WorldWideScience

Sample records for genetic processes

  1. [Genetic expertise and the penal process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choclán Montalvo, J A

    1998-01-01

    The author reflects on the major forensic biology issues related to human genome analysis. He also discusses, from the comparative law perspective, the extent to which genetic test evidence is binding on judges. He concludes with a discussion of the influence of genetic research on people's fundamental rights.

  2. Origin and evolutionary process of the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji; Niihara, Yuka

    2007-01-01

    The genetic code plots the relationship between a triplet base sequence on RNA and an amino acid that corresponds to a protein associated with a required function in organisms. Accurate knowledge about the genetic code, including its origin and evolutionary process, would be helpful for determining the causes of genetic disorders and discovering new medical treatments, as well as for understanding the origin of life. This review begins with discussion of several well-known theories on the origin of the genetic code. Then, a GNC-SNS primitive genetic code hypothesis, which we originally proposed, is explained in relation to the weak points of other theories. S and N denote G or C and any of the four bases, respectively. We also introduce our hypothesis of the GADV-protein world hypothesis on the origin of life, where GADV stands for the four amino acids, Gly[G], Ala[A], Asp[D] and Val[V]. Next, we discuss the reason why genetic disorders, which should be triggered by base replacements, are repressed at a low level under the universal genetic code. Finally, we explain the current difficulties we faced in treating genetic disorders, suggesting a prospect for a new type of treatments of these disorders.

  3. Genetic programming and serial processing for time series classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Cid, Eva; Sharman, Ken; Esparcia-Alcázar, Anna I

    2014-01-01

    This work describes an approach devised by the authors for time series classification. In our approach genetic programming is used in combination with a serial processing of data, where the last output is the result of the classification. The use of genetic programming for classification, although still a field where more research in needed, is not new. However, the application of genetic programming to classification tasks is normally done by considering the input data as a feature vector. That is, to the best of our knowledge, there are not examples in the genetic programming literature of approaches where the time series data are processed serially and the last output is considered as the classification result. The serial processing approach presented here fills a gap in the existing literature. This approach was tested in three different problems. Two of them are real world problems whose data were gathered for online or conference competitions. As there are published results of these two problems this gives us the chance to compare the performance of our approach against top performing methods. The serial processing of data in combination with genetic programming obtained competitive results in both competitions, showing its potential for solving time series classification problems. The main advantage of our serial processing approach is that it can easily handle very large datasets.

  4. Environmental Control Of A Genetic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    E. coli bacteria altered to contain DNA sequence encoding production of hemoglobin made to produce hemoglobin at rates decreasing with increases in concentration of oxygen in culture media. Represents amplification of part of method described in "Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells" (NPO-17517). Manipulation of promoter/regulator DNA sequences opens promising new subfield of recombinant-DNA technology for environmental control of expression of selected DNA sequences. New recombinant-DNA fusion gene products, expression vectors, and nucleotide-base sequences will emerge. Likely applications include such aerobic processes as manufacture of cloned proteins and synthesis of metabolites, production of chemicals by fermentation, enzymatic degradation, treatment of wastes, brewing, and variety of oxidative chemical reactions.

  5. USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO DESIGN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic algorithm calculations are applied to the design of chemical processes to achieve improvements in environmental and economic performance. By finding the set of Pareto (i.e., non-dominated) solutions one can see how different objectives, such as environmental and economic ...

  6. USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS TO DESIGN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic algorithm calculations are applied to the design of chemical processes to achieve improvements in environmental and economic performance. By finding the set of Pareto (i.e., non-dominated) solutions one can see how different objectives, such as environmental and economic ...

  7. Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for Sensor Coarse Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As with the development of computer technology and informatization, network technique, sensor technique and communication technology become three necessary components of information industry. As the core technique of sensor application, signal processing mainly determines the sensor performances. For this reason, study on signal processing mode is very important to sensors and the application of sensor network. In this paper, we introduce a new sensor coarse signal processing mode based on adaptive genetic algorithm. This algorithm selects crossover, mutation probability adaptively and compensates multiple operators commutatively to optimize the search process, so that we can obtain the global optimum solution. Based on the proposed algorithm, using auto-correlative characteristic parameter extraction method, it achieves smaller test error in sensor coarse signal processing mode of processing interference signal. We evaluate the proposed approach on a set of data. The experimental results show that, the proposed approach is able to improve the performance in different experimental setting

  8. Genetic Algorithm Based Production Planning for Alternative Process Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fa-ping; SUN Hou-fang; SHAHID I. Butt

    2009-01-01

    Production planning under flexible job shop environment is studied. A mathematic model is formulated to help improve alternative process production. This model, in which genetic algorithm is used, is expected to result in better production planning, hence towards the aim of minimizing production cost under the constraints of delivery time and other scheduling conditions. By means of this algorithm, all planning schemes which could meet all requirements of the constraints within the whole solution space are exhaustively searched so as to find the optimal one. Also, a case study is given in the end to support and validate this model. Our results show that genetic algorithm is capable of locating feasible process routes to reduce production cost for certain tasks.

  9. Genetic Algorithm Optimisation of PID Controllers for a Multivariable Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Alharbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This project is about the design of PID controllers and the improvement of outputs in multivariable processes. The optimisation of PID controller for the Shell oil process is presented in this paper, using Genetic Algorithms (GAs. Genetic Algorithms (GAs are used to automatically tune PID controllers according to given specifications. They use an objective function, which is specially formulated and measures the performance of controller in terms of time-domain bounds on the responses of closed-loop process.A specific objective function is suggested that allows the designer for a single-input, single-output (SISO process to explicitly specify the process performance specifications associated with the given problem in terms of time-domain bounds, then experimentally evaluate the closed-loop responses. This is investigated using a simple two-term parametric PID controller tuning problem. The results are then analysed and compared with those obtained using a number of popular conventional controller tuning methods. The intention is to demonstrate that the proposed objective function is inherently capable of accurately quantifying complex performance specifications in the time domain. This is something that cannot normally be employed in conventional controller design or tuning methods.Finally, the recommended objective function will be used to examine the control problems of Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO processes, and the results will be presented in order to determine the efficiency of the suggested control system.

  10. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  11. QUANTIFICATION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE MON 810 IN PROCESSED FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Siekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Maize MON 810 (Zea mays L. represents the majority of genetically modified food crops. It is the only transgenic cultivar grown in the EU (European Union countries and food products with its content higher than 0.9 % must be labelled. This study was aimed at impact of food processing (temperature, pH and pressure on DNA degradation and quantification of the genetically modified maize MON 810. The transgenic DNA was quantified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Processing as is high temperature (121 °C, elevated pressure (0.1 MPa and low pH 2.25 fragmented DNA. A consequence of two order difference in the species specific gene content compared to the transgenic DNA content in plant materials used has led to false negative results in the quantification of transgenic DNA. The maize containing 4.2 % of the transgene after processing appeared to be as low as 3.0 % (100 °C and 1.9 % (121 °C, 0.1 MPa. The 2.1 % amount of transgene dropped at 100 °C to 1.0 % and at 121 °C, 0.1 MPa to 0.6 %. Under such make up the DNA degradation of transgenic content showed up 2 or 3 time higher decrease a consequence of unequal gene presence. Such genes disparity is expressed as considerable decrease of transgenic content while the decrease of species specific gene content remains unnoticed. Based on our findings we conclude that high degree of processing might have led to false negative results of the transgenic constituent quantification. Determination of GMO content in processed foods may leads to incorrect statement and labelling in these cases could misleads consumers.doi:10.5219/212

  12. Genetic Algorithms vs. Artificial Neural Networks in Economic Forecasting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Morariu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the implementa-tion of a neural network and a genetic algorithm system in order to forecast certain economic indicators of a free market economy. In a free market economy forecasting process precedes the economic planning (a management function, providing important information for the result of the last process. Forecasting represents a starting point in setting of target for a firm, an organization or even a branch of the economy. Thus, the forecasting method used can influence in a significant mode the evolution of an entity. In the following we will describe the forecasting of an economic indicator using two intelligent systems. The difference between the results obtained by this two systems are described in chapter IV.

  13. GENETIC ALGORITHM ON GENERAL PURPOSE GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT: PARALLELISM REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Umbarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm (GA is effective and robust method for solving many optimization problems. However, it may take more runs (iterations and time to get optimal solution. The execution time to find the optimal solution also depends upon the niching-technique applied to evolving population. This paper provides the information about how various authors, researchers, scientists have implemented GA on GPGPU (General purpose Graphics Processing Units with and without parallelism. Many problems have been solved on GPGPU using GA. GA is easy to parallelize because of its SIMD nature and therefore can be implemented well on GPGPU. Thus, speedup can definitely be achieved if bottleneck in GAs are identified and implemented effectively on GPGPU. Paper gives review of various applications solved using GAs on GPGPU with the future scope in the area of optimization.

  14. European registration process for Clinical Laboratory Geneticists in genetic healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liehr, T.; Carreira, I.M.; Aktas, D.; Bakker, E. de; Rodriguez de Alba, M.; Coviello, D.A.; Florentin, L.; Scheffer, H.; Rincic, M.

    2017-01-01

    Tremendous progress in genetics and genomics led to a wide range of healthcare providers, genetic tests, and more patients who can benefit from these developments. To guarantee and improve the quality of genetic testing, a unified European-based registration for individuals qualified in biomedicine

  15. Biological Signal Processing with a Genetic Toggle Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Patrick; Fritz, Georg; Gerland, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Complex gene regulation requires responses that depend not only on the current levels of input signals but also on signals received in the past. In digital electronics, logic circuits with this property are referred to as sequential logic, in contrast to the simpler combinatorial logic without such internal memory. In molecular biology, memory is implemented in various forms such as biochemical modification of proteins or multistable gene circuits, but the design of the regulatory interface, which processes the input signals and the memory content, is often not well understood. Here, we explore design constraints for such regulatory interfaces using coarse-grained nonlinear models and stochastic simulations of detailed biochemical reaction networks. We test different designs for biological analogs of the most versatile memory element in digital electronics, the JK-latch. Our analysis shows that simple protein-protein interactions and protein-DNA binding are sufficient, in principle, to implement genetic circuits with the capabilities of a JK-latch. However, it also exposes fundamental limitations to its reliability, due to the fact that biological signal processing is asynchronous, in contrast to most digital electronics systems that feature a central clock to orchestrate the timing of all operations. We describe a seemingly natural way to improve the reliability by invoking the master-slave concept from digital electronics design. This concept could be useful to interpret the design of natural regulatory circuits, and for the design of synthetic biological systems. PMID:23874595

  16. European registration process for Clinical Laboratory Geneticists in genetic healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Liehr, Thomas; Carreira, Isabel M.; Aktas, Dilek; Bakker, Egbert; Rodr?guez de Alba, Marta; Coviello, Domenico A; Florentin, Lina; Scheffer, Hans; Rincic, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Tremendous progress in genetics and genomics led to a wide range of healthcare providers, genetic tests, and more patients who can benefit from these developments. To guarantee and improve the quality of genetic testing, a unified European-based registration for individuals qualified in biomedicine was realized. Therefore a Europe-wide recognition of the profession ?European registered Clinical Laboratory Geneticist (ErCLG)' based on a syllabus of core competences was established which allows...

  17. Automating the packing heuristic design process with genetic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund K; Hyde, Matthew R; Kendall, Graham; Woodward, John

    2012-01-01

    The literature shows that one-, two-, and three-dimensional bin packing and knapsack packing are difficult problems in operational research. Many techniques, including exact, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, have been investigated to solve these problems and it is often not clear which method to use when presented with a new instance. This paper presents an approach which is motivated by the goal of building computer systems which can design heuristic methods. The overall aim is to explore the possibilities for automating the heuristic design process. We present a genetic programming system to automatically generate a good quality heuristic for each instance. It is not necessary to change the methodology depending on the problem type (one-, two-, or three-dimensional knapsack and bin packing problems), and it therefore has a level of generality unmatched by other systems in the literature. We carry out an extensive suite of experiments and compare with the best human designed heuristics in the literature. Note that our heuristic design methodology uses the same parameters for all the experiments. The contribution of this paper is to present a more general packing methodology than those currently available, and to show that, by using this methodology, it is possible for a computer system to design heuristics which are competitive with the human designed heuristics from the literature. This represents the first packing algorithm in the literature able to claim human competitive results in such a wide variety of packing domains.

  18. [Evolutionary process unveiled by the maximum genetic diversity hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Min; Xia, Meng-Ying; Huang, Shi

    2013-05-01

    As two major popular theories to explain evolutionary facts, the neutral theory and Neo-Darwinism, despite their proven virtues in certain areas, still fail to offer comprehensive explanations to such fundamental evolutionary phenomena as the genetic equidistance result, abundant overlap sites, increase in complexity over time, incomplete understanding of genetic diversity, and inconsistencies with fossil and archaeological records. Maximum genetic diversity hypothesis (MGD), however, constructs a more complete evolutionary genetics theory that incorporates all of the proven virtues of existing theories and adds to them the novel concept of a maximum or optimum limit on genetic distance or diversity. It has yet to meet a contradiction and explained for the first time the half-century old Genetic Equidistance phenomenon as well as most other major evolutionary facts. It provides practical and quantitative ways of studying complexity. Molecular interpretation using MGD-based methods reveal novel insights on the origins of humans and other primates that are consistent with fossil evidence and common sense, and reestablished the important role of China in the evolution of humans. MGD theory has also uncovered an important genetic mechanism in the construction of complex traits and the pathogenesis of complex diseases. We here made a series of sequence comparisons among yeasts, fishes and primates to illustrate the concept of limit on genetic distance. The idea of limit or optimum is in line with the yin-yang paradigm in the traditional Chinese view of the universal creative law in nature.

  19. European registration process for Clinical Laboratory Geneticists in genetic healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Thomas; Carreira, Isabel M; Aktas, Dilek; Bakker, Egbert; Rodríguez de Alba, Marta; Coviello, Domenico A; Florentin, Lina; Scheffer, Hans; Rincic, Martina

    2017-05-01

    Tremendous progress in genetics and genomics led to a wide range of healthcare providers, genetic tests, and more patients who can benefit from these developments. To guarantee and improve the quality of genetic testing, a unified European-based registration for individuals qualified in biomedicine was realized. Therefore a Europe-wide recognition of the profession 'European registered Clinical Laboratory Geneticist (ErCLG)' based on a syllabus of core competences was established which allows for harmonization in professional education. The 'European Board of Medical Genetics division - Clinical Laboratory Geneticist' provides now since 3 years the possibility to register as an ErCLG. Applicants may be from all European countries and since this year also from outside of Europe. Five subtitles reflect the exact specialty of each ErCLG, who can reregister every 5 years. A previously not possible statistics based on ~300 individuals from 19 countries as holders of an ErCLG title provides interesting insights into the professionals working in human genetics. It could be substantiated that there are around twice as many females than males and that a PhD title was achieved by 80% of registered ErCLGs. Also most ErCLGs are still trained as generalists (66%), followed by such ErCLGs with focus on molecular genetics (23%); the remaining are concentrated either on clinical (6%), tumor (4%) or biochemical genetics (1%). In conclusion, besides MDs and genetic counselors/nurses an EU-wide recognition system for Clinical Laboratory Geneticist has been established, which strengthens the status of specialists working in human genetic diagnostics in Europe and worldwide.

  20. Novel methodology for casting process optimization using Gaussian process regression and genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Weixiong; Yang Yi; Zeng Bin

    2009-01-01

    High pressure die casting (HPDC) is a versatile material processing method for mass-production of metal parts with complex geometries,and this method has been widely used in manufacturing various products of excellent dimensional accuracy and productivity. In order to ensure the quality of the components,a number of variables need to be properly set. A novel methodology for high pressure die casting process optimization was developed,validated and applied to selection of optimal parameters,which incorporate design of experiment (DOE),Gaussian process (GP) regression technique and genetic algorithms (GA). This new approach was applied to process optimization for cast magnesium alloy notebook shell. After being trained,using data generated by PROCAST (FEM-based simulation software),the GP model approximated well with the simulation by extracting useful information from the simulation results. With the help of MATLAB,the GP/GA based approach has achieved the optimum solution of die casting process condition settings.

  1. Automated process flowsheet synthesis for membrane processes using genetic algorithm: role of crossover operators

    KAUST Repository

    Shafiee, Alireza

    2016-06-25

    In optimization-based process flowsheet synthesis, optimization methods, including genetic algorithms (GA), are used as advantageous tools to select a high performance flowsheet by ‘screening’ large numbers of possible flowsheets. In this study, we expand the role of GA to include flowsheet generation through proposing a modified Greedysub tour crossover operator. Performance of the proposed crossover operator is compared with four other commonly used operators. The proposed GA optimizationbased process synthesis method is applied to generate the optimum process flowsheet for a multicomponent membrane-based CO2 capture process. Within defined constraints and using the random-point crossover, CO2 purity of 0.827 (equivalent to 0.986 on dry basis) is achieved which results in improvement (3.4%) over the simplest crossover operator applied. In addition, the least variability in the converged flowsheet and CO2 purity is observed for random-point crossover operator, which approximately implies closeness of the solution to the global optimum, and hence the consistency of the algorithm. The proposed crossover operator is found to improve the convergence speed of the algorithm by 77.6%.

  2. Developments in Genetic Understanding: Time To Engage with the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Owen

    2002-01-01

    This editorial outlines how developments in our understanding of genetic information may raise new challenges for people with learning disabilities, their parents, and professionals working in learning disability services. It concludes by highlighting some key aspects professionals need to consider if they are to support effectively people who…

  3. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  4. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  5. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2016-08-09

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  6. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2017-09-12

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  7. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

    2014-01-07

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  8. Genetic analysis of processed in-line mastitis indicator data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Løvendahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    on exponential smoothing of the SCC values followed by factor analysis for estimation of the latent variable EMR was used. Finally, EMR was expressed as a continuum on the interval [0;1] using sigmoid transformation. Thus, an EMR value close to zero indicates low risk of mastitis and a value close to one...... indicates high risk of mastitis. The EMR values were summarized for each cow using the log-transformed median EMR. A second trait was defined as the median of the log-transformed SCC values from 5 to 305 d in milk. A bivariate animal model was used for estimation of co-variance components for the 2 traits....... The fixed part of the model included herd and parity. Estimates of heritability were 0.08 (SE = 0.04) and 0.14 (SE = 0.05) for EMR and SCC, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was 0.97 (SE = 0.08). The high genetic correlation indicates that the 2 traits are influenced by common genes...

  9. [Molecular genetic bases of adaptation processes and approaches to their analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmenkova, E A

    2013-01-01

    Great interest in studying the molecular genetic bases of the adaptation processes is explained by their importance in understanding evolutionary changes, in the development ofintraspecific and interspecific genetic diversity, and in the creation of approaches and programs for maintaining and restoring the population. The article examines the sources and conditions for generating adaptive genetic variability and contribution of neutral and adaptive genetic variability to the population structure of the species; methods for identifying the adaptive genetic variability on the genome level are also described. Considerable attention is paid to the potential of new technologies of genome analysis, including next-generation sequencing and some accompanying methods. In conclusion, the important role of the joint use of genomics and proteomics approaches in understanding the molecular genetic bases of adaptation is emphasized.

  10. Emotional voice processing: investigating the role of genetic variation in the serotonin transporter across development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Grossmann

    Full Text Available The ability to effectively respond to emotional information carried in the human voice plays a pivotal role for social interactions. We examined how genetic factors, especially the serotonin transporter genetic variation (5-HTTLPR, affect the neurodynamics of emotional voice processing in infants and adults by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs. The results revealed that infants distinguish between emotions during an early perceptual processing stage, whereas adults recognize and evaluate the meaning of emotions during later semantic processing stages. While infants do discriminate between emotions, only in adults was genetic variation associated with neurophysiological differences in how positive and negative emotions are processed in the brain. This suggests that genetic association with neurocognitive functions emerges during development, emphasizing the role that variation in serotonin plays in the maturation of brain systems involved in emotion recognition.

  11. Why genetic information processing could have a quantum basis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoorva Patel

    2001-06-01

    Living organisms are not just random collections of organic molecules. There is continuous information processing going on in the apparent bouncing around of molecules of life. Optimization criteria in this information processing can be searched for using the laws of physics. Quantum dynamics can explain why living organisms have 4 nucleotide bases and 20 amino acids, as optimal solutions of the molecular assembly process. Experiments should be able to tell whether evolution indeed took advantage of quantum dynamics or not.

  12. Dynamic Programming and Genetic Algorithm for Business Processes Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Wibig

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many business process modelling techniques, which allow to capture features of those processes, but graphical, diagrammatic models seems to be used most in companies and organizations. Although the modelling notations are more and more mature and can be used not only to visualise the process idea but also to implement it in the workflow solution and although modern software allows us to gather a lot of data for analysis purposes, there is still not much commercial used business process optimisation methods. In this paper the scheduling / optimisation method for automatic task scheduling in business processes models is described. The Petri Net model is used, but it can be easily applied to any other modelling notation, where the process is presented as a set of tasks, i.e. BPMN (Business Process Modelling Notation. The method uses Petri Nets’, business processes’ scalability and dynamic programming concept to reduce the necessary computations, by revising only those parts of the model, to which the change was applied.

  13. Heavy-ion induced genetic changes and evolution processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.; Mei, M.

    1994-01-01

    On Moon and Mars, there will be more galactic cosmic rays and higher radiation doses than on Earth. Our experimental studies showed that heavy ion radiation can effectively cause mutation and chromosome aberrations and that high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy-ion induced mutants can be irreversible. Chromosome translocations and deletions are common in cells irradiated by heavy particles, and ionizing radiations are effective in causing hyperploidy. The importance of the genetic changes in the evolution of life is an interesting question. Through evolution, there is an increase of DNA content in cells from lower forms of life to higher organisms. The DNA content, however, reached a plateau in vertebrates. By increasing DNA content, there can be an increase of information in the cell. For a given DNA content, the quality of information can be changed by rearranging the DNA. Because radiation can cause hyperploidy, an increase of DNA content in cells, and can induce DNA rearrangement, it is likely that the evolution of life on Mars will be effected by its radiation environment. A simple analysis shows that the radiation level on Mars may cause a mutation frequency comparable to that of the spontaneous mutation rate on Earth. To the extent that mutation plays a role in adaptation, radiation alone on Mars may thus provide sufficient mutation for the evolution of life.

  14. Genetic covariation between brain volumes and IQ, reading performance, and processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betjemann, Rebecca S; Johnson, Erin Phinney; Barnard, Holly; Boada, Richard; Filley, Christopher M; Filipek, Pauline A; Willcutt, Erik G; DeFries, John C; Pennington, Bruce F

    2010-03-01

    Although there has been much interest in the relation between brain size and cognition, few studies have investigated this relation within a genetic framework and fewer still in non-adult samples. We analyzed the genetic and environmental covariance between structural MRI data from four brain regions (total brain volume, neocortex, white matter, and prefrontal cortex), and four cognitive measures (verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), reading ability, and processing speed), in a sample of 41 MZ twin pairs and 30 same-sex DZ twin pairs (mean age at cognitive test = 11.4 years; mean age at scan = 15.4 years). Multivariate Cholesky decompositions were performed with each brain volume measure entered first, followed by the four cognitive measures. Consistent with previous research, each brain and cognitive measure was found to be significantly heritable. The novel finding was the significant genetic but not environmental covariance between brain volumes and cognitive measures. Specifically, PIQ shared significant common genetic variance with all four measures of brain volume (r (g) = .58-.82). In contrast, VIQ shared significant genetic influence with neocortex volume only (r (g) = .58). Processing speed was significant with total brain volume (r (g) = .79), neocortex (r (g) = .64), and white matter (r (g) = .89), but not prefrontal cortex. The only brain measure to share genetic influence with reading was total brain volume (r (g) = .32), which also shared genetic influences with processing speed.

  15. Genetic-based fuzzy image filter and its application to image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Shing; Guo, Shu-Mei; Hsu, Chin-Yuan

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a Genetic-based Fuzzy Image Filter (GFIF) to remove additive identical independent distribution (i.i.d.) impulse noise from highly corrupted images. The proposed filter consists of a fuzzy number construction process, a fuzz filtering process, a genetic learning process, and an image knowledge base. First, the fuzzy number construction process receives sample images or the noise-free image and then constructs an image knowledge base for the fuzzy filtering process. Second, the fuzzy filtering process contains a parallel fuzzy inference mechanism, a fuzzy mean process, and a fuzzy decision process to perform the task of noise removal. Finally, based on the genetic algorithm, the genetic learning process adjusts the parameters of the image knowledge base. By the experimental results, GFIF achieves a better performance than the state-of-the-art filters based on the criteria of Peak-Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (PSNR), Mean-Square-Error (MSE), and Mean-Absolute-Error (MAE). On the subjective evaluation of those filtered images, GFIF also results in a higher quality of global restoration.

  16. Processes affecting genetic structure and conservation: a case study of wild and cultivated Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Naja Steen; Poulsen, Gert; Andersen, Bente Anni;

    2009-01-01

    a clear distinction of B. rapa and B. napus individuals except for three individuals that seemed to be backcrosses. The backcrossed hybrids descended from two Swedish populations, one wild and one escaped. The overall pattern of genetic variation and structure in B. rapa showed that cultivated and wild B...... cultivar. The study point to that many processes, e.g. spontaneous introgression, naturalisation, breeding and agricultural practise affected the genetic structure of wild and cultivated B. rapa populations....

  17. Process-time Optimization of Vacuum Degassing Using a Genetic Alloy Design Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilner, D.; Lu, Q.; Mao, H.; Xu, W.; Van der Zwaag, S.; Selleby, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of a new model consisting of a genetic algorithm in combination with thermodynamic calculations and analytical process models to minimize the processing time during a vacuum degassing treatment of liquid steel. The model sets multiple simultaneous targets for final S,

  18. Simplified process model discovery based on role-oriented genetic mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weidong; Liu, Xi; Dai, Weihui

    2014-01-01

    Process mining is automated acquisition of process models from event logs. Although many process mining techniques have been developed, most of them are based on control flow. Meanwhile, the existing role-oriented process mining methods focus on correctness and integrity of roles while ignoring role complexity of the process model, which directly impacts understandability and quality of the model. To address these problems, we propose a genetic programming approach to mine the simplified process model. Using a new metric of process complexity in terms of roles as the fitness function, we can find simpler process models. The new role complexity metric of process models is designed from role cohesion and coupling, and applied to discover roles in process models. Moreover, the higher fitness derived from role complexity metric also provides a guideline for redesigning process models. Finally, we conduct case study and experiments to show that the proposed method is more effective for streamlining the process by comparing with related studies.

  19. Application of Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Routine in Optimizing Food and Bioengineering Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; McCulloch, Richard

    2016-11-09

    Optimization is a crucial step in the analysis of experimental results. Deterministic methods only converge on local optimums and require exponentially more time as dimensionality increases. Stochastic algorithms are capable of efficiently searching the domain space; however convergence is not guaranteed. This article demonstrates the novelty of the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), which combines both stochastic and deterministic routines for improved optimization results. The new hybrid genetic algorithm developed is applied to the Ackley benchmark function as well as case studies in food, biofuel, and biotechnology processes. For each case study, the hybrid genetic algorithm found a better optimum candidate than reported by the sources. In the case of food processing, the hybrid genetic algorithm improved the anthocyanin yield by 6.44%. Optimization of bio-oil production using HGA resulted in a 5.06% higher yield. In the enzyme production process, HGA predicted a 0.39% higher xylanase yield. Hybridization of the genetic algorithm with a deterministic algorithm resulted in an improved optimum compared to statistical methods.

  20. Optimisation of shock absorber process parameters using failure mode and effect analysis and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariajayaprakash, Arokiasamy; Senthilvelan, Thiyagarajan; Vivekananthan, Krishnapillai Ponnambal

    2013-07-01

    The various process parameters affecting the quality characteristics of the shock absorber during the process were identified using the Ishikawa diagram and by failure mode and effect analysis. The identified process parameters are welding process parameters (squeeze, heat control, wheel speed, and air pressure), damper sealing process parameters (load, hydraulic pressure, air pressure, and fixture height), washing process parameters (total alkalinity, temperature, pH value of rinsing water, and timing), and painting process parameters (flowability, coating thickness, pointage, and temperature). In this paper, the process parameters, namely, painting and washing process parameters, are optimized by Taguchi method. Though the defects are reasonably minimized by Taguchi method, in order to achieve zero defects during the processes, genetic algorithm technique is applied on the optimized parameters obtained by Taguchi method.

  1. Cleaner production for continuous digester processes based on hybrid Pareto genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Pulping production process produce large amount of wastewater and pollutant emitted, which has become one of the main pollution sources in pulp and paper industry. To solve this problem, it is necessary to implement cleaner production by using modeling and optimization technology. This paper studies the model and multi-objective genetic algorithms for continuous digester process. A model is established, in which environmental pollution and saving energy factors are considered. A hybrid genetic algorithm based on Pareto stratum-niche count is designed for finding near-Pareto or Pareto optimal solutions in the problem. A new genetic evaluation and selection mechanism is proposed. Using the real data from a pulp mill shows the results of computer simulation. Through comparing with the practical curve of digester,this method can reduce the pollutant effectively and increase the profit while keeping the pulp quality constant.

  2. Cleaner production for continuous digester processes based on hybrid Pareto genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fu-Jiang; Wang, Hui; Li, Ping

    2003-01-01

    Pulping production process produces a large amount of wastewater and pollutant emitted, which has become one of the main pollution sources in pulp and paper industry. To solve this problem, it is necessary to implement cleaner production by using modeling and optimization technology. This paper studies the modeling and multi-objective genetic algorithms for continuous digester process. First, model is established, in which environmental pollution and saving energy factors are considered. Then hybrid genetic algorithm based on Pareto stratum-nichecount is designed for finding near-Pareto or Pareto optimal solutions in the problem and a new genetic evaluation and selection mechanism is proposed. Finally using the real data from a pulp mill shows the results of computer simulation. Through comparing with the practical curve of digester, this method can reduce the pollutant effectively and increase the profit while keeping the pulp quality unchanged.

  3. Featural versus configural face processing in a rare genetic disorder: Williams syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaac, L.; Lincoln, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Williams syndrome (WMS) is a rare genetic disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 20 000 live births. Among other characteristics, WMS has a distinctive cognitive profile with spared face processing and language skills that contrasts with impairment in the cognitive domains of spat

  4. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) landraces in Mali: Nutrient and phytate content, genetic diversity and effect of processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koreissi, Y.; Fanou-Fogny, N.M.L.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess i) the genetic diversity of fonio (Digitaria exilis) landraces in Mali, ii) the nutrient and phytate content in fonio products and iii) the effect of processing on nutrient content of fonio products. Twelve fonio landraces were collected from farmers in central and southern

  5. Influence of genetic background on anthocyanin and copigment composition and behavior during thermoalkaline processing of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visual color is a primary factor for foods purchase; identifying factors that influence in-situ color quality of pigmented maize during processing is important. We used 24 genetically distinct pigmented maize hybrids (red/blue, blue, red, and purple) to investigate the effect of pigment and copigme...

  6. Process optimization of rolling for zincked sheet technology using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liang-Bo; Chen, Fang

    2017-07-01

    Numerical simulation and intelligent optimization technology were adopted for rolling and extrusion of zincked sheet. By response surface methodology (RSM), genetic algorithm (GA) and data processing technology, an efficient optimization of process parameters for rolling of zincked sheet was investigated. The influence trend of roller gap, rolling speed and friction factor effects on reduction rate and plate shortening rate were analyzed firstly. Then a predictive response surface model for comprehensive quality index of part was created using RSM. Simulated and predicted values were compared. Through genetic algorithm method, the optimal process parameters for the forming of rolling were solved. They were verified and the optimum process parameters of rolling were obtained. It is feasible and effective.

  7. A Genetic Algorithm for Single Machine Scheduling with Fuzzy Processing Time and Multiple Objectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴超超; 顾幸生

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, by considering the fuzzy nature of the data in real-life problems, single machine scheduling problems with fuzzy processing time and multiple objectives are formulated and an efficient genetic algorithm which is suitable for solving these problems is proposed. As illustrative numerical examples, twenty jobs processing on a machine is considered. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method have been demonstrated in the simulation.

  8. Using Workflow Modeling to Identify Areas to Improve Genetic Test Processes in the University of Maryland Translational Pharmacogenomics Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Elizabeth M; Overby, Casey L; Banchero, Meghan; Pollin, Toni; Kelemen, Mark; Shuldiner, Alan R; Beitelshees, Amber L

    Delivering genetic test results to clinicians is a complex process. It involves many actors and multiple steps, requiring all of these to work together in order to create an optimal course of treatment for the patient. We used information gained from focus groups in order to illustrate the current process of delivering genetic test results to clinicians. We propose a business process model and notation (BPMN) representation of this process for a Translational Pharmacogenomics Project being implemented at the University of Maryland Medical Center, so that personalized medicine program implementers can identify areas to improve genetic testing processes. We found that the current process could be improved to reduce input errors, better inform and notify clinicians about the implications of certain genetic tests, and make results more easily understood. We demonstrate our use of BPMN to improve this important clinical process for CYP2C19 genetic testing in patients undergoing invasive treatment of coronary heart disease.

  9. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  10. An Improved Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm for Sheet Cutting Scheduling with Process Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqing Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, an improved hierarchical genetic algorithm for sheet cutting problem which involves n cutting patterns for m non-identical parallel machines with process constraints has been proposed in the integrated cutting stock model. The objective of the cutting scheduling problem is minimizing the weighted completed time. A mathematical model for this problem is presented, an improved hierarchical genetic algorithm (ant colony—hierarchical genetic algorithm is developed for better solution, and a hierarchical coding method is used based on the characteristics of the problem. Furthermore, to speed up convergence rates and resolve local convergence issues, a kind of adaptive crossover probability and mutation probability is used in this algorithm. The computational result and comparison prove that the presented approach is quite effective for the considered problem.

  11. A Genetic Algorithm-Based Approach for Process Scheduling In Distributed Operating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Distributed Computing System comprising networked heterogeneous processors requires efficient process allocation algorithms to achieve minimum turnaround time and highest possible throughput. To efficiently execute processes on a distributed system, processes must be correctly assigned to processors and determine the execution order of processes so that the overall execution time is minimized. Even when target processors are fully connected and the communication among processors is fast and no dependencies exist among processes the scheduling problem is NP-complete. Complexity of scheduling problem dependent of number of processors, process execution time and the processor network topology. As distributed systems exist in kinds of homogeneous and heterogeneous, in heterogeneous systems the difference between processors leads to different execution time for an individual process on different processors and makes scheduling problem more complex. Our proposed genetic algorithm is applicable for both homogeneous and heterogeneous kinds.

  12. Management of Uncertainty by Statistical Process Control and a Genetic Tuned Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Birle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In food industry, bioprocesses like fermentation often are a crucial part of the manufacturing process and decisive for the final product quality. In general, they are characterized by highly nonlinear dynamics and uncertainties that make it difficult to control these processes by the use of traditional control techniques. In this context, fuzzy logic controllers offer quite a straightforward way to control processes that are affected by nonlinear behavior and uncertain process knowledge. However, in order to maintain process safety and product quality it is necessary to specify the controller performance and to tune the controller parameters. In this work, an approach is presented to establish an intelligent control system for oxidoreductive yeast propagation as a representative process biased by the aforementioned uncertainties. The presented approach is based on statistical process control and fuzzy logic feedback control. As the cognitive uncertainty among different experts about the limits that define the control performance as still acceptable may differ a lot, a data-driven design method is performed. Based upon a historic data pool statistical process corridors are derived for the controller inputs control error and change in control error. This approach follows the hypothesis that if the control performance criteria stay within predefined statistical boundaries, the final process state meets the required quality definition. In order to keep the process on its optimal growth trajectory (model based reference trajectory a fuzzy logic controller is used that alternates the process temperature. Additionally, in order to stay within the process corridors, a genetic algorithm was applied to tune the input and output fuzzy sets of a preliminarily parameterized fuzzy controller. The presented experimental results show that the genetic tuned fuzzy controller is able to keep the process within its allowed limits. The average absolute error to the

  13. Defining desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding objective using analytic hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using weighted goal programming (WGP). The aim of this study was to use an AHP-WGP based approach to derive desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding, and to study whether breeding trait preferences va...

  14. Simplified Process Model Discovery Based on Role-Oriented Genetic Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Process mining is automated acquisition of process models from event logs. Although many process mining techniques have been developed, most of them are based on control flow. Meanwhile, the existing role-oriented process mining methods focus on correctness and integrity of roles while ignoring role complexity of the process model, which directly impacts understandability and quality of the model. To address these problems, we propose a genetic programming approach to mine the simplified process model. Using a new metric of process complexity in terms of roles as the fitness function, we can find simpler process models. The new role complexity metric of process models is designed from role cohesion and coupling, and applied to discover roles in process models. Moreover, the higher fitness derived from role complexity metric also provides a guideline for redesigning process models. Finally, we conduct case study and experiments to show that the proposed method is more effective for streamlining the process by comparing with related studies.

  15. Field application of a genetically engineered microorganism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation process monitoring and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayler, G.S.; Cox, C.D.; Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Werner, C.; Ahn, Y.; Matrubutham, U. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burlage, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1998-11-01

    On October 30, 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commenced the first test release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for use in bioremediation. The specific objectives of the investigation were multifaceted and include (1) testing the hypothesis that a GEM can be successfully introduced and maintained in a bioremediation process, (2) testing the concept of using, at the field scale, reporter organisms for direct bioremediation process monitoring and control, and (3) acquiring data that can be used in risk assessment decision making and protocol development for future field release applications of GEMs. The genetically engineered strain under investigation is Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (King et al., 1990). The original P. fluorescens parent strain was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated manufactured gas plant soil. Thus, this bacterium is able to biodegrade naphthalene (as well as other substituted naphthalenes and other PAHs) and is able to function as a living bioluminescent reporter for the presence of naphthalene contamination, its bioavailability, and the functional process of biodegradation. A unique component of this field investigation was the availability of an array of large subsurface soil lysimeters. This article describes the experience associated with the release of a genetically modified microorganism, the lysimeter facility and its associated instrumentation, as well as representative data collected during the first eighteen months of operation.

  16. Process planning optimization on turning machine tool using a hybrid genetic algorithm with local search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A turning machine tool is a kind of new type of machine tool that is equipped with more than one spindle and turret. The distinctive simultaneous and parallel processing abilities of turning machine tool increase the complexity of process planning. The operations would not only be sequenced and satisfy precedence constraints, but also should be scheduled with multiple objectives such as minimizing machining cost, maximizing utilization of turning machine tool, and so on. To solve this problem, a hybrid genetic algorithm was proposed to generate optimal process plans based on a mixed 0-1 integer programming model. An operation precedence graph is used to represent precedence constraints and help generate a feasible initial population of hybrid genetic algorithm. Encoding strategy based on data structure was developed to represent process plans digitally in order to form the solution space. In addition, a local search approach for optimizing the assignments of available turrets would be added to incorporate scheduling with process planning. A real-world case is used to prove that the proposed approach could avoid infeasible solutions and effectively generate a global optimal process plan.

  17. Optimization of LPDC Process Parameters Using the Combination of Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Li, Luoxing; Wang, Shiuping; Zhu, Biwu

    2012-04-01

    In this article, the low-pressure die-cast (LPDC) process parameters of aluminum alloy thin-walled component with permanent mold are optimized using a combining artificial neural network and genetic algorithm (ANN/GA) method. In this method, an ANN model combining learning vector quantization (LVQ) and back-propagation (BP) algorithm is proposed to map the complex relationship between process conditions and quality indexes of LPDC. The genetic algorithm is employed to optimize the process parameters with the fitness function based on the trained ANN model. Then, by applying the optimized parameters, a thin-walled component with 300 mm in length, 100 mm in width, and 1.5 mm in thickness is successfully prepared and no obvious defects such as shrinkage, gas porosity, distortion, and crack were found in the component. The results indicate that the combining ANN/GA method is an effective tool for the process optimization of LPDC, and they also provide valuable reference on choosing the right process parameters for LPDC thin-walled aluminum alloy casting.

  18. Genetic Code Expansion as a Tool to Study Regulatory Processes of Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Moritz; Summerer, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The expansion of the genetic code with noncanonical amino acids (ncAA) enables the chemical and biophysical properties of proteins to be tailored, inside cells, with a previously unattainable level of precision. A wide range of ncAA with functions not found in canonical amino acids have been genetically encoded in recent years and have delivered insights into biological processes that would be difficult to access with traditional approaches of molecular biology. A major field for the development and application of novel ncAA-functions has been transcription and its regulation. This is particularly attractive, since advanced DNA sequencing- and proteomics-techniques continue to deliver vast information on these processes on a global level, but complementing methodologies to study them on a detailed, molecular level and in living cells have been comparably scarce. In a growing number of studies, genetic code expansion has now been applied to precisely control the chemical properties of transcription factors, RNA polymerases and histones, and this has enabled new insights into their interactions, conformational changes, cellular localizations and the functional roles of posttranslational modifications.

  19. The knowledge value-chain of genetic counseling for breast cancer: an empirical assessment of prediction and communication processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Nabil; Blouin-Bougie, Jolyane; Jbilou, Jalila; Halilem, Norrin; Simard, Jacques; Landry, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: to analyze the genetic counseling process for breast cancer with a theoretical knowledge transfer lens and to compare generalists, medical specialists, and genetic counselors with regards to their genetic counseling practices. This paper presents the genetic counseling process occurring within a chain of value-adding activities of four main stages describing health professionals' clinical practices: (1) evaluation, (2) investigation, (3) information, and (4) decision. It also presents the results of a cross-sectional study based on a Canadian medical doctors and genetic counselors survey (n = 176) realized between July 2012 and March 2013. The statistical exercise included descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests. The results indicate that even though all types of health professionals are involved in the entire process of genetic counseling for breast cancer, genetic counselors are more involved in the evaluation of breast cancer risk, while medical doctors are more active in the decision toward breast cancer risk management strategies. The results secondly demonstrate the relevance and the key role of genetic counselors in the care provided to women at-risk of familial breast cancer. This paper presents an integrative framework to understand the current process of genetic counseling for breast cancer in Canada, and to shed light on how and where health professionals contribute to the process. It also offers a starting point for assessing clinical practices in genetic counseling in order to establish more clearly where and to what extent efforts should be undertaken to implement future genetic services.

  20. Optimization process planning using hybrid genetic algorithm and intelligent search for job shop machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mojtaba; Bahreininejad, Ardeshir

    2011-08-01

    Optimization of process planning is considered as the key technology for computer-aided process planning which is a rather complex and difficult procedure. A good process plan of a part is built up based on two elements: (1) the optimized sequence of the operations of the part; and (2) the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and Tool Access Direction (TAD) for each operation. In the present work, the process planning is divided into preliminary planning, and secondary/detailed planning. In the preliminary stage, based on the analysis of order and clustering constraints as a compulsive constraint aggregation in operation sequencing and using an intelligent searching strategy, the feasible sequences are generated. Then, in the detailed planning stage, using the genetic algorithm which prunes the initial feasible sequences, the optimized operation sequence and the optimized selection of the machine, cutting tool and TAD for each operation based on optimization constraints as an additive constraint aggregation are obtained. The main contribution of this work is the optimization of sequence of the operations of the part, and optimization of machine selection, cutting tool and TAD for each operation using the intelligent search and genetic algorithm simultaneously.

  1. Influence of Genetic Background on Anthocyanin and Copigment Composition and Behavior during Thermoalkaline Processing of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Amy; Yang, Liyi; Dykes, Linda; Murray, Seth; Awika, Joseph M

    2015-06-10

    Visual color is a primary quality factor for foods purchase; identifying factors that influence in situ color quality of pigmented maize during processing is important. Twenty-four genetically distinct pigmented maize hybrids (red/blue, blue, red, and purple) were used to investigate the effect of pigment and copigment composition on color stability during nixtamalization and tortilla chip processing. The red/blue and blue samples generally contained higher proportions of acylated anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-(6″-malonylglucoside)) than the red and purple color classes. Phenolic amides were the major extractable copigments in all samples (450-764 μg/g), with red samples containing the most putrescines and blue samples containing the most spermidines. Even though samples with higher proportions of acylated anthocyanins retained more pigments during processing, this did not relate to final product color quality. In general, the red/blue samples retained their color quality the best and thus are good candidates for genetic improvement for direct processing into alkalized products.

  2. Thermomechanical processing optimization for 304 austenitic stainless steel using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wen; Yang, Sen

    2016-12-01

    Thermomechanical processing has an important effect on the grain boundary character distribution. To obtain the optimal thermomechanical processing parameters is the key of grain boundary engineering. In this study, genetic algorithm (GA) based on artificial neural network model was proposed to optimize the thermomechanical processing parameters. In this model, a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) was established to map the relationship between thermomechanical processing parameters and the fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries, and GA integrated with BPNN (BPNN/GA) was applied to optimize the thermomechanical processing parameters. The validation of the optimal thermomechanical processing parameters was verified by an experiment. Moreover, the microstructures and the intergranular corrosion resistance of the base material (BM) and the materials produced by the optimal thermomechanical processing parameters (termed as the GBEM) were studied. Compared to the BM specimen, the fraction of low-Σ CSL boundaries was increased from 56.8 to 77.9% and the random boundary network was interrupted by the low-Σ CSL boundaries, and the intergranular corrosion resistance was improved in the GBEM specimen. The results indicated that the BPNN/GA model was an effective and reliable means for the thermomechanical processing parameters optimization, which resulted in improving the intergranular corrosion resistance in 304 austenitic stainless steel.

  3. Optimization and Simulation of Plastic Injection Process using Genetic Algorithm and Moldflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martowibowo, Sigit Yoewono; Kaswadi, Agung

    2017-03-01

    The use of plastic-based products is continuously increasing. The increasing demands for thinner products, lower production costs, yet higher product quality has triggered an increase in the number of research projects on plastic molding processes. An important branch of such research is focused on mold cooling system. Conventional cooling systems are most widely used because they are easy to make by using conventional machining processes. However, the non-uniform cooling processes are considered as one of their weaknesses. Apart from the conventional systems, there are also conformal cooling systems that are designed for faster and more uniform plastic mold cooling. In this study, the conformal cooling system is applied for the production of bowl-shaped product made of PP AZ564. Optimization is conducted to initiate machine setup parameters, namely, the melting temperature, injection pressure, holding pressure and holding time. The genetic algorithm method and Moldflow were used to optimize the injection process parameters at a minimum cycle time. It is found that, an optimum injection molding processes could be obtained by setting the parameters to the following values: T M = 180 °C; P inj = 20 MPa; P hold = 16 MPa and t hold = 8 s, with a cycle time of 14.11 s. Experiments using the conformal cooling system yielded an average cycle time of 14.19 s. The studied conformal cooling system yielded a volumetric shrinkage of 5.61% and the wall shear stress was found at 0.17 MPa. The difference between the cycle time obtained through simulations and experiments using the conformal cooling system was insignificant (below 1%). Thus, combining process parameters optimization and simulations by using genetic algorithm method with Moldflow can be considered as valid.

  4. Computational dissection of human episodic memory reveals mental process-specific genetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksys, Gediminas; Fastenrath, Matthias; Coynel, David; Freytag, Virginie; Gschwind, Leo; Heck, Angela; Jessen, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Milnik, Annette; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Scherer, Martin; Spalek, Klara; Vogler, Christian; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2015-09-01

    Episodic memory performance is the result of distinct mental processes, such as learning, memory maintenance, and emotional modulation of memory strength. Such processes can be effectively dissociated using computational models. Here we performed gene set enrichment analyses of model parameters estimated from the episodic memory performance of 1,765 healthy young adults. We report robust and replicated associations of the amine compound SLC (solute-carrier) transporters gene set with the learning rate, of the collagen formation and transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity gene sets with the modulation of memory strength by negative emotional arousal, and of the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) interactions gene set with the repetition-based memory improvement. Furthermore, in a large functional MRI sample of 795 subjects we found that the association between L1CAM interactions and memory maintenance revealed large clusters of differences in brain activity in frontal cortical areas. Our findings provide converging evidence that distinct genetic profiles underlie specific mental processes of human episodic memory. They also provide empirical support to previous theoretical and neurobiological studies linking specific neuromodulators to the learning rate and linking neural cell adhesion molecules to memory maintenance. Furthermore, our study suggests additional memory-related genetic pathways, which may contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of human memory.

  5. Detection of Genetically Modified Maize in Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Iran by Qualitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Rastegar, Hossein; Vahidi, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food is an important issue for all the subjects involved in food control and customer’s right. Due to the increasing number of GMOs imported to Iran during the past few years, it has become necessary to screen the products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, following the extraction of genomic DNA from processed foods sold commercially in Iran, qualitative PCR was performed to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CaMV35s gene, Bt-11, MON810 and Bt-176 separately. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 11 and MON810 events were detected in some maize samples, while, in none of them Bt- 176 modified gene was detected. For the first time, the results demonstrate the presence of genetically modified maize in Iranian food products, reinforcing the need for the development of labeling system and valid quantitative methods in routine analyses. PMID:24250568

  6. Detection of genetically modified DNA in fresh and processed foods sold in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salameen, Fadila; Kumar, Vinod; Al-Aqeel, Hamed; Al-Hashash, Hanadi; Hejji, Ahmed Bin

    2012-01-01

    Developments in genetic engineering technology have led to an increase in number of food products that contain genetically engineered crops in the global market. However, due to lack of scientific studies, the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the Kuwaiti food market is currently ambiguous. Foods both for human and animal consumption are being imported from countries that are known to produce GM food. Therefore, an attempt has been made to screen foods sold in the Kuwaiti market to detect GMOs in the food. For this purpose, samples collected from various markets in Kuwait have been screened by SYBR green-based real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Further confirmation and GMO quantification was performed by TaqMan-based RT-PCR. Results indicated that a significant number of food commodities sold in Kuwait were tested positive for the presence of GMO. Interestingly, certain processed foods were tested positive for more than one transgenic events showing complex nature of GMOs in food samples. Results of this study clearly indicate the need for well-defined legislations and regulations on the marketing of approved GM food and its labeling to protect consumer's rights.

  7. An Interval-Valued Approach to Business Process Simulation Based on Genetic Algorithms and the BPMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G.C.A. Cimino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulating organizational processes characterized by interacting human activities, resources, business rules and constraints, is a challenging task, because of the inherent uncertainty, inaccuracy, variability and dynamicity. With regard to this problem, currently available business process simulation (BPS methods and tools are unable to efficiently capture the process behavior along its lifecycle. In this paper, a novel approach of BPS is presented. To build and manage simulation models according to the proposed approach, a simulation system is designed, developed and tested on pilot scenarios, as well as on real-world processes. The proposed approach exploits interval-valued data to represent model parameters, in place of conventional single-valued or probability-valued parameters. Indeed, an interval-valued parameter is comprehensive; it is the easiest to understand and express and the simplest to process, among multi-valued representations. In order to compute the interval-valued output of the system, a genetic algorithm is used. The resulting process model allows forming mappings at different levels of detail and, therefore, at different model resolutions. The system has been developed as an extension of a publicly available simulation engine, based on the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN standard.

  8. WEDM process variables investigation for HSLA by response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM is a thermo-electric spark erosion non-traditional type manufacturing process. The applications of WEDM have been found in aerospace and die manufacturing industries, where precise dimensions were the prime objective. This process is applied in case of processing difficult to machine material. Brass wire is used as an electrode and High strength low alloy (HSLA steel as a work-piece during experimentation. The present research deals with the effect of process parameters on the overcut while machining the HSLA steel on WEDM. The mathematical model has been developed with the help of Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Further this model is processed with help of Genetic Algorithm (GA to find out the optimum machining parameters. The percentage error between the predicted and experimental values lies in the range of ±10%, which indicates that the developed model can be utilized to predict the overcut values. The experimental plan was executed according to central composite design. The optimal setting of process parameters is pulse on-time-117 μs; pulse off-time-50 μs; spark gap voltage-49 V; peak current-180 A and wire tension-6 g; for minimum overcut, whereas at the optimal setting overcut is 9.9922 μm.

  9. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  10. Genetic algorithm for short-term scheduling of make-and-pack batch production process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wuthichai Wongthatsanekorn; Busaba Phruksaphanrat

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a scheduling problem in industrial make-and-pack batch production process. This process equips with sequence-dependent changeover time, multipurpose storage units with limited capacity, storage time, batch splitting, partial equipment connectivity and transfer time. The objective is to make a production plan to satisfy al constraints while meeting demand requirement of packed products from various product fam-ilies. This problem is NP-hard and the problem size is exponentially large for a realistic-sized problem. Therefore, we propose a genetic algorithm to handle this problem. Solutions to the problems are represented by chromo-somes of product family sequences. These sequences are decoded to assign the resource for producing packed products according to forward assignment strategy and resource selection rules. These techniques greatly reduce unnecessary search space and improve search speed. In addition, design of experiment is carefully utilized to de-termine appropriate parameter settings. Ant colony optimization and Tabu search are also implemented for com-parison. At the end of each heuristics, local search is applied for the packed product sequence to improve makespan. In an experimental analysis, al heuristics show the capability to solve large instances within reason-able computational time. In al problem instances, genetic algorithm averagely outperforms ant colony optimiza-tion and Tabu search with slightly longer computational time.

  11. Multi-objective optimization of stamping forming process of head using Pareto-based genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 卓芳; 黄磊; 罗艳

    2015-01-01

    To obtain the optimal process parameters of stamping forming, finite element analysis and optimization technique were integrated via transforming multi-objective issue into a single-objective issue. A Pareto-based genetic algorithm was applied to optimizing the head stamping forming process. In the proposed optimal model, fracture, wrinkle and thickness varying are a function of several factors, such as fillet radius, draw-bead position, blank size and blank-holding force. Hence, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between the objective functions and the variables in order to make objective functions varying minimized simultaneously. Firstly, the central composite experimental (CCD) with four factors and five levels was applied, and the experimental data based on the central composite experimental were acquired. Then, the response surface model (RSM) was set up and the results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) show that it is reliable to predict the fracture, wrinkle and thickness varying functions by the response surface model. Finally, a Pareto-based genetic algorithm was used to find out a set of Pareto front, which makes fracture, wrinkle and thickness varying minimized integrally. A head stamping case indicates that the present method has higher precision and practicability compared with the“trial and error”procedure.

  12. Genetic drift in populations governed by a Galton-Watson branching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Conrad J; Simon, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    Most population genetics studies have their origins in a Wright-Fisher or some closely related fixed-population model in which each individual randomly chooses its ancestor. Populations which vary in size with time are typically modelled via a coalescent derived from Wright-Fisher, but use a nonlinear time-scaling driven by a deterministically imposed population growth. An alternate, arguably more realistic approach, and one which we take here, is to allow the population size to vary stochastically via a Galton-Watson branching process. We study genetic drift in a population consisting of a number of distinct allele types in which each allele type evolves as an independent Galton-Watson branching process. We find the dynamics of the population is determined by a single parameter κ0=(2m0/σ(2))logλ, where m0 is the initial population size, λ is the mean number of offspring per individual; and σ(2) is the variance of the number of offspring. For 0≲κ0≪1, the dynamics are close to those of Wright-Fisher, with the added property that the population is prone to extinction. For κ0≫1 allele frequencies and ancestral lineages are stable and individual alleles do not fix throughout the population. The existence of a rapid changeover regime at κ0≈1 enables estimates to be made, together with confidence intervals, of the time and population size of the era of mitochondrial Eve.

  13. Computational thermodynamics, Gaussian processes and genetic algorithms: combined tools to design new alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancret, F.

    2013-06-01

    A new alloy design procedure is proposed, combining in a single computational tool several modelling and predictive techniques that have already been used and assessed in the field of materials science and alloy design: a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the alloy composition for target properties and performance on the basis of the prediction of mechanical properties (estimated by Gaussian process regression of data on existing alloys) and of microstructural constitution, stability and processability (evaluated by computational themodynamics). These tools are integrated in a unique Matlab programme. An example is given in the case of the design of a new nickel-base superalloy for future power plant applications (such as the ultra-supercritical (USC) coal-fired plant, or the high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGCR or HTGR), where the selection criteria include cost, oxidation and creep resistance around 750 °C, long-term stability at service temperature, forgeability, weldability, etc.

  14. Consumers’ response to genetically modified ingredients in processed food in an emerging economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yormirzoev, Mirzobobo; Teuber, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    with their willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients. Moreover, a higher risk perception of GM food is negatively associated with the probability to purchase and consume such foods. However, our results indicate that risk perceptions of GM food seem to be relatively low in comparison to other...... studies with 41.5% of Tajik respondents connecting no risks with GM food. This result is surprising given the existing knowledge about post–Soviet Union consumers who are usually assumed to reject GM food due to their strong focus on naturalness.......Genetically modified (GM) foods are available in many countries including post–Soviet Union countries. However, empirical evidence on consumer acceptance for this region is scarce. In this study, we investigate consumers’ willingness to purchase a processed food containing GM ingredients...

  15. Nonlinear software sensor for monitoring genetic regulation processes with noise and modeling errors

    CERN Document Server

    Ibarra-Junquera, V; Rosu, H C; Arguello, G; Collado-Vides, J

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear control techniques by means of a software sensor that are commonly used in chemical engineering could be also applied to genetic regulation processes. We provide here a realistic formulation of this procedure by introducing an additive white Gaussian noise, which is usually found in experimental data. Besides, we include model errors, meaning that we assume we do not know the nonlinear regulation function of the process. In order to illustrate this procedure, we employ the Goodwin dynamics of the concentrations (1963) in the simple form recently discussed by De Jong (2002), which involves the dynamics of the mRNA a, given protein A, and metabolite K concentrations. However instead of considering their full dynamics, we use only the data of metabolite K and a designed software sensor. We also show, more generally, that it is possible to rebuild the complete set of n concentrations despite the uncertainties in the regulation function and the perturbation due to the additive white Gaussian noise

  16. Prediction of Reaction Kinetic of Al- Doura Heavy Naphtha Reforming Process Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzy H. Saihod

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, genetic algorithm was used to predict the reaction kinetics of Iraqi heavy naphtha catalytic reforming process located in Al-Doura refinery in Baghdad. One-dimensional steady state model was derived to describe commercial catalytic reforming unit consisting of four catalytic reforming reactors in series process. The experimental information (Reformate composition and output temperature for each four reactors collected at different operating conditions was used to predict the parameters of the proposed kinetic model. The kinetic model involving 24 components, 1 to 11 carbon atoms for paraffins and 6 to 11 carbon atom for naphthenes and aromatics with 71 reactions. The pre-exponential Arrhenius constants and activation energies were determined after fine tuning of the model results with experimental data. The input to the optimization is the compositions for 21 components and the temperature for the effluent stream for each one of the four reactors within the reforming process while the output of optimization is 142 predicted kinetic parameters for 71 reactions within reforming process. The differential optimization technique using genetic algorithm to predict the parameters of the kinetic model. To validate the kinetic model, the simulation results of the model based on proposed kinetic model was compared with the experimental results. The comparison between the predicted and commercially results shows a good agreement, while the percentage of absolute error for aromatics compositions are (7.5, 2, 8.3, and 6.1% and the temperature absolute percentage error are (0.49, 0.5, 0.01, and 0.3% for four reactors respectively.

  17. Genetics vs. entropy: longevity factors suppress the NF-kappaB-driven entropic aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2010-07-01

    Molecular studies in model organisms have identified potent longevity genes which can delay the aging process and extend the lifespan. Longevity factors promote stress resistance and cellular survival. It seems that the aging process itself is not genetically programmed but a random process involving the loss of molecular fidelity and subsequent accumulation of waste products. This age-related increase in cellular entropy is compatible with the disposable soma theory of aging. A large array of host defence systems has been linked to the NF-kappaB system which is an ancient signaling pathway specialized to host defence, e.g. functioning in immune system. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the NF-kappaB system is activated during aging. Oxidative stress and DNA damage increase with aging and elicit a sustained activation of the NF-kappaB system which has negative consequences, e.g. chronic inflammatory response, increase in apoptotic resistance, decline in autophagic cleansing, and tissue atrophy, i.e. processes that enhance the aging process. We will discuss the role of NF-kappaB system in the pro-aging signaling and will emphasize that several longevity factors seem to be inhibitors of NF-kappaB signaling and in that way they can suppress the NF-kappaB-driven entropic host defence catastrophe.

  18. The Mitochondrial Genome Is a “Genetic Sanctuary” during the Oncogenic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Teresa; Fraga, Maximo; Salas, Antonio; Costoya, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    Since Otto Warburg linked mitochondrial physiology and oncogenesis in the 1930s, a number of studies have focused on the analysis of the genetic basis for the presence of aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. However, little or no evidence exists today to indicate that mtDNA mutations are directly responsible for the initiation of tumor onset. Based on a model of gliomagenesis in the mouse, we aimed to explore whether or not mtDNA mutations are associated with the initiation of tumor formation, maintenance and aggressiveness. We reproduced the different molecular events that lead from tumor initiation to progression in the mouse glioma. In human gliomas, most of the genetic alterations that have been previously identified result in the aberrant activation of different signaling pathways and deregulation of the cell cycle. Our data indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, leading to increased nuclear DNA (nDNA) mutagenesis, but maintaining the integrity of the mitochondrial genome. In addition, mutational stability has been observed in entire mtDNA of human gliomas; this is in full agreement with the results obtained in the cancer mouse model. We use this model as a paradigm of oncogenic transformation due to the fact that mutations commonly found in gliomas appear to be the most common molecular alterations leading to tumor development in most types of human cancer. Our results indicate that the mtDNA genome is kept by the cell as a “genetic sanctuary” during tumor development in the mouse and humans. This is compatible with the hypothesis that the mtDNA molecule plays an essential role in the control of the cellular adaptive survival response to tumor-induced oxidative stress. The integrity of mtDNA seems to be a necessary element for responding to the increased ROS production associated with the oncogenic process. PMID:21858071

  19. The mitochondrial genome is a "genetic sanctuary" during the oncogenic process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Seoane

    Full Text Available Since Otto Warburg linked mitochondrial physiology and oncogenesis in the 1930s, a number of studies have focused on the analysis of the genetic basis for the presence of aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. However, little or no evidence exists today to indicate that mtDNA mutations are directly responsible for the initiation of tumor onset. Based on a model of gliomagenesis in the mouse, we aimed to explore whether or not mtDNA mutations are associated with the initiation of tumor formation, maintenance and aggressiveness. We reproduced the different molecular events that lead from tumor initiation to progression in the mouse glioma. In human gliomas, most of the genetic alterations that have been previously identified result in the aberrant activation of different signaling pathways and deregulation of the cell cycle. Our data indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, leading to increased nuclear DNA (nDNA mutagenesis, but maintaining the integrity of the mitochondrial genome. In addition, mutational stability has been observed in entire mtDNA of human gliomas; this is in full agreement with the results obtained in the cancer mouse model. We use this model as a paradigm of oncogenic transformation due to the fact that mutations commonly found in gliomas appear to be the most common molecular alterations leading to tumor development in most types of human cancer. Our results indicate that the mtDNA genome is kept by the cell as a "genetic sanctuary" during tumor development in the mouse and humans. This is compatible with the hypothesis that the mtDNA molecule plays an essential role in the control of the cellular adaptive survival response to tumor-induced oxidative stress. The integrity of mtDNA seems to be a necessary element for responding to the increased ROS production associated with the oncogenic process.

  20. Measuring and modeling for the assessment of the genetic background behind cognitive processes in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Francisco Javier; Jordana, Jordi; León, José Manuel; Arando, Ander; Pizarro, Gabriela; McLean, Amy Katherine; Delgado, Juan Vicente

    2017-09-14

    New productive niches can offer new commercial perspectives linked to donkeys' products and human therapeutic or leisure applications. However, no assessment for selection criteria has been carried out yet. First, we assessed the animal inherent features and environmental factors that may potentially influence several cognitive processes in donkeys. Then, we aimed at describing a practical methodology to quantify such cognitive processes, seeking their inclusion in breeding and conservation programmes, through a multifactorial linear model. Sixteen cognitive process-related traits were scored on a problem-solving test in a sample of 300 Andalusian donkeys for three consecutive years from 2013 to 2015. The linear model assessed the influence and interactions of four environmental factors, sex as an animal-inherent factor, age as a covariable, and the interactions between these factors. Analyses of variance were performed with GLM procedure of SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 24.0 software to assess the relative importance of each factor. All traits were significantly (Pprocesses, and stimulus which was not significant (Pprocesses. The development of complex multifactorial models to study cognitive processes may counteract the inherent variability in behavior genetics and the estimation and prediction of related breeding parameters, key for the implementation of successful conservation programmes in apparently functionally misplaced endangered breeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-Objective Optimization of Squeeze Casting Process using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel G.C.M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The near net shaped manufacturing ability of squeeze casting process requiresto set the process variable combinations at their optimal levels to obtain both aesthetic appearance and internal soundness of the cast parts. The aesthetic and internal soundness of cast parts deal with surface roughness and tensile strength those can readily put the part in service without the requirement of costly secondary manufacturing processes (like polishing, shot blasting, plating, hear treatment etc.. It is difficult to determine the levels of the process variable (that is, pressure duration, squeeze pressure, pouring temperature and die temperature combinations for extreme values of the responses (that is, surface roughness, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength due to conflicting requirements. In the present manuscript, three population based search and optimization methods, namely genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO and multi-objective particle swarm optimization based on crowding distance (MOPSO-CD methods have been used to optimize multiple outputs simultaneously. Further, validation test has been conducted for the optimal casting conditions suggested by GA, PSO and MOPSO-CD. The results showed that PSO outperformed GA with regard to computation time.

  2. Golden rice: scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties.

  3. Effects of genetic, processing, or product formulation changes on efficacy and safety of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Pot, Bruno; Johansen, Eric; Heimbach, James T; Marco, Maria L; Tennilä, Julia; Ross, R Paul; Franz, Charles; Pagé, Nicolas; Pridmore, R David; Leyer, Greg; Salminen, Seppo; Charbonneau, Duane; Call, Emma; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Commercial probiotic strains for food or supplement use can be altered in different ways for a variety of purposes. Production conditions for the strain or final product may be changed to address probiotic yield, functionality, or stability. Final food products may be modified to improve flavor and other sensory properties, provide new product formats, or respond to market opportunities. Such changes can alter the expression of physiological traits owing to the live nature of probiotics. In addition, genetic approaches may be used to improve strain attributes. This review explores whether genetic or phenotypic changes, by accident or design, might affect the efficacy or safety of commercial probiotics. We highlight key issues important to determining the need to re-confirm efficacy or safety after strain improvement, process optimization, or product formulation changes. Research pinpointing the mechanisms of action for probiotic function and the development of assays to measure them are greatly needed to better understand if such changes have a substantive impact on probiotic efficacy.

  4. Additive genetic variance in polyandry enables its evolution, but polyandry is unlikely to evolve through sexy or good sperm processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, L M; Simmons, L W; Garcia-Gonzalez, F

    2016-05-01

    Polyandry is widespread despite its costs. The sexually selected sperm hypotheses ('sexy' and 'good' sperm) posit that sperm competition plays a role in the evolution of polyandry. Two poorly studied assumptions of these hypotheses are the presence of additive genetic variance in polyandry and sperm competitiveness. Using a quantitative genetic breeding design in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster, we first established the potential for polyandry to respond to selection. We then investigated whether polyandry can evolve through sexually selected sperm processes. We measured lifetime polyandry and offensive sperm competitiveness (P2 ) while controlling for sampling variance due to male × male × female interactions. We also measured additive genetic variance in egg-to-adult viability and controlled for its effect on P2 estimates. Female lifetime polyandry showed significant and substantial additive genetic variance and evolvability. In contrast, we found little genetic variance or evolvability in P2 or egg-to-adult viability. Additive genetic variance in polyandry highlights its potential to respond to selection. However, the low levels of genetic variance in sperm competitiveness suggest that the evolution of polyandry may not be driven by sexy sperm or good sperm processes. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Optimization of the Thermosetting Pultrusion Process by Using Hybrid and Mixed Integer Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper thermo-chemical simulation of the pultrusion process of a composite rod is first used as a validation case to ensure that the utilized numerical scheme is stable and converges to results given in literature. Following this validation case, a cylindrical die block with heaters is added...... to the pultrusion domain of a composite part and thermal contact resistance (TCR) regions at the die-part interface are defined. Two optimization case studies are performed on this new configuration. In the first one, optimal die radius and TCR values are found by using a hybrid genetic algorithm based......) such that the total number of heaters is minimized while satisfying the constraints for the maximum composite temperature, the mean of the cure degree at the die exit and the pulling speed....

  6. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm Based Optimization of Coupled HMM for Complex Interacting Processes Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jianghua(刘江华); Chen Jiapin; Cheng Junshi

    2004-01-01

    Coupled Hidden Markov Model (CHMM) is the extension of traditional HMM, which is mainly used for complex interactive process modeling such as two-hand gestures. However, the problems of finding optimal model parameter are still of great interest to the researches in this area. This paper proposes a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) for the CHMM training. Chaos is used to initialize GA and used as mutation operator. Experiments on Chinese TaiChi gestures show that standard GA (SGA) based CHMM training is superior to Maximum Likelihood (ML) HMM training. HGA approach has the highest recognition rate of 98.0769%, then 96.1538% for SGA. The last one is ML method, only with a recognition rate of 69.2308%.

  7. PDE Modeling of a Microfluidic Thermal Process for Genetic Analysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Banaei Khosroushahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the infinite dimensional dynamics of a prototype microfluidic thermal process that is used for genetic analysis purposes. Highly effective infinite dimensional dynamics, in addition to collocated sensor and actuator architecture, require the development of a precise control framework to meet the very tight performance requirements of this system, which are not fully attainable through conventional lumped modeling and controller design approaches. The general partial differential equations describing the dynamics of the system are separated into steady-state and transient parts which are derived for a carefully chosen three-dimensional axisymmetric model. These equations are solved analytically, and the results are verified using an experimentally verified precise finite element method (FEM model. The final combined result is a framework for designing a precise tracking controller applicable to the selected lab-on-a-chip device.

  8. Image processing with genetic algorithm in a raisin sorting system based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasgholipour, Mahdi; Alasti, Behzad Mohammadi; Abbasgholipour, Vahdi; Derakhshan, Ali; Abbasgholipour, Mohammad; Rahmatfam, Sharmin; Rahmatfam, Sheyda; Habibifar, Rahim

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to develop machine vision-based raisin detection technology. Supervised color image segmentation using a Permutation-coded Genetic Algorithm (GA) identifying regions in Hue-Saturation-Intensity (HSI) color space (GAHSI) for desired and undesired raisin detection was successfully implemented. Images were captured to explore the possibility of using GAHSI to locate desired raisin and undesired raisin regions in color space simultaneously. In this research, images were processed separately using three segmentation method, K-Means clustering in L*a*b* color space and GAHSI for single image, GA for single image in Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color space (GARGB). The GAHSI results provided evidence for the existence and separability of such regions. When compared with cluster analysis-based segmentation results, the GAHSI method showed no significant difference.

  9. Combining the Analytical Hierarchy Process and the Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Timetable Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab Sbeity

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main problems of school course timetabling are time, curriculum, and classrooms. In addition there are other problems that vary from one institution to another. This paper is intended to solve the problem of satisfying the teachers’ preferred schedule in a way that regards the importance of the teacher to the supervising institute, i.e. his score according to some criteria. Genetic algorithm (GA has been presented as an elegant method in solving timetable problem (TTP in order to produce solutions with no conflict. In this paper, we consider the analytic hierarchy process (AHP to efficiently obtain a score for each teacher, and consequently produce a GA-based TTP solution that satisfies most of the teachers’ preferences

  10. Network dysfunction of emotional and cognitive processes in those at genetic risk of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakspear, Michael; Roberts, Gloria; Green, Melissa J; Nguyen, Vinh T; Frankland, Andrew; Levy, Florence; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Mitchell, Philip B

    2015-11-01

    The emotional and cognitive vulnerabilities that precede the development of bipolar disorder are poorly understood. The inferior frontal gyrus-a key cortical hub for the integration of cognitive and emotional processes-exhibits both structural and functional changes in bipolar disorder, and is also functionally impaired in unaffected first-degree relatives, showing diminished engagement during inhibition of threat-related emotional stimuli. We hypothesized that this functional impairment of the inferior frontal gyrus in those at genetic risk of bipolar disorder reflects the dysfunction of broader network dynamics underlying the coordination of emotion perception and cognitive control. To test this, we studied effective connectivity in functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from 41 first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder, 45 matched healthy controls and 55 participants with established bipolar disorder. Dynamic causal modelling was used to model the neuronal interaction between key regions associated with fear perception (the anterior cingulate), inhibition (the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and the region upon which these influences converge, namely the inferior frontal gyrus. Network models that embodied non-linear, hierarchical relationships were the most strongly supported by data from our healthy control and bipolar participants. We observed a marked difference in the hierarchical influence of the anterior cingulate on the effective connectivity from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the inferior frontal gyrus that is unique to the at-risk cohort. Non-specific, non-hierarchical mechanisms appear to compensate for this network disturbance. We thus establish a specific network disturbance suggesting dysfunction in the processes that support hierarchical relationships between emotion and cognitive control in those at high genetic risk for bipolar disorder. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  11. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the genetic code, and the evolutionary process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, C R; Olsen, G J; Ibba, M; Söll, D

    2000-03-01

    The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) and their relationship to the genetic code are examined from the evolutionary perspective. Despite a loose correlation between codon assignments and AARS evolutionary relationships, the code is far too highly structured to have been ordered merely through the evolutionary wanderings of these enzymes. Nevertheless, the AARSs are very informative about the evolutionary process. Examination of the phylogenetic trees for each of the AARSs reveals the following. (i) Their evolutionary relationships mostly conform to established organismal phylogeny: a strong distinction exists between bacterial- and archaeal-type AARSs. (ii) Although the evolutionary profiles of the individual AARSs might be expected to be similar in general respects, they are not. It is argued that these differences in profiles reflect the stages in the evolutionary process when the taxonomic distributions of the individual AARSs became fixed, not the nature of the individual enzymes. (iii) Horizontal transfer of AARS genes between Bacteria and Archaea is asymmetric: transfer of archaeal AARSs to the Bacteria is more prevalent than the reverse, which is seen only for the "gemini group. " (iv) The most far-ranging transfers of AARS genes have tended to occur in the distant evolutionary past, before or during formation of the primary organismal domains. These findings are also used to refine the theory that at the evolutionary stage represented by the root of the universal phylogenetic tree, cells were far more primitive than their modern counterparts and thus exchanged genetic material in far less restricted ways, in effect evolving in a communal sense.

  12. Multiresponse Optimization of Edm Process with Nanofluids Using Topsis Method and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM process with copper tool electrode is used to investigate the machining characteristics of AISI D2 tool steel material. The multi-wall carbon nanotube is mixed with dielectric fluids and its end characteristics like surface roughness, fractal dimension and metal removal rate (MRR are analysed. In this EDM process, regression model is developed to predict surface roughness. The collection of experimental data is by using L9 Orthogonal Array. This study investigates the optimization of EDM machining parameters for AISI D2 Tool steel using Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and F-test are used to check the validity of the regression model and to determine the significant parameter affecting the surface roughness. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM is used to capture the machined image at micro size and using spectroscopy software the surface roughness and fractal dimensions are analysed. Later, the parameters are optimized using MINITAB 15 software, and regression equation is compared with the actual measurements of machining process parameters. The developed mathematical model is further coupled with Genetic Algorithm (GA to determine the optimum conditions leading to the minimum surface roughness value of the workpiece.

  13. Genetic variation of the serotonin 2a receptor affects hippocampal novelty processing in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn H Schott

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT is an important neuromodulator in learning and memory processes. A functional genetic polymorphism of the 5-HT 2a receptor (5-HTR2a His452Tyr, which leads to blunted intracellular signaling, has previously been associated with explicit memory performance in several independent cohorts, but the underlying neural mechanisms are thus far unclear. The human hippocampus plays a critical role in memory, particularly in the detection and encoding of novel information. Here we investigated the relationship of 5-HTR2a His452Tyr and hippocampal novelty processing in 41 young, healthy subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants performed a novelty/familiarity task with complex scene stimuli, which was followed by a delayed recognition memory test 24 hours later. Compared to His homozygotes, Tyr carriers exhibited a diminished hippocampal response to novel stimuli and a higher tendency to judge novel stimuli as familiar during delayed recognition. Across the cohort, the false alarm rate during delayed recognition correlated negatively with the hippocampal novelty response. Our results suggest that previously reported effects of 5-HTR2a on explicit memory performance may, at least in part, be mediated by alterations of hippocampal novelty processing.

  14. Genetic variation of the serotonin 2a receptor affects hippocampal novelty processing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Björn H; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Richter, Sylvia; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Debska-Vielhaber, Grazyna; Schubert, Heike; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan; Düzel, Emrah

    2011-01-18

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neuromodulator in learning and memory processes. A functional genetic polymorphism of the 5-HT 2a receptor (5-HTR2a His452Tyr), which leads to blunted intracellular signaling, has previously been associated with explicit memory performance in several independent cohorts, but the underlying neural mechanisms are thus far unclear. The human hippocampus plays a critical role in memory, particularly in the detection and encoding of novel information. Here we investigated the relationship of 5-HTR2a His452Tyr and hippocampal novelty processing in 41 young, healthy subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants performed a novelty/familiarity task with complex scene stimuli, which was followed by a delayed recognition memory test 24 hours later. Compared to His homozygotes, Tyr carriers exhibited a diminished hippocampal response to novel stimuli and a higher tendency to judge novel stimuli as familiar during delayed recognition. Across the cohort, the false alarm rate during delayed recognition correlated negatively with the hippocampal novelty response. Our results suggest that previously reported effects of 5-HTR2a on explicit memory performance may, at least in part, be mediated by alterations of hippocampal novelty processing.

  15. Degradation of transgene DNA in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant rice during food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shangxin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Liangyan; Dai, Sifa; Xu, Xinglian; Xiao, Hongmei

    2011-12-01

    In order to assess the effect of food processing on the degradation of exogenous DNA components in sweet rice wine and rice crackers made from genetically modified (GM) rice (Oryza sativa L.), we developed genomic DNA extraction methods and compared the effect of different food processing procedures on DNA degradation. It was found that the purity, quantity and quality of DNA by alkaline lysis method were higher than by CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) method. For sweet rice wine, CAMV35S (cauliflower mosaic virus 35S) promoter and NOS (nopaline synthase) terminator were degraded by the third day, whereas the exogenous gene Bar (bialaphos resistance) remained unaffected. For rice crackers, boiling, drying and microwaving contributed to the initial degradations of DNA. Baking resulted in further degradations, and frying led to the most severe changes. These results indicated that the stability of DNA in GM rice was different under different processing conditions. For sweet rice wine, Bar was most stable, followed by NOS, CAMV35S, and SPS. For rice crackers, CAMV35S was most stable, followed by SPS, NOS, and Bar.

  16. [Psychological and familial aspects of the familial breast and ovarian cancer genetic counseling process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flugelman, Anath; Rennert, Gad; Eidelman, Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women, whilst ovarian cancer is less common but carries a graver prognosis. Carriers of the BRCA mutations have a few-fold higher risk for those diseases. Genetic counseling for the families at risk has been available for almost two decades, since the definition of the mutation. The existence of the deleterious mutation has implications beyond the individual level and touches the lives and future of many other family members. Being part of a BRCA family has medical as well as psychosocial implications. Various barriers and facilitators must be dealt with during the process of sharing the information with kins. Most families cope well with those issues, while some require the guidance of professionals. Special subpopulations, i.e. non-carrier women in BRCA families, young carriers and men who are under minimal personal threat but might transfer the mutation to their off springs, have special needs which should be addressed. The desired outcome of the counseling process is achievement of normal adaptation which balances life in the shadow of uncertainty and threat with the ability to lead a normal life. The process of counseling is multidisciplinary, and along with the advances in scientific and medical aspects, the ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) have also been developed. The professional personnel escorting those families need to develop and maintain specific skills.

  17. Genetic effects on information processing speed are moderated by age--converging results from three samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ising, M; Mather, K A; Zimmermann, P; Brückl, T; Höhne, N; Heck, A; Schenk, L A; Rujescu, D; Armstrong, N J; Sachdev, P S; Reppermund, S

    2014-06-01

    Information processing is a cognitive trait forming the basis of complex abilities like executive function. The Trail Making Test (TMT) is a well-established test of information processing with moderate to high heritability. Age of the individual also plays an important role. A number of genetic association studies with the TMT have been performed, which, however, did not consider age as a moderating factor. We report the results of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on age-independent and age-dependent TMT performance in two population-representative community samples (Munich Antidepressant Response Signature, MARS: N1 = 540; Ludwig Maximilians University, LMU: N2 = 350). Age-dependent genome-wide findings were then evaluated in a third sample of healthy elderly subjects (Sydney Memory and Ageing Study, Sydney MAS: N3 = 448). While a meta-analysis on the GWAS findings did not reveal age-independent TMT associations withstanding correction for multiple testing, we found a genome-wide significant age-moderated effect between variants in the DSG1 gene region and TMT-A performance predominantly reflecting visual processing speed (rs2199301, P(meta-analysis) = 1.3 × 10(-7)). The direction of the interaction suggests for the minor allele a beneficial effect in younger adults turning into a detrimental effect in older adults. The detrimental effect of the missense single nucleotide polymorphism rs1426310 within the same DSG1 gene region could be replicated in Sydney MAS participants aged 70-79, but not in those aged 80 years and older, presumably a result of survivor bias. Our findings demonstrate opposing effects of DSG1 variants on information processing speed depending on age, which might be related to the complex processes that DSG1 is involved with, including cell adhesion and apoptosis.

  18. Understanding genetic toxicity through data mining: the process of building knowledge by integrating multiple genetic toxicity databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Hasselgren, C H; Boyer, S; Arvidson, K; Aveston, S; Dierkes, P; Benigni, R; Benz, R D; Contrera, J; Kruhlak, N L; Matthews, E J; Han, X; Jaworska, J; Kemper, R A; Rathman, J F; Richard, A M

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic toxicity data from various sources were integrated into a rigorously designed database using the ToxML schema. The public database sources include the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) submission data from approved new drug applications, food contact notifications, generally recognized as safe food ingredients, and chemicals from the NTP and CCRIS databases. The data from public sources were then combined with data from private industry according to ToxML criteria. The resulting "integrated" database, enriched in pharmaceuticals, was used for data mining analysis. Structural features describing the database were used to differentiate the chemical spaces of drugs/candidates, food ingredients, and industrial chemicals. In general, structures for drugs/candidates and food ingredients are associated with lower frequencies of mutagenicity and clastogenicity, whereas industrial chemicals as a group contain a much higher proportion of positives. Structural features were selected to analyze endpoint outcomes of the genetic toxicity studies. Although most of the well-known genotoxic carcinogenic alerts were identified, some discrepancies from the classic Ashby-Tennant alerts were observed. Using these influential features as the independent variables, the results of four types of genotoxicity studies were correlated. High Pearson correlations were found between the results of Salmonella mutagenicity and mouse lymphoma assay testing as well as those from in vitro chromosome aberration studies. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of representing a chemical by its structural features and the use of these features to profile a battery of tests rather than relying on a single toxicity test of a given chemical. This paper presents data mining/profiling methods applied in a weight-of-evidence approach to assess potential for genetic toxicity, and to guide the development of intelligent testing strategies.

  19. Pattern of genetic differentiation of an incipient speciation process: The case of the high Andean killifish Orestias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Jiménez, Claudia Jimena; Peña, Fabiola; Morales, Pamela; Méndez, Marco; Sallaberry, Michel; Vila, Irma; Poulin, Elie

    2017-01-01

    During the Pleistocene and Holocene, the southwest Andean Altiplano (17°-22°S) was affected by repeated fluctuations in water levels, high volcanic activity and major tectonic movements. In the early Holocene the humid Tauca phase shifted to the arid conditions that have lasted until the present, producing endorheic rivers, lakes, lagoons and wetlands. The endemic fish Orestias (Cyprinodontidae) represents a good model to observe the genetic differentiation that characterizes an incipient speciation process in allopatry since the morphospecies described inhabit a restricted geographic area, with present habitat fragmentation. The genetic diversity and population structure of four endemic morphospecies of Orestias (Cyprinodontidae) found in the Lauca National Park (LNP) analyzed with mitochondrial markers (Control Region) and eight microsatellites, revealed the existence of genetic groups that matches the fragmentation of these systems. High values of genetic and phylogeographic differentiation indices were observed between Chungará Lake and Piacota lagoon. The group composed of the Lauca River, Copapujo and Chuviri wetlands sampling sites showed a clear signal of expansion, with a star-like haplotype network. Levels of genetic differentiation were lower than in Chungará and Piacota, suggesting that these localities would have differentiated after the bottlenecks linked to the collapse of Parinacota volcano. The Parinacota sample showed a population signal that differed from the other localities revealing greater genetic diversity and a disperse network, presenting haplotypes shared with other LNP localities. A mixing pattern of the different genetic groups was evident using the microsatellite markers. The chronology of the vicariance events in LNP may indicate that the partition process of the Orestias populations was gradual. Considering this, and in view of the genetic results, we may conclude that the morphospecies from LNP are populations in ongoing

  20. Pattern of genetic differentiation of an incipient speciation process: The case of the high Andean killifish Orestias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Jiménez, Claudia Jimena; Peña, Fabiola; Morales, Pamela; Méndez, Marco; Sallaberry, Michel; Vila, Irma; Poulin, Elie

    2017-01-01

    During the Pleistocene and Holocene, the southwest Andean Altiplano (17°-22°S) was affected by repeated fluctuations in water levels, high volcanic activity and major tectonic movements. In the early Holocene the humid Tauca phase shifted to the arid conditions that have lasted until the present, producing endorheic rivers, lakes, lagoons and wetlands. The endemic fish Orestias (Cyprinodontidae) represents a good model to observe the genetic differentiation that characterizes an incipient speciation process in allopatry since the morphospecies described inhabit a restricted geographic area, with present habitat fragmentation. The genetic diversity and population structure of four endemic morphospecies of Orestias (Cyprinodontidae) found in the Lauca National Park (LNP) analyzed with mitochondrial markers (Control Region) and eight microsatellites, revealed the existence of genetic groups that matches the fragmentation of these systems. High values of genetic and phylogeographic differentiation indices were observed between Chungará Lake and Piacota lagoon. The group composed of the Lauca River, Copapujo and Chuviri wetlands sampling sites showed a clear signal of expansion, with a star-like haplotype network. Levels of genetic differentiation were lower than in Chungará and Piacota, suggesting that these localities would have differentiated after the bottlenecks linked to the collapse of Parinacota volcano. The Parinacota sample showed a population signal that differed from the other localities revealing greater genetic diversity and a disperse network, presenting haplotypes shared with other LNP localities. A mixing pattern of the different genetic groups was evident using the microsatellite markers. The chronology of the vicariance events in LNP may indicate that the partition process of the Orestias populations was gradual. Considering this, and in view of the genetic results, we may conclude that the morphospecies from LNP are populations in ongoing

  1. Defining desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding objective using analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Lim, P; Komen, H; Kause, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Barfoot, A J; Martin, K E; Parsons, J E

    2012-06-01

    Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using weighted goal programming (WGP). The aim of this study was to use an AHP-WGP based approach to derive desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding and to study whether breeding trait preferences vary depending on commercial products and farming environments. Two questionnaires were sent out. Questionnaire-A (Q-A) was distributed to 178 farmers from 5 continents and used to collect information on commercial products and farming environments. In this questionnaire, farmers were asked to rank the 6 most important traits for genetic improvement from a list of 13 traits. Questionnaire B (Q-B) was sent to all farmers who responded to Q-A (53 in total). For Q-B, preferences of the 6 traits were obtained using pairwise comparison. Preference intensity was given to quantify (in % of a trait mean; G%) the degree to which 1 trait is preferred over the other. Individual preferences, social preferences, and consensus preferences (Con-P) were estimated using AHP and WGP. Desired gains were constructed by multiplying Con-P by G%. The analysis revealed that the 6 most important traits were thermal growth coefficient (TGC), survival (Surv), feed conversion ratio (FCR), condition factor (CF), fillet percentage (FIL%), and late maturation (LMat). Ranking of traits based on average Con-P values were Surv (0.271), FCR (0.246), TGC (0.246), LMat (0.090), FIL% (0.081), and CF (0.067). Corresponding desired genetic gains (in % of trait mean) were 1.63, 1.87, 1.67, 1.29, 0.06, and 0.33%, respectively. The results from Con-P values show that trait preferences may vary for different types of commercial production or farming environments. This study demonstrated that combination of AHP and WGP can

  2. Breeding and Genetics Symposium: really big data: processing and analysis of very large data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J B; Newman, S; Foertter, F; Aguilar, I; Coffey, M

    2012-03-01

    15 m. Large data sets also create challenges for the delivery of genetic evaluations that must be overcome in a way that does not disrupt the transition from conventional to genomic evaluations. Processing time is important, especially as real-time systems for on-farm decisions are developed. The ultimate value of these systems is to decrease time-to-results in research, increase accuracy in genomic evaluations, and accelerate rates of genetic improvement.

  3. A Continuous Correlated Beta Process Model for Genetic Ancestry in Admixed Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompert, Zachariah

    2016-01-01

    Admixture and recombination create populations and genomes with genetic ancestry from multiple source populations. Analyses of genetic ancestry in admixed populations are relevant for trait and disease mapping, studies of speciation, and conservation efforts. Consequently, many methods have been developed to infer genome-average ancestry and to deconvolute ancestry into continuous local ancestry blocks or tracts within individuals. Current methods for local ancestry inference perform well when admixture occurred recently or hybridization is ongoing, or when admixture occurred in the distant past such that local ancestry blocks have fixed in the admixed population. However, methods to infer local ancestry frequencies in isolated admixed populations still segregating for ancestry do not exist. In the current paper, I develop and test a continuous correlated beta process model to fill this analytical gap. The method explicitly models autocorrelations in ancestry frequencies at the population-level and uses discriminant analysis of SNP windows to take advantage of ancestry blocks within individuals. Analyses of simulated data sets show that the method is generally accurate such that ancestry frequency estimates exhibited low root-mean-square error and were highly correlated with the true values, particularly when large (±10 or ±20) SNP windows were used. Along these lines, the proposed method outperformed post hoc inference of ancestry frequencies from a traditional hidden Markov model (i.e., the linkage model in structure), particularly when admixture occurred more distantly in the past with little on-going gene flow or was followed by natural selection. The reliability and utility of the method was further assessed by analyzing genetic ancestry in an admixed human population (Uyghur) and three populations from a hybrid zone between Mus domesticus and M. musculus. Considerable variation in ancestry frequencies was detected within and among chromosomes in the Uyghur

  4. Nonlinear software sensor for monitoring genetic regulation processes with noise and modeling errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Torres, L. A.; Rosu, H. C.; Argüello, G.; Collado-Vides, J.

    2005-07-01

    Nonlinear control techniques by means of a software sensor that are commonly used in chemical engineering could be also applied to genetic regulation processes. We provide here a realistic formulation of this procedure by introducing an additive white Gaussian noise, which is usually found in experimental data. Besides, we include model errors, meaning that we assume we do not know the nonlinear regulation function of the process. In order to illustrate this procedure, we employ the Goodwin dynamics of the concentrations [B. C. Goodwin, Temporal Oscillations in Cells (Academic, New York, 1963)] in the simple form recently applied to single gene systems and some operon cases [H. De Jong, J. Comput. Biol. 9, 67 (2002)], which involves the dynamics of the mRNA, given protein and metabolite concentrations. Further, we present results for a three gene case in coregulated sets of transcription units as they occur in prokaryotes. However, instead of considering their full dynamics, we use only the data of the metabolites and a designed software sensor. We also show, more generally, that it is possible to rebuild the complete set of nonmeasured concentrations despite the uncertainties in the regulation function or, even more, in the case of not knowing the mRNA dynamics. In addition, the rebuilding of concentrations is not affected by the perturbation due to the additive white Gaussian noise and also we managed to filter the noisy output of the biological system.

  5. Scheduling of multi-product batch processes with earliness and tardiness penalties using genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hyung [Samsung Engineering Co. (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hak [Yeungnam Univ., Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Beum [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Improving customer service and reducing inventory costs become more important aspects in the production scheduling of many batch processes. From this point of view, one of the important problems is to determine the optimum production sequence of a list of products or single-product campaigns so as to minimization the total penalty cost with earliness and tardiness means any later deliveries than the due date and earliness is any early production resulting in the inventory cost. In this paper, we present a Genetic Algorithm(GA) for multi-product batch process scheduling problems with minimum cost of earliness and tardiness penalties. For this algorithm, we have improved the three basic operators, reproduction, crossover and mutation. Additionally we have developed the extended operators, so called Crowding Factor Model, Elitist Model and Generation Gap. To evaluate the performance of this study, we have tested various scheduling problems with UIS and NIS policies and the results are compared with Simulate Annealing (SA) method by Ku and Karimi[16]. Finally the GA by this work is out performed to SA. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  6. DNAStat, version 2.1--a computer program for processing genetic profile databases and biostatistical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Jarosław

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the new DNAStat version 2.1 for processing genetic profile databases and biostatistical calculations. The popularization of DNA studies employed in the judicial system has led to the necessity of developing appropriate computer programs. Such programs must, above all, address two critical problems, i.e. the broadly understood data processing and data storage, and biostatistical calculations. Moreover, in case of terrorist attacks and mass natural disasters, the ability to identify victims by searching related individuals is very important. DNAStat version 2.1 is an adequate program for such purposes. The DNAStat version 1.0 was launched in 2005. In 2006, the program was updated to 1.1 and 1.2 versions. There were, however, slight differences between those versions and the original one. The DNAStat version 2.0 was launched in 2007 and the major program improvement was an introduction of the group calculation options with the potential application to personal identification of mass disasters and terrorism victims. The last 2.1 version has the option of language selection--Polish or English, which will enhance the usage and application of the program also in other countries.

  7. Parameters Optimization of Plasma Hardening Process Using Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gu; WANG Liu-ying; CHEN Gui-ming; HUA Shao-chun

    2011-01-01

    Plasma surface hardening process was performed to improve the performance of the AISI 1045 carbon steel.Experiments were carried out to characterize the hardening qualities.A predicting and optimizing model using genetic algorithm-back propagation neural network(GA-BP) was developed based on the experimental results.The non-linear relationship between properties of hardening layers and process parameters was established.The results show that the GA-BP predicting model is reliable since prediction results are in rather good agreement with measured results.The optimal properties of the hardened layer were deduced from GA.And through multi optimizations,the optimum comprehensive performances of the hardened layer were as follows:plasma arc current is 90 A,hardening speed is 2.2 m/min,plasma gas flow rate is 6.0 L/min and hardening distance is 4.3 mm.It concludes that GA-BP mode developed in this study provides a promising method for plasma hardening parameters prediction and optimization.

  8. Synthetic Physiology: Strategies for Adapting Tools from Nature for Genetically-Targeted Control of Fast Biological Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Brian Y.; Chuong, Amy S; Klapoetke, Nathan C.; Edward S Boyden

    2011-01-01

    The life and operation of cells involve many physiological processes that take place over fast timescales of milliseconds to minutes. Genetically-encoded technologies for driving or suppressing specific fast physiological processes in intact cells, perhaps embedded within intact tissues in living organisms, are critical for the ability to understand how these physiological processes contribute to emergent cellular and organismal functions and behaviors. Such “synthetic physiology” tools are o...

  9. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz;

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from...... genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT...

  10. Genetic dissection of pheromone processing reveals main olfactory system-mediated social behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuya; Asaba, Akari; Inoue, Naokazu; Kanomata, Nobuhiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko

    2015-01-20

    Most mammals have two major olfactory subsystems: the main olfactory system (MOS) and vomeronasal system (VNS). It is now widely accepted that the range of pheromones that control social behaviors are processed by both the VNS and the MOS. However, the functional contributions of each subsystem in social behavior remain unclear. To genetically dissociate the MOS and VNS functions, we established two conditional knockout mouse lines that led to either loss-of-function in the entire MOS or in the dorsal MOS. Mice with whole-MOS loss-of-function displayed severe defects in active sniffing and poor survival through the neonatal period. In contrast, when loss-of-function was confined to the dorsal MOB, sniffing behavior, pheromone recognition, and VNS activity were maintained. However, defects in a wide spectrum of social behaviors were observed: attraction to female urine and the accompanying ultrasonic vocalizations, chemoinvestigatory preference, aggression, maternal behaviors, and risk-assessment behaviors in response to an alarm pheromone. Functional dissociation of pheromone detection and pheromonal induction of behaviors showed the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON)-regulated social behaviors downstream from the MOS. Lesion analysis and neural activation mapping showed pheromonal activation in multiple amygdaloid and hypothalamic nuclei, important regions for the expression of social behavior, was dependent on MOS and AON functions. Identification of the MOS-AON-mediated pheromone pathway may provide insights into pheromone signaling in animals that do not possess a functional VNS, including humans.

  11. Detection of processed genetically modified food using CIM monolithic columns for DNA isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Sergej; Podgornik, Ales; Cankar, Katarina; Cadet, Neza; Skrt, Mihaela; Zel, Jana; Raspor, Peter

    2005-02-11

    The availability of sufficient quantities of DNA of adequate quality is crucial in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for genetically modified food detection. In this work, the suitability of anion-exchange CIM (Convective Interaction Media; BIA Separations, Ljubljana, Slovenia) monolithic columns for isolation of DNA from food was studied. Maize and its derivates corn meal and thermally pretreated corn meal were chosen as model food. Two commercially available CIM disk columns were tested: DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) and QA (quaternary amine). Preliminary separations were performed with standard solution of salmon DNA at different pH values and different NaCl concentrations in mobile phase. DEAE groups and pH 8 were chosen for further isolations of DNA from a complex matrix-food extract. The quality and quantity of isolated DNA were tested on agarose gel electrophoresis, with UV-scanning spectrophotometry, and by amplification with real-time PCR. DNA isolated in this way was of suitable quality for further PCR analyses. The described method is also applicable for DNA isolation from processed foods with decreased DNA content. Furthermore, it is more effective and less time-consuming in comparison with the existing proposed methods for isolation of DNA from plant-derived foods.

  12. Implementation of Biography Based Neural Clustering (BBNC with Genetic Processing for tumor detection from medical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Chandanpreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is a best method to divide the required region from the medical images. This research is based on segmentation of medical images (MRI, CT scans based on the previous method known as pre-operative and post-recurrence tumor registration (PORTR and proposed method biography based neural clustering (BBNC with genetic processing for tumor segmentation. By using the new technique the extracted part can be view in 3D model and also can get the actual segmented tumor region. This new method will be helpful for diagnostics to find the tumor area as well as pixel difference in segmented part to define the tumor area accurately. While in the previous approach all the parameters have been used likewise, in which the registration method is used to transform the different sets of data into one coordinate system for segmentation of medical images. Registration basically is used to improve the signals to reduce the noise from the images. These techniques are better to find the tumor area from the MRI and CT scans, but after comparing them better results have been obtained in proposed technique. The proposed technique (BBNC reduces the extracted region again into required and actual region of tumor with accuracy of area, time and pixel difference.

  13. An event-specific DNA microarray to identify genetically modified organisms in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Su-Youn; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2010-05-26

    We developed an event-specific DNA microarray system to identify 19 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), including two GM soybeans (GTS-40-3-2 and A2704-12), thirteen GM maizes (Bt176, Bt11, MON810, MON863, NK603, GA21, T25, TC1507, Bt10, DAS59122-7, TC6275, MIR604, and LY038), three GM canolas (GT73, MS8xRF3, and T45), and one GM cotton (LLcotton25). The microarray included 27 oligonucleotide probes optimized to identify endogenous reference targets, event-specific targets, screening targets (35S promoter and nos terminator), and an internal target (18S rRNA gene). Thirty-seven maize-containing food products purchased from South Korean and US markets were tested for the presence of GM maize using this microarray system. Thirteen GM maize events were simultaneously detected using multiplex PCR coupled with microarray on a single chip, at a limit of detection of approximately 0.5%. Using the system described here, we detected GM maize in 11 of the 37 food samples tested. These results suggest that an event-specific DNA microarray system can reliably detect GMOs in processed foods.

  14. How genetic modification of roots affects rhizosphere processes and plant performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Dam, van N.M.; Putten, van der W.H.; Biere, A.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic modification of plants has become common practice. However, root-specific genetic modifications have only recently been advocated. Here, a review is presented regarding how root-specific modifications can have both plant internal and rhizosphere-mediated effects on aboveground plant

  15. How genetic modification of roots affects rhizosphere processes and plant performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Dam, van N.M.; Putten, van der W.H.; Biere, A.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic modification of plants has become common practice. However, root-specific genetic modifications have only recently been advocated. Here, a review is presented regarding how root-specific modifications can have both plant internal and rhizosphere-mediated effects on aboveground plant properti

  16. Quantitative genetics approaches to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology; a perspective from research on the evolution of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerks, Paul L; Xie, Lingtian; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2011-05-01

    Quantitative genetic approaches are often used to study evolutionary processes in ecotoxicology. This paper focuses on the evolution of resistance to environmental contaminants-an important evolutionary process in ecotoxicology. Three approaches are commonly employed to study the evolution of resistance: (1) Assessing whether a contaminant-exposed population has an increased resistance relative to a control population, using either spatial or temporal comparisons. (2) Estimating a population's heritability of resistance. (3) Investigating responses in a laboratory selection experiment. All three approaches provide valuable information on the potential for contaminants to affect a population's evolutionary trajectory via natural selection. However, all three approaches have inherent limitations, including difficulty in separating the various genetic and environmental variance components, responses being dependent on specific population and testing conditions, and inability to fully capture natural conditions in the laboratory. In order to maximize insights into the long-term consequences of adaptation, it is important to not just look at resistance itself, but also at the fitness consequences and at correlated responses in characteristics other than resistance. The rapid development of molecular genetics has yielded alternatives to the "black box" approach of quantitative genetics, but the presence of different limitations and strengths in the two fields means that they should be viewed as complementary rather than exchangeable. Quantitative genetics is benefiting from the incorporation of molecular tools and remains an important field for studying evolutionary toxicology.

  17. The role of historical and contemporary processes on phylogeographic structure and genetic diversity in the Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro-Sigüenza Adolfo G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Earth history events such as climate change are believed to have played a major role in shaping patterns of genetic structure and diversity in species. However, there is a lag between the time of historical events and the collection of present-day samples that are used to infer contemporary population structure. During this lag phase contemporary processes such as dispersal or non-random mating can erase or reinforce population differences generated by historical events. In this study we evaluate the role of both historical and contemporary processes on the phylogeography of a widespread North American songbird, the Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed deep mtDNA structure with six lineages across the species' range. Ecological niche models supported the same geographic breaks revealed by the mtDNA. A paleoecological niche model for the Last Glacial Maximum indicated that cardinals underwent a dramatic range reduction in eastern North America, whereas their ranges were more stable in México. In eastern North America cardinals expanded out of glacial refugia, but we found no signature of decreased genetic diversity in areas colonized after the Last Glacial Maximum. Present-day demographic data suggested that population growth across the expansion cline is positively correlated with latitude. We propose that there was no loss of genetic diversity in areas colonized after the Last Glacial Maximum because recent high-levels of gene flow across the region have homogenized genetic diversity in eastern North America. Conclusion We show that both deep historical events as well as demographic processes that occurred following these events are critical in shaping genetic pattern and diversity in C. cardinalis. The general implication of our results is that patterns of genetic diversity are best understood when information on species history, ecology, and demography are considered

  18. DNA degradation in genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab by food processing methods: implications for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fuguo; Zhang, Wei; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

    2015-05-01

    Food processing methods contribute to DNA degradation, thereby affecting genetically modified organism detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of food processing methods on the relative transgenic content of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, the levels of Cry1Ab were ⩾ 100% and <83%, respectively. Frying and baking in rice crackers contributed to a reduction in Pubi and Cry1Ab, while microwaving caused a decrease in Pubi and an increase in Cry1Ab. The processing methods of sweet rice wine had the most severe degradation effects on Pubi and Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, Cry1Ab was the most stable, followed by SPS and Pubi. However, in rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS was the most stable, followed by Cry1Ab and Pubi. Therefore, Cry1Ab is a better representative of transgenic components than is Pubi because the levels of Cry1Ab were less affected compared to Pubi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of thermomechanical processes in Cu-Cr-Zr lead frame alloy using neural networks and genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Juanhua; LIU; Ping; DONG; Qiming; LI; Hejun

    2005-01-01

    The thermomechanical treatment process is effective in enhancing the properties of the lead frame copper alloy. In this study, an optimal pattern of the thermomechanical processes for Cu-Cr-Zr was investegated using an intelligent control technique consisting of neural networks and genetic algorithms. The input parameters of the artificial neural network (ANN) are the reduction ratio of cold rolling, aging temperature and aging time. The outputs of the ANN model are the two most important properties of hardness and conductivity. Based on the successfully trained ANN model,genetic algorithms (GA) are used to optimize the input parameters of the model and select perfect combinations of thermomechanical processing parameters and properties.The good generalization performance and optimized results of the integrated model are achieved.

  20. Integration of Genetic and Phenotypic Data in 48 Lineages of Philippine Birds Shows Heterogeneous Divergence Processes and Numerous Cryptic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kyle K; Braile, Thomas; Winker, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Philippine Islands are one of the most biologically diverse archipelagoes in the world. Current taxonomy, however, may underestimate levels of avian diversity and endemism in these islands. Although species limits can be difficult to determine among allopatric populations, quantitative methods for comparing phenotypic and genotypic data can provide useful metrics of divergence among populations and identify those that merit consideration for elevation to full species status. Using a conceptual approach that integrates genetic and phenotypic data, we compared populations among 48 species, estimating genetic divergence (p-distance) using the mtDNA marker ND2 and comparing plumage and morphometrics of museum study skins. Using conservative speciation thresholds, pairwise comparisons of genetic and phenotypic divergence suggested possible species-level divergences in more than half of the species studied (25 out of 48). In speciation process space, divergence routes were heterogeneous among taxa. Nearly all populations that surpassed high genotypic divergence thresholds were Passeriformes, and non-Passeriformes populations surpassed high phenotypic divergence thresholds more commonly than expected by chance. Overall, there was an apparent logarithmic increase in phenotypic divergence with respect to genetic divergence, suggesting the possibility that divergence among these lineages may initially be driven by divergent selection in this allopatric system. Also, genetic endemism was high among sampled islands. Higher taxonomy affected divergence in genotype and phenotype. Although broader lineage, genetic, phenotypic, and numeric sampling is needed to further explore heterogeneity among divergence processes and to accurately assess species-level diversity in these taxa, our results support the need for substantial taxonomic revisions among Philippine birds. The conservation implications are profound.

  1. Integration of Genetic and Phenotypic Data in 48 Lineages of Philippine Birds Shows Heterogeneous Divergence Processes and Numerous Cryptic Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle K Campbell

    Full Text Available The Philippine Islands are one of the most biologically diverse archipelagoes in the world. Current taxonomy, however, may underestimate levels of avian diversity and endemism in these islands. Although species limits can be difficult to determine among allopatric populations, quantitative methods for comparing phenotypic and genotypic data can provide useful metrics of divergence among populations and identify those that merit consideration for elevation to full species status. Using a conceptual approach that integrates genetic and phenotypic data, we compared populations among 48 species, estimating genetic divergence (p-distance using the mtDNA marker ND2 and comparing plumage and morphometrics of museum study skins. Using conservative speciation thresholds, pairwise comparisons of genetic and phenotypic divergence suggested possible species-level divergences in more than half of the species studied (25 out of 48. In speciation process space, divergence routes were heterogeneous among taxa. Nearly all populations that surpassed high genotypic divergence thresholds were Passeriformes, and non-Passeriformes populations surpassed high phenotypic divergence thresholds more commonly than expected by chance. Overall, there was an apparent logarithmic increase in phenotypic divergence with respect to genetic divergence, suggesting the possibility that divergence among these lineages may initially be driven by divergent selection in this allopatric system. Also, genetic endemism was high among sampled islands. Higher taxonomy affected divergence in genotype and phenotype. Although broader lineage, genetic, phenotypic, and numeric sampling is needed to further explore heterogeneity among divergence processes and to accurately assess species-level diversity in these taxa, our results support the need for substantial taxonomic revisions among Philippine birds. The conservation implications are profound.

  2. Genetic analysis of seasonal runoff based on automatic techniques of hydrometeorological data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, Maria; Sazonov, Alexey; Rets, Ekaterina; Ezerova, Natalia; Frolova, Natalia; Samsonov, Timofey

    2017-04-01

    Detection of the rivers' feeding type is a complex and multifactor task. Such partitioning should be based, on the one hand, on the genesis of the feeding water, on the other hand, on its physical path. At the same time it should consider relationship of the feeding type with corresponding phase of the water regime. Due to the above difficulties and complexity of the approach, there are many different variants of separation of flow hydrograph for feeding types. The most common method is extraction of so called basic component which in one way or another reflects groundwater feeding of the river. In this case, the selection most often is based on the principle of local minima or graphic separation of this component. However, in this case neither origin of the water nor corresponding phase of water regime is considered. In this paper, the authors offer a method of complex automated analysis of genetic components of the river's feeding together with the separation of specific phases of the water regime. The objects of the study are medium and large rivers of European Russia having a pronounced spring flood, formed due to melt water, and summer-autumn and winter low water which is periodically interrupted by rain or thaw flooding. The method is based on genetic separation of hydrograph proposed in 1960s years by B. I. Kudelin. This technique is considered for large rivers having hydraulic connection with groundwater horizons during flood. For better detection of floods genesis the analysis involves reanalysis data on temperature and precipitation. Separation is based on the following fundamental graphic-analytical principles: • Ground feeding during the passage of flood peak tends to zero • Beginning of the flood is determined as the exceeding of critical value of low water discharge • Flood periods are determined on the basis of exceeding the critical low-water discharge; they relate to thaw in case of above-zero temperatures • During thaw and rain floods

  3. Genetic Algorithms for a Parameter Estimation of a Fermentation Process Model: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of a parameter estimation using genetic algorithms is examined. A case study considering the estimation of 6 parameters of a nonlinear dynamic model of E. coli fermentation is presented as a test problem. The parameter estimation problem is stated as a nonlinear programming problem subject to nonlinear differential-algebraic constraints. This problem is known to be frequently ill-conditioned and multimodal. Thus, traditional (gradient-based local optimization methods fail to arrive satisfied solutions. To overcome their limitations, the use of different genetic algorithms as stochastic global optimization methods is explored. These algorithms are proved to be very suitable for the optimization of highly non-linear problems with many variables. Genetic algorithms can guarantee global optimality and robustness. These facts make them advantageous in use for parameter identification of fermentation models. A comparison between simple, modified and multi-population genetic algorithms is presented. The best result is obtained using the modified genetic algorithm. The considered algorithms converged very closely to the cost value but the modified algorithm is in times faster than other two.

  4. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT...... was among the top performers. When extending CVAT to utilize a mixture of SNP effects, we found an increase in power to detect the causal sets. Applying the methods to a Danish schizophrenia case–control data set, we found genomic evidence for association of schizophrenia with vitamin A metabolism...

  5. An automatic modeling system of the reaction mechanisms for chemical vapor deposition processes using real-coded genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takahiro; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Kinpara, Hiroki; Ema, Yoshinori

    2011-09-01

    The identification of appropriate reaction models is very helpful for developing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. In this study, we have developed an automatic system to model reaction mechanisms in the CVD processes by analyzing the experimental results, which are cross-sectional shapes of the deposited films on substrates with micrometer- or nanometer-sized trenches. We designed the inference engine to model the reaction mechanism in the system by the use of real-coded genetic algorithms (RCGAs). We studied the dependence of the system performance on two methods using simple genetic algorithms (SGAs) and the RCGAs; the one involves the conventional GA operators and the other involves the blend crossover operator (BLX-alpha). Although we demonstrated that the systems using both the methods could successfully model the reaction mechanisms, the RCGAs showed the better performance with respect to the accuracy and the calculation cost for identifying the models.

  6. Establishing a risk-assessment process for release of genetically modified wine yeast into the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Heidi; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Botha, Alfred; van Rensburg, Pierre; Pretorius, Isak S

    2009-08-01

    The use and release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is an issue of intense public concern and, in the case of food and beverages, products containing GMOs or products thereof carry the risk of consumer rejection. The recent commercialization of 2 GM wine yeasts in the United States and Canada has made research and development of risk assessments for GM microorganisms a priority. The purpose of this study was to take a first step in establishing a risk-assessment process for future use and potential release of GM wine yeasts into the environment. The behaviour and spread of a GM wine yeast was monitored in saturated sand columns, saturated sand flow cells, and conventional flow cells. A widely used commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast, VIN13, a VIN13 transgenic strain (LKA1, which carries the LKA1 alpha-amylase gene of Lipomyces kononenkoae), a soil bacterium (Dyadobacter fermentens), and a nonwine soil-borne yeast (Cryptococcus laurentii) were compared in laboratory-scale microcosm systems designed to monitor microbial mobility behaviour, survival, and attachment to surfaces. It was found that LKA1 cells survived in saturated sand columns, but showed little mobility in the porous matrix, suggesting that the cells attached with high efficiency to sand. There was no significant difference between the mobility patterns of LKA1 and VIN13. All 3 yeasts (VIN13, LKA1, and C. laurentii) were shown to form stable biofilms; the 2 S. cerevisiae strains either had no difference in biofilm density or the LKA1 biofilm was less dense than that of VIN13. When co-inoculated with C. laurentii, LKA1 had no negative influence on the breakthrough of the Cryptococcus yeast in a sand column or on its ability to form biofilms. In addition, LKA1 did not successfully integrate into a stable mixed-biofilm community, nor did it disrupt the biofilm community. Overall, it was concluded that the LKA1 transgenic yeast had the same reproductive success as VIN13 in these 3

  7. On the Inclusion of Self Regulating Branching Processes in the Working Paradigm of Evolutionary and Population Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Mode

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal goal of this methodological paper is to suggest to a generalaudience in the genetics community that the consideration of recentdevelopments of self regulating branching processes may lead to thepossibility of including this class of stochastic processes as part ofworking paradigm of evolutionary and population genetics. This class ofbranching processes is self regulating in the sense that an evolvingpopulation will grow only to a total population size that can be sustainedby the environment. From the mathematical point of view the class processesunder consideration belongs to a subfield of probability and statisticssometimes referred to as computational applied probability and stochasticprocesses. Computer intensive methods based on Monte Carlo simulationprocedures have been used to empirically work out the predictions of aformulation by assigning numerical values to some point in the parameterspace and computing replications of realizations of the process overthousands of generations of evolution. Statistical methods are then used onsuch samples of simulated data to produce informative summarizations of thedata that provide insights into the evolutionary implications of computerexperiments. Briefly, it is also possible to embed deterministic non-lineardifference equations in the stochastic process by using a statisticalprocedure to estimate the sample functions of the process, which hasinteresting methodological implications as to whether stochastic ordeterministic formulations may be applied separately or in combination inthe study of evolution. It is recognized that the literature on populationgenetics contains a substantial number of papers in which Monte Carlosimulation methods have been used. But, this extensive literature is beyondthe scope of this paper, which is focused on potential applications of selfregulating branching processes in evolutionary and population genetics.

  8. Genetic relationships among American donkey populations: insights into the process of colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana, J; Ferrando, A; Miró, J; Goyache, F; Loarca, A; Martínez López, O R; Canelón, J L; Stemmer, A; Aguirre, L; Lara, M A C; Álvarez, L A; Llambí, S; Gómez, N; Gama, L T; Nóvoa, M F; Martínez, R D; Pérez, E; Sierra, A; Contreras, M A; Guastella, A M; Marletta, D; Arsenos, G; Curik, I; Landi, V; Martínez, A; Delgado, J V

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the first insights into the genetic diversity and structure of the American donkey metapopulation. The primary objectives were to detect the main structural features underlying variability among American donkey populations, identify boundaries between differentiated gene pools, and draw the main colonization pathways since the introduction of donkeys into America in the 15th century. A panel of 14 microsatellite markers was applied for genotyping 350 American donkeys from 13 countries. The genetic structure of this metapopulation was analysed using descriptive statistics and Bayesian model-based methods. These populations were then compared to a database containing information on 476 individuals from 11 European breeds to identify the most likely ancestral donor populations. Results showed the presence of two distinct genetic pools, with confluence of the two in Colombia. The southern pool showed a unique genetic signature subsequent to an older founder event, but lacked any significant influence of modern gene flow from Europe. The northern pool, conversely, may have retained more ancestral polymorphisms and/or have experienced modern gene flow from Spanish breeds. The Andalusian and, to a lesser extent, the Catalan breeds have left a more pronounced footprint in some of the American donkey populations analysed.

  9. Using IBMs to Investigate Spatially-dependent Processes in Landscape Genetics Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of landscape and conservation genetics theory has been derived using non-spatialmathematical models. Here, we use a mechanistic, spatially-explicit, eco-evolutionary IBM to examine the utility of this theoretical framework in landscapes with spatial structure. Our analysis...

  10. Demonstrating an Interactive Genetic Drift Exercise: Examining the Processes of Random Mating and Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ashley J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity on the phenomenon of genetic drift in populations that reinforces the random nature of drift and demonstrates the effect of the population size on the mean frequency of an allele over a few generations. Includes materials for the demonstration, procedures, and discussion topics. (KHR)

  11. Genetic and Environmental Processes in Young Children's Resilience and Vulnerability to Socioeconomic Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Cohen, Julia; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Taylor, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Some children exposed to socioeconomic (SES) deprivation are resilient and function better than expected, given the level of deprivation they have experienced. The present study tested genetic and environmental contributions to young children's resilience and vulnerability to SES deprivation. Children's resilience was assessed by the difference…

  12. Using IBMs to Investigate Spatially-dependent Processes in Landscape Genetics Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of landscape and conservation genetics theory has been derived using non-spatialmathematical models. Here, we use a mechanistic, spatially-explicit, eco-evolutionary IBM to examine the utility of this theoretical framework in landscapes with spatial structure. Our analysis...

  13. Mendel and the Path to Genetics: Portraying Science as a Social Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampourakis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Textbook descriptions of the foundations of Genetics give the impression that besides Mendel's no other research on heredity took place during the nineteenth century. However, the publication of the "Origin of Species" in 1859, and the criticism that it received, placed the study of heredity at the centre of biological thought. Consequently,…

  14. Effects of genetically modified plants on microbial communities and processes in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs) has been a topic of considerable public debate in recent years. GMPs hold great promise for improving agricultural output, but the potential for unwanted effects of GMP use is still not fully understood. The majority of studies addressing

  15. Experimental studies related to the origin of the genetic code and the process of protein synthesis - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature on the experimental evidence for the genetic code assignments and the chemical reactions involved in the process of protein synthesis. In view of the enormous number of theoretical models that have been advanced to explain the origin of the genetic code, attention is confined to experimental studies. Since genetic coding has significance only within the context of protein synthesis, it is believed that the problem of the origin of the code must be dealt with in terms of the origin of the process of protein synthesis. It is contended that the answers must lie in the nature of the molecules, amino acids and nucleotides, the affinities they might have for one another, and the effect that those affinities must have on the chemical reactions that are related to primitive protein synthesis. The survey establishes that for the bulk of amino acids, there is a direct and significant correlation between the hydrophobicity rank of the amino acids and the hydrophobicity rank of their anticodonic dinucleotides.

  16. Experimental studies related to the origin of the genetic code and the process of protein synthesis - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature on the experimental evidence for the genetic code assignments and the chemical reactions involved in the process of protein synthesis. In view of the enormous number of theoretical models that have been advanced to explain the origin of the genetic code, attention is confined to experimental studies. Since genetic coding has significance only within the context of protein synthesis, it is believed that the problem of the origin of the code must be dealt with in terms of the origin of the process of protein synthesis. It is contended that the answers must lie in the nature of the molecules, amino acids and nucleotides, the affinities they might have for one another, and the effect that those affinities must have on the chemical reactions that are related to primitive protein synthesis. The survey establishes that for the bulk of amino acids, there is a direct and significant correlation between the hydrophobicity rank of the amino acids and the hydrophobicity rank of their anticodonic dinucleotides.

  17. A New Method to Improve Performance of Resampling Process in Particles Filter by Genetic Algorithm and Gamma Test Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenwu; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Particle filtering is a nonlinear and non-Gaussian dynamical filtering system. It has found widespread applications in hydrological data assimilation. In order to solve the loss of particle diversity exiting in resampling process of particle filter, this research proposes an improved particle filter algorithm using genetic algorithm optimization and Gamma test. This method combines the genetic algorithm and Gamma test into the resampling procedure of particle filter to improve the adaptability and performance of particle filter in data assimilation. First, the particles are classified to three different groups based on resampling method. The particles with high weight values remain unchanged. Then genetic algorithm is used to cross and variate the rest of the particles. In the process of the optimization, the Gamma test method is applied for monitoring the quality of the new generated particles. When the gamma statistic stays stable, the algorithm will end the optimization and continue to perturb next observations in particle algorithm. The algorithm is illustrated for the three-dimensional Lorenz model and the much more complex 40-dimensional Lorenz model. The results demonstrate this method can keep the diversity of the particles and enhance the performance of the particle filter, leading to the promising conjecture that the method is applicable to realistic hydrological problems.

  18. A Genetic Algorithm for Feeding Trajectory Optimisation of Fed-batch Fermentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a genetic algorithm is proposed with the purpose of the feeding trajectory optimization during a fed-batch fermentation of E. coli. The feed rate profiles are evaluated based on a number of objective functions. Optimization results obtained for different feeding trajectories demonstrate that the genetic algorithm works well and shows good computational performance. Developed optimal feed profiles meet the defined criteria. The ration of the substrate concentration and the difference between actual cell concentration and theoretical maximum cell concentration is defined as the most appropriate objective function. In this case the final cell concentration of 43 g·l-1 and final product concentration of 125 g·l-1 are achieved and there is not significant excess of substrate.

  19. Somatic genetics empowers the mouse for modeling and interrogating developmental and disease processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrette, Sean F; Xu, Tian

    2011-07-01

    With recent advances in genomic technologies, candidate human disease genes are being mapped at an accelerated pace. There is a clear need to move forward with genetic tools that can efficiently validate these mutations in vivo. Murine somatic mutagenesis is evolving to fulfill these needs with tools such as somatic transgenesis, humanized rodents, and forward genetics. By combining these resources one is not only able to model disease for in vivo verification, but also to screen for mutations and pathways integral to disease progression and therapeutic intervention. In this review, we briefly outline the current advances in somatic mutagenesis and discuss how these new tools, especially the piggyBac transposon system, can be applied to decipher human biology and disease.

  20. Differences in genetic variation in antigen-processing machinery components and association with cervical carcinoma risk in two Indonesian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Akash M; Spaans, Vivian M; Mahendra, Nyoman Bayu; Osse, Elisabeth M; Vet, Jessica N I; Purwoto, Gatot; Surya, I G D; Cornian, Santoso; Peters, Alexander A; Fleuren, Gert J; Jordanova, Ekaterina S

    2015-06-01

    Genetic variation of antigen-processing machinery (APM) components has been shown to be associated with cervical carcinoma risk and outcome in a genetically homogeneous Dutch population. However, the role of APM component single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetically heterogeneous populations with different distributions of human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes remains unclear. Eleven non-synonymous, coding SNPs in the TAP1, TAP2, LMP2, LMP7 and ERAP1 genes were genotyped in cervical carcinoma patients and healthy controls from two distinct Indonesian populations (Balinese and Javanese). Individual genotype and allele distributions were investigated using single-marker analysis, and combined SNP effects were assessed by haplotype construction and haplotype interaction analysis. Allele distribution patterns in Bali and Java differed in relation to cervical carcinoma risk, with four ERAP1 SNPs and one TAP2 SNP in the Javanese population showing significant association with cervical carcinoma risk, while in the Balinese population, only one TAP2 SNP showed this association. Multimarker analysis demonstrated that in the Javanese patients, one specific haplotype, consisting of the ERAP1-575 locus on chromosome 5 and the TAP2-379 and TAP2-651 loci on chromosome 6, was significantly associated with cervical carcinoma risk (global P = 0.008); no significant haplotype associations were found in the Balinese population. These data indicate not only that genetic variation in APM component genes is associated with cervical carcinoma risk in Indonesia but also that the patterns of association differ depending on background genetic composition and possibly on differences in HPV type distribution.

  1. Multiple parts process planning in serial–parallel flexible flow lines: part II—solution method based on genetic algorithms with fixed- and variable-length chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Musharavati, Farayi; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem

    2015-01-01

    Multiple parts process planning (MPPP) is a hard optimization problem that requires the rigor and intensity of metaheuristic-based algorithms such as simulated annealing and genetic algorithms. In this paper, a solution method for this problem is developed based on genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms solve problems by exploring a given search space. To do this, a landscape over which the search traverses is constructed based on a number of algorithm choices. Key algorithm choices include (...

  2. Degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab during food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

    2014-05-01

    In order to assess the degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes during food processing, genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab was used as raw material to produce 4 processed foods: steamed rice, rice noodles, rice crackers, and sweet rice wine. The results showed various processing procedures caused different degrees of degradation of both endogenous and exogenous genes. During the processing of steamed rice and rice noodles, the procedures were so mild that only genes larger than 1500 bp were degraded, and no degradation of NOS terminator and Hpt gene was detected. For rice crackers, frying was the most severe procedure, followed by microwaving, baking, boiling, 1st drying, and 2nd drying. For sweet rice wine, fermentation had more impact on degradation of genes than the other processing procedures. All procedures in this study did not lead to degradation of genes to below 200 bp, except for NOS terminator. In the case of stability of the genes studied during processing of rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS gene was the most, followed by the Cry1Ab gene, Hpt gene, Pubi promoter, and NOS terminator. In our study, we gained some information about the degradation of endogenous and exogenous genes during 4 foods processing, compared the different stabilities between endogenous and exogenous genes, and analyzed different effects of procedure on degradation of genes. In addition, the fragments of endogenous and exogenous genes about 200 bp could be detected in final products, except NOS terminator. As a result, we provided some base information about risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) food and appropriate length of fragment to detect GM component in processed foods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. The "periodic table" of the genetic code: A new way to look at the code and the decoding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Anton A

    2016-01-01

    Henri Grosjean and Eric Westhof recently presented an information-rich, alternative view of the genetic code, which takes into account current knowledge of the decoding process, including the complex nature of interactions between mRNA, tRNA and rRNA that take place during protein synthesis on the ribosome, and it also better reflects the evolution of the code. The new asymmetrical circular genetic code has a number of advantages over the traditional codon table and the previous circular diagrams (with a symmetrical/clockwise arrangement of the U, C, A, G bases). Most importantly, all sequence co-variances can be visualized and explained based on the internal logic of the thermodynamics of codon-anticodon interactions.

  4. SYBR® Green qPCR Screening Methods for Detection of Anti-herbicide Genes in Genetically Modiifed Processed Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Zhen; Lv Wei; Tang Zhi-fen; Liu Ying; Ao Jin-xia; Yuan Xiao-han; Zhang Ming-hui; Qiu You-wen; Gao Xue-jun

    2016-01-01

    The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food products becomes more and more widespread. The European Union has implemented a set of very strict procedures for the approval to grow, import and/or utilize GMOs as food or food ingredients. Thus, analytical methods for detection of GMOs are necessary in order to verify compliance with labelling requirements. There are few effective screening methods for processed GM (genetically modified) products. Three anti-herbicide genes (CP4-EPSPS,BAR andPAT) are common exogenous genes used in commercialized transgenic soybean, maize and rice. In the present study, a new SYBR® Green qPCR screening method was developed to simultaneously detect the three exogenous anti-herbicide genes and one endogenous gene in a run. We tested seven samples of representative processed products (soya lecithin, soya protein powder, chocolate beverage, infant rice cereal, maize protein powder, maize starch, and maize jam) using the developed method, and amplicons of endogenous gene and transgenic fragments were obtained from all the processed products, and the sensitivity was 0.1%. These results indicated that SYBR® Green qPCR screening method was appropriate for qualitative detection of transgenic soybean, maize and rice in processed products.

  5. EggLib: processing, analysis and simulation tools for population genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Mita Stéphane

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the considerable growth of available nucleotide sequence data over the last decade, integrated and flexible analytical tools have become a necessity. In particular, in the field of population genetics, there is a strong need for automated and reliable procedures to conduct repeatable and rapid polymorphism analyses, coalescent simulations, data manipulation and estimation of demographic parameters under a variety of scenarios. Results In this context, we present EggLib (Evolutionary Genetics and Genomics Library, a flexible and powerful C++/Python software package providing efficient and easy to use computational tools for sequence data management and extensive population genetic analyses on nucleotide sequence data. EggLib is a multifaceted project involving several integrated modules: an underlying computationally efficient C++ library (which can be used independently in pure C++ applications; two C++ programs; a Python package providing, among other features, a high level Python interface to the C++ library; and the egglib script which provides direct access to pre-programmed Python applications. Conclusions EggLib has been designed aiming to be both efficient and easy to use. A wide array of methods are implemented, including file format conversion, sequence alignment edition, coalescent simulations, neutrality tests and estimation of demographic parameters by Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC. Classes implementing different demographic scenarios for ABC analyses can easily be developed by the user and included to the package. EggLib source code is distributed freely under the GNU General Public License (GPL from its website http://egglib.sourceforge.net/ where a full documentation and a manual can also be found and downloaded.

  6. Multi-objective genetic algorithm for the optimization of road surface cleaning process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; GAO Dao-ming

    2006-01-01

    The parameters affecting road surface cleaning using waterjets were researched and a fuzzy neural network method of calculating cleaning rate was provided. A genetic algorithm was used to configure the cleaning parameters of pressure, standoff distance, traverse rate and angle of nozzles for the optimization of the cleaning effectiveness, efficiency, energy and water consumption, and a multi-objective optimization model was established. After calculation, the optimized results and the trend of variation of cleaning effectiveness, efficiency, energy and water consumption in different weighting factors were analyzed.

  7. Satellite image processing for precision agriculture and agroindustry using convolutional neural network and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus; Arkeman, Y.; Buono, A.; Hermadi, I.

    2017-01-01

    Translating satellite imagery to a useful data for decision making during this time are usually done manually by human. In this research, we are going to translate satellite imagery by using artificial intelligence method specifically using convolutional neural network and genetic algorithm to become a useful data for decision making, especially for precision agriculture and agroindustry. In this research, we are focused on how to made a sustainable land use planning with 3 objectives. The first is maximizing economic factor. Second is minimizing CO2 emission and the last is minimizing land degradation. Results show that by using artificial intelligence method, can produced a good pareto optimum solutions in a short time.

  8. Genetic correlations between brain volumes and the WAIS-III dimensions of verbal comprehension, working memory, perceptual organization, and processing speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posthuma, Daniëlle; Baare, Wim F.C.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.

    2003-01-01

    We recently showed that the correlation of gray and white matter volume with full scale IQ and the Working Memory dimension are completely mediated by common genetic factors (Posthuma et al., 2002). Here we examine whether the other WAIS III dimensions (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization...... to Working Memory capacity (r = 0.27). This phenotypic correlation is completely due to a common underlying genetic factor. Processing Speed was genetically related to white matter volume (r(g) = 0.39). Perceptual Organization was both genetically (r(g) = 0.39) and environmentally (r(e) = -0.71) related...

  9. Phase-specific brain change of spatial working memory processing in genetic and ultra-high risk groups of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Park, Ji-Young; Jung, Myung Hun; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jung, Wi Hoon; Han, Ji Yeon; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Hong, Kyung Sue; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2012-11-01

    Spatial working memory (WM) processing has 3 distinct phases: encoding, maintenance, and retrieval and its dysfunction is a core feature in schizophrenia. We examined phase-specific brain activations associated with spatial WM in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia (genetic high risk, GHR), ultra-high risk (UHR) subjects, patients with schizophrenia, and healthy controls. We used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 17 GHR subjects, 21 UHR subjects, 15 clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls, while subjects were performing a spatial delayed-response task. During the encoding phase, the GHR group showed increased activation in the fronto-parietal regions, whereas the UHR and schizophrenia groups showed significantly less activation in these regions than did the healthy control group. Especially, frontal activation was strongest in GHR subjects, followed by healthy controls, and occurred to a lesser degree in the UHR group, with the least activation occurring in the schizophrenia group. During the maintenance phase, the thalamus showed a differential activation, similar to frontal activation pattern during the encoding phase. During the retrieval phase, no prominent differential activations were found. Increased activations were observed in the superior temporal gyrus during the encoding and maintenance phases in the GHR, UHR, and schizophrenia groups relative to healthy controls. Our findings suggest that functional deficits associated with spatial WM processing emerge in the UHR before the onset of schizophrenia and compensatory neural processes exist in the GHR with genetic liability to schizophrenia.

  10. Estimating Information Processing in a Memory System: The Utility of Meta-analytic Methods for Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildizoglu, Tugce; Weislogel, Jan-Marek; Mohammad, Farhan; Chan, Edwin S-Y; Assam, Pryseley N; Claridge-Chang, Adam

    2015-12-01

    Genetic studies in Drosophila reveal that olfactory memory relies on a brain structure called the mushroom body. The mainstream view is that each of the three lobes of the mushroom body play specialized roles in short-term aversive olfactory memory, but a number of studies have made divergent conclusions based on their varying experimental findings. Like many fields, neurogenetics uses null hypothesis significance testing for data analysis. Critics of significance testing claim that this method promotes discrepancies by using arbitrary thresholds (α) to apply reject/accept dichotomies to continuous data, which is not reflective of the biological reality of quantitative phenotypes. We explored using estimation statistics, an alternative data analysis framework, to examine published fly short-term memory data. Systematic review was used to identify behavioral experiments examining the physiological basis of olfactory memory and meta-analytic approaches were applied to assess the role of lobular specialization. Multivariate meta-regression models revealed that short-term memory lobular specialization is not supported by the data; it identified the cellular extent of a transgenic driver as the major predictor of its effect on short-term memory. These findings demonstrate that effect sizes, meta-analysis, meta-regression, hierarchical models and estimation methods in general can be successfully harnessed to identify knowledge gaps, synthesize divergent results, accommodate heterogeneous experimental design and quantify genetic mechanisms.

  11. Estimating Information Processing in a Memory System: The Utility of Meta-analytic Methods for Genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Yildizoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic studies in Drosophila reveal that olfactory memory relies on a brain structure called the mushroom body. The mainstream view is that each of the three lobes of the mushroom body play specialized roles in short-term aversive olfactory memory, but a number of studies have made divergent conclusions based on their varying experimental findings. Like many fields, neurogenetics uses null hypothesis significance testing for data analysis. Critics of significance testing claim that this method promotes discrepancies by using arbitrary thresholds (α to apply reject/accept dichotomies to continuous data, which is not reflective of the biological reality of quantitative phenotypes. We explored using estimation statistics, an alternative data analysis framework, to examine published fly short-term memory data. Systematic review was used to identify behavioral experiments examining the physiological basis of olfactory memory and meta-analytic approaches were applied to assess the role of lobular specialization. Multivariate meta-regression models revealed that short-term memory lobular specialization is not supported by the data; it identified the cellular extent of a transgenic driver as the major predictor of its effect on short-term memory. These findings demonstrate that effect sizes, meta-analysis, meta-regression, hierarchical models and estimation methods in general can be successfully harnessed to identify knowledge gaps, synthesize divergent results, accommodate heterogeneous experimental design and quantify genetic mechanisms.

  12. A Hybrid Improved Genetic Algorithm and Its Application in Dynamic Optimization Problems of Chemical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Fan; DU Wenli; QI Rongbin; QIAN Feng; ZHONG Weimin

    2013-01-01

    The solutions of dynamic optimization problems are usually very difficult due to their highly nonlinear and multidimensional nature.Genetic algorithm(GA)has been proved to be a feasible method when the gradient is difficult to calculate.Its advantage is that the control profiles at all time stages are optimized simultaneously,but its convergence is very slow in the later period of evolution and it is easily trapped in the local optimum.In this study,a hybrid improved genetic algorithm(HIGA)for solving dynamic optimization problems is proposed to overcome these defects.Simplex method(SM)is used to perform the local search in the neighborhood of the optimal solution.By using SM,the ideal searching direction of global optimal solution could be found as soon as possible and the convergence speed of the algorithm is improved.The hybrid algorithm presents some improvements,such as protecting the best individual,accepting immigrations,as well as employing adaptive crossover and Gaussian mutation operators.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by solving several dynamic optimization problems.At last,HIGA is applied to the optimal production of secreted protein in a fed batch reactor and the optimal feed-rate found by HIGA is effective and relatively stable.

  13. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  14. The genetic defect of fragmented coronoid process in Labrador retrievers and other skeletal diseases in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temwichitr, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304848298

    2009-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process (FCP) is the main component of elbow dysplasia (ED) in dogs, which also includes osteochondrosis of the humeral condyle (OCD), elbow incongruity (INC), and ununited anconeal process (UAP). FCP is recognized as a hereditary disease in many breeds and is a major

  15. Assessment of DNA degradation induced by thermal and UV radiation processing: implications for quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballari, Rajashekhar V; Martin, Asha

    2013-12-01

    DNA quality is an important parameter for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO's) using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Food processing leads to degradation of DNA, which may impair GMO detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of various processing treatments such as heating, baking, microwaving, autoclaving and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the relative transgenic content of MON 810 maize using pRSETMON-02, a dual target plasmid as a model system. Amongst all the processing treatments examined, autoclaving and UV irradiation resulted in the least recovery of the transgenic (CaMV 35S promoter) and taxon-specific (zein) target DNA sequences. Although a profound impact on DNA degradation was seen during the processing, DNA could still be reliably quantified by Real-time PCR. The measured mean DNA copy number ratios of the processed samples were in agreement with the expected values. Our study confirms the premise that the final analytical value assigned to a particular sample is independent of the degree of DNA degradation since the transgenic and the taxon-specific target sequences possessing approximately similar lengths degrade in parallel. The results of our study demonstrate that food processing does not alter the relative quantification of the transgenic content provided the quantitative assays target shorter amplicons and the difference in the amplicon size between the transgenic and taxon-specific genes is minimal.

  16. Sensory Processing in Rhesus Monkeys: Developmental Continuity, Prenatal Treatment, and Genetic Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mary L; Moore, Colleen F; Adkins, Miriam; Barr, Christina S; Larson, Julie A; Resch, Leslie M; Roberts, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal sensory processing (tactile and vestibular function) was tested in 78 rhesus macaques from two experiments. At ages 4-5 years, striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding was examined using positron emission tomography. At ages 5-7 years, adult sensory processing was assessed. Findings were: (a) prenatal stress exposure yielded less optimal neonatal sensory processing; (b) animals carrying the short rh5-HTTLPR allele had less optimal neonatal sensory scores than monkeys homozygous for the long allele; (c) neonatal sensory processing was significantly related to striatal D2 receptor binding for carriers of the short allele, but not for animals homozygous for the long allele; and (d) there was moderate developmental continuity in sensory processing from the neonatal period to adulthood.

  17. Aging: progressive decline in fitness due to the rising deleteriome adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-08-01

    Different theories posit that aging is caused by molecular damage, genetic programs, continued development, hyperfunction, antagonistic pleiotropy alleles, mutations, trade-offs, incomplete repair, etc. Here, I discuss that these ideas can be conceptually unified as they capture particular facets of aging, while being incomplete. Their respective deleterious effects impact fitness at different levels of biological organization, adjusting progression through aging, rather than causing it. Living is associated with a myriad of deleterious processes, both random and deterministic, which are caused by imperfectness, exhibit cumulative properties, and represent the indirect effects of biological functions at all levels, from simple molecules to systems. From this, I derive the deleteriome, which encompasses cumulative deleterious age-related changes and represents the biological age. The organismal deleteriome consists of the deleteriomes of cells, organs, and systems, which change along roughly synchronized trajectories and may be assessed through biomarkers of aging. Aging is then a progressive decline in fitness due to the increasing deleteriome, adjusted by genetic, environmental, and stochastic processes. This model allows integration of diverse aging concepts, provides insights into the nature of aging, and suggests how lifespan may be adjusted during evolution and in experimental models. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Network-based integration of systems genetics data reveals pathways associated with lignocellulosic biomass accumulation and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Verbeke, Lieven; Christie, Nanette; Fierro, Ana C.; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Davis, Mark F.; Gjersing, Erica; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Van Montagu, Marc; Van de Peer, Yves; Marchal, Kathleen; Myburg, Alexander A.

    2017-01-17

    As a consequence of their remarkable adaptability, fast growth, and superior wood properties, eucalypt tree plantations have emerged as key renewable feedstocks (over 20 million ha globally) for the production of pulp, paper, bioenergy, and other lignocellulosic products. However, most biomass properties such as growth, wood density, and wood chemistry are complex traits that are hard to improve in long-lived perennials. Systems genetics, a process of harnessing multiple levels of component trait information (e.g., transcript, protein, and metabolite variation) in populations that vary in complex traits, has proven effective for dissecting the genetics and biology of such traits. We have applied a network-based data integration (NBDI) method for a systems-level analysis of genes, processes and pathways underlying biomass and bioenergy-related traits using a segregating Eucalyptus hybrid population. We show that the integrative approach can link biologically meaningful sets of genes to complex traits and at the same time reveal the molecular basis of trait variation. Gene sets identified for related woody biomass traits were found to share regulatory loci, cluster in network neighborhoods, and exhibit enrichment for molecular functions such as xylan metabolism and cell wall development. These findings offer a framework for identifying the molecular underpinnings of complex biomass and bioprocessing-related traits. A more thorough understanding of the molecular basis of plant biomass traits should provide additional opportunities for the establishment of a sustainable bio-based economy.

  19. Network-based integration of systems genetics data reveals pathways associated with lignocellulosic biomass accumulation and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrachi, Eshchar; Verbeke, Lieven; Christie, Nanette; Fierro, Ana C; Mansfield, Shawn D; Davis, Mark F; Gjersing, Erica; Tuskan, Gerald A; Van Montagu, Marc; Van de Peer, Yves; Marchal, Kathleen; Myburg, Alexander A

    2017-01-31

    As a consequence of their remarkable adaptability, fast growth, and superior wood properties, eucalypt tree plantations have emerged as key renewable feedstocks (over 20 million ha globally) for the production of pulp, paper, bioenergy, and other lignocellulosic products. However, most biomass properties such as growth, wood density, and wood chemistry are complex traits that are hard to improve in long-lived perennials. Systems genetics, a process of harnessing multiple levels of component trait information (e.g., transcript, protein, and metabolite variation) in populations that vary in complex traits, has proven effective for dissecting the genetics and biology of such traits. We have applied a network-based data integration (NBDI) method for a systems-level analysis of genes, processes and pathways underlying biomass and bioenergy-related traits using a segregating Eucalyptus hybrid population. We show that the integrative approach can link biologically meaningful sets of genes to complex traits and at the same time reveal the molecular basis of trait variation. Gene sets identified for related woody biomass traits were found to share regulatory loci, cluster in network neighborhoods, and exhibit enrichment for molecular functions such as xylan metabolism and cell wall development. These findings offer a framework for identifying the molecular underpinnings of complex biomass and bioprocessing-related traits. A more thorough understanding of the molecular basis of plant biomass traits should provide additional opportunities for the establishment of a sustainable bio-based economy.

  20. Towards a commercial process for the manufacture of genetically modified T cells for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A D; Assenmacher, M; Schröder, B; Meyer, M; Orentas, R; Bethke, U; Dropulic, B

    2015-03-01

    The recent successes of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies have highlighted the need for manufacturing processes that are robust and scalable for product commercialization. Here we review some of the more outstanding issues surrounding commercial scale manufacturing of personalized-adoptive T-cell medicinal products. These include closed system operations, improving process robustness and simplifying work flows, reducing labor intensity by implementing process automation, scalability and cost, as well as appropriate testing and tracking of products, all while maintaining strict adherence to Current Good Manufacturing Practices and regulatory guidelines. A decentralized manufacturing model is proposed, where in the future patients' cells could be processed at the point-of-care in the hospital.

  1. The genetic polymorphisms and colonization process of olive fly populations in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, İrfan; Taskin, Vatan

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide.

  2. PBAP: a pipeline for file processing and quality control of pedigree data with dense genetic markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nato, Alejandro Q.; Chapman, Nicola H.; Sohi, Harkirat K.; Nguyen, Hiep D.; Brkanac, Zoran; Wijsman, Ellen M.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Huge genetic datasets with dense marker panels are now common. With the availability of sequence data and recognition of importance of rare variants, smaller studies based on pedigrees are again also common. Pedigree-based samples often start with a dense marker panel, a subset of which may be used for linkage analysis to reduce computational burden and to limit linkage disequilibrium between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Programs attempting to select markers for linkage panels exist but lack flexibility. Results: We developed a pedigree-based analysis pipeline (PBAP) suite of programs geared towards SNPs and sequence data. PBAP performs quality control, marker selection and file preparation. PBAP sets up files for MORGAN, which can handle analyses for small and large pedigrees, typically human, and results can be used with other programs and for downstream analyses. We evaluate and illustrate its features with two real datasets. Availability and implementation: PBAP scripts may be downloaded from http://faculty.washington.edu/wijsman/software.shtml. Contact: wijsman@uw.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26231429

  3. Genetic parameters of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield (CY) is an important technological trait in the dairy industry, and the objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of cheese yield in a dairy cattle population using an individual model-cheese production procedure. A total of 1,167 Brown Swiss cows belonging to 85 herds were sampled once (a maximum of 15 cows were sampled per herd on a single test day, 1 or 2 herds per week). From each cow, 1,500 mL of milk was processed according to the following steps: milk sampling and heating, culture addition, rennet addition, gelation-time recording, curd cutting, whey draining and sampling, wheel formation, pressing, salting in brine, weighing, and cheese sampling. The compositions of individual milk, whey, and curd samples were determined. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER), which represented the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: REC(FAT), REC(PROTEIN), and REC(SOLIDS), which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding nutrient in the milk. Energy recovery, REC(ENERGY), represented the energy content of the cheese versus that in the milk. For statistical analysis, a Bayesian animal model was implemented via Gibbs sampling. The effects of parity (1 to ≥4), days in milk (6 classes), and laboratory vat (15 vats) were assigned flat priors; those of herd-test-date, animal, and residual were given Gaussian prior distributions. Intra-herd heritability estimates of %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER) ranged from 0.224 to 0.267; these were larger than the estimates obtained for milk yield (0.182) and milk fat

  4. Genetic Learning of Fuzzy Expert Systems for Decision Support in the Automated Process of Wooden Boards Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav MATSYSHYN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sawing solid wood (lumber, wooden boards into blanks is an important technological operation, which has significant influence on the efficiency of the woodworking industry as a whole. Selecting a rational variant of lumber cutting is a complex multicriteria problem with many stochastic factors, characterized by incomplete information and fuzzy attributes. About this property by currently used automatic optimizing cross-cut saw is not always rational use of wood raw material. And since the optimization algorithms of these saw functions as a “black box”, their improvement is not possible. Therefore topical the task of developing a new approach to the optimal cross-cutting that takes into account stochastic properties of wood as a material from biological origin. Here we propose a new approach to the problem of lumber optimal cutting in the conditions of uncertainty of lumber quantity and fuzziness lengths of defect-free areas. To account for these conditions, we applied the methods of fuzzy sets theory and used a genetic algorithm to simulate the process of human learning in the implementation the technological operation. Thus, the rules of behavior with yet another defect-free area is defined in fuzzy expert system that can be configured to perform specific production tasks using genetic algorithm. The author's implementation of the genetic algorithm is used to set up the parameters of fuzzy expert system. Working capacity of the developed system verified on simulated and real-world data. Implementation of this approach will make it suitable for the control of automated or fully automatic optimizing cross cutting of solid wood.

  5. Ictal stimulus processing during spike-wave discharges in genetic epileptic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Schuurmans, M.L.E.J.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Vossen, J.M.H.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2003-01-01

    In the present experiment it was investigated whether and to what extent auditory information processing is possible during the presence of spike-wave discharges in rats. To that end, WAG/Rij rats which are an animal model for absence epilepsy, were provided with cortical electrodes for the registra

  6. Optimization of the Thermosetting Pultrusion Process by Using Hybrid and Mixed Integer Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper thermo-chemical simulation of the pultrusion process of a composite rod is first used as a validation case to ensure that the utilized numerical scheme is stable and converges to results given in literature. Following this validation case, a cylindrical die block with heaters is added

  7. Defining desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding objective using analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.; Komen, J.; Kause, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Barfoot, A.J.; Martin, K.E.; Parsons, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using weigh

  8. The genetic basis of the relation between speed-of-information-processing and IQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, FV; Vernon, PA; Boomsma, DI

    1998-01-01

    The relationship of speed-of-information-processing (SIP), as derived from reaction times (RTs) on experimental tasks, and intelligence has been extensively studied. SIP is suggested to measure the efficiency with which subjects can perform basic cognitive operations underlying a wide range of intel

  9. Optimization of the Thermosetting Pultrusion Process by Using Hybrid and Mixed Integer Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper thermo-chemical simulation of the pultrusion process of a composite rod is first used as a validation case to ensure that the utilized numerical scheme is stable and converges to results given in literature. Following this validation case, a cylindrical die block with heaters is added

  10. Genetic correlations between brain volumes and the WAIS-III dimensions of verbal comprehension, working memory, perceptual organization, and processing speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posthuma, Daniëlle; Baare, Wim F.C.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.;

    2003-01-01

    to cerebellar volume. Verbal Comprehension was not related to any of the three brain volumes. It is concluded that brain volumes are genetically related to intelligence which suggests that genes that influence brain volume may also be important for intelligence. It is also noted however, that the direction......We recently showed that the correlation of gray and white matter volume with full scale IQ and the Working Memory dimension are completely mediated by common genetic factors (Posthuma et al., 2002). Here we examine whether the other WAIS III dimensions (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization...... to Working Memory capacity (r = 0.27). This phenotypic correlation is completely due to a common underlying genetic factor. Processing Speed was genetically related to white matter volume (r(g) = 0.39). Perceptual Organization was both genetically (r(g) = 0.39) and environmentally (r(e) = -0.71) related...

  11. Data-Driven Modeling for UGI Gasification Processes via an Enhanced Genetic BP Neural Network With Link Switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shida; Hou, Zhongsheng; Yin, Chenkun

    2016-12-01

    In this brief, an enhanced genetic back-propagation neural network with link switches (EGA-BPNN-LS) is proposed to address a data-driven modeling problem for gasification processes inside United Gas Improvement (UGI) gasifiers. The online-measured temperature of crude gas produced during the gasification processes plays a dominant role in the syngas industry; however, it is difficult to model temperature dynamics via first principles due to the practical complexity of the gasification process, especially as reflected by severe changes in the gas temperature resulting from infrequent manipulations of the gasifier in practice. The proposed data-driven modeling approach, EGA-BPNN-LS, incorporates an NN-LS, an EGA, and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. The approach cannot only learn the relationships between the control input and the system output from historical data using an optimized network structure through a combination of EGA and NN-LS but also makes use of the networks gradient information via the LM algorithm. EGA-BPNN-LS is applied to a set of data collected from the field to model the UGI gasification processes, and the effectiveness of EGA-BPNN-LS is verified.

  12. DNA genetic artificial fish swarm constant modulus blind equalization algorithm and its application in medical image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y C; Wang, H; Zhang, B L

    2015-10-02

    This study proposes use of the DNA genetic artificial fish swarm constant modulus blind equalization algorithm (DNA-G-AFS-CMBEA) to overcome the local convergence of the CMBEA. In this proposed algorithm, after the fusion of the fast convergence of the AFS algorithm and the global search capability of the DNA-G algorithm to drastically optimize the position vector of the artificial fish, the global optimal position vector is obtained and used as the initial optimal weight vector of the CMBEA. The result of application of this improved method in medical image processing demonstrates that the proposed algorithm outperforms the CMBEA and the AFS-CMBEA in removing the noise in a medical image and improving the peak signal to noise ratio.

  13. Identification of isomers and control of ionization and dissociation processes using dual-mass-spectrometer scheme and genetic algorithm optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洲; 佟秋男; 张丛丛; 胡湛

    2015-01-01

    Identification of acetone and its two isomers, and the control of their ionization and dissociation processes are per-formed using a dual-mass-spectrometer scheme. The scheme employs two sets of time of flight mass spectrometers to simultaneously acquire the mass spectra of two different molecules under the irradiation of identically shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The optimal laser pulses are found using closed-loop learning method based on a genetic algorithm. Com-pared with the mass spectra of the two isomers that are obtained with the transform limited pulse, those obtained under the irradiation of the optimal laser pulse show large differences and the various reaction pathways of the two molecules are selectively controlled. The experimental results demonstrate that the scheme is quite effective and useful in studies of two molecules having common mass peaks, which makes a traditional single mass spectrometer unfeasible.

  14. An Indexed, Mapped Mutant Library Enables Reverse Genetics Studies of Biological Processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Zhang, Ru; Patena, Weronika; Gang, Spencer S; Blum, Sean R; Ivanova, Nina; Yue, Rebecca; Robertson, Jacob M; Lefebvre, Paul A; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel T; Grossman, Arthur R; Jonikas, Martin C

    2016-02-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a leading unicellular model for dissecting biological processes in photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, its usefulness has been limited by difficulties in obtaining mutants in specific genes of interest. To allow generation of large numbers of mapped mutants, we developed high-throughput methods that (1) enable easy maintenance of tens of thousands of Chlamydomonas strains by propagation on agar media and by cryogenic storage, (2) identify mutagenic insertion sites and physical coordinates in these collections, and (3) validate the insertion sites in pools of mutants by obtaining >500 bp of flanking genomic sequences. We used these approaches to construct a stably maintained library of 1935 mapped mutants, representing disruptions in 1562 genes. We further characterized randomly selected mutants and found that 33 out of 44 insertion sites (75%) could be confirmed by PCR, and 17 out of 23 mutants (74%) contained a single insertion. To demonstrate the power of this library for elucidating biological processes, we analyzed the lipid content of mutants disrupted in genes encoding proteins of the algal lipid droplet proteome. This study revealed a central role of the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase LCS2 in the production of triacylglycerol from de novo-synthesized fatty acids.

  15. Genetic control of X inactivation and processes leading to X-inactivation skewing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmont, J.W. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The chromosomal basis of sex determination (i.e., XX in females, XY in males) results in an inequality of gene copy number and content between males and females. In humans (and other mammals) the potential imbalance of gene expression from the two X chromosomes in females is resolved by inactivating one X in all the somatic tissues. Beginning in the late blastocyst stage of embryonic development, one of the two X chromosomes is globally down-regulated in each somatic cell, resulting in expression from only one allele at the vast majority of X-encoded loci. While the paternal X is selectively inactive in the extraembryonic tissues (vide infra), in the embryo proper the process of X inactivation is random between the maternal and paternal X chromosomes. The result is that most females have mosaic expression of maternal and paternal alleles of X chromosome loci. The mean contribution from each chromosome is 50%, but because the process is generally random, a normal female may vary considerably from the mean. 67 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Bio-mineralization and potential biogeochemical processes in bauxite deposits: genetic and ore quality significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskou, Magdalini; Economou-Eliopoulos, Maria

    2013-08-01

    The Parnassos-Ghiona bauxite deposit in Greece of karst type is the 11th largest bauxite producer in the world. The mineralogical, major and trace-element contents and δ18O, δ12C, δ34S isotopic compositions of bauxite ores from this deposit and associated limestone provide valuable evidence for their origin and biogeochemical processes resulting in the beneficiation of low grade bauxite ores. The organic matter as thin coal layers, overlying the bauxite deposits, within limestone itself (negative δ12C isotopic values) and the negative δ34S values in sulfides within bauxite ores point to the existence of the appropriate circumstances for Fe bio-leaching and bio-mineralization. Furthermore, a consortium of microorganisms of varying morphological forms (filament-like and spherical to lenticular at an average size of 2 μm), either as fossils or presently living and producing enzymes, is a powerful factor to catalyze the redox reactions, expedite the rates of metal extraction and provide alternative pathways for metal leaching processes resulting in the beneficiation of bauxite ore.

  17. Genetic Algorithm Supported by Graphical Processing Unit Improves the Exploration of Effective Connectivity in Functional Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Wing Chi Chan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain regions of human subjects exhibit certain levels of associated activation upon specific environmental stimuli. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI detects regional signals, based on which we could infer the direct or indirect neuronal connectivity between the regions. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM is an appropriate mathematical approach for analyzing the effective connectivity using fMRI data. A maximum likelihood (ML discrepancy function is minimized against some constrained coefficients of a path model. The minimization is an iterative process. The computing time is very long as the number of iterations increases geometrically with the number of path coefficients. Using regular Quad-Core Central Processing Unit (CPU platform, duration up to three months is required for the iterations from 0 to 30 path coefficients. This study demonstrates the application of Graphical Processing Unit (GPU with the parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA that replaces the Powell minimization in the standard program code of the analysis software package. It was found in the same example that GA under GPU reduced the duration to 20 hours and provided more accurate solution when compared with standard program code under CPU.

  18. Factors and processes shaping the population structure and distribution of genetic variation across the species range of the freshwater snail radix balthica (Pulmonata, Basommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldmeyer Barbara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors and processes shaping the population structure and spatial distribution of genetic diversity across a species' distribution range are important in determining the range limits. We comprehensively analysed the influence of recurrent and historic factors and processes on the population genetic structure, mating system and the distribution of genetic variability of the pulmonate freshwater snail Radix balthica. This analysis was based on microsatellite variation and mitochondrial haplotypes using Generalised Linear Statistical Modelling in a Model Selection framework. Results Populations of R. balthica were found throughout North-Western Europe with range margins marked either by dispersal barriers or the presence of other Radix taxa. Overall, the population structure was characterised by distance independent passive dispersal mainly along a Southwest-Northeast axis, the absence of isolation-by-distance together with rather isolated and genetically depauperated populations compared to the variation present in the entire species due to strong local drift. A recent, climate driven range expansion explained most of the variance in genetic variation, reducing at least temporarily the genetic variability in this area. Other factors such as geographic marginality and dispersal barriers play only a minor role. Conclusions To our knowledge, such a population structure has rarely been reported before. It might nevertheless be typical for passively dispersed, patchily distributed taxa (e.g. freshwater invertebrates. The strong local drift implied in such a structure is expected to erode genetic variation at both neutral and coding loci and thus probably diminish evolutionary potential. This study shows that the analysis of multiple factors is crucial for the inference of the processes shaping the distribution of genetic variation throughout species ranges.

  19. Rhythmic bedding in prodeltaic deposits of the ancient Colorado River: Exploring genetic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waresak, Sandra; Nalin, Ronald; Lucarelli, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Prodeltaic deposits represent a valuable archive for the characterization of deltaic depositional systems, offering a distal, minimally reworked record of dominant processes active at the fluvial-marine interface. The Fish Creek Basin (CA, US) preserves a ~ 3-km thick, lower Pliocene, progradational deltaic succession formed when the ancestral Colorado River infiltrated a marine rift basin (the early Gulf of California). The unit in this succession interpreted as prodeltaic, corresponding to the upper Mud Hills Member of the Deguynos Formation, consists of ~ 300 m of muddy siltstones. A striking attribute of parts of this unit is the presence of rhythmic bedding, with consistently alternating silt- to fine sand-dominated and clay-dominated beds forming couplets with an average thickness of 12 cm. By performing a detailed sedimentological analysis of the rhythmites and investigating periodicities in bed thickness, our study aimed at reconstructing the mode of deposition of this enigmatic prodeltaic succession. We measured at high stratigraphic resolution 265 consecutive couplets, for a total thickness of 33 m. Individual beds have good lateral persistence of at least tens of meters and gradational to sharp, flat contacts. Observed sedimentary structures are concentrated on the coarser portion of the couplets and mostly consist of parallel and wavy lamination, with subordinate ripple cross-lamination and localized internal scours. Bioturbation appears low in intensity or absent. Most notably, grain size analysis performed with laser diffraction techniques on several couplets shows a consistent pattern of inverse grading transitioning to normal grading. The cumulative evidence of these sedimentological features indicates that deposition of the rhythmites was accomplished via hyperpycnal flows, each couplet most likely representing an individual event in a setting characterized by high overall depositional rates. We performed time series analysis on bed thickness of

  20. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GENETIC EROSION IN THE PROCESS OF EXTINCTION .1. GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION IN SALVIA-PRATENSIS AND SCABIOSA-COLUMBARIA IN RELATION TO POPULATION-SIZE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANTREUREN, R; BIJLSMA, R; VANDELDEN, W; OUBORG, NJ

    As part of a programme to determine the importance of the loss of genetic variation for the probability of population extinction, the amount of allozyme variation was determined in 14 populations of Salvia pratensis and in 12 populations of Scabiosa columbaria. Significant correlations were found

  1. A Genetic Model for Understanding Higher Order Visual Processing: Functional Interactions of the Ventral Visual Stream in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpal, Deepak; Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Kohn, Philip D.; Kippenhan, J. Shane; Mervis, Carolyn B.; Morris, Colleen A.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a 1.6 Mb microdeletion on chromosome 7q11.23 and characterized by hypersocial personality and prominent visuospatial construction impairments. Previous WS studies have identified functional and structural abnormalities in the hippocampal formation, prefrontal regions crucial for amygdala regulation and social cognition, and the dorsal visual stream, notably the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Although aberrant ventral stream activation has not been found in WS, object-related visual information that is processed in the ventral stream is a critical source of input into these abnormal regions. The present study, therefore, examined neural interactions of ventral stream areas in WS. Using a passive face- and house-viewing paradigm, activation and functional connectivity of stimulus-selective regions in fusiform and parahippocampal gyri, respectively, were investigated. During house viewing, significant activation differences were observed between participants with WS and a matched control group in IPS. Abnormal functional connectivity was found between parahippocampal gyrus and parietal cortex and between fusiform gyrus and a network of brain regions including amygdala and portions of prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that abnormal upstream visual object processing may contribute to the complex cognitive/behavioral phenotype in WS and provide a systems-level characterization of genetically mediated abnormalities of neural interactions. PMID:18308711

  2. The fractional PID controllers tuned by genetic algorithms for expansion turbine in the cryogenic air separation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bučanović Ljubiša J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of a new algorithm of PID control based on fractional calculus (FC in production of technical gases, i.e. in a cryogenic air separation process. Production of low pressure liquid air was first introduced by P. L. Kapica and involved expansion in a gas turbine. For application in the synthesis of the control law, for the input temperature and flow of air to the expansion turbine, it is necessary to determine the appropriate differential equations of the cryogenic process of mixing of two gaseous airflows at different temperatures before entrance to the expansion turbine. Thereafter, the model is linearized and decoupled and consequently classical PID and fractional order controllers are taken to assess the quality of the proposed technique. A set of optimal parameters of these controllers are achieved through the genetic algorithm optimization procedure by minimizing a cost function. Our design method focuses on minimizing performance criterion which involves IAE, overshoot, as well as settling time. A time-domain simulation was used to identify the performance of controller with respect to a traditional optimized PID controller. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 35006

  3. Modelling and prediction of complex non-linear processes by using Pareto multi-objective genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, A.; Khaleghi, E.; Gholaminezhad, I.; Nariman-zadeh, N.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new multi-objective genetic programming (GP) with a diversity preserving mechanism and a real number alteration operator is presented and successfully used for Pareto optimal modelling of some complex non-linear systems using some input-output data. In this study, two different input-output data-sets of a non-linear mathematical model and of an explosive cutting process are considered separately in three-objective optimisation processes. The pertinent conflicting objective functions that have been considered for such Pareto optimisations are namely, training error (TE), prediction error (PE), and the length of tree (complexity of the network) (TL) of the GP models. Such three-objective optimisation implementations leads to some non-dominated choices of GP-type models for both cases representing the trade-offs among those objective functions. Therefore, optimal Pareto fronts of such GP models exhibit the trade-off among the corresponding conflicting objectives and, thus, provide different non-dominated optimal choices of GP-type models. Moreover, the results show that no significant optimality in TE and PE may occur when the TL of the corresponding GP model exceeds some values.

  4. Load balancing prediction method of cloud storage based on analytic hierarchy process and hybrid hierarchical genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuze; Lin, Fan; Yang, Lvqing; Nie, Jing; Tan, Qian; Zeng, Wenhua; Zhang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous expansion of the cloud computing platform scale and rapid growth of users and applications, how to efficiently use system resources to improve the overall performance of cloud computing has become a crucial issue. To address this issue, this paper proposes a method that uses an analytic hierarchy process group decision (AHPGD) to evaluate the load state of server nodes. Training was carried out by using a hybrid hierarchical genetic algorithm (HHGA) for optimizing a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN). The AHPGD makes the aggregative indicator of virtual machines in cloud, and become input parameters of predicted RBFNN. Also, this paper proposes a new dynamic load balancing scheduling algorithm combined with a weighted round-robin algorithm, which uses the predictive periodical load value of nodes based on AHPPGD and RBFNN optimized by HHGA, then calculates the corresponding weight values of nodes and makes constant updates. Meanwhile, it keeps the advantages and avoids the shortcomings of static weighted round-robin algorithm.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF MACHINING PARAMETERS IN TURNING PROCESS USING GENETIC ALGORITHM AND PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION WITH EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.RAMESH KUMAR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of cutting parameters is one of the most important elements in any process planning of metal parts. Economy of machining operation plays a key role in competitiveness in the market. All CNCmachines produce finished components from cylindrical bar. Finished profiles consist of straight turning, facing, taper and circular machining. Finished profile from a cylindrical bar is done in two stages, rough machining and finish machining. Numbers of passes are required for rough machining and single pass is required for the finished pass. The machining parameters in multipass turning are depth of cut, cutting speed and feed. The machining performance is measured by the minimum production time. In this paper the optimal machining parameters for continuous profile machining are determinedwith respect to the minimum production time, subject to a set of practical constraints, cutting force, power and dimensional accuracy and surface finish. Due to complexity of this machining optimizationproblem, a genetic algorithm (GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO are applied to resolve the problem and the results obtained from GA and PSO are compared.

  6. Study on the Genetics and Development of Fiber Pigments and Color Deviation After Wetting Process of Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Xin-mian; ZHOU Wen-long

    2003-01-01

    The genetic control of fiber pigment color in naturally colored cotton was studied. The expres-sion of brown and green fiber color was controlled by incompletely dominant single genes and incompletelydominant major genes, respectively. Production and accumulation of the fiber pigment were related to specialexpression of enzymatic genes for pigment synthesis in fiber cells. At the stage of fiber lengthening, naturallycolored cotton, like white cotton, appeared purely white. But when fiber cell walls entered the thickeningstage, pigment appeared by degrees. When the fiber was completely matured (on boll dehiscence), the colorreached its darkest level. After wetting process treatment, the hues of the fiber pigment changed in regularpatterns. The hue circle for brown and green cotton changed in the opposite direction with wetting processtreatment. In general, the treated cotton color and luster became dark and vivid, and this trend provided the possibili-ty for enhancing the fiber quality by suitable enviromnental friendly finishing. The analysis showed that the color andluster of the cotton may be controlled by a series of pigments which show different chemical performance.

  7. Motivational salience and genetic variability of dopamine D2 receptor expression interact in the modulation of interference processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni eRichter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine has been implicated in the fine-tuning of complex cognitive and motor function and also in the anticipation of future rewards. This dual function of dopamine suggests that dopamine might be involved in the generation of active motivated behavior. The DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (rs1800497 has previously been suggested to affect striatal function with carriers of the less common A1 allele exhibiting reduced striatal D2 receptor density and increased risk for addiction. Here we aimed to investigate the influences of DRD2 TaqIA genotype on the modulation of interference processing by reward and punishment. 46 young, healthy volunteers participated in a behavioral experiment, and 32 underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants performed a flanker task with a motivation manipulation (monetary reward, monetary loss, neither, or both. Reaction times (RTs were shorter in motivated flanker trials, irrespective of congruency. In the fMRI experiment motivation was associated with reduced prefrontal activation during incongruent versus congruent flanker trials, possibly reflecting increased processing efficiency. DRD2 TaqIA genotype did not affect overall RTs, but interacted with motivation on the congruency-related RT differences, with A1 carriers showing smaller interference effects to reward alone and A2 homozygotes exhibiting a specific interference reduction during combined reward and punishment trials. In fMRI, anterior cingulate activity showed a similar pattern of genotype-related modulation. Additionally, A1 carriers showed increased anterior insula activation relative to A2 homozygotes. Our results point to a role for genetic variations of the dopaminergic system in individual differences of cognition-motivation interaction.

  8. Distortion of genetically modified organism quantification in processed foods: influence of particle size compositions and heat-induced DNA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreano, Francisco; Busch, Ulrich; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2005-12-28

    Milling fractions from conventional and transgenic corn were prepared at laboratory scale and used to study the influence of sample composition and heat-induced DNA degradation on the relative quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in food products. Particle size distributions of the obtained fractions (coarse grits, regular grits, meal, and flour) were characterized using a laser diffraction system. The application of two DNA isolation protocols revealed a strong correlation between the degree of comminution of the milling fractions and the DNA yield in the extracts. Mixtures of milling fractions from conventional and transgenic material (1%) were prepared and analyzed via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Accurate quantification of the adjusted GMO content was only possible in mixtures containing conventional and transgenic material in the form of analogous milling fractions, whereas mixtures of fractions exhibiting different particle size distributions delivered significantly over- and underestimated GMO contents depending on their compositions. The process of heat-induced nucleic acid degradation was followed by applying two established quantitative assays showing differences between the lengths of the recombinant and reference target sequences (A, deltal(A) = -25 bp; B, deltal(B) = +16 bp; values related to the amplicon length of the reference gene). Data obtained by the application of method A resulted in underestimated recoveries of GMO contents in the samples of heat-treated products, reflecting the favored degradation of the longer target sequence used for the detection of the transgene. In contrast, data yielded by the application of method B resulted in increasingly overestimated recoveries of GMO contents. The results show how commonly used food technological processes may lead to distortions in the results of quantitative GMO analyses.

  9. Backcross introgression of the Cucumis hystrix chakr. genome increases genetic diveristy in U.S. processing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic base of commercial cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is extremely narrow (about 3 to 8% polymorphism). Wide-based crosses within C. sativus [i.e., var. sativus x var. hardwickii (R.) Alef.] and interspecific hybridization attempts prior to 1995 have not substantially increased genetic diver...

  10. Fine-scale refuges can buffer demographic and genetic processes against short-term climatic variation and disturbance: a 22-year case study of an arboreal marsupial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sam C; Lorin, Thibault; Shaw, Robyn E; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Blyton, Michaela D J; Smith, Annabel L; Pierson, Jennifer C; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-08-01

    Ecological disturbance and climate are key drivers of temporal dynamics in the demography and genetic diversity of natural populations. Microscale refuges are known to buffer species' persistence against environmental change, but the effects of such refuges on demographic and genetic patterns in response to short-term environmental variation are poorly understood. We quantified demographic and genetic responses of mountain brushtail possums (Trichosurus cunninghami) to rainfall variability (1992-2013) and to a major wildfire. We hypothesized that there would be underlying differences in demographic and genetic processes between an unburnt mesic refuge and a topographically exposed zone that was burnt in 2009. Fire caused a 2-year decrease in survival in the burnt zone, but the population grew after the fire due to immigration, leading to increased expected heterozygosity. We documented a fire-related behavioural shift, where the rate of movement by individuals in the unburnt refuge to the burnt zone decreased after fire. Irrespective of the fire, there were long-term differences in demographic and genetic parameters between the mesic/unburnt refuge and the nonmesic/burnt zone. Survival was high and unaffected by rainfall in the refuge, but lower and rainfall-dependent in the nonmesic zone. Net movement of individuals was directional, from the mesic refuge to the nonmesic zone, suggesting fine-scale source-sink dynamics. There were higher expected heterozygosity (HE ) and temporal genetic stability in the refuge, but lower HE and marked temporal genetic structure in the exposed habitat, consistent with reduced generational overlap caused by elevated mortality and immigration. Thus, fine-scale refuges can mediate the short-term demographic and genetic effects of climate and ecological disturbance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genetic associations of type 2 diabetes with islet amyloid polypeptide processing and degrading pathways in asian populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Kwok Lim Lam

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a complex disease characterized by beta cell dysfunctions. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP is highly conserved and co-secreted with insulin with over 40% of autopsy cases of T2D showing islet amyloid formation due to IAPP aggregation. Dysregulation in IAPP processing, stabilization and degradation can cause excessive oligomerization with beta cell toxicity. Previous studies examining genetic associations of pathways implicated in IAPP metabolism have yielded conflicting results due to small sample size, insufficient interrogation of gene structure and gene-gene interactions. In this multi-staged study, we screened 89 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 6 candidate genes implicated in IAPP metabolism and tested for independent and joint associations with T2D and beta cell dysfunctions. Positive signals in the stage-1 were confirmed by de novo and in silico analysis in a multi-centre unrelated case-control cohort. We examined the association of significant SNPs with quantitative traits in a subset of controls and performed bioinformatics and relevant functional analyses. Amongst the tag SNPs, rs1583645 in carboxypeptidase E (CPE and rs6583813 in insulin degrading enzyme (IDE were associated with 1.09 to 1.28 fold increased risk of T2D (P Meta = 9.4×10(-3 and 0.02 respectively in a meta-analysis of East Asians. Using genetic risk scores (GRS with each risk variant scoring 1, subjects with GRS≥3 (8.2% of the cohort had 56% higher risk of T2D than those with GRS = 0 (P = 0.01. In a subcohort of control subjects, plasma IAPP increased and beta cell function index declined with GRS (P = 0.008 and 0.03 respectively. Bioinformatics and functional analyses of CPE rs1583645 predicted regulatory elements for chromatin modification and transcription factors, suggesting differential DNA-protein interactions and gene expression. Taken together, these results support the importance of dysregulation of IAPP

  12. Genetic diversity and virulence potential of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw and processed food commodities in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minghui; Bai, Yalong; Xu, Jie; Carter, Michelle Qiu; Shi, Chunlei; Shi, Xianming

    2015-02-16

    The risk of zoonotic transmission to humans highlights the need to understand the molecular ecology of Staphylococcus aureus in foods. In this study, 142 S. aureus isolates obtained from various raw and processed foods from Shanghai, China were characterized to determine their genetic diversity and virulence gene content. A total of 16 clonal complexes (CCs), 34 staphylococcal protein A (spa) types, and 6 accessory gene regulator (agr) allelic groups were identified and analyzed among the 142 S. aureus isolates. Among these, the genotype CC188-t189-agr Ι was the most prevalent, constituting 28.2% of all isolates. The presence of virulence genes encoding 20 staphylococcal enterotoxins (se), toxic shock syndrome toxin (tsst1), exfoliative toxins (eta, etb, and etd), Panton-Valentine leukocidin (lukS-PV and lukF-PV), as well as methicillin resistance gene (mecA), was determined by PCR. Of these S. aureus isolates, 72.5% harbored toxin genes, in which the most frequent toxin gene was sep (43.7%), followed by sej (26.1%) and pvl (21.1%). In contrast, see, ses, set, tsst1, etb, and etd were not found in any of the isolates tested. Eight S. aureus isolates (5.6%, 8/142), seven from raw milk and one from frozen food, were mecA positive and resistant to oxacillin, thus were MRSA. The 142 S. aureus isolates displayed 52 different toxin gene profiles. Although no direct association was found between toxin gene profile and the S. aureus genotype, the isolates belonging to CC5, CC9, CC20, CC50, and CC72 clonal lineages in general carried more toxin genes (>5) compared with the isolates in other CCs. It was also revealed that raw milk and raw meat were the major sources of isolates containing multiple toxin genes. S. aureus isolates from food that were genetically highly related, displayed diverse toxin gene profiles, implying the significant role of horizontal gene transfer in the emergence of highly toxigenic S. aureus isolates.

  13. Genetic Associations of Type 2 Diabetes with Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Processing and Degrading Pathways in Asian Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Vincent Kwok Lim; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan; Lee, Heung Man; Hu, Cheng; Park, Kyong Soo; Furuta, Hiroto; Wang, Ying; Tam, Claudia Ha Ting; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Daniel Peng-Keat; Liu, Jianjun; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tai, E. Shyong; Morris, Andrew P.; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Woo, Jean; Leung, Ping Chung; Kong, Alice Pik Shan; Ozaki, Risa; Jia, Wei Ping; Lee, Hong Kyu; Nanjo, Kishio; Xu, Gang; Ng, Maggie Chor Yin; So, Wing-Yee; Chan, Juliana Chung Ngor

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease characterized by beta cell dysfunctions. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is highly conserved and co-secreted with insulin with over 40% of autopsy cases of T2D showing islet amyloid formation due to IAPP aggregation. Dysregulation in IAPP processing, stabilization and degradation can cause excessive oligomerization with beta cell toxicity. Previous studies examining genetic associations of pathways implicated in IAPP metabolism have yielded conflicting results due to small sample size, insufficient interrogation of gene structure and gene-gene interactions. In this multi-staged study, we screened 89 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 candidate genes implicated in IAPP metabolism and tested for independent and joint associations with T2D and beta cell dysfunctions. Positive signals in the stage-1 were confirmed by de novo and in silico analysis in a multi-centre unrelated case-control cohort. We examined the association of significant SNPs with quantitative traits in a subset of controls and performed bioinformatics and relevant functional analyses. Amongst the tag SNPs, rs1583645 in carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and rs6583813 in insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) were associated with 1.09 to 1.28 fold increased risk of T2D (PMeta = 9.4×10−3 and 0.02 respectively) in a meta-analysis of East Asians. Using genetic risk scores (GRS) with each risk variant scoring 1, subjects with GRS≥3 (8.2% of the cohort) had 56% higher risk of T2D than those with GRS = 0 (P = 0.01). In a subcohort of control subjects, plasma IAPP increased and beta cell function index declined with GRS (P = 0.008 and 0.03 respectively). Bioinformatics and functional analyses of CPE rs1583645 predicted regulatory elements for chromatin modification and transcription factors, suggesting differential DNA-protein interactions and gene expression. Taken together, these results support the importance of dysregulation of IAPP metabolism in

  14. The interplay of genetic influences and social processes in developmental theory: specific mechanisms are coming into view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, D; Neiderhiser, J M

    2000-01-01

    In the coming years we can look forward to research that clarifies specific mechanisms that account for the interplay between genetic and environmental influences on psychological development. Certain misconceptions, arising from research traditions initiated by Francis Galton on the one hand and G. Stanley Hall on the other, may now be set aside in the light of new evidence. Three important findings promise a new synthesis. First, while each of us is born with about 100,000 genes that, under ordinary circumstances, do not change, the expression of these genes on behavior is dynamic. Some genetic influences are expressed early in development, but others are manifest many years later. Second, genetic factors often account not only for some of the individual differences in the measures of adjustments we typically use to monitor development but also for individual differences in environmental experiences that covary with those measures of adjustment. Indeed, genetic factors have been found to account for a surprising amount of covariance between measures of the social environment and of adjustment in young children, adolescents, and adults. Third, the expression of genetic influences are very malleable and responsive to the social environment. These new findings are revealing specific mechanisms for the interplay of genetic and social environmental factors in four domains. First, the social environment may play both a necessary and specific role in the expression of particular genetic influences on a range of behaviors from depression to social responsibility. Second, an understanding of the interplay between the social environment and genetics may lead to a clearer definition of the phenotypic manifestations of particular genetic influences. Third, we will-as a result of these studies-have a clearer fix on the timing of important events and their sequence in development. Fourth, this new genre of work promises to illumine more completely mechanisms by which the

  15. Historical processes and contemporary ocean currents drive genetic structure in the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in the Indo-Australian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernawan, Udhi E; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Kendrick, Gary A; Feng, Ming; Biffin, Edward; Lavery, Paul S; McMahon, Kathryn

    2017-02-01

    Understanding spatial patterns of gene flow and genetic structure is essential for the conservation of marine ecosystems. Contemporary ocean currents and historical isolation due to Pleistocene sea level fluctuations have been predicted to influence the genetic structure in marine populations. In the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), the world's hotspot of marine biodiversity, seagrasses are a vital component but population genetic information is very limited. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeography of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in the IAA based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and then characterized the genetic structure based on a panel of 16 microsatellite markers. We further examined the relative importance of historical isolation and contemporary ocean currents in driving the patterns of genetic structure. Results from SNPs revealed three population groups: eastern Indonesia, western Indonesia (Sunda Shelf) and Indian Ocean; while the microsatellites supported five population groups (eastern Indonesia, Sunda Shelf, Lesser Sunda, Western Australia and Indian Ocean). Both SNPs and microsatellites showed asymmetrical gene flow among population groups with a trend of southwestward migration from eastern Indonesia. Genetic diversity was generally higher in eastern Indonesia and decreased southwestward. The pattern of genetic structure and connectivity is attributed partly to the Pleistocene sea level fluctuations modified to a smaller level by contemporary ocean currents.

  16. Differentially Expressed Genes Distributed Over Chromosomes and Implicated in Certain Biological Processes for Site Insertion Genetically Modified Rice Kemingdao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu, Yunhe Li, Jie Zhao, Xiuping Chen, Guiliang Jian, Yufa Peng, Fangjun Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Release of genetically modified (GM plants has sparked off intensive debates worldwide partly because of concerns about potential adverse unintended effects of GM plants to the agro system and the safety of foods. In this study, with the aim of revealing the molecular basis for unintended effects of a single site insertion GM Kemingdao (KMD rice transformed with a synthetic cry1Ab gene, and bridging unintended effects of KMD rice through clues of differentially expressed genes, comparative transcriptome analyses were performed for GM KMD rice and its parent rice of Xiushui11 (XS11. The results showed that 680 differentially expressed transcripts were identified from 30-day old seedlings of GM KMD rice. The absolute majority of these changed expression transcripts dispersed and located over all rice chromosomes, and existed physical distance on chromosome from the insertion site, while only two transcripts were found to be differentially expressed within the 21 genes located within 100 kb up and down-stream of the insertion site. Pathway and biology function analyses further revealed that differentially expressed transcripts of KMD rice were involved in certain biological processes, and mainly implicated in two types of pathways. One type was pathways implicated in plant stress/defense responses, which were considerably in coordination with the reported unintended effects of KMD rice, which were more susceptible to rice diseases compared to its parent rice XS11; the other type was pathways associated with amino acids metabolism. With this clue, new unintended effects for changes in amino acids synthesis of KMD rice leaves were successfully revealed. Such that an actual case was firstly provided for identification of unintended effects in GM plants by comparative transciptome analysis.

  17. Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Cleveland

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of genetically engineered (GE crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions, by rethinking risk management for GE crops and transgenes, using the example of maize transgene flow from the U.S. to Mexico. Risk management for the Third World is a necessary first step of a broader benefit-cost analysis of GE crops, which would include comparisons with existing varieties and with alternative varieties such as transgenic farmer varieties and organic varieties. Our goal is to use existing information on GE crops and on the social and biological characteristics of Third World agriculture to identify key processes that need to be considered in risk management, and the additional research required to adequately understand them. The four main steps in risk management are hazard identification, risk analysis (exposure x harm, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. We use informal event trees to identify possible exposure to GE crops and transgenes, and resulting biological and social harm; give examples of farmers' ability to evaluate social harm; and discuss the possibilities for risk treatment. We conclude that risk management is relevant for Third World agriculture, but needs to be based on the unique biological and social characteristics of small-scale, traditionally based agriculture, including the knowledge and values of Third World farmers and consumers.

  18. Quality assessment of genetic counseling process in the context of presymptomatic testing for late-onset disorders: a thematic analysis of three review articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneque, Milena; Sequeiros, Jorge; Skirton, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Presymptomatic testing (PST) is available for a range of late-onset disorders. Health practitioners generally follow guidelines regarding appropriate number of counseling sessions, involvement of multidisciplinary teams, topics for pretest discussion, and follow-up sessions; however, more understanding is needed about what helps consultands effectively and the impact of amount and quality of genetic counseling on the psychosocial sequelae of PST for late-onset disorders. We conducted a thematic analysis of three review articles on quality of the genetic counseling process, aiming at (1) exploring current evidence; (2) identifying quality assessment indicators; and (3) making recommendations for genetic counseling practice in late-onset disorders. We undertook a systematic search of 6 relevant databases: 38 articles were identified and 3 fitted our inclusion criteria; after quality appraisal, all were included in the review. The number of sessions, time spent, consultation environment, follow-up, and multidisciplinarity were identified as variables for quality assessment. Research on counseling in the context of genetic testing in familial cancer tends to be related to outcomes and indicators for quality assessment, while research concerning other late-onset diseases is mainly focused on the psychological impact of the test results. The quality and content of the overall process in noncancer late-onset diseases is insufficiently articulated. Despite the fact that PST for Huntington disease and other degenerative conditions has been offered for more than 20 years, good methodological approaches to assess quality of genetic counseling in that context remain elusive. This restricts improvement of the protocols for genetic services and, in general, healthcare for the at-risk population.

  19. A genetic engineering approach to genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, J S; Kazakov, V

    2001-01-01

    We present an extension to the standard genetic algorithm (GA), which is based on concepts of genetic engineering. The motivation is to discover useful and harmful genetic materials and then execute an evolutionary process in such a way that the population becomes increasingly composed of useful genetic material and increasingly free of the harmful genetic material. Compared to the standard GA, it provides some computational advantages as well as a tool for automatic generation of hierarchical genetic representations specifically tailored to suit certain classes of problems.

  20. Strong genetic population structure in the boring giant clam, Tridacna crocea, across the Indo-Malay Archipelago: implications related to evolutionary processes and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochzius, Marc; Nuryanto, Agus

    2008-09-01

    Even though the Indo-Malay Archipelago hosts the world's greatest diversity of marine species, studies on the genetic population structure and gene flow of marine organisms within this area are rather rare. Consequently, not much is known about connectivity of marine populations in the Indo-Malay Archipelago, despite the fact that such information is important to understand evolutionary and ecological processes in the centre of marine biodiversity. This study aims to investigate the genetic population structure of the boring giant clam, Tridacna crocea. The analysis is based on a 456-bp fragment of the cytochrome oxidase I gene from 300 individuals collected from 15 localities across the Indo-Malay Archipelago. Tridacna crocea shows a very strong genetic population structure and isolation by distance, indicating restricted gene flow between almost all sample sites. The observed Phi(ST)-value of 0.28 is very high compared to other studies on giant clams. According to the pronounced genetic differences, the sample sites can be divided into four groups from West to East: (i) Eastern Indian Ocean, (ii) Java Sea, (iii) South China Sea, Indonesian throughflow, as well as seas in the East of Sulawesi, and (iv) Western Pacific. This complex genetic population structure and pattern of connectivity, characterised by restricted gene flow between some sites and panmixing between others can be attributed to the geological history and prevailing current regimes in the Indo-Malay Archipelago.

  1. Information processing of genetically modified food messages under different motives: an adaptation of the multiple-motive heuristic-systematic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jooyoung; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2009-12-01

    Recent risk management research has noted the importance of understanding how the lay public processes and reacts to risk-related information. Guided by the multiple-motive heuristic-systematic model, this study examines (1) how individuals process messages in the context of genetically modified foods to change their attitudes and (2) how the persuasion process varies across types of motives. In the three treatment conditions of accuracy, defense, and impression motives, the respondents changed their attitudes through either the heuristic or the systematic mode, depending on their motives. The accuracy-motive group appeared to use the systematic processing mode, while the impression-motive group seemed to employ the heuristic processing mode. The empirical findings highlight the importance of incorporating motives to improve our understanding of the process of attitude change in risk management and communication contexts.

  2. Genetically engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioengineered foods; GMOs; Genetically modified foods ... helps speed up the process of creating new foods with desired traits. The possible benefits of genetic engineering include: More nutritious food Tastier food Disease- and ...

  3. Optimization of Process Parameters for Cracking Prevention of UHSS in Hot Stamping Based on Hammersley Sequence Sampling and Back Propagation Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Mixed Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menghan Wang∗,Zongmin Yue; Lie Meng

    2016-01-01

    In order to prevent cracking appeared in the work⁃piece during the hot stamping operation, this paper proposes a hybrid optimization method based on Hammersley sequence sampling ( HSS) , finite analysis, back⁃propagation ( BP ) neural network and genetic algorithm ( GA ) . The mechanical properties of high strength boron steel are characterized on the basis of uniaxial tensile test at elevated temperatures. The samples of process parameters are chosen via the HSS that encourages the exploration throughout the design space and hence achieves better discovery of possible global optimum in the solution space. Meanwhile, numerical simulation is carried out to predict the forming quality for the optimized design. A BP neural network model is developed to obtain the mathematical relationship between optimization goal and design variables, and genetic algorithm is used to optimize the process parameters. Finally, the results of numerical simulation are compared with those of production experiment to demonstrate that the optimization strategy proposed in the paper is feasible.

  4. The role of historical and contemporary processes on phylogeographic structure and genetic diversity in the Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Sigüenza Adolfo G; Hernández Baños Blanca E; Escalante Patricia; Smith Brian; Rohwer Sievert; Klicka John

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Earth history events such as climate change are believed to have played a major role in shaping patterns of genetic structure and diversity in species. However, there is a lag between the time of historical events and the collection of present-day samples that are used to infer contemporary population structure. During this lag phase contemporary processes such as dispersal or non-random mating can erase or reinforce population differences generated by historical events. I...

  5. The “Bringing into Cultivation” Phase of the Plant Domestication Process and Its Contributions to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Vodouhè, R.; Dansi, A.

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities’ motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in pla...

  6. Optimization of Process Parameters to Minimize Angular Distortion in Gas Tungsten Arc Welded Stainless Steel 202 Grade Plates Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakaran .R,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on optimization of process parameters using genetic algorithm to minimize angular distortion in 202 grade stainless steel gas tungsten arc welded plates. Angular distortion is a major problem and most pronounced among different types of distortion in butt welded plates. The extent of distortion depends onthe welding process control parameters. The important process control parameters chosen for study are gun angle (θ, welding speed (V, plate length (L, welding current (I and gas flow rate (Q. The experiments are conducted based on five factor five level central composite rotatable designs with full replication technique. A mathematical model was developed correlating the process parameters and the angular distortion. The developed model is checked for the adequacy based on ANOVA analysis and accuracy of prediction by confirmatory test. The optimization of process parameters was done using genetic algorithms (GA. A source code was developed using C language to do the optimization. The optimal process parameters gave a value of 0.000379° for angular distortion which demonstrates the accuracy and effectiveness of the model presented and program developed. The obtained results indicate that the optimized parameters are capable of producing weld with minimum distortion.

  7. Genetic interactions and functional analyses of the fission yeast gsk3 and amk2 single and double mutants defective in TORC1-dependent processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallis, Charalampos; Townsend, StJohn; Bähler, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signalling network plays important roles in aging and disease. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the Gsk3 kinase inhibit TOR during stress. We performed genetic interaction screens using synthetic genetic arrays (SGA) with gsk3 and amk2 as query mutants, the latter encoding the regulatory subunit of AMPK. We identified 69 negative and 82 positive common genetic interactors, with functions related to cellular growth and stress. The 120 gsk3-specific negative interactors included genes functioning in translation and ribosomes. The 215 amk2-specific negative interactors included genes functioning in chromatin silencing and DNA damage repair. Both amk2- and gsk3-specific interactors were enriched in phenotype categories related to abnormal cell size and shape. We also performed SGA screen with the amk2 gsk3 double mutant as a query. Mutants sensitive to 5-fluorouracil, an anticancer drug are under-represented within the 305 positive interactors specific for the amk2 gsk3 query. The triple-mutant SGA screen showed higher number of negative interactions than the double mutant SGA screens and uncovered additional genetic network information. These results reveal common and specialized roles of AMPK and Gsk3 in mediating TOR-dependent processes, indicating that AMPK and Gsk3 act in parallel to inhibit TOR function in fission yeast. PMID:28281664

  8. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Genetics Archive Regulation of Genetic Tests Genetic Discrimination Overview Many Americans fear that participating in research ... I) and employment (Title II). Read more Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws Genetic Discrimination and Other Laws ...

  9. Niche Divergence versus Neutral Processes: Combined Environmental and Genetic Analyses Identify Contrasting Patterns of Differentiation in Recently Diverged Pine Species

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Moreno-Letelier; Alejandra Ortíz-Medrano; Daniel Piñero

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Solving relationships of recently diverged taxa, poses a challenge due to shared polymorphism and weak reproductive barriers. Multiple lines of evidence are needed to identify independently evolving lineages. This is especially true of long-lived species with large effective population sizes, and slow rates of lineage sorting. North American pines are an interesting group to test this multiple approach. Our aim is to combine cytoplasmic genetic markers with environmental ...

  10. Genetic variants associated with motion sickness point to roles for inner ear development, neurological processes and glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hromatka, Bethann S.; Joyce Y Tung; Kiefer, Amy K.; Do, Chuong B.; Hinds, David A.; Eriksson, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Roughly one in three individuals is highly susceptible to motion sickness and yet the underlying causes of this condition are not well understood. Despite high heritability, no associated genetic factors have been discovered. Here, we conducted the first genome-wide association study on motion sickness in 80 494 individuals from the 23andMe database who were surveyed about car sickness. Thirty-five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with motion sickness at a genome-wide-si...

  11. Genetic GIScience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey; Sabel, Clive E; Shi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The exposome, defined as the totality of an individual's exposures over the life course, is a seminal concept in the environmental health sciences. Although inherently geographic, the exposome as yet is unfamiliar to many geographers. This article proposes a place-based synthesis, genetic...... geographic information science (genetic GIScience), that is founded on the exposome, genome+, and behavome. It provides an improved understanding of human health in relation to biology (the genome+), environmental exposures (the exposome), and their social, societal, and behavioral determinants (the behavome......). Genetic GIScience poses three key needs: first, a mathematical foundation for emergent theory; second, process-based models that bridge biological and geographic scales; third, biologically plausible estimates of space?time disease lags. Compartmental models are a possible solution; this article develops...

  12. Investigation of genetic variants in ubiquitin enzyme genes involved in the modulation of neurodevelopmental processes: a role in schizophrenia susceptibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jessica L; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca

    2014-11-24

    Despite extensive research during the last few decades, the etiology of schizophrenia remains unclear. Evidence of both genetic and environmental influences in the developmental profile of schizophrenia has grown, and due to the complexity of this disorder, a polygenic aspect has been associated with this neuropsychiatric pathology. Unfortunately, no diagnostic strategies based on biological measurement or genetic testing is currently available for schizophrenia. Gene-expression profiling and recent protein studies have shown a decrease in the expression of ubiquitin pathway proteins in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia patients. We have examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (or SNPs) within three genes from the ubiquitin protein system: the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2D1 (UBE2D1) gene, the E3 SUMO-protein ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT 2 (PIAS2) gene, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 21 (FBXL21) gene, in a Caucasian case-control population for schizophrenia. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied, no significant associations were reported for any of the tested SNPs. Additional genetic analyses will be necessary to fully explore the role of these three genes in schizophrenia. Regarding the rising interest in ubiquitin-related proteins as a therapeutic target in other pathologies such as cancer, further research into the role of ubiquitin pathways in schizophrenia seems topical and timely.

  13. Niche divergence versus neutral processes: combined environmental and genetic analyses identify contrasting patterns of differentiation in recently diverged pine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moreno-Letelier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Solving relationships of recently diverged taxa, poses a challenge due to shared polymorphism and weak reproductive barriers. Multiple lines of evidence are needed to identify independently evolving lineages. This is especially true of long-lived species with large effective population sizes, and slow rates of lineage sorting. North American pines are an interesting group to test this multiple approach. Our aim is to combine cytoplasmic genetic markers with environmental information to clarify species boundaries and relationships of the species complex of Pinus flexilis, Pinus ayacahuite, and Pinus strobiformis. METHODS: Mitochondrial and chloroplast sequences were combined with previously obtained microsatellite data and contrasted with environmental information to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the species complex. Ecological niche models were compared to test if ecological divergence is significant among species. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Separately, both genetic and ecological evidence support a clear differentiation of all three species but with different topology, but also reveal an ancestral contact zone between P. strobiformis and P. ayacahuite. The marked ecological differentiation of P. flexilis suggests that ecological speciation has occurred in this lineage, but this is not reflected in neutral markers. The inclusion of environmental traits in phylogenetic reconstruction improved the resolution of internal branches. We suggest that combining environmental and genetic information would be useful for species delimitation and phylogenetic studies in other recently diverged species complexes.

  14. Ethical, cultural and spiritual objections to genetically modified organisms: a review of the New Zealand process and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jean S

    2004-06-01

    The New Zealand Royal Commission on Genetic Modification was directed to investigate the strategic options available to address the use of genetically modified organisms and products. The Commission spent 14 months hearing submissions in public meetings and formal hearings. Over 10,000 written public submissions were received. Most were against any use of the technology in food, and many were angry at the lack of product labelling and therefore choice. Few were supportive, although there was little objection to the use of genetic technology or modified organisms in containment, especially for medical research. Many New Zealanders had strong spiritual objections to the creation of transgenic animals containing human DNA, which they described as "playing God" or "interfering with Nature". Many expressed lack of trust in scientists and biotechnology companies. Despite these views, the Commission concluded that New Zealand should keep its options open and proceed carefully, minimising and managing risks. The Commission recommended that Government establish a Bioethics Council to act as a transparent advisory body and prepare guidelines on biotechnology, enabling public education and participation in decision-making.

  15. Genetic diversity and the biogeographical process ,of Acheilognathus macropterus revealed by sequence variations of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yurong; LIU Huanzhang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, thirty-six individuals of Acheilognathus macropterus were collected from the Heilongjiang River,the Yangtze River,and the Nandujiang River.Partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene region (636 base pair) was sequenced to these samples and 22 haplotypes were found.With A.chankaensis and A.tokinensis as outgroups,their relationships were analyzed.The p-distances were calculated with Mega software and a molecular phyiogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method.The proportions of main morphological characters were compared as well.P-distances showed that the genetic differences in A.macropterus samples were far smaller than those between these samples and the outgroups.The molecular phylogenetic tree shows that samples with barbels and those without barbels were intermingled.There was no distinctive difference in proportions of morphological characteristics among them.These results suggested that samples with barbels and those without barbels (formally identified as A.taenianalis) are the same species;A.taenianalis is synonymous with A.macropterus.The thirtysix individuals were grouped into five clades and the positions of the samples in the clades were correspondingly grouped within their geographical distributions.Among the five clades,clades 1 and 5 included samples from the Heilongjiang River and Nandujiang River respectively.The samples from the Yangtze River scattered into clades 2,3,and 4.There were distinctive genetic differences (> 5%)among them.Interestingly,the distributions of the 21 samples in these three clades were not correlated to their geographical distributions.It is postulated that these genetic differences were due to the bitterlings' mating choice mechanism,the prozygotic isolation.The genetic differences between the fish from Nandujiang River and those from the mainland indicated that they were separated early.However,the small genetic differences among the samples and the positions of the fish from the

  16. CHROMOSOME LOCATION OF GENETIC FACTORS DETERMINIG PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipova S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is characterized as the most recalcitrant trait to improve for its complexity and considered target for genomic-assisted improvement. A profitable genetic strategy lies in the discovery and exploitation of quantitative trait loci (QTL involved in determining tolerance to water deficit at the cellular level. Enzymes of the antioxidant system participating in detoxification of reactive oxygen species accumulating under stress are the essential component of the common protective systems in cell. The same is lipoxygenase – a key enzyme of jasmonate-dependent signaling pathway initiating the development of adaptive programs in cell. Understanding of the genetic basis of wheat drought tolerance as a polygenic trait and identification of the QTL is facilitated by the availability of a number of sets of inter-varietal single chromosome substitution lines (ISCSLs in bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. Two sets of bread wheat ISCSLs were used in this study. In the first set, 'Saratovskaya' 29 (S29 / 'Janetzkis Probat' (JP, the recipient was a drought tolerant cultivar and the donor of individual pairs of homologous chromosomes was a sensitive one. In the second set, 'Chinese Spring' (CS / 'Synthetic 6x' (Syn 6x, the donor of separate chromosomes was a synthetic hexaploid wheat (T. dicoccoides X Ae. tauschii. In the set S29/JP the chromosomes of the second homoeological group and 4D chromosome were found to be critical for drought tolerance. A decrease of tolerance correlated with decreasing of antioxidant enzymes cumulative activity in leaves. In the set CS/Syn, chromosomes 4B and 4D were found to be critical for drought tolerance. The levels of LOX activity in leaves of both sets differently correlated with grain productivity but influenced positively on retaining a grain size under drought. Besides the structural genes for LOX biosynthesis situated on chromosomes of 4 and 5 homoeological groups, in both sets, the genetic factors on

  17. An Improved Genetic Fuzzy Logic Control Method to Reduce the Enlargement of Coal Floor Deformation in Shearer Memory Cutting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chao; Xu, Rongxin; Wang, Zhongbin; Si, Lei; Liu, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the enlargement of coal floor deformation and the manual adjustment frequency of rocker arms, an improved approach through integration of improved genetic algorithm and fuzzy logic control (GFLC) method is proposed. The enlargement of coal floor deformation is analyzed and a model is built. Then, the framework of proposed approach is built. Moreover, the constituents of GA such as tangent function roulette wheel selection (Tan-RWS) selection, uniform crossover, and nonuniform mutation are employed to enhance the performance of GFLC. Finally, two simulation examples and an industrial application example are carried out and the results indicate that the proposed method is feasible and efficient.

  18. Optimization of pulsed current GTAW process parameters for sintered hot forged AISI 4135 P/M steel welds by simulated annealing and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Joby; Muthukumaran, S. [National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-01-15

    Abundant improvements have occurred in materials handling, especially in metal joining. Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) is one of the consequential fusion techniques. In this work, PCGTAW of AISI 4135 steel engendered through powder metallurgy (P/M) has been executed, and the process parameters have been highlighted applying Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. The results show that the peak current (Ip), gas flow rate (GFR), welding speed (WS) and base current (Ib) are the critical constraints in strong determinant of the Tensile strength (TS) as well as percentage of elongation (% Elong) of the joint. The practical impact of applying Genetic algorithm (GA) and Simulated annealing (SA) to PCGTAW process has been authenticated by means of calculating the deviation between predicted and experimental welding process parameters.

  19. New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > The New Genetics The New Genetics Living Laboratories Classroom Poster Order a Free Copy ... Piece to a Century-Old Evolutionary Puzzle Computing Genetics Model Organisms RNA Interference The New Genetics is ...

  20. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on lipase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FL)

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Morten; Hallas-Møller, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    2014-01-01

    The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a lipase (triacylglycerol lipase; EC 3.1.1.3) produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA. The lipase is intended to be used in a number of food manufacturing processes, such as oils, fats and eggs processing. The dietary exposure was assessed on the basis of data retrieved from the EFSA Compreh...

  1. 基于遗传算法的加工工艺规划研究%RESEARCH OF PROCESS PLANNING BASED ON GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅竹

    2011-01-01

    A uniform optimization model of process planning is brought forward to gain the global optimum in entire solution space for process planning using genetic algorithm. Operation sequencing, jigging tool-selecting, and cutting tool-selecting in each operation are optimized as the whole. The optimal process planning is educed by genetic computation. Firstly, the scheme graphs are created by analyzing machining methods of typical machining surfaces. Using graph algorithm, we can get all the machining methods of any machining surface. Secondly, according to the step,the evaluating system for process planning, considering such criterion as time, precision and cost, is created. Lastly, the prototype system is applied to a practical process planning case.%为了得到工艺方案的全局最优解,采用遗传算法建立了一个统一的工艺方案优化模型,将加工序列和每道工序的装夹选择、刀具选择等作为一个有机整体进行优化,通过遗传算法得出了优化的工艺方案.首先给出典型加工特征的加工方案图,再对其进行图操作获取加工特征的可行加工方法,然后根据遗传算法的基本步骤,建立综合考虑时间、精度和成本的多目标工艺方案评价体系,最后用实例验证了该算法的有效性.

  2. Evaluation of terrestrial microcosms for assessing the fate and effects of genetically engineered microorganisms on ecological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Bentjen, S.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Li, S.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McFadden, K.M.; Van Voris, P.

    1989-04-01

    This project evaluates and modifies the existing US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances (EPA/OPTS) terrestrial microcosm test system and test protocols such that they can be used to determine the environmental fate and ecological hazards of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). The intact soil-core microcosm represents terrestrial ecosystems, and when coupled with appropriate test protocols, such microcosms may be appropriate to define and limit risks associated with the intentional release of GEMs. The terrestrial microcosm test system was used to investigate the survival and transport of two model GEMs (Azospirillum lipoferum and Pseudomonas sp. Tn5 mutants) to various trophic levels and niches and through intact soil cores. Subsequent effects on nutrient cycling and displacement of indigenous microorganisms were evaluated. The model organisms were a diazotrophic root-colonizing bacterium (A. lipoferum) and a wheat root growth-inhibiting rhizobacterium (Pseudomonas sp.). The transposable element Tn5 was used as a genetic marker for both microorganisms in two separate experiments. The organisms were subjected to transposon mutagenesis using a broad host-range-mobilizable suicide plasmid. The transposon Tn5 conferred levels of kanamycin resistance up to 500 ..mu..g/ml (Pseudomonas sp.), which allowed for selection of the bacteria from environmental samples. The presence of Tn5 DNA in the genome of the model GEMs also allowed the use of Tn5 gene probes to confirm and enumerate the microorganisms in different samples from the microcosms. Two types of root growth-inhibiting Pseudomonas sp. Tn5 mutants were obtained and used in microcosm studies: those that lacked the ability to inhibit either wheat root growth or the growth of other microorganisms in vitro (tox/sup /minus//) and those which retained these properties (tox/sup +/). 53 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Bodhisatta; Shekhawat, Mitali; Srivastava, Pradeep [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). School of Biochemical Engineering; Rathore, Ankita [Nizam College, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Biotechnology; Srivastava, Saurav [National Institute of Technology, Durgapur (India). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2011-04-15

    Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation time) for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using Box-Behnken experimental design and genetic algorithm (GA). An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to analyze the effects of the process parameters on ethanol production. The data obtained after performing the experiments based on statistical design was utilized for regression analysis and analysis of variance studies. The regression equation obtained after regression analysis was used as a fitness function for the genetic algorithm. The GA optimization technique predicted a maximum ethanol yield of 59.59 g/L at temperature 31 C, pH 5.13, initial TRS concentration 216 g/L and fermentation time 44 h. The maximum experimental ethanol yield obtained after applying GA was 58.4 g/L, which was in close agreement with the predicted value. (orig.)

  4. Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Bodhisatta; Rathore, Ankita; Srivastava, Saurav; Shekhawat, Mitali; Srivastava, Pradeep

    2011-04-01

    Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation time) for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using Box-Behnken experimental design and genetic algorithm (GA). An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to analyze the effects of the process parameters on ethanol production. The data obtained after performing the experiments based on statistical design was utilized for regression analysis and analysis of variance studies. The regression equation obtained after regression analysis was used as a fitness function for the genetic algorithm. The GA optimization technique predicted a maximum ethanol yield of 59.59 g/L at temperature 31 °C, pH 5.13, initial TRS concentration 216 g/L and fermentation time 44 h. The maximum experimental ethanol yield obtained after applying GA was 58.4 g/L, which was in close agreement with the predicted value.

  5. A Preliminary Study of DBH (Encoding Dopamine Beta-Hydroxylase) Genetic Variation and Neural Correlates of Emotional and Motivational Processing in Individuals With and Without Pathological Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Zhu; Balodis, Iris M; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Xu, Jiansong; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Corticostriatal-limbic neurocircuitry, emotional and motivational processing, dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems and genetic factors have all been implicated in pathological gambling (PG). However, allelic variants of genes influencing dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitters have not been investigated with respect to the neural correlates of emotional and motivational states in PG. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) converts dopamine to norepinephrine; the T allele of a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1611115 (C-1021T) in the DBH gene is associated with less DBH activity and has been linked to emotional processes and addiction. Here, we investigate the influence of rs1611115 on the neural correlates of emotional and motivational processing in PG and healthy comparison (HC) participants. Methods While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, 18 PG and 25 HC participants, all European Americans, viewed gambling-, sad-, and cocaine-related videotapes. Analyses focused on brain activation differences related to DBH genotype (CC/T-carrier [i.e., CT and TT]) and condition (sad/gambling/cocaine). Results CC participants demonstrated greater recruitment of corticostriatal-limbic regions, relative to T-carriers. DBH variants were also associated with altered corticostriatal-limbic activations across the different videotape conditions, and this association appeared to be driven by greater activation in CC participants relative to T-carriers during the sad condition. CC relative to T-carrier subjects also reported greater subjective sadness to the sad videotapes. Conclusions Individual differences in genetic composition linked to aminergic function contribute significantly to emotional regulation across diagnostic groups and warrant further investigation in PG.

  6. All in the family: evaluation of the process and content of sisters' communication about BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chanita; Lerman, Caryn; Schwartz, Marc; Peshkin, Beth N; Wenzel, Lari; Narod, Steven; Corio, Camille; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Hanna, Danielle; Isaacs, Claudine; Main, David

    2002-01-15

    Despite the potential importance of family communication, little is known about the process and content of communicating BRCA1/2 test results to relatives. The objectives of this observational study were to describe the process and content of communicating BRCA1/2 test results to sisters, and to evaluate whether the proband's carrier status influenced communication outcomes. Participants were 43 women who were the first family member to have genetic testing (probands). Probands reported on communication outcomes for 81 sisters. Process and content variables were evaluated 1-month after receipt of BRCA1/2 test results using the Family Communication Questionnaire (FCQ). Overall, BRCA1/2 test results were communicated to 85% of sisters, and carriers communicated their results to significantly more sisters compared to uninformative (96% vs. 76%, FET = 0.02). The most important reason for communicating results was to provide genetic risk information; however, compared to uninformatives, carriers communicated their results to significantly more sisters to obtain emotional support (74%) and to get advice about medical decisions (42%) (FET = 0.001). Carriers also discussed the possibility of discrimination and recommendations for cancer management with significantly more sisters. Among sisters to whom BRCA1/2 test results were not communicated, the most important reason for not sharing test results was because of emotionally distant relationships. The results of this study suggest that probands are likely to quickly communicate their BRCA1/2 test results to relatives and that although needs for social support may motivate family communication, emotionally distant relationships may be a barrier to communication with relatives.

  7. Genetic Associations of Type 2 Diabetes with Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Processing and Degrading Pathways in Asian Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Vincent Kwok Lim; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan; Lee, Heung Man; Hu, Cheng; Park, Kyong Soo; Furuta, Hiroto; Wang, Ying; Tam, Claudia Ha Ting; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Daniel Peng-Keat; Liu, Jianjun; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tai, E. Shyong; Morris, Andrew P.; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Woo, Jean; Leung, Ping Chung; Kong, Alice Pik Shan; Ozaki, Risa; Jia, Wei Ping; Lee, Hong Kyu; Nanjo, Kishio; Xu, Gang; Ng, Maggie Chor Yin; So, Wing-Yee; Chan, Juliana Chung Ngor; Ostaptchouk, Jana; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease characterized by beta cell dysfunctions. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is highly conserved and co-secreted with insulin with over 40% of autopsy cases of T2D showing islet amyloid formation due to IAPP aggregation. Dysregulation in IAPP processing,

  8. The Genetic Influence on the Cortical Processing of Experimental Pain and the Moderating Effect of Pain Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Helen; Kenis, Gunter; Rutten, Bart; Os, van Jim; Hermens, Hermie; Lousberg, Richel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research suggests that the COMT Val158Met, BDNF Val66Met and OPRM1 A118G polymorphisms moderate the experience of pain. In order to obtain experimental confirmation and extension of findings, cortical processing of experimentally-induced pain was used. - Method: A sample of 78 individua

  9. The Genetic Influence on the Cortical Processing of Experimental Pain and the Moderating Effect of Pain Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Vossen; G. Kenis; B. Rutten; J. van Os; H. Hermens; R. Lousberg

    2010-01-01

    Background Research suggests that the COMT Val158Met, BDNF Val66Met and OPRM1 A118G polymorphisms moderate the experience of pain. In order to obtain experimental confirmation and extension of findings, cortical processing of experimentally-induced pain was used. Method A sample of 78 individuals wi

  10. Factors Influencing the Decision-Making Process and Long-Term Interpersonal Outcomes for Parents Who Undergo Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Fanconi Anemia: a Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haude, K; McCarthy Veach, P; LeRoy, B; Zierhut, H

    2017-06-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by congenital malformations, progressive bone marrow failure, and predisposition to malignancy. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is used to treat FA, and best results are attained with sibling donors who are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical matches. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers parents of an affected child the opportunity to have an unaffected child who is an HLA match. While some research has investigated parents' experiences during the PGD process, no published studies specifically address factors influencing their decision-making process and long-term interpersonal outcomes. The aims of this study are to: (1) examine parents' expectations and the influence of media, bioethics, and religion on their decision to undergo PGD; (2) examine parents' social support and emotional experiences during their PGD process; and (3) characterize long-term effects of PGD on relationship dynamics (partner, family, friends), others' attitudes, and parental regret. Nine parents participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis revealed their decision to use PGD was variously influenced by media, bioethics, and religion, in particular, affecting parents' initial confidence levels. Moreover, the PGD process was emotionally complex, with parents desiring varying amounts and types of support from different sources at different times. Parents reported others' attitudes towards them were similar or no different than before PGD. Parental regret regarding PGD was negligible. Results of this study will promote optimization of long-term care for FA families.

  11. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets Fact Sheets En Español: Mapeo Genético Genetic Mapping What is genetic mapping? How do researchers create ... genetic map? What are genetic markers? What is genetic mapping? Among the main goals of the Human Genome ...

  12. Improved OMV vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis using genetically engineered strains and a detergent-free purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Waterbeemd, Bas; Streefland, Mathieu; van der Ley, Peter; Zomer, Bert; van Dijken, Harry; Martens, Dirk; Wijffels, René; van der Pol, Leo

    2010-07-05

    The use of detergent-extracted outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is an established approach for development of a multivalent PorA vaccine against N. meningitidis serogroup B. Selective removal of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) decreases toxicity, but promotes aggregation and narrows the immune response. Detergent-free OMV vaccines retain all LPS, which preserves the native vesicle structure, but result in high toxicity and lower yield. The present study assessed the effects of gene mutations that attenuated LPS toxicity (lpxL1) or improved OMV yield (rmpM) in combination with the available OMV purification processes. The results substantiate that OMVs from a strain with both mutations, produced with a detergent-free process provide better vaccine characteristics than the traditional detergent-based approach. With comparable toxicity and yield, no aggregation and cross-protection against other PorA subtypes, these OMV vaccines are potentially safe and effective for parenteral use in humans. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous data pre-processing and SVM classification model selection based on a parallel genetic algorithm applied to spectroscopic data of olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Olivier; Downey, Gerard; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2014-04-01

    Classification is an important task in chemometrics. For several years now, support vector machines (SVMs) have proven to be powerful for infrared spectral data classification. However such methods require optimisation of parameters in order to control the risk of overfitting and the complexity of the boundary. Furthermore, it is established that the prediction ability of classification models can be improved using pre-processing in order to remove unwanted variance in the spectra. In this paper we propose a new methodology based on genetic algorithm (GA) for the simultaneous optimisation of SVM parameters and pre-processing (GENOPT-SVM). The method has been tested for the discrimination of the geographical origin of Italian olive oil (Ligurian and non-Ligurian) on the basis of near infrared (NIR) or mid infrared (FTIR) spectra. Different classification models (PLS-DA, SVM with mean centre data, GENOPT-SVM) have been tested and statistically compared using McNemar's statistical test. For the two datasets, SVM with optimised pre-processing give models with higher accuracy than the one obtained with PLS-DA on pre-processed data. In the case of the NIR dataset, most of this accuracy improvement (86.3% compared with 82.8% for PLS-DA) occurred using only a single pre-processing step. For the FTIR dataset, three optimised pre-processing steps are required to obtain SVM model with significant accuracy improvement (82.2%) compared to the one obtained with PLS-DA (78.6%). Furthermore, this study demonstrates that even SVM models have to be developed on the basis of well-corrected spectral data in order to obtain higher classification rates.

  14. PRODUCT LIFECYCLE OPTIMISATION OF CAR CLIMATE CONTROLS USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHICAL PROCESS (AHP ANALYSIS AND A MULTI-OBJECTIVE GROUPING GENETIC ALGORITHM (MOGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHAEL J. LEE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A product’s lifecycle performance (e.g. assembly, outsourcing, maintenance and recycling can often be improved through modularity. However, modularisation under different and often conflicting lifecycle objectives is a complex problem that will ultimately require trade-offs. This paper presents a novel multi-objective modularity optimisation framework; the application of which is illustrated through the modularisation of a car climate control system. Central to the framework is a specially designed multi-objective grouping genetic algorithm (MOGGA that is able to generate a whole range of alternative product modularisations. Scenario analysis, using the principles of the analytical hierarchical process (AHP, is then carried out to explore the solution set and choose a suitable modular architecture that optimises the product lifecycle according to the company’s strategic vision.

  15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on xylanase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Hallas-Møller, Torben

    The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a xylanase (endo-1,4-β-xylanase; EC 3.2.1.8) produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA...... safety concern. Based on the genetic modifications performed, the manufacturing process, the compositional and biochemical data provided and the toxicological studies, this food enzyme does not raise safety concern under the intended conditions of use....

  16. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela; Pongolini, Stefano

    2015-11-20

    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments.

  17. Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic counseling provides information and support to people who have, or may be at risk for, genetic disorders. A ... meets with you to discuss genetic risks. The counseling may be for yourself or a family member. ...

  18. The genetic potential for key biogeochemical processes in Arctic frost flowers and young sea ice revealed by metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Jeff S; Berthiaume, Chris T; Armbrust, E Virginia; Deming, Jody W

    2014-08-01

    Newly formed sea ice is a vast and biogeochemically active environment. Recently, we reported an unusual microbial community dominated by members of the Rhizobiales in frost flowers at the surface of Arctic young sea ice based on the presence of 16S gene sequences related to these strains. Here, we use metagenomic analysis of two samples, from a field of frost flowers and the underlying young sea ice, to explore the metabolic potential of this surface ice community. The analysis links genes for key biogeochemical processes to the Rhizobiales, including dimethylsulfide uptake, betaine glycine turnover, and halocarbon production. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes characteristic of terrestrial root-nodulating Rhizobiales were generally lacking from these metagenomes. Non-Rhizobiales clades at the ice surface had genes that would enable additional biogeochemical processes, including mercury reduction and dimethylsulfoniopropionate catabolism. Although the ultimate source of the observed microbial community is not known, considerations of the possible role of eolian deposition or transport with particles entrained during ice formation favor a suspended particle source for this microbial community.

  19. Systematic genetic array analysis links the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 component Tra1 to multiple cellular processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Brenda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tra1 is an essential 437-kDa component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complexes. It is a member of a group of key signaling molecules that share a carboxyl-terminal domain related to phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase but unlike many family members, it lacks kinase activity. To identify genetic interactions for TRA1 and provide insight into its function we have performed a systematic genetic array analysis (SGA on tra1SRR3413, an allele that is defective in transcriptional regulation. Results The SGA analysis revealed 114 synthetic slow growth/lethal (SSL interactions for tra1SRR3413. The interacting genes are involved in a range of cellular processes including gene expression, mitochondrial function, and membrane sorting/protein trafficking. In addition many of the genes have roles in the cellular response to stress. A hierarchal cluster analysis revealed that the pattern of SSL interactions for tra1SRR3413 most closely resembles deletions of a group of regulatory GTPases required for membrane sorting/protein trafficking. Consistent with a role for Tra1 in cellular stress, the tra1SRR3413 strain was sensitive to rapamycin. In addition, calcofluor white sensitivity of the strain was enhanced by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, a phenotype shared with the Ada components of the SAGA/SLIK complex. Through analysis of a GFP-Tra1 fusion we show that Tra1 is principally localized to the nucleus. Conclusion We have demonstrated a genetic association of Tra1 with nuclear, mitochondrial and membrane processes. The identity of the SSL genes also connects Tra1 with cellular stress, a result confirmed by the sensitivity of the tra1SRR3413 strain to a variety of stress conditions. Based upon the nuclear localization of GFP-Tra1 and the finding that deletion of the Ada components of the SAGA complex result in similar phenotypes as tra1SRR3413, we suggest that the effects of tra1SRR3413

  20. On-line monitoring of extraction process of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae using near infrared spectroscopy combined with synergy interval PLS and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong; Bi, Yuan; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    There is a growing need for the effective on-line process monitoring during the manufacture of traditional Chinese medicine to ensure quality consistency. In this study, the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique to monitor the extraction process of Flos Lonicerae Japonicae was investigated. A new algorithm of synergy interval PLS with genetic algorithm (Si-GA-PLS) was proposed for modeling. Four different PLS models, namely Full-PLS, Si-PLS, GA-PLS, and Si-GA-PLS, were established, and their performances in predicting two quality parameters (viz. total acid and soluble solid contents) were compared. In conclusion, Si-GA-PLS model got the best results due to the combination of superiority of Si-PLS and GA. For Si-GA-PLS, the determination coefficient (Rp2) and root-mean-square error for the prediction set (RMSEP) were 0.9561 and 147.6544 μg/ml for total acid, 0.9062 and 0.1078% for soluble solid contents, correspondingly. The overall results demonstrated that the NIR spectroscopy technique combined with Si-GA-PLS calibration is a reliable and non-destructive alternative method for on-line monitoring of the extraction process of TCM on the production scale.

  1. Genetic algorithm-assisted optimization of nanoporous TiO₂ for low-temperature processable photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyoung; Sohn, Kee-Sun; Pyo, Myoungho

    2011-03-14

    Genetic algorithm (GA), a promising optimization process in Heuristics, has proven to be a powerful tool in controlling the nanostructure of low-temperature processable photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). For photoanodes that are composed of various sizes of TiO₂ nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in a double-layer configuration, the best composition was determined based on the objective functions of cell efficiency (η) and its variance. The latter function was chosen since TiO₂ dispersions with no organic binders often aggravated the efficiency of reproducibility. From a total of 64,536 cases, 24 different cases (6 samples prepared for each composition) per generation were selected, and their objective functions were compared. GA was effective in the optimization of photoanodes, and resulted in a cell efficiency of 7.3 ± 0.2% with a short circuit current of 13.8 ± 0.4 mA cm(-2), an open circuit voltage of 0.737 ± 0.006 V, and a fill factor of 71.8 ± 0.6% after 3 generations. The η of 7.3 ± 0.2% is the highest value for low-temperature processable dye-sensitized solar cells prepared without further treatment of TiO₂ films to enhance interparticle connections.

  2. Genetics 101 --The Hereditary Material of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 Genetics 101 — The Hereditary Material of Life Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents Genetics is the study of heredity, the process in ...

  3. Multiple criteria decision-making process to derive consensus desired genetic gains for a dairy cattle breeding objective for diverse production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, C M; van Arendonk, J A M; Kahi, A K; Komen, H

    2017-06-01

    Dairy cattle industries contribute to food and nutrition security and are a source of income for numerous households in many developing countries. Selective breeding can enhance efficiency in these industries. Developing dairy industries are characterized by diverse production and marketing systems. In this paper, we use weighted goal aggregating procedure to derive consensus trait preferences for different producer categories and processors. We based the study on the dairy industry in Kenya. The analytic hierarchy process was used to derive individual preferences for milk yield (MY), calving interval (CIN), production lifetime (PLT), mature body weight (MBW), and fat yield (FY). Results show that classical classification of production systems into large-scale and smallholder systems does not capture all differences in trait preferences. These differences became apparent when classification was based on productivity at the individual animal level, with high and low intensity producers and processors as the most important groups. High intensity producers had highest preferences for PLT and MY, whereas low intensity producers had highest preference for CIN and PLT; processors preferred MY and FY the most. The highest disagreements between the groups were observed for FY, PLT, and MY. Individual and group preferences were aggregated into consensus preferences using weighted goal programming. Desired gains were obtained as a product of consensus preferences and percentage genetic gains (G%). These were 2.42, 0.22, 2.51, 0.15, and 0.87 for MY, CIN, PLT, MBW, and FY, respectively. Consensus preferences can be used to derive a single compromise breeding objective for situations where the same genetic resources are used in diverse production and marketing circumstances. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

  4. Simulation of two Stands Cold Rolling Mill Process Using a Combination of Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms to Avoid the Chatter Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad BahramiNejad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rolling mill Industry is one of the most profitable industries in the world. Chatter phenomenon is one of the key issues in this industry. Chatter or rolling unwanted vibrations not only has an adverse effect on product quality, but also reduces considerably the efficiency with reduced rolling velocities of rolling lines. This paper is an attempt to simulate the phenomenon of Chatter more accurate than the previous performed simulations. In order to increase the production speed, it needs to avoid parameters which effect on the Chatter and varieties with the rolling lines condition. Actual values of these parameters were determined in the archives of the Mobarakeh two stand cold rolling mills and collected on the 210 case study of real chattering. To simulate the experiment, a neural network is trained and weights and bias values of the neural network with genetic optimization algorithm were used to get an optimal neural network which reduces bugs on the test data. So this model is capable to predict speed of Chatter threshold on rolling process of two stand cold rolling mill with the accuracy less than one percent. So it can be used in rolling process with the building intelligent recognition systems to prevent the creator conditions of the chatter frequency range.

  5. The “Bringing into Cultivation” Phase of the Plant Domestication Process and Its Contributions to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vodouhè

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities’ motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents, medicinal use (40% of respondents, income generation (20% of respondents and cultural reasons (5% of respondents. 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers’ decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees.

  6. Novel optimal temperature profile for acidification process of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in yoghurt fermentation using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguim-Kana, E B; Oloke, J K; Lateef, A; Zebaze-Kana, M G

    2007-07-01

    The acidification behavior of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus for yoghurt production was investigated along temperature profiles within the optimal window of 38-44 degrees C. For the optimal acidification temperature profile search, an optimization engine module built on a modular artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) was used. Fourteen batches of yoghurt fermentations were evaluated using different temperature profiles in order to train and validate the ANN sub-module. The ANN captured the nonlinear relationship between temperature profiles and acidification patterns on training data after 150 epochs. This served as an evaluation function for the GA. The acidification slope of the temperature profile was the performance index. The GA sub-module iteratively evolved better temperature profiles across generations using GA operations. The stopping criterion was met after 11 generations. The optimal profile showed an acidification slope of 0.06117 compared to an initial value of 0.0127 and at a set point sequence of 43, 38, 44, 43, and 39 degrees C. Laboratory evaluation of three replicates of the GA suggested optimum profile of 43, 38, 44, 43, and 39 degrees C gave an average slope of 0.04132. The optimization engine used (to be published elsewhere) could effectively search for optimal profiles of different physico-chemical parameters of fermentation processes.

  7. The Multi-factor Predictive Seis &Gis Model of Ecological, Genetical, Population Health Risk and Bio-geodynamic Processes In Geopathogenic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Y.

    I. Goal and Scope. Human birth rate decrease, death-rate growth and increase of mu- tagenic deviations risk take place in geopathogenic and anthropogenic hazard zones. Such zones create unfavourable conditions for reproductive process of future genera- tions. These negative trends should be considered as a protective answer of the com- plex biosocial system to the appearance of natural and anthropogenic risk factors that are unfavourable for human health. The major goals of scientific evaluation and de- crease of risk of appearance of hazardous processes on the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, along with creation of the multi-factor predictive Spirit-Energy-Information Space "SEIS" & GIS Model of ecological, genetical and population health risk in connection with dangerous bio-geodynamic processes, were: multi-factor modeling and correla- tion of natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and those of human health; determination of indicators that show the risk of destruction structures appearance on different levels of organization and functioning of the city ecosystem (geophys- ical and geochemical fields, soil, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere); analysis of regularities of natural, anthropogenic, and biological rhythms' interactions. II. Meth- ods. The long spatio-temporal researches (Y. Bondarenko, 1996, 2000) have proved that the ecological, genetic and epidemiological processes are in connection with de- velopment of dangerous bio-geophysical and bio-geodynamic processes. Mathemat- ical processing of space photos, lithogeochemical and geophysical maps with use of JEIS o and ERDAS o computer systems was executed at the first stage of forma- tion of multi-layer geoinformation model "Dnipropetrovsk ARC View GIS o. The multi-factor nonlinear correlation between solar activity and cosmic ray variations, geophysical, geodynamic, geochemical, atmospheric, technological, biological, socio- economical processes and oncologic case rate frequency, general and primary

  8. Genetic dissection of the maize kernel development process via conditional QTL mapping for three developing kernel-related traits in an immortalized F2 population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanhui; Wu, Xiangyuan; Shi, Chaonan; Wang, Rongna; Li, Shengfei; Wang, Zhaohui; Liu, Zonghua; Xue, Yadong; Tang, Guiliang; Tang, Jihua

    2016-02-01

    Kernel development is an important dynamic trait that determines the final grain yield in maize. To dissect the genetic basis of maize kernel development process, a conditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted using an immortalized F2 (IF2) population comprising 243 single crosses at two locations over 2 years. Volume (KV) and density (KD) of dried developing kernels, together with kernel weight (KW) at different developmental stages, were used to describe dynamic changes during kernel development. Phenotypic analysis revealed that final KW and KD were determined at DAP22 and KV at DAP29. Unconditional QTL mapping for KW, KV and KD uncovered 97 QTLs at different kernel development stages, of which qKW6b, qKW7a, qKW7b, qKW10b, qKW10c, qKV10a, qKV10b and qKV7 were identified under multiple kernel developmental stages and environments. Among the 26 QTLs detected by conditional QTL mapping, conqKW7a, conqKV7a, conqKV10a, conqKD2, conqKD7 and conqKD8a were conserved between the two mapping methodologies. Furthermore, most of these QTLs were consistent with QTLs and genes for kernel development/grain filling reported in previous studies. These QTLs probably contain major genes associated with the kernel development process, and can be used to improve grain yield and quality through marker-assisted selection.

  9. Assessing the potential for unintended effects in genetically modified potatoes perturbed in metabolic and developmental processes. Targeted analysis of key nutrients and anti-nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Louise V T; McNicol, James W; Razzo, Ruth; Taylor, Mark A; Davies, Howard V

    2006-08-01

    Targeted compositional analysis was carried out on transgenic potato tubers of either cultivar (cv.) Record or cv. Desirée to assess the potential for unintended effects caused by the genetic modification process. The range of transgenic lines analysed included those modified in primary carbohydrate metabolism, polyamine biosynthesis and glycoprotein processing. Controls included wildtype tubers, tubers produced from plants regenerated through tissue culture (including a callus phase) and tubers derived from transformation with the 'empty vector' i.e. no specific target gene included (with the exception of the kanamycin resistance gene as a selectable marker). Metabolite analysis included soluble carbohydrates, glycoalkaloids, vitamin C, total nitrogen and fatty acids. Trypsin inhibitor activity was also assayed. These cover the major compounds recommended by the OECD in their Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of Potatoes: Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-Nutrients and Toxicants (2002). Data was statistically analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for individual compounds and, where applicable, principal component analysis (PCA). In general, targeted compositional analysis revealed no consistent differences between GM lines and respective controls. No construct specifically induced unintended effects. Statistically significant differences between wildtype controls and specific GM lines did occur but appeared to be random and not associated with any specific construct. Indeed such significant differences were also found between wildtypes and both tissue culture derived tubers and tubers derived from transformation with the empty vector. This raises the possibility that somaclonal variation (known to occur significantly in potato, depending on genotype) may be responsible for an unknown proportion of any differences observed between specific GM lines and the wildtype. The most obvious differences seen in GC-MS profiles were

  10. Genetic polymorphisms located in genes related to immune and inflammatory processes are associated with end-stage renal disease: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez-Sousa Ma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease progression has been linked to pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers of inflammation. These markers are also elevated in end-stage renal disease (ESRD, which constitutes a serious public health problem. Objective To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in genes related to immune and inflammatory processes, could be associated with ESRD development. Design and methods A retrospective case-control study was carried out on 276 patients with ESRD and 288 control subjects. Forty-eight SNPs were genotyped via SNPlex platform. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between each sigle polymorphism and the development of ESRD. Results Four polymorphisms showed association with ESRD: rs1801275 in the interleukin 4 receptor (IL4R gene (OR: 0.66 (95%CI = 0.46-0.95; p = 0.025; overdominant model, rs4586 in chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 gene (OR: 0.70 (95%CI = 0.54-0.90; p = 0.005; additive model, rs301640 located in an intergenic binding site for signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4 (OR: 1.82 (95%CI = 1.17-2.83; p = 0.006; additive model and rs7830 in the nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3 gene (OR: 1.31 (95%CI = 1.01-1.71; p = 0.043; additive model. After adjusting for multiple testing, results lost significance. Conclusion Our preliminary data suggest that four genetic polymorphisms located in genes related to inflammation and immune processes could help to predict the risk of developing ESRD.

  11. Genetic changes during a laboratory adaptive evolution process that allowed fast growth in glucose to an Escherichia coli strain lacking the major glucose transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar César

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli strains lacking the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS, which is the major bacterial component involved in glucose transport and its phosphorylation, accumulate high amounts of phosphoenolpyruvate that can be diverted to the synthesis of commercially relevant products. However, these strains grow slowly in glucose as sole carbon source due to its inefficient transport and metabolism. Strain PB12, with 400% increased growth rate, was isolated after a 120 hours adaptive laboratory evolution process for the selection of faster growing derivatives in glucose. Analysis of the genetic changes that occurred in the PB12 strain that lacks PTS will allow a better understanding of the basis of its growth adaptation and, therefore, in the design of improved metabolic engineering strategies for enhancing carbon diversion into the aromatic pathways. Results Whole genome analyses using two different sequencing methodologies: the Roche NimbleGen Inc. comparative genome sequencing technique, and high throughput sequencing with Illumina Inc. GAIIx, allowed the identification of the genetic changes that occurred in the PB12 strain. Both methods detected 23 non-synonymous and 22 synonymous point mutations. Several non-synonymous mutations mapped in regulatory genes (arcB, barA, rpoD, rna and in other putative regulatory loci (yjjU, rssA and ypdA. In addition, a chromosomal deletion of 10,328 bp was detected that removed 12 genes, among them, the rppH, mutH and galR genes. Characterization of some of these mutated and deleted genes with their functions and possible functions, are presented. Conclusions The deletion of the contiguous rppH, mutH and galR genes that occurred simultaneously, is apparently the main reason for the faster growth of the evolved PB12 strain. In support of this interpretation is the fact that inactivation of the rppH gene in the parental PB11 strain substantially increased

  12. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  13. Genetic modification and genetic determinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-06-26

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  14. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  15. Genetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  16. Imaging Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen E.; Hyde, Luke W.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2009-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an experimental strategy that integrates molecular genetics and neuroimaging technology to examine biological mechanisms that mediate differences in behavior and the risks for psychiatric disorder. The basic principles in imaging genetics and the development of the field are discussed.

  17. EFFECT OF DISINFECTANTS BASED ON POTASSIUM PERSULFATE, HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, GLUTARALDEHYDE AND QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS ON THE GENETIC MATERIAL OF THE PATHOGEN BACTERIA SPECIFIC TO MEAT PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Afonyushkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The changes in bacterial genetic material under the action of different biocidal products have been investigated. It was confirmed by PCR and genetic engineering that biocidal product Ecocid was able to remove both chromosomal and plasmid DNA, either isolated or contained within the bacterial cells. Using a disinfectant that destroys DNA on the surfaces of meat production equipment is a promising measure to prevent horizontal transfer of unwanted genetic material, such as bacterial genes associated with the resistance to antibiotics, or genes of toxin production.

  18. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    OpenAIRE

    Vorhaus Daniel B; Resnik David B

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound....

  19. Application of a Genetic Algorithm in a Collaborative Process to Resolve Hydrology and Physical Reality with Both Western and Maori Cultural Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheer, D.; Sheer, A.; Lebherz, S.

    2009-12-01

    simulation model and develop well-performing parameter sets for alternative forms of operating rules. Initial results from the genetic algorithm created operating rules which significantly outperformed previous options on all of the intial objectives; those objectives may not fully reflect the objectives of the Maoris, however. A collaborative process has begun which must reach a conclusion (hopefully a consensus) by mid November. A ten year climatic cycle is hypothesized to exist in the basin. The effectiveness of a particular operating rule can be improved by modifying its form and parameters to follow the climatic cycle or in response to climate change driven changes. The ability to adapt to cyclic changes may be included in the forms of operating rules searched by the GA. The presentation will briefly describe the problem setting, the structure of the custom GA and OASIS model, and the results of the collaborative process.

  20. 液氮洗工艺的多目标遗传算法优化%Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Liquid Nitrogen Wash Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 颜立伟; 李云; 张早校

    2011-01-01

    为了优化大化肥中的液氮洗关键流程以提高能量效率、控制CO2排放,在使用Aspen Plus软件对某低温液氮洗工艺进行模拟分析的基础上,结合多目标遗传算法和二次规划法(MOGA-QP)来解决局部极值和大规模优化问题.根据超结构方法,构建了液氮洗工艺流程总结构,即在原流程中加入了一个减压阀和一个分离器,由此可以增补29.546 KJ/kg冷量,使得液氮洗涤塔出口净化气中的CO体积分数为0.55×10-6.利用MOGA-QP求解了超结构,即在进化过程中用二次规划法来模拟流程表单的各个子模块,在最终收敛的环节用二次规划法求解子问题,从而对遗传算法产生的Pareto解做进一步的精细优化.实际应用显示:在满足工艺指标的前提下,优化后的液氮入口流量减至0.131 2 kmol/s,出口CO体积分数降至0.25×10-6,液氮入口流量减少了1.7%,(火用)损失减少了15.7%,表明改进流程更佳,MOGA-QP算法有效.%A multi-objective genetic algorithm with quadratic programming (MOGA-QP) was proposed to optimize the liquid-nitrogen washing process in large fertilizer plants based on the simulation by using Aspen Plus software. According to the superstructure method, the flowsheet of liquid-nitrogen washing process was constructed by adding a throttle valve and a separator.The proposed algorithm MOGA-QP was employed to solve the superstructure of the liquid-nitrogen washing process. The results of the case study show that the optimization of the liquid-nitrogen washing process reduced the inlet flow rate of liquid-nitrogen and the CO volume fraction at the exit to 0. 131 2 kmol/s and 0.25× 10-6, respectively. Moreover, the inlet flow rate of liquid nitrogen and the exergy loss decreased by 1.7% and 15. 7%, respectively. It appears that the improved process is much better and the MOGA-QP algorithm is effective.

  1. Attitudes towards genetic testing: analysis of contradictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jallinoja, P; Hakonen, A; Aro, A R

    1998-01-01

    A survey study was conducted among 1169 people to evaluate attitudes towards genetic testing in Finland. Here we present an analysis of the contradictions detected in people's attitudes towards genetic testing. This analysis focuses on the approval of genetic testing as an individual choice...... and on the confidence in control of the process of genetic testing and its implications. Our analysis indicated that some of the respondents have contradictory attitudes towards genetic testing. It is proposed that contradictory attitudes towards genetic testing should be given greater significance both in scientific...... studies on attitudes towards genetic testing as well as in the health care context, e.g. in genetic counselling....

  2. Genetic barcodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz -Ulrich G

    2015-08-04

    Herein are described multicolor FISH probe sets termed "genetic barcodes" targeting several cancer or disease-related loci to assess gene rearrangements and copy number changes in tumor cells. Two, three or more different fluorophores are used to detect the genetic barcode sections thus permitting unique labeling and multilocus analysis in individual cell nuclei. Gene specific barcodes can be generated and combined to provide both numerical and structural genetic information for these and other pertinent disease associated genes.

  3. Cryptic Genetic Variation in Evolutionary Developmental Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paaby, Annalise B; Gibson, Greg

    2016-06-13

    Evolutionary developmental genetics has traditionally been conducted by two groups: Molecular evolutionists who emphasize divergence between species or higher taxa, and quantitative geneticists who study variation within species. Neither approach really comes to grips with the complexities of evolutionary transitions, particularly in light of the realization from genome-wide association studies that most complex traits fit an infinitesimal architecture, being influenced by thousands of loci. This paper discusses robustness, plasticity and lability, phenomena that we argue potentiate major evolutionary changes and provide a bridge between the conceptual treatments of macro- and micro-evolution. We offer cryptic genetic variation and conditional neutrality as mechanisms by which standing genetic variation can lead to developmental system drift and, sheltered within canalized processes, may facilitate developmental transitions and the evolution of novelty. Synthesis of the two dominant perspectives will require recognition that adaptation, divergence, drift and stability all depend on similar underlying quantitative genetic processes-processes that cannot be fully observed in continuously varying visible traits.

  4. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2014. Scientific Opinion on lipase from a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae (strain NZYM-FL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Hallas-Møller, Torben; Binderup, Mona-Lise

    . The lipase is intended to be used in a number of food manufacturing processes, such as oils, fats and eggs processing. The dietary exposure was assessed on the basis of data retrieved from the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. The food enzyme did not induce gene mutations in bacteria nor......The food enzyme considered in this opinion is a lipase (triacylglycerol lipase; EC 3.1.1.3) produced with a genetically modified strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The genetic modifications do not raise safety concern. The food enzyme contains neither the production organism nor recombinant DNA...... chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes. Therefore, there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity. The systemic toxicity was assessed by means of a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study in rodents. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level was derived, which compared with the dietary exposure results...

  5. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  6. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  7. Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for certain types of genetic conditions (such as Down syndrome) in the baby if mother-to-be is 35 years of age or more, or is concerned at any age about her chances of having a child with a genetic condition To learn about the ...

  8. Genetic Romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro

    2016-01-01

    . This article compares and contrasts the work of two doctors in Finland, Elias Lönnrot and Reijo Norio, working over a century and a half apart, to examine the ways in which they have contributed to the formation of national identity and unity. The notion of genetic romanticism is introduced as a term...... to complement the notion of national romanticism that has been used to describe the ways in which nineteenth-century scholars sought to create and deploy common traditions for national-romantic purposes. Unlike national romanticism, however, strategies of genetic romanticism rely on the study of genetic...... inheritance as a way to unify populations within politically and geographically bounded areas. Thus, new genetics have contributed to the development of genetic romanticisms, whereby populations (human, plant, and animal) can be delineated and mobilized through scientific and medical practices to represent...

  9. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on an application (Reference EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33) for the placing on the market of the insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified maize MON 88017 x MON 810, for food and feed uses, import and processing under

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    . Further information from applications for placing the single insert lines MON 88017 and MON 810 on the market under EU regulatory procedures was taken into account where appropriate. The scope of application EFSA-GMO-CZ-2006-33 is for food and feed uses, import and processing of genetically modified maize...... MON 88017 x MON 810 and all derived products, but excluding cultivation in the EU. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed maize MON 88017 x MON 810 with reference to the intended uses and the appropriate principles described in the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms...... or survival of feral maize plants in case of accidental release into the environment of maize MON 88017 x MON 810 viable grains during transportation and processing. The scope of the post-market environmental monitoring plan provided by the applicant is in line with the intended uses of maize MON 88017 x MON...

  10. Genetic correlations between dressage, show jumping and studbook-entry inspection traits in a process of specialization in Dutch Warmblood horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Norberg, E.; Madsen, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sport performance in dressage and show jumping are two important traits in the breeding goals of many studbooks. To determine the optimum selection scheme for jumping and dressage, knowledge is needed on the genetic correlation between both disciplines and between traits measured early in life an

  11. Combined Genetic and Modeling Approaches Reveal That Epidermal Cell Area and Number in Leaves Are Controlled by Leaf and Plant Developmental Processes in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tisne, S.; Reymond, M.; Vile, D.; Fabre, J.; Dauzat, M.; Koornneef, M.; Granier, C.

    2008-01-01

    Both leaf production and leaf expansion are tightly linked to cell expansion and cell division, but the functional relationships between all these variables are not clearly established. To get insight into these relationships, a quantitative genetic analysis was performed in 118 recombinant inbred l

  12. Cryptic Genetic Variation in Evolutionary Developmental Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise B. Paaby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental genetics has traditionally been conducted by two groups: Molecular evolutionists who emphasize divergence between species or higher taxa, and quantitative geneticists who study variation within species. Neither approach really comes to grips with the complexities of evolutionary transitions, particularly in light of the realization from genome-wide association studies that most complex traits fit an infinitesimal architecture, being influenced by thousands of loci. This paper discusses robustness, plasticity and lability, phenomena that we argue potentiate major evolutionary changes and provide a bridge between the conceptual treatments of macro- and micro-evolution. We offer cryptic genetic variation and conditional neutrality as mechanisms by which standing genetic variation can lead to developmental system drift and, sheltered within canalized processes, may facilitate developmental transitions and the evolution of novelty. Synthesis of the two dominant perspectives will require recognition that adaptation, divergence, drift and stability all depend on similar underlying quantitative genetic processes—processes that cannot be fully observed in continuously varying visible traits.

  13. Evolutionary process unveiled by the maximum genetic diversity hypothesis%遗传多样性上限假说所揭示的进化历程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄益敏; 夏梦颖; 黄石

    2013-01-01

    As two major popular theories to explain evolutionary facts, the neutral theory and Neo-Darwinism, despite their proven virtues in certain areas, still fail to offer comprehensive explanations to such fundamental evolutionary phenomena as the genetic equidistance result, abundant overlap sites, increase in complexity over time, incomplete understanding of genetic diversity, and inconsistencies with fossil and archaeological records. Maximum genetic diversity hypothesis (MGD), however, constructs a more complete evolutionary genetics theory that incorporates all of the proven virtues of existing theories and adds to them the novel concept of a maximum or optimum limit on genetic distance or diversity. It has yet to meet a contradiction and explained for the first time the half-century old Genetic Equidistance phenomenon as well as most other major evolutionary facts. It provides practical and quantitative ways of studying complexity. Molecular interpretation using MGD-based methods reveal novel insights on the origins of humans and other primates that are consis- tent with fossil evidence and common sense, and reestablished the important role of China in the evolution of humans. MGD theory has also uncovered an important genetic mechanism in the construction of complex traits and the pathogenesis of complex diseases. We here made a series of sequence comparisons among yeasts, fishes and primates to illustrate the concept of limit on genetic distance. The idea of limit or optimum is in line with the yin-yang paradigm in the traditional Chinese view of the universal creative law in nature.%作为生物进化的两个主流理论,中性学说和现代达尔文进化理论相对系统地揭示了进化机理和历程,但 也都有缺陷,比如对某些重大进化现象如遗传等距离和重叠位点(Overlap sites)的忽视,对复杂性的视而不见,对遗传多样性的片面解读,以及与化石证据相悖等.遗传多样性上限假说(Maximum genetic diversity

  14. Intervarietal and intravarietal genetic structure in Douglas-fir: nuclear SSRs bring novel insights into past population demographic processes, phylogeography, and intervarietal hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, Marcela; Hintsteiner, Wolfgang; Pötzelsberger, Elisabeth; Schüler, Silvio; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2015-05-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is one of numerous wide-range forest tree species represented by subspecies/varieties, which hybridize in contact zones. This study examined the genetic structure of this North American conifer and its two hybridizing varieties, coastal and Rocky Mountain, at intervarietal and intravarietal level. The genetic structure was subsequently associated with the Pleistocene refugial history, postglacial migration and intervarietal hybridization/introgression. Thirty-eight populations from the USA and Canada were genotyped for 13 nuclear SSRs and analyzed with simulations and traditional population genetic structuring methods. Eight genetic clusters were identified. The coastal clusters embodied five refugial populations originating from five distinct refugia. Four coastal refugial populations, three from California and one from western Canada, diverged during the Pleistocene (56.9-40.1 ka). The three Rocky Mountain clusters reflected distinct refugial populations of three glacial refugia. For Canada, ice covered during the Last Glacial Maximum, we present the following three findings. (1) One refugial population of each variety was revealed in the north of the distribution range. Additional research including paleodata is required to support and determine whether both northern populations originated from cryptic refugia situated south or north of the ice-covered area. (2) An interplay between intravarietal gene flow of different refugial populations and intervarietal gene flow by hybridization and introgression was identified. (3) The Canadian hybrid zone displayed predominantly introgressants of the Rocky Mountain into the coastal variety. This study provides new insights into the complex Quaternary dynamics of this conifer essential for understanding its evolution (outside and inside the native range), adaptation to future climates and for forest management.

  15. Genetic Breakthrough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new calf breeding technique shows promise for treating malignant tumors Chinese scientists have successfully bred a genetically altered cow capable of producing cancer-curing proteins for human beings.

  16. Mitochondrial genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnery, Patrick Francis; Hudson, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the last 10 years the field of mitochondrial genetics has widened, shifting the focus from rare sporadic, metabolic disease to the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in a growing spectrum of human disease. The aim of this review is to guide the reader through some key concepts regarding mitochondria before introducing both classic and emerging mitochondrial disorders. Sources of data In this article, a review of the current mitochondrial genetics literature was con...

  17. Systems biology analysis merging phenotype, metabolomic and genomic data identifies Non-SMC Condensin I Complex, Subunit G (NCAPG and cellular maintenance processes as major contributors to genetic variability in bovine feed efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Widmann

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency is a paramount factor for livestock economy. Previous studies had indicated a substantial heritability of several feed efficiency traits. In our study, we investigated the genetic background of residual feed intake, a commonly used parameter of feed efficiency, in a cattle resource population generated from crossing dairy and beef cattle. Starting from a whole genome association analysis, we subsequently performed combined phenotype-metabolome-genome analysis taking a systems biology approach by inferring gene networks based on partial correlation and information theory approaches. Our data about biological processes enriched with genes from the feed efficiency network suggest that genetic variation in feed efficiency is driven by genetic modulation of basic processes relevant to general cellular functions. When looking at the predicted upstream regulators from the feed efficiency network, the Tumor Protein P53 (TP53 and Transforming Growth Factor beta 1 (TGFB1 genes stood out regarding significance of overlap and number of target molecules in the data set. These results further support the hypothesis that TP53 is a major upstream regulator for genetic variation of feed efficiency. Furthermore, our data revealed a significant effect of both, the Non-SMC Condensin I Complex, Subunit G (NCAPG I442M (rs109570900 and the Growth /differentiation factor 8 (GDF8 Q204X (rs110344317 loci, on residual feed intake and feed conversion. For both loci, the growth promoting allele at the onset of puberty was associated with a negative, but favorable effect on residual feed intake. The elevated energy demand for increased growth triggered by the NCAPG 442M allele is obviously not fully compensated for by an increased efficiency in converting feed into body tissue. As a consequence, the individuals carrying the NCAPG 442M allele had an additional demand for energy uptake that is reflected by the association of the allele with increased daily

  18. Genetics and Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good progress is being made on genetics and genomics of sugar beet, however it is in process and the tools are now being generated and some results are being analyzed. The GABI BeetSeq project released a first draft of the sugar beet genome of KWS2320, a dihaploid (see http://bvseq.molgen.mpg.de/Gen...

  19. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  20. Genetic Mapping in Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, David; Daly, Mark J; Lander, Eric S.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic mapping provides a powerful approach to identify genes and biological processes underlying any trait influenced by inheritance, including human diseases. We discuss the intellectual foundations of genetic mapping of Mendelian and complex traits in humans, examine lessons emerging from linkage analysis of Mendelian diseases and genome-wide association studies of common diseases, and discuss questions and challenges that lie ahead.

  1. Statistical methods in spatial genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Leblois, Raphael; Coulon, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    The joint analysis of spatial and genetic data is rapidly becoming the norm in population genetics. More and more studies explicitly describe and quantify the spatial organization of genetic variation and try to relate it to underlying ecological processes. As it has become increasingly difficult...... to keep abreast with the latest methodological developments, we review the statistical toolbox available to analyse population genetic data in a spatially explicit framework. We mostly focus on statistical concepts but also discuss practical aspects of the analytical methods, highlighting not only...

  2. Population genetics structure of Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein during the elimination process in low and unstable malaria transmission areas, southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Samaneh Hemati; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Mehrizi, Akram Abouie; Mortazavi, Yousef; Djadid, Navid Dinparast

    2016-08-01

    In Iran, the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax has dropped after a national malaria elimination program was launched. To estimate the likelihood of success and to measure the outcome of malaria intervention tools during elimination programs (2008-2012), the population genetic surveys of Iranian P. vivax isolates (n=60) were carried out using the CSP genetic marker. The results were compared with a similar work that was carried out during a control phase (2000-2003) in the same study areas. Based on PCR-RFLP analysis, 49 (81.67%) of 60 studied samples were VK210 and 11 (18.33%) were VK247 with no mixed genotypes. However, 10.97% of P. vivax isolates of control phase harbored the mixed genotypes. Sequencing analysis of 50 pvcsp gene showed 14 distinct haplotypes, of which 11 and 3 were VK210 and VK247 types, respectively. However, during the control phase, 19 distinct subtypes (11 VK210 and 8 VK247) were reported. Also, 7 of 11 VK210 and the VK247F subtypes were new, and 3 out of 7 new VK210 and VK247F were isolated from the patients with Pakistani nationality. The lower nucleotide diversity per site (π=0.02017±0.00436 and π=0.04525±0.00255) and haplotype diversity (Hd=0.513±0.093 and Hd=0.691±0.128) as well as lower In/Del haplotype [Hd(i)=0.243 and 0] and nucleotide diversity [π(i)=0.00078 and 0] were recorded for VK210 and VK247of the elimination samples, respectively. In conclusion, the comparison of PRMs and RATs in CRR along with the polymorphism analysis of the sequence lengths, SNPs, and In/Del polymorphisms in all analyzed samples showed lower genetic diversity for PvCSP in the elimination samples. Also, although there is a turnover of P. vivax parasite genotypes in the study areas, reduction in genetic diversity and transmission was detected due to scaling-up of the intervention tools during an elimination program in Iran. This notable challenge of the elimination program must be taken into account and controlled by active

  3. Renegotiating GM crop regulation: Targeted gene-modification technology raises new issues for the oversight of genetically modified crops

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Targeted genetic modification, which enables scientists to genetically engineer plants more efficiently and precisely, challenges current process-based regulatory frameworks for genetically modified crops.

  4. Influence of Nitrogen-di-Oxide, Temperature and Relative Humidity on Surface Ozone Modeling Process Using Multigene Symbolic Regression Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa F. Sheta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic monitoring, data collection, analysis and prediction of environmental changes is essential for all living things. Understanding future climate changes does not only helps in measuring the influence on people life, habits, agricultural and health but also helps in avoiding disasters. Giving the high emission of chemicals on air, scientist discovered the growing depletion in ozone layer. This causes a serious environmental problem. Modeling and observing changes in the Ozone layer have been studied in the past. Understanding the dynamics of the pollutants features that influence Ozone is ex-plored in this article. A short term prediction model for surface Ozone is offered using Multigene Symbolic Regression Genetic Programming (GP. The proposed model customs Nitrogen-di-Oxide, Temperature and Relative Humidity as the main features to predict the Ozone level. Moreover, a comparison between GP and Artificial Neural Network (ANN in modeling Ozone is presented. The developed results show that GP outperform the ANN.

  5. Genetic determinants of PAM-dependent DNA targeting and pre-crRNA processing in Sulfolobus islandicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wenfang; Li, Huan; Hallstrøm, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria and Archaea encode clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) systems to confer adaptive immunity to invasive viruses and plasmids. Recent studies of CRISPR systems revealed that diverse CRISPR-associated (Cas) interference modules often coexist in different...... organisms but functions of cas genes have not been dissected in any of these systems. The crenarchaeon Sulfolobus islandicus encodes three distinct CRISPR interference modules, including a type IA system and two type IIIB systems: Cmr-a and Cmr-ß. To study the genetic determinants of protospacer......-adjacent motif (PAM)-dependent DNA targeting activity and mature CRISPR RNA (crRNA) production in this organism, mutants deleting individual genes of the type IA system or removing each of other Cas modules were constructed. Characterization of these mutants revealed that Cas7, Cas5, Cas6, Cas3' and Cas3...

  6. EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO); Scientific Opinion on application (EFSAGMO- NL-2007-39) for the placing on the market of insect resistant and herbicide tolerant genetically modified maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing under Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin

    This opinion reports on an evaluation of a risk assessment for placing on the market the genetically modified herbicide tolerant and insect resistant maize MON89034 x MON88017 for food and feed uses, import and processing. Conventional breeding methods were used in the production of maize MON89034...... x MON88017 from inbred lines of the respective parental events. The structural integrity of the inserts in the single events as well as the phenotypes were retained in the hybrid. The expression levels of the Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, Cry3Bb1 and CP4 EPSPS proteins in maize MON89034 x MON88017 were...

  7. RNA genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, E. (Instituto de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, Madrid (ES)); Holland, J.J. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Biology); Ahlquist, P. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on RNA genetics: RNA-directed virus replication Volume 1. Topics covered include: Replication of the poliovirus genome; Influenza viral RNA transcription and replication; and Relication of the reoviridal: Information derived from gene cloning and expression.

  8. Genetic counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 30. Review Date 1/25/2016 Updated by: Chad Haldeman-Englert, MD, FACMG, Fullerton Genetics Center, Asheville, NC. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ...

  9. Utility of computer simulations in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan K. Epperson; Brad H. McRae; Kim Scribner; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael S. Rosenberg; Marie-Josee Fortin; Patrick M. A. James; Melanie Murphy; Stephanie Manel; Pierre Legendre; Mark R. T. Dale

    2010-01-01

    Population genetics theory is primarily based on mathematical models in which spatial complexity and temporal variability are largely ignored. In contrast, the field of landscape genetics expressly focuses on how population genetic processes are affected by complex spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity. It is spatially explicit and relates patterns to...

  10. A compendium of genetic variant data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Joao; Schöning, Lars Yannik; Herrgard, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory strains are genetically unstable if exposed to selective pressure as encountered, for example, during molecular cloning, fermentation, or adaptive laboratory evolution experiments. This genetic variation is the consequence of an adaptation process of the microorganism to stress...... obtained from distinct experiments. This compendium of genetic variant is a critical step to develop approaches to automatically and systematically characterize mutated strains in the future....

  11. Effects of Genetic Drift and Gene Flow on the Selective Maintenance of Genetic Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Star, Bastiaan; Spencer, Hamish G.

    2013-01-01

    Explanations for the genetic variation ubiquitous in natural populations are often classified by the population–genetic processes they emphasize: natural selection or mutation and genetic drift. Here we investigate models that incorporate all three processes in a spatially structured population, using what we call a construction approach, simulating finite populations under selection that are bombarded with a steady stream of novel mutations. As expected, the amount of genetic variation compa...

  12. A Study on Learning Processes for Understanding Genetic Recombination and Genome Editing : Implications from “Genome Editing Using Site Specific Nucleases and its Application in Animals”

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to explore the content and methods appropriate for teaching materials by transforming a specialized scientist’s learning processes into a learning process of a student. This was achieved through analysis of the composition and construction of a research paper written by a specialized scientist, reading comprehension of associated research topics, and comprehension of basic concepts and theories in associate fields of science. The current study examined a paper entitled...

  13. 苎麻织物制备多孔氧化铝遗态陶瓷%Preparation of porous alumina ceramics by morph-genetic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蒙; 刘江南; 贺辛亥; 王俊勃; 江燕; 李冰

    2014-01-01

    以苎麻织物为生物模板,聚合氯化铝溶液为浸渍液,经浸渍、干燥获得前驱体,将前驱体经有氧煅烧制备出具有苎麻织物结构的 Al2 O3遗态材料.采用 TG 、XRD 、TEM 、SEM 和比表面积等检测技术,分别对材料的热失重、物相组成和显微结构进行了表征与分析.结果表明,1200℃下制备的 Al2 O3陶瓷成功地保留了苎麻织物的结构.不同浓度下制得的 Al2 O3具有不同的微观形貌.Al2 O3比表面积为9.94~30.07m 2・ g-1;平均孔径为5.02~6.2nm .%Based on bio-templating ,a new kind of Al2 O3 morph-genetic ceramic materials with the struc-ture of ramie fibers was prepared by calcining under aerobic environment from precursors ,which were prepared by impregnating poly-aluminum chloride solution .The phase composition and micro-structure of the materials were analyzed and characterized respectively by using thermo -gravimetric analysis (TG) ,X-ray diffraction (XRD) ,transmission electron microscope (TEM ) ,scanning electron micro-scope (SEM ) and H-2000PS2 system .The experimental results show that the Al2 O3 morph-genetic ce-ramic successfully reserved the ramie fibers structure .Under different concentration of aluminum ,the products have different morphology . BET test shows that the specific surface area is 9.94 ~30.07m2 ・ g- 1 and the average pore diameter is 5.02 ~ 6.2nm .

  14. 基于最短处理时间疫苗的免疫遗传算法优化FJSP问题%Optimization of Flexible Job-shop Scheduling Problem by Immune Genetic Algorithm of Shortest Processing Time Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    信宁宁; 黄宗南

    2013-01-01

    Reasonable job scheduling program can improve the utilization of the processing machine.The immune genetic algorithm is used to solve the flexible job-shop scheduling problem while it is more difficult.At the side of vaccine technology,according to the process timetable of the work piece,selecting the machine that processes the same process of same work piece with the shortest processing time as vaccine is proposed and vaccinate the machine code of the individual for the corresponding workpiece.Finally,an example is tested,the result shows that the method used can obtain better scheduling program and reduce machine idle time.%合理的作业调度方案能提高加工机器的利用率.针对柔性作业车间调度求解难度更大的特点,采用免疫遗传算法求解.在疫苗技术方面,提出依据工件工序加工时间表,选择同工件同工序加工时间最短的机器作为疫苗,对相应工件个体机器码接种.最后对测试案例求解,结果表明所采取的方法能够求得更好的调度方案,减少机器空闲时间.

  15. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence...... of heritable melanoma risk genes is an important component of disease occurrence. Susceptibility for some families is due to mutation in one of the known high penetrance melanoma predisposition genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, POT1, ACD, TERF2IP and TERT. However, despite such mutations being implicated...... in a combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely...

  16. Cluster B personality symptoms in persons at genetic risk for schizophrenia are associated with social competence and activation of the right temporo-parietal junction during emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Micaela Giuliana; Villarreal, Mirta Fabiana; de Achával, Delfina; Drucaroff, Lucas Javier; Costanzo, Elsa Yolanda; Castro, Mariana Nair; Pahissa, Jaime; Camprodon, Joan; Nemeroff, Charles; Guinjoan, Salvador Martín

    2014-01-30

    Personality disorders are common in nonpsychotic siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and some personality traits in this group may be associated with an increased risk for full-blown psychosis. We sought to establish if faulty right-hemisphere activation induced by social cognitive tasks, as previously described in patients with schizophrenia, is associated with specific personality symptoms in their unaffected siblings. We observed that cluster B personality symptoms in this group were inversely related to activation in the right temporo parietal junction (rTPJ, a structure critical in social cognitive processing) in response to a basic emotion processing task and also to social competence, whereas in contrast to our initial hypothesis, cluster A traits were not associated with right hemisphere activation during emotion processing or with social competence. These findings suggest the existence of clinical traits in at-risk individuals which share a common neurobiological substrate with schizophrenia, in regards to social performance.

  17. Pig ham genetic traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dall'Olio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowing meat product origin is an important factor to assure consumer safety. A definitive method to solve this question is to identify, through molecular genetics analysis, a sample collected from the alive animal and a sample collected on the processed product. The only way to assure the origin of meat and meat products is by the proved identity of both genotypes for each different analyzed loci. Identity test was utilized to achieve individual traceability of meat for cattle......

  18. Genetic Testing for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved Donate Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (FALS) and Genetic Testing By Deborah Hartzfeld, MS, CGC, Certified Genetic Counselor ... in your area, please visit www.nsgc.org . Genetic Testing Genetic testing can help determine the cause of ...

  19. Genetic Science Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mouse Party on Learn.Genetics.utah.edu Students doing the Tree of Genetic Traits activity Learn.Genetics is one of the most widely used science education websites in the world The Community Genetics ...

  20. Causal discovery in an adult ADHD data set suggests indirect link between DAT1 genetic variants and striatal brain activation during reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Elena; Hoogman, Martine; Groot, Perry; Claassen, Tom; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Heskes, Tom

    2015-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable disorder affecting both children and adults. One of the candidate genes for ADHD is DAT1, encoding the dopamine transporter. In an attempt to clarify its mode of action, we assessed brain activity during the reward anticipation phase of the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task in a functional MRI paradigm in 87 adult participants with ADHD and 77 controls (average age 36.5 years). The MID task activates the ventral striatum, where DAT1 is most highly expressed. A previous analysis based on standard statistical techniques did not show any significant dependencies between a variant in the DAT1 gene and brain activation [Hoogman et al. (2013); Neuropsychopharm 23:469-478]. Here, we used an alternative method for analyzing the data, that is, causal modeling. The Bayesian Constraint-based Causal Discovery (BCCD) algorithm [Claassen and Heskes (2012); Proceedings of the 28th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence] is able to find direct and indirect dependencies between variables, determines the strength of the dependencies, and provides a graphical visualization to interpret the results. Through BCCD one gets an opportunity to consider several variables together and to infer causal relations between them. Application of the BCCD algorithm confirmed that there is no evidence of a direct link between DAT1 genetic variability and brain activation, but suggested an indirect link mediated through inattention symptoms and diagnostic status of ADHD. Our finding of an indirect link of DAT1 with striatal activity during reward anticipation might explain existing discrepancies in the current literature. Further experiments should confirm this hypothesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Genetic basis of a cognitive complexity metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle K Hansell

    Full Text Available Relational complexity (RC is a metric reflecting capacity limitation in relational processing. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and is an endophenotype for several disorders. However, the genetic underpinnings of complex relational processing have not been investigated. Using the classical twin model, we estimated the heritability of RC and genetic overlap with intelligence (IQ, reasoning, and working memory in a twin and sibling sample aged 15-29 years (N = 787. Further, in an exploratory search for genetic loci contributing to RC, we examined associated genetic markers and genes in our Discovery sample and selected loci for replication in four independent samples (ALSPAC, LBC1936, NTR, NCNG, followed by meta-analysis (N>6500 at the single marker level. Twin modelling showed RC is highly heritable (67%, has considerable genetic overlap with IQ (59%, and is a major component of genetic covariation between reasoning and working memory (72%. At the molecular level, we found preliminary support for four single-marker loci (one in the gene DGKB, and at a gene-based level for the NPS gene, having influence on cognition. These results indicate that genetic sources influencing relational processing are a key component of the genetic architecture of broader cognitive abilities. Further, they suggest a genetic cascade, whereby genetic factors influencing capacity limitation in relational processing have a flow-on effect to more complex cognitive traits, including reasoning and working memory, and ultimately, IQ.

  2. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  3. The Genetic Landscape of a Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellay, Jeremy; Kim, Yungil; Spear, Eric D.; Sevier, Carolyn S.; Ding, Huiming; Koh, Judice L.Y.; Toufighi, Kiana; Mostafavi, Sara; Prinz, Jeany; St. Onge, Robert P.; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Makhnevych, Taras; Vizeacoumar, Franco J.; Alizadeh, Solmaz; Bahr, Sondra; Brost, Renee L.; Chen, Yiqun; Cokol, Murat; Deshpande, Raamesh; Li, Zhijian; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Liang, Wendy; Marback, Michaela; Paw, Jadine; San Luis, Bryan-Joseph; Shuteriqi, Ermira; Hin Yan Tong, Amy; van Dyk, Nydia; Wallace, Iain M.; Whitney, Joseph A.; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Zhong, Guoqing; Zhu, Hongwei; Houry, Walid A.; Brudno, Michael; Ragibizadeh, Sasan; Papp, Balázs; Pál, Csaba; Roth, Frederick P.; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Bussey, Howard; Bader, Gary D.; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Morris, Quaid D.; Kim, Philip M.; Kaiser, Chris A.; Myers, Chad L.; Andrews, Brenda J.; Boone, Charles

    2017-01-01

    A genome-scale genetic interaction map was constructed by examining 5.4 million gene-gene pairs for synthetic genetic interactions, generating quantitative genetic interaction profiles for ~75% of all genes in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A network based on genetic interaction profiles reveals a functional map of the cell in which genes of similar biological processes cluster together in coherent subsets, and highly correlated profiles delineate specific pathways to define gene function. The global network identifies functional cross-connections between all bioprocesses, mapping a cellular wiring diagram of pleiotropy. Genetic interaction degree correlated with a number of different gene attributes, which may be informative about genetic network hubs in other organisms. We also demonstrate that extensive and unbiased mapping of the genetic landscape provides a key for interpretation of chemical-genetic interactions and drug target identification. PMID:20093466

  4. Scale dependent inference in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth

    2010-01-01

    Ecological relationships between patterns and processes are highly scale dependent. This paper reports the first formal exploration of how changing scale of research away from the scale of the processes governing gene flow affects the results of landscape genetic analysis. We used an individual-based, spatially explicit simulation model to generate patterns of genetic...

  5. Occurrence and genetic diversity of Arcobacter spp. in a spinach-processing plant and evaluation of two Arcobacter-specific quantitative PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorf, Lena; Neumann, Maria; Bergmann, Ingo; Sobiella, Kerstin; Mundt, Kerstin; Fröhling, Antje; Schlüter, Oliver; Klocke, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Some species of the genus Arcobacter are considered to be emerging food pathogens. With respect to recent vegetable-borne outbreaks, the aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence and diversity of Arcobacter within the production chain of a spinach-processing plant by a combination of cultivation and molecular methods. Samples including spinach, water, and surface biofilm were taken over a period of three years from the entire processing line. Ten 16S rRNA (rrs) gene clone libraries were constructed and analysed using amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA). Approximately 1200 clones were studied that resulted in 44 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Sequences with high similarities to Arcobacter cryaerophilus (13% of clones, 3 OTUs), A. ellisii (4%, 6 OTUs), A. suis (15%, 3 OTUs), and the type strain of A. nitrofigilis (1%, 7 OTUs) were identified. This represents the first report of the detection of the recently described species A. ellisii, A. suis and, in addition, A. venerupis from alternative habitats. A total of 67% of the clones (22 OTUs) could not be assigned to a genus, which indicated the presence of uncharacterised Arcobacter species. For the cultivation-independent detection of Arcobacter, two genus-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed and tested on 15 Arcobacter species. When these assays were applied to samples from the spinach-processing plant, they showed positive results for up to 35% of the samples and supported the conclusion that there is a considerable risk for the transfer of pathogenic Arcobacter species on vegetables, which was also verified by a cultivation approach.

  6. [Genetic amniocentesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante Díaz, M; Carrillo Hinojosa, M; García Necoechea, M P; Escobedo Aguirre, F; Lowenberg Favela, E; Ahued Ahued, J R

    1989-04-01

    179 patients were studied by genetic amniocentesis (GA) in sessions of 3 punctures each. This was done in order to follow a prenatal diagnosis (PD) program and study amniotic fluid at the Hospital Regional 20 de Novembre (ISSSTE) between May 1983 and December 1987. The parameters taken were: age, indications, number of sessions, number punctures, echosonographic studies for gestational age, placental insertion, punction site, amniotic fluid volume, blood contamination, failures and handling of the patient. A low incidence of abortion is reported. We don't have cases of dripping of amniotic fluid or transvaginal haemorrhage. Multiple insertion of the needle and placental or vessel lesions of the cord, as causes of a fetal death are still argued if we have in mind avoiding chances; we didn't have those complications in our cases. The percent is low if there are not previous spontaneous abortions. 79% of the amniotic fluid samples were sent between the 15th and 17th weeks of pregnancy. For alpha fetus protein determination 12 and for biochemical studies 1, specially for beta-galactosidase level. This was done at the Biomedical Investigation Institute of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (in parents with generalized gangliosidosis GM1). Even though results were good, the technique has still risks and complications. An ultrasonic study of the procedures made by physicians with trustable experience is needed. Our country has the need to create more Prenatal Genetic Diagnosis Centers.

  7. Genetic Diseases and Genetic Determinism Models in French Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, Jeremy; Bruguiere, Catherine; Clement, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of genetic diseases in French secondary school biology textbooks is analysed to determine the major conceptions taught in the field of human genetics. References to genetic diseases, and the processes by which they are explained (monogeny, polygeny, chromosomal anomaly and environmental influence) are studied in recent French…

  8. Genetic Diseases and Genetic Determinism Models in French Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, Jeremy; Bruguiere, Catherine; Clement, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of genetic diseases in French secondary school biology textbooks is analysed to determine the major conceptions taught in the field of human genetics. References to genetic diseases, and the processes by which they are explained (monogeny, polygeny, chromosomal anomaly and environmental influence) are studied in recent French…

  9. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific information that would change or invalidate the conclusions of its previous risk assessments on oilseed rape GT73. The EFSA GMO Panel also considered the relevance of the concerns raised by Austria in the light of the most recent data published in the scientific literature. The authorised uses of oilseed rape GT73 exclude cultivation, but data on gene flow, persistence and invasiveness derived from cultivation were considered as a worst case, representing conditions where exposure and potential impact are expected to be the highest, to assess possible environmental impacts resulting from seed import spills. In the documentation provided by Austria and in the scientific literature, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify new scientific evidence that indicates that the import, processing and feed uses of oilseed rape GT73 in the EU pose a significant and imminent risk to the environment. The EFSA GMO Panel does not consider the occurrence of occasional feral oilseed rape GT73 plants, pollen dispersal and consequent cross-pollination as environmental harm in itself. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation supplied by Austria and a review of recent scientific literature, there is no specific scientific evidence in terms of risk to the environment that would support the notification of a safeguard clause measure under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC nor its prolongation, and that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of oilseed

  10. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the prolongation of prohibition of the placing on the market of genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation provided by Austria to support the prolongation of the safeguard clause measure prohibiting the placing on the market of the genetically modified oilseed rape event GT73 for import, processing and feed uses in Austria. The EFSA GMO Panel assessed whether the submitted documentation comprised new scientific information that would change or invalidate the conclusions of its previous risk assessments on oilseed rape GT73. The EFSA GMO Panel also considered the relevance of the concerns raised by Austria in the light of the most recent data published in the scientific literature. The authorised uses of oilseed rape GT73 exclude cultivation, but data on gene flow, persistence and invasiveness derived from cultivation were considered as a worst case, representing conditions where exposure and potential impact are expected to be the highest, to assess possible environmental impacts resulting from seed import spills. In the documentation provided by Austria and in the scientific literature, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify new scientific evidence that indicates that the import and processing of oilseed rape GT73 for feed uses in the EU pose a significant and imminent risk to the environment. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation supplied by Austria and a review of recent scientific literature, there is no specific scientific evidence in terms of risk to the environment that would support the notification of a safeguard clause measure under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC nor its prolongation, and that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of oilseed rape GT73.

  11. Voice Matching Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of Genetic Algorithm (GA for voice recognition is described. The practical application of Genetic Algorithm (GA to the solution of engineering problem is a rapidly emerging approach in the field of control engineering and signal processing. Genetic algorithms are useful for searching a space in multi-directional way from large spaces and poorly defined space. Voice is a signal of infinite information. Digital processing of voice signal is very important for automatic voice recognition technology. Nowadays, voice processing is very much important in security mechanism due to mimicry characteristic. So studying the voice feature extraction in voice processing is very necessary in military, hospital, telephone system, investigation bureau and etc. In order to extract valuable information from the voice signal, make decisions on the process, and obtain results, the data needs to be manipulated and analyzed. In this paper, if the instant voice is not matched with same person’s reference voices in the database, then Genetic Algorithm (GA is applied between two randomly chosen reference voices. Again the instant voice is compared with the result of Genetic Algorithm (GA which is used, including its three main steps: selection, crossover and mutation. We illustrate our approach with different sample of voices from human in our institution.

  12. Phages of lactic acid bacteria: the role of genetics in understanding phage-host interactions and their co-evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Jennifer; Ainsworth, Stuart; Stockdale, Stephen; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2012-12-20

    Dairy fermentations are among the oldest food processing applications, aimed at preservation and shelf-life extension through the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures, in particular strains of Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. Traditionally this was performed by continuous passaging of undefined cultures from a finished fermentation to initiate the next fermentation. More recently, consumer demands on consistent and desired flavours and textures of dairy products have led to a more defined approach to such processes. Dairy (starter) companies have responded to the need to define the nature and complexity of the starter culture mixes, and dairy fermentations are now frequently based on defined starter cultures of low complexity, where each starter component imparts specific technological properties that are desirable to the product. Both mixed and defined starter culture approaches create the perfect environment for the proliferation of (bacterio)phages capable of infecting these LAB. The repeated use of the same starter cultures in a single plant, coupled to the drive towards higher and consistent production levels, increases the risk and negative impact of phage infection. In this review we will discuss recent advances in tracking the adaptation of phages to the dairy industry, the advances in understanding LAB phage-host interactions, including evolutionary and genomic aspects.

  13. Phages of lactic acid bacteria: The role of genetics in understanding phage-host interactions and their co-evolutionary processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, Jennifer, E-mail: j.mahony@ucc.ie [Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland); Ainsworth, Stuart; Stockdale, Stephen [Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland); Sinderen, Douwe van, E-mail: d.vansinderen@ucc.ie [Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland); Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork (Ireland)

    2012-12-20

    Dairy fermentations are among the oldest food processing applications, aimed at preservation and shelf-life extension through the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures, in particular strains of Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. Traditionally this was performed by continuous passaging of undefined cultures from a finished fermentation to initiate the next fermentation. More recently, consumer demands on consistent and desired flavours and textures of dairy products have led to a more defined approach to such processes. Dairy (starter) companies have responded to the need to define the nature and complexity of the starter culture mixes, and dairy fermentations are now frequently based on defined starter cultures of low complexity, where each starter component imparts specific technological properties that are desirable to the product. Both mixed and defined starter culture approaches create the perfect environment for the proliferation of (bacterio)phages capable of infecting these LAB. The repeated use of the same starter cultures in a single plant, coupled to the drive towards higher and consistent production levels, increases the risk and negative impact of phage infection. In this review we will discuss recent advances in tracking the adaptation of phages to the dairy industry, the advances in understanding LAB phage-host interactions, including evolutionary and genomic aspects.

  14. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF GENETIC EROSION IN THE PROCESS OF EXTINCTION .2. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION AND FITNESS COMPONENTS IN POPULATIONS OF VARYING SIZE OF SALVIA-PRATENSIS L AND SCABIOSA-COLUMBARIA L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUBORG, NJ; VANTREUREN, R; VANDAMME, JMM

    1991-01-01

    The amount of genetic variation within a population is, among other things, related to population size. In small populations loss of genetic variation due to high levels of genetic drift and inbreeding may result in decline of individual fitness and increase the chance of population extinction. This

  15. Chemical genetics and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sumitra; Zhang, Liyun; Mumm, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration involves interactions between multiple signaling pathways acting in a spatially and temporally complex manner. As signaling pathways are highly conserved, understanding how regeneration is controlled in animal models exhibiting robust regenerative capacities should aid efforts to stimulate repair in humans. One way to discover molecular regulators of regeneration is to alter gene/protein function and quantify effect(s) on the regenerative process: dedifferentiation/reprograming, stem/progenitor proliferation, migration/remodeling, progenitor cell differentiation and resolution. A powerful approach for applying this strategy to regenerative biology is chemical genetics, the use of small-molecule modulators of specific targets or signaling pathways. Here, we review advances that have been made using chemical genetics for hypothesis-focused and discovery-driven studies aimed at furthering understanding of how regeneration is controlled.

  16. The expanded genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Denis A; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2015-10-05

    All biological information, since the last common ancestor of all life on Earth, has been encoded by a genetic alphabet consisting of only four nucleotides that form two base pairs. Long-standing efforts to develop two synthetic nucleotides that form a third, unnatural base pair (UBP) have recently yielded three promising candidates, one based on alternative hydrogen bonding, and two based on hydrophobic and packing forces. All three of these UBPs are replicated and transcribed with remarkable efficiency and fidelity, and the latter two thus demonstrate that hydrogen bonding is not unique in its ability to underlie the storage and retrieval of genetic information. This Review highlights these recent developments as well as the applications enabled by the UBPs, including the expansion of the evolution process to include new functionality and the creation of semi-synthetic life that stores increased information.

  17. STEP-NC oriented process planning optimization based on hybrid genetic algorithm%面向STEP-NC基于混合式遗传算法的工艺路线优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳华兵; 沈斌

    2012-01-01

    为适应STEP-NC技术的发展需求,解决基于STEP-NC非线性工艺路线优化问题,在深入分析STEP-NC基于加工特征的数据模型基础上,探讨了工艺路线优化中存在的问题及其相关约束,提出采用基于操作优先图的智能搜索与遗传算法相结合的混合式算法。首先考虑加工操作排序中的强制性约束,采用基于操作优先图的智能搜索算法,获取多个可行的加工操作顺序,并将其作为遗传算法的初始化种群;然后综合考虑机床选择、刀具选择和刀具运动方向选择,以加工成本最低为目标函数,根据优化约束条件,通过遗传算法的复制、交叉和变异等操作实现有效工艺路线的优化决策,得到满足车间要求的最优或接近最优的工艺路线。通过实例,验证了该算法在面向STEP-NC加工特征的零件工艺路线优化上的可行性和有效性。%To meet the requirements of STEP-NC technology and to solve the non-linear process planning problem,the existing problems in process planning optimization and its related constraints were discussed on the basis of analyzing STEP-NC data model based on machining features.The hybrid algorithm was proposed by integrating intelligent search of operation precedence graph with genetic algorithm.The compulsive constraints were firstly considered in the sequence of operations,and the alternative operation sequences were acquired by intelligent search algorithm based on operation precedence graph.This algorithm was acted as the initial population for the next genetic algorithm.The selections of machine tool,tool and tool approach direction were all taken into account,by taking the lowest machining cost as optimization objective function,the effective process planning optimization decision was achieved through operation of genetic algorithm's copy,cross and variation according to optimization constraints.The optimal or near optimal process route which satified the workshop

  18. Degradation and detection of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis DNA and proteins in flour of three genetically modified rice events submitted to a set of thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng; Dai, Chen; Shen, Wenbiao

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the degradation of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ab/Ac) and the corresponding encoded Bt proteins in KMD1, KF6, and TT51-1 rice powder, respectively, following autoclaving, cooking, baking, or microwaving. Exogenous Bt genes were more stable than the endogenous sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene, and short DNA fragments were detected more frequently than long DNA fragments in both the Bt and SPS genes. Autoclaving, cooking (boiling in water, 30 min), and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe Bt protein degradation effects, and Cry1Ab protein was more stable than Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab/Ac protein, which was further confirmed by baking samples at 180 °C for different periods of time. Microwaving induced mild degradation of the Bt and SPS genes, and Bt proteins, whereas baking (180 °C, 15 min), cooking and autoclaving led to further degradation, and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe degradation. The findings of the study indicated that degradation of the Bt genes and proteins somewhat correlated with the treatment intensity. Polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and lateral flow tests were used to detect the corresponding transgenic components. Strategies for detecting transgenic ingredients in highly processed foods are discussed.

  19. The Neogene and Quaternary Clay-with-flints north and south of the English Channel: comparisons of distribution, age, genetic processes and geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Florence; Catt, John; Laignel, Benoît; Bourdillon, Chantal; Meyer, Robert

    2003-02-01

    Weathered residual accumulations termed Clay-with-flints (Argiles à silex) overlying Cretaceous deposits are widespread in southern England and northwestern France. Geological and pedological studies and some field surveys indicate their distribution, nature, age and origin. In France, the microfaunas preserved in the hollow flints of the Clay-with-flints demonstrate the preservation of the parent Chalk stratigraphy in the sections studied, i.e. the Clay-with-flints corresponds to in situ weathering profiles. However, in England and in France, an important part of the clay component is derived from a thin veneer of basal Tertiary sediment overlying sub-Tertiary marine erosion surfaces of various Palaeogene transgressions. In England as in France, the youngest generation of Clay-with-flints can be dated from Late Pliocene to Quaternary. It formed after removal of different Cenozoic deposits on many plateaus and during the downcutting of Pleistocene rivers. The most visible effect of subsequent weathering profile development is irregular dissolution of the underlying Chalk to produce deep karstic pipes into which the Clay-with-flints has slumped; other pedological processes include rubification, clay illuviation and cryoturbation. Clay-with-flints also provides evidence of Quaternary palaeoenvironments, Cenozoic continental palaeosurfaces, and their vertical deformation.

  20. Multispecies genetic objectives in spatial conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Erica S; Beger, Maria; Henriques, Romina; Selkoe, Kimberly A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2016-12-07

    The growing threats to biodiversity and global alteration of habitats and species distributions make it increasingly necessary to consider evolutionary patterns in conservation decision-making. Yet there is no clear-cut guidance on how genetic features can be incorporated into conservation planning processes, with multiple molecular markers and several genetic metrics for each marker type to choose from. Genetic patterns also differ between species, but the potential trade-offs amongst genetic objectives for multiple species in conservation planning are currently understudied. This study compares spatial conservation prioritizations derived from two metrics of both genetic diversity (nucleotide and haplotype diversity) and genetic isolation (private haplotypes and local genetic differentiation) for mitochondrial DNA for five marine species. The findings show that conservation plans based solely on habitat representation noticeably differ from those additionally including genetic data, with habitat-based conservation plans selecting fewer conservation priority areas. Furthermore, all four genetic metrics selected approximately similar conservation priority areas, which is likely a result of prioritizing genetic patterns across a genetically diverse array of species. Largely, the results suggest that multi-species genetic conservation objectives are vital to create protected area networks that appropriately preserve community-level evolutionary patterns. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Contribution of genetics to ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijangos, Jose Luis; Pacioni, Carlo; Spencer, Peter B S; Craig, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems has emerged as a critical tool in the fight to reverse and ameliorate the current loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Approaches derived from different genetic disciplines are extending the theoretical and applied frameworks on which ecological restoration is based. We performed a search of scientific articles and identified 160 articles that employed a genetic approach within a restoration context to shed light on the links between genetics and restoration. These articles were then classified on whether they examined association between genetics and fitness or the application of genetics in demographic studies, and on the way the studies informed restoration practice. Although genetic research in restoration is rapidly growing, we found that studies could make better use of the extensive toolbox developed by applied fields in genetics. Overall, 41% of reviewed studies used genetic information to evaluate or monitor restoration, and 59% provided genetic information to guide prerestoration decision-making processes. Reviewed studies suggest that restoration practitioners often overlook the importance of including genetic aspects within their restoration goals. Even though there is a genetic basis influencing the provision of ecosystem services, few studies explored this relationship. We provide a view of research gaps, future directions and challenges in the genetics of restoration.

  2. 基于遗传算法的白车身机器人焊接路径规划%Robot Welding Route Planning in Car-Body Welding Process Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春伟; 刘海江; 姜冬冬

    2011-01-01

    分析了轿车白车身制造过程中机器人拼焊工位焊接路径规划的特征,将焊点与机器人的工具原点抽象为空间点,根据图论理论建立各点的关系图.将约束条件转化为局部有向关系矩阵,以机器人空间运动最短距离为目标,建立货郎担问题数学模型,利用遗传算法求解.依据关系矩阵产生合法初始种群,并确定选择、交叉、变异等遗传算子,以MATLAB语言编程计算.行李箱盖补焊工位焊接路径规划结果表明,该方法能够对机器人焊接路径合理规划,规划方案已成功用于工程实际.%A genetic algorithm combined with graph theory was proposed for solving the problem of welding route planning in car body-in-white manufacture.By regarding the welding point and tool center point frame as spatial point to establish relationship graph, transforming constraint factors into directed relationship matrix and using minimum motion distance of welding gun as object function, a traveling salesperson problem model was established.Generation of legal initial population and processing of selection, cross and mutation genetic operators were based on directed relationship matrix.MATLAB language was used to program.Taking the welding route planning of the deck lid repair welding station as example, planning result shows that welding route is reasonable and this scheme has been implemented successfully in engineering.

  3. Comparative population genomics of the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex reveals high degree of genetic isolation among species and underscores benefits and constraints to studying intra-specific epidemiological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Jacquot

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis, one of the most frequently contracted zoonotic diseases in the Northern Hemisphere, is caused by bacteria belonging to different genetic groups within the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex, which are transmitted by ticks among various wildlife reservoirs, such as small mammals and birds. These features make the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex an attractive biological model that can be used to study the diversification and the epidemiology of endemic bacterial pathogens. We investigated the potential of population genomic approaches to study these processes. Sixty-three strains belonging to three species within the Borrelia burgdorferi complex were isolated from questing ticks in Alsace (France, a region where Lyme disease is highly endemic. We first aimed to characterize the degree of genetic isolation among the species sampled. Phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses revealed clear delineations: there was a ∼50 fold difference between intra-specific and inter-specific recombination rates. We then investigated whether the population genomic data contained information of epidemiological relevance. In phylogenies inferred using most of the genome, conspecific strains did not cluster in clades. These results raise questions about the relevance of different strategies when investigating pathogen epidemiology. For instance, here, both classical analytic approaches and phylodynamic simulations suggested that population sizes and migration rates were higher in B. garinii populations, which are normally associated with birds, than in B. burgdorferi s.s. populations. The phylogenetic analyses of the infection-related ospC gene and its flanking region provided additional support for this finding. Traces of recombination among the B. burgdorferi s.s. lineages and lineages associated with small mammals were found, suggesting that they shared the same hosts. Altogether, these results provide baseline evidence that can be used

  4. High-definition genome profiling for genetic marker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Salmeron, John

    2007-05-01

    Genetic mapping is a key step towards isolating genes and genetic markers associated with phenotypic traits by elucidating their genetic positions. The success of this approach depends on precision in pinpointing genetic positions and the effectiveness of the discovery process. Recent advances in microarray technology and the increasing availability of genomic information have provided an opportunity to use microarrays to scan effectively for genetic variations at the whole-genome scale, enabling the production of high-definition gene-based genetic maps, in combination with functional analyses and identification of trait-associated genetic marker candidates with high precision. In this review, we discuss the concept, process, tools and applications of microarray-based high-definition genetic analysis. This post-genomics approach should help to identify causative genetic variation by uniting genetic and functional information.

  5. Optimal screening for genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nævdal, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Screening for genetic diseases is performed in many regions and/or ethnic groups where there is a high prevalence of possibly malign genes. The propagation of such genes can be considered a dynamic externality. Given that many of these diseases are untreatable and give rise to truly tragic outcomes, they are a source of societal concern, and the screening process should perhaps be regulated. This paper incorporates a standard model of genetic propagation into an economic model of dynamic management to derive cost benefit rules for optimal screening. The highly non-linear nature of genetic dynamics gives rise to perhaps surprising results that include discontinuous controls and threshold effects. One insight is that any screening program that is in place for any amount of time should screen all individuals in a target population. The incorporation of genetic models may prove to be useful to several emerging fields in economics such as genoeconomics, neuroeconomics and paleoeconomics.

  6. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  7. Multicultural education and genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, J

    2001-03-01

    The responsibility to provide accessible, useful genetic counseling to individuals from many cultures and ethnicities arises from the increasing ethnocultural diversity of the populations served, coupled with the ethical goal of providing equal access and quality of services for all individuals. The multicultural education, training, and practice of genetic counseling involves three major components: knowledge of relevant ethnocultural groups, ethnocultural self-awareness, and an understanding of institutional and social barriers to services. Despite the diversity of ethnocultural groups served and the critical role of direct experience and training for the genetic counselor, some general guidelines for multicultural genetic counseling can be identified. These include the importance of establishing and maintaining trust, the essential need to respect the counselee's healthcare beliefs and practices, and the necessity of understanding the impact of culture on the process of decision making and on counselee responses to nondirective counseling.

  8. Genetic counseling in mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Jodie M; Pappa, Belen

    2013-04-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are a genetically and clinically diverse group of disorders that arise as a result of dysfunction of the mitochondria. Mitochondrial disorders can be caused by alterations in nuclear DNA and/or mitochondrial DNA. Although some mitochondrial syndromes have been described clearly in the literature many others present as challenging clinical cases with multisystemic involvement at variable ages of onset. Given the clinical variability and genetic heterogeneity of these conditions, patients and their families often experience a lengthy and complicated diagnostic process. The diagnostic journey may be characterized by heightened levels of uncertainty due to the delayed diagnosis and the absence of a clear prognosis, among other factors. Uncertainty surrounding issues of family planning and genetic testing may also affect the patient. The role of the genetic counselor is particularly important to help explain these complexities and support the patient and family's ability to achieve effective coping strategies in dealing with increased levels of uncertainty.

  9. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... 70%, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  10. Applying the New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, James

    1976-01-01

    New developments in the prediction and treatment of genetic diseases are presented. Genetic counseling and the role of the counselor, and rights of individuals to reproduce versus societal impact of genetic disorders, are discussed. (RW)

  11. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... 70%, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical functioning. However, concerns about appearance and ethnic identity are significant issues for many affected ... What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic ...

  13. Genetic factors in Threatened Species Recovery Plans on three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatened species' recovery planning is applied globally to stem the current species extinction crisis. Evidence supports a key role of genetic processes, such as inbreeding depression, in determining species viability. We examined whether genetic factors are considered in threa...

  14. Reliability of genetic bottleneck tests for detecting recent population declines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peery, M. Zachariah; Kirby, Rebecca; Reid, Brendan N.; Stoelting, Ricka; Doucet-Beer, Elena; Robinson, Stacie; Vasquez-Carrillo, Catalina; Pauli, Jonathan N.; Palsboll, Per J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of population bottlenecks is critical in conservation because populations that have experienced significant reductions in abundance are subject to a variety of genetic and demographic processes that can hasten extinction. Genetic bottleneck tests constitute an appealing and popula

  15. Multi-objective Optimization Design of Complex Production Processing Based on Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network%基于GA-NN的复杂工艺生产过程多目标优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程静; 邱玉辉

    2012-01-01

    In the problem solving processing of complex non-linear multi-objective optimization, it is very difficult to getting the non-linear structure model beforehand and the considered parameters become more and more. The conventional modeling method and optimal model have many shortcomings,and are difficult to solve currently complicated engineering practical problems. Artificial neural network provides a novel approach for solving the complex nonlinear system modeling problems. The trained neural network response surfaces can either be objective function or constraint conditions,and together with other conventional constraints,a system model is then set up and it can be optimized by genetic algorithm. This allows the separation between design analysis modeling and optimization searching. Through an example of the production process optimization problem of a chemical enterprise, the model of process parameters and performance target based on Backward Propagation neural network response surface was constructed, and the optimal process parameters and sample data were gained by genetic algorithm. The experiment results illustrate that the proposed method can get multirobjective optimal model with high accuracy, thus greatly raising the efficiency of optimization process.%在复杂非线性多目标优化问题求解中,非线性模型结构很难事先给定,需要检验的参数也非常繁多,应用传统的建模方法和优化模型已难以解决更为复杂的现实问题.人工神经网络技术为解决复杂非线性系统建模问题提供了一条新的途径.将神经网络响应面作为目标函数或者约束条件,加上其他常规约束条件进行系统模型的建立,再应用遗传算法进行优化,从而实现设计分析与设计优化的分离.以某化工企业的生产过程优化问题为例,利用BP神经网络建立了工艺参数与性能目标之间的模型,然后利用遗传算法搜索最优工艺参数,获取了用于指导生产的样

  16. Genetic aspects and genetic epidemiology of parasomnias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Christer; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2003-10-01

    Parasomnias are undesirable phenomena associated with sleep. Many of them run in families, and genetic factors have been long suggested to be involved in their occurrence. This article reviews the present knowledge of the genetics of the major classical behavioral parasomnias as well as present results from genetic epidemiological studies. The level and type of evidence for genetic effects varies much from parasomnia to parasomnia. The genetic factors are best established in enuresis, with several linkages to chromosomal loci, but their functions are not so far known. Environmental causes and gene-environment interactions are most probably also of great importance in the origin of complex traits or disorders such as parasomnias.

  17. Applying landscape genetics to the microbial world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudaniec, Rachael Y; Tesson, Sylvie V M

    2016-07-01

    Landscape genetics, which explicitly quantifies landscape effects on gene flow and adaptation, has largely focused on macroorganisms, with little attention given to microorganisms. This is despite overwhelming evidence that microorganisms exhibit spatial genetic structuring in relation to environmental variables. The increasing accessibility of genomic data has opened up the opportunity for landscape genetics to embrace the world of microorganisms, which may be thought of as 'the invisible regulators' of the macroecological world. Recent developments in bioinformatics and increased data accessibility have accelerated our ability to identify microbial taxa and characterize their genetic diversity. However, the influence of the landscape matrix and dynamic environmental factors on microorganism genetic dispersal and adaptation has been little explored. Also, because many microorganisms coinhabit or codisperse with macroorganisms, landscape genomic approaches may improve insights into how micro- and macroorganisms reciprocally interact to create spatial genetic structure. Conducting landscape genetic analyses on microorganisms requires that we accommodate shifts in spatial and temporal scales, presenting new conceptual and methodological challenges not yet explored in 'macro'-landscape genetics. We argue that there is much value to be gained for microbial ecologists from embracing landscape genetic approaches. We provide a case for integrating landscape genetic methods into microecological studies and discuss specific considerations associated with the novel challenges this brings. We anticipate that microorganism landscape genetic studies will provide new insights into both micro- and macroecological processes and expand our knowledge of species' distributions, adaptive mechanisms and species' interactions in changing environments.

  18. Genetics and epigenetics of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Blanca M; Keildson, Sarah; Lindgren, Cecilia M

    2011-05-01

    Obesity results from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Despite a relatively high heritability of common, non-syndromic obesity (40-70%), the search for genetic variants contributing to susceptibility has been a challenging task. Genome wide association (GWA) studies have dramatically changed the pace of detection of common genetic susceptibility variants. To date, more than 40 genetic variants have been associated with obesity and fat distribution. However, since these variants do not fully explain the heritability of obesity, other forms of variation, such as epigenetics marks, must be considered. Epigenetic marks, or "imprinting", affect gene expression without actually changing the DNA sequence. Failures in imprinting are known to cause extreme forms of obesity (e.g. Prader-Willi syndrome), but have also been convincingly associated with susceptibility to obesity. Furthermore, environmental exposures during critical developmental periods can affect the profile of epigenetic marks and result in obesity. We review the most recent evidence for genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the susceptibility and development of obesity. Only a comprehensive understanding of the underlying genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, and the metabolic processes they govern, will allow us to manage, and eventually prevent, obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetics and epigenetics of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Blanca M.; Keildson, Sarah; Lindgren, Cecilia M.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity results from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Despite a relatively high heritability of common, non-syndromic obesity (40–70%), the search for genetic variants contributing to susceptibility has been a challenging task. Genome wide association (GWA) studies have dramatically changed the pace of detection of common genetic susceptibility variants. To date, more than 40 genetic variants have been associated with obesity and fat distribution. However, since these variants do not fully explain the heritability of obesity, other forms of variation, such as epigenetics marks, must be considered. Epigenetic marks, or “imprinting”, affect gene expression without actually changing the DNA sequence. Failures in imprinting are known to cause extreme forms of obesity (e.g. Prader–Willi syndrome), but have also been convincingly associated with susceptibility to obesity. Furthermore, environmental exposures during critical developmental periods can affect the profile of epigenetic marks and result in obesity. We review the most recent evidence for genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in the susceptibility and development of obesity. Only a comprehensive understanding of the underlying genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, and the metabolic processes they govern, will allow us to manage, and eventually prevent, obesity. PMID:21466928

  20. 炼钢-连铸作业计划的基于仿真的遗传算法%Simulation based genetic algorithm for production planning of steelmaking-continuous casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢克斌; 黄可为; 张瑞友; 汪定伟

    2011-01-01

    为了改普作业计划的可执行性,应用基于仿真的优化对炼钢-连铸作业计划问题进行了研究.借助数学模型描述该问题,进而开发了一个基于仿真的遗传算法.该算法能够仿真物理系统的运行和现场人员的部分操作,简洁明了且运行速度较快.实验及分析表明,该方法便于实现,能得到更接近实际的作业计划.%The job scheduling problem in the steelmaking-continuous casting process is studied by using the simulation based optimization in order to improve the practicality of schedules. The problem is mathematically modeled. Then, a simulation based genetic algorithm is developed to solve the problem, which simulates not only the physical system but also the activities of operators, and is compact and runs relatively fast. Finally, the experiments and analysis show that the developed algorithm can conveniently formulate and the obtained schedules are much practicable.

  1. Chemical genetic screen identifies lithocholic acid as an anti-aging compound that extends yeast chronological life span in a TOR-independent manner, by modulating housekeeping longevity assurance processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alexander A.; Richard, Vincent R.; Kyryakov, Pavlo; Bourque, Simon D.; Beach, Adam; Burstein, Michelle T.; Glebov, Anastasia; Koupaki, Olivia; Boukh-Viner, Tatiana; Gregg, Christopher; Juneau, Mylène; English, Ann M.; Thomas, David Y.; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2010-01-01

    In chronologically aging yeast, longevity can be extended by administering a caloric restriction (CR) diet or some small molecules. These life-extending interventions target the adaptable target of rapamycin (TOR) and cAMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling pathways that are under the stringent control of calorie availability. We designed a chemical genetic screen for small molecules that increase the chronological life span of yeast under CR by targeting lipid metabolism and modulating housekeeping longevity pathways that regulate longevity irrespective of the number of available calories. Our screen identifies lithocholic acid (LCA) as one of such molecules. We reveal two mechanisms underlying the life-extending effect of LCA in chronologically aging yeast. One mechanism operates in a calorie availability-independent fashion and involves the LCA-governed modulation of housekeeping longevity assurance pathways that do not overlap with the adaptable TOR and cAMP/PKA pathways. The other mechanism extends yeast longevity under non-CR conditions and consists in LCA-driven unmasking of the previously unknown anti-aging potential of PKA. We provide evidence that LCA modulates housekeeping longevity assurance pathways by suppressing lipid-induced necrosis, attenuating mitochondrial fragmentation, altering oxidation-reduction processes in mitochondria, enhancing resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses, suppressing mitochondria-controlled apoptosis, and enhancing stability of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. PMID:20622262

  2. Societal aspects of genetically modified foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, L.J.; Lassen, J.; Kettlitz, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of the reasons behind public controversy associated with the introduction of genetically modified foods in Europe the 1990s. The historical background to the controversy is provided to give context. The issue of public acceptance of genetically modified foods...... efficaciously into risk analysis processes, specifically with respect to the biosciences and to technology implementation in general....

  3. Spurious correlations and inference in landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth

    2010-01-01

    Reliable interpretation of landscape genetic analyses depends on statistical methods that have high power to identify the correct process driving gene flow while rejecting incorrect alternative hypotheses. Little is known about statistical power and inference in individual-based landscape genetics. Our objective was to evaluate the power of causalmodelling with partial...

  4. Genetic algorithms in seasonal demand forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Chodak, Grzegorz; Kwaśnicki, Witold

    2000-01-01

    The method of forecasting seasonal demand applying genetic algorithm is presented. Specific form of used demand function is shown in the first section of the article. Next the method of identification of the function parameters using genetic algorithms is discussed. In the final section an example of applying proposed method to forecast real demand process is shown.

  5. Amplifying genetic logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew

    2013-05-03

    Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.

  6. The genetics of immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Brian P; Schneider, David S

    2014-06-17

    In this commentary, Brian P. Lazzaro and David S. Schneider examine the topic of the Genetics of Immunity as explored in this month's issues of GENETICS and G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics. These inaugural articles are part of a joint Genetics of Immunity collection (ongoing) in the GSA journals. Copyright © 2014 Lazzaro and Schneider.

  7. Population genetics of African ungulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline

    Molecular genetic techniques were used to gain insights into the evolutionary forces that have shaped the present day diversity of African savannah ungu-lates, which constitute the most species-rich mega faunal assemblage on earth. The studies included in this thesis represent individual species......-specific data sets, which are used to elucidate evolutionary processes of importance to the savannah ungulate community. Patterns of DNA variation were analyzed to assess the genetic signatures of Pleistocene refugia and investigate aspects of speciation, intraspecific structuring, hybridization, and historic...

  8. Newborn genetic screening: blessing or curse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, C; Amlung, S

    1999-10-01

    Newly discovered genes and advances in genetic screening programs prompt many questions reflecting the kinds of ethical dilemmas that go hand in hand with life-changing discoveries. Neonatal genetic screening has been a standard of care for some time, but as our knowledge in the field of genetics expands, should we continue with the same approach? What newborn genetic screening tests should be mandatory, and what are the long-range consequences associated with testing? This article reviews genetic modes of inheritance, outlines and explains the most common newborn screening tests, and enumerates the ethical issues associated with these screening procedures. The role of the neonatal nurse in the newborn genetic screening process is discussed.

  9. Primary care and genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Joan; Trotter, Tracy

    2013-12-01

    With the recent expansion of genetic science, its evolving translation to clinical medicine, and the growing number of available resources for genomics in primary care, the primary care provider must increasingly integrate genetics and genomics into daily practice. Because primary care medicine combines the treatment of acute illness with disease prevention and anticipatory guidance, the primary care provider is in an ideal position to evaluate and treat patients for genetic disease. The notion that genetic knowledge is only rarely needed will have to be replaced with a comprehensive approach that integrates "genetic thinking" into every patient encounter. Genomic competencies will need to be added to the primary care provider's repertoire; such competencies include prevention, assessment, evaluation, and diagnosis of genetic conditions; the ordering and interpreting of genetic tests; communication with families; appropriate referrals; and the management or comanagement of care. The process of deciding when to order genetic tests, what tests to order, and how to interpret the results is complex, and the tests and their results have specific risks and benefits, especially for pediatric patients. The longitudinal nature of primary pediatric care provides the opportunity to obtain and continually update the family history, which is the most powerful initial genetic "test." The ongoing provider-family relationship, coupled with the astounding number of advances in genetic and genomic testing, also necessitates a constant re-evaluation of past diagnosis or nondiagnosis.

  10. Experience with genetic counseling: the adolescent perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichini, Amanda; Shuman, Cheryl; Sappleton, Karen; Kaufman, Miriam; Chitayat, David; Babul-Hirji, Riyana

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence is a complex period of development that involves creating a sense of identity, autonomy, relationships and values. This stage of adjustment can be complicated by having a genetic condition. Genetic counseling can play an important role in providing information and support to this patient population; however, resources and guidelines are currently limited. In order to appropriately establish genetic counseling approaches and resource development, we investigated the experiences and perspectives of adolescents with a genetic condition with respect to their genetic counseling interactions. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents diagnosed with a genetic condition who received genetic counseling between the ages of 12 and 18 years at The Hospital for Sick Children. Transcripts were analyzed thematically using qualitative content analysis, from which three major interrelated themes emerged: 1) understanding the genetic counselor's role; 2) increasing perceived personal control; and 3) adolescent-specific factors influencing adaptation to one's condition. Additionally, a list of suggested tools and strategies for genetic counseling practice were elucidated. Our findings can contribute to the development of an adolescent-focused framework to enhance emerging genetic counseling approaches for this patient population, and can also facilitate the transition process from pediatric to adult care within patient and family-centered contexts.

  11. CLINICAL, RADIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC ASPECTS OF LEUKODYSTROPHIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laszlo, A.; Elpeleg, On; Horvath, K.; Jakobs, C.; Kobor, J.; Gal, A.; Barsi, P.; Kelemen, A.; Saracz, J.; Svekus, A.; Tegzes, A.; Voeroes, E.

    2010-01-01

    The authors summarize the pathomechanism of the myelination process, the clinical, radiological and the genetical aspects of the leukodystrophies, as in 18q deletion syndrome, adrenoleukodysrtophy, metachromatic leukodystrophy, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher leukodystrophy, Alexander disease and olivo-ponto-c

  12. AFSC/ABL: 2006 Sockeye genetics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this study was to genetically analyze axillary process samples from ~6,000 sockeye salmon harvested in the 2006 and 2007 Districts 101 gillnet and 104...

  13. Modeling for design process planning of product development and its solution using genetic algorithm%产品设计规划问题建模及遗传算法求解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫利军; 申清明; 刘敏; 杨建民

    2013-01-01

    In view of the complexity of design process planning problem and limitation of existed methods, this paper takes total time and cost of the whole tasks in product development as objectives by considering all kinds of uncertain factors in practical product development and further described design process planning as a simulation based stochastic optimization problem. A new hybrid algorithm is proposed to solve this problem by introducing optimal computing budget allocation technique into genetic algorithm framework to improve algorithm searching efficiency and result reliability. Finally, the development of rotor and bearing system in turbine is adopted as example to validate the effectiveness of proposed method. Results demonstrate effectiveness of modeling method and high efficiency of solving algorithm. The method can be extended to solve all kinds of product development process and is of universality.%针对目前产品设计过程规划研究中存在的不足,在充分考虑实际设计过程中存在的各种不确定因素的基础上,以产品开发过程中的全体任务为规划对象,以设计迭代时间和成本为目标,将设计过程规划问题描述为基于仿真的随机优化问题进行处理.提出一种模型求解的混合遗传算法,该算法引入最优计算量分配技术进行样本分配,极大地提高了算法的搜索效率,有效地改善了遗传算法搜索的可靠性.以汽轮机轴承转子系统的设计为例,对提出的方法的有效性进行了验证,仿真结果表明,该建模方法有效且算法求解效率高.该方法可推广应用于各种产品设计过程的规划,具有普遍意义.

  14. [Insights about uncertainty in genetic counseling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huicochea-Montiel, Juan Carlos; Cárdenas-Conejo, Alan; Cervantes-Díaz, María Teresa; Araujo-Solís, María Antonieta de Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Genetic counseling is an information process to help people in the understanding and adaptation to the medical, psychological and family implications of the genetic contribution in diseases. This counseling encompasses all sorts of patients. This represents a challenge in the daily work of the medical geneticist, because giving information in a meaningful way to the patient and his family implies an emotional and psychological burden. Generally we can see two outcomes in the medical practice of genetics, which converge after a diagnosis process: 1) we can face the inability to reach a diagnostic conclusion or 2) we can establish or confirm a diagnosis with certainty, which is the main piece in the genetic counseling. However, in all the situations the uncertainty is a fact, since in the case of those individuals who come in for genetic counseling before symptoms appear or those in prenatal cases, the absence of clinical manifestations and the impossibility to change the course of events lead to the appearance of helplessness and despair. In those cases without diagnostic conclusion, this situation represents a reason for uncertainty, and even in those patients with a diagnosis, certain factors can modify the circumstances in which genetic counseling occurs, such as unpredictability or lack of control. Therefore, it is important to consider the management of uncertainty as an inherent part throughout the process of care in medical genetics. The teaching of medical genetics should also consider the inclusion of topics related to this circumstance.

  15. Genetic engineering, medicine and medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G

    1984-01-01

    The impact of DNA technology in the near future will be on the manufacture of biologic agents and reagents that will lead to improved therapy and diagnosis. The use of DNA technology for prenatal and preclinical diagnosis in genetic diseases is likely to affect management of genetic diseases considerably. New and old questions regarding selective abortion and the psychosocial impact of early diagnosis of late appearing diseases and of genetic susceptibilities are being raised. Somatic therapy with isolated genes to treat disease has not been achieved. True germinal genetic engineering is far off for humans but may find applications in animal agriculture.

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Regarding Genetic Testing and Genetic Counselors in Jordan: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahram, Mamoun; Soubani, Majd; Abu Salem, Lana; Saker, Haneen; Ahmad, Muayyad

    2015-12-01

    Genetic testing has a potential in the prevention of genetic diseases, particularly in communities with high rates of consanguineous marriage. Therefore, knowledge, practice, and attitudes of the public in Jordan regarding genetic testing were investigated. Individuals (N = 3,196) were questioned about the concepts of genetic testing and genetic counselors, if they underwent any genetic tests, the type of test, the method of consenting to the test, as well as their level of satisfaction with the privacy of the genetic testing service. The likelihood of pursuing predictive genetic testing for cancer was also investigated. Although almost 70 % of respondents knew the term "genetic testing," only 18 % had undergone genetic testing, primarily the mandatory premarital test. In addition, there was a lack of general knowledge about genetic counselors. Many of those who had genetic testing (45 %) indicated they did not go through a consent process, and a lack of consent was significantly related to dissatisfaction with the privacy of the service. Approximately 55 % of respondents indicated they would potentially pursue predictive genetic testing for cancer. Going for routine health checkups was not significantly correlated with either actual or potential uptake of genetic testing, suggesting health care providers do not play an influential role in patients' testing decisions. Our results show a gap between the knowledge and uptake of genetic testing and may help to guide the design of effective strategies to initiate successful genetic counseling and testing services.

  17. Genetic progression of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tímár, J; Vizkeleti, L; Doma, V; Barbai, T; Rásó, E

    2016-03-01

    Malignant melanoma of the skin is the most aggressive human cancer given that a primary tumor a few millimeters in diameter frequently has full metastatic competence. In view of that, revealing the genetic background of this potential may also help to better understand tumor dissemination in general. Genomic analyses have established the molecular classification of melanoma based on the most frequent driver oncogenic mutations (BRAF, NRAS, KIT) and have also revealed a long list of rare events, including mutations and amplifications as well as genetic microheterogeneity. At the moment, it is unclear whether any of these rare events have role in the metastasis initiation process since the major drivers do not have such a role. During lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, the clonal selection process is evidently reflected by differences in oncogenic drivers in the metastases versus the primary tumor. Clonal selection is also evident during lymphatic progression, though the genetic background of this immunoselection is less clear. Genomic analyses of metastases identified further genetic alterations, some of which may correspond to metastasis maintenance genes. The natural genetic progression of melanoma can be modified by targeted (BRAF or MEK inhibitor) or immunotherapies. Some of the rare events in primary tumors may result in primary resistance, while further new genetic lesions develop during the acquired resistance to both targeted and immunotherapies. Only a few genetic lesions of the primary tumor are constant during natural or therapy-modulated progression. EGFR4 and NMDAR2 mutations, MITF and MET amplifications and PTEN loss can be considered as metastasis drivers. Furthermore, BRAF and MITF amplifications as well as PTEN loss are also responsible for resistance to targeted therapies, whereas NRAS mutation is the only founder genetic lesion showing any association with sensitivity to immunotherapies. Unfortunately, there are hardly any data on the

  18. Genetic alterations in pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer of the exocrine pancreas represents the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the Western population with an average survival after diagnosis of 3 to 6 months and a five-year survival rate under 5%. Our understanding of the molecular carcinogenesis has improved in the last few years due to the development of novel molecular biological techniques. Pancreatic cancer is a multi-stage process resulting from the accumulation of genetic changes in the somatic DNA of normal cells. In this article we describe major genetic alterations of pancreatic cancer, mutations in the proto-oncogene K-RAS and the tumor suppressors INK4A, TP53 and DPC4/SMAD4. The accumulation of these genetic changes leads to a profound disturbance in cell cycle regulation and continuous growth. The knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms will offer new therapeutic and diagnostic options and hopefully improve the outcome of this aggressive disease.

  19. Genetics of hearing and deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Simon; Lin, Xi; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2012-11-01

    This article is a review of the genes and genetic disorders that affect hearing in humans and a few selected mouse models of deafness. Genetics is playing an increasingly critical role in the practice of medicine. This is not only in part to the importance that genetic knowledge has on traditional genetic diseases but also in part to the fact that genetic knowledge provides an understanding of the fundamental biological process of most diseases. The proteins coded by the genes related to hearing loss (HL) are involved in many functions in the ear, such as cochlear fluid homeostasis, ionic channels, stereocilia morphology and function, synaptic transmission, gene regulation, and others. Mouse models play a crucial role in understanding of the pathogenesis associated with these genes. Different types of familial HL have been recognized for years; however, in the last two decades, there has been tremendous progress in the discovery of gene mutations that cause deafness. Most of the cases of genetic deafness recognized today are monogenic disorders that can be broadly classified by the mode of inheritance (i.e., autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and mitochondrial inheritance) and by the presence of associated phenotypic features (i.e., syndromic; and nonsyndromic). In terms of nonsyndromic HL, the chromosomal locations are currently known for ∼ 125 loci (54 for dominant and 71 for recessive deafness), 64 genes have been identified (24 for dominant and 40 for recessive deafness), and there are many more loci for syndromic deafness and X-linked and mitochondrial DNA disorders (http://hereditaryhearingloss.org). Thus, today's clinician must understand the science of medical genetics as this knowledge can lead to more effective disease diagnosis, counseling, treatment, and prevention.

  20. Genetic circuit design automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization.

  1. Basic genetics for dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Sendhil Kumaran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, advances in the field of molecular genetics have enriched us in understanding the pathogenesis of diseases, their identification, and appropriate therapeutic interventions. In the last 20 years, genetic basis of more than 350 monogenic skin diseases have been elucidated and is counting. The widespread use of molecular genetics as a tool in diagnosis is not practiced routinely due to genetic heterogenicity, limited access and low sensitivity. In this review, we have presented the very basics of genetics so as to enable dermatologists to have working understanding of medical genetics.

  2. Yeasts: from genetics to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, S; Berkovitz Siman-Tov, R; Poli, G

    1995-01-01

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the "biotechnological revolution" by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry.

  3. Parents' Perspectives on Participating in Genetic Research in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Magan; Roberts, Wendy; Drmic, Irene; Scherer, Stephen W.; Weksberg, Rosanna; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Chitayat, David; Shuman, Cheryl; Miller, Fiona A.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic research in autism depends on the willingness of individuals with autism to participate; thus, there is a duty to assess participants' needs in the research process. We report on families' motives and expectations related to their participation in autism genetic research. Respondents valued having a genetic result, as it alleviates guilt,…

  4. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  5. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  6. Frontotemporal Dementia: Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calendar of Events Fundraising Events Conferences Press Releases Genetics of FTD After receiving a diagnosis of FTD ... that recent advances in science have brought the genetics of FTD into much better focus. In 2012, ...

  7. Genetic Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mission to help prevent, manage and treat inherited genetic diseases. View our latest News Brief here . You can ... contributions to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of genetic diseases. Learn how advances at Mount Sinai have impacted ...

  8. Genetic Brain Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  9. Software For Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steve E.

    1992-01-01

    SPLICER computer program is genetic-algorithm software tool used to solve search and optimization problems. Provides underlying framework and structure for building genetic-algorithm application program. Written in Think C.

  10. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes Browse A–Z Chromosomes & mtDNA Autosomes, sex chromosomes, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Browse Help Me Understand Genetics Learn about the basics of human genetics Browse New & Updated Pages New Pages Omenn ...

  11. Genetics of Parkinson's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Christine; Westenberger, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen years of genetic research in Parkinson's disease (PD) have led to the identification of several monogenic forms of the disorder and of numerous genetic risk factors increasing the risk to develop PD...

  12. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: hyperprolinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can also occur with other conditions, such as malnutrition or liver disease. In particular, individuals with conditions ... Topic: Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Health Topic: Genetic Brain Disorders Health Topic: Newborn Screening Genetic and Rare ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: hypermethioninemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Mutations in human glycine N-methyltransferase give insights into its role in methionine metabolism. Hum Genet. ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  15. Conservation genetics of managed ungulate populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Kim T.

    1993-01-01

    Natural populations of many species are increasingly impacted by human activities. Perturbations are particularly pronunced for large ungulates due in part to sport and commercial harvest, to reductions and fragmentation of native habitat, and as the result of reintroductions. These perturbations affect population size, sex and age composition, and population breeding structure, and as a consequence affect the levels and partitioning of genetic variation. Three case histories highlighting long-term ecological genetic research on mule deer Odocoileus hemionus (Rafinesque, 1817), white-tailed deer O. virginianus (Zimmermann, 1780), and Alpine ibex Capra i. ibex Linnaeus, 1758 are presented. Joint examinations of population ecological and genetic data from several populations of each species reveal: (1) that populations are not in genetic equilibrium, but that allele frequencies and heterozygosity change dramatically over time and among cohorts produced in successive years, (2) populations are genetically structured over short and large geographic distances reflecting local breeding structure and patterns of gene flow, respectively; however, this structure is quite dynamic over time, due in part to population exploitation, and (3) restocking programs are often undertaken with small numbers of founding individuals resulting in dramatic declines in levels of genetic variability and increasing levels of genetic differentiation among populations due to genetic drift. Genetic characteristics have and will continue to provide valuable indirect sources of information relating enviromental and human perturbations to changes in population processes.

  16. Genetics in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Shreekantiah; Nizamie, Shamshul Haque

    2014-04-01

    Today, psychiatrists are focusing on genetics aspects of various psychiatric disorders not only for a future classification of psychiatric disorders but also a notion that genetics would aid in the development of new medications to treat these disabling illnesses. This review therefore emphasizes on the basics of genetics in psychiatry as well as focuses on the emerging picture of genetics in psychiatry and their future implications.

  17. Behavioral genetics and taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmanov Alexander A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste.

  18. Statistics for Learning Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Abigail Sheena

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge and skills that biology students may need to help them understand statistics/mathematics as it applies to genetics. The data are based on analyses of current representative genetics texts, practicing genetics professors' perspectives, and more directly, students' perceptions of, and performance in, doing…

  19. Report: Human cancer genetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Marilyn; ALBERTSON Donna

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  20. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we

  1. Human cancer genetics*

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  2. Statistics for Learning Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Abigail Sheena

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge and skills that biology students may need to help them understand statistics/mathematics as it applies to genetics. The data are based on analyses of current representative genetics texts, practicing genetics professors' perspectives, and more directly, students' perceptions of, and performance in, doing…

  3. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  4. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we ex...

  5. GENETICS AND GENOMICS OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börner A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources play a major role for global food security. The most significant and widespread mean of conserving plant genetic resources is ex situ conservation. Most conserved accessions are kept in specialized facilities known as genebanks maintained by public or private institutions. World-wide 7.4 million accessions are stored in about 1,500 ex situ genebanks.In addition, series of genetic stocks including chromosome substitution lines, alloplasmic lines, single chromosome recombinant lines, introgression lines, etc. have been created. Analysing these genetic stocks many qualitative and quantitative inherited traits were associated to certain chromosomes, chromosome arms or introgressed segments. Today, genetic stocks are supplemented by a huge number of genotyped mapping populations. Beside progenies of bi-parental crosses (doubled haploid lines, recombinant inbred lines, etc. panels for association mapping were created recently.In our presentation we give examples for the successful utilisation of genebank accessions and genetic stocks for genetic and genomic studies. Using both segregation and association mapping approaches, data on mapping of loci/marker trait associations for a range of different traits are presented.

  6. Feline genetics: clinical applications and genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2010-11-01

    DNA testing for domestic cat diseases and appearance traits is a rapidly growing asset for veterinary medicine. Approximately 33 genes contain 50 mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. A variety of commercial laboratories can now perform cat genetic diagnostics, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. DNA is easily obtained from a cat via a buccal swab with a standard cotton bud or cytological brush, allowing DNA samples to be easily sent to any laboratory in the world. The DNA test results identify carriers of the traits, predict the incidence of traits from breeding programs, and influence medical prognoses and treatments. An overall goal of identifying these genetic mutations is the correction of the defect via gene therapies and designer drug therapies. Thus, genetic testing is an effective preventative medicine and a potential ultimate cure. However, genetic diagnostic tests may still be novel for many veterinary practitioners and their application in the clinical setting needs to have the same scrutiny as any other diagnostic procedure. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, potential sources of error for genetic testing, and the pros and cons of DNA results in veterinary medicine. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's internal genome.

  7. Stochastic problems in population genetics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Takeo

    1977-01-01

    These are" notes based on courses in Theoretical Population Genetics given at the University of Texas at Houston during the winter quarter, 1974, and at the University of Wisconsin during the fall semester, 1976. These notes explore problems of population genetics and evolution involving stochastic processes. Biological models and various mathematical techniques are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the diffusion method and an attempt is made to emphasize the underlying unity of various problems based on the Kolmogorov backward equation. A particular effort was made to make the subject accessible to biology students who are not familiar with stochastic processes. The references are not exhaustive but were chosen to provide a starting point for the reader interested in pursuing the subject further. Acknowledgement I would like to use this opportunity to express my thanks to Drs. J. F. Crow, M. Nei and W. J. Schull for their hospitality during my stays at their universities. I am indebted to Dr. M. Kimura...

  8. Genetic polymorphisms and drug metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Dolžan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is estimated that genetic factors account for 15–30 % of variability in drug response, however for some drugs this may be the major determinant in drug response. Pharmacogenetics aims to identify genetic sources of variability in response to drugs by studying genetic variations affecting drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters and drug targets thus causing interindividual variability in drug levels (pharmacokinetics, drug response (pharmacodynamics and side effects. Extensive information on genetic variability in drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters and targets is available from public databases. Drugs are metabolized in two phases. In Phase I drug is metabolically activated to reactive electrophilic form, mostly by cytochromes P450 (CYPs, to be conjugated to some endogenous compound by Phase II enzymes: UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs, N-acetyl-transferases (NATs, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, or others. Genetic polymorphism of many enzymes involved in this process leads to inter-individual variations in metabolism and pharmacokinetics of drugs and could therefore influence drug response. Genetic polymorphism is the occurrence of two or more alleles at a given locus of which the rare allele has a frequency of at least 1 % or more in a given population. The understanding of a patient’s genotype and its corresponding effect on drug response could help distinguish between responders and non-responders of a specific drug treatment and help to choose the most effective drug and optimal dose. A large number of different methodologies have been developed for genotyping, however at present predictive genotyping for drug metabolizing enzymes does not occur routinely in the clinical practice.Conclusions: There is increasing evidence that genotyping for polymorphic drug metabolizing enzymes, in particular CYPs has potential to improve drug therapy and achieve higher response rates and reduced adverse effects. Open questions

  9. Massively Parallel Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendure, Jay; Fields, Stanley

    2016-06-01

    Human genetics has historically depended on the identification of individuals whose natural genetic variation underlies an observable trait or disease risk. Here we argue that new technologies now augment this historical approach by allowing the use of massively parallel assays in model systems to measure the functional effects of genetic variation in many human genes. These studies will help establish the disease risk of both observed and potential genetic variants and to overcome the problem of "variants of uncertain significance." Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Primer on genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Susan Estabrooks

    2011-04-01

    Once limited to rare mendelian disorders, genetic counseling is playing an ever-increasing role in the multidisciplinary approach to predicting, diagnosing, and managing neurologic disease. However, genetic counseling services may not be optimized because of lack of availability and lack of knowledge regarding when it is appropriate to refer, what occurs in genetic counseling, and how genetic counseling can affect care. These issues are addressed in this article, along with corresponding clinical scenarios. Websites to find genetic counseling services and resources are also provided.

  11. Application Value of Different Processing Methods in the Genetic Toxicity of Rhubarb%不同炮制方法在大黄遗传毒性减毒中的应用价值探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南香兰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究不同炮制方法在大黄遗传毒性减毒中的应用价值。方法分别使用醋蒸法、醋炒法炮制生大黄,建立污染物致突变性检测(AMES)实验检测其效果,比较结果差异性。结果醋蒸[TA97的S9阴性、阳性值分别为(244.5±9.1)、(250.1±8.0)]的大黄样品除醋蒸样品在代谢非活化条件下呈阳性外,菌株TA97、TA98、TA100及TA102的致突变性都呈现阴性结果,醋炒大黄结果仍呈阳性。结论醋蒸法炮制后能有效降低大黄毒作用,醋炒法炮制后大黄减毒效果不明显。%ObjectiveTo explore the application value of different processing methods in the genetic toxicity reduction of rhubarb.Methods Using vinegar steamed method,vinegar fried method of raw rhubarb,the establishment of polutant mutagenicity test experiment to detect its effect,compare the difference between the results.Results Steaming with vinegar[TA97 S9 negative and positive values respectively(244.5±9.1),(250.1±8.0)] of Rhubarb Samples from vinegar steamed samples in non metabolic activation is positive,strains TA97,TA98,TA100 and TA102 induced mutagenicity showed negative results,vinegar fried rhubarb results is stil positive.ConclusionWith vinegar steaming method can effectively reduce the large effect of vinegar fried by pornography,vinegar fried method of the effect is not obvious.

  12. Genetics and consequences of crop domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint-Garcia, Sherry A

    2013-09-01

    Phenotypic variation has been manipulated by humans during crop domestication, which occurred primarily between 3000 and 10000 years ago in the various centers of origin around the world. The process of domestication has profound consequences on crops, where the domesticate has moderately reduced genetic diversity relative to the wild ancestor across the genome, and severely reduced diversity for genes targeted by domestication. The question that remains is whether reduction in genetic diversity has affected crop production today. A case study in maize ( Zea mays ) demonstrates the application of understanding relationships between genetic diversity and phenotypic diversity in the wild ancestor and the domesticate. As an outcrossing species, maize has tremendous genetic variation. The complementary combination of genome-wide association mapping (GWAS) approaches, large HapMap data sets, and germplasm resources is leading to important discoveries of the relationship between genetic diversity and phenotypic variation and the impact of domestication on trait variation.

  13. How Is Genetic Testing Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing How is genetic testing done? How is genetic testing done? Once a person decides to proceed with ... is called informed consent . For more information about genetic testing procedures: The National Society of Genetic Counselors offers ...

  14. BPA genetic monitoring - BPA Genetic Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Initiated in 1989, this study monitors genetic changes associated with hatchery propagation in multiple Snake River sub-basins for Chinook salmon and steelhead. We...

  15. Molecular genetics made simple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sh. Kassem

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients.

  16. Genetic interest assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughney, Erin

    Genetics is becoming increasingly integrated into peoples' lives. Different measures have been taken to try and better genetics education. This thesis examined undergraduate students at the University of North Texas not majoring in the life sciences interest in genetic concepts through the means of a Likert style survey. ANOVA analysis showed there was variation amongst the interest level in different genetic concepts. In addition age and lecture were also analyzed as contributing factors to students' interest. Both age and lecture were evaluated to see if they contributed to the interest of students in genetic concepts and neither showed statistical significance. The Genetic Interest Assessment (GIA) serves to help mediate the gap between genetic curriculum and students' interest.

  17. Rewriting the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Takahito; Lajoie, Marc J; Englert, Markus; Söll, Dieter

    2017-09-08

    The genetic code-the language used by cells to translate their genomes into proteins that perform many cellular functions-is highly conserved throughout natural life. Rewriting the genetic code could lead to new biological functions such as expanding protein chemistries with noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) and genetically isolating synthetic organisms from natural organisms and viruses. It has long been possible to transiently produce proteins bearing ncAAs, but stabilizing an expanded genetic code for sustained function in vivo requires an integrated approach: creating recoded genomes and introducing new translation machinery that function together without compromising viability or clashing with endogenous pathways. In this review, we discuss design considerations and technologies for expanding the genetic code. The knowledge obtained by rewriting the genetic code will deepen our understanding of how genomes are designed and how the canonical genetic code evolved.

  18. Genetics of Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet eWangari-Talbot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic variation is a trend observed in various human diseases including cancer. Genetic studies have set out to understand how and why these variations result in cancer, why some populations are predisposed to the disease, and also how genetics affect drug responses. The melanoma incidence has been increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. The burden posed by melanoma has made it a necessity to understand the fundamental signaling pathways involved in this deadly disease. Signaling cascades such as MAPK and PI3K/AKT have been shown to be crucial in the regulation of processes that are commonly dysregulated during cancer development such as aberrant proliferation, loss of cell cycle control, impaired apoptosis and altered drug metabolism. Understanding how these and other oncogenic pathways are regulated has been integral in our challenge to develop potent anti-melanoma drugs. With advances in technology and especially in next generation sequencing, we have been able to explore melanoma genomes and exomes leading to the identification of previously unknown genes with functions in melanomagenesis such as GRIN2A and PREX2. The therapeutic potential of these novel candidate genes is actively being pursued with some presenting as druggable targets while others serve as indicators of therapeutic responses. In addition, the analysis of the mutational signatures of melanoma tumors continues to cement the causative role of UV exposure in melanoma pathogenesis. It has become distinctly clear that melanomas from sun exposed skin areas have distinct mutational signatures including C to T transitions indicative of UV-induced damage. It is thus necessary to continue spreading awareness on how to decrease the risk factors of developing the disease while at the same time working for a cure. Given the large amount of information gained from these sequencing studies, it is likely that in the future, treatment of melanoma will follow a highly personalized route

  19. Genetics of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Laura; Goldman, David

    2011-09-01

    Emotion is critical to most aspects of human behavior, and individual differences in systems recruited to process emotional stimuli, expressed as variation in emotionality, are characteristic of several neuropsychiatric disorders. We examine the genetic origins of individual differences in emotion processing by focusing on functional variants at five genes: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), neuropeptide Y (NPY), a glucocorticoid receptor-regulating co-chaperone of stress proteins (FKBP5) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor (ADCYAP1R1). These represent a range of effects of genes on emotion as well as the variety of mechanisms and factors, such as stress, that modify these effects. The new genomic era of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and deep sequencing may yield a wealth of new loci modulating emotion. The effects of these genes can be validated by neuroimaging, neuroendocrine and other studies accessing intermediate phenotypes, deepening our understanding of mechanisms of emotion and variation in emotionality.

  20. Find the weakest link. A comparison between demographic, genetic and demo-genetic metapopulation extinction times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the ultimate causes of most species extinctions are environmental, environmental constraints have various secondary consequences on evolutionary and ecological processes. The roles of demographic, genetic mechanisms and their interactions in limiting the viabilities of species or populations have stirred much debate and remain difficult to evaluate in the absence of demography-genetics conceptual and technical framework. Here, I computed projected times to metapopulation extinction using (1 a model focusing on the effects of species properties, habitat quality, quantity and temporal variability on the time to demographic extinction; (2 a genetic model focusing on the dynamics of the drift and inbreeding loads under the same species and habitat constraints; (3 a demo-genetic model accounting for demographic-genetic processes and feedbacks. Results Results indicate that a given population may have a high demographic, but low genetic viability or vice versa; and whether genetic or demographic aspects will be the most limiting to overall viability depends on the constraints faced by the species (e.g., reduction of habitat quantity or quality. As a consequence, depending on metapopulation or species characteristics, incorporating genetic considerations to demographically-based viability assessments may either moderately or severely reduce the persistence time. On the other hand, purely genetically-based estimates of species viability may either underestimate (by neglecting demo-genetic interactions or overestimate (by neglecting the demographic resilience true viability. Conclusion Unbiased assessments of the viabilities of species may only be obtained by identifying and considering the most limiting processes (i.e., demography or genetics, or, preferentially, by integrating them.

  1. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.

  2. Liver fibrogenesis and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, Jérôme; Louvet, Alexandre

    2011-06-01

    Chronic liver diseases lead to the accumulation of fibrosis in the liver with eventual progression to cirrhosis and its complications. However, there is a wide range of inter-individual variation in the liver fibrogenesis process, thus posing a challenge to physicians to identify patients with poor prognosis. As demographic and environmental factors only account for a small portion of fibrogenesis variability, host genetic factors have been suggested as playing an important role. Due to technical limitations, the first genetic studies were restricted to the evaluation of candidate genes having a known or supposed function in liver fibrogenesis. Recently, technological improvements have made it possible to study the whole human genome in a single scan. Genome-wide association studies have considerably heightened the interest in genetics as part of the study of liver fibrogenesis through their identification of previously unsuspected genes that are statistically associated with liver fibrosis. It is thus possible to determine new diagnostic or prognostic genetic markers for the management of patients with chronic liver diseases. Moreover, functional analyses of these genes may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of liver fibrogenesis.

  3. Genetic drift of HIV populations in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegor Voronin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 undergo a surprisingly large amount of genetic drift in infected patients despite very large population sizes, which are predicted to be mostly deterministic. Several models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, but all of them implicitly assume that the process of virus replication itself does not contribute to genetic drift. We developed an assay to measure the amount of genetic drift for HIV populations replicating in cell culture. The assay relies on creation of HIV populations of known size and measurements of variation in frequency of a neutral allele. Using this assay, we show that HIV undergoes approximately ten times more genetic drift than would be expected from its population size, which we defined as the number of infected cells in the culture. We showed that a large portion of the increase in genetic drift is due to non-synchronous infection of target cells. When infections are synchronized, genetic drift for the virus is only 3-fold higher than expected from its population size. Thus, the stochastic nature of biological processes involved in viral replication contributes to increased genetic drift in HIV populations. We propose that appreciation of these effects will allow better understanding of the evolutionary forces acting on HIV in infected patients.

  4. Molecular Population Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Sònia; Barbadilla, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Molecular population genetics aims to explain genetic variation and molecular evolution from population genetics principles. The field was born 50 years ago with the first measures of genetic variation in allozyme loci, continued with the nucleotide sequencing era, and is currently in the era of population genomics. During this period, molecular population genetics has been revolutionized by progress in data acquisition and theoretical developments. The conceptual elegance of the neutral theory of molecular evolution or the footprint carved by natural selection on the patterns of genetic variation are two examples of the vast number of inspiring findings of population genetics research. Since the inception of the field, Drosophila has been the prominent model species: molecular variation in populations was first described in Drosophila and most of the population genetics hypotheses were tested in Drosophila species. In this review, we describe the main concepts, methods, and landmarks of molecular population genetics, using the Drosophila model as a reference. We describe the different genetic data sets made available by advances in molecular technologies, and the theoretical developments fostered by these data. Finally, we review the results and new insights provided by the population genomics approach, and conclude by enumerating challenges and new lines of inquiry posed by increasingly large population scale sequence data. PMID:28270526

  5. Molecular Population Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Sònia; Barbadilla, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Molecular population genetics aims to explain genetic variation and molecular evolution from population genetics principles. The field was born 50 years ago with the first measures of genetic variation in allozyme loci, continued with the nucleotide sequencing era, and is currently in the era of population genomics. During this period, molecular population genetics has been revolutionized by progress in data acquisition and theoretical developments. The conceptual elegance of the neutral theory of molecular evolution or the footprint carved by natural selection on the patterns of genetic variation are two examples of the vast number of inspiring findings of population genetics research. Since the inception of the field, Drosophila has been the prominent model species: molecular variation in populations was first described in Drosophila and most of the population genetics hypotheses were tested in Drosophila species. In this review, we describe the main concepts, methods, and landmarks of molecular population genetics, using the Drosophila model as a reference. We describe the different genetic data sets made available by advances in molecular technologies, and the theoretical developments fostered by these data. Finally, we review the results and new insights provided by the population genomics approach, and conclude by enumerating challenges and new lines of inquiry posed by increasingly large population scale sequence data. Copyright © 2017 Casillas and Barbadilla.

  6. Recognition of Objects by Using Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerses Safaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is devoted to the task of object detection and recognition in digital images by using genetic programming. The goal was to improve and simplify existing approaches. The detection and recognition are achieved by means of extracting the features. A genetic program is used to extract and classify features of objects. Simple features and primitive operators are processed in genetic programming operations. We are trying to detect and to recognize objects in SAR images. Due to the new approach described in this article, five and seven types of objects were recognized with good recognition results.

  7. Genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis: a multicultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puñales-Morejon, D

    1997-01-01

    More and more women are using prenatal tests to obtain specific information on the health of the developing fetus. The objective of genetic counseling is not to decrease the occurrence of genetic disease, it is to help individuals and families adjust to their genetic risks and make their own decisions in line with their reproductive goals and world views. Choices made by parent(s) will reflect their own intrapsychic processes as well as their own cultural and social understanding of genetic risk and disease. As prenatal testing continues to diagnose an ever growing number of genetic disorders, genetic counseling faces greater and greater challenges. Now more than ever before, genetic counseling must incorporate both psychological counseling and multiculturalism in order to serve diverse individuals and families at risk for genetic disease.

  8. Folk beliefs about genetic variation predict avoidance of biracial individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia K Kang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People give widely varying estimates for the amount of genetic overlap that exists between humans. While some laypeople believe that humans are highly genetically similar to one another, others believe that humans share very little genetic overlap. These studies examine how beliefs about genetic overlap affect neural and evaluative reactions to racially-ambiguous and biracial targets. In Study 1, we found that lower genetic overlap estimates predicted a stronger neural avoidance response to biracial compared to monoracial targets. In Study 2, we found that lower genetic overlap estimates predicted longer response times to classify biracial (versus monoracial faces into racial categories. In Study 3, we manipulated genetic overlap beliefs and found that participants in the low overlap condition explicitly rated biracial targets more negatively than those in the high overlap condition. Taken together, these data suggest that genetic overlap beliefs influence perceivers’ processing fluency and evaluation of biracial and racially-ambiguous individuals.

  9. The degeneracy of the genetic code and Hadamard matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Petoukhov, Sergey V

    2008-01-01

    The matrix form of the presentation of the genetic code is described as the cognitive form to analyze structures of the genetic code. A similar matrix form is utilized in the theory of signal processing. The Kronecker family of the genetic matrices is investigated, which is based on the genetic matrix [C A; U G], where C, A, U, G are the letters of the genetic alphabet. This matrix in the third Kronecker power is the (8*8)-matrix, which contains 64 triplets. Peculiarities of the degeneracy of the vertebrate mitochondria genetic code are reflected in the symmetrical black-and-white mosaic of this genetic (8*8)-matrix. This mosaic matrix is connected algorithmically with Hadamard matrices unexpectedly, which are famous in the theory of signal processing, quantum mechanics and quantum computers.

  10. Quantum Genetic Algorithms for Computer Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Lahoz-Beltra

    2016-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are a class of evolutionary algorithms inspired by Darwinian natural selection. They are popular heuristic optimisation methods based on simulated genetic mechanisms, i.e., mutation, crossover, etc. and population dynamical processes such as reproduction, selection, etc. Over the last decade, the possibility to emulate a quantum computer (a computer using quantum-mechanical phenomena to perform operations on data) has led to a new class of GAs known as “Quantum Geneti...

  11. Machine learning in genetics and genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Maxwell W.; Noble, William Stafford

    2016-01-01

    The field of machine learning promises to enable computers to assist humans in making sense of large, complex data sets. In this review, we outline some of the main applications of machine learning to genetic and genomic data. In the process, we identify some recurrent challenges associated with this type of analysis and provide general guidelines to assist in the practical application of machine learning to real genetic and genomic data. PMID:25948244

  12. SOLUTION OF NONLINEAR PROBLEMS IN WATER RESOURCES SYSTEMS BY GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet BAYLAR

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm methodology is a genetic process treated on computer which is considering evolution process in the nature. The genetic operations takes place within the chromosomes stored in computer memory. By means of various operators, the genetic knowledge in chromosomes change continuously and success of the community progressively increases as a result of these operations. The primary purpose of this study is calculation of nonlinear programming problems in water resources systems by Genetic Algorithm. For this purpose a Genetic Algoritm based optimization program were developed. It can be concluded that the results obtained from the genetic search based method give the precise results.

  13. Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Kovacic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.

  14. Genetic Pathways to Insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackenzie J. Lind

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes current research on the genetics of insomnia, as genetic contributions are thought to be important for insomnia etiology. We begin by providing an overview of genetic methods (both quantitative and measured gene, followed by a discussion of the insomnia genetics literature with regard to each of the following common methodologies: twin and family studies, candidate gene studies, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Next, we summarize the most recent gene identification efforts (primarily GWAS results and propose several potential mechanisms through which identified genes may contribute to the disorder. Finally, we discuss new genetic approaches and how these may prove useful for insomnia, proposing an agenda for future insomnia genetics research.

  15. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics....

  16. Genetics of stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jin-Min; Liu, Ai-Jun; Su, Ding-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death and the most common cause of disability in developed countries. Stroke is a multi-factorial disease caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Numerous epidemiologic studies have documented a significant genetic component in the occurrence of strokes. Genes encoding products involved in lipid metabolism, thrombosis, and inflammation are believed to be potential genetic factors for stroke. Although a large group of candidate ge...

  17. Genetics of mental retardation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja A; Thapar Anita; Owen M

    2005-01-01

    Mental retardation can follow any of the biological, environmental and psychological events that are capable of producing deficits in cognitive functions. Recent advances in molecular genetic techniques have enabled us to understand more about the molecular basis of several genetic syndromes associated with mental retardation. In contrast, where there is no discrete cause, the interplay of genetic and environmental influences remains poorly understood. This article presents a critical review ...

  18. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also

  19. From rumors to genetic isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo E. Castilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we propose a registration process for population genetic isolates, usually geographic clusters of genetic disorders, based on the systematic search of rumors, defined as any type of account regardless of its reliability. Systematically ascertained rumors are recorded, and validated through a progressive process of pre-established steps. This paper outlines the conceptual basis for this approach and presents the preliminary results from a rumor-based nationwide registry of genetically isolated populations, named CENISO (Censo Nacional de Isolados, operating in Brazil since 2009. During the first four years of its existence (2009-2013, a total of 191 Rumors were registered and validated, resulting in a prevalence rate of one per million inhabitants of Brazil. When the five statutory geographic regions of Brazil were considered, more Rumors were registered for the Northeast (2.11; 1.74-2.54 per 10(6 than for the remaining four regions, North, Center-West, Southeast, and South, which did not differ among themselves. About half (86/191 of the recorded rumors were proven to be geographic clusters; of these disorders, 58 were autosomal recessive, 17 autosomal dominant, 5 X-linked, 3 multifactorial, and one environmental (thalidomide embryopathy.

  20. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  1. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...

  2. Genetics of nonsyndromic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung Seng

    2013-12-01

    Common obesity is widely regarded as a complex, multifactorial trait influenced by the 'obesogenic' environment, sedentary behavior, and genetic susceptibility contributed by common and rare genetic variants. This review describes the recent advances in understanding the role of genetics in obesity. New susceptibility loci and genetic variants are being uncovered, but the collective effect is relatively small and could not explain most of the BMI heritability. Yet-to-be identified common and rare variants, epistasis, and heritable epigenetic changes may account for part of the 'missing heritability'. Evidence is emerging about the role of epigenetics in determining obesity susceptibility, mediating developmental plasticity, which confers obesity risk from early life experiences. Genetic prediction scores derived from selected genetic variants, and also differential DNA methylation levels and methylation scores, have been shown to correlate with measures of obesity and response to weight loss intervention. Genetic variants, which confer susceptibility to obesity-related morbidities like nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, were also discovered recently. We can expect discovery of more rare genetic variants with the advent of whole exome and genome sequencing, and also greater understanding of epigenetic mechanisms by which environment influences genetic expression and which mediate the gene-environment interaction.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: abetalipoproteinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Betalipoprotein Deficiency Disease Congenital betalipoprotein deficiency syndrome Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Deficiency Disease Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  4. 基于遗传算法的无钟高炉布料工艺优化%Optimization of burden distribution process for blast furnace with bell-less top based on genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation and emission reduction are urgent needed in modern iron making production,and the optimization of the burden distribution in the blast furnace not only ensures the stable production but also improves the resource utilization and reduces the pollution emission. Based on the structure of the furnace top charging system and the feature of the burden distribution process,a parameter was proposed to evaluate the accuracy of the burden surface formed in the furnace throat,a genetic algorithm was designed for ring charging to search for the optimum distribution of chute rotations globally. Then the effects of different important parameters including the number of chute inclination positions and the chute rotation speed on burden distribution were analyzed using the optimization algorithm. Results show that the combinatorial optimization model was able to design the burden distribution matrix effectively,and the ac-curacy of burden distribution enhanced as the chute inclination positions and the chute rotations increased and the burden volume decreased. The ring charging with infinitely many chute inclination positions had the similar ability of burden surface construction with the spiral charging,and the number of chute rotations and the burden volume which were limit-ed by multiple factors were needed to be set reasonably.%面对现代炼铁生产节能减排的迫切需求,优化无钟高炉布料是保证高炉稳产顺行、提高资源利用率和减少污染排放的有效途径.结合无钟炉顶的设备结构与布料工艺特点,提出了使用料面形状误差评价布料操作的准确性,设计了针对多环布料操作优化的遗传算法,并应用该优化算法分析了溜槽倾角档位数量以及布料总周数等参数对无钟布料工艺的影响.结果表明:基于遗传算法的组合优化模型能够有效制定布料矩阵,溜槽倾角档位数量和布料总周数的增多以及单次布料体积的减少有利于实现

  5. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S L

    2001-12-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption.

  6. Genetic Programming and Genetic Algorithms for Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. HEWAHI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a mechanism to discover the compound proposition solutions for a given truth table without knowing the compound propositions that lead to the truth table results. The approach is based on two proposed algorithms, the first is called Producing Formula (PF algorithm which is based on the genetic programming idea, to find out the compound proposition solutions for the given truth table. The second algorithm is called the Solutions Optimization (SO algorithm which is based on genetic algorithms idea, to find a list of the optimum compound propositions that can solve the truth table. The obtained list will depend on the solutions obtained from the PF algorithm. Various types of genetic operators have been introduced to obtain the solutions either within the PF algorithm or SO algorithm.

  7. A family genetic risk communication framework: guiding tool development in genetics health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Miriam E; Wilson, Brenda J; Honeywell, Christina; Etchegary, Holly

    2013-04-01

    Family communication of genetic risk information is a complex process. Currently, there are no evidence-based interventions to help genetics professionals facilitate the process of disclosure within families. This study was designed to create a framework to assist in the development of tools to support patients in communicating genetic risk information to family members. A systematic review identified the factors relevant in communicating genetic risk information in families. A guiding theory for the proposed framework was selected and populated with the factors identified from the review. The review identified 112 factors of relevance. The theory of planned behaviour was selected to guide framework development, organising the framework in terms of the patient's attitudes about disclosure, perceived pressure to disclose and perceived control over disclosure. Attitudes about disclosure are influenced by a desire to protect oneself or family members, and the patient's perceptions of relevance of the information for family members, responsibility to disclose, family members' rights to information and the usefulness of communicating. Perceived pressure to disclose information is shaped by genetic professionals, family members and society. Perceived control over disclosure is affected by family relationships/dynamics, personal communication skills, the ability of the patient and family to understand the information and coping skills of the patient and family member. The family genetic risk communication framework presents a concise synthesis of the evidence on family communication of genetic information; it may be useful in creating and evaluating tools to help genetic counsellors and patients with communication issues.

  8. Judaism, genetic screening and genetic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, F

    1998-01-01

    Genetic screening, gene therapy and other applications of genetic engineering are permissible in Judaism when used for the treatment, cure, or prevention of disease. Such genetic manipulation is not considered to be a violation of God's natural law, but a legitimate implementation of the biblical mandate to heal. If Tay-Sachs disease, diabetes, hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, Huntington's disease or other genetic diseases can be cured or prevented by "gene surgery," then it is certainly permitted in Jewish law. Genetic premarital screening is encouraged in Judaism for the purpose of discouraging at-risk marriages for a fatal illness such as Tay-Sachs disease. Neonatal screening for treatable conditions such as phenylketonuria is certainly desirable and perhaps required in Jewish law. Preimplantation screening and the implantation of only "healthy" zygotes into the mother's womb to prevent the birth of an affected child are probably sanctioned in Jewish law. Whether or not these assisted reproduction techniques may be used to choose the sex of one's offspring, to prevent the birth of a child with a sex-linked disease such as hemophilia, has not yet been ruled on by modern rabbinic decisions. Prenatal screening with the specific intent of aborting an affected fetus is not allowed according to most rabbinic authorities, although a minority view permits it "for great need." Not to have children if both parents are carriers of genetic diseases such as Tay-Sachs is not a Jewish option. Preimplantation screening is preferable. All screening test results must remain confidential. Judaism does not permit the alteration or manipulation of physical traits and characteristics such as height, eye and hair color, facial features and the like, when such change provides no useful benefit to mankind. On the other hand, it is permissible to clone organisms and microorganisms to facilitate the production of insulin, growth hormone, and other agents intended to benefit mankind and to

  9. Genetic aspects of human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larder, Rachel; Lim, Chung Thong; Coll, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its related metabolic consequences represent a major public health problem. Huge changes within the environment have undoubtedly contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity but genetic factors are also critical in determining an individual's predisposition to gain weight. The last two decades have seen a huge increase in the understanding of the mechanisms controlling appetitive behavior, body composition, and energy expenditure. Many regions throughout the central nervous system play critical roles in these processes but the hypothalamus, in particular, receives and orchestrates a variety of signals to bring about coordinated changes in energy balance. Reviewing data from human genetic and model organism studies, we consider how disruptions of hypothalamic pathways evolved to maintain energy homeostasis and go on to cause obesity. We highlight ongoing technological developments which continue to lead to novel insights and discuss how this increased knowledge may lead to effective therapeutic interventions in the future.

  10. Pediatric genetic diseases causing glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichhpujani, Parul; Singh, Rohan B.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucomatous optic neuropathy may be considered as an endpoint of multiple systemic factors. Genetic conditions commonly causing glaucoma in children and adolescents include Axenfeld-Reiger syndrome, aniridia, Marfan syndrome, Weill-Marchessani syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, nevus of Ota, congenital rubella and neurofibromatosis type 1. In the recent years, with the advancements in genetic research our understanding of the fundamental causes of glaucoma associated with inherited disorders has improved. In addition to intraocular pressure reduction, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with the multiple systemic associations with glaucoma, to re-evaluate treatment frequently, and to target the underlying disease process, if present. PMID:27625878

  11. [Exploration of the concept of genetic drift in genetics teaching of undergraduates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunming

    2016-01-01

    Genetic drift is one of the difficulties in teaching genetics due to its randomness and probability which could easily cause conceptual misunderstanding. The “sampling error" in its definition is often misunderstood because of the research method of “sampling", which disturbs the results and causes the random changes in allele frequency. I analyzed and compared the definitions of genetic drift in domestic and international genetic textbooks, and found that the definitions containing “sampling error" are widely adopted but are interpreted correctly in only a few textbooks. Here, the history of research on genetic drift, i.e., the contributions of Wright, Fisher and Kimura, is introduced. Moreover, I particularly describe two representative articles recently published about genetic drift teaching of undergraduates, which point out that misconceptions are inevitable for undergraduates during the studying process and also provide a preliminary solution. Combined with my own teaching practice, I suggest that the definition of genetic drift containing “sampling error" can be adopted with further interpretation, i.e., “sampling error" is random sampling among gametes when generating the next generation of alleles which is equivalent to a random sampling of all gametes participating in mating in gamete pool and has no relationship with artificial sampling in general genetics studies. This article may provide some help in genetics teaching.

  12. Genetic aspects of pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolačkov, Katarzyna; Tupikowski, Krzysztof; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are derived from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla which synthesize and secrete catecholamines, thus affecting the cardiovascular system and metabolic processes. Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the following multicarcinoma hereditary syndromes: type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia, von Hippel-Lindau disease, type 1 neurofibromatosis and the pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas syndrome. Pheochromocytomas are relatively rare, and because of non-specific manifestation of these tumors and the possible lack of signs and symptoms for extended periods of time, the diagnosis may be delayed, which may, in turn, lead to death. Pheochromocytomas may occur sporadically. However, due to the frequent incidence of hereditary forms of these cancers, the presymptomatic genetic testing of family members with a positive family history is indicated, thus allowing for selecting people with higher risk of cancer. Early detection of the syndrome and the coexisting tumors (which may be malignant) may lead to a correct diagnosis, regular surveillance, preventive examinations and implementation of appropriate early treatment. Recent examinations have shown significant involvement of RET, VHL, NF1, SDHB and SDHD as well as the newly discovered KIF1Bβ, TMEM127 and MAX genes in pathogenesis of these tumors. The microarray-gene expression studies, based on the analysis of cellular pathways, have revealed two distinct clusters indicating two different routes of tumorgenesis. The genotype-phenotype correlations are still being studied and future research can give us clearer information about the function of these genes, which may prove crucial from the clinical point of view.

  13. Genetics in the courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Heather; Drell, Dan

    2000-12-01

    Various: (1)TriState 2000 Genetics in the Courts (2) Growing impact of the new genetics on the courts (3)Human testing (4) Legal analysis - in re G.C. (5) Legal analysis - GM ''peanots'', and (6) Legal analysis for State vs Miller

  14. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  15. Quo Vadis, Medical Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, Andrew E.

    The beginning of human genetics and its medical part: medical genetics was promising in the early decades of this century. Many genetic diseases and defects with Mendelian origin were identified and it helped families with significant genetic burden to limit their child number. Unfortunately this good start was shadowed by two tragic events. On the one hand, in the 1930s and early 1940s the German fascism brought about the dominance of an unscientific eugenics to mask vile political crimes. People with genetic diseases-defects were forced to sterilisation and several of them were killed. On the other hand, in the 1950s lysenkoism inhibitied the evolution of genetics in the Soviet Union and their satelite countries. Lysenko's doctrine declared genetics as a product of imperialism and a guilty science, therefore leading geneticists were ousted form their posts and some of them were executed or put in prison. Past decades genetics has resulted fantastic new results and achieved a leading position within the natural sciences. To my mind, however, the expected wider use of new eugenics indicates a new tragedy and this Cassandra's prediction is the topic of this presentation.

  16. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  17. Ethical issues in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, T A

    1999-03-01

    The first section of the Notes on Moral Theology reviews ethical issues in genetics through the lenses of privacy-confidentiality; risk-benefit analysis in relation to prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy; and freedom-determinism/human dignity in the context of cloning. The author provides an overview of developments in genetics and highlights thematic issues common to these developments.

  18. THE MEANING OF GENETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Adolphs

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Research into the public understanding of genetics has greatly expanded lately. At the same time inatters relating to biotechnology have scizcd the public's attention. Corpus linguistics has long asked questions about how meaning is created and changed in the public sphere through language use. However, linking Corpus linguistics to the study of the public understanding of science is something too few have done. To correct this trend, we apply methods from corpus linguistics and cognitive linguistics to study how people talk about genetics. We do so by analysiny the mieaning of words like gene, genes, genetic, genetics, and genetically as found in various spoken and written corpora. Specifically, we examine how they take on certain (e.g. figurative connotations and modulate in context.

  19. ADHD and genetic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Castro, Adriana; D'Agati, Elisa; Curatolo, Paolo

    2011-06-01

    A high rate of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-like characteristics has been reported in a wide variety of disorders including syndromes with known genetic causes. In this article, we review the genetic and the neurobiological links between ADHD symptoms and some genetic syndromes such as: Fragile X Syndrome, Neurofibromatosis 1, DiGeorge Syndrome, Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, Turner Syndrome, Williams Syndrome and Klinefelter Syndrome. Although each syndrome may arise from different genetic abnormalities with multiple molecular functions, the effects of these abnormalities may give rise to common effects downstream in the biological pathways or neural circuits, resulting in the presentation of ADHD symptoms. Early diagnosis of ADHD allows for earlier treatment, and has the potential for a better outcome in children with genetic syndromes.

  20. Genetics of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Teufel; Frank Staib; Stephan Kanzler; Arndt Weinmann; Henning Schulze-Bergkamen; Peter R Galle

    2007-01-01

    The completely assembled human genome has made it possible for modern medicine to step into an era rich in genetic information and high-throughput genomic analysis. These novel and readily available genetic resources and analytical tools may be the key to unravel the molecular basis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Moreover, since an efficient treatment for this disease is lacking, further understanding of the genetic background of HCC will be crucial in order to develop new therapies aimed at selected targets. We report on the current status and recent developments in HCC genetics. Special emphasis is given to the genetics and regulation of major signalling pathways involved in HCC such as p53, Wntsignalling, TGFβ, Ras, and Rb pathways. Furthermore, we describe the influence of chromosomal aberrations as well as of DNA methylation. Finally, we report on the rapidly developing field of genomic expression profiling in HCC, mainly by microarray analysis.

  1. Culture and genetic screening in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Ayodele S

    2009-12-01

    Africa is a continent in transition amidst a revival of cultural practices. Over previous years the continent was robbed of the benefits of medical advances by unfounded cultural practices surrounding its cultural heritage. In a fast moving field like genetic screening, discussions of social and policy aspects frequently need to take place at an early stage to avoid the dilemma encountered by Western medicine. This paper, examines the potential challenges to genetic screening in Africa. It discusses how cultural practices may affect genetic screening. It views genomics science as a culture which is trying to diffuse into another one. It argues that understanding the existing culture will help the diffusion process. The paper emphasizes the importance of genetic screening for Africa, by assessing the current level of burden of diseases in the continent and shows its role in reducing disease prevalence. The paper identifies and discusses the cultural challenges that are likely to confront genetic screening on the continent, such as the worldview, rituals and taboos, polygyny, culture of son preference and so on. It also discusses cultural practices that may promote the science such as inheritance practices, spouse selection practices and naming patterns. Factors driving the cultural challenges are identified and discussed, such as socialization process, patriarchy, gender, belief system and so on. Finally, the paper discusses the way forward and highlights the ethical considerations of doing genetic screening on the continent. However, the paper also recognizes that African culture is not monolithic and therefore makes a case for exceptions.

  2. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Specific Genetic Disorders Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Testing What is genetic testing? What can I learn ... find more information about genetic testing? What is genetic testing? Genetic testing uses laboratory methods to look at ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus Printable PDF Open ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a ...

  4. Genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel MUÑOZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available clinicians and researchers due to its rapid progression and its evidences of genetic character. Different theories have tried to explain the individual differences in susceptibility, where genetic and immunological assays have assumed great importance. The purpose of this study was to review the literature in order to comprehend the genetic and immunological features of aggressive periodontitis. Literature review: Articles were examined, specifically the ones dealing with information regarding genetic and/or immunological studies of individuals related to their disease susceptibility. Conclusions: In the presence of dental biofilm, host susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis varies among regions, countries and races. Immune-inflammatory processes that seem to be modified in aggressive periodontitis patients may be transmitted vertically, explaining familial aggregation associated with this disease.

  5. 78 FR 70617 - Open Government: Use of Genetic Information in Documenting and Evaluating Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... consider genetic information in the disability decision process and what issues we should consider. \\1\\ 20... about the use of genetic information in the disability determination process. The forum is open to all..., we do not purchase genetic testing to evaluate disability. However, we do consider all evidence in...

  6. Outcomes of genetics services: creating an inclusive definition and outcomes menu for public health and clinical genetics services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Kerry; Stock, Jacquie; Hasegawa, Lianne E; Au, Sylvia Mann

    2009-08-15

    Third party payers, funding agencies, and lawmakers often require clinicians and public health agencies to justify programs and services by documenting results. This article describes two assessment tools--"Defining Genetics Services Framework" and "Genetics Services Outcomes Menu," created to assist public health professionals, clinicians, family advocates, and researchers to plan, evaluate, and demonstrate the effectiveness of genetics services. The tools were developed by a work group of the Western States Genetics Services Collaborative (WSGSC) consisting of public health genetics and newborn screening professionals, family representatives, a medical geneticist, and genetic counselors from Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The work group created both tools by an iterative process of combining their ideas with findings from a literature and World Wide Web review. The Defining Genetics Services Framework reflects the diversity of work group members. Three over-lapping areas of genetics services from public health core functions to population screening to clinical genetics services are depicted. The Genetics Services Outcomes Menu lists sample long-term outcomes of genetics services. Menu outcomes are classified under impact areas of Knowledge and Information; Financing; Screening and Identification; Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management; and Population Health. The WSGSC incorporated aspects of both tools into their Regional Genetics Plan. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Plant genetics shapes inquiline community structure across spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutsinger, Gregory M; Cadotte, Marc W; Sanders, Nathan J

    2009-04-01

    Recent research in community genetics has examined the effects of intraspecific genetic variation on species diversity in local communities. However, communities can be structured by a combination of both local and regional processes and to date, few community genetics studies have examined whether the effects of instraspecific genetic variation are consistent across levels of diversity. In this study, we ask whether host-plant genetic variation structures communities of arthropod inquilines within distinct habitat patches--rosette leaf galls on tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima). We found that genetic variation determined inquiline diversity at both local and regional spatial scales, but that trophic-level responses varied independently of one another. This result suggests that herbivores and predators likely respond to heritable plant traits at different spatial scales. Together, our results show that incorporating spatial scale is essential for predicting the effects of genetically variable traits on different trophic levels and levels of diversity within the communities that depend on host plants.

  8. Genetic techniques for the archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Joel A; Picking, Jonathan W; Santangelo, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Genetic techniques for the Archaea have undergone a rapid expansion in complexity, resulting in increased exploration of the role of Archaea in the environment and detailed analyses of the molecular physiology and information-processing systems in the third domain of life. Complementary gains in describing the ever-increasing diversity of archaeal organisms have allowed these techniques to be leveraged in new and imaginative ways to elucidate shared and unique aspects of archaeal diversity and metabolism. In this review, we introduce the four archaeal clades for which advanced genetic techniques are available--the methanogens, halophiles, Sulfolobales, and Thermococcales--with the aim of providing an overall profile of the advantages and disadvantages of working within each clade, as essentially all of the genetically accessible archaeal organisms require unique culturing techniques that present real challenges. We discuss the full repertoire of techniques possible within these clades while highlighting the recent advances that have been made by taking advantage of the most prominent techniques and approaches.

  9. [The emphases and basic procedures of genetic counseling in psychotherapeutic model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Zhi; Zhong, Nanbert

    2006-11-01

    The emphases and basic procedures of genetic counseling are all different with those in old models. In the psychotherapeutic model, genetic counseling will not only focus on counselees' genetic disorders and birth defects, but also their psychological problems. "Client-centered therapy" termed by Carl Rogers plays an important role in genetic counseling process. The basic procedures of psychotherapeutic model of genetic counseling include 7 steps: initial contact, introduction, agendas, inquiry of family history, presenting information, closing the session and follow-up.

  10. All about Genetics (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sequence) of these four bases determines each genetic code. The segments of DNA that contain the instructions ... laboratory dyes. continue Genetic Problems Errors in the genetic code or "gene recipe" can happen in a variety ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions bipolar ... my family? What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: vibratory urticaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in allergy symptoms such as hives (urticaria), swelling (angioedema), redness (erythema), and itching (pruritus) in the affected ... Genetic Testing (2 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Vibratory angioedema Genetic Testing Registry: Vibratory urticaria General Information from ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease Genetic Testing Registry: Polycystic kidney disease 2 Genetic Testing Registry: Polycystic kidney disease 3 Genetic Testing ...

  14. Population genetics of non-genetic traits: Evolutionary roles of stochasticity in gene expression

    KAUST Repository

    Mineta, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The role of stochasticity in evolutionary genetics has long been debated. To date, however, the potential roles of non-genetic traits in evolutionary processes have been largely neglected. In molecular biology, growing evidence suggests that stochasticity in gene expression (SGE) is common and that SGE has major impacts on phenotypes and fitness. Here, we provide a general overview of the potential effects of SGE on population genetic parameters, arguing that SGE can indeed have a profound effect on evolutionary processes. Our analyses suggest that SGE potentially alters the fate of mutations by influencing effective population size and fixation probability. In addition, a genetic control of SGE magnitude could evolve under certain conditions, if the fitness of the less-fit individual increases due to SGE and environmental fluctuation. Although empirical evidence for our arguments is yet to come, methodological developments for precisely measuring SGE in living organisms will further advance our understanding of SGE-driven evolution.

  15. On Derivations Of Genetic Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Qaralleh, Izzat

    2014-11-01

    A genetic algebra is a (possibly non-associative) algebra used to model inheritance in genetics. In application of genetics this algebra often has a basis corresponding to genetically different gametes, and the structure constant of the algebra encode the probabilities of producing offspring of various types. In this paper, we find the connection between the genetic algebras and evolution algebras. Moreover, we prove the existence of nontrivial derivations of genetic algebras in dimension two.

  16. Genetic Algorithm and Homomorphic Filter in Image Processing of Log Surface%遗传算法和同态滤波在原木端面图像处理中的应用1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚凤; 任洪娥

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to combine the genetic algorithmand homomorphic filter in image segmentation of log surface.The genetic algorithm was used for image enhancement, and then the homomorphic filter was used for image seg-mentation.Generic algorithm and homomorphic filter are effective in image segmentation, especially for the shadow image.%将遗传算法结合同态滤波用于原木端面图像的分割,先用遗传算法对原木端面图像进行增强,增强后的图像利用同态滤波进行分割,得到图像分割处理的实验结果。实验证明:该算法在处理成堆原木端面图像,特别是有阴影的图像分割问题时,可取得较好的效果。

  17. Conceptual change strategies in teaching genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzli, Laura Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of utilizing conceptual change strategies when teaching high school genetics. The study examined the effects of structuring instruction to provide students with cognitive situations which promote conceptual change, specifically instruction was structured to elicit students' prior knowledge. The goal of the study was that the students would not only be able to solve genetics problems and define basic terminology but they would also have constructed more scientific schemas of the actual processes involved in inheritance. This study is based on the constructivist theory of learning and conceptual change research which suggest that students are actively involved in the process of relating new information to prior knowledge as they construct new knowledge. Two sections of biology II classes received inquiry based instruction and participated in structured cooperative learning groups. However, the unique difference in the treatment group's instruction was the use of structured thought time and the resulting social interaction between the students. The treatment group students' instructional design allowed students to socially construct their cognitive knowledge after elicitation of their prior knowledge. In contrast, the instructional design for the control group students allowed them to socially construct their cognitive knowledge of genetics without the individually structured thought time. The results indicated that the conceptual change strategies with individually structured thought time improved the students' scientific mastery of genetics concepts and they maintained fewer post instructional alternative conceptions. Although all students gained the ability to correctly solve genetics problems, the treatment group students were able to explain the processes involved in terms of meiosis. The treatment group students were also able to better apply their knowledge to novel genetic situations. The implications

  18. The genetic architecture of fitness in a seed beetle: assessing the potential for indirect genetic benefits of female choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Friberg, U.; Maklakov, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Quantifying the amount of standing genetic variation in fitness represents an empirical challenge. Unfortunately, the shortage of detailed studies of the genetic architecture of fitness has hampered progress in several domains of evolutionary biology. One such area is the study of sexual...... variance in F1 productivity, but lower genetic variance in egg-to-adult survival, which was strongly influenced by maternal and paternal effects. Conclusion Our results show that, in order to gain a relevant understanding of the genetic architecture of fitness, measures of offspring fitness should...... is the genetic interaction between parental genomes, as indicated by large amounts of non-additive genetic variance (dominance and/or epistasis) for F1 productivity. We discuss the processes that may maintain additive and non-additive genetic variance for fitness and how these relate to indirect selection...

  19. Genetically Engineered Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruanbao (Inventor); Gibbons, William (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The disclosed embodiments provide cyanobacteria spp. that have been genetically engineered to have increased production of carbon-based products of interest. These genetically engineered hosts efficiently convert carbon dioxide and light into carbon-based products of interest such as long chained hydrocarbons. Several constructs containing polynucleotides encoding enzymes active in the metabolic pathways of cyanobacteria are disclosed. In many instances, the cyanobacteria strains have been further genetically modified to optimize production of the carbon-based products of interest. The optimization includes both up-regulation and down-regulation of particular genes.

  20. [Genetic risk and discrimination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Gallardo, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The continuous advances in our society in the last decades have allowed us to get to know the personal genetic data. Although this discovery has important benefits, it also causes a great paradox, since the genetic information can be an element of social stigma, and its inappropriate use can damage the fundamental rights. It is obvious that there are cases in which the genetic risk, that is, the predisposition of a person to suffer some illnesses, can be a discriminatory element, especially in the contractual field.

  1. The Application of Clinical Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer MH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Martin H MaurerDepartment of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Mariaberg Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Gammertingen, GermanyIn 2012, The Application of Clinical Genetics enters its fifth year of publication. The journal has had a change of Editor-in-Chief: Dr David H Tegay stepped down and I was appointed to serve as the new Editor-in-Chief. As his successor, I thank Dr Tegay for his great work for the journal. I hope I can continue his successful editorial contributions. Moreover, I thank the many reviewers for their sustained support of the journal.The Application of Clinical Genetics is dedicated to open access publishing – as all Dove Press journals are. This means that authors will be charged for the publication process, but the acceptance of a manuscript is based solely on its scientific quality. This is what I will be responsible for as Editor-in-Chief. The team at Dove Press is a constant help with all administrative duties concerning peer reviewal, and I want to express my thanks for their prompt and reliable help. The field of clinical genetics is facing new challenges with the broad availability of large-scale screening methods for gene mutations, such as high-throughput sequencing and biochips. This means that ethical issues regarding the handling of genetic information must be addressed, both for the individual and for society.1–3 For example, sequencing of cell-free, fetal nucleic acids in the maternal blood to locate fetal aneuploidy, especially trisomy 21, may become broadly available soon, with even faster results than conventional methods such as amniocentesis.

  2. Genetic algorithms for protein threading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadgari, J; Amir, A; Unger, R

    1998-01-01

    Despite many years of efforts, a direct prediction of protein structure from sequence is still not possible. As a result, in the last few years researchers have started to address the "inverse folding problem": Identifying and aligning a sequence to the fold with which it is most compatible, a process known as "threading". In two meetings in which protein folding predictions were objectively evaluated, it became clear that threading as a concept promises a real breakthrough, but that much improvement is still needed in the technique itself. Threading is a NP-hard problem, and thus no general polynomial solution can be expected. Still a practical approach with demonstrated ability to find optimal solutions in many cases, and acceptable solutions in other cases, is needed. We applied the technique of Genetic Algorithms in order to significantly improve the ability of threading algorithms to find the optimal alignment of a sequence to a structure, i.e. the alignment with the minimum free energy. A major progress reported here is the design of a representation of the threading alignment as a string of fixed length. With this representation validation of alignments and genetic operators are effectively implemented. Appropriate data structure and parameters have been selected. It is shown that Genetic Algorithm threading is effective and is able to find the optimal alignment in a few test cases. Furthermore, the described algorithm is shown to perform well even without pre-definition of core elements. Existing threading methods are dependent on such constraints to make their calculations feasible. But the concept of core elements is inherently arbitrary and should be avoided if possible. While a rigorous proof is hard to submit yet an, we present indications that indeed Genetic Algorithm threading is capable of finding consistently good solutions of full alignments in search spaces of size up to 10(70).

  3. Law & psychiatry: Genetic discrimination in mental disorders: the impact of the genetic information nondiscrimination act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2010-04-01

    Genetics is one of the most active areas of research on mental disorders. As genetic tests related to psychiatric disorders and their treatments proliferate in research and clinical settings, the possibility becomes more troubling that such information will be used for purposes other than those for which it was collected. Because of this, the federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 is of substantial importance to persons with mental disorders, persons at risk for the conditions, and family members of both groups. This column discusses the process of passing the legislation, along with the implications of the act.

  4. A current genetic and epigenetic view on human aging mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Sala; Pereza, Nina; Kapović, Miljenko

    2009-06-01

    The process of aging is one of the most complex and intriguing biological phenomenons. Aging is a genetically regulated process in which the organism's maximum lifespan potential is pre-determined, while the rate of aging is influenced by environmental factors and lifestyle. Considering the complexity of mechanisms involved in the regulation of aging process, up to this date there isn't a major, unifying theory which could explain them. As genetic/epigenetic and environmental factors both inevitably influence the aging process, here we present a review on the genetic and epigenetic regulation of the most important molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the process of aging. Based on the studies on oxidative stress, metabolism, genome stability, epigenetic modifications and cellular senescence in animal models and humans, we give an overview of key genetic and molecular pathways related to aging. As most of genetic manipulations which influence the aging process also affect reproduction, we discuss aging in humans as a post-reproductive genetically determined process. After the age of reproductive success, aging continously progresses which clinically coincides with the onset of most chronic diseases, cancers and dementions. As evolution shapes the genomes for reproductive success and not for post-reproductive survival, aging could be defined as a protective mechanism which ensures the preservation and progress of species through the modification, trasmission and improvement of genetic material.

  5. Heritability and genetics of lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the concept of heritability and genetic effect will be reviewed and our current knowledge of the genetics of lipid metabolism summarized. The concepts of polygenic conditions and epistasis are discussed at length, and an effort is made to put the biological processes in context...... in the search for genetic factors influencing the metabolic pathways. Particular physiological heterogeneity is addressed and procedures to handle this complex issue are suggested....

  6. Comparing Consumer Attitudes towards Genetically Modified Food in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    As biotechnology evolves new methods of genetic engineering are now being applied to the production and processing of foods. This paper is trying to explore the attitudes of the European consumers towards genetic modification of food. Using survey data of the EU member countries the proposed research paper is planned to have a threefold output: 1) providing a comparative ranking of the EU member countries in relation to the prevalence of rejection of genetically modified food, 2) uncovering i...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Liddle syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unknown. The condition has been found in populations worldwide. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic conditions more common ...

  8. Genetics and culture: the geneticization thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, H A

    2001-01-01

    The concept of 'geneticization' has been introduced in the scholarly literature to describe the various interlocking and imperceptible mechanisms of interaction between medicine, genetics, society and culture. It is argued that Western culture currently is deeply involved in a process of geneticization. This process implies a redefinition of individuals in terms of DNA codes, a new language to describe and interpret human life and behavior in a genomic vocabulary of codes, blueprints, traits, dispositions, genetic mapping, and a gentechnological approach to disease, health and the body. This article analyses the thesis of 'geneticization'. Explaining the implications of the thesis, and discussing the critical refutations, it is argued that 'geneticization' primarily is a heuristic tool that can help to re-focus the moral debate on the implications of new genetic knowledge towards interpersonal relations, the power of medicine, the cultural context and social constraints, rather than emphasizing issues as personal autonomy and individual rights.

  9. [The study of tomato fruit weight quantitative trait locus and its application in genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan

    2015-08-01

    The classical research cases, which have greatly promoted the development of genetics in history, can be combined with the content of courses in genetics teaching to train students' ability of scientific thinking and genetic analysis. The localization and clone of gene controlling tomato fruit weight is a pioneer work in quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies and represents a complete process of QTL research in plants. Application of this integrated case in genetics teaching, which showed a wonderful process of scientific discovery and the fascination of genetic research, has inspired students' interest in genetics and achieved a good teaching effect.

  10. Genetics and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gene: a spiral of DNA that superintends its construction out of amino acids. In recent decades, genetic ... inbox. Subscribe Now Privacy Policy × × --> © 2017 The Dana Foundation. All Rights Reserved. 505 Fifth Avenue, 6th floor ...

  11. Genetics for the ophthalmologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan A Sadagopan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The eye has played a major role in human genomics including gene therapy. It is the fourth most common organ system after integument (skin, hair and nails, nervous system, and musculoskeletal system to be involved in genetic disorders. The eye is involved in single gene disorders and those caused by multifactorial etiology. Retinoblastoma was the first human cancer gene to be cloned. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy was the first mitochondrial disorder described. X-Linked red-green color deficiency was the first X-linked disorder described. The eye, unlike any other body organ, allows directly visualization of genetic phenomena such as skewed X-inactivation in the fundus of a female carrier of ocular albinism. Basic concepts of genetics and their application to clinical ophthalmological practice are important not only in making a precise diagnosis and appropriate referral, but also in management and genetic counseling.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: galactosemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions galactosemia galactosemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Galactosemia is a disorder that affects how the body ...

  13. Genetics and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders

    2008-01-01

    For the last 20 years the concepts of identity and identification have been subject to much interest in the humanities and social sciences. However, the implications of genetics for identity and identification have been largely neglected. In this paper, I distinguish various conceptions of identity (as continuity over time, as basic kind of being, as unique set of properties, and as social role) and identification (as subjective experience of identity in various senses and as social ascription of identity in various senses), and investigate systematically genetic perspectives on each of these conceptions. I stress the importance of taking the genetic perspectives seriously but also their limitations. In particular, I pinpoint conceptual problems that arise when a genetic approach to identity is adopted.

  14. Plant genetics. Pollen clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, D R

    1994-09-01

    New Arabidopsis mutations that result in all four products of meiosis being held together as a tetrad of fused pollen grains may facilitate genetic mapping and lead to new insights into pollen biology.

  15. Genetics of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A A Listen En Español Genetics of Diabetes You've probably wondered how you developed diabetes. ... to develop diabetes than others. What Leads to Diabetes? Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: achromatopsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common forms of color vision deficiency (also called color blindness ), in which people can perceive color but have ... Names for This Condition achromatism rod monochromatism total color blindness Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  17. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjorn; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether women conceiving after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and their children have greater risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with children conceived spontaneously or after IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN...

  18. Genetics and delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardno, Alastair G; McGuffin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article gives an overview of genetic research approaches and their application to delusional disorder. Most studies have been based on small samples and have had other methodological limitations, so it is not clear whether there is a genetic contribution to the aetiology of delusional disorder. It is unlikely that delusional disorder is strongly related genetically to affective disorder or schizophrenia, but more subtle relationships cannot be ruled out. The rarity of multiply affected families prohibits linkage studies and, to date, molecular genetic investigations have been mainly limited to small association studies of dopamine receptor polymorphisms. A range of considerably larger, epidemiologically rigorous studies is required, but the uncommonness and other features of the disorder put strong limitations on the prospects for ascertaining adequate samples.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions preeclampsia preeclampsia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy in which affected ...

  20. Genetic obesity syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Anthony P; Beales, Philip L

    2008-01-01

    There are numerous reports of multi-system genetic disorders with obesity. Many have a characteristic presentation and several, an overlapping phenotype indicating the likelihood of a shared common underlying mechanism or pathway. By understanding the genetic causes and functional perturbations of such syndromes we stand to gain tremendous insight into obesogenic pathways. In this review we focus particularly on Bardet-Biedl syndrome, whose molecular genetics and cell biology has been elucidated recently, and Prader-Willi syndrome, the commonest obesity syndrome due to loss of imprinted genes on 15q11-13. We also discuss highlights of other genetic obesity syndromes including Alstrom syndrome, Cohen syndrome, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (pseudohypoparathyroidism), Carpenter syndrome, MOMO syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, cases with deletions of 6q16, 1p36, 2q37 and 9q34, maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14, fragile X syndrome and Börjeson-Forssman-Lehman syndrome.

  1. Genetic Sample Inventory - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico from 2010-2015. The collection includes samples from...

  2. Genetic Sample Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected primarily from the U.S. east coast. The collection includes samples from field programs,...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the neck can cause nerve damage known as Horner syndrome , which leads to drooping eyelids, small pupils, ... named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (3 links) Encyclopedia: Horner Syndrome Encyclopedia: Neuroblastoma Health Topic: Neuroblastoma Genetic and ...

  4. Latest Research: Genetic Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Latest Research: Genetic Links Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents ... inside the eye is a risk factor for glaucoma. Summer 2008 Issue: Volume 3 Number 3 Page ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: osteopetrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autosomal dominant osteopetrosis (ADO), which is also called Albers-Schönberg disease, is typically the mildest type of ... Genetics, pathogenesis and complications of osteopetrosis. Bone. 2008 Jan;42(1):19-29. Epub 2007 Aug 30. ...

  6. Genetics Blood Card Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection of blood for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect DNA sample using a whole blood blot card

  7. Genetics Home Reference: cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain lifestyle factors, including smoking, alcohol use, and obesity, may also contribute to the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma . Studies suggest that a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors influence whether a person will develop cholangiocarcinoma . However, ...

  8. Genetic Testing Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GEO) Profiles Genome Workbench HomoloGene Map Viewer Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) RefSeqGene UniGene All Genes & Expression Resources... Genetics & Medicine Bookshelf Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) ...

  9. Formal genetic maps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... Abstract Formal genetic maps are databases, represented as text or graphic figures, that can be ..... cantly, to our current vague and scanty knowledge of many, ...... similar to reverse engineering techniques, might be worthy of.

  10. Parkinson's disease and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jacobo; Otero-Siliceo, Enrique

    2006-09-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) is a condition of unknown cause. Several factors are believed to contribute to its onset, and many studies have been conducted in search of the possible etiology of Parkinson disease. Genetic factors have become relevant when trying to explain the onset of Parkinson disease. The studies are divided into 2 categories: epidemiological and studies that analyze twins from families with members suffering from Parkinson disease, thus looking for the responsible genetic mutations. In this article we address this controversial topic, reviewing some of the most significant studies trying to provide evidence which relates genetics to Parkinson disease. We present current epidemiological studies and the most important genetic factors related to Parkinson disease, including the latest information currently available on each issue.

  11. Genetics of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fontenla, Cristina; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease caused by the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors. This review focuses on the studies that have contributed to the discovery of genetic susceptibility factors in OA. The most relevant associations discovered until now are discussed in detail: GDF-5, 7q22 locus, MCF2L, DOT1L, NCOA3 and also some important findings from the arcOGEN study. Moreover, the different approaches that can be used to minimize the specific problems of the study of OA genetics are discussed. These include the study of microsatellites, phenotype standardization and other methods such as meta-analysis of GWAS and gene-based analysis. It is expected that these new approaches contribute to finding new susceptibility genetic factors for OA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  13. The genetics of deliria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Adamis; B.C. van Munster; A.J.D. Macdonald

    2009-01-01

    Delirium not induced by alcohol or other psychoactive substance and alcohol withdrawal delirium (or delirium tremens) are both cerebral syndromes with similar presentations and are associated with various adverse outcomes. Recently, interest in identifying genetic predisposing factors that influence

  14. Genetics Home Reference: hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Encyclopedia: Familial hypercholesterolemia Encyclopedia: High blood cholesterol and triglycerides Encyclopedia: Xanthoma Health Topic: Cholesterol Health Topic: Lipid Metabolism Disorders Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Familial hypercholesterolemia Additional NIH ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: macrozoospermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biological children (infertility). In affected males, almost all sperm cells have abnormally large and misshapen heads. The head of the sperm cell contains the male's genetic information that is to ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: hypochondroplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Description Hypochondroplasia is a form of short-limbed dwarfism. This condition affects the conversion of cartilage into ... Resources MedlinePlus (2 links) Encyclopedia: Lordosis Health Topic: Dwarfism Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) ...

  17. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  18. Genetics Home Reference: hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions hemophilia hemophilia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder that slows the blood ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: tyrosinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 16,000 individuals. In the Saguenay-Lac St. Jean region of Quebec, tyrosinemia type I affects 1 ... detected via neonatal screening: management and outcome. Mol Genet Metab. 2012 Nov;107(3):605-7. doi: ...

  20. [Genetics of neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gess, B; Schirmacher, A; Young, P

    2013-02-01

    Hereditary neuropathies belong to the most common neurogenetic disorders. They appear mostly as sensory and motor neuropathies but there are also pure sensory, pure motor as well as sensory and autonomic hereditary neuropathies. In clinical practice, knowledge of hereditary neuropathies is important in order to recognize them among polyneuropathies and achieve a successful genetic diagnosis. The molecular genetics of hereditary neuropathies are very heterogeneous with currently more than 40 known disease-causing genes. The 4 most common genes account for almost 90% of the genetically diagnosed hereditary neuropathies. In this review article we provide an overview of the currently known genes and propose a rational genetic work-up protocol of the most common genes.