells. The analysis of TIF2 and sSMRT actions on GR-induction of an endogenous gene gave results identical to those with an exogenous reporter. Thus new tools to determine previously unobtainable information about the nature and position of cofactor action in any process displaying first-order Hill plot kinetics are now available.

  8. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA for branched chain acyltransferase with analysis of the deduced protein structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, K.B.; Litwer, S.; Bradford, A.P.; Aitken, A.; Danner, D.J.; Yeaman, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence was determined for a 1.6-kilobase human cDNA putative for the branched chain acyltransferase protein of the branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Translation of the sequence reveals an open reading frame encoding a 315-amino acid protein of molecular weight 35,759 followed by 560 bases of 3'-untranslated sequence. Three repeats of the polyadenylation signal hexamer ATTAAA are present prior to the polyadenylate tail. Within the open reading frame is a 10-amino acid fragment which matches exactly the amino acid sequence around the lipoate-lysine residue in bovine kidney branched chain acyltransferase, thus confirming the identity of the cDNA. Analysis of the deduced protein structure for the human branched chain acyltransferase revealed an organization into domains similar to that reported for the acyltransferase proteins of the pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. This similarity in organization suggests that a more detailed analysis of the proteins will be required to explain the individual substrate and multienzyme complex specificity shown by these acyltransferases

  9. Graphical models for genetic analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Sheehan, Nuala A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces graphical models as a natural environment in which to formulate and solve problems in genetics and related areas. Particular emphasis is given to the relationships among various local computation algorithms which have been developed within the hitherto mostly separate areas...... of graphical models and genetics. The potential of graphical models is explored and illustrated through a number of example applications where the genetic element is substantial or dominating....

  10. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  11. The genetics of Tamarix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic studies have helped us gain basic knowledge of the Tamarix invasion. We now have a better understanding of the species identities involved in the invasion, their evolutionary relationships, and the contribution of hybridization to the invasion. This information can be used to enhance the eff...

  12. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  13. Energy levels and the de Broglie relationship for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianino, Concetto

    2008-07-01

    In this article, four examples of possible lessons on energy levels for high school are described: a particle in a box, a finite square well, the hydrogen atom and a harmonic oscillator. The energy levels are deduced through the use of the steady-state condition and the de Broglie relationship. In particular, the harmonic oscillator energy levels are deduced using correspondence with circular uniform motion.

  14. The relationship between genetic profiling, clinicopathological factors and survival in patients undergoing surgery for node-negative colorectal cancer: 10-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Arfon G M T; Ferguson, Jenny; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Orange, Clare; McMillan, Donald C; Horgan, Paul G; Edwards, Joanne; Going, James J

    2013-12-01

    The introduction of the bowel cancer screening programme has resulted in increasing numbers of patients being diagnosed with node-negative disease. Unfortunately, approximately 30 % will develop recurrence following surgery. Given the toxicity associated with adjuvant chemotherapy, it is important to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapy. This study aims to identify which clinicopathological factors and genetic profiling markers predict outcome in node-negative disease. Forty-nine microsatellite stable (MSS) patients undergoing curative resection between 1991 and 1993 were included. Local immune response was assessed by Klintrup criteria and vascular invasion status assessed through Miller's elastin staining. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) on a range of loci provided data on allelic imbalance. Analysis of survival included clinicopathological and CGH data in a multivariate (Cox) model. On binary logistical regression analysis, 4p deletion was independently associated with low Klintrup score (HR 0.16; 95 % CI (0.03-0.96); P = 0.045), venous invasion (HR 4.19; 95 % CI (1.08-16.29); P = 0.039) and higher Dukes' stage (HR 6.43; 95 % CI (1.22-33.97); P = 0.028). Minimum follow-up was 109 months and there were 24 cancer deaths. On multivariate analysis, high Klintrup score (HR 0.33; 95 % CI (0.12-0.93); P = 0.036), 4p- (HR 4.01; 95 % CI (1.58-10.21); P = 0.004) and 5q- (HR 3.81; 95 % CI (1.54-9.47); P = 0.004) were significantly associated with survival. 4p-, 5q- and low Klintrup score were independently associated with poor cancer-specific survival in node-negative MSS colorectal cancer. Confirmatory work in a larger cohort is needed to determine whether these markers may be used to identify patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.

  15. Application value of different transformation zone types and its genetic relationship with high-risk HPV type in diagnosis and therapy of cervical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhou, Jia-De

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the influence of different types of transformation zone (TZ) on positive surgical margin of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and the significance of infection of different genetic high-risk HPV for cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The clinical data of patients who had CIN2+ and received LEEP during January to December 2013 was investigated. The conditions of positive surgical margin of patients of different transformation zone (type I, II, III) were analyzed. The clinical high-risk types of HPV were divided into three groups, including A5/6, A7 and A9, compared with the pathological conditions of pre-operation and post-operation of the patients in respective group. The results indicated that type III transformation zone is more likely to cause positive cutting margin. For CIN2+ patients, sensitivity and specificity are 0.89% and 79.56% in group A5/6, and negative and positive predicted value (NPV, PPV) are 40% and 5%. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV in group A7 is 12.5%, 44.08%, 29.49% and 21.21%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV in group A9 is 88.99%, 87.09%, 85.26%, 81.51%, respectively. Transformation zone type was correlated positively with positive cutting margin percentage (r = 0.8732, P zone is more likely to cause pathological upgrades. In conclusion, different types of transformation zone and high-risk HPV have clinical significance in causing positive cutting margin of surgery and disease extent.

  16. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rRNA and ITS1 region of small form of canine Babesia spp. from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, M; Banerjee, P S; Garg, Rajat; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Saroj; Kumar, G V P P S Ravi

    2014-10-01

    Canine babesiosis is a vector borne disease caused by intra-erythrocytic apicomplexan parasites Babesia canis (large form) and Babesia gibsoni (small form), throughout the globe. Apart from few sporadic reports on the occurrence of B. gibsoni infection in dogs, no attempt has been made to characterize Babesia spp. of dogs in India. Fifteen canine blood samples, positive for small form of Babesia, collected from northern to eastern parts of India, were used for amplification of 18S rRNA gene (∼1665bp) of Babesia sp. and partial ITS1 region (∼254bp) of B. gibsoni Asian genotype. Cloning and sequencing of the amplified products of each sample was performed separately. Based on sequences and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and ITS1 sequences, 13 were considered to be B. gibsoni. These thirteen isolates shared high sequence identity with each other and with B. gibsoni Asian genotype. The other two isolates could not be assigned to any particular species because of the difference(s) in 18S rRNA sequence with B. gibsoni and closer identity with Babesiaoccultans and Babesiaorientalis. In the phylogenetic tree, all the isolates of B. gibsoni Asian genotype formed a separate major clade named as Babesia spp. sensu stricto clade with high bootstrap support. The two unnamed Babesia sp. (Malbazar and Ludhiana isolates) clustered close together with B. orientalis, Babesia sp. (Kashi 1 isolate) and B. occultans of bovines. It can be inferred from this study that 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region are highly conserved among 13 B. gibsoni isolates from India. It is the maiden attempt of genetic characterization by sequencing of 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region of B. gibsoni from India and is also the first record on the occurrence of an unknown Babesia sp. of dogs from south and south-east Asia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic and antigenic relationship of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O isolates with the vaccine strain O1/BFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanhong; Zhang, Zhidong; Nfon, Charles; Yang, Ming

    2018-05-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease serotype O viruses (FMDV/O) are responsible for the most outbreaks in FMD endemic countries. O1/BFS is one of the recommended FMD/O vaccine strains by World Reference Laboratory for FMD. In the current study, FMDV/O1 BFS vaccine strain and serotype O field isolates (45) were analyzed phylogenetically and antigenically to gain more insight into the genetic and antigenic characteristics of the vaccine strain and field isolates. O1/BFS showed similarity with 89% of the field isolates using a virus neutralization test (VNT). The P1 region encoding the FMDV capsid was sequenced and analysed for 46 strains of FMDV/O. Phylogenetic analysis showed these viruses originated from five continents and covered eight of 11 reported topotypes. Five isolates that demonstrated low antigenic similarities with O1/BFS were analyzed for their antigenic variation at the known neutralizing antigenic sites. Three of the five isolates demonstrated unique amino acid substitutions at various antigenic sites. No unique amino acid substitutions were observed for the other two unmatched isolates. Positively selected residues were identified on the surface of the FMD virus capsid supporting that it is important to continuously monitor field isolates for their antigenic and phenotypic changes. In conclusion, the vaccine strain O1/BFS is likely to confer protection against 89% of the 45 FMDV/O isolates based on VNT. Thus O1/BFS vaccine strain is still suitable for use in global FMD serotype O outbreak control. Combining data from phylogenetic, molecular and antigenic analysis can provide improvements in the process of vaccine selection. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  19. Seismic anisotropy around the Gulf of Corinth, Greece, deduced from three-component seismograms of local earthquakes and its relationship with crustal strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouin, Marie-Paule; TéLlez, Julia; Bernard, Pascal

    1996-03-01

    Several thousand three-component seismograms from local earthquakes recorded during two field experiments in August 1991 and November 1992 in the Gulf of Corinth have been analyzed to detect shear wave splitting. After a first selection of the events located in the S window of the considered stations, a second very strict selection of the records is applied in order to avoid the effect of scattered or converted phases which can mimic the behavior of shear wave splitting. Two main directions of fast S wave polarization have been detected: one oriented N105°E-N120°E, the other N55°E-N75°E. The first one is perpendicular to the main direction of extension of the Gulf provided by focal mechanism, Global Positioning System measurements, and tectonic studies, and is thus consistent with the extensive-dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model. The second direction is subparallel to the direction of the active normal fault closest to the sites. This suggests a local control of the anisotropy by these active faults, either by a local rotation of the total stress field, in which case the EDA model may still explain the anisotropy, or by the existence of a specific microstructure or macrostructure generated by the long-term fault activity (set of secondary fault planes parallel to the major one), in which case the anisotropy direction would be significantly rotated from the stress direction (about 50°). The anisotropic signature does not seem to be affected by the geology of the site (pre-Tertiary limestone and Pleistocene sediments), except for a station located on the thick Plio-Quaternary deposits of a delta, where the time delay is significantly larger.

  20. Quantifying the relationship between the plasmapause and the inner boundary of small-scale field-aligned currents, as deduced from Swarm observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Balázs; Lühr, Hermann

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of the equatorward boundary of small-scale field-aligned currents (SSFACs) and investigates the relation between this boundary and the plasmapause (PP). The PP data used for validation were derived from in situ electron density observations of NASA's Van Allen Probes. We confirmed the findings of a previous study by the same authors obtained from the observations of the CHAMP satellite SSFAC and the NASA IMAGE satellite PP detections, namely that the two boundaries respond similarly to changes in geomagnetic activity, and they are closely located in the near midnight MLT sector, suggesting a dynamic linkage. Dayside PP correlates with the delayed time history of the SSFAC boundary. We interpreted this behaviour as a direct consequence of co-rotation: the new PP, formed on the night side, propagates to the dayside by rotating with Earth. This finding paves the way toward an efficient PP monitoring tool based on an SSFAC index derived from vector magnetic field observations at low-Earth orbit.

  1. Genetic variation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) demonstrates the importance of root but not shoot C/N ratios in the control of plant morphology and reveals a unique relationship between shoot length and nodulation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludidi, Ndiko N; Pellny, Till K; Kiddle, Guy; Dutilleul, Christelle; Groten, Karin; VAN Heerden, Philippus D R; Dutt, Som; Powers, Stephen J; Römer, Peter; Foyer, Christine H

    2007-10-01

    Nodule numbers are regulated through systemic auto-regulatory signals produced by shoots and roots. The relative effects of shoot and root genotype on nodule numbers together with relationships to organ biomass, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) status, and related parameters were measured in pea (Pisum sativum) exploiting natural genetic variation in maturity and apparent nodulation intensity. Reciprocal grafting experiments between the early (Athos), intermediate (Phönix) and late (S00182) maturity phenotypes were performed and Pearson's correlation coefficients for the parameters were calculated. No significant correlations were found between shoot C/N ratios and plant morphology parameters, but the root C/N ratio showed a strong correlation with root fresh and dry weights as well as with shoot fresh weight with less significant interactions with leaf number. Hence, the root C/N ratio rather than shoot C/N had a predominant influence on plant morphology when pea plants are grown under conditions of symbiotic nitrogen supply. The only phenotypic characteristic that showed a statistically significant correlation with nodulation intensity was shoot length, which accounted for 68.5% of the variation. A strong linear relationship was demonstrated between shoot length and nodule numbers. Hence, pea nodule numbers are controlled by factors related to shoot extension, but not by shoot or root biomass accumulation, total C or total N. The relationship between shoot length and nodule numbers persisted under field conditions. These results suggest that stem height could be used as a breeding marker for the selection of pea cultivars with high nodule numbers and high seed N contents.

  2. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are computational optimisation schemes with an ... The algorithms solve optimisation problems ..... Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimisation and Machine. Learning, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1989.

  3. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    artificial genetic system) string feature or ... called the genotype whereas it is called a structure in artificial genetic ... assigned a fitness value based on the cost function. Better ..... way it has produced complex, intelligent living organisms capable of ...

  4. Utilization of metabonomics to identify serum biomarkers in murine H22 hepatocarcinoma and deduce antitumor mechanism of Rhizoma Paridis saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peiyu; Man, Shuli; Yang, He; Fan, Wei; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-08-25

    Murine H22 hepatocarcinoma model is so popular to be used for the preclinical anticancer candidate's evaluation. However, the metabolic biomarkers of this model were not identified. Meanwhile, Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) as natural products have been found to show strong antitumor activity, while its anti-cancer mechanism is not clear. To search for potential metabolite biomarkers of this model, serum metabonomics approach was applied to detect the variation of metabolite biomarkers and the related metabolism genes and signaling pathway were used to deduce the antitumor mechanisms of RPS. As a result, ten serum metabolites were identified in twenty-four mice including healthy mice, non-treated cancer mice, RPS-treated cancer mice and RPS-treated healthy mice. RPS significantly decreased tumor weight correlates to down-regulating lactate, acetate, N-acetyl amino acid and glutamine signals (p < 0.05), which were marked metabolites screened according to the very important person (VIP), loading plot and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) tests. For the analysis of metabolic enzyme related genes, RPS reversed the aerobic glycolysis through activating tumor suppressor p53 and PTEN, and suppressed FASN to inhibit lipogenesis. What's more, RPS repressed Myc and GLS expression and decreased glutamine level. The regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and HIF-1α/Myc/Ras networks also participated in these metabolic changes. Taken together, RPS suppressed ATP product made the tumor growth slow, which indicated a good anti-cancer effect and new angle for understanding the mechanism of RPS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the utility of (1)H NMR metabolic profiles taken together with tumor weight and viscera index was a promising screening tool for evaluating the antitumor effect of candidates. In addition, RPS was a potent anticancer agent through inhibiting cancer cellular metabolism to suppress proliferation in hepatoma H22 tumor murine, which promoted the

  5. Exospheric Neutral Density at the Earth's subsolar magnetopause deduced from the XMM-Newton X-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, H. K.; Carter, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Soft X-rays can be emitted when highly charged solar wind ions and exospheric neutrals exchange electrons. Astrophysics missions, such as XMM-Newton and ROSAT X-ray telescopes, have found that such solar wind charge exchange happens at the Earth's exosphere. The Earth's magnetosphere can be imaged via soft X-rays in order to understand its interaction with solar wind. Consequently, two soft X-ray telescope missions (CuPID and SMILE) are scheduled to launch in 2019 and 2021. They will provide wide field-of-view soft X-ray images of the Earth's dayside magnetosphere. The imagers will track the location and movement of the cusps, magnetopause, and bow shock in response to solar wind variations. To support these missions, an understanding of exospheric neutral density profile is needed. The neutral density is one of the controlling factors of soft X-ray signals. Strong neutral density can help to obtain high-resolution and high-cadence of soft X-ray images. In this study, we estimate the exospheric neutral density at 10 RE subsolar point using XMM X-ray observations, Cluster plasma observations, and OpenGGCM global magnetosphere - ionosphere MHD model. XMM-Newton observes line-of-sight, narrow field-of-view, integrated soft X-ray emissions when it looks through the dayside magnetosphere. OpenGGCM reproduces soft X-ray signals seen by the XMM spacecraft, assuming exospheric neutral density as a function of the neutral density at the 10RE subsolar point and the radial distance. Cluster observations are used to confirm OpenGGCM plasma results. Finally, we deduce the neutral density at 10 RE subsolar point by adjusting the model results to the XMM-Newton soft X-ray observations.

  6. About Genetic Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical care in many areas of medicine. Assisted Reproductive Technology/Infertility Genetics Cancer Genetics Cardiovascular Genetics Cystic Fibrosis Genetics Fetal Intervention and Therapy Genetics Hematology Genetics Metabolic Genetics ...

  7. Phylogeography and genetic structure of a Tertiary relict tree species, Tapiscia sinensis (Tapisciaceae): implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinju; Li, Zuozhou; Fritsch, Peter W; Tian, Hua; Yang, Aihong; Yao, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    The phylogeography of plant species in sub-tropical China remains largely unclear. This study used Tapiscia sinensis, an endemic and endangered tree species widely but disjunctly distributed in sub-tropical China, as a model to reveal the patterns of genetic diversity and phylogeographical history of Tertiary relict plant species in this region. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to its conservation management. Samples were taken from 24 populations covering the natural geographical distribution of T. sinensis. Genetic structure was investigated by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes were constructed with maximum parsimony and haplotype network methods. Historical population expansion events were tested with pairwise mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests. Species potential range was deduced by ecological niche modelling (ENM). A low level of genetic diversity was detected at the population level. A high level of genetic differentiation and a significant phylogeographical structure were revealed. The mean divergence time of the haplotypes was approx. 1·33 million years ago. Recent range expansion in this species is suggested by a star-like haplotype network and by the results from the mismatch distribution analysis and neutrality tests. Climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene have had pronounced effects on the extant distribution of Tapiscia relative to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Spatial patterns of molecular variation and ENM suggest that T. sinensis may have retreated in south-western and central China and colonized eastern China prior to the LGM. Multiple montane refugia for T. sinense existing during the LGM are inferred in central and western China. The populations adjacent to or within these refugia of T. sinense should be given high priority in the development of conservation policies and management strategies for

  8. Genetic affinities within a large global collection of pathogenic Leptospira: implications for strain identification and molecular epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Nalam

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonosis with widespread human health implications. The non-availability of accurate identification methods for the individualization of different Leptospira for outbreak investigations poses bountiful problems in the disease control arena. We harnessed fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis (FAFLP for Leptospira and investigated its utility in establishing genetic relationships among 271 isolates in the context of species level assignments of our global collection of isolates and strains obtained from a diverse array of hosts. In addition, this method was compared to an in-house multilocus sequence typing (MLST method based on polymorphisms in three housekeeping genes, the rrs locus and two envelope proteins. Phylogenetic relationships were deduced based on bifurcating Neighbor-joining trees as well as median joining network analyses integrating both the FAFLP data and MLST based haplotypes. The phylogenetic relationships were also reproduced through Bayesian analysis of the multilocus sequence polymorphisms. We found FAFLP to be an important method for outbreak investigation and for clustering of isolates based on their geographical descent rather than by genome species types. The FAFLP method was, however, not able to convey much taxonomical utility sufficient to replace the highly tedious serotyping procedures in vogue. MLST, on the other hand, was found to be highly robust and efficient in identifying ancestral relationships and segregating the outbreak associated strains or otherwise according to their genome species status and, therefore, could unambiguously be applied for investigating phylogenetics of Leptospira in the context of taxonomy as well as gene flow. For instance, MLST was more efficient, as compared to FAFLP method, in clustering strains from the Andaman island of India, with their counterparts from mainland India and Sri Lanka, implying that such strains share genetic

  9. Thymidylate synthase genetic polymorphism and plasma total homocysteine level in a group of Turkish patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relationship with disease activity and methotrexate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Pınar; Taşbaş, Özgur; Karabulut, Halil; Tukun, Ajlan; Yorgancıoğlu, Rezan

    2015-01-01

    The polymorphism of thymidylate synthase (TS) gene and homocysteine are reported to have a relationship to methotrexate (MTX) metabolism, with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine homocysteine levels and the frequency of TS gene triple repeat (TS3R) and double repeat (TS2R) polymorphisms in a group of Turkish RA patients and evaluate its association with MTX toxicity and disease activity. Sixty-four patients with RA and 31 control subjects with a mean age of 48.7 ± 12.5 and 46.2 ± 13.4 years, were enrolled to the study. Demographic characteristics were obtained and number of patients with MTX-related adverse affects, were recorded in the patient group. The homocysteine levels and TS2R/TS3R polymorphisms of the TS gene were analyzed and the distribution of genotypes according to MTX toxicity and disease activity, were determined. The demographic properties were similar between the patient and control subjects. Folic acid supplementation with a mean dose of 5mg folic acid/week, was present in all patients. Thirty-six of the 64 patients showed adverse effects to MTX treatment. The frequency of TS2R and TS3R polymorphisms were found to be similar in the patient and control groups. TS2R and TS3R gene polymorphisms were found to be similar in patients with and without MTX-related adverse events. The mean homocysteine level was also similar in patients with and without TS gene polymorphism, but was found to be higher (12.45μmol/L vs 10.7μmol/L) in patients with MTX-related side effects than in patients without side effects. The mean level of homocysteine was correlated with levels of ESR in the patient group. In conclusion, homocysteine levels might effect the disease activity and toxicity of MTX but 2R and 3R polymorphisms in the TS gene, were not related with MTX-related toxicity in RA patients receiving folate supplementation. Further studies are needed to illuminate the polymorphisms in other enzymes that might be responsible from the MTX

  10. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  11. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  12. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  13. Genetic Romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro

    2016-01-01

    inheritance as a way to unify populations within politically and geographically bounded areas. Thus, new genetics have contributed to the development of genetic romanticisms, whereby populations (human, plant, and animal) can be delineated and mobilized through scientific and medical practices to represent...

  14. Modular design, application architecture, and usage of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery: The Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M.; Rusincovitch, Shelley A.; Brinson, Stephanie; Shang, Howard C.; Evans, Steve; Ferranti, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data generated in the care of patients are widely used to support clinical research and quality improvement, which has hastened the development of self-service query tools. User interface design for such tools, execution of query activity, and underlying application architecture have not been widely reported, and existing tools reflect a wide heterogeneity of methods and technical frameworks. We describe the design, application architecture, and use of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery within Duke Medicine. Methods Our query platform, the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE), supports enhanced data exploration, cohort identification, and data extraction from our enterprise data warehouse (EDW) using a series of modular environments that interact with a central keystone module, Cohort Manager (CM). A data-driven application architecture is implemented through three components: an application data dictionary, the concept of “smart dimensions”, and dynamically-generated user interfaces. Results DEDUCE CM allows flexible hierarchies of EDW queries within a grid-like workspace. A cohort “join” functionality allows switching between filters based on criteria occurring within or across patient encounters. To date, 674 users have been trained and activated in DEDUCE, and logon activity shows a steady increase, with variability between months. A comparison of filter conditions and export criteria shows that these activities have different patterns of usage across subject areas. Conclusions Organizations with sophisticated EDWs may find that users benefit from development of advanced query functionality, complimentary to the user interfaces and infrastructure used in other well-published models. Driven by its EDW context, the DEDUCE application architecture was also designed to be responsive to source data and to allow modification through alterations in metadata rather than programming, allowing an agile response to source

  15. Modular design, application architecture, and usage of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery: the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M; Rusincovitch, Shelley A; Brinson, Stephanie; Shang, Howard C; Evans, Steve; Ferranti, Jeffrey M

    2014-12-01

    Data generated in the care of patients are widely used to support clinical research and quality improvement, which has hastened the development of self-service query tools. User interface design for such tools, execution of query activity, and underlying application architecture have not been widely reported, and existing tools reflect a wide heterogeneity of methods and technical frameworks. We describe the design, application architecture, and use of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery within Duke Medicine. Our query platform, the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE), supports enhanced data exploration, cohort identification, and data extraction from our enterprise data warehouse (EDW) using a series of modular environments that interact with a central keystone module, Cohort Manager (CM). A data-driven application architecture is implemented through three components: an application data dictionary, the concept of "smart dimensions", and dynamically-generated user interfaces. DEDUCE CM allows flexible hierarchies of EDW queries within a grid-like workspace. A cohort "join" functionality allows switching between filters based on criteria occurring within or across patient encounters. To date, 674 users have been trained and activated in DEDUCE, and logon activity shows a steady increase, with variability between months. A comparison of filter conditions and export criteria shows that these activities have different patterns of usage across subject areas. Organizations with sophisticated EDWs may find that users benefit from development of advanced query functionality, complimentary to the user interfaces and infrastructure used in other well-published models. Driven by its EDW context, the DEDUCE application architecture was also designed to be responsive to source data and to allow modification through alterations in metadata rather than programming, allowing an agile response to source system changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  16. Coalgebraic structure of genetic inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianjun; Li, Bai-Lian

    2004-09-01

    Although in the broadly defined genetic algebra, multiplication suggests a forward direction of from parents to progeny, when looking from the reverse direction, it also suggests to us a new algebraic structure-coalge- braic structure, which we call genetic coalgebras. It is not the dual coalgebraic structure and can be used in the construction of phylogenetic trees. Math- ematically, to construct phylogenetic trees means we need to solve equations x([n]) = a, or x([n]) = b. It is generally impossible to solve these equations inalgebras. However, we can solve them in coalgebras in the sense of tracing back for their ancestors. A thorough exploration of coalgebraic structure in genetics is apparently necessary. Here, we develop a theoretical framework of the coalgebraic structure of genetics. From biological viewpoint, we defined various fundamental concepts and examined their elementary properties that contain genetic significance. Mathematically, by genetic coalgebra, we mean any coalgebra that occurs in genetics. They are generally noncoassociative and without counit; and in the case of non-sex-linked inheritance, they are cocommutative. Each coalgebra with genetic realization has a baric property. We have also discussed the methods to construct new genetic coalgebras, including cocommutative duplication, the tensor product, linear combinations and the