WorldWideScience

Sample records for genetic phenomena

  1. Genetic disorders as collective phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1987-05-01

    Genetic disorders due to human chromosome aberrations in number are discussed from the point of view of Molecular Genetics. The etiology of trisomy is discussed in the light of the collective variables recently introduced and an age-dependent metabolic disorder is suggested as a possible etiological factor. (author). 11 refs

  2. Preliminary results on observation of genetic relations among the exotic cosmic-ray phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, S.

    1984-01-01

    In order to see the genetic hypothesis on the exotic interactions, a systematic study is made for the Chiron-type families on their secondary interactions in the emulsion chamber, and the results are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Paranormal phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    1996-08-01

    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  4. Switching Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Mazza, M. G.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.; Stokely, K.; Xu, L.

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines can suddenly "switch" from one behavior to another, even though they possess no perfect metronome in time. As if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many temporal patterns in physics, economics, and medicine and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enable a system to pass from one state to another. We discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understanding switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water's anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the "tipping point" immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not "outliers" (another Gladwell immortalization).

  5. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  6. Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune

    Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible...... such dropout phenomena occur at universities? What can be done by the universities to prevent or reduce such dropout phenomena?...

  7. A software tool to model genetic regulatory networks. Applications to the modeling of threshold phenomena and of spatial patterning in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Dilão

    Full Text Available We present a general methodology in order to build mathematical models of genetic regulatory networks. This approach is based on the mass action law and on the Jacob and Monod operon model. The mathematical models are built symbolically by the Mathematica software package GeneticNetworks. This package accepts as input the interaction graphs of the transcriptional activators and repressors of a biological process and, as output, gives the mathematical model in the form of a system of ordinary differential equations. All the relevant biological parameters are chosen automatically by the software. Within this framework, we show that concentration dependent threshold effects in biology emerge from the catalytic properties of genes and its associated conservation laws. We apply this methodology to the segment patterning in Drosophila early development and we calibrate the genetic transcriptional network responsible for the patterning of the gap gene proteins Hunchback and Knirps, along the antero-posterior axis of the Drosophila embryo. In this approach, the zygotically produced proteins Hunchback and Knirps do not diffuse along the antero-posterior axis of the embryo of Drosophila, developing a spatial pattern due to concentration dependent thresholds. This shows that patterning at the gap genes stage can be explained by the concentration gradients along the embryo of the transcriptional regulators.

  8. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  9. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic

  10. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1999-06-03

    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.

  11. Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A Surjalal

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of plasmas arises mainly from their inherent nonlinearity and far from equilibrium nature. The nonequilibrium behavior of plasmas is evident in the natural settings, for example, in the Earth's magnetosphere. Similarly, laboratory plasmas such as fusion bottles also have their fair share of complex behavior. Nonequilibrium phenomena are intimately connected with statistical dynamics and form one of the growing research areas in modern nonlinear physics. These studies encompass the ideas of self-organization, phase transition, critical phenomena, self-organized criticality and turbulence. This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.

  12. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  13. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.

  14. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.

    1995-02-01

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  15. Introduction to wetting phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indekeu, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In these lectures the field of wetting phenomena is introduced from the point of view of statistical physics. The phase transition from partial to complete wetting is discussed and examples of relevant experiments in binary liquid mixtures are given. Cahn's concept of critical-point wetting is examined in detail. Finally, a connection is drawn between wetting near bulk criticality and the universality classes of surface critical phenomena. (author)

  16. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  17. SEPARATION PHENOMENA LOGISTIC REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of concepts about the maximum likelihood estimation of the binomial logistic regression model to the separation phenomena. It generates bias in the estimation and provides different interpretations of the estimates on the different statistical tests (Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Score and provides different estimates on the different iterative methods (Newton-Raphson and Fisher Score. It also presents an example that demonstrates the direct implications for the validation of the model and validation of variables, the implications for estimates of odds ratios and confidence intervals, generated from the Wald statistics. Furthermore, we present, briefly, the Firth correction to circumvent the phenomena of separation.

  18. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  19. Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro­ chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special­ ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...

  20. Sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuvshinov, B.N.; Savrukhin, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    A review of experimental and theoretical investigaions of sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks is presented. Different types of sawtooth oscillations, scaling laws and methods of interanl disruption stabilization are described. Theoretical models of the sawtooth instability are discussed. 122 refs.; 4 tabs

  1. Fundamentals of wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, Akira

    2010-01-01

    This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.

  2. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  3. Chaotic phenomena in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.

    1991-08-01

    It has recently been recognized that the research on various aspects of chaotic dynamics grows rapidly as one of some areas in nonlinear science. On the other hands, the plasma has long been called a treasure-house of nonlinear phenomena, so it is easy to imagine that the plasma is abundant in chaotic phenomena. In fact, the research on plasma chaos is going on, such as the research on the stochastic magnetic field and the chaotic orbit in the toroidal helical system, as well as the research in other experiments. To review the present status of the research on plasma chaos and to make clear the basic common physics, a working group was organized in 1990 as a collaboration research of National Institute for Fusion Science. This is the report on its activity in 1990, with a stress on experimental data obtained in basic plasma experiments and RFP, and on the relaxed theories and computer simulations. (author)

  4. Theory of threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)

  5. Wolf-Rayet phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews in broad terms the concept of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) phenomena, outlines what we currently know about the properties of stars showing such phenomena and indicates the directions in which future work is leading. He begins by listing the characteristics of W-R spectra and then considers the following specific problems: the absolute visual magnitudes; the heterogeneity of WN spectra; the existence of transition type spectra and compositions; the mass loss rates; the existence of very luminous and possibly very massive W-R stars. He discusses briefly our current understanding of the theoretical aspects of stellar evolution and stellar winds and the various scenarios that have been proposed to understand W-R stars. (Auth.)

  6. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  7. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  8. Modelling of transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1993-09-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs

  9. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  10. Quantification of natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero Alvarez, Javier

    1997-01-01

    The science is like a great spider's web in which unexpected connections appear and therefore it is frequently difficult to already know the consequences of new theories on those existent. The physics is a clear example of this. The Newton mechanics laws describe the physical phenomena observable accurately by means of our organs of the senses or by means of observation teams not very sophisticated. After their formulation at the beginning of the XVIII Century, these laws were recognized in the scientific world as a mathematical model of the nature. Together with the electrodynamics law, developed in the XIX century, and the thermodynamic one constitutes what we call the classic physics. The state of maturity of the classic physics at the end of last century it was such that some scientists believed that the physics was arriving to its end obtaining a complete description of the physical phenomena. The spider's web of the knowledge was supposed finished, or at least very near its termination. It ended up saying, in arrogant form, that if the initial conditions of the universe were known, we could determine the state of the same one in any future moment. Two phenomena related with the light would prove in firm form that mistaken that they were, creating unexpected connections in the great spider's web of the knowledge and knocking down part of her. The thermal radiation of the bodies and the fact that the light spreads to constant speed in the hole, without having an absolute system of reference with regard to which this speed is measured, they constituted the decisive factors in the construction of a new physics. The development of sophisticated of measure teams gave access to more precise information and it opened the microscopic world to the observation and confirmation of existent theories

  11. Acoustic phenomena during boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Applied and theoretical significance of investigation into acoustic phenomena on boiling is discussed. Effect of spatial and time conditions on pressure vapour bubble has been elucidated. Collective effects were considered: acoustic interaction of bubbles, noise formation ion developed boiling, resonance and hydrodynamic autooscillations. Different methods for predicting heat transfer crisis using changes of accompanying noise characteristics were analysed. Principle peculiarities of generation mechanism of thermoacoustic autooscillations were analysed as well: formation of standing waves; change of two-phase medium contraction in a channel; relation of alternating pressure with boiling process as well as with instantaneous and local temperatures of heat transfer surface and liquid in a boundary layer

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic flow phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Eckert, S.

    1995-01-01

    The MHD group of the Institute of Safety Research performs basic studies on fluid dynamics and heat/mass transfer in fluids, particularly for electrically conducting fluids (liquid metals) exposed to external magnetic fields (Magnetohydrodynamics - MHD). Such a contactless influence on transport phenomena is of principal importance for a variety of applied problems including safety and design aspects in liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, fast reactors, and chemical systems. Any electrically conducting flow can be influenced without any contact by means of an external electromagnetic field. This, of course, can change the known hydromechanically flow patterns considerably. In the following two examples of such magnetic field influence are presented. (orig.)

  13. Random phenomena; Phenomenes aleatoires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, G. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, C.E.N.G., Service d' Electronique, Section d' Electronique, Grenoble (France)

    1963-07-01

    This document gathers a set of conferences presented in 1962. A first one proposes a mathematical introduction to the analysis of random phenomena. The second one presents an axiomatic of probability calculation. The third one proposes an overview of one-dimensional random variables. The fourth one addresses random pairs, and presents basic theorems regarding the algebra of mathematical expectations. The fifth conference discusses some probability laws: binomial distribution, the Poisson distribution, and the Laplace-Gauss distribution. The last one deals with the issues of stochastic convergence and asymptotic distributions.

  14. Transport phenomena I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con

  15. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  16. Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  17. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

  18. Foot morphometric phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante

    2007-06-01

    Knowledge of the foot morphometry is important for proper foot structure and function. Foot structure as a vital part of human body is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric and morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical descriptors in order to fully characterize foot functionality. For Croatian student population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot morphometric descriptors are influenced by many factors, such as life style, climate, and things of great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors related to fit and comfort are determined by the use 3D foot shape and advanced foot biomechanics. Some practical recommendations and conclusions for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  19. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  20. Fast fission phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Christian.

    1982-03-01

    Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted [fr

  1. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  2. Arcjet cathode phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.

  3. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  4. Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, H J; Farhat, M; Luo, X W; Chen, Y L; Xu, H Y

    2012-01-01

    Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.

  5. Haters Phenomena in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Pradipta, Angga; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul

    2016-01-01

    Social media is internet-basic media, functioned as interaction media room based on multimedia technology. And social media created some effects. One of the negative effects of social media is haters phenomena. Haters are a person who easily said dirty words, harass, and humiliate to others. This phenomena causes anxiety—especially in Indonesia, even the Government issued public policy and letter of regulation about this phenomena, through Paragraph 27 verse (3) IT Constitution, Paragraph 45 ...

  6. Transport phenomena in environmental engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Aleksandra; Kardum, Jasna Prlić; Matijašić, Gordana; Žižek, Krunoslav

    2018-01-01

    A term transport phenomena arises as a second paradigm at the end of 1950s with high awareness that there was a strong need to improve the scoping of chemical engineering science. At that point, engineers became highly aware that it is extremely important to take step forward from pure empirical description and the concept of unit operations only to understand the specific process using phenomenological equations that rely on three elementary physical processes: momentum, energy and mass transport. This conceptual evolution of chemical engineering was first presented with a well-known book of R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart and Edwin N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, published in 1960 [1]. What transport phenomena are included in environmental engineering? It is hard to divide those phenomena through different engineering disciplines. The core is the same but the focus changes. Intention of the authors here is to present the transport phenomena that are omnipresent in treatment of various process streams. The focus in this chapter is made on the transport phenomena that permanently occur in mechanical macroprocesses of sedimentation and filtration for separation in solid-liquid particulate systems and on the phenomena of the flow through a fixed and a fluidized bed of particles that are immanent in separation processes in packed columns and in environmental catalysis. The fundamental phenomena for each thermal and equilibrium separation process technology are presented as well. Understanding and mathematical description of underlying transport phenomena result in scoping the separation processes in a way that ChEs should act worldwide.

  7. Simulations of Biomechanical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jose Cruz

    Recent studies have published breakthroughs in the application of finite element (FEA) studies in the design and analysis of advanced orthodontics. However, FEA has not captured bone remodeling responses to advanced orthodontics. The results of these simulations report unrealistic displacement around the nasal bridge, which impeded correlation with clinical data. Bone remodeling has been previously documented in FEA and has shown bone response to mechanical stimulus in femur bone models. However, the relationship between mechanical stimulus and bone remodeling has not been reported in orthodontic studies due to the complexity of the skull. In the current study, strain energy is used as the mechanical stimulus to control remodeling, from which density and modulus evolve. Due to the localization of forces in orthodontics, current remodeling algorithms have limited application. In turn, we developed an algorithm that dynamically collects, sorts, and bins stresses in all elements for regional remodeling based on the proximity of the element to the load. The results demonstrate that bone response to orthodontic appliances is different than that of an FEA without bone remodeling, due to load path changes based upon evolution of the bone properties. It was also found that density and moduli proximal to the load application site exhibit faster remodeling than those located remotely. Modeling another biomechanical phenomena, a 3D simulation was created to simulate recent experimental results that discovered a difference in impact mitigation properties of dense-polymer/foam bilayer structure based on the orientation of the dense-polymer with respect to the impact site. The impact energy transmitted varied in time of arrival and amplitude depending on the orientation of the structure (thin layer up or down). By creating a 3D explicit dynamic FEA simulation, it is expected to reduce costly experiments and time consumed in set up, and offer opportunities for optimization for

  8. Introductory lectures on critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajehpour, M.R.H.

    1988-09-01

    After a presentation of classical models for phase transitions and critical phenomena (Van der Waals theory, Weiss theory of ferromagnetism) and theoretical models (Ising model, XY model, Heisenberg model, spherical model) the Landau theory of critical and multicritical points and some single applications of renormalization group method in static critical phenomena are presented. 115 refs, figs and tabs

  9. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  10. Kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Taro

    2001-01-01

    Resistive and ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theories are insufficient to adequately explain MHD phenomena in the high-temperature plasma. Recent progress in numerical simulations concerning kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena is summarized. The following three topics are studied using various models treating extended-MHD phenomena. (1) Kinetic modifications of internal kink modes in tokamaks with normal and reversed magnetic shear configurations. (2) Temporal evolution of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode and fishbone mode in tokamaks with energetic ions. (3) Kinetic stabilization of a title mode in field-reversed configurations by means of anchoring ions and beam ions. (author)

  11. Micro transport phenomena during boiling

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    "Micro Transport Phenomena During Boiling" reviews the new achievements and contributions in recent investigations at microscale. It presents some original research results and discusses topics at the frontier of thermal and fluid sciences.

  12. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos; Sun, Zhonghao

    2017-01-01

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration

  13. Renormalization group and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qing

    2004-01-01

    The basic clue and the main steps of renormalization group method used for the description of critical phenomena is introduced. It is pointed out that this method really reflects the most important physical features of critical phenomena, i.e. self-similarity, and set up a practical solving method from it. This way of setting up a theory according to the features of the physical system is really a good lesson for today's physicists. (author)

  14. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  15. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  16. Critical Phenomena in Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundlach Carsten

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As first discovered by Choptuik, the black hole threshold in the space of initial data for general relativity shows both surprising structure and surprising simplicity. Universality, power-law scaling of the black hole mass, and scale echoing have given rise to the term 'critical phenomena'. They are explained by the existence of exact solutions which are attractors within the black hole threshold, that is, attractors of codimension one in phase space, and which are typically self-similar. This review gives an introduction to the phenomena, tries to summarize the essential features of what is happening, and then presents extensions and applications of this basic scenario. Critical phenomena are of interest particularly for creating surprising structure from simple equations, and for the light they throw on cosmic censorship and the generic dynamics of general relativity.

  17. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  18. Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Helliwell, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    The investigation of whistlers and related phenomena is a key element in studies of very-low-frequency propagation, satellite communication, the outer ionosphere, and solar-terrestrial relationships. This comprehensive text presents a history of the study of the phenomena and includes all the elements necessary for the calculation of the characteristics of whistlers and whistler-mode signals.An introduction and brief history are followed by a summary of the theory of whistlers and a detailed explanation of the calculation of their characteristics. Succeeding chapters offer a complete atlas of

  19. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  20. Discovery potential for new phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, S.; Price, L.E.

    1997-03-01

    The authors examine the ability of future facilities to discover and interpret non-supersymmetric new phenomena. The authors first explore explicit manifestations of new physics, including extended gauge sectors, leptoquarks, exotic fermions, and technicolor models. They then take a more general approach where new physics only reveals itself through the existence of effective interactions at lower energy scales

  1. Strings, fields and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.

    1987-07-01

    The connection between field theory and critical phenomena is reviewed. Emphasis is put on the use of Monte Carlo methods in the study of non-perturbative aspects of field theory. String theory is then described as a statistical theory of random surfaces and the critical behaviour is analyzed both by analytical and numerical methods. (orig.)

  2. Transport phenomena in multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a thorough presentation of the phenomena related to the transport of mass, momentum and energy.  It lays all the basic physical principles, then for the more advanced readers, it offers an in-depth treatment with advanced mathematical derivations and ends with some useful applications of the models and equations in specific settings. The important idea behind the book is to unify all types of transport phenomena, describing them within a common framework in terms of cause and effect, respectively represented by the driving force and the flux of the transported quantity. The approach and presentation are original in that the book starts with a general description of transport processes, providing the macroscopic balance relations of fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer, before diving into the mathematical realm of continuum mechanics to derive the microscopic governing equations at the microscopic level. The book is a modular teaching tool and can be used either for an introductory...

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.

  4. Multiparticle phenomena and Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey various methods of studying multiparticle phenomena in accelerators. Both experimental and theoretical methods are described. An effort has been made to emphasize the intuitive and qualitative aspects rather than the detailed mathematics. Some of the terms or concepts to be explained are coherent and incoherent tunes, normal modes, Landau damping, beam-transfer functions, and feedback. These are all of daily importance in the interpretation of colliding-beam observations and the control of performance

  5. Antagonistic Phenomena in Network Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Adilson E.; Timme, Marc

    2018-03-01

    Recent research on the network modeling of complex systems has led to a convenient representation of numerous natural, social, and engineered systems that are now recognized as networks of interacting parts. Such systems can exhibit a wealth of phenomena that not only cannot be anticipated from merely examining their parts, as per the textbook definition of complexity, but also challenge intuition even when considered in the context of what is now known in network science. Here, we review the recent literature on two major classes of such phenomena that have far-reaching implications: (a) antagonistic responses to changes of states or parameters and (b) coexistence of seemingly incongruous behaviors or properties - both deriving from the collective and inherently decentralized nature of the dynamics. They include effects as diverse as negative compressibility in engineered materials, rescue interactions in biological networks, negative resistance in fluid networks, and the Braess paradox occurring across transport and supply networks. They also include remote synchronization, chimera states, and the converse of symmetry breaking in brain, power-grid, and oscillator networks as well as remote control in biological and bioinspired systems. By offering a unified view of these various scenarios, we suggest that they are representative of a yet broader class of unprecedented network phenomena that ought to be revealed and explained by future research.

  6. Luminous Phenomena - A Scientific Investigation of Anomalous Luminous Atmospheric Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorani, M.

    2003-12-01

    Anomalous atmospheric luminous phenomena reoccur in several locations of Earth, in the form of multi-color light balls characterized by large dimensions, erratic motion, long duration and a correlated electromagnetic field. The author (an astrophysicist) of this book, which is organized as a selection of some of his technical and popularizing papers and seminars, describes and discusses all the efforts that have been done in 10 years, through several missions and a massive data analysis, in order to obtain some scientific explanation of this kind of anomalies, in particular the Hessdalen anomaly in Norway. The following topics are treated in the book: a) geographic archive of the areas of Earth where such phenomena are known to reoccur most often; b) observational techniques of astrophysical kind that have been used to acquire the data; c) main scientific results obtained so far; d) physical interpretation and natural hypothesis vs. ETV hypothesis; e) historical and chronological issues; f) the importance to brindle new energy sources; g) the importance to keep distance from any kind of "ufology". An unpublished chapter is entirely devoted to a detailed scientific investigation project of light phenomena reoccurring on the Ontario lake; the chosen new-generation multi-wavelength sensing instrumentation that is planned to be used in future missions in that specific area, is described together with scientific rationale and planned procedures. The main results, which were obtained in other areas of the world, such as the Arizona desert, USA and the Sibillini Mountains, Italy, are also briefly mentioned. One chapter is entirely dedicated to the presentation of extensive abstracts of technical papers by the author concerning this specific subject. The book is accompanied with a rich source of bibliographic references.

  7. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  8. Phenomena and Diosignes of Aratous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgoloupis, S. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aratous (305-240B.C.) was a singular intellectual, writer and poet which engage himself to compose a very interesting astronomical poet, using the "Dactylous sixstage' style, the formal style of the ancient Greek Epic poetry. This astronomic poem of Aratous "Phenomena and Diosignes" became very favorite reading during the Alexandrine, the Romman and the Byzandin eras as well and had received many praises from significant poets and particularly from Hipparchous and from Theonas from Alexandria, an astronomer of 4rth century A.C.(in Greeks)

  9. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2001-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in

  10. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2000-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m

  11. Nonlinear phenomena in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahyari, Alireza; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Mansouri, Reza

    2018-04-01

    The perturbation theory plays an important role in studying structure formation in cosmology and post-Newtonian physics, but not all phenomena can be described by the linear perturbation theory. Thus, it is necessary to study exact solutions or higher-order perturbations. Specifically, we study black hole (apparent) horizons and the cosmological event horizon formation in the perturbation theory. We emphasize that in the perturbative regime of the gravitational potential these horizons cannot form in the lower order. Studying the infinite plane metric, we show that, to capture the cosmological constant effect, we need at least a second-order expansion.

  12. Nonlinear phenomena at cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbarao, D.; Uma, R.

    1986-01-01

    Finite amplitude electromagnetic waves in a magnetoplasma which typically occur in situations as in present day wave heating, current drives and other schemes in magnetically confined fusion systems, can show qualitatively different absorption and emission characteristics around resonant frequencies of the plasma because of anharmonicity. Linear wave plasma coupling as well as weak nonlinear effects such as parametric instabilities generally overlook this important effect even though the thresholds for the two phenomena as shown here are comparable. Though the effects described here are relevant to a host of nonlinear resonance effects in fusion plasmas, the authors mainly limit themselves to ECRH

  13. Violent phenomena in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Jayant V

    2007-01-01

    The serenity of a clear night sky belies the evidence-gathered by balloons, rockets, satellites, and telescopes-that the universe contains centers of furious activity that pour out vast amounts of energy, some in regular cycles and some in gigantic bursts. This reader-friendly book, acclaimed by Nature as ""excellent and uncompromising,"" traces the development of modern astrophysics and its explanations of these startling celestial fireworks.This lively narrative ranges from the gravitational theories of Newton and Einstein to recent exciting discoveries of such violent phenomena as supernova

  14. Nonlinear Dynamic Phenomena in Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Warminski, Jerzy; Cartmell, Matthew P

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena should play a crucial role in the design and control of engineering systems and structures as they can drastically change the prevailing dynamical responses. This book covers theoretical and applications-based problems of nonlinear dynamics concerned with both discrete and continuous systems of interest in civil and mechanical engineering. They include pendulum-like systems, slender footbridges, shape memory alloys, sagged elastic cables and non-smooth problems. Pendulums can be used as a dynamic absorber mounted in high buildings, bridges or chimneys. Geometrical nonlinear

  15. Quantum theory of collective phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Sewell, G L

    2014-01-01

    ""An excellent and competent introduction to the field … [and] … a source of information for the expert."" - Physics Today""This a book of major importance…. I trust that this book will be used as a basis for the teaching of a balanced, modern and rigorous course on statistical mechanics in all universities."" - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society""This is one of the best introductions to the subject, and it is strongly recommended to anyone interested in collective phenomena."" - Physics Bulletin ""The book may be recommended for students as a well-balanced introduction to this rich s

  16. Foot anthropometry and morphology phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Vasilije; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-12-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors are determined by principal component analysis. Some practical recommendation and conclusion for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  17. Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megias, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

  18. Quantum phenomena in gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A. D.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Voronin, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold antihydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of antihydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eötvös-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology.

  19. Quantum phenomena in gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A.D.; Voronin, A.Y.; Voronin, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold anti-hydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of anti-hydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eoetvoes-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology. (authors)

  20. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity

  1. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Masashi, E-mail: hayakawa@hi-seismo-em.jp [Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electomagnetics, Co. Ltd., University of Electro-Communications (UEC) Incubation Center, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Advanced Wireless & Communications Research Center, UEC, Chofu Tokyo (Japan); Earthquake Analysis Laboratory, Information Systems Inc., 4-8-15, Minami-aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 (Japan); Fuji Security Systems. Co. Ltd., Iwato-cho 1, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  2. Research in magnetospheric wave phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfield, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    During the last 4 years a number of developments have occurred which have led to an increased understanding of the role of wave phenomena in the physical processes of the magnetosphere. While the studies span the frequency regime from millihertz to the electron gyrofrequency, the developments to be discussed in this paper have in common that they have added substantially to the understanding of the controlling processes, regions, and boundaries in the magnetosphere. The topics discussed are the increased awareness and documentation of the role of the plasmapause in micropulsation generation and propagation; the establishment of the role of ion cyclotron waves in the wave-particle interactions at the plasmapause; the discovery of magnetospheric electrostatic waves with ω = (3/2)Ω/sub -/; the discovery and preliminary identification of the source of plasmaspheric hiss; and the analysis of storm time Pc 5 waves as observed on the satellites ATS 1 and Explorer 45. (auth)

  3. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r → -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t → -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function Ψ is given by the phase factor e -iEt/h b ar with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin operator changes sign

  4. Transport phenomena in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Ingham, Derek B

    1998-01-01

    Research into thermal convection in porous media has substantially increased during recent years due to its numerous practical applications. These problems have attracted the attention of industrialists, engineers and scientists from many very diversified disciplines, such as applied mathematics, chemical, civil, environmental, mechanical and nuclear engineering, geothermal physics and food science. Thus, there is a wealth of information now available on convective processes in porous media and it is therefore appropriate and timely to undertake a new critical evaluation of this contemporary information. Transport Phenomena in Porous Media contains 17 chapters and represents the collective work of 27 of the world's leading experts, from 12 countries, in heat transfer in porous media. The recent intensive research in this area has substantially raised the expectations for numerous new practical applications and this makes the book a most timely addition to the existing literature. It includes recent major deve...

  5. Electrostatic Phenomena on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2017-02-01

    The diverse planetary environments in the solar system react in somewhat different ways to the encompassing influence of the Sun. These different interactions define the electrostatic phenomena that take place on and near planetary surfaces. The desire to understand the electrostatic environments of planetary surfaces goes beyond scientific inquiry. These environments have enormous implications for both human and robotic exploration of the solar system. This book describes in some detail what is known about the electrostatic environment of the solar system from early and current experiments on Earth as well as what is being learned from the instrumentation on the space exploration missions (NASA, European Space Agency, and the Japanese Space Agency) of the last few decades. It begins with a brief review of the basic principles of electrostatics.

  6. The quest for new phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1996-12-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics has been very successful in describing experimental data with great precision. With the exception of some neutrino anomalies, there is no data that is in disagreement with it. Nevertheless, the model is regarded as incomplete and unsatisfactory. There is no explanation of the pattern of quark and lepton masses and, possibly more important, no understanding of the scale of electroweak interactions. Electroweak symmetry breaking is implemented in the Standard Model from the presence of a scalar electroweak doublet, the Higgs field, that acquires a vacuum expectation value of order 250 GeV and leaves as a remnant one physical state, the electrically neutral Higgs boson whose mass is not predicted. In this talk, the author compares the techniques used at, and capabilities of, various facilities in searching for new phenomena. The author emphasizes the cases where information from more than one facility may be needed to fully explore the physics

  7. In-vessel phenomena -- CORA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.J.; Rij, W.I. van.

    1991-01-01

    Experiment-specific models have been employed since 1986 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) severe accident analysis programs for the purpose of boiling water reactor experimental planning and optimum interpretation of experimental results. The large integral tests performed to date, which start from an initial undamaged core state, have involved significantly different-from-prototypic boundary and experimental conditions because of either normal facility limitations or specific experimental constraints. These experiments (ACRR: DF-4, NRU: FLHT-6, and CORA) were designed to obtain specific phenomenological information such as the degradation and interaction of prototypic components and the effects on melt progression of control-blade materials and channel boxes. Applications of ORNL models specific to the KfK CORA-16 and CORA-17 experiments are discussed and significant findings from the experimental analyses such as the following are presented: applicability of available Zircaloy oxidation kinetics correlations; influence of cladding strain on Zircaloy oxidation; influence of spacer grids on the structural heatup; and the impact of treating the gaseous coolant as a gray interacting medium. The experiment-specific models supplement and support the systems-level accident analysis codes. They allow the analyst to accurately quantify the observed experimental phenomena and to compensate for the effect of known uncertainties. They provide a basis for the efficient development of new models for phenomena that are currently not modeled (such as material interactions). They can provide validated phenomenological models (from the results of the experiments) as candidates for incorporation in the systems-level ''whole-core'' codes

  8. Remote sensing of natural phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag D. Regodić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a need to directly perceive and study the events whose extent is beyond people's possibilities. In order to get new data and to make observations and studying much more objective in comparison with past syntheses - a new method of examination called remote sensing has been adopted. The paper deals with the principles and elements of remote sensing, as well as with the basic aspects of using remote research in examining meteorological (weather parameters and the conditions of the atmosphere. The usage of satellite images is possible in all phases of the global and systematic research of different natural phenomena when airplane and satellite images of different characteristics are used and their analysis and interpretation is carried out by viewing and computer added procedures. Introduction Remote sensing of the Earth enables observing and studying global and local events that occur on it. Satellite images are nowadays used in geology, agriculture, forestry, geodesy, meteorology, spatial and urbanism planning, designing of infrastructure and other objects, protection from natural and technological catastrophes, etc. It it possible to use satellite images in all phases of global and systematic research of different natural phenomena. Basics of remote sensing Remote sensing is a method of the acquisition and interpretation of information about remote objects without making a physical contact with them. The term Daljinska detekcija is a literal translation of the English term Remote Sensing. In French it isTeledetection, in German - Fernerkundung, in Russian - дистанционие иследования. We also use terms such as: remote survailance, remote research, teledetection, remote methods, and distance research. The basic elements included in Remote Sensing are: object, electromagnetic energy, sensor, platform, image, analysis, interpretation and the information (data, fact. Usage of satellite remote research in

  9. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  10. Poorly studied phenomena in geoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Могилатов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, modern geoelectric technologies emerge in the result of the development of traditional approaches and techniques. However of more interest is the appearance of completely new technologies based on new effects and new models of interaction of geological medium and electromagnetic field. The author does not commit to indicate principally new directions, but only wants to discuss some poorly known facts from the theory and practice of geoelectrics. The outcome of this study could be considered attracting the attention of experts to non-traditional signals in geoelectrics. The reviewed phenomena of interest, not fully implemented in practice in the author’s opinion, are field split into two polarizations: transverse electric (the ТЕ-field and transverse magnetic (the ТМ-field, then some poorly known properties of ТМ-field, the role of bias currents, the anisotropy of horizontal resistances, the role of geomagnetic field in geoelectric sounding, the unique resolution of CSEM (Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic techniques at sea.

  11. Transient phenomena in multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    This book is devoted to formulation of the two-phase system. Emphasis is given to classical instantaneous equations of mass momentum and energy for local conditions and respective averaging procedures and their relevance to the structure of transfer laws. In formulating an equation for a two-velocity continuum, two-phase dispersed flow, two-velocity and local inertial effects associated with contraction and expansion of the mixture have been considered. Particular attention is paid to the effects of interface topology and area concentration as well as the latter's dependence on interfacial transfer laws. Also covered are low bubble concentrations in basic nonuniform unsteady flow where interactions between bubbles are negligible but where the effects of bubbles must still be considered. Special emphasis has been given to the pairwise interaction of the bubble and respective hydrodynamic equations describing the motion of a pair of spherical bubbles through a liquid This book introduces turbulence phenomena in two-phase flow and related problems of phase distribution in two-phase flow. This includes an extensive survey of turbulence and phase distribution models in transient two-phase flow. It is shown that if the turbulent structure of the continuous phase of bubbly two-phase is either measured or can be predicted, then the observed lateral phase distribution can be determined by using an multidimensional two-fluid model in which all lateral forces are properly modeled

  12. Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S J; James, M R; Gilbert, J S, E-mail: s.lane@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 {mu}m. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.

  13. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  14. Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.

  15. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed

  16. Nonlinear dynamical phenomena in liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.Y.; Sun, Z.M.

    1988-09-01

    Because of the existence of the orientational order and anisotropy in liquid crystals, strong nonlinear phenomena and singular behaviors, such as solitary wave, transient periodic structure, chaos, fractal and viscous fingering, can be excited by a very small disturbance. These phenomena and behaviors are in connection with physics, biology and mathematics. 12 refs, 6 figs

  17. Polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, K.; Ishihara, M.; Takahashi, N.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter presents a few key experiments which provide direct evidence of the polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions. The theory of polarization observables and measurements is given with the necessary formulae. The polarization phenomena is described and studies of product nuclear polarization in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. Studies of heavy-ion reactions induced by polarized beams are examined

  18. A Connection between Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, Ross; Bird, R. Byron

    2017-01-01

    Although students take courses in transport phenomena and thermodynamics, they probably do not ask whether these two subjects are related. Here we give an answer to that question. Specifically we give relationships between the equations of change for total energy, internal energy, and entropy of transport phenomena and key equations of equilibrium…

  19. Precedent Phenomena in Quebecois Linguistic World View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ксения Эдуардовна Болотина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the linguocultural analysis of precedent phenomena as parts of Quebecois’ cognitive base. Precedent phenomena being cultural facts are one of the key issues in modern linguistic and cognitive studies. By precedent phenomena we mean, according to Y.E. Prohorov, such entities when verbalized in discourse that refer to a certain cultural fact behind them. In the article the precedent phenomena such as precedent text, precedent situation, precedent utterance, and precedent name are analyzed. The main theses of the precedence theory given in the article (Y.N. Karaulov, Y.E. Prohorov, V.V. Krasnyh, D.B. Gudkov are at the heart of precedence studies on the basis of different languages. However, a complex analysis of precedent phenomena in the Quebec national variant of French is new to Russian linguistics. The study of precedent phenomena enables us to elicit features of their functioning in ethnospecific discourse and determine cultural dominants existing in Quebecois’ linguistic world view. Given the fact that the size of the article is limited, we undertooke the analysis of eight phenomena precedent of the bearers of Quebec linguoculture. The choice of phenomena is determined by the frequency of their use in discourse. The facts analyzed are of national character, i.e. known to all members of the linguocultural community. A certain cultural fact is at the very core of each precedent phenomenon given in the article. To get the whole picture we analysed historic, political, and cultural context connected to the precedent phenomena in question. The study enables us to elicit distinctive features that are at the core of each phenomenon. The results are backed with the supportive material drawn from analysis of different types of discourse. The analysis of precedent phenomena undertaken in this article allows us to reconstruct, to a certain extent, Quebec cultural space and is a stepping stone to the reconstruction of the

  20. Interfacial polarization phenomena in organic molecular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Manaka, Takaaki

    2006-01-01

    Electrostatic phenomena occurring at the interface between metal/organic and organic/organic materials are discussed from the viewpoint of dielectrics physics. Focusing on two important origins of surface polarization phenomena, orientational ordering of polar molecules and displacement of excess charges at the interface, surface polarization phenomena of organic thin films are discussed. To define the orientational order of polar molecules, orientational order parameters are introduced, and surface polarization due to the alignment of dipoles is expressed. The generation of Maxwell displacement current (MDC) and optical second harmonic generation (SHG) that are specific for surface organic monomolecular films are discussed, and some experimental evidence are shown. As an extension of the concept of surface Fermi level introduced to discuss the electrostatic phenomena due to electron transfer at the interface between metal-organic insulators, the surface Fermi level is extended to the discussion on the electrostatic phenomena of organic semiconductor materials on metals. In this paper, some experimental evidence of surface polarization originating from polar molecules and displacement of excess charges are shown. After that, with consideration of these surface phenomena, single electron tunneling of organic films are briefly discussed in association with surface polarization phenomena

  1. A statistical approach to strange diffusion phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligen, B.Ph. van; Carreras, B.A.; Sanchez, R.

    2005-01-01

    The study of particle (and heat) transport in fusion plasmas has revealed the existence of what might be called 'unusual' transport phenomena. Such phenomena are: unexpected scaling of the confinement time with system size, power degradation (i.e. sub-linear scaling of energy content with power input), profile stiffness (also known as profile consistency), rapid transient transport phenomena such as cold and heat pulses (travelling much faster than the diffusive timescale would allow), non-local behaviour and central profile peaking during off-axis heating, associated with unexplained inward pinches. The standard modelling framework, essentially equal to Fick's Law plus extensions, has great difficulty in providing an all-encompassing and satisfactory explanation of all these phenomena. This difficulty has motivated us to reconsider the basics of the modelling of diffusive phenomena. Diffusion is based on the well-known random walk. The random walk is captured in all its generality in the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) formalism. The CTRW formalism is directly related to the well-known Generalized Master Equation, which describes the behaviour of tracer particle diffusion on a very fundamental level, and from which the phenomenological Fick's Law can be derived under some specific assumptions. We show that these assumptions are not necessarily satisfied under fusion plasma conditions, in which case other equations (such as the Fokker-Planck diffusion law or the Master Equation itself) provide a better description of the phenomena. This fact may explain part of the observed 'strange' phenomena (namely, the inward pinch). To show how the remaining phenomena mentioned above may perhaps find an explanation in the proposed alternative modelling framework, we have designed a toy model that incorporates a critical gradient mechanism, switching between rapid (super-diffusive) and normal diffusive transport as a function of the local gradient. It is then demonstrated

  2. Fourteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A; Silvestri, Sandro; Ultrafast Phenomena XIV

    2005-01-01

    Ultrafast Phenomena XIV presents the latest advances in ultrafast science, including ultrafast laser and measurement technology as well as studies of ultrafast phenomena. Pico-, femto-, and atosecond processes relevant in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering are presented. Ultrafast technology is now having a profound impact within a wide range of applications, among them imaging, material diagnostics, and transformation and high-speed optoelectronics. This book summarizes results presented at the 14th Ultrafast Phenomena Conference and reviews the state of the art in this important and rapidly advancing field.

  3. Transient phenomena in electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Venikov, V A; Higinbotham, W

    1964-01-01

    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 24: Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems presents the methods for calculating the stability and the transient behavior of systems with forced excitation control. This book provides information pertinent to the analysis of transient phenomena in electro-mechanical systems.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal requirements in an excitation system. This text then explains the electromagnetic and electro-mechanical phenomena, taking into account the mutual action between the components of the system. Ot

  4. Computational transport phenomena for engineering analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Richard C; Cheng, Gary C; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2009-01-01

    Computational Transport PhenomenaOverviewTransport PhenomenaAnalyzing Transport PhenomenaA Computational Tool: The CTP CodeVerification, Validation, and GeneralizationSummaryNomenclatureReferencesThe Equations of ChangeIntroductionDerivation of The Continuity EquationDerivation of The Species Continuity EquationDerivation of The Equation Of MotionDerivation of The General Energy EquationNon-Newtonian FluidsGeneral Property BalanceAnalytical and Approximate Solutions for the Equations of ChangeSummaryNomenclatureReferencesPhysical PropertiesOverviewReal-Fluid ThermodynamicsChemical Equilibrium

  5. Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Morandotti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena contains contributed chapters from leading experts in nonlinear optics and photonics, and provides a comprehensive survey of fundamental concepts as well as hot topics in current research on nonlinear optical waves and related novel phenomena. The book covers self-accelerating airy beams, integrated photonics based on high index doped-silica glass, linear and nonlinear spatial beam dynamics in photonic lattices and waveguide arrays, polariton solitons and localized structures in semiconductor microcavities, terahertz waves, and other novel phenomena in different nanophotonic and optical systems.

  6. Sixteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Corkum, Paul; Nelson, Keith A; Riedle, Eberhard; Schoenlein, Robert W; Ultrafast Phenomena XVI

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafast Phenomena XVI presents the latest advances in ultrafast science, including both ultrafast optical technology and the study of ultrafast phenomena. It covers picosecond, femtosecond and attosecond processes relevant to applications in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. Ultrafast technology has a profound impact in a wide range of applications, amongst them biomedical imaging, chemical dynamics, frequency standards, material processing, and ultrahigh speed communications. This book summarizes the results presented at the 16th International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena and provides an up-to-date view of this important and rapidly advancing field.

  7. Heat transfer phenomena revelant to severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallman, R.J.; Duffey, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    A number of aspects of severe accidents have been reviewed, particularly in relation to the heat transfer characteristics and the important phenomena. It is shown that natural circulation, forced convection, and entrainment phenomena are important for both the reactor system and ex-vessel events. It is also shown that the phenomena related to two component enhanced heat transfer is important in the pool of molten core debris, in relation to the potential for attack of the liner structure and the concrete. These mechanisms are discussed within the general context of severe accident progression

  8. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-01-01

    A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  9. Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....

  10. Heat transfer phenomena relevant to severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallman, R.J.; Duffey, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    A number of aspects of severe accidents have been reviewed, particularly in relation to the heat transfer characteristics and the important phenomena. It is shown that natural circulation, forced convection, and entrainment phenomena are important for both the reactor system and ex-vessel events. It is also shown that the phenomena related to two component enhanced heat transfer is important in the pool of molten core debris, in relation to the potential for attack of the liner structure and the concrete. These mechanisms are discussed within the general context of severe accident progression. 26 refs

  11. Classifying prion and prion-like phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbi, Djamel; Harrison, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The universe of prion and prion-like phenomena has expanded significantly in the past several years. Here, we overview the challenges in classifying this data informatically, given that terms such as "prion-like", "prion-related" or "prion-forming" do not have a stable meaning in the scientific literature. We examine the spectrum of proteins that have been described in the literature as forming prions, and discuss how "prion" can have a range of meaning, with a strict definition being for demonstration of infection with in vitro-derived recombinant prions. We suggest that although prion/prion-like phenomena can largely be apportioned into a small number of broad groups dependent on the type of transmissibility evidence for them, as new phenomena are discovered in the coming years, a detailed ontological approach might be necessary that allows for subtle definition of different "flavors" of prion / prion-like phenomena.

  12. Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorka, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown

  13. Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

  14. Didactic demonstrations of superfluidity and superconductivity phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniola-Jedrzejak, L.; Lewicki, A.; Pilipowicz, A.; Tarnawski, Z.; Bialek, H.

    1980-01-01

    In order to demonstrate to students phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity a special helium cryostat has been constructed. The demonstrated effects, construction of the cryostat and the method of demonstration are described. (author)

  15. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...

  16. Transport phenomena an introduction to advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Glasgow, Larry A

    2010-01-01

    Enables readers to apply transport phenomena principles to solve advanced problems in all areas of engineering and science This book helps readers elevate their understanding of, and their ability to apply, transport phenomena by introducing a broad range of advanced topics as well as analytical and numerical solution techniques. Readers gain the ability to solve complex problems generally not addressed in undergraduate-level courses, including nonlinear, multidimensional transport, and transient molecular and convective transport scenarios. Avoiding rote memorization, the author em

  17. Evidence on Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Rode; Sommersel, Hanna Bjørnøy; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    This publication is an excerpt from the full technical report ‘Dropout Phenomena at Universities: What is Dropout? Why does Dropout Occur? What Can be Done by the Universities to Prevent or Reduce it? A systematic review’, which was completed in April 2013. The purpose of this excerpt is to present...... the knowledge we have on dropout phenomena at European universities in a short, precise and comprehensible form to allow readers to orient themselves on the subject in a more readable manner....

  18. Polarization phenomena in two body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of strong interactions at very low, low, intermediate, and high energies over the range 6.14 MeV to 150 GeV/c with regard to polarization phenomena in two-body systems. From the one-pion-exchange model to the theory that can possibly relate to all the phenomena, namely, quantum electrodynamics the review pointed to a unified explanation for the interactions under study. 46 references

  19. Second DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This conference has been organized into ten presentation sessions which include an overview of the DOE Natural Phenomena Guidelines, Seismic Analysis, Seismic Design, Modifying Existing Facilities, DOE Orders, Codes, and Standards (2 sessions), Seismic Hazard (2 sessions), and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (2 sessions). Two poster sessions were also included in the program to provide a different forum for communication of ideas. Over the past fourteen years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Safety Program, has been working with the US Department of Energy, Office of Safety Appraisals and their predecessors in the area of natural phenomena hazards. During this time we have developed seismic, extreme wind/tornado, and flood hazard models for DOE sites in the United States. Guidelines for designing and evaluating DOE facilities for natural phenomena have been developed and are in interim use throughout the DOE community. A series of state-of-the practice manuals have also been developed to aid the designers. All of this material is listed in the Natural Phenomena Hazards Bibliography included in these proceedings. This conference provides a mechanism to disseminate current information on natural phenomena hazards and their mitigation. It provides an opportunity to bring together members of the DOE community to discuss current projects, to share information, and to hear practicing members of the structural engineering community discuss their experiences from past natural phenomena, future trends, and any changes to building codes. Each paper or poster presented is included in these proceedings. We have also included material related to the luncheon and dinner talks

  20. Geochemical modelling: what phenomena are missing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, P.

    1989-12-01

    In the framework of safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, retention phenomena are usually taken into account by the Kd concept. It is well recognized that this concept is not enough for safety assessment models, because of the several and strong assumptions which are involved in this kind of representation. One way to have a better representation of the retention phenomena, is to substitute for this Kd concept an explicit description of geochemical phenomena and then couple transport codes with geochemical codes in a fully or a two-step procedure. We use currently such codes, but the scope of this paper is to display the limits today of the geochemical modelling in connection with sites analysis for deep disposal. In this paper, we intend to give an overview of phenomena which are missing in the geochemical models, or which are not completely introduced in the models. We can distinguish, on one hand phenomena for which modelling concepts exist such as adsorption/desorption and, on the other hand, phenomena for which modelling concepts do not exist for the moment such as colloids, and complexation by polyelectrolyte solutions (organics). Moreover we have to take care of very low concentrations of radionuclides, which can be expected from the leaching processes in the repository. Under those conditions, some reactions may not occur. After a critical review of the involved phenomena, we intend to stress the main directions of the wishful evolution of the geochemical modelling. This evolution should improve substantially the quality of the above-mentioned site assessments

  1. [Spiritual phenomena occurring in everybody and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsiak, M

    2008-01-01

    The past several years have seen an explosion of research in the area of spirituality and health. However, confusion and incomprehension of the conception of spirituality (e.g. confounding spirituality with various conventional views on religiousness) hampers better understanding in this area. The present paper proposes definition of spiritual phenomena in man based on natural epistemological and instrumental criteria (whether a certain phenomenon can be objectively known and evoked): spiritual phenomena in man are those, which cannot be objectively known nor evoked, but which act (e.g., love, idea). Spiritual phenomena can be really known only in the self ("in spirit"). Objectively known can be only manifestations of spiritual phenomena. Some attributes of love (e.g. its personal uniqueness) or ideas (e.g., sense of own life) whose satisfaction appears to be important for health are briefly outlined. A review of some frequently cited recent papers investigating the role of spirituality in health and discussion of frequent pitfalls in this area is given. Spirituality is a universal human phenomenon. All human beings, secular or religious, encounter with spiritual phenomena. Although the present conception of spirituality distances from some conventional views on religiousness, it is not atheistic. On the contrary, it accommodates the basic religious concept "God is love". Conceptual clarification is essential for further progress in the study of impact of spirituality on health.

  2. The making of extraordinary psychological phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the extraordinary phenomena that have been central to unorthodox areas of psychological knowledge. It shows how even the agreed facts relating to mesmerism, spiritualism, psychical research, and parapsychology have been framed as evidence both for and against the reality of the phenomena. It argues that these disputes can be seen as a means through which beliefs have been formulated and maintained in the face of potentially challenging evidence. It also shows how these disputes appealed to different forms of expertise, and that both sides appealed to belief in various ways as part of the ongoing dispute about both the facts and expertise. Finally, it shows how, when a formal Psychology of paranormal belief emerged in the twentieth century, it took two different forms, each reflecting one side of the ongoing dispute about the reality of the phenomena. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. SEARCHING FOR ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, PHENOMENA AND MECHANISMS IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF CHROMOSOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kanev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Our studies reveal previously unidentified electrical properties of chromosomes: (1 chromosomes are amazingly similar in construction and function to electrical transformers; (2 chromosomes possess in their construction and function, components similar to those of electric generators, conductors, condensers, switches, and other components of electrical circuits; (3 chromosomes demonstrate in nano-scale level electromagnetic interactions, resonance, fusion and other phenomena similar to those described by equations in classical physics. These electrical properties and phenomena provide a possible explanation for unclear and poorly understood mechanisms in clinical genetics including: (a electrically based mechanisms responsible for breaks, translocations, fusions, and other chromosomal abnormalities associated with cancer, intellectual disability, infertility, pregnancy loss, Down syndrome, and other genetic disorders; (b electrically based mechanisms involved in crossing over, non-disjunction and other events during meiosis and mitosis; (c mechanisms demonstrating heterochromatin to be electrically active and genetically important.

  4. Self field electromagnetism and quantum phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1994-07-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) has been extremely successful inits predictive capability for atomic phenomena. Thus the greatest hope for any alternative view is solely to mimic the predictive capability of quantum mechanics (QM), and perhaps its usefulness will lie in gaining a better understanding of microscopic phenomena. Many ?paradoxes? and problematic situations emerge in QED. To combat the QED problems, the field of Stochastics Electrodynamics (SE) emerged, wherein a random ?zero point radiation? is assumed to fill all of space in an attmept to explain quantum phenomena, without some of the paradoxical concerns. SE, however, has greater failings. One is that the electromagnetic field energy must be infinit eto work. We have examined a deterministic side branch of SE, ?self field? electrodynamics, which may overcome the probelms of SE. Self field electrodynamics (SFE) utilizes the chaotic nature of electromagnetic emissions, as charges lose energy near atomic dimensions, to try to understand and mimic quantum phenomena. These fields and charges can ?interact with themselves? in a non-linear fashion, and may thereby explain many quantum phenomena from a semi-classical viewpoint. Referred to as self fields, they have gone by other names in the literature: ?evanesccent radiation?, ?virtual photons?, and ?vacuum fluctuations?. Using self fields, we discuss the uncertainty principles, the Casimir effects, and the black-body radiation spectrum, diffraction and interference effects, Schrodinger's equation, Planck's constant, and the nature of the electron and how they might be understood in the present framework. No new theory could ever replace QED. The self field view (if correct) would, at best, only serve to provide some understanding of the processes by which strange quantum phenomena occur at the atomic level. We discuss possible areas where experiments might be employed to test SFE, and areas where future work may lie.

  5. Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, Masato

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)

  6. Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang

    1994-01-01

    A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.

  7. Arcing phenomena in fusion devices workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausing, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The workshop on arcing phenomena in fusion devices was organized (1) to review the pesent status of our understanding of arcing as it relates to confinement devices, (2) to determine what informaion is needed to suppress arcing and (3) to define both laboratory and in-situ experiments which can ultimately lead to reduction of impurities in the plasma caused by arcing. The workshop was attended by experts in the area of vacuum arc electrode phenomena and ion source technology, materials scientists, and both theoreticians and experimentalists engaged in assessing the importance of unipolar arcing in today's tokamaks. Abstracts for papers presented at the workshop are included

  8. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Silicone elastomers have been heavily investigated as candidates for dielectric elastomers and are as such almost ideal candidates with their inherent softness and compliance but they suffer from low dielectric permittivity. This shortcoming has been sought optimized by many means during recent...... years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we investigate the electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers. Two types...... of silicone elastomers are investigated and different types of breakdown are discussed. Furthermore the use of voltage stabilizers in silicone-based dielectric elastomers is investigated and discussed....

  9. Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2004-01-01

    From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.

  10. Ordering phenomena in ABA triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynders, K.; Mischenko, N.; Kleppinger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network). The lat......Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network...

  11. Third DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This conference on Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation has been organized into 15 presentation, panel, and poster sessions. The sessions included an overview of activities at DOE Headquarters; natural phenomena hazards tasks underway for DOE; two sessions on codes, standards, orders, criteria, and guidelines; two sessions on seismic hazards; equipment qualification; wind; PRA and margin assessments; modifications, retrofit, and restart; underground structures with a panel discussion; seismic analysis; seismic evaluation and design; and a poster session. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  12. CP violating phenomena and theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1987-01-01

    An introduction to CP violating phenomena is given and the standard model and its most popular low energy extensions in this context are reviewed. The discussion comprises the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, left-right symmetry, the standard model with more than one Higgs doublet and gauged horizontal symmetries. (Author)

  13. Collision and interaction phenomena - a historical outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radmaneche, R.

    1977-09-01

    Collisions and interactions have become important for the description of matter. The author presents an outline which deals with elastic and inelastic collisions, with strong interactions, electromagnetic interactions, weak interactions and gravitational interactions. It is shown that the description of such processes has developed parallel with the understanding of matter and with the mechanism of the phenomena. Current and unsolved problems are mentioned

  14. Transport phenomena in materials processing---1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, B.J.; Lior, N.; Lavine, A.; Flik, M.; Karwe, M.V.; Bergman, T.L.; Beckermann, C.; Charmchi, M.

    1990-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume represent a wide range of current research interests in processes such as food and polymer processing, casting, welding, machining, laser cutting, and superconductor processing. This volume includes papers presented in four sessions: Heat Transfer in Materials Processing; Thermal Phenomena in Superconductor Processing; Heat Transfer in Food and Polymer Processing; Heat Transfer in CAsting and Welding

  15. Homoclinic phenomena in the gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koiller, J.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Soares, I.D.

    1984-01-01

    A class of Bianchi IX cosmological models is shown to have chaotic gravitational collapse, due to Poincare's homoclinic phenomena. Such models can be programmed so that for any given positive integer N (N=infinity included) the universe undergoes N non-periodic oscillations (each oscillation requiring a long time) before collapsing. For N=infinity the universe undergoes periodic oscillations. (Author) [pt

  16. Novel experimentally observed phenomena in soft matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The resulting flow is non-Newtonian and is characterized by features such as shear rate-dependent viscosities and nonzero normal stresses. This article begins with an introduction to some unusual flow properties displayed by soft matter. Experiments that report a spectrum of novel phenomena exhibited by these materials, ...

  17. Some Phenomena on Negative Inversion Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tae-Soo

    2013-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of NDI (negative degree inversion) and its relation with other inversion phenomena such as SVI (subject-verb inversion) and SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion). The negative element in the NDI construction may be" not," a negative adverbial, or a negative verb. In this respect, NDI has similar licensing…

  18. Hyperchaotic phenomena in dynamic decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Mosekilde, Erik; Sterman, John David

    1992-01-01

    of this article is to show how the decision making behavior of real people in simulated corporate environments can lead to chaotic, hyperchaotic and higher-order hyperchaotic phenomena. Characteristics features of these complicated forms of behavior are analyzed with particular emphasis on an interesting form...

  19. Reduplication phenomena: body, mind and archetype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J

    2000-09-01

    The many biological and few psychodynamic explanations of reduplicative syndromes tend to have paralleled the dualism of the phenomenon with organic theories concentrating on form and dynamic theories emphasising content. This paper extends the contribution of psychoanalytic thinking to an elucidation of the form of the delusion. Literature on clinical and aetiological aspects of reduplicative phenomena is reviewed alongside a brief examination of psychoanalytic models not overtly related to these phenomena. The human experience of doubles as universal archetype is considered. There is an obvious aetiological role for brain lesions in delusional misidentifications, but psychological symptoms in an individual can rarely be reduced to an organic disorder. The splitting and doubling which occurs in the phenomena have resonances in cultural mythology and in theories from different schools of psychodynamic thought. For the individual patient and doctor, it is a diverting but potentially empty debate to endeavour to draw strict divisions between what is physical and what is psychological although both need to be investigated. Nevertheless, in patients in whom there is clear evidence of an organic contribution to aetiology a psychodynamic understanding may serve to illuminate the patient's experience. Organic brain disease or serious functional illness predispose to regression to earlier modes of archetypical and primitive thinking with concretization of the metaphorical and mythological world. Psychoanalytic models have a contribution in describing the form as well as the content of reduplicative phenomena.

  20. DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The conference includes sessions which present an overview of DOE programs, available codes, standards and criteria, examples of designs and upgrades from the DOE complex, lessons learned from past natural phenomena, ground motion, seismic evaluation of equipment, and applications of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to DOE facilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  1. Interface-induced phenomena in magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellman, Frances; Hoffmann, A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Beach, Geoffrey S.D.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Leighton, Chris; Macdonald, Allan H.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Arena, Dario A.; Dürr, Hermann A.; Fischer, Peter; Grollier, Julie; Heremans, Joseph P.; Jungwirth, Tomas; Kimel, Alexey V.; Koopmans, B.; Krivorotov, Ilya N.; May, Steven J.; Petford-Long, Amanda K.; Rondinelli, James M.; Samarth, Nitin; Schuller, Ivan K.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Stiles, Mark D.; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Thiaville, André; Zink, Barry L.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews static and dynamic interfacial effects in magnetism, focusing on interfacially driven magnetic effects and phenomena associated with spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic symmetry breaking at interfaces. It provides a historical background and literature survey, but focuses on

  2. Analysis of induction phenomena in thermonuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeds, W.E.; Dodd, C.V.

    1976-01-01

    Many of the problems involving transients induced by changing currents in the large coils of thermonuclear machines are identical to those arising in nondestructive testing by eddy currents. There are three chief methods used for calculating such induction phenomena: analytical boundary-value solutions, relaxation or iteration techniques, and model experiments. Some of the results obtained by each of these methods are described below

  3. Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an

  4. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we focus on the chloro propyl functionalized silicone elastomers prepared in Madsen et al[2] and we investigate the electrical...

  5. Simple classical approach to spin resonance phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, R A

    1977-01-01

    A simple classical method of describing spin resonance in terms of the average power absorbed by a spin system is discussed. The method has several advantages over more conventional treatments, and a number of important spin resonance phenomena, not normally considered at the introductory level...

  6. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.

  7. Understanding the physics of changing mass phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellermeijer, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    Changing mass phenomena, like a falling chain or a bungee jumper, might give surprising results, even for experienced physicists. They have resulted in hot discussions in journals, in which for instance Physics professors claim the impossibility of an acceleration larger then g in case of a bungee

  8. Solar Phenomena Associated with "EIT Waves"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Myers, D. C.; Thompson, B. J.; Hammer, D. M.; Vourlidas, A.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to understand what an 'EIT wave' is and what its causes are, we have looked for correlations between the initiation of EIT waves and the occurrence of other solar phenomena. An EIT wave is a coronal disturbance, typically appearing as a diffuse brightening propagating across the Sun. A catalog of EIT waves, covering the period from 1997 March through 1998 June, was used in this study. For each EIT wave, the catalog gives the heliographic location and a rating for each wave, where the rating is determined by the reliability of the observations. Since EIT waves are transient, coronal phenomena, we have looked for correlations with other transient, coronal phenomena: X-ray flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and metric type II radio bursts. An unambiguous correlation between EIT waves and CMEs has been found. The correlation of EIT waves with flares is significantly weaker, and EIT waves frequently are not accompanied by radio bursts. To search for trends in the data, proxies for each of these transient phenomena are examined. We also use the accumulated data to show the robustness of the catalog and to reveal biases that must be accounted for in this study.

  9. Genetics for the ophthalmologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan A Sadagopan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The eye has played a major role in human genomics including gene therapy. It is the fourth most common organ system after integument (skin, hair and nails, nervous system, and musculoskeletal system to be involved in genetic disorders. The eye is involved in single gene disorders and those caused by multifactorial etiology. Retinoblastoma was the first human cancer gene to be cloned. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy was the first mitochondrial disorder described. X-Linked red-green color deficiency was the first X-linked disorder described. The eye, unlike any other body organ, allows directly visualization of genetic phenomena such as skewed X-inactivation in the fundus of a female carrier of ocular albinism. Basic concepts of genetics and their application to clinical ophthalmological practice are important not only in making a precise diagnosis and appropriate referral, but also in management and genetic counseling.

  10. Exotic Phenomena Searches at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00305407

    2013-01-01

    This review presents a selection of the final results of searches for various exotic physics phenomena in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and 8~TeV delivered by the LHC and collected with the ATLAS and CMS detectors in 2011 (5 $fb^{-1}$) and in the first part of 2012 (4 $fb^{-1}$). Searches for large extra dimensions, gravitons, microscopic black holes, long-lived particles, dark matter, and leptoquarks are presented in this report. No sign of new physics beyond the standard model has been observed so far. In the majority of the cases these searches set the most stringent limits to date on the aforementioned new physics phenomena.

  11. Renormalization group theory of critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, S.V.G.

    1995-01-01

    Renormalization group theory is a framework for describing those phenomena that involve a multitude of scales of variations of microscopic quantities. Systems in the vicinity of continuous phase transitions have spatial correlations at all length scales. The renormalization group theory and the pertinent background material are introduced and applied to some important problems in this monograph. The monograph begins with a historical survey of thermal phase transitions. The background material leading to the renormalization group theory is covered in the first three chapters. Then, the basic techniques of the theory are introduced and applied to magnetic critical phenomena in the next four chapters. The momentum space approach as well as the real space techniques are, thus, discussed in detail. Finally, brief outlines of applications of the theory to some of the related areas are presented in the last chapter. (author)

  12. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, \\tau, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical poi...

  13. Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.

    2004-01-01

    We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.

  14. Tunable caustic phenomena in electron wavefields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavabi, Amir Hossein, E-mail: a.tavabi@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Migunov, Vadim; Dwyer, Christian; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Pozzi, Giulio [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Novel caustic phenomena, which contain fold, butterfly and elliptic umbilic catastrophes, are observed in defocused images of two approximately collinear oppositely biased metallic tips in a transmission electron microscope. The observed patterns depend sensitively on defocus, on the applied voltage between the tips and on their separation and lateral offset. Their main features are interpreted on the basis of a projected electrostatic potential model for the electron-optical phase shift. - Highlights: • Electron-optical caustics are observed in defocused images of biased metallic tips. • The caustics depend on defocus, on the bias between the tips and on their separation. • The setup offers the flexibility to study a wide variety of caustic phenomena.

  15. Basic transport phenomena in materials engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the basic theory and experimental techniques of transport phenomena in materials processing operations. Such fundamental knowledge is highly useful for researchers and engineers in the field to improve the efficiency of conventional processes or develop novel technology. Divided into four parts, the book comprises 11 chapters describing the principles of momentum transfer, heat transfer, and mass transfer in single phase and multiphase systems. Each chapter includes examples with solutions and exercises to facilitate students’ learning. Diagnostic problems are also provided at the end of each part to assess students’ comprehension of the material.  The book is aimed primarily at students in materials science and engineering. However, it can also serve as a useful reference text in chemical engineering as well as an introductory transport phenomena text in mechanical engineering. In addition, researchers and engineers engaged in materials processing operations will find the material use...

  16. Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long......-range excitations, `wring' modes, that play an important role in protein denaturation and stability. Energy can be pumped into these excitations, either thermally or by an external force....

  17. Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    This book contains a thorough treatment of neural networks, cellular-automata and synergetics, in an attempt to provide three different approaches to nonlinear phenomena in complex systems. These topics are of major interest to physicists active in the fields of statistical mechanics and dynamical systems. They have been developed with a high degree of sophistication and include the refinements necessary to work with the complexity of real systems as well as the more recent research developments in these areas.

  18. Role of spinning electrons in paramagnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, D.M.

    1986-06-01

    An attempt is made to explain paramagnetic phenomena without assuming the orientation of a molecule or ion in a magnetic field. Only the spin angular momentum is assumed to be responsible. A derivative of the Gurie-Langevin law and the magnetic moments of ions are given as a function of the number of electrons in an inner, incomplete shell. An explanation of Gerlach's experiments with iron and nickel vapors is attempted. An explanation of magnetomechanical experiments with ferromagnetic elements is given

  19. From critical phenomena to gauge gields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bellac, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this book the author gives an introduction to the following questions: critical phenomena (Landau theory, renormalization group, two dimensional models); Perturbation theory and renormalization, scalar euclidian field (Feynman diagrams, Callan-Symanzik equations); Quantum theory of scalar fields (path integrals in quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, green functions and S matrix, quantization of Klein-Gordon field); Gauge theories (quantization of Dirac field and electromagnetic field, quantum electrodynamics, non-abelian gauge theories) [fr

  20. Pseudogap phenomena in ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qijin; Wang, Jibiao

    2014-01-01

    The pairing and superfluid phenomena in a two-component ultracold atomic Fermi gas is an analogue of Cooper pairing and superconductivity in an electron system, in particular, the high $T_c$ superconductors. Owing to the various tunable parameters that have been made accessible experimentally in recent years, atomic Fermi gases can be explored as a prototype or quantum simulator of superconductors. It is hoped that, utilizing such an analogy, the study of atomic Fermi gases may shed light to ...

  1. Occult Phenomena in Sherlock Holmes the Movie

    OpenAIRE

    NAMAZCARRA, CHRIESHER

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Occult phenomena, Sherlock Holmes, movie. Lately, it is not difficult for people to find occult practices. There are many television programs and movie which air mystical programme aggressively to raise the rating and attract the viewers. A movie that raise occultism theme is Sherlock Holmes, the Movie. This movie tells about the struggle of detective Sherlock Holmes to fight the black magic power of Lord Blackwood.To carry out the study, the theories of Occultism such as the secrec...

  2. Investigation of oscillating airfoil shock phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano , Daniel; Fleeter , Sanford

    1992-01-01

    Fundamental experiments were performed in an unsteady flow water table facility to investigate and quantify the unsteady aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil executing torsion mode oscillations at realistic reduced frequencies. A computer-based image enhancement system was used to measure the oscillating supersonic and transonic shock flow phenomena. By utilizing the hydraulic analogy to compare experimental results with a linear theoretical prediction, magnitude and phase relationships for the...

  3. Conformal field theories and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bowei

    1993-01-01

    In this article we present a brief review of the conformal symmetry and the two dimensional conformal quantum field theories. As concrete applications of the conformal theories to the critical phenomena in statistical systems, we calculate the value of central charge and the anomalous scale dimensions of the Z 2 symmetric quantum chain with boundary condition. The results are compatible with the prediction of the conformal field theories

  4. An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bum-Jin [Ministry of Science & Technology, Kyunggi-Do (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of); Kang, Chang-Sun, [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.

  5. Quantum Chess: Making Quantum Phenomena Accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Christopher

    Quantum phenomena have remained largely inaccessible to the general public. There tends to be a scare factor associated with the word ``Quantum''. This is in large part due to the alien nature of phenomena such as superposition and entanglement. However, Quantum Computing is a very active area of research and one day we will have games that run on those quantum computers. Quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement will seem as normal as gravity. Is it possible to create such games today? Can we make games that are built on top of a realistic quantum simulation and introduce players of any background to quantum concepts in a fun and mentally stimulating way? One of the difficulties with any quantum simulation run on a classical computer is that the Hilbert space grows exponentially, making simulations of an appreciable size physically impossible due largely to memory restrictions. Here we will discuss the conception and development of Quantum Chess, and how to overcome some of the difficulties faced. We can then ask the question, ``What's next?'' What are some of the difficulties Quantum Chess still faces, and what is the future of quantum games?

  6. Thermal transport phenomena in nanoparticle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Bozorg Bigdeli, Masoud; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have received great attention, as they may offer an approach to enhance thermophysical properties of base fluids. A good variety of applications in engineering and biomedicine has been investigated with the aim of exploiting the above potential. However, the multiscale nature of nanosuspensions raises several issues in defining a comprehensive modelling framework, incorporating relevant molecular details and much larger scale phenomena, such as particle aggregation and their dynamics. The objectives of the present topical review is to report and discuss the main heat and mass transport phenomena ruling macroscopic behaviour of nanosuspensions, arising from molecular details. Relevant experimental results are included and properly put in the context of recent observations and theoretical studies, which solved long-standing debates about thermophysical properties enhancement. Major transport phenomena are discussed and in-depth analysis is carried out for highlighting the role of geometrical (nanoparticle shape, size, aggregation, concentration), chemical (pH, surfactants, functionalization) and physical parameters (temperature, density). We finally overview several computational techniques available at different scales with the aim of drawing the attention on the need for truly multiscale predictive models. This may help the development of next-generation nanoparticle suspensions and their rational use in thermal applications. (topical review)

  7. Physical phenomena as sense determinate occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In the view of El Naschie's E Infinity theory [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 22 (2004) 495], our physical laws emerge from a chaotic underground, a 'Dirac-sea'. But we have no direct access from our observations to this chaotic world and this implies that the meaning of the correspondence between the phenomena we obtain by our cognition and their causal structures remains hidden to us. The fundamental process which produces our cognition is the 'constitution of sense'. A formal description of this process will be presented. We use Dempster Shafer's belief calculus to define 'belief' and motivate an Anticipation Principle: 'Put the measurements obtained from the world in such an order that the credibility of your forecasts will be maximized.' From this specification of the basic idea of what physical science ideally strives for, we are able to deduce a frame of reference for the formation of phenomena out of arbitrary sets of measurements. Reality is formed by these 'observable phenomena'. In this emerging reality, we recognize characteristic effects and principles of modern physics: Einstein's Postulate of Relativity, Entanglement, and the Quantum Zeno Effect. The presented view of reality is closely related to the ideas that had been presented hundred years ago by Ernst Mach and which recently J. Anandan generalized in his concept of a 'Relational Reality'

  8. Some aspects of geomagnetically conjugate phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, M.J.

    1987-12-01

    Both charged particles and waves convey information about the thermosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa, along geomagnetic flux tubes.The interhemispheric travel time of electrons or ions, being dependent upon L-value , pitch angle and energy (which may lie between less than or equal to 1 eV and greater than or equal to 1 MeV) may be many hours, ranging down to less than or equal to 1 s. However, the one-hop propagation time for magnetohydrodynamic or whistler mode waves generally lies between 10/sup 2/s and 1 s. Such times, therefore, give the time scales of transient phenomena that are geomagnetically conjugate and of changes in steady-state plasma processes occurring in geomagnetically conjugate regions. Contrasting examples are presented of conjugate physical phenomena, obtained using satellite, rocket, aircraft and ground-based observations; the latter capitalise upon the rather rare disposition of land - rather than ocean - at each end of a geophysically interesting flux tube. Particular attention is paid to the interactions between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons. Geomagnetic, radio, optical and plasma observations, taken together with model computations, provide a wealth of knowledge on conjugate phenomena and their dependence on conditions in the solar wind, substorms, L-value, etc... Finally, some suggestions are made for future lines of research.

  9. Studies of Novel Quantum Phenomena in Ruthenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Zhiqiang

    2011-04-08

    Strongly correlated oxides have been the subject of intense study in contemporary condensed matter physics, and perovskite ruthenates (Sr,Ca)n+1RunO3n+1 have become a new focus in this field. One of important characteristics of ruthenates is that both lattice and orbital degrees of freedom are active and are strongly coupled to charge and spin degrees of freedom. Such a complex interplay of multiple degrees of freedom causes the properties of ruthenates to exhibit a gigantic response to external stimuli under certain circumstances. Magnetic field, pressure, and chemical composition all have been demonstrated to be effective in inducing electronic/magnetic phase transitions in ruthenates. Therefore, ruthenates are ideal candidates for searching for novel quantum phenomena through controlling external parameters. The objective of this project is to search for novel quantum phenomena in ruthenate materials using high-quality single crystals grown by the floating-zone technique, and investigate the underlying physics. The following summarizes our accomplishments. We have focused on trilayered Sr4Ru3O10 and bilayered (Ca1-xSrx)3Ru2O7. We have succeeded in growing high-quality single crystals of these materials using the floating-zone technique and performed systematic studies on their electronic and magnetic properties through a variety of measurements, including resistivity, Hall coefficient, angle-resolved magnetoresistivity, Hall probe microscopy, and specific heat. We have also studied microscopic magnetic properties for some of these materials using neutron scattering in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have observed a number of unusual exotic quantum phenomena through these studies, such as an orbital selective metamagnetic transition, bulk spin valve effect, and a heavy-mass nearly ferromagnetic state with a surprisingly large Wilson ratio. Our work has also revealed underlying physics of these exotic phenomena. Exotic phenomena of correlated

  10. In vessel core melt progression phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtaud, M.

    1993-01-01

    For all light water reactor (LWR) accidents, including the so called severe accidents where core melt down can occur, it is necessary to determine the amount and characteristics of fission products released to the environment. For existing reactors this knowledge is used to evaluate the consequences and eventual emergency plans. But for future reactors safety authorities demand decrease risks and reactors designed in such a way that fission products are retained inside the containment, the last protective barrier. This requires improved understanding and knowledge of all accident sequences. In particular it is necessary to be able to describe the very complex phenomena occurring during in vessel core melt progression because they will determine the thermal and mechanical loads on the primary circuit and the timing of its rupture as well as the fission product source term. On the other hand, in case of vessel failure, knowledge of the physical and chemical state of the core melt will provide the initial conditions for analysis of ex-vessel core melt progression and phenomena threatening the containment. Finally a good understanding of in vessel phenomena will help to improve accident management procedures like Emergency Core Cooling System water injection, blowdown and flooding of the vessel well, with their possible adverse effects. Research and Development work on this subject was initiated a long time ago and is still in progress but now it must be intensified in order to meet the safety requirements of the next generation of reactors. Experiments, limited in scale, analysis of the TMI 2 accident which is a unique source of global information and engineering judgment are used to establish and assess physical models that can be implemented in computer codes for reactor accident analysis

  11. BWR core melt progression phenomena: Experimental analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the BWR Core Melt in Progression Phenomena Program, experimental results concerning severe fuel damage and core melt progression in BWR core geometry are used to evaluate existing models of the governing phenomena. These include control blade eutectic liquefaction and the subsequent relocation and attack on the channel box structure; oxidation heating and hydrogen generation; Zircaloy melting and relocation; and the continuing oxidation of zirconium with metallic blockage formation. Integral data have been obtained from the BWR DF-4 experiment in the ACRR and from BWR tests in the German CORA exreactor fuel-damage test facility. Additional integral data will be obtained from new CORA BWR test, the full-length FLHT-6 BWR test in the NRU test reactor, and the new program of exreactor experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on metallic melt relocation and blockage formation. an essential part of this activity is interpretation and use of the results of the BWR tests. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed experiment-specific models for analysis of the BWR experiments; to date, these models have permitted far more precise analyses of the conditions in these experiments than has previously been available. These analyses have provided a basis for more accurate interpretation of the phenomena that the experiments are intended to investigate. The results of posttest analyses of BWR experiments are discussed and significant findings from these analyses are explained. The ORNL control blade/canister models with materials interaction, relocation and blockage models are currently being implemented in SCDAP/RELAP5 as an optional structural component

  12. ACCIDENT PHENOMENA OF RISK IMPORTANCE PROJECT - Continued RESEARCH CONCERNING SEVERE ACCIDENT PHENOMENA AND MANAGEMENT IN Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolandson, S.; Mueller, F.; Loevenhielm, G.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1988 all reactors in Sweden have mitigating measures, such as filtered vents, implemented. In parallel with the work of implementing these measures, a cooperation effort (RAMA projects) between the Swedish utilities and the Nuclear Power Inspectorate was performed to acquire sufficient knowledge about severe accident research work. The on-going project has the name Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3. In this paper, we will give background information about severe accident management in Sweden. In the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project we will focus on the work concerning coolability of melted core in lower plenum which is the main focus of the In-vessel Coolability Task Group within the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project. The Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project has joined on international consortium and the in-vessel cooling experiments are performed by Fauske and Associates, Inc. in Burr Ridge, Illinois, United States America, Sweden also intends to do one separate experiment with one instrument penetration we have in Swedish/Finnish BWR's. Other parts of the Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance 3 project, such as support to level 2 studies, the research at Royal Institute of Technology and participation in international programs, such as Cooperative Severe Accident Research Program, Advanced Containment Experiments and PHEBUS will be briefly described in the paper

  13. Jets and large Psub(T) phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, D. S.

    1980-07-01

    Jets have been observed in hadron-hadron collisions and e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation at high energies. An attempt is made to explain the mechanism for the production of jets. The mechanism of quark-fragmentation is described with illustrations. Basic concepts and assumptions are used to study the distribution of quarks and gluons in a hadron. Quark and gluon decay distributions, and the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons, Monte-Carlo methods in the study of jets, large Psub(T) phenomena in hadrons, QCD effects in hadronization of quark jets are discussed.

  14. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Ishida, Naoki

    1995-01-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity

  15. Modeling in transport phenomena a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tosun, Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Modeling in Transport Phenomena, Second Edition presents and clearly explains with example problems the basic concepts and their applications to fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction engineering and thermodynamics. A balanced approach is presented between analysis and synthesis, students will understand how to use the solution in engineering analysis. Systematic derivations of the equations and the physical significance of each term are given in detail, for students to easily understand and follow up the material. There is a strong incentive in science and engineering to

  16. General unifying features of controlled quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechen, Alexander; Brif, Constantin; Wu, Rebing; Chakrabarti, Raj; Rabitz, Herschel

    2010-01-01

    Many proposals have been put forth for controlling quantum phenomena, including open-loop, adaptive feedback, and real-time feedback control. Each of these approaches has been viewed as operationally, and even physically, distinct from the others. This work shows that all such scenarios inherently share the same fundamental control features residing in the topology of the landscape relating the target physical observable to the applied controls. This unified foundation may provide a basis for development of hybrid control schemes that would combine the advantages of the existing approaches to achieve the best overall performance.

  17. Simple models of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebowitz, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This volume consists of two chapters of particular interest to researchers in the field of statistical mechanics. The first chapter is based on the premise that the best way to understand the qualitative properties that characterize many-body (i.e. macroscopic) systems is to study 'a number of the more significant model systems which, at least in principle are susceptible of complete analysis'. The second chapter deals exclusively with nonequilibrium phenomena. It reviews the theory of fluctuations in open systems to which they have made important contributions. Simple but interesting model examples are emphasised

  18. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Hanna, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

  19. Cooperative phenomena in flows; Poster abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loekseth, Trine (ed.)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this 'Geilo School' was to bring together researchers with various interests and background including theoretical experimental physicists, material scientists and molecular biologists to identify and discuss areas where synergism between these disciplines may be most fruitfully applied to the study of various aspects of 'Cooperative phenomena in flows'. There were altogether 21 lecturers at the School with about 80 participants from 19 countries. This was the 21. Geilo School held biannually since the first one in I971. Reference to the earlier Geilo Schools 1971-2009 may be found here: http://www.ife.no/departments/physics/projects/geilo (Author)

  20. Current position on severe accident phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Robert E [Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The phenomena addressed in this lecture are: in-vessel and ex-vessel hydrogen generation; in-vessel and in-containment natural circulation, steam explosions, direct containment heating, core-concrete interaction; debris coolability, containment strength/failure. The following events were modeled: axial and radial power distribution, two-phase level in the core, steam generation in covered section, decay heat generation, convection to gas, cladding oxidation, cold ballooning and rupture, natural circulation between the core and upper plenum, hydrogen generation, core meltdown, reflooding. Differences between PWR and BWR type reactors.

  1. Current position on severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    The phenomena addressed in this lecture are: in-vessel and ex-vessel hydrogen generation; in-vessel and in-containment natural circulation, steam explosions, direct containment heating, core-concrete interaction; debris coolability, containment strength/failure. The following events were modeled: axial and radial power distribution, two-phase level in the core, steam generation in covered section, decay heat generation, convection to gas, cladding oxidation, cold ballooning and rupture, natural circulation between the core and upper plenum, hydrogen generation, core meltdown, reflooding. Differences between PWR and BWR type reactors

  2. Cooperative phenomena in flows; Poster abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loekseth, Trine [ed.

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this 'Geilo School' was to bring together researchers with various interests and background including theoretical experimental physicists, material scientists and molecular biologists to identify and discuss areas where synergism between these disciplines may be most fruitfully applied to the study of various aspects of 'Cooperative phenomena in flows'. There were altogether 21 lecturers at the School with about 80 participants from 19 countries. This was the 21. Geilo School held biannually since the first one in I971. Reference to the earlier Geilo Schools 1971-2009 may be found here: http://www.ife.no/departments/physics/projects/geilo (Author)

  3. Critical phenomena and renormalization group transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, C.; Castro, C. di

    1980-01-01

    Our main goal is to guide the reader to find out the common rational behind the various renormalization procedures which have been proposed in the last ten years. In the first part of these lectures old arguments on universality and scaling will be briefly recalled. To our opinion these introductory remarks allow one to stress the physical origin of the two majore renormalization procedures, which have been used in the theory of critical phenomena: the Wilson and the field theoretic approach. All the general properties of a ''good'' renormalization transformation will also come out quite naturally. (author)

  4. Phenomena and parameters important to burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Dehart, M.D.; Wagner, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a significant number of studies have been directed at understanding the phenomena and parameters important to implementation of burnup credit in out-of-reactor applications involving pressurized-water- reactor (PWR) spent fuel. The efforts directed at burnup credit involving boiling-water-reactor (BWR) spent fuel have been more limited. This paper reviews the knowledge and experience gained from work performed in the United States and other countries in the study of burnup credit. Relevant physics and analysis phenomenon are identified, and an assessment of their importance to burnup credit implementation for transport and dry cask storage is given. (author)

  5. Chalcogenides Metastability and Phase Change Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kolobov, Alexander V

    2012-01-01

    A state-of-the-art description of metastability observed in chalcogenide alloys is presented with the accent on the underlying physics. A comparison is made between sulphur(selenium)-based chalcogenide glasses, where numerous photo-induced phenomena take place entirely within the amorphous phase, and tellurides where a reversible crystal-to-amorphous phase-change transformation is a major effect. Applications of metastability in devices¿optical memories and nonvolatile electronic phase-change random-access memories among others are discussed, including the latest trends. Background material essential for understanding current research in the field is also provided.

  6. Nanoscale and microscale phenomena fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    The book is an outcome of research work in the areas of nanotechnology, interfacial science, nano- and micro-fluidics and manufacturing, soft matter, and transport phenomena at nano- and micro-scales. The contributing authors represent prominent research groups from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The book has 13 chapters and the entire work presented in the chapters is based on research carried out over past three years. The chapters are designed with number of coloured illustrations, figures and tables. The book will be highly beneficial to academicians as well as industrial professionals working in the mentioned areas.

  7. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E.; Hanna, B.

    1997-01-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described

  8. Layered phenomena in the mesopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Bailey, S. M.; Baumgarten, G.; Rapp, M.

    2015-05-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics comprises a collection of papers which were mostly presented at the 11th Layered Phenomena in the Mesopause Region (LPMR) Workshop, held at the University of Leeds between 29th July 2013 and 1st August 2013. The topics covered at the workshop included atmospheric dynamics, mesospheric ice clouds, meteoric metal layers, meteoric smoke particles, and airglow layers. There was also a session on the potential of planned sub-orbital spacecraft for making measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT).

  9. Micro- and nanoscale phenomena in tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Yip-Wah

    2011-01-01

    Drawn from presentations at a recent National Science Foundation Summer Institute on Nanomechanics, Nanomaterials, and Micro/Nanomanufacturing, Micro- and Nanoscale Phenomena in Tribology explores the convergence of the multiple science and engineering disciplines involved in tribology and the connection from the macro to nano world. Written by specialists from computation, materials science, mechanical engineering, surface physics, and chemistry, each chapter provides up-to-date coverage of both basic and advanced topics and includes extensive references for further study.After discussing the

  10. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ishida, Naoki [Daihatsu Motor Company, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  11. Critical Phenomena Associated with Boson Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, Scott H.; Choptuik, Matthew W.

    2001-01-01

    We present a brief synopsis of related work (gr-qc/0007039), describing a study of black hole threshold phenomena for a self-gravitating, massive complex scalar field in spherical symmetry. We construct Type I critical solutions dynamically by tuning a one-parameter family of initial data consisting of a boson star and a massless real scalar field, and numerically evolving this data. The resulting critical solutions appear to correspond to boson stars on the unstable branch, as we show via co...

  12. Migration and sorption phenomena in packaged foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekharan, V; Floros, J D

    1997-10-01

    Rapidly developing analytical capabilities and continuously evolving stringent regulations have made food/package interactions a subject of intense research. This article focuses on: (1) the migration of package components such as oligomers and monomers, processing aids, additives, and residual reactants in to packaged foods, and (2) sorption of food components such as flavors, lipids, and moisture into packages. Principles of diffusion and thermodynamics are utilized to describe the mathematics of migration and sorption. Mathematical models are developed from first principles, and their applicability is illustrated using numerical simulations and published data. Simulations indicate that available models are system (polymer-penetrant) specific. Furthermore, some models best describe the early stages of migration/sorption, whereas others should be used for the late stages of these phenomena. Migration- and/or sorption-related problems with respect to glass, metal, paper-based and polymeric packaging materials are discussed, and their importance is illustrated using published examples. The effects of migrating and absorbed components on food safety, quality, and the environment are presented for various foods and packaging materials. The impact of currently popular packaging techniques such as microwavable, ovenable, and retortable packaging on migration and sorption are discussed with examples. Analytical techniques for investigating migration and sorption phenomena in food packaging are critically reviewed, with special emphasis on the use and characteristics of food-simulating liquids (FSLs). Finally, domestic and international regulations concerning migration in packaged foods, and their impact on food packaging is briefly presented.

  13. Study of catalytic phenomena in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dran, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    Two phenomena have been studied: the action of γ rays from radio-cobalt on the adsorption and catalytic properties of ZnO and NiO in. relationship with the heterogeneous oxidation of CO, and the homogeneous catalysis by OsO 4 of the oxidation of various aqueous phase solutes by the same radiation. The prior irradiation of ZnO and of NiO does not modify their catalytic activity but generally increases the adsorption energy of -the gases CO and O 2 . The influence of the radiations appears to be connected with the presence of traces of water on ZnO and of an excess of oxygen on NiO. Osmium tetroxide which is not degraded by irradiation in acid solution, accelerates the radiolytic oxidation of certain compounds (Te IV , Pt 11 , As 111 ) in the presence of oxygen, as a result of its sensitizing effect on the oxidation by H 2 O 2 . In the case of phosphites on the other hand, OsO 4 has a protecting action under certain conditions of acidity and may suppress entirely the chain reaction which characterizes the oxidation of this solute byγ rays. A general mechanism is proposed for these phenomena. The rate constant for the OsO 4 + HO 2 reaction is calculated to be 5.7 x 10 5 l.mol -1 . sec -1 . (author) [fr

  14. WHC natural phenomena hazards mitigation implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1996-09-11

    Natural phenomena hazards (NPH) are unexpected acts of nature which pose a threat or danger to workers, the public or to the environment. Earthquakes, extreme winds (hurricane and tornado),snow, flooding, volcanic ashfall, and lightning strike are examples of NPH at Hanford. It is the policy of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to design, construct and operate DOE facilitiesso that workers, the public and the environment are protected from NPH and other hazards. During 1993 DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) transmitted DOE Order 5480.28, ``Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation,`` to Westinghouse Hanford COmpany (WHC) for compliance. The Order includes rigorous new NPH criteria for the design of new DOE facilities as well as for the evaluation and upgrade of existing DOE facilities. In 1995 DOE issued Order 420.1, ``Facility Safety`` which contains the same NPH requirements and invokes the same applicable standards as Order 5480.28. It will supersede Order 5480.28 when an in-force date for Order 420.1 is established through contract revision. Activities will be planned and accomplished in four phases: Mobilization; Prioritization; Evaluation; and Upgrade. The basis for the graded approach is the designation of facilities/structures into one of five performance categories based upon safety function, mission and cost. This Implementation Plan develops the program for the Prioritization Phase, as well as an overall strategy for the implemention of DOE Order 5480.2B.

  15. Unsteady phenomena in the edge tone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paal, G.; Vaik, I.

    2007-01-01

    Despite its geometrical simplicity, the edge tone displays a remarkably complex behaviour. A plane jet oscillates around the wedge-shaped object with a relatively stable frequency and under certain circumstances emits an audible tone. This configuration plays a central role in the sound production of several wind instruments but occurs in industrial situations too. The flow exhibits various interesting nonlinear phenomena reported in the literature which are not entirely explained. In this paper, detailed high precision numerical simulations of the flow are reported under various conditions. Several phenomena are reproduced in agreement with the literature such as the existence of 'stages', the dependence of oscillation frequency on the outflow velocity and the orifice-edge distance within one stage, the pressure distribution on the edge surface, etc. A criterion for the appropriate time step for constant accuracy has been derived. The location of force action is surprisingly stable; it remains in a very narrow region of the wedge surface independently of the Reynolds number and the orifice-edge distance but it is much further behind the edge tip than reported in the literature. The various stages can coexist in different ways: jumping back and forth between stages or being superposed on each other. Regardless of the form, the first stage continues to be dominant even when the second and third stage appears. The question of disturbance propagation velocity and disturbance wavelength is also investigated. The development of higher harmonics of a single stage along the orifice-edge tip distance is presented

  16. Augmented Visual Experience of Simulated Solar Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A. O., IV; Berardino, R. A.; Hahne, D.; Schreurs, B.; Fox, N. J.; Raouafi, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission will explore the Sun's corona, studying solar wind, flares and coronal mass ejections. The effects of these phenomena can impact the technology that we use in ways that are not readily apparent, including affecting satellite communications and power grids. Determining the structure and dynamics of corona magnetic fields, tracing the flow of energy that heats the corona, and exploring dusty plasma near the Sun to understand its influence on solar wind and energetic particle formation requires a suite of sensors on board the PSP spacecraft that are engineered to observe specific phenomena. Using models of these sensors and simulated observational data, we can visualize what the PSP spacecraft will "see" during its multiple passes around the Sun. Augmented reality (AR) technologies enable convenient user access to massive data sets. We are developing an application that allows users to experience environmental data from the point of view of the PSP spacecraft in AR using the Microsoft HoloLens. Observational data, including imagery, magnetism, temperature, and density are visualized in 4D within the user's immediate environment. Our application provides an educational tool for comprehending the complex relationships of observational data, which aids in our understanding of the Sun.

  17. Syntactic Idioms and Precedent Phenomena: Intersection Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Sytar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: One examined mainly structural and semantic features of syntactic idioms so far. The pragmatic dimension of these original units that are on the verge of syntax and phraseology, has not been highlighted properly in the scientific literature, so it needs theoretical understanding. The combination of syntactic idiom and phraseological phenomenon refers to the communication techniques impacting on message recipient. Purpose: to analyze the intersection zones of syntactic idioms and precedent phenomena. Results: Analysis of the collected factual material allows to distinguish two areas of interpenetration of syntactic idioms and precedent units: 1 construction of expression according to the phraseologized model, within which the position of variable component is filled by the precedent name or precedent expression; 2 the model of sentence itself is precedent, and lexical content does not comply with generally known one that does not affect on understanding of model content by recipient. With a combination of syntactic idiom and precedent phenomena speakers provide drawing of recipients’ attention, carry out a hidden influence on them, express their own attitude to the realities, so that perform phatic, manipulative and expressive-evaluative functions. The modifications and transformations of precedent expressions and names appeared to be regular in such interpenetrations. Discussion: The obtained results reflect the general trend towards transform (transformation, modification, variation, etc. of precedent, as well as phraseological units, and can be used for the analysis of patterns of their formation and modifications. Further research phase implies tracing patterns of syntactic idioms combination with other means of expressive syntax.

  18. Laboratory simulation of space plasma phenomena*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, B.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Blackwell, D.; Enloe, C. L.; Gillman, E.; Walker, D.; Gatling, G.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory devices, such as the Naval Research Laboratory's Space Physics Simulation Chamber, are large-scale experiments dedicated to the creation of large-volume plasmas with parameters realistically scaled to those found in various regions of the near-Earth space plasma environment. Such devices make valuable contributions to the understanding of space plasmas by investigating phenomena under carefully controlled, reproducible conditions, allowing for the validation of theoretical models being applied to space data. By working in collaboration with in situ experimentalists to create realistic conditions scaled to those found during the observations of interest, the microphysics responsible for the observed events can be investigated in detail not possible in space. To date, numerous investigations of phenomena such as plasma waves, wave-particle interactions, and particle energization have been successfully performed in the laboratory. In addition to investigations such as plasma wave and instability studies, the laboratory devices can also make valuable contributions to the development and testing of space plasma diagnostics. One example is the plasma impedance probe developed at NRL. Originally developed as a laboratory diagnostic, the sensor has now been flown on a sounding rocket, is included on a CubeSat experiment, and will be included on the DoD Space Test Program's STP-H6 experiment on the International Space Station. In this presentation, we will describe several examples of the laboratory investigation of space plasma waves and instabilities and diagnostic development. *This work supported by the NRL Base Program.

  19. Modelling of thermohydraulic emergency core cooling phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Andreani, M.; Lewis, M.J.

    1990-10-01

    The codes used in the early seventies for safety analysis and licensing were based either on the homogeneous model of two-phase flow or on the so-called separate-flow models, which are mixture models accounting, however, for the difference in average velocity between the two phases. In both cases the behavior of the mixture is prescribed a priori as a function of local parameters such as the mass flux and the quality. The modern best-estimate codes used for analyzing LWR LOCA's and transients are often based on a two-fluid or 6-equation formulation of the conservation equations. In this case the conservation equations are written separately for each phase; the mixture is allowed to evolve on its own, governed by the interfacial exchanges of mass, momentum and energy between the phases. It is generally agreed that such relatively sophisticated 6-equation formulations of two-phase flow are necessary for the correct modelling of a number of phenomena and situations arising in LWR accidental situations. They are in particular indispensible for the analysis of stratified or countercurrent flows and of situations in which large departures from thermal and velocity equilibrium exist. This report will be devoted to a discussion of the need for, the capacity and the limitations of the two-phase flow models (with emphasis on the 6-equation formulations) in modelling these two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena and/or different core cooling situations. 18 figs., 1 tab., 72 refs

  20. Shock Wave Diffraction Phenomena around Slotted Splitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of aerospace engineering, the study of the characteristics of vortical flows and their unsteady phenomena finds numerous engineering applications related to improvements in the design of tip devices, enhancement of combustor performance, and control of noise generation. A large amount of work has been carried out in the analysis of the shock wave diffraction around conventional geometries such as sharp and rounded corners, but the employment of splitters with lateral variation has hardly attracted the attention of researchers. The investigation of this phenomenon around two-dimensional wedges has allowed the understanding of the basic physical principles of the flow features. On the other hand, important aspects that appear in the third dimension due to the turbulent nature of the vortices are omitted. The lack of studies that use three-dimensional geometries has motivated the current work to experimentally investigate the evolution of the shock wave diffraction around two splitters with spike-shaped structures for Mach numbers of 1.31 and 1.59. Schlieren photography was used to obtain an insight into the sequential diffraction processes that take place in different planes. Interacting among them, these phenomena generate a complicated turbulent cloud with a vortical arrangement.

  1. Cavitation phenomena in extracorporeal microexplosion lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Y.; Obara, T.; Takayama, K.; Kuwahara, M.

    1994-09-01

    An experimental investigation was made of cavitation phenomena induced by underwater shock wave focusing applied to the extracorporeal microexplosion lithotripsy (microexplosion ESWL). Firstly an underwater microexplosion generated by detonation of a 10 mg silver azide pellet was studied and secondly underwater shock focusing and its induced cavitation phenomena were investgated. Underwater shock wave was focused by using a semi-ellipsoidal reflector in which a shock wave generated at the first focal point of the reflector was reflected and focused at the second focal point. It is found that an explosion product gas bubble did not produce any distinct rebound shocks. Meantime cavitation appeared after shock focusing at the second focal point where expansion waves originated at the exit of the reflector were simultaneously collected. A shock/bubble interaction is found to contribute not only to urinary tract stone disintegration but also tissue damage. The cavitation effect associated with the microexplosion ESWL was weaker in comparison with a spark discharge ESWL. The microexplosion ESWL is an effective method which can minimize the number of shock exposures hence decreasing tissue damage by conducting precise positioning of urinary tract stones.

  2. Study Of Severe Accident Phenomena In Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyanto; Antariksawan; Anhar, R.; Arifal

    2001-01-01

    Several phenomena that occurred in the light water reactor type of nuclear power plant during severe accident were studied. The study was carried out based on the results of severe accident researches in various countries. In general, severe accident phenomena can be classified into in-vessel phenomena, retention in the reactor coolant system, and ex-vessel phenomena. In-vessel retention has been recommended as a severe accident management strategy

  3. Whakapapa, genealogy and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Donald

    2012-05-01

    This paper provides part of an analysis of the use of the Maori term whakapapa in a study designed to test the compatibility and commensurability of views of members of the indigenous culture of New Zealand with other views of genetic technologies extant in the country. It is concerned with the narrow sense of whakapapa as denoting biological ancestry, leaving the wider sense of whakapapa as denoting cultural identity for discussion elsewhere. The phenomenon of genetic curiosity is employed to facilitate this comparison. Four levels of curiosity are identified, in the Maori data, which penetrate more or less deeply into the psyche of individuals, affecting their health and wellbeing. These phenomena are compared with non-Maori experiences and considerable commonalities are discovered together with a point of marked difference. The results raise important questions for the ethical application of genetic technologies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Mesoscale and Interfacial Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsev, Nikolai Dimitrov

    With rapidly emerging technologies that feature interfaces modified at the nanoscale, traditional macroscopic models are pushed to their limits to explain phenomena where molecular processes can play a key role. Often, such problems appear to defy explanation when treated with coarse-grained continuum models alone, yet remain prohibitively expensive from a molecular simulation perspective. A prominent example is surface nanobubbles: nanoscopic gaseous domains typically found on hydrophobic surfaces that have puzzled researchers for over two decades due to their unusually long lifetimes. We show how an entirely macroscopic, non-equilibrium model explains many of their anomalous properties, including their stability and abnormally small gas-side contact angles. From this purely transport perspective, we investigate how factors such as temperature and saturation affect nanobubbles, providing numerous experimentally testable predictions. However, recent work also emphasizes the relevance of molecular-scale phenomena that cannot be described in terms of bulk phases or pristine interfaces. This is true for nanobubbles as well, whose nanoscale heights may require molecular detail to capture the relevant physics, in particular near the bubble three-phase contact line. Therefore, there is a clear need for general ways to link molecular granularity and behavior with large-scale continuum models in the treatment of many interfacial problems. In light of this, we have developed a general set of simulation strategies that couple mesoscale particle-based continuum models to molecular regions simulated through conventional molecular dynamics (MD). In addition, we derived a transport model for binary mixtures that opens the possibility for a wide range of applications in biological and drug delivery problems, and is readily reconciled with our hybrid MD-continuum techniques. Approaches that couple multiple length scales for fluid mixtures are largely absent in the literature, and

  5. Real time animation of space plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.F.; Greenstadt, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In pursuit of real time animation of computer simulated space plasma phenomena, the code was rewritten for the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). The program creates a dynamic representation of the global bowshock which is based on actual spacecraft data and designed for three dimensional graphic output. This output consists of time slice sequences which make up the frames of the animation. With the MPP, 16384, 512 or 4 frames can be calculated simultaneously depending upon which characteristic is being computed. The run time was greatly reduced which promotes the rapid sequence of images and makes real time animation a foreseeable goal. The addition of more complex phenomenology in the constructed computer images is now possible and work proceeds to generate these images

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of laser shock phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Ichirou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan).

    2001-10-01

    Recently, ultrashort-pulse lasers with high peak power have been developed, and their application to materials processing is expected as a tool of precision microfabrication. When a high power laser irradiates, a shock wave propagates into the material and dislocations are generated. In this paper, laser shock phenomena of the metal were analyzed using the modified molecular dynamics method, which has been developed by Ohmura and Fukumoto. The main results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The shock wave induced by the Gaussian beam irradiation propagates radially from the surface to the interior. (2) A lot of dislocations are generated at the solid-liquid interface by the propagation of a shock wave. (3) Some dislocations are moved instantaneously with the velocity of the longitudinal wave when the shock wave passes, and their velocity is not larger than the transverse velocity after the shock wave has passed. (author)

  7. Heat Transfer Phenomena of Supercritical Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krau, Carmen Isabella; Kuhn, Dietmar; Schulenberg, Thomas [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In concepts for supercritical water cooled reactors, the reactor core is cooled and moderated by water at supercritical pressures. The significant temperature dependence of the fluid properties of water requires an exact knowledge of the heat transfer mechanism to avoid fuel pin damages. Near the pseudo-critical point a deterioration of heat transfer might happen. Processes, that take place in this case, are not fully understood and are due to be examined systematically. In this paper a general overview on the properties of supercritical water is given, experimental observations of different authors will be reviewed in order to identify heat transfer phenomena and onset of occurrence. The conceptional design of a test rig to investigate heat transfer in the boundary layer will be discussed. Both, water and carbon dioxide, may serve as operating fluids. The loop, including instrumentation and safety devices, is shown and suitable measuring methods are described. (authors)

  8. Nuclear disarmament verification via resonant phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecla, Jake J; Danagoulian, Areg

    2018-03-28

    Nuclear disarmament treaties are not sufficient in and of themselves to neutralize the existential threat of the nuclear weapons. Technologies are necessary for verifying the authenticity of the nuclear warheads undergoing dismantlement before counting them toward a treaty partner's obligation. Here we present a concept that leverages isotope-specific nuclear resonance phenomena to authenticate a warhead's fissile components by comparing them to a previously authenticated template. All information is encrypted in the physical domain in a manner that amounts to a physical zero-knowledge proof system. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the system is shown to reveal no isotopic or geometric information about the weapon, while readily detecting hoaxing attempts. This nuclear technique can dramatically increase the reach and trustworthiness of future nuclear disarmament treaties.

  9. Astrophysical disks Collective and Stochastic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexei M; Kovalenko, Ilya G

    2006-01-01

    The book deals with collective and stochastic processes in astrophysical discs involving theory, observations, and the results of modelling. Among others, it examines the spiral-vortex structure in galactic and accretion disks , stochastic and ordered structures in the developed turbulence. It also describes sources of turbulence in the accretion disks, internal structure of disk in the vicinity of a black hole, numerical modelling of Be envelopes in binaries, gaseous disks in spiral galaxies with shock waves formation, observation of accretion disks in a binary system and mass distribution of luminous matter in disk galaxies. The editors adaptly brought together collective and stochastic phenomena in the modern field of astrophysical discs, their formation, structure, and evolution involving the methodology to deal with, the results of observation and modelling, thereby advancing the study in this important branch of astrophysics and benefiting Professional Researchers, Lecturers, and Graduate Students.

  10. PHENOMENA AND BASIC MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS FOR MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULINA CATANA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomics is a separate discipline of the Economy that studies and analyzes the behaviour of economic aggregates and significant average, such as price level, national income, national income potential, the gap GDP, employment and unemployment of labour, investment and export of the whole economy. We can accuse to Macroeconomics that it deals also with the average price of all goods and services, not the prices of certain products. These aggregates result from economic behaviour of certain groups (governments, companies, consumers in the course of their activities on different markets. But why does it need Macroeconomics? Experts say that we need this separate discipline because there are certain forces that affect the broader economy globally, which can not be understood only by analyzing individual economic phenomena, individual products or markets.

  11. Transitional Phenomena on Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójcik Tadeusz M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant problem with technology development is transferring of large heat fluxes, which requires constant heat transfer temperature (in the specified temperature range. This problem concern mainly the nuclear energetics, space technologies, military technologies and most of all electronics containing integrated circuits with very large scale of integrations. Intensive heat transfer and thermal energy storage are possible by the use of phase change materials (PCMs. In the paper there are presented preliminary results of research on the use of liquid-gas (L-G PCMs and solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs. For L-G PCMs the boiling characteristics were determined by increasing and decreasing the heat flux, which for certain sets of structural parameters of the heating surface and the physical properties of the liquid induce a variety of forms of transitional phenomena. Thermal energy storage is much more effective when using PCMs than sensible heat.

  12. Characterizing critical phenomena via the Purcell effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Neto, M. B.; Szilard, D.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Farina, C.; Pinheiro, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the role of phase transitions into the spontaneous-emission rate of a single quantum emitter embedded in a critical medium. Using a Landau-Ginzburg approach, we find that in the broken symmetry phase, the emission rate is reduced, or even suppressed, due to the photon mass generated by the Higgs mechanism. Remarkably, its sensitivity to the critical exponents of the phase transition allows for an optical determination of universality classes. When applied to the cases of superconductivity and superfluidity, we show that the Purcell effect also provides valuable information on spectroscopic and thermodynamic quantities, such as the size of the superconducting gap and the discontinuity in the specific heat at the transition. By unveiling that a deeper connection between the Purcell effect and phase transitions exists, we demonstrate that the former is an efficient optical probe of distinct critical phenomena and their associated observables.

  13. Extended RPA study of nuclear collective phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.

    1987-01-01

    A fully microscopic study of nuclear collective phenomena is presented within the framework of an extended RPA which includes 1p-1h and 2p-2h excitations in a consistent way. This theory allows us to obtain a very realistic description of various excitation spectra. As a result, a strong evidence of correlation effects beyond mean-field theory emerges. The effective interaction used is a G-matrix derived from the meson-exchange potential. The extended theory introduces also additional correlations which screen the long-large part of the effective interaction. This effect significantly enhances the stability of the ground state against density fluctuations. In this connection a possible importance of relativistic effects is also discussed. 99 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  14. Autistic phenomena in The Adventures of Pinocchio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate that the protagonist of Carlo Collodi's The Adventures of Pinocchio illustrates numerous autistic phenomena such as communication difficulties, sensory and perceptual distortions and mindblindness. While Pinocchio is viewed as a literary construct with contraindications of autism, it will be argued that his autistic traits are sufficient to suggest the possibility that Collodi had a partial intuition of the syndrome 60 years before it was identified by Leo Kanner. Approaching Collodi's text in this manner is taken as an opportunity to survey and reflect upon the psychoanalytic literature on autism and to position it in relation to contemporary theories from cognitive neuroscience. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  15. Discrete computational mechanics for stiff phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Michels, Dominik L.

    2016-11-28

    Many natural phenomena which occur in the realm of visual computing and computational physics, like the dynamics of cloth, fibers, fluids, and solids as well as collision scenarios are described by stiff Hamiltonian equations of motion, i.e. differential equations whose solution spectra simultaneously contain extremely high and low frequencies. This usually impedes the development of physically accurate and at the same time efficient integration algorithms. We present a straightforward computationally oriented introduction to advanced concepts from classical mechanics. We provide an easy to understand step-by-step introduction from variational principles over the Euler-Lagrange formalism and the Legendre transformation to Hamiltonian mechanics. Based on such solid theoretical foundations, we study the underlying geometric structure of Hamiltonian systems as well as their discrete counterparts in order to develop sophisticated structure preserving integration algorithms to efficiently perform high fidelity simulations.

  16. Quantum field theory and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Zinn-Justin, Jean

    1996-01-01

    Over the last twenty years quantum field theory has become not only the framework for the discussion of all fundamental interactions except gravity, but also for the understanding of second-order phase transitions in statistical mechanics. This advanced text is based on graduate courses and summer schools given by the author over a number of years. It approaches the subject in terms of path and functional intergrals, adopting a Euclidean metric and using the language of partition and correlation functions. Renormalization and the renormalization group are examined, as are critical phenomena and the role of instantons. Changes for this edition 1. Extensive revision to eliminate a few bugs that had survived the second edition and (mainly) to improve the pedagogical presentation, as a result of experience gathered by lecturing. 2. Additional new topics; holomorphic or coherent state path integral; functional integral and representation of the field theory S-matrix in the holomorphic formalis; non-relativistic li...

  17. Experimental study of the natural circulation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Torres, Walmir M.; Castro, Alfredo Jose Alvim de; Belchior Junior, Antonio; Rocha, Ricardo Takeshi Vieira da; Damy, Osvaldo Luiz de Almeida; Torres, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the natural circulation in experimental loops and extend the results to nuclear facilities. New generation of compact nuclear power plants use the natural circulation as cooling and residual heat removal systems in case of accidents or shutdown. Lately the interest in this phenomenon, by scientific community, has increased. The experimental loop, described in this paper, was assembled at Escola Politecnica - USP at the Chemical Engineering Department. It is the goal to generate information to help with the understanding of the one and two phase natural circulation phenomena. Some experiments were performed with different levels of heat power and different flow of the cooling water at the secondary circuit. The data generated from these experiments are going to be used to validate some computational thermal hydraulic codes. Experimental results for one and two phase regimes are presented as well as the proposed model to simulate the flow regimes with the RELAP5 code. (author)

  18. Social phenomena from data analysis to models

    CERN Document Server

    Perra, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the new possibilities and approaches to social modeling currently being made possible by an unprecedented variety of datasets generated by our interactions with modern technologies. This area has witnessed a veritable explosion of activity over the last few years, yielding many interesting and useful results. Our aim is to provide an overview of the state of the art in this area of research, merging an extremely heterogeneous array of datasets and models. Social Phenomena: From Data Analysis to Models is divided into two parts. Part I deals with modeling social behavior under normal conditions: How we live, travel, collaborate and interact with each other in our daily lives. Part II deals with societal behavior under exceptional conditions: Protests, armed insurgencies, terrorist attacks, and reactions to infectious diseases. This book offers an overview of one of the most fertile emerging fields bringing together practitioners from scientific communities as diverse as social sciences, p...

  19. Peridynamic Formulation for Coupled Thermoelectric Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migbar Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of heat and electrical current flow simultaneously in thermoelectric convertor using classical theories do not consider the influence of defects in the material. This is because traditional methods are developed based on partial differential equations (PDEs and lead to infinite fluxes at the discontinuities. The usual way of solving such PDEs is by using numerical technique, like Finite Element Method (FEM. Although FEM is robust and versatile, it is not suitable to model evolving discontinuities. To avoid such shortcomings, we propose the concept of peridynamic theory to derive the balance of energy and charge equations in the coupled thermoelectric phenomena. Therefore, this paper presents the transport of heat and charge in thermoelectric material in the framework of peridynamic (PD theory. To illustrate the reliability of the PD formulation, numerical examples are presented and results are compared with those from literature, analytical solutions, or finite element solutions.

  20. Density turbulence and disruption phenomena in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waidmann, G.; Kuang, G.; Jadoul, M.

    1992-01-01

    Disruptive processes are observed in tokamak plasmas not only at the operating limits (density limit or q-limit) but can be found under a variety of experimental conditions. Large forces are exerted then on vessel components and support structures. The sudden release of stored plasma energy presents a serious erosion problem for the first wall already in the next generation of large tokamak machines. Strong energy losses from the plasma and an influx of impurities are already present in minor plasma disruptions which do not immediately lead to a plasma current termination. The rapid loss of energy confinement was investigated within the framework of a systematic study on plasma disruption phenomena in TEXTOR. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs

  1. Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryer, Murray

    1987-09-01

    Scientific progress on the topic of energy, mass, and momentum transport from the Sun into the heliosphere is contingent upon interdisciplinary and international cooperative efforts on the part of many workers. Summarized here is a report of some highlights of research carried out during the SMY/SMA by the STIP (Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena) Project that included solar and interplanetary scientists around the world. These highlights are concerned with coronal mass ejections from solar flares or erupting prominences (sometimes together); their large-scale consequences in interplanetary space (such as shocks and magnetic 'bubbles'); and energetic particles and their relationship to these large-scale structures. It is concluded that future progress is contingent upon similar international programs assisted by real-time (or near-real-time) warnings of solar activity by cooperating agencies along the lines experienced during the SMY/SMA.

  2. Cheshire cat phenomena and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1986-11-01

    The notion of the ''Cheshire Cat'' principle in hadron structure is developed rigorously in (1+1) dimensions and approximately in (3+1) dimensions for up- and down-quark flavor systems. This phenomenon is invoked to address the issue as to whether or not direct quark-gluon signatures can be ''seen'' in low-energy nuclear phenomena. How addition of the third flavor -strangeness- can modify the Cheshire Cat property is discussed. It is proposed that one of the primary objectives of nuclear physics be to probe -and disturb- the ''vacuum'' of the strong interactions (QCD) and that for this purpose the chiral symmetry SU(3)xSU(3) can play a crucial role in normal and extreme conditions. As an illustration, kaon condensation at a density ρ>∼ 3ρ 0 is discussed in terms of a toy model and is related to ''cleansing'' of the quark condensates from the vacuum

  3. Implicit particle simulation of electromagnetic plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, T.; Montalvo, E.; Barnes, D.C.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Tajima, T.

    1986-11-01

    A direct method for the implicit particle simulation of electromagnetic phenomena in magnetized, multi-dimensional plasmas is developed. The method is second-order accurate for ωΔt < 1, with ω a characteristic frequency and time step Δt. Direct time integration of the implicit equations with simplified space differencing allows the consistent inclusion of finite particle size. Decentered time differencing of the Lorentz force permits the efficient simulation of strongly magnetized plasmas. A Fourier-space iterative technique for solving the implicit field corrector equation, based on the separation of plasma responses perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field and longitudinal and transverse to the wavevector, is described. Wave propagation properties in a uniform plasma are in excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. Applications to collisionless tearing and coalescence instabilities further demonstrate the usefulness of the algorithm. (author)

  4. Modeling electrical dispersion phenomena in Earth materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available It is illustrated that IP phenomena in rocks can be described using conductivity dispersion models deduced as solutions to a 2nd-order linear differential equation describing the motion of a charged particle immersed in an external electrical field. Five dispersion laws are discussed, namely: the non-resonant positive IP model, which leads to the classical Debye-type dispersion law and by extension to the Cole-Cole model, largely used in current practice; the non-resonant negative IP model, which allows negative chargeability values, known in metals at high frequencies, to be explained as an intrinsic physical property of earth materials in specific field cases; the resonant flat, positive or negative IP models, which can explain the presence of peak effects at specific frequencies superimposed on flat, positive or negative dispersion spectra.

  5. Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations: pathological phenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, M M; Priest, R G; Caulet, M; Guilleminault, C

    1996-10-01

    Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are common in narcolepsy. However, the prevalence of these phenomena in the general population is uncertain. A representative community sample of 4972 people in the UK, aged 15-100, was interviewed by telephone (79.6% of those contacted). Interviews were performed by lay interviewers using a computerised system that guided the interviewer through the interview process. Thirty-seven per cent of the sample reported experiencing hypnagogic hallucinations and 12.5% reported hypnopompic hallucinations. Both types of hallucinations were significantly more common among subjects with symptoms of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness or mental disorders. According to this study, the prevalence of narcolepsy in the UK is 0.04%. Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations were much more common than expected, with a prevalence that far exceeds that which can be explained by the association with narcolepsy. Hypnopompic hallucinations may be a better indicator of narcolepsy than hypnagogic hallucinations in subjects reporting excessive daytime sleepiness.

  6. Nonmodal phenomena in differentially rotating dusty plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poedts, Stefaan; Rogava, Andria D.

    2000-10-01

    In this paper the foundation is layed for the nonmodal investigation of velocity shear induced phenomena in a differentially rotating flow of a dusty plasma. The simplest case of nonmagnetized flow is considered. It is shown that, together with the innate properties of the dusty plasma, the presence of differential rotation, Coriolis forces, and self-gravity casts a considerable richness on the nonmodal dynamics of linear perturbations in the flow. In particular: (i) dust-acoustic waves acquire the ability to extract energy from the mean flow and (ii) shear-induced, nonperiodic modes of collective plasma behavior-shear-dust-acoustic vortices-are generated. The presence of self-gravity and the nonzero Coriolis parameter (``epicyclic shaking'') makes these collective modes transiently unstable. .

  7. Nonmodal phenomena in differentially rotating dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poedts, Stefaan; Rogava, Andria D.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the foundation is layed for the nonmodal investigation of velocity shear induced phenomena in a differentially rotating flow of a dusty plasma. The simplest case of nonmagnetized flow is considered. It is shown that, together with the innate properties of the dusty plasma, the presence of differential rotation, Coriolis forces, and self-gravity casts a considerable richness on the nonmodal dynamics of linear perturbations in the flow. In particular: (i) dust-acoustic waves acquire the ability to extract energy from the mean flow and (ii) shear-induced, nonperiodic modes of collective plasma behavior--shear-dust-acoustic vortices--are generated. The presence of self-gravity and the nonzero Coriolis parameter ('epicyclic shaking') makes these collective modes transiently unstable

  8. Noise-driven phenomena in hysteretic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dimian, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Noise-Driven Phenomena in Hysteretic Systems provides a general approach to nonlinear systems with hysteresis driven by noisy inputs, which leads to a unitary framework for the analysis of various stochastic aspects of hysteresis. This book includes integral, differential and algebraic models that are used to describe scalar and vector hysteretic nonlinearities originating from various areas of science and engineering. The universality of the authors approach is also reflected by the diversity of the models used to portray the input noise, from the classical Gaussian white noise to its impulsive forms, often encountered in economics and biological systems, and pink noise, ubiquitous in multi-stable electronic systems. The book is accompanied by HysterSoft© - a robust simulation environment designed to perform complex hysteresis modeling – that can be used by the reader to reproduce many of the results presented in the book as well as to research both disruptive and constructive effects of noise in hysteret...

  9. Pump instability phenomena generated by fluid forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    1985-01-01

    Rotor dynamic behavior of high energy centrifugal pumps is significantly affected by two types of fluid forces; one due to the hydraulic interaction of the impeller with the surrounding volute or diffuser and the other due to the effect of the wear rings. The available data on these forces is first reviewed. A simple one degree-of-freedom system containing these forces is analytically solved to exhibit the rotor dynamic effects. To illustrate the relative magnitude of these phenomena, an example of a multistage boiler feed pump is worked out. It is shown that the wear ring effects tend to suppress critical speed and postpone instability onset. But the volute-impeller forces tend to lower the critical speed and the instability onset speed. However, for typical boiler feed pumps under normal running clearances, the wear ring effects are much more significant than the destabilizing hydraulic interaction effects.

  10. Novel nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1987-08-01

    Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involve processes in nuclear targets at intermediate energies. A range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena-exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction were discussed as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Several areas were also reviewed where there has been significant theoretical progress determining the form of hadron and nuclear wave functions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. A possible interpretation was also discussed of the large spin correlation A/sub NN/ in proton-proton scattering, and how relate this effect to an energy and angular dependence of color transparency in nuclei. 76 refs., 24 figs

  11. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J

    2009-06-01

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident

  12. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J [eds.; Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Agrenius, Lennart [ed.; Agrenius Ingenjoersbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident.

  13. Self-organization phenomena in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanduloviciu, M.; Popescu, S.

    2001-01-01

    The self-assembling in nature and laboratory of structures in systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium is one of the problems that mostly fascinates the scientists working in all branches of science. In this context a substantial progress has been obtained by investigating the appearance of spatial and spatiotemporal patterns in plasma. These experiments revealed the presence of a scenario of self-organization able to suggest an answer to the central problem of the 'Science of Complexity', why matter transits spontaneously from a disordered into an ordered state? Based on this scenario of self-organization we present arguments proving the possibility to explain the challenging problems of nonequilibrium physics in general. These problems refer to: (i) genuine origin of phase transitions observed in gaseous conductors and semiconductors; (ii) the elucidation of the role played by self-organization in the simulation of oscillations; (iii) the physical basis of anomalous transport of matter and energy with special reference to the possibilities of improving the economical performance of fusion devices; (iv) the possibility to use self-confined gaseous space charged configurations as an alternative to the magnetically confined plasma used at present in fusion devices. In other branches of sciences, as for instance in Biology, the self-organization scenario reveals a new insight into a mechanism able to explain the appearance of the simplest possible space charge configuration able to evolve, under suitable conditions, into prebiotic structures. Referring to phenomena observed in nature, the same self-organization scenario suggests plausible answers to the appearance of ball lightening but also to the origin of the flickering phenomena observed in the light emission of the Sun and stars. For theory the described self-organization scenario offers a new physical basis for many problems of nonlinear science not solved yet and also a new model for the so-called 'self

  14. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  15. TRANSIENT LUNAR PHENOMENA: REGULARITY AND REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an extensive catalog of TLPs to gauge how human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. The sample is grouped according to variables which should produce differing results if determining factors involve humans, and not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Features dependent on human factors can then be excluded. Regardless of how the sample is split, the results are similar: ∼50% of reports originate from near Aristarchus, ∼16% from Plato, ∼6% from recent, major impacts (Copernicus, Kepler, Tycho, and Aristarchus), plus several at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal in some cases (however, Crisium is too large for a 'feature' as defined). TLP count consistency for these features indicates that ∼80% of these may be real. Some commonly reported sites disappear from the robust averages, including Alphonsus, Ross D, and Gassendi. These reports begin almost exclusively after 1955, when TLPs became widely known and many more (and inexperienced) observers searched for TLPs. In a companion paper, we compare the spatial distribution of robust TLP sites to transient outgassing (seen by Apollo and Lunar Prospector instruments). To a high confidence, robust TLP sites and those of lunar outgassing correlate strongly, further arguing for the reality of TLPs.

  16. Cryptic Genetic Variation in Evolutionary Developmental Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise B. Paaby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental genetics has traditionally been conducted by two groups: Molecular evolutionists who emphasize divergence between species or higher taxa, and quantitative geneticists who study variation within species. Neither approach really comes to grips with the complexities of evolutionary transitions, particularly in light of the realization from genome-wide association studies that most complex traits fit an infinitesimal architecture, being influenced by thousands of loci. This paper discusses robustness, plasticity and lability, phenomena that we argue potentiate major evolutionary changes and provide a bridge between the conceptual treatments of macro- and micro-evolution. We offer cryptic genetic variation and conditional neutrality as mechanisms by which standing genetic variation can lead to developmental system drift and, sheltered within canalized processes, may facilitate developmental transitions and the evolution of novelty. Synthesis of the two dominant perspectives will require recognition that adaptation, divergence, drift and stability all depend on similar underlying quantitative genetic processes—processes that cannot be fully observed in continuously varying visible traits.

  17. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  18. Simulation of Magnetic Phenomena at Realistic Interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Grytsyuk, Sergiy

    2016-02-04

    In modern technology exciting developments are related to the ability to understand and control interfaces. Particularly, magnetic interfaces revealing spindependent electron transport are of great interest for modern spintronic devices, such as random access memories and logic devices. From the technological point of view, spintronic devices based on magnetic interfaces enable manipulation of the magnetism via an electric field. Such ability is a result of the different quantum effects arising from the magnetic interfaces (for example, spin transfer torque or spin-orbit torque) and it can reduce the energy consumption as compared to the traditional semiconductor electronic devices. Despite many appealing characteristics of these materials, fundamental understanding of their microscopic properties and related phenomena needs to be established by thorough investigation. In this work we implement first principles calculations in order to study the structural, electric, and magnetic properties as well as related phenomena of two types of interfaces with large potential in spintronic applications: 1) interfaces between antiferromagnetic 3d-metal-oxides and ferromagnetic 3d-metals and 2) interfaces between non-magnetic 5d(4d)- and ferromagnetic 3d-metals. A major difficulty in studying such interfaces theoretically is the typically large lattice mismatch. By employing supercells with Moir e patterns, we eliminate the artificial strain that leads to doubtful results and are able to describe the dependence of the atomic density at the interfaces on the component materials and their thicknesses. After establishing understanding about the interface structures, we investigate the electronic and magnetic properties. A Moir e supercell with transition layer is found to reproduce the main experimental findings and thus turns out to be the appropriate model for simulating magnetic misfit interfaces. In addition, we systematically study the magnetic anisotropy and Rashba band

  19. Living matter: the "lunar eclipse" phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpan, Nikolai N

    2010-01-01

    The present investigations describe a unique phenomenon, namely the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse", which has been observed and discovered by the author in living substance during the freeze-thawing processes in vivo using temperatures of various intensities and its cryosurgical response in animal experiment. Similar phenomena author has observed in nature, namely the total lunar eclipse and total solar eclipse. In this experimental study 76 animals (mongrel dogs) were investigated. A disc cryogenic probe was placed on the pancreas after the laparotomy. For cryosurgical exposure a temperature range of -40 degrees C, -80 degrees C, -120 degrees C and -180 degrees C was selected in contact with pancreas parenchyma. The freeze-thaw cycle was monitored by intraoperative ultrasound before, during and after cryosurgery. Each cryolesion was observed for one hour after thawing intraoperatively. Immediately after freezing, during the thawing process, the snow-white pancreas parenchyma, frozen hard to an ice block and resembling a full moon with a sharp demarcation line, gradually assumed a ruby-red shade and a hemispherical shape as it grew in size depend on reconstruction vascular circulation from the periphery to the center. This snow-white cryogenic lesion dissolved in the same manner in all animal tissues. The "lunar eclipse" phenomenon contributes to a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of biological tissue damage during low temperature exposure in cryoscience and cryomedicine. Properties of the pancreas parenchyma response during the phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" provide important insights into the mechanisms of damage and the formation of cryogenic lesion immediately after thawing in cryosurgery. Vascular changes and circulatory stagnation are commonly considered to be the main mechanism of biological tissue injury during low temperature exposure. The phenomenon of the "lunar eclipse" suggests that cryosurgery is the first surgical technique to use

  20. Pathways toward understanding Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, B L; Subaşi, Y

    2013-01-01

    Macroscopic quantum phenomena refer to quantum features in objects of 'large' sizes, systems with many components or degrees of freedom, organized in some ways where they can be identified as macroscopic objects. This emerging field is ushered in by several categories of definitive experiments in superconductivity, electromechanical systems, Bose-Einstein condensates and others. Yet this new field which is rich in open issues at the foundation of quantum and statistical physics remains little explored theoretically (with the important exception of the work of A J Leggett [1], while touched upon or implied by several groups of authors represented in this conference. Our attitude differs in that we believe in the full validity of quantum mechanics stretching from the testable micro to meso scales, with no need for the introduction of new laws of physics.) This talk summarizes our thoughts in attempting a systematic investigation into some key foundational issues of quantum macroscopic phenomena, with the goal of ultimately revealing or building a viable theoretical framework. Three major themes discussed in three intended essays are the large N expansion [2], the correlation hierarchy [3] and quantum entanglement [4]. We give a sketch of the first two themes and then discuss several key issues in the consideration of macro and quantum, namely, a) recognition that there exist many levels of structure in a composite body and only by judicious choice of an appropriate set of collective variables can one give the best description of the dynamics of a specific level of structure. Capturing the quantum features of a macroscopic object is greatly facilitated by the existence and functioning of these collective variables; b) quantum entanglement, an exclusively quantum feature [5], is known to persist to high temperatures [6] and large scales [7] under certain conditions, and may actually decrease with increased connectivity in a quantum network [8]. We use entanglement as a

  1. Spin-transfer phenomena in layered magnetic structures: Physical phenomena and materials aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenberg, P.; Buergler, D.E.; Dassow, H.; Rata, A.D.; Schneider, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    During the past 20 years, layered structures consisting of ferromagnetic layers and spacers of various material classes with a thickness of only a few nanometers have revealed a variety of exciting and potentially very useful phenomena not present in bulk material. Representing distinct manifestations of spin-transfer processes, these phenomena may be categorized into interlayer exchange coupling (IEC), giant magnetoresistance (GMR), tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), and the more recently discovered spin-transfer torque effect leading to current-induced magnetization switching (CIMS) and current-driven magnetization dynamics. These phenomena clearly confer novel material properties on magnetic layered structures with respect to the (magneto-)transport and the magnetostatic as well as magnetodynamic behavior. Here, we will first concentrate on the less well understood aspects of IEC across insulating and semiconducting interlayers and relate the observations to TMR in the corresponding structures. In this context, we will also discuss more recent advances in TMR due to the use of electrodes made from Heusler alloys and the realization of coherent tunneling in epitaxial magnetic tunneling junctions. Finally, we will review our results on CIMS in epitaxial magnetic nanostructures showing that normal and inverse CIMS can occur simultaneously in a single nanopillar device. In all cases discussed, material issues play a major role in the detailed understanding of the spin-transfer effects, in particular in those systems that yield the largest effects and are thus of utmost interest for applications

  2. APRI - Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance. Final Report; APRI - Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hammar, L.; Soederman, E. [ES-konsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The APRI-project started in 1992 with participation of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish utilities. The Finnish utility TVO joined the project in 1993. The aim of the project has been to work with phenomenological questions in severe accidents, concentrating on the risk-dominating issues. The work is reported in separate sub-project reports, the present is the final report of the methodological studies as well as a final report for the total project. The research has led to clarifications of the risk complex, and ameliorated the basis for advanced probabilistic safety analyses, specially for the emission risks (PSA level 2) which are being studied at the Swedish plants. A new method has been tried for analysis of complicated accident courses, giving a possibility for systematic evaluation of the impact of different important phenomena (e.g. melt-through, high pressure melt-through with direct heating of the containment atmosphere, steam explosions). In this method, the phenomena are looked upon as top events of a `phenomena-tree`, illustrating how various conditions must be met before the top-event can happen. This method has been useful, in particular for applying `expert estimates`. 47 refs.

  3. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  4. Radiation phenomena of plasma waves, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro.

    1978-06-01

    The fundamental radiation theories on radiation phenomena of plasma waves are presented. As the fundamental concepts of propagating waves, phase, group and ray velocities are explained, and phase velocity surface, group velocity surface, ray velocity surface and refractive index surface are considered. These concepts are important in anisotropic plasma. Fundamental equations for electron plasma waves in a fluid model and fundamental equations for ion plasma waves can be expressed with the above mentioned concepts. Kuehl derived the formulas for general radiation fields of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are radiated from an arbitrary current source. Fundamental equations for kinetic model are the Vlasov equation and Maxwell equations. By investigating electromagnetic radiation in cold anisotropic plasma, Kuehl found the important behavior that the fields radiated from a source become very large in certain directions for some ranges of plasma parameters. The fact is the so-called high frequency resonance cone. A fundamental formula for quasi-static radiation from an oscillating point source in warm anisotropic plasma includes the near field of electromagnetic mode and the field of electrostatic mode, which are radiated from the source. This paper presents the formula in a generalized form. (Kato, T.)

  5. Dictionary of astronomy, space, and atmospheric phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tver, D.F.; Motz, L.; Hartmann, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    This concise and up-to-date compendium features descriptions and definitions of terms, techniques and equipment relating to celestial phenomena. It explains the latest concepts in space exploration, planetary research, stellar astronomy, and meteorological science. The authors explore the general configurations of star groups, galaxy types, stars, and other small bodies in the solar system, including such important facts as magnitude of each and distance from Earth. They describe the brightest stars one by one. Vital data provided by the Viking, Mariner, and Pioneer space probes, the Voyager flights past Jupiter and its moons, and the Apollo landings are clearly presented and explained. New concepts in stellar astronomy such as quasars, neutron stars (pulsars), and black holes are precisely defined. Also included are discussions of meteor showers and the important rock types found on each planet; definitions of meteorological terms, ad astronomical equipment including telescopes, eyepieces and their accessories, the Golay cell, canopus sensor, filar micrometer, and more. Charts aid in identifying and locating stars and planets, and helpful reference tables list the location of the major celestial bodies - asteroids, constellations, the nearest stars, the brightest stars, interesting double and variable stars and cluters. Also included is the Meisser catalog of the coordinates and magnitudes for more than 100 celestial objects

  6. Attractors, bifurcations, & chaos nonlinear phenomena in economics

    CERN Document Server

    Puu, Tönu

    2003-01-01

    The present book relies on various editions of my earlier book "Nonlinear Economic Dynamics", first published in 1989 in the Springer series "Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems", and republished in three more, successively revised and expanded editions, as a Springer monograph, in 1991, 1993, and 1997, and in a Russian translation as "Nelineynaia Economicheskaia Dinamica". The first three editions were focused on applications. The last was differ­ ent, as it also included some chapters with mathematical background mate­ rial -ordinary differential equations and iterated maps -so as to make the book self-contained and suitable as a textbook for economics students of dynamical systems. To the same pedagogical purpose, the number of illus­ trations were expanded. The book published in 2000, with the title "A ttractors, Bifurcations, and Chaos -Nonlinear Phenomena in Economics", was so much changed, that the author felt it reasonable to give it a new title. There were two new math­ ematics ch...

  7. Half collision resonance phenomena in molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximo Garcia-Sucre; Raseev, G.; Ross, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Escuela Latinoamericana de Fisica (ELAF) is a series of meeting s that for 28 years has played an important role in research-level teaching of physics in Latin America. This book contains the proceedings of ELAF 90 which was held at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC) in Caracas, Venezuela from July 23 to August 3, 1990, as part of the commemoration of the 30th anniversary of IVIC. In contrast to previous ELAF's that were of general scope, ELAF 90 centered on a particular subject matter: '' Half Collisional Resonance Phenomena in Molecules, Experimental and Theoretical Approaches. ''The term ''Half Collision'' refers to the fragmentation of a molecular system following is excitation by light. The lack of an incident fragmentation of a molecular system following is excitation by light. The lack of an incident particle (other than the photon) in the fragmentation process is what leads to the term. The purpose of this volume is to present current results in the experimental and theoretical study of half collisions and also to include pedagogical papers at an introductory or intermediate level. The contributions are grouped into several sections; light sources; ionization; dissociation-experimental; dissociation-theory; competition between ionization and dissociation; and particle-molecule collisions

  8. Macroscopic quantum systems and gravitational phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikovski, I.

    2014-01-01

    Low-energy quantum systems are studied theoretically in light of possible experiments to test the interplay between quantum theory and general relativity. The research focus in this thesis is on quantum systems which can be controlled with very high precision and which allow for tests of quantum theory at novel scales in terms of mass and size. The pulsed regime of opto-mechanics is explored and it is shown how short optical pulses can be used to prepare and characterize quantum states of a massive mechanical resonator, and how some phenomenological models of quantum gravity can be probed. In addition, quantum interferometry with photons and matter-waves in the presence of gravitational time dilation is considered. It is shown that time dilation causes entanglement between internal states and the center-of-mass position and that it leads to decoherence of all composite quantum systems. The results of the thesis show that the interplay between quantum theory and general relativity affects even low-energy quantum systems and that it offers novel phenomena which can be probed in experiments. (author) [de

  9. Mixing, ergodicity and slow relaxation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I. V. L.; Vainstein, M. H.; Lapas, L. C.; Batista, A. A.; Oliveira, F. A.

    2006-11-01

    Investigations on diffusion in systems with memory [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] have established a hierarchical connection between mixing, ergodicity, and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). This hierarchy means that ergodicity is a necessary condition for the validity of the FDT, and mixing is a necessary condition for ergodicity. In this work, we compare those results with recent investigations using the Lee recurrence relations method [M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 26 (1982) 2547; M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 250601; M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. Lee shows that ergodicity is violated in the dynamics of the electron gas [M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. This reinforces both works and implies that the results of [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] are more general than the framework in which they were obtained. Some applications to slow relaxation phenomena are discussed.

  10. Phantom black holes and critical phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha [Engineering Faculty, Başkent University, Bağlıca Campus, Ankara (Turkey); Marques, Glauber T. [Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia ICIBE-LASIC, Av. Presidente Tancredo Neves 2501, CEP 66077-901—Belém/PA (Brazil); Rodrigues, Manuel E., E-mail: azreg@baskent.edu.tr, E-mail: gtadaiesky@hotmail.com, E-mail: esialg@gmail.com [Faculdade de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Pará, Campus Universitário de Abaetetuba, CEP 68440-000, Abaetetuba, Pará (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    We consider the two classes cosh and sinh of normal and phantom black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The thermodynamics of these holes is characterized by heat capacities that may have both signs depending on the parameters of the theory. Leaving aside the normal Reissner-Nordström black hole, it is shown that only some phantom black holes of both classes exhibit critical phenomena. The two classes share a nonextremality, but special, critical point where the transition is continuous and the heat capacity, at constant charge, changes sign with an infinite discontinuity. This point yields a classification scheme for critical points. It is concluded that the two unstable and stable phases coexist on one side of the criticality state and disappear on the other side, that is, there is no configuration where only one phase exists. The sinh class has an extremality critical point where the entropy diverges. The transition from extremality to nonextremality with the charge held constant is accompanied by a loss of mass and an increase in the temperature. A special case of this transition is when the hole is isolated (microcanonical ensemble), it will evolve by emission of energy, which results in a decrease of its mass, to the final state of minimum mass and vanishing heat capacity. The Ehrenfest scheme of classification is inaccurate in this case but the generalized one due to Hilfer leads to conclude that the transition is of order less than unity. Fluctuations near criticality are also investigated.

  11. Condensation phenomena in a turbine blade passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skillings, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    The mechanisms associated with the formation and growth of water droplets in the large low-pressure (LP) turbines used for electrical power generation are poorly understood and recent measurements have indicated that an unusually high loss is associated with the initial nucleation of these droplets. In order to gain an insight into the phenomena which arise in the turbine situation, some experiments were performed to investigate the behaviour of condensing steam flows in a blade passage. This study has revealed the fundamental significance of droplet nucleation in modifying the single-phase flow structure and results are presented which show the change in shock wave pattern when inlet superheat and outlet Mach number are varied. The trailing-edge shock wave structure appears considerably more robust towards variation of inlet superheat than purely one-dimensional considerations may suggest and the inadequacies of adopting a one-dimensional theory to analyse multi-dimensional condensing flows are demonstrated. Over a certain range of outlet Mach numbers an oscillating shock wave will establish in the throat region of the blade passage and this has been shown to interact strongly with droplet nucleation, resulting in a considerably increased mean droplet size. The possible implications of these results for turbine performance are also discussed. (author)

  12. Condensed matter view of giant resonance phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangwill, A.

    1987-01-01

    The intent of this article is to present a view of giant resonance phenomena (an essentially atomic phenomenon) from the perspective of a condensed matter physicist with an interest in the optical properties of matter. As we shall see, this amounts to a particular prejudice about how one should think about many-body effects in a system of interacting electrons. Some of these effects are special to condensed matter systems and will be dealt with in the second half of this paper. However, it turns out that the authors view of the main ingredient to a giant resonance differs significantly from that normally taken by scientists trained in the traditional methods of atomic physics. Therefore, in the first section the author will take advantage of the fact that his contribution to this volume was composed and delivered to the publishers somewhat after the conclusion of the School (rather than before as requested by the organizers) and try to clearly distinguish the differences of opinion presented by the lecturers from the unalterable experimental facts. 46 references, 9 figures

  13. Stochastic phenomena in a fiber Raman amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashnikov, Vladimir [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Institute of Photonics, Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Sergeyev, Sergey V. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Ania-Castanon, Juan Diego [Instituto de Optica CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jacobsen, Gunnar [Acreo, Kista (Sweden); Popov, Sergei [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-01-15

    The interplay of such cornerstones of modern nonlinear fiber optics as a nonlinearity, stochasticity and polarization leads to variety of the noise induced instabilities including polarization attraction and escape phenomena harnessing of which is a key to unlocking the fiber optic systems specifications required in high resolution spectroscopy, metrology, biomedicine and telecommunications. Here, by using direct stochastic modeling, the mapping of interplay of the Raman scattering-based nonlinearity, the random birefringence of a fiber, and the pump-to-signal intensity noise transfer has been done in terms of the fiber Raman amplifier parameters, namely polarization mode dispersion, the relative intensity noise of the pump laser, fiber length, and the signal power. The obtained results reveal conditions for emergence of the random birefringence-induced resonance-like enhancement of the gain fluctuations (stochastic anti-resonance) accompanied by pulse broadening and rare events in the form of low power output signals having probability heavily deviated from the Gaussian distribution. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Interface-Induced Phenomena in Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Frances; Hoffmann, Axel; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Beach, Geoffrey S D; Fullerton, Eric E; Leighton, Chris; MacDonald, Allan H; Ralph, Daniel C; Arena, Dario A; Dürr, Hermann A; Fischer, Peter; Grollier, Julie; Heremans, Joseph P; Jungwirth, Tomas; Kimel, Alexey V; Koopmans, Bert; Krivorotov, Ilya N; May, Steven J; Petford-Long, Amanda K; Rondinelli, James M; Samarth, Nitin; Schuller, Ivan K; Slavin, Andrei N; Stiles, Mark D; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Thiaville, André; Zink, Barry L

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews static and dynamic interfacial effects in magnetism, focusing on interfacially-driven magnetic effects and phenomena associated with spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic symmetry breaking at interfaces. It provides a historical background and literature survey, but focuses on recent progress, identifying the most exciting new scientific results and pointing to promising future research directions. It starts with an introduction and overview of how basic magnetic properties are affected by interfaces, then turns to a discussion of charge and spin transport through and near interfaces and how these can be used to control the properties of the magnetic layer. Important concepts include spin accumulation, spin currents, spin transfer torque, and spin pumping. An overview is provided to the current state of knowledge and existing review literature on interfacial effects such as exchange bias, exchange spring magnets, spin Hall effect, oxide heterostructures, and topological insulators. The article highlights recent discoveries of interface-induced magnetism and non-collinear spin textures, non-linear dynamics including spin torque transfer and magnetization reversal induced by interfaces, and interfacial effects in ultrafast magnetization processes.

  15. Thermal phenomenae in nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baigorria, Carlos.

    1983-12-01

    Thermal phenomenae occurring in a nuclear fuel rod under irradiation are studied. The most important parameters of either steady or transient thermal states are determined. The validity of applying the Fourier's approximation equations to these problems is also studied. A computer program TRANS is developed in order to study the transient cases. This program solves a system of coupled, non-linear partial differential equations, of parabolic type, in cylindrical coordinates with various boundary conditions. The benchmarking of the TRANS program is done by comparing its predictions with the analytical solution of some simplified transient cases. Complex transient cases such as those corresponding to characteristic reactor accidents are studied, in particular for typical pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) fuel rods, such as those of Atucha I. The Stefan problem emerging in the case of melting of the fuel element is solved. Qualitative differences between the classical Stefan problem, without inner sources, and that one, which includes sources are discussed. The MSA program, for solving the Stefan problem with inner sources is presented; and furthermore, it serves to predict thermal evolution, when the fuel element melts. Finally a model for fuel phase change under irradiation is developed. The model is based on the dimensional invariants of the percolation theory when applied to the connectivity of liquid spires nucleated around each fission fragment track. Suggestions for future research into the subject are also presented. (autor) [es

  16. Genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the number of genetic tests performed more than tripled, and public concern about genetic privacy emerged. The majority of states and the U.S. government have passed regulations protecting genetic information. However, research has shown that concerns about genetic privacy are disproportionate to known instances of information misuse. Beliefs in genetic determinacy explain some of the heightened concern about genetic privacy. Discussion of the debate over genetic testing within families illustrates the most recent response to genetic privacy concerns.

  17. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, south central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The purpose of this document is twofold: (1) summarize the NPH that are important to the design and evaluation of structures, systems, and components at the Hanford Site; (2) develop the appropriate natural phenomena loads for use in the implementation of DOE Order 5480.28. The supporting standards, DOE-STD-1020-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria for Department of Energy Facilities (DOE 1994a); DOE-STD-1022-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Site Characteristics Criteria (DOE 1994b); and DOE-STD-1023-95, Natural Phenomena Hazards Assessment Criteria (DOE 1995) are the basis for developing the NPH loads

  18. It's Not Your Grandmother's Genetics Anymore!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mike U.

    2014-01-01

    Genetics is perhaps the most rapidly growing field of science today. Recent findings such as those of the Human Genome Project have led to new understandings of basic genetic phenomena and even to increased confusion about some basic genetic ideas, such as the nature of the gene. These developments directly influence how we should teach genetics.…

  19. Classification of debris flow phenomena in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads-Peter Jakob; E. Mortensen, Lis; Jensen, Niels H.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and debris flow phenomena in particular constitute a threat to human activities in the Faroe Islands. As a contribution to ongoing landslide risk management research, this paper proposes a classification scheme for debris flow phenomena in the Faroe Islands. The scheme, produced through...... a multidisciplinary study involving geomorphological fieldwork and qualitative collection of indigenous landslide knowledge, presents physical characteristics to classify debris flow phenomena into groups named with Faroese terms. The following landslide definitions are proposed. Brekku-skriðulop (English translation...... with international landslide classification systems, significantly increases the knowledge of debris flow phenomena and promotes a consistent terminology of these within the Faroe Islands....

  20. Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Poern, K.

    1997-04-01

    We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods

  1. Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, (Finland); Poern, K. [Poern Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods. 14 refs, 10 figs.

  2. Saving the Phenomena in Medieval Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeskin, K.

    2011-06-01

    Aristotle's theory of motion is based on two principles: (1) all motion to either from the midpoint of the Earth, toward it, or around it, and (2) circular motion must proceed around an immovable point. On this view, the heavenly bodies are individual points of light carried around by a series of concentric spheres rotating at a constant pace around the midpoint of the Earth. But even in Aristotle's day, it was known that this theory had a great deal of difficulty accounting for planetary motion. Ptolemy's alternative was to introduce epicycles and eccentric orbits, thus denying Aristotle's view of natural motion. There was no doubt that Ptolemy's predictions were far better than Aristotle's. But for the medievals, Aristotle's theory made better intuitive sense. Moreover, Ptolemy's theory raised the question of how one sphere could pass through another. What to do? The solution of Moses Maimonides (1138-1204) was to say that it is not the job of the astronomer to tell us how things actually are but merely to propose a series of hypotheses that allow us to explain the relevant data. This view had obvious theological implications. If astronomy could explain planetary motion in an acceptable way, there was reason to believe that the order or structure of the heavens is what it is by necessity. This suggests that God did not exercise any degree of choice in making it that way. But if astronomy cannot explain planetary motion, the most reasonable explanation is that we are dealing with contingent phenomena rather than necessary ones. If there is contingency, there is reason to think God did exercise a degree of choice in making the heavens the way they are. A God who exercises choice is much closer to the God of Scripture. Although Galileo changed all of this, and paved the way for a vastly different view of astronomy, the answer to one set of questions raises a whole different set. In short, the heavenly motion still poses ultimate questions about God, existence, and

  3. In search of high density collective phenomena in nuclear collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1979-06-01

    The progress made toward uncovering signatures of collective phenomena is reviewed. Elements of the basic reaction mechanism leading to a complex background are first discussed. Possible hints of collective phenomena in proton and pion single and double inclusive spectra as well as π - multiplicity data are then described. 6 figures, 2 tables

  4. Collective phenomena in photonic, plasmonic and hybrid structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V; Povinelli, Michelle; Astratov, Vasily N; Zayats, Anatoly V; Podolskiy, Viktor A

    2011-10-24

    Preface to a focus issue of invited articles that review recent progress in studying the fundamental physics of collective phenomena associated with coupling of confined photonic, plasmonic, electronic and phononic states and in exploiting these phenomena to engineer novel devices for light generation, optical sensing, and information processing. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  5. Ether and interpretation of some physical phenomena and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzayev, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of existence of an ether representation about time, space, matters and physical field are profound and also the essence of such phenomena, as corpuscular - wave dualism, change of time, scale and mass at movement body's is opened. The opportunity of transition from probability-statistical interpretation of the quantum phenomena to Laplace's determinism is shown

  6. Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, H.; Muramatsu, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Yamaguchi, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

  7. Positive muscle phenomena-diagnosis, pathogenesis and associated disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortman, Hans G.; Veldink, Jan H.; Drost, Gea

    Positive muscle phenomena arise owing to various forms of spontaneous muscle hyperactivity originating in motor neurons or in the muscle itself. Although they are common in a wide range of neurological and non-neurological diseases, clinical and scientific data on these phenomena are limited, and

  8. Parasitic phenomena in the dynamics of industrial devices

    CERN Document Server

    Borboni, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    In the real world the dynamic behavior of a real machine presents either unforeseen or limiting phenomena: both are undesired, and can be therefore be classified as parasitic phenomena - unwanted, unforeseen, or limiting behaviors. Parasitic Phenomena in the Dynamics of Industrial Devices describes the potential causes and effects of these behaviors and provides indications that could minimize their influence on the mechanical system in question. The authors introduce the phenomena and explore them through real cases, avoiding academic introductions, but inserting the entire academic and experimental knowledge that is useful to understand and solve real-world problems. They then examine these parasitic phenomena in the machine dynamics, using two cases that cover the classical cultural division between cam devices and mechanisms. They also present concrete cases with an amount of experimental data higher than the proposed ones and with a modern approach that can be applied to various mechanical devices, acqui...

  9. Phenomena based Methodology for Process Synthesis incorporating Process Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    at processes at the lowest level of aggregation which is the phenomena level. In this paper, a phenomena based synthesis/design methodology incorporating process intensification is presented. Using this methodology, a systematic identification of necessary and desirable (integrated) phenomena as well......Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing as well as conceptual processes, in order to achieve a more sustainable production. PI can be achieved at different levels. That is, the unit operations, functional and/or phenomena level. The highest impact is expected by looking...... as generation and screening of phenomena based flowsheet options are presented using a decomposition based solution approach. The developed methodology as well as necessary tools and supporting methods are highlighted through a case study involving the production of isopropyl-acetate....

  10. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo E. Iso-Ahola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1 scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative; (2 non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3 statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4 psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance, not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested.

  11. Reproducibility in Psychological Science: When Do Psychological Phenomena Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific evidence has recently been used to assert that certain psychological phenomena do not exist. Such claims, however, cannot be made because (1) scientific method itself is seriously limited (i.e., it can never prove a negative); (2) non-existence of phenomena would require a complete absence of both logical (theoretical) and empirical support; even if empirical support is weak, logical and theoretical support can be strong; (3) statistical data are only one piece of evidence and cannot be used to reduce psychological phenomena to statistical phenomena; and (4) psychological phenomena vary across time, situations and persons. The human mind is unreproducible from one situation to another. Psychological phenomena are not particles that can decisively be tested and discovered. Therefore, a declaration that a phenomenon is not real is not only theoretically and empirically unjustified but runs counter to the propositional and provisional nature of scientific knowledge. There are only “temporary winners” and no “final truths” in scientific knowledge. Psychology is a science of subtleties in human affect, cognition and behavior. Its phenomena fluctuate with conditions and may sometimes be difficult to detect and reproduce empirically. When strictly applied, reproducibility is an overstated and even questionable concept in psychological science. Furthermore, statistical measures (e.g., effect size) are poor indicators of the theoretical importance and relevance of phenomena (cf. “deliberate practice” vs. “talent” in expert performance), not to mention whether phenomena are real or unreal. To better understand psychological phenomena, their theoretical and empirical properties should be examined via multiple parameters and criteria. Ten such parameters are suggested. PMID:28626435

  12. State estimation of spatio-temporal phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan

    This dissertation addresses the state estimation problem of spatio-temporal phenomena which can be modeled by partial differential equations (PDEs), such as pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere. After discretizing the PDE, the dynamical system has a large number of degrees of freedom (DOF). State estimation using Kalman Filter (KF) is computationally intractable, and hence, a reduced order model (ROM) needs to be constructed first. Moreover, the nonlinear terms, external disturbances or unknown boundary conditions can be modeled as unknown inputs, which leads to an unknown input filtering problem. Furthermore, the performance of KF could be improved by placing sensors at feasible locations. Therefore, the sensor scheduling problem to place multiple mobile sensors is of interest. The first part of the dissertation focuses on model reduction for large scale systems with a large number of inputs/outputs. A commonly used model reduction algorithm, the balanced proper orthogonal decomposition (BPOD) algorithm, is not computationally tractable for large systems with a large number of inputs/outputs. Inspired by the BPOD and randomized algorithms, we propose a randomized proper orthogonal decomposition (RPOD) algorithm and a computationally optimal RPOD (RPOD*) algorithm, which construct an ROM to capture the input-output behaviour of the full order model, while reducing the computational cost of BPOD by orders of magnitude. It is demonstrated that the proposed RPOD* algorithm could construct the ROM in real-time, and the performance of the proposed algorithms on different advection-diffusion equations. Next, we consider the state estimation problem of linear discrete-time systems with unknown inputs which can be treated as a wide-sense stationary process with rational power spectral density, while no other prior information needs to be known. We propose an autoregressive (AR) model based unknown input realization technique which allows us to recover the input

  13. Certain relativistic phenomena in crystal optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee-Seng, Lim

    1980-01-01

    Relativistic unsteady phenomena are established for a crystalline medium with unaligned sets of permittivity and permeability principal axes, but incorporating a compounded uniaxiality about some nonprincipal direction. All effects originate from a suddenly activated, arbitrarily oriented, maintained line current conducted with a finite velocity v. Integral representations studied in another paper (Chee-Seng) are applied. The original coordinate system is subjected to a series of rotational and translational, scaled and unscaled transformations. No specific coordinate frame is strictly adhered to. Instead, it is often expedient and advantageous to exploit several reference frames simultaneously in the course of the analysis and interpretations. The electric field is directly related to a net scalar field Δ involving another scalar Ψ and its complement Ψ¯ which can be deduced from Ψ; Ψ and Ψ¯ are associated with two expanding, inclined ellipsoidal wavefronts ξ and ξ¯; these are cocentered at the current origin and touch each other twice along the uniaxis. Elsewhere, ξ leads ξ¯. For a source current faster than ξ:vt ∈ extξ, Ψ≢0 within a finite but growing ''ice-cream cone'' domain, its nontrivial composition being χ-1/2 inside ξ and 2χ-1/2 inside part of a tangent cone from the advancing current edge vt to, and terminating at, ξ; the function χ vanishes along such a tangent cone. Alternatively, for a source current slower than ξ:vt∈ intξ, if vt is avoided, χ≳0 everywhere, while Ψ=χ-1/2 inside ξ but vanishes identically outside ξ. However, the crucial scalar field Δ depends on three separate current-velocity regimes. Over a slow regime: vt∈ intξ¯, Δ is nontrivial inside ξ wherein it is discontinuous across ξ¯. Over an intermediate regime: vt ∈ intξ extξ¯, Δ takes four distinct forms on 12 adjacent domains bounded by ξ, ξ¯ and a double-conical tangent surface linking vt to ξ¯. But for a fast regime: vt∈ ext

  14. Quantum Genetic Algorithms for Computer Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoz Beltrá, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are a class of evolutionary algorithms inspired by Darwinian natural selection. They are popular heuristic optimisation methods based on simulated genetic mechanisms, i.e., mutation, crossover, etc. and population dynamical processes such as reproduction, selection, etc. Over the last decade, the possibility to emulate a quantum computer (a computer using quantum-mechanical phenomena to perform operations on data) has led to a new class of GAs known as “Quantum Geneti...

  15. Separation phenomena in Liquids and Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvet, P; Soubbaramayer, [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Lasers et de la Physico-Chimie, DESICP/DLPC/SPP, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Noe, P

    1989-07-01

    technology was up to the task but the programme was shelved mainly because of lack of demand. Finally, seven papers deal with laser processes. Two of them review the AVLIS program in the UK and one paper gives the status of the MLIS project in West Germany. One communication from China and three papers by French authors deal with specific problems currently met in AVLIS studies, on the vapour beam and the ion extraction. A number of phenomena observed in AVLIS needs satisfactory explanations: the high value of the vapour velocity, the low value of metastables in the vapour beam, the extraction of ions at high density, etc. Session 1: plasma separation (review of isotopic plasma separation processes; production of depleted zirconium using a plasma centrifuge; measurements of isotope separation in a vacuum arc centrifuge). Session 2: plasma separation and centrifugation (recent developments in stable isotope separation by ionic cyclotron resonance; some aspects of the separation of multi-isotope mixtures with gas centrifuges; review paper on centrifuge technology and status of the URENCO centrifuge project; solution of the two-fluid equations for flow in a centrifuge; influence of stationary poles in the central region of gas centrifuges; extension of the analytic sixth order theory; applications of different analytic solutions for the centrifuge flow). Sessions 4 and 5: rotating flows (convection flows driven by centrifugal buoyancy in rapidly rotating systems; experimental investigation of the flow in a rotating pie-shaped cylinder; temperature distribution on rotating spherical shells; centrifugal separation of a suspension in a rotating vessel; spin-up from rest of a suspension - preliminary insight). Session 6: particle fluid mixture (modelling, simulation and comprehension of the flow field of a particles-fluid mixture; the effect of shear and lift on particle-gas separation; on the hydrodynamics of electrolytic refining of metals). Session 7 (calculation of condensation

  16. Astrophysical phenomena related to supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2006-12-01

    The thesis contains the results of my recent projects in astrophysical research. All projects aim at pushing the limits of our knowledge about the interaction between a galaxy, the fundamental building block of today's universe, and a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at its center. Over the past years a lot of observational evidence has been gathered for the current understanding, that at least a major part of the galaxies with a stellar bulge contain central SMBHs. The typical extragalactic approach consists of searching for the spectroscopic pattern of Keplerian rotation, produced by stars and gas, when orbiting a central dark mass (Kormendy & Richstone 1995). It suggests that a significant fraction of large galaxies host in their very nucleus a SMBH of millions to billions of solar masses (Kormendy & Gebhardt 2001). In the closest case, the center of our Milky Way, the most central stars, which can be imaged, were shown to move on orbits with circulation times of a few decades only, evidencing a mass and compactness of the dark counter part of the Keplerian motion, which can only be explained by a SMBH (Eckart & Genzel 1996; Ghez et al. 2000; Schödel et al. 2002). Having acknowledged the widespread existence of SMBHs the obvious next step is investigating the interaction with their environment. Although the basic property of a SMBH, which is concentrating a huge amount of mass in a ludicrously small volume defined by the Schwarzschild radius, only creates a deep gravitational trough, its existence evokes much more phenomena than simply attracting the surrounding matter. It can trigger or exacerbate star formation via tidal forces (Morris 1993). It shapes the distribution of its surrounding matter to accretion discs, which themselves release gravitational potential energy as radiation, possibly due to magnetic friction (Blandford 1995). The radiation efficiency of such active galactic nuclei (AGN) can become roughly 100 times more efficient than atomic nuclear

  17. Separation phenomena in Liquids and Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, P.; Dr Soubbaramayer; Noe, P.

    1989-01-01

    technology was up to the task but the programme was shelved mainly because of lack of demand. Finally, seven papers deal with laser processes. Two of them review the AVLIS program in the UK and one paper gives the status of the MLIS project in West Germany. One communication from China and three papers by French authors deal with specific problems currently met in AVLIS studies, on the vapour beam and the ion extraction. A number of phenomena observed in AVLIS needs satisfactory explanations: the high value of the vapour velocity, the low value of metastables in the vapour beam, the extraction of ions at high density, etc. Session 1: plasma separation (review of isotopic plasma separation processes; production of depleted zirconium using a plasma centrifuge; measurements of isotope separation in a vacuum arc centrifuge). Session 2: plasma separation and centrifugation (recent developments in stable isotope separation by ionic cyclotron resonance; some aspects of the separation of multi-isotope mixtures with gas centrifuges; review paper on centrifuge technology and status of the URENCO centrifuge project; solution of the two-fluid equations for flow in a centrifuge; influence of stationary poles in the central region of gas centrifuges; extension of the analytic sixth order theory; applications of different analytic solutions for the centrifuge flow). Sessions 4 and 5: rotating flows (convection flows driven by centrifugal buoyancy in rapidly rotating systems; experimental investigation of the flow in a rotating pie-shaped cylinder; temperature distribution on rotating spherical shells; centrifugal separation of a suspension in a rotating vessel; spin-up from rest of a suspension - preliminary insight). Session 6: particle fluid mixture (modelling, simulation and comprehension of the flow field of a particles-fluid mixture; the effect of shear and lift on particle-gas separation; on the hydrodynamics of electrolytic refining of metals). Session 7 (calculation of condensation

  18. Realistic generation of natural phenomena based on video synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changbo; Quan, Hongyan; Li, Chenhui; Xiao, Zhao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Peng; Shen, Liuwei

    2009-10-01

    Research on the generation of natural phenomena has many applications in special effects of movie, battlefield simulation and virtual reality, etc. Based on video synthesis technique, a new approach is proposed for the synthesis of natural phenomena, including flowing water and fire flame. From the fire and flow video, the seamless video of arbitrary length is generated. Then, the interaction between wind and fire flame is achieved through the skeleton of flame. Later, the flow is also synthesized by extending the video textures using an edge resample method. Finally, we can integrate the synthesized natural phenomena into a virtual scene.

  19. Electron impact phenomena and the properties of gaseous ions

    CERN Document Server

    Field, F H; Massey, H S W; Brueckner, Keith A

    1970-01-01

    Electron Impact Phenomena and the Properties of Gaseous Ions, Revised Edition deals with data pertaining to electron impact and to molecular gaseous ionic phenomena. This book discusses electron impact phenomena in gases at low pressure that involve low-energy electrons, which result in ion formation. The text also describes the use of mass spectrometers in electron impact studies and the degree of accuracy obtained when measuring electron impact energies. This book also reviews relatively low speed electrons and the transitions that result in the ionization of the atomic system. This text the

  20. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  1. Plasma phenomena around comets: interaction with the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Shapiro, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.I.; Szegoe, K.

    1987-08-01

    The most important plasma physical experimental data measured during the cometary missions are summarized. These data do not include tail phenomena. Theoretical considerations are also presented concerning the upstream and bow shock regions. (author) 47 refs.; 15 figs

  2. Nonlinear structural mechanics theory, dynamical phenomena and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Lacarbonara, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Structural Mechanics: Theory, Dynamical Phenomena and Modeling offers a concise, coherent presentation of the theoretical framework of nonlinear structural mechanics, computational methods, applications, parametric investigations of nonlinear phenomena and their mechanical interpretation towards design. The theoretical and computational tools that enable the formulation, solution, and interpretation of nonlinear structures are presented in a systematic fashion so as to gradually attain an increasing level of complexity of structural behaviors, under the prevailing assumptions on the geometry of deformation, the constitutive aspects and the loading scenarios. Readers will find a treatment of the foundations of nonlinear structural mechanics towards advanced reduced models, unified with modern computational tools in the framework of the prominent nonlinear structural dynamic phenomena while tackling both the mathematical and applied sciences. Nonlinear Structural Mechanics: Theory, Dynamical Phenomena...

  3. Inverse Analysis of Cavitation Impact Phenomena on Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambrakos, S. G; Tran, N. E

    2007-01-01

    A general methodology is presented for in situ detection of cavitation impact phenomena on structures based on inverse analysis of luminescent emissions resulting from the collapsing of bubbles onto surfaces...

  4. Phase Plane Analysis Method of Nonlinear Traffic Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhuan Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new phase plane analysis method for analyzing the complex nonlinear traffic phenomena is presented in this paper. This method makes use of variable substitution to transform a traditional traffic flow model into a new model which is suitable for the analysis in phase plane. According to the new model, various traffic phenomena, such as the well-known shock waves, rarefaction waves, and stop-and-go waves, are analyzed in the phase plane. From the phase plane diagrams, we can see the relationship between traffic jams and system instability. So the problem of traffic flow could be converted into that of system stability. The results show that the traffic phenomena described by the new method is consistent with that described by traditional methods. Moreover, the phase plane analysis highlights the unstable traffic phenomena we are chiefly concerned about and describes the variation of density or velocity with time or sections more clearly.

  5. Introductory note on phase transitions and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    The author briefly reviews the development of classical statistical mechanics, particularly the contributions of Gibbs. The author then turns to quantum mechanical formulations of phase transitions and critical phenomena, mentioning several seminal works

  6. Dimensional Analysis with space discrimination applied to Fickian difussion phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Sanchidrian, C.; Castans, M.

    1989-01-01

    Dimensional Analysis with space discrimination is applied to Fickian difussion phenomena in order to transform its partial differen-tial equations into ordinary ones, and also to obtain in a dimensionl-ess fom the Ficks second law. (Author)

  7. Conference report for nuclear fusion phenomena in ionized gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.

    1975-10-01

    A summary of the Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, is given. In particular, the format of the conference and the content of the review papers are summarized

  8. Computational and experimental investigation of dynamic shock reflection phenomena

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, K

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available wedge are used to analyse dynamic flow field phenomena and response of the triple point below and within the dual solution domain. Computed, unsteady pressure traces on the reflection plane are also analysed...

  9. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are computational optimisation schemes with an ... The algorithms solve optimisation problems ..... Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimisation and Machine. Learning, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1989.

  10. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    artificial genetic system) string feature or ... called the genotype whereas it is called a structure in artificial genetic ... assigned a fitness value based on the cost function. Better ..... way it has produced complex, intelligent living organisms capable of ...

  11. Modeling of nonlinear biological phenomena modeled by S-systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Majdi M; Nounou, Hazem N; Nounou, Mohamed N; Datta, Aniruddha A

    2014-03-01

    A central challenge in computational modeling of biological systems is the determination of the model parameters. In such cases, estimating these variables or parameters from other easily obtained measurements can be extremely useful. For example, time-series dynamic genomic data can be used to develop models representing dynamic genetic regulatory networks, which can be used to design intervention strategies to cure major diseases and to better understand the behavior of biological systems. Unfortunately, biological measurements are usually highly infected by errors that hide the important characteristics in the data. Therefore, these noisy measurements need to be filtered to enhance their usefulness in practice. This paper addresses the problem of state and parameter estimation of biological phenomena modeled by S-systems using Bayesian approaches, where the nonlinear observed system is assumed to progress according to a probabilistic state space model. The performances of various conventional and state-of-the-art state estimation techniques are compared. These techniques include the extended Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), particle filter (PF), and the developed variational Bayesian filter (VBF). Specifically, two comparative studies are performed. In the first comparative study, the state variables (the enzyme CadA, the model cadBA, the cadaverine Cadav and the lysine Lys for a model of the Cad System in Escherichia coli (CSEC)) are estimated from noisy measurements of these variables, and the various estimation techniques are compared by computing the estimation root mean square error (RMSE) with respect to the noise-free data. In the second comparative study, the state variables as well as the model parameters are simultaneously estimated. In this case, in addition to comparing the performances of the various state estimation techniques, the effect of the number of estimated model parameters on the accuracy and convergence of these

  12. Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    flames," Physics of Fluids , vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1447-54, 1995. [8] K. Lyons, " Toward an understanding of the stabilization mechanisms of lifted...Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control This report summarizes the research accomplished in the project...34Experimental Studies of Hydrocarbon Flame Phenomena: Enabling Combustion Control". The main areas of activity are: a) electrostatic flame and flow

  13. Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of past and present accomplishments of the Natural Phenomena Hazards Program that has been ongoing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since 1975. The Natural Phenomena covered includes earthquake; winds, hurricanes, and tornadoes; flooding and precipitation; lightning; and volcanic events. The work is organized into four major areas (1) Policy, requirements, standards, and guidance, (2) Technical support, research and development, (3) Technology transfer, and (4) Oversight

  14. Ludic Function of Precedent-Related Phenomena in Media Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Velykoroda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the ludic function of precedent-related phenomena as a type of intertextuality. The analysis is done on the basis of relevance theoretic approach, through which we aim to show the additional cognitive effect which is created by precedent-related phenomena in media discourse, and this comic effect serves as a foundation for the ludic function of these units.

  15. On Process Modelling Using Physical Oriented And Phenomena Based Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Culea

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a modelling framework based on phenomena description of the process. The approach is taken to easy understand and construct process model in heterogeneous possible distributed modelling and simulation environments. A simplified case study of a heat exchanger is considered and Modelica modelling language to check the proposed concept. The partial results are promising and the research effort will be extended in a computer aided modelling environment based on phenomena.

  16. About Genetic Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical care in many areas of medicine. Assisted Reproductive Technology/Infertility Genetics Cancer Genetics Cardiovascular Genetics Cystic Fibrosis Genetics Fetal Intervention and Therapy Genetics Hematology Genetics Metabolic Genetics ...

  17. Quantum Genetic Algorithms for Computer Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lahoz-Beltra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GAs are a class of evolutionary algorithms inspired by Darwinian natural selection. They are popular heuristic optimisation methods based on simulated genetic mechanisms, i.e., mutation, crossover, etc. and population dynamical processes such as reproduction, selection, etc. Over the last decade, the possibility to emulate a quantum computer (a computer using quantum-mechanical phenomena to perform operations on data has led to a new class of GAs known as “Quantum Genetic Algorithms” (QGAs. In this review, we present a discussion, future potential, pros and cons of this new class of GAs. The review will be oriented towards computer scientists interested in QGAs “avoiding” the possible difficulties of quantum-mechanical phenomena.

  18. Going Forward with Genetics: Recent Technological Advances and Forward Genetics in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; Li, Xiaohong; Beutler, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Forward genetic analysis is an unbiased approach for identifying genes essential to defined biological phenomena. When applied to mice, it is one of the most powerful methods to facilitate understanding of the genetic basis of human biology and disease. The speed at which disease-causing mutations can be identified in mutagenized mice has been markedly increased by recent advances in DNA sequencing technology. Creating and analyzing mutant phenotypes may therefore become rate-limiting in forw...

  19. PREFACE: Transport phenomena in proton conducting media Transport phenomena in proton conducting media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikerling, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Proton transport phenomena are of paramount importance for acid-base chemistry, energy transduction in biological organisms, corrosion processes, and energy conversion in electrochemical systems such as polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The relevance for such a plethora of materials and systems, and the ever-lasting fascination with the highly concerted nature of underlying processes drive research across disciplines in chemistry, biology, physics and chemical engineering. A proton never travels alone. Proton motion is strongly correlated with its environment, usually comprised of an electrolyte and a solid or soft host material. For the transport in nature's most benign proton solvent and shuttle, water that is, insights from ab initio simulations, matured over the last 15 years, have furnished molecular details of the structural diffusion mechanism of protons. Excess proton movement in water consists of sequences of Eigen-Zundel-Eigen transitions, triggered by hydrogen bond breaking and making in the surrounding water network. Nowadays, there is little debate about the validity of this mechanism in water, which bears a stunning resemblance to the basic mechanistic picture put forward by de Grotthuss in 1806. While strong coupling of an excess proton with degrees of freedom of solvent and host materials facilitates proton motion, this coupling also creates negative synergies. In general, proton mobility in biomaterials and electrochemical proton conducting media is highly sensitive to the abundance and structure of the proton solvent. In polymer electrolyte membranes, in which protons are bound to move in nano-sized water-channels, evaporation of water or local membrane dehydration due to electro-osmotic coupling are well-known phenomena that could dramatically diminish proton conductivity. Contributions in this special issue address various vital aspects of the concerted nature of proton motion and they elucidate important structural and dynamic effects of solvent

  20. Comprehending emergent systems phenomena through direct-manipulation animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Priscilla Abel

    This study seeks to understand the type of interaction mode that best supports learning and comprehension of emergent systems phenomena. Given that the literature has established that students hold robust misconceptions of such phenomena, this study investigates the influence of using three types of interaction; speed-manipulation animation (SMN), post-manipulation animation (PMA) and direct-manipulation animation (DMA) for increasing comprehension and testing transfer of the phenomena, by looking at the effect of simultaneous interaction of haptic and visual channels on long term and working memories when seeking to comprehend emergent phenomena. The questions asked were: (1) Does the teaching of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool (i.e., SMA, PMA or DMA), improve students' mental model construction of systems, thus increasing comprehension of this scientific concept? And (2) does the teaching of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool, give the students the necessary complex cognitive skill which can then be applied to similar (near transfer) and/or novel, but different, (far transfer) scenarios? In an empirical study undergraduate and graduate students were asked to participate in one of three experimental conditions: SMA, PMA, or DMA. The results of the study found that it was the participants of the SMA treatment condition that had the most improvement in post-test scores. Students' understanding of the phenomena increased most when they used a dynamic model with few interactive elements (i.e., start, stop, and speed) that allowed for real time visualization of one's interaction on the phenomena. Furthermore, no indication was found that the learning of emergent phenomena, with the aid of a dynamic interactive modeling tool, gave the students the necessary complex cognitive skill which could then be applied to similar (near transfer) and/or novel, but different, (far transfer) scenarios

  1. Spectacular phenomena and limits to rationality in genetic and cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Magnus; Arak, Anthony; Ghirlanda, Stefano; Wachtmeister, Carl-Adam

    2002-11-29

    In studies of both animal and human behaviour, game theory is used as a tool for understanding strategies that appear in interactions between individuals. Game theory focuses on adaptive behaviour, which can be attained only at evolutionary equilibrium. We suggest that behaviour appearing during interactions is often outside the scope of such analysis. In many types of interaction, conflicts of interest exist between players, fuelling the evolution of manipulative strategies. Such strategies evolve out of equilibrium, commonly appearing as spectacular morphology or behaviour with obscure meaning, to which other players may react in non-adaptive, irrational ways. We present a simple model to show some limitations of the game-theory approach, and outline the conditions in which evolutionary equilibria cannot be maintained. Evidence from studies of biological interactions seems to support the view that behaviour is often not at equilibrium. This also appears to be the case for many human cultural traits, which have spread rapidly despite the fact that they have a negative influence on reproduction.

  2. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  3. The Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE), 1990--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE) was established to provide a natural phenomena (NP) engineering oversight role within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). In this oversight role CNPE's goals are to provide coordination and direction of activities related to earthquake and other natural phenomena engineering, including development of hazard definition, development of design criteria, conducting new facility design, development and conducting of testing, performance of analysis and vulnerability studies, development of analysis methodology, and provision of support for preparation of safety analysis reports for the five MMES sites. In conducting these activities it is CNPE's goal to implement the elements of Total Quality Management (TQM) in a cost-effective manner, providing its customers with a quality product. This report describes 1990--1991 activities

  4. Nonlinear Magnetic Phenomena in Highly Polarized Target Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Yu F

    2007-01-01

    The report introduces and surveys nonlinear magnetic phenomena which have been observed at high nuclear polarizations in polarized targets of the SMC and of the COMPASS collaborations at CERN. Some of these phenomena, namely the frequency modulation eect and the distortion of the NMR line shape, promote the development of the polarized target technique. Others, as the spin-spin cross-relaxation between spin subsystems can be used for the development of quantum statistical physics. New findings bear on an electromagnetic noise and the spectrally resolved radiation from LiD with negatively polarized nuclei detected by low temperature bolometers. These nonlinear phenomena need to be taken into account for achieving the ultimate polarizations.

  5. The Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE), 1990--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-07-01

    The Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE) was established to provide a natural phenomena (NP) engineering oversight role within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). In this oversight role CNPE`s goals are to provide coordination and direction of activities related to earthquake and other natural phenomena engineering, including development of hazard definition, development of design criteria, conducting new facility design, development and conducting of testing, performance of analysis and vulnerability studies, development of analysis methodology, and provision of support for preparation of safety analysis reports for the five MMES sites. In conducting these activities it is CNPE`s goal to implement the elements of Total Quality Management (TQM) in a cost-effective manner, providing its customers with a quality product. This report describes 1990--1991 activities.

  6. Random phenomena fundamentals of probability and statistics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunnaike, Babatunde A

    2009-01-01

    PreludeApproach PhilosophyFour Basic PrinciplesI FoundationsTwo Motivating ExamplesYield Improvement in a Chemical ProcessQuality Assurance in a Glass Sheet Manufacturing ProcessOutline of a Systematic ApproachRandom Phenomena, Variability, and UncertaintyTwo Extreme Idealizations of Natural PhenomenaRandom Mass PhenomenaIntroducing ProbabilityThe Probabilistic FrameworkII ProbabilityFundamentals of Probability TheoryBuilding BlocksOperationsProbabilityConditional ProbabilityIndependenceRandom Variables and DistributionsDistributionsMathematical ExpectationCharacterizing DistributionsSpecial Derived Probability FunctionsMultidimensional Random VariablesDistributions of Several Random VariablesDistributional Characteristics of Jointly Distributed Random VariablesRandom Variable TransformationsSingle Variable TransformationsBivariate TransformationsGeneral Multivariate TransformationsApplication Case Studies I: ProbabilityMendel and HeredityWorld War II Warship Tactical Response Under AttackIII DistributionsIde...

  7. Biomedical Signals and Sensors I Linking Physiological Phenomena and Biosignals

    CERN Document Server

    Kaniusas, Eugenijus

    2012-01-01

    This two-volume set focuses on the interface between physiologic mechanisms and diagnostic human engineering. Today numerous biomedical sensors are commonplace in clinical practice. The registered biosignals reflect mostly vital physiologic phenomena. In order to adequately apply biomedical sensors and reasonably interpret the corresponding biosignals, a proper understanding of the involved physiologic phenomena, their influence on the registered biosignals, and the technology behind the sensors is necessary. The first volume is devoted to the interface between physiologic mechanisms and arising biosignals, whereas the second volume is focussed on the interface between biosignals and biomedical sensors. The physiologic mechanisms behind the biosignals are described from the basic cellular level up to their advanced mutual coordination level during sleep. The arising biosignals are discussed within the scope of vital physiologic phenomena to foster their understanding and comprehensive analysis.

  8. Modified Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) for Uncertainty Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol-Mohamad, Mohammad P.; Modarres, Mohammad; Mosleh, Ali

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology of characterizing important phenomena, which is also part of a broader research by the authors called 'Modified PIRT'. The methodology provides robust process of phenomena identification and ranking process for more precise quantification of uncertainty. It is a two-step process of identifying and ranking methodology based on thermal-hydraulics (TH) importance as well as uncertainty importance. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) has been used for as a formal approach for TH identification and ranking. Formal uncertainty importance technique is used to estimate the degree of credibility of the TH model(s) used to represent the important phenomena. This part uses subjective justification by evaluating available information and data from experiments, and code predictions. The proposed methodology was demonstrated by developing a PIRT for large break loss of coolant accident LBLOCA for the LOFT integral facility with highest core power (test LB-1). (authors)

  9. Diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz-Ozturk, Ece; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2015-09-01

    Biomicrofluidics is an emerging field at the cross roads of microfluidics and life sciences which requires intensive research efforts in terms of introducing appropriate designs, production techniques, and analysis. The ultimate goal is to deliver innovative and cost-effective microfluidic devices to biotech, biomedical, and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, creating an in-depth understanding of the transport phenomena of cells and biomolecules becomes vital and concurrently poses significant challenges. The present article outlines the recent advancements in diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules by highlighting transport principles from an engineering perspective, cell responses in microfluidic devices with emphases on diffusion- and flow-based microfluidic gradient platforms, macroscopic and microscopic approaches for investigating the diffusion phenomena of biomolecules, microfluidic platforms for the delivery of these molecules, as well as the state of the art in biological applications of mammalian cell responses and diffusion of biomolecules.

  10. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  11. Genetic Romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro

    2016-01-01

    inheritance as a way to unify populations within politically and geographically bounded areas. Thus, new genetics have contributed to the development of genetic romanticisms, whereby populations (human, plant, and animal) can be delineated and mobilized through scientific and medical practices to represent...

  12. Thermionic phenomena the collected works of Irving Langmuir

    CERN Document Server

    Suits, C Guy

    1961-01-01

    Thermionic Phenomena is the third volume of the series entitled The Collected Works of Irving Langmuir. This volume compiles articles written during the 1920's and early 1930's, the period when the science of thermionics is beginning to be of importance. This text is divided into two parts. The first part discusses vacuum pumps, specifically examining the effect of space charge and residual gases on thermionic currents in high vacuum. This part also explains fundamental phenomena in electron tubes having tungsten cathodes and the use of high-power vacuum tubes. The second part of this text loo

  13. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2017-07-15

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  14. Time in powers of ten natural phenomena and their timescales

    CERN Document Server

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    In this richly illustrated book, Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft and Theoretical Physicist Stefan Vandoren describe the enormous diversity of natural phenomena that take place at different time scales. In the tradition of the bestseller Powers of Ten , the authors zoom in and out in time, each step with a factor of ten. Starting from one second, time scales are enlarged until processes are reached that take much longer than the age of the universe. After the largest possible eternities, the reader is treated to the shortest and fastest phenomena known. Then the authors increase with powers of t

  15. RELAP5-3D code validation for RBMK phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The RELAP5-3D thermal-hydraulic code was assessed against Japanese Safety Experiment Loop (SEL) and Heat Transfer Loop (HTL) tests. These tests were chosen because the phenomena present are applicable to analyses of Russian RBMK reactor designs. The assessment cases included parallel channel flow fluctuation tests at reduced and normal water levels, a channel inlet pipe rupture test, and a high power, density wave oscillation test. The results showed that RELAP5-3D has the capability to adequately represent these RBMK-related phenomena

  16. Simulation of water hammer phenomena using the system code ATHLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratfisch, Christoph; Koch, Marco K.

    2017-01-01

    Water Hammer Phenomena can endanger the integrity of structures leading to a possible failure of pipes in nuclear power plants as well as in many industrial applications. These phenomena can arise in nuclear power plants in the course of transients and accidents induced by the start-up of auxiliary feed water systems or emergency core cooling systems in combination with rapid acting valves and pumps. To contribute to further development and validation of the code ATHLET (Analysis of Thermalhydraulics of Leaks and Transients), an experiment performed in the test facility Pilot Plant Pipework (PPP) at Fraunhofer UMSICHT is simulated using the code version ATHLET 3.0A.

  17. Randomly transitional phenomena in the system governed by Duffing's equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshisuke.

    1978-06-01

    This paper deals with turbulent or chaotic phenomena which occur in the system governed by Duffing's equation, a special type of 2-dimensional periodic systems. By using analog and digital computers, experiments are undertaken with special reference to the changes of attractors and of average power spectra of the random processes under the variation of the system parameters. On the basis of the experimental results, an outline of the random process is made clear. The results obtained in this paper will be applied to the phenomena of the same kind which occur in 3-dimensional autonomous systems. (author)

  18. Psychosocial Aspects of Dental Anxiety and Clinical Pain Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    This Danish Doctoral Dissertation in the science of Odontology contains 7 chapters: 1) Introduction to a social perspective on dental treatment, anxiety and pain throughout time, 2) research models and methods to study dental anxiety and clinical pain phenomena, 3) the fear of dental treatment...... .. what it is and what it is not and how many have it, 4) clinical pain treatment, psychosocial aspects in relation to anxiety, 4) patients and dentists' roles, pain perception and anxiety, 6) psychosocial aspects of managing anxiety and pain phenomena, and 7) Conclusions and proposals for the future...

  19. Transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids a concise primer

    CERN Document Server

    Olsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    This short primer provides a concise and tutorial-style introduction to transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids , in particular the transport of mass, energy and momentum.  The reader will find detailed derivations of the transport equations for these phenomena, as well as selected analytical solutions to the transport equations in some simple geometries. After a brief introduction to the basic mathematics used in the text, Chapter 2, which deals with momentum transport, presents a derivation of the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equation describing the basic flow in a Newtonian fluid.  Also provided at

  20. New high-energy phenomena in aircraft triggered lightning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, A.P.J.; Kochkin, P.; de Boer, A.; Bardet, M.; Boissin, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    High-energy phenomena associated with lighting have been proposed in the twenties, observed for the first time in the sixties, and further investigated more recently by e.g. rocket triggered lightning. Similarly, x-rays have been detected in meter-long discharges in air at standard atmospheric

  1. All basic condensed matter physics phenomena and notions mirror ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biology an opportunity to explore a variety of condensed matter phenomena and situations, some of which have ... The biological matter such as the tiniest of life, an amoeba, is alive ..... and black-holes, nature fascinates physicists. It is the ...

  2. Observation of diffusion phenomena of liquid phase with multiple components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Wataru

    1979-01-01

    The diffusion phenomena of liquid phase with multiple components was directly observed, and the factors contributing to complex material transfer were investigated, comparing to the former experimental results. The most excellent method of observing the diffusion behavior of liquid phase used heretofore is to trace the time history of concentration distribution for each component in unsteady diffusion process. The method of directly observing the concentration distribution is usually classified into the analysis of diffused samples, the checking of radioactive isotope tracers, and the measurement of light refraction and transmission. The most suitable method among these is to trace this time history by utilizing the spectrophotometer of position scanning type. An improved spectrophotometer was manufactured for trial. The outline of the measuring system and the detail of the optical system of this new type spectrophotometer are explained. The resolving power for position measurement is described with the numerical calculation. As for the observation examples of the diffusion phenomena of liquid phase with multiple components, the diffusion of multiple electrolytes in aqueous solution, the observation of the material transfer phenomena accompanied by heterogeneous and single phase chemical reaction, and the observation of concentration distribution in the liquid diaphragm in a reaction absorption system are described. For each experimental item, the test apparatus, the sample material, the test process, the test results and the evaluation are explained in detail, and the diffusion phenomena of liquid phase with multiple components were pretty well elucidated. (Nakai, Y.)

  3. Developing Critical Thinking through the Study of Paranormal Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesp, Richard; Montgomery, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Argues that accounts of paranormal phenomena can serve as an ideal medium in which to encourage students to develop critical-thinking skills. Describes a cooperative-learning approach used to teach critical thinking in a course on paranormal events. Reports that critical-thinking skills increased and that the course received favorable student…

  4. Damage phenomena at target surface by small leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyung Chai; Jeong, J. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2001-04-01

    Design of the steam generator should be considered the safety about the sodium-water reaction occurred by water leak in heat transfer tube. Water leak mainly occurred from welding defect at the process of tube connection, the vibration of heat transfer tube bundle in steam generating system, fretting, and pin hole in original tube manufacturing. The classification of water leak divided to two parts, roughly, in case of the water leak studies. One is small leak phenomena analysis, and the other is it of large leak which was mainly treated to the evaluation on pressure increasing from hydrogen gas formed by sodium-water reaction in sodium system. In small water leak, the leak propagation phenomena and the development of leak detecting system at initial stage of small water leak were studied, mainly. In this study, the corrosion phenomena on the target tube surface appeared by sodium-water reaction was analyzed through the small water leak experiments, and, also, the jet phenomena formed by N 2 gas injection through the leak nozzle under water medium was observed

  5. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  6. Phenomena of g-u symmetry-breakdown in HD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, A.; Reinhold, E.M.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Phenomena associated with the breakdown of inversion symmetry in the HD molecule are reviewed and discussed. A distinction is made between three kinds of physical effects observed in HD spectra. The existence of a small electric dipole moment in the ground state gives rise to vibrational and pure

  7. Eighty phenomena about the self: representation, evaluation, regulation, and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagard, Paul; Wood, Joanne V.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for examining self-related aspects and phenomena. The approach includes (1) a taxonomy and (2) an emphasis on multiple levels of mechanisms. The taxonomy categorizes approximately eighty self-related phenomena according to three primary functions involving the self: representing, effecting, and changing. The representing self encompasses the ways in which people depict themselves, either to themselves or to others (e.g., self-concepts, self-presentation). The effecting self concerns ways in which people facilitate or limit their own traits and behaviors (e.g., self-enhancement, self-regulation). The changing self is less time-limited than the effecting self; it concerns phenomena that involve lasting alterations in how people represent and control themselves (e.g., self-expansion, self-development). Each self-related phenomenon within these three categories may be examined at four levels of interacting mechanisms (social, individual, neural, and molecular). We illustrate our approach by focusing on seven self-related phenomena. PMID:25870574

  8. Searches for phenomena beyond the Standard Model at the Large

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The LHC has delivered several fb-1 of data in spring and summer 2011, opening new windows of opportunity for discovering phenomena beyond the Standard Model. A summary of the searches conducted by the ATLAS and CMS experiments based on about 1 fb-1 of data is presented.

  9. Eighty Phenomena About the Self: Representation, Evaluation, Regulation, and Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eThagard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for examining self-related aspects and phenomena. The approach includes (1 a taxonomy and (2 an emphasis on multiple levels of mechanisms. The taxonomy categorizes approximately eighty self-related phenomena according to three primary functions involving the self: representing, effecting, and changing. The representing self encompasses the ways in which people depict themselves, either to themselves or to others (e.g., self-concepts, self-presentation. The effecting self concerns ways in which people facilitate or limit their own traits and behaviors (e.g., self-enhancement, self-regulation. The changing self is less time-limited than the regulating self; it concerns phenomena that involve lasting alterations in how people represent and control themselves (e.g., self-expansion, self-development. Each self-related phenomenon within these three categories may be examined at four levels of interacting mechanisms (social, individual, neural, and molecular. We illustrate our approach by focusing on seven self-related phenomena.

  10. Wave propagation phenomena in metamaterials for retrieving of effective parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Ha, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the talk we give an overview of the developed restoration procedures and discuss their pros and cons in connection of assigning effective parameters (EP) to metamaterials (MMs). There are plenty of notorious physical phenomena preserving the unambiguous retrieving of EP, like strong coupling...

  11. Phenomena identification and ranking tables (PIRT) for LBLOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.; Dimenna, R.A.; Larson, T.K.; Wilson, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program to provide validated reactor safety computer codes with quantified uncertainties. The intent is to quantify the accuracy of the codes for use in best estimate licensing applications. One of the tasks required to complete this program involves the identification and ranking of thermal-hydraulic phenomena that occur during particular accidents. This paper provides detailed tables of phenomena and importance ranks for a PWR LBLOCA. The phenomena were identified and ranked according to perceived impact on peak cladding temperature. Two approaches were used to complete this task. First, a panel of experts identified the physical processes considered to be most important during LBLOCA. A second team of experienced analysts then, in parallel, assembled complete tables of all plausible LBLOCA phenomena, regardless of perceived importance. Each phenomenon was then ranked in importance against every other phenomenon associated with a given component. The results were placed in matrix format and solved for the principal eigenvector. The results as determined by each method are presented in this report

  12. On some phenomena concerning pregnancy and parturition of the Cetacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slijper, E.J.

    1949-01-01

    1. A review is given of some phenomena concerning pregnancy and parturition of the Cetacea, depending on data in literature and on observations made in Antarctic Blue and Fin Whales on board the f.f. “Willem Barendsz” (1946—1947). 2. In Mystacoceti the frequency of twins appears to be less than in

  13. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivit, Steven B

    2013-09-01

    This is a comment on Storms E (2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881. This comment provides the following remarks to other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat.

  14. Maxwell Prize Talk: Scaling Laws for the Dynamical Plasma Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryutov, Livermore, Ca 94550, Usa, D. D.

    2017-10-01

    The scaling and similarity technique is a powerful tool for developing and testing reduced models of complex phenomena, including plasma phenomena. The technique has been successfully used in identifying appropriate simplified models of transport in quasistationary plasmas. In this talk, the similarity and scaling arguments will be applied to highly dynamical systems, in which temporal evolution of the plasma leads to a significant change of plasma dimensions, shapes, densities, and other parameters with respect to initial state. The scaling and similarity techniques for dynamical plasma systems will be presented as a set of case studies of problems from various domains of the plasma physics, beginning with collisonless plasmas, through intermediate collisionalities, to highly collisional plasmas describable by the single-fluid MHD. Basic concepts of the similarity theory will be introduced along the way. Among the results discussed are: self-similarity of Langmuir turbulence driven by a hot electron cloud expanding into a cold background plasma; generation of particle beams in disrupting pinches; interference between collisionless and collisional phenomena in the shock physics; similarity for liner-imploded plasmas; MHD similarities with an emphasis on the effect of small-scale (turbulent) structures on global dynamics. Relations between astrophysical phenomena and scaled laboratory experiments will be discussed.

  15. Light-induced phenomena in polymeric thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Pospíšil, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2005), s. 1157-1168 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 700 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Light-induced phenomena * photodegradation * photochromism Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  16. Extreme wave phenomena in down-stream running modulated waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andonowati, A.; Karjanto, N.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    Modulational, Benjamin-Feir, instability is studied for the down-stream evolution of surface gravity waves. An explicit solution, the soliton on finite background, of the NLS equation in physical space is used to study various phenomena in detail. It is shown that for sufficiently long modulation

  17. Investigating Dissolution and Precipitation Phenomena with a Smartphone Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Arcia, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    A novel smartphone microscope can be used to observe the dissolution and crystallization of sodium chloride at a microscopic level. Observation of these seemingly simple phenomena through the microscope at 100× magnification can actually reveal some surprising behavior. These experiments offer the opportunity to discuss some basic concepts such as…

  18. Deriving Case, Agreement and Voice Phenomena in Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Einar Freyr

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation places case, agreement and Voice phenomena in syntax. It argues that the derivation is driven by so-called derivational features, that is, structure-building features (Merge) and probe features (Agree) (Heck and Muller 2007 and Muller 2010; see also Chomsky 2000, 2001). Both types are essential in deriving case and agreement in…

  19. Electrocapillary Phenomena at Edible Oil/Saline Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Ohzono, Takuya; Shoji, Kohei; Yagihara, Shin; Hayashi, Masafumi; Tanaka, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    Interfacial tension between edible oil and saline was measured under applied electric fields to understand the electrocapillary phenomena at the edible oil/saline interfaces. The electric responses of saline droplets in edible oil were also observed microscopically to examine the relationship between the electrocapillary phenomena and interfacial polarization. When sodium oleate (SO) was added to edible oil (SO-oil), the interfacial tension between SO-oil and saline decreased. However, no decrease was observed for additive-free oil or oleic acid (OA)-added oil (OA-oil). Microscopic observations suggested that the magnitude of interfacial polarization increased in the order of additive-free oil oil oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena between OA- and SO-oils was closely related to the polarization magnitude. In the case of SO-oil, the decrease in interfacial tension was remarkably larger for saline (pH 5.4~5.6) than that for phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2~7.4). However, no difference was observed between the electric responses of PBS and saline droplets in SO-oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena for PBS and saline could not be simply explained in terms of polarization magnitude. The ratio of ionized and non-ionized OA at the interfaces changed with the saline pH, possibly leading to the above difference.

  20. Nuclear chromodynamics: Novel nuclear phenomena predicted by QCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, B.L.G.; Ji, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    With the acceptance of QCD as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, one of the basic problems in the analysis of nuclear phenomena became how to consistently account for the effects of the underlying quark/gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei. Besides providing more detailed understanding

  1. Negative feedback phenomena in InP-based hydrogen detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrobár, Fedor; Procházková, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, 11-12 (2012), s. 1089-1091 ISSN 1842-6573 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1037 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Chemical sensors * Interface phenomena * Semiconductor devices Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics , Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2012

  2. Mechanical breakdown in the nuclear multifragmentation phenomena. Thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavin, L.A.; Cherevko, K.V.; Sysoev, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a similarity of the Van der Waals and nucleon-nucleon interaction the known thermodynamic relations for ordinary liquids are used to analyze the possible decay channels in the proton induced nuclear multifragmentation phenomena. The main features of the different phase trajectories in the P-V plane are compared with the experimental data on multifragmentation. It allowed choosing the phase trajectories with the correct qualitative picture of the phenomena. Based on the thermodynamic analysis of the proton-induced multifragmentation phenomena the most appropriate decay channel corresponding to the realistic phase trajectory is chosen. Macroscopic analysis of the suggested decay channel is done in order to check the possibility of the mechanical breakdown of the heated system. Based on a simple thermodynamic model preliminary quantitative calculations of corresponding macroscopic parameters (energy, pressure) are done and therefore the model verification on macroscopic level is held. It is shown that on macroscopic level the chosen decay channel through the mechanical breakdown meets the necessary conditions for describing the proton-induced multifragmentation phenomena

  3. Natural phenomena risk assessment at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foppe, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    A realistic approach is currently being used at the Rocky Flats Plant to assess the risks of natural phenomena events. The methodology addresses frequency of occurrence estimates, damage stress on the facility and vital equipment, material-at-risk, release fractions and source terms, leakpath, dispersion and dosimetric models, risk curves, and an uncertainty analysis. 28 references, 1 figure

  4. Coupled electric and transport phenomena in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    The coupled electrical and transport properties of clay-containing porous media are the topics of interest in this study. Both experimental and numerical (pore network modeling) techniques are employed to gain insight into the macro-scale interaction between electrical and solute transport phenomena

  5. The JET ECE heterodyne radiometer and investigations of fast phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.V.; Porte, L.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the design and performance characteristics of the JET heterodyne radiometer are reviewed, and some novel aspects of the instrument are described. Areas where the radiometer could benefit from further improvement are highlighted, and those improvements currently in progress are discussed. Some measurements which demonstrate the radiometer's power as a diagnostic of fast phenomena are presented. (orig.)

  6. Progress in the theory of magnetic reconnection phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaviani, M.; Arcis, N.; Maget, P.; Zwingmann, W.; Grasso, D.; Militello, F.; Porcelli, F.

    2004-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on magnetic reconnection in hot plasma confinement devices is reviewed. The presentation highlights the common aspects of reconnection phenomena, and current research trends are emphasised. Progress in understanding the dynamics of slowly evolving modes of the tearing family, based on advanced analytic techniques and numerical simulation, as well as of faster modes that lead to internal disruptions, is reported. (authors)

  7. Judgments of widely held beliefs about psychological phenomena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lay understandings of human cognition, affect, and behaviour often diverge from the findings of scientific investigations. The present study examined South African fourth year psychology students' judgments about the factual correctness of statements of psychological phenomena that have been demonstrated to be ...

  8. Explosive phenomena in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denHartog, HW; Vainshtein, DI; Matthews, GE; Williams, RT

    1997-01-01

    In heavily irradiated NaCl crystals explosive phenomena can be initiated during irradiation or afterwards when samples are heated to temperatures between 100 and 250 degrees C. During irradiation of NaCl Na and Cl-2 precipitates and void structures are produced along with the accumulation of stored

  9. High Energy Phenomena in Eta Carinae Roberto F. Viotti , Lucio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    High Energy Phenomena in Eta Carinae ... Colliding winds model—non-thermal emission—stars: η ... very massive wind. Its unseen compan- ion should be a less evolved early-type star. It was found that the two last spectroscopic minima of June 1992 and December 1997 coincided with two X-ray eclipses detected.

  10. The challenge of quantum computer simulations of physical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, G.; Knill, E.; Gubernatis, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of physics simulation using controllable quantum systems ('physics imitation') is to exploit quantum laws to advantage, and thus accomplish efficient simulation of physical phenomena. In this Note, we discuss the fundamental concepts behind this paradigm of information processing, such as the connection between models of computation and physical systems. The experimental simulation of a toy quantum many-body problem is described

  11. The sun as a star: Solar phenomena and stellar applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Our Sun is a run-of-the-mill star, having no obvious extremes of stellar properties. For this reason it is perhaps more, rather than less, interesting as an astrophysical object, for its sameness to other stars suggests that in studying the Sun, we are studying at close hand common, rather than unusual stellar phenomena. Conversely, comparative study of the Sun and other solar-type stars is an invaluable tool for solar physics, for two reasons: First, it allows us to explore how solar properties and phenomena depend on parameters we cannot vary on the Sun - most fundamentally, rotation rate and mass. Second, study of solar-like stars of different ages allows us to see how stellar and solar phenomena depend on age; study of other stars may be one of the best ways to infer the earlier history of the Sun, as well as its future history. In this review we shall concentrate on phenomena common to the Sun and solar-type (main sequence) stars with different fundamental properties such as mass, age, and rotation. (orig.)

  12. Primary Issues of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The computer code analyzing the system operating and transient behavior must distinguish flow conditions involved with convective heat transfer flow regimes. And the proper correlations must be supplied to those flow regimes. However the existing safety analysis codes are focused on the Light Water Reactor and they are skeptical to be applied to the GCRs (Gas Cooled Reactors). One of the technical issues raise by the development of the VHTR is the mixed convection, which occur when the driving forces of both forced and natural convection are of comparable magnitudes. It can be encountered as in channel of the stacked with fuel elements and a decay heat removal system and in VHTR. The mixed convection is not intermediate phenomena with natural convection and forced convection but independent complicated phenomena. Therefore, many researchers have been studied and some primary issues were propounded for phenomena mixed convection. This paper is to discuss some problems identified through reviewing the papers for mixed convection phenomena. And primary issues of mixed convection heat transfer were proposed respect to thermal hydraulic problems for VHTR. The VHTR thermal hydraulic study requires an indepth study of the mixed convection phenomena. In this study we reviewed the classical flow regime map of Metais and Eckert and derived further issues to be considered. The following issues were raised: (1) Buoyancy aided an opposed flows were not differentiated and plotted in a map. (2) Experimental results for UWT and UHF condition were also plotted in the same map without differentiation. (3) The buoyancy coefficient was not generalized for correlating with buoyancy coefficient. (4) The phenomenon analysis for laminarization and returbulization as buoyancy effects in turbulent mixed convection was not established. (5) The defining to transition in mixed convection regime was difficult.

  13. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  14. Evolutionary genetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maynard Smith, John

    1989-01-01

    .... It differs from other textbooks of population genetics in applying the basic theory to topics, such as social behaviour, molecular evolution, reiterated DNA, and sex, which are the main subjects...

  15. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  16. Arthropod Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalde, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on arthropod genetics that involves phenotype and genotype identification of the creature and the construction process. Includes a list of required materials and directions to build a model arthropod. (YDS)

  17. Desktop Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Soren H; Ajetunmobi, Ayokunmi; Brody, Leigh; Humphryes-Kirilov, Neil; Perello, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Desktop Genetics is a bioinformatics company building a gene-editing platform for personalized medicine. The company works with scientists around the world to design and execute state-of-the-art clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) experiments. Desktop Genetics feeds the lessons learned about experimental intent, single-guide RNA design and data from international genomics projects into a novel CRISPR artificial intelligence system. We believe that machine learni...

  18. Phenomena-based Process Synthesis and Design to achieve Process Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    at the lowest level of aggregation: phenomena. Therefore, in this paper, a phenomena-based synthesis/design methodology is presented. Using this methodology, a systematic identification of necessary and desirable (integrated) phenomena as well as generation and screening of phenomena-based flowsheet options...

  19. Loss experience from natural phenomena hazards in the Department of Energy (50 years of natural phenomena hazard losses)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a historical prespective on losses due to natural hazard incidents (1943-1993) at Department of Energy (DOE) and predecessor agencies including the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA). This paper also demonstrates how an existing DOE resource can be used to gain valuable insight into injury or property damage incidents. That resource is the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) module of DOE's Safety Performance Measurement System. CAIRS data selected the 1981-1991 DOE injury/illness reports, from all the accident reports of the AEC that cited a natural phenomena hazard as either the direct or indirect cause of the injury/property damage. Specifically, injury or property damage reports were selected for analysis if they had a causal factor link to severe weather or natural phenomena hazard categories. Natural phenomena hazard categories are injury/property damage caused by hurricane/tornado, earthquake, lightning, or flood. Severe weather categories are injury/property damage associated with other than normal weather conditions. The lessons learned, as a result of reviewing case histories, are presented, as are suggestions on how to reduce the likelihood of future injuries/property damage as a result of similar events. A significant finding, is that most injuries and property damage were the result of an indirect causal link to a natural phenomena hazard and thus, may be more preventable than previously thought possible. The primary message, however, is that CAIRS and other incident data bases are valuable resources and should be considered for use by those interested in identifying new ways of protecting the health and safety of the worker and for reducing building losses due to the effects of natural phenomena hazards

  20. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  1. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  2. Possible genetic damage from diagnostic x irradiation. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withrow, T.J.; Andersen, F.A.; Yao, K.T.S.; Stratmeyer, M.E.

    1980-08-01

    Although it is known that x irradiation is capable of producing mutations and chromosomal abnormalities in experimental systems, there is little or no direct evidence of such phenomena in humans. This report reviews some human genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities as well as the evidence for x-ray induced mutations and chromosomal abnormalities in experimental systems. The examination of these areas reveals that spontaneous chromosomal abnormalities and genetic diseases are associated with the same type of DNA damage that x irradiation produces in experimental systems. Therefore, it is concluded that genetic radiation damage in humans may mainfest itself as an increase in the spontaneous genetic diseases rather than as any unique disease

  3. SUPERCOMPUTER SIMULATION OF CRITICAL PHENOMENA IN COMPLEX SOCIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus M.A. Sloot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a problem of computer simulation of critical phenomena in complex social systems on a petascale computing systems in frames of complex networks approach. The three-layer system of nested models of complex networks is proposed including aggregated analytical model to identify critical phenomena, detailed model of individualized network dynamics and model to adjust a topological structure of a complex network. The scalable parallel algorithm covering all layers of complex networks simulation is proposed. Performance of the algorithm is studied on different supercomputing systems. The issues of software and information infrastructure of complex networks simulation are discussed including organization of distributed calculations, crawling the data in social networks and results visualization. The applications of developed methods and technologies are considered including simulation of criminal networks disruption, fast rumors spreading in social networks, evolution of financial networks and epidemics spreading.

  4. Theoretical and experimental notes on noise phenomena of KUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Kuniharu

    1980-01-01

    The classification of global or local noise is important in reactor noise analysis. The term of ''global'' or ''local'' corresponds to that of ''system size'' or ''cell size'' in statistical physics. On the other hand, point model or phase space description is used in time series analysis. If a time series model describing spatial behavior is established, it will serve to reactor diagnosis. The noise phenomena of KUR are discussed from these points of view. In other words, from experimental results, the point reactor picture is reasonable to neutronic aspect but quantitative problem remains in coolant temperature fluctuations. By taking into account a diffusion type model, the spatial dependence is discussed for the problem remaining in coolant temperature fluctuations. It is pointed out that the time-space picture is a crucial idea of reactor noise phenomena. (author)

  5. Two-Phase Phenomena In Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minzer, U.; Moses, E.J.; Toren, M.; Blumenfeld, Y.

    1998-01-01

    In order to reduce sulfur oxides discharge, Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) is building a wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) facility at Rutenberg B power station. The primary objective of IEC is to minimize the occurrence of stack liquid discharge and avoid the discharge of large droplets, in order to prevent acid rain around the stack. Liquid discharge from the stack is the integrated outcome of two-phase processes, which are discussed in this work. In order to estimate droplets discharge the present investigation employs analytical models, empirical tests, and numerical calculations of two-phase phenomena. The two-phase phenomena are coupled and therefore cannot be investigated separately. The present work concerns the application of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) as an engineering complementary tool in the IEC investigation

  6. Introduction to symmetry-breaking phenomena in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2001-01-01

    The notion of broken symmetries started slowly to emerge in the 19th century. The early studies of Pasteur on the parity asymmetry of life, the studies of Curie on piezoelectricity and on the symmetries of effects versus the symmetry of causes ( which clearly excluded spontaneous symmetry breaking), are important historical landmarks. However the possibility of spontaneous symmetry breaking within the usual principles of statistical mechanics, waited for the work of Peierls and Onsager. The whole theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena, as well as the construction of field theoretic models as long distance limit of yet unknown physics, relies nowadays on the concept of criticality associated to spontaneous symmetry breaking. The phenomena of Goldstone bosons, of Meissner-Higgs effects, are central to the theory of condensed matter as well as to particle physics. In cosmology as well, the various inflationary scenarios begin similarly with this same concept. The three lectures will provide a simple ...

  7. Computational transport phenomena of fluid-particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arastoopour, Hamid; Abbasi, Emad

    2017-01-01

    This book concerns the most up-to-date advances in computational transport phenomena (CTP), an emerging tool for the design of gas-solid processes such as fluidized bed systems. The authors examine recent work in kinetic theory and CTP and illustrate gas-solid processes’ many applications in the energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. They also discuss the kinetic theory approach in developing constitutive equations for gas-solid flow systems and how it has advanced over the last decade as well as the possibility of obtaining innovative designs for multiphase reactors, such as those needed to capture CO2 from flue gases. Suitable as a concise reference and a textbook supplement for graduate courses, Computational Transport Phenomena of Gas-Solid Systems is ideal for practitioners in industries involved with the design and operation of processes based on fluid/particle mixtures, such as the energy, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. Explains how to couple the population balance e...

  8. Anomalous radon emanation linked to preseismic electromagnetic phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Omori

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous emanation of radon (222Rn was observed preceding large earthquakes and is considered to be linked to preseismic electromagnetic phenomena (e.g. great changes of atmospheric electric field and ionospheric disturbances. Here we analyze atmospheric radon concentration and estimate changes of electrical conditions in atmosphere due to preseismic radon anomaly. The increase of radon emanation obeys crustal damage evolution, following a power-law of time-to-earthquake. Moreover, the radon emanation decreases the atmospheric electric field by 40%, besides influencing the maximum strength of atmospheric electric field by 104–105 V/m enough to trigger ionospheric disturbances. These changes are within the ranges observed or explaining electromagnetic phenomena associated with large earthquakes.

  9. Preface to special issue: Layered Phenomena in the Mesopause Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xinzhao; Marsh, Daniel R.

    2017-09-01

    Historically, the Layered Phenomena in the Mesopause Region (LPMR) workshops have focused on studies of mesospheric clouds and their related science, including spectacular noctilucent clouds (NLCs), polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs), and polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs). This is because, in the pre-technology era, these high-altitude ( 85 km) clouds revealed the existence of substance above the 'normal atmosphere' - our near-space environment is not empty! The occurrence and nature of these clouds have commanded the attention of atmospheric and space scientists for generations. Modern technologies developed in the last 50 years have enabled scientists to significantly advance our understanding of these layered phenomena. Satellite observations expanded these studies to global scales, while lidar and radar observations from the ground enabled fine-scale studies. The launch of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite in 2007 brought mesospheric cloud research to a more mature level.

  10. An assessment of Gallistel's (2012) rationalistic account of extinction phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ralph R

    2012-05-01

    Gallistel (2012) asserts that animals use rationalistic reasoning (i.e., information theory and Bayesian inference) to make decisions that underlie select extinction phenomena. Rational processes are presumed to lead to evolutionarily optimal behavior. Thus, Gallistel's model is a type of optimality theory. But optimality theory is only a theory, a theory about an ideal organism, and its predictions frequently deviate appreciably from observed behavior of animals in the laboratory and the real world. That is, behavior of animals is often far from optimal, as is evident in many behavioral phenomena. Hence, appeals to optimality theory to explain, rather than illuminate, actual behavior are misguided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploration by radioactive fibrinogen of intrarenal coagulation phenomena. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Jacques.

    1974-01-01

    The participation of fibrin deposits in kidney pathology was studied by the use of a radioactive tracer involved in the coagulation phenomenon: iodine 131-labelled fibrinogen. The isotopic exploration consists of a fibrinogen kinetics study combined with external counting over the kidney regions. The different stages of the procedure are described: separation, purification and labelling of fibrinogen; characteristics of the radioactive fibrinogen used; practical details of the examination itself; data analysis method. A chapter devoted to verifications and discussions of the procedure is followed by a report on the exploration of intrarenal coagulation phenomena in 30 kidney disease patients. In conclusion, the study of fibrinogen kinetics is considered as the most suitable method to detect local or slight intravascular coagulation phenomena. The sensitivity of the isotopic exploration is very satisfactory. The main criticism directed against this method is that the exploration is general and therefore blind [fr

  12. Some perspectives in nuclear astrophysics on non-thermal phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatischeff, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to Supervise Researches) report, the author presents and comments his research activities on nuclear phenomena in stellar eruptions (solar eruptions, lithium nucleosynthesis in stellar eruptions), on particle acceleration in shock waves of stellar explosions (diffusive acceleration by shock wave, particle acceleration in symbiotic novae, particle acceleration in radio-detected supernovae), of research on low energy cosmic rays (galactic emission of nuclear gamma rays, non thermal soft X rays as new tracer of accelerated particles), and on the origin of short period radioactivities in the primitive solar system (extinguished radio-activities and formation of the solar system, origin of berylium-10 in the primitive solar system). The author concludes with some perspectives on non thermal phenomena in nuclear astrophysics, and on research and development for the future of medium-energy gamma astronomy [fr

  13. Phenomena associated with magma expansion into a drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, E.S.

    2002-01-01

    One of the significant threats to the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository has been identified as the possibility of intersection of the underground structure by a basaltic intrusion. Based on the geology of the region, it is assumed that such an intrusion would consist of an alkali basalt similar to the nearby Lathrop Wells cone, which has been dated at about 78 ka. The threat of radioactive release may be either from eruption through the surface above the repository of basalt that had been contaminated or from migration through ground water of radionucleides released as a result of damage to waste packages that interact with the magma. As part of our study of these threats, we are analyzing the phenomena associated with magma expansion into drifts in tuff. The early phenomena of the encounter of volatile-rich basaltic magma with a drift are discussed here.

  14. Autoscopic phenomena and one's own body representation in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, Piera Carla

    2011-12-01

    Autoscopic phenomena (AP) are complex experiences that include the visual illusory reduplication of one's own body. From a phenomenological point of view, we can distinguish three conditions: autoscopic hallucinations, heautoscopy, and out-of-body experiences. The dysfunctional pattern involves multisensory disintegration of personal and extrapersonal space perception. The etiology, generally either neurological or psychiatric, is different. Also, the hallucination of Self and own body image is present during dreams and differs according to sleep stage. Specifically, the representation of the Self in REM dreams is frequently similar to the perception of Self in wakefulness, whereas in NREM dreams, a greater polymorphism of Self and own body representation is observed. The parallels between autoscopic phenomena in pathological cases and the Self-hallucination in dreams will be discussed to further the understanding of the particular states of self awareness, especially the complex integration of different memory sources in Self and body representation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Retrospection of Chaotic Phenomena in Electrical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kumar

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade new phenomena have been observed in all areas of non linear dynamics, principal among these being ‘Chaotic phenomena’. Chaos has been reported virtually from every scientific discipline. This paper summarizes a study of the chaotic phenomena in electrical systems and attempts to translate the mathematical ideas and techniques into language that engineers and applied scientists can use to study ‘Chaos’. Towards this end, the paper has summarized the study of chaos in several examples like Chua’s circuit family; Folded Torus circuit; non-autonomous circuits; switched capacitor circuits and hyper-chaos circuits. As observed in power systems, control systems and digital filters, chaos has been exhibited and shown on examples.

  16. Visible and invisible the wonders of light phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Bisi, Olmes

    2015-01-01

    Light phenomena have intrigued humankind since prehistory. Think of the rainbow, a sunset on the sea, a game of shadows. Humans have always used light for their own needs, from cooking food to illuminating a room. However, light is not only limited to what we can see with our eyes. The invisible part of the electromagnetic spectrum is broad and dynamic. This book outlines the mysteries and wonders of electromagnetism, heat, and light. It also covers the history of our scientific understanding of light. The dark as well as the bright sides of light are fully explored in these pages, from their impact on our world to their use in cutting-edge technologies in a variety of fields. Numerous full-color images and drawings complement the text, and light phenomena are explained in a simple and engaging way.

  17. IUTAM Symposium on Fracture Phenomena in Nature and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Carini, Angelo; Gei, Massimiliano; Salvadori, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This book contains contributions presented at the IUTAM Symposium "Fracture Phenomena in Nature and Technology" held in Brescia, Italy, 1-5 July, 2012.The objective of the Symposium was fracture research, interpreted broadly to include new engineering and structural mechanics treatments of damage development and crack growth, and also large-scale failure processes as exemplified by earthquake or landslide failures, ice shelf break-up, and hydraulic fracturing (natural, or for resource extraction or CO2 sequestration), as well as small-scale rupture phenomena in materials physics including, e.g., inception of shear banding, void growth, adhesion and decohesion in contact and friction, crystal dislocation processes, and atomic/electronic scale treatment of brittle crack tips and fundamental cohesive properties.Special emphasis was given to multiscale fracture description and new scale-bridging formulations capable to substantiate recent experiments and tailored to become the basis for innovative computationa...

  18. Phenomena of synchronized response in biosystems and the possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingjing; Yang, Fan; Han, Danhong; Xu, Shengyong

    2018-02-05

    Phenomena of synchronized response is common among organs, tissues and cells in biosystems. We have analyzed and discussed three examples of synchronization in biosystems, including the direction-changing movement of paramecia, the prey behavior of flytraps, and the simultaneous discharge of electric eels. These phenomena and discussions support an electrical communication mechanism that in biosystems, the electrical signals are mainly soliton-like electromagnetic pulses, which are generated by the transient transmembrane ionic current through the ion channels and propagate along the dielectric membrane-based softmaterial waveguide network to complete synchronized responses. This transmission model implies that a uniform electrical communication mechanism might have been naturally developed in biosystem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stokes phenomena in discrete Painlevé II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, N; Lustri, C J; Luu, S

    2017-02-01

    We consider the asymptotic behaviour of the second discrete Painlevé equation in the limit as the independent variable becomes large. Using asymptotic power series, we find solutions that are asymptotically pole-free within some region of the complex plane. These asymptotic solutions exhibit Stokes phenomena, which is typically invisible to classical power series methods. We subsequently apply exponential asymptotic techniques to investigate such phenomena, and obtain mathematical descriptions of the rapid switching behaviour associated with Stokes curves. Through this analysis, we determine the regions of the complex plane in which the asymptotic behaviour is described by a power series expression, and find that the behaviour of these asymptotic solutions shares a number of features with the tronquée and tri-tronquée solutions of the second continuous Painlevé equation.

  20. Adsorption phenomena and anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Despite the large quantity of phenomenological information concerning the bulk properties of nematic phase liquid crystals, little is understood about the origin of the surface energy, particularly the surface, interfacial, and anchoring properties of liquid crystals that affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. Self-contained and unique, Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals provides an account of new and established results spanning three decades of research into the problems of anchoring energy and adsorption phenomena in liquid crystals.The book contains a detailed discussion of the origin and possible sources of anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals, emphasizing the dielectric contribution to the anchoring energy in particular. Beginning with fundamental surface and anchoring properties of liquid crystals and the definition of the nematic phase, the authors explain how selective ion adsorption, dielectric energy density, thickness dependence, and bias voltage...

  1. Random walks, critical phenomena, and triviality in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Froehlich, J.; Sokal, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this book is equilibrium statistical mechanics - in particular the theory of critical phenomena - and quantum field theory. A general review of the theory of critical phenomena in spin systems, field theories, and random-walk and random-surface models is presented. Among the more technical topics treated in this book, the central theme is the use of random-walk representations as a tool to derive correlation inequalities. The consequences of these inequalities for critical-exponent theory and the triviality question in quantum field theory are expounded in detail. The book contains some previously unpublished results. It addresses both the researcher and the graduate student in modern statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. (orig.)

  2. Reasons of tutoring Phenomena among Secondary Stage Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ayroutt; Heba hammad

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons of tutoring phenomena among secondary stage students in Amman City as perceived by School Principals. Approach: The sample of the study consisted of (117 male principals and 57 female principals). Results: The evaluations of principals regarding tutoring reasons were high, factors related to students came first, followed by the factors related to the family while the factors related to the cur...

  3. Report of the workshop on nuclear polarization phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The third work shop on the study of the nuclear polarization was held in December 1984 at RCNP (Research Center for Nuclear Physics). Osaka University, in advance of the comming international conference. About 80 researchers gathered and discussed both theoretical and experimental aspects of nuclear polarization phenomena. Forty eight papers were presented at the work shop and they are collected in this report. Although almost all of them are written in Japanese, the abstracts are prepared in English. (Aoki, K.)

  4. Conformal field theory and 2D critical phenomena. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamolodchikov, A.B.; Zamolodchikov, Al.B.

    1989-01-01

    Review of the recent developments in the two-dimensional conformal field theory and especially its applications to the physics of 2D critical phenomena is given. It includes the Ising model, the Potts model. Minimal models, corresponding to theories invariant under higher symmetries, such as superconformal theories, parafermionic theories and theories with current and W-algebras are also discussed. Non-hamiltonian approach to two-dimensional field theory is formulated. 126 refs

  5. Phenomena of charged particles transport in variable magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savane, Sy Y.; Faza Barry, M.; Vladmir, L.; Diaby, I.

    2002-11-01

    This present work is dedicated to the study of the dynamical phenomena for the transport of ions in the presence of variable magnetic fields in front of the Jupiter wave shock. We obtain the spectrum of the accelerated ions and we study the conditions of acceleration by solving the transport equation in the planetocentric system. We discuss the theoretical results obtained and make a comparison with the experimental parameters in the region of acceleration behind the Jupiter wave shock. (author)

  6. Draft tube flow phenomena across the bulb turbine hill chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duquesne, P; Fraser, R; Maciel, Y; Aeschlimann, V; Deschênes, C

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the BulbT project launched by the Consortium on Hydraulic Machines and the LAMH (Hydraulic Machine Laboratory of Laval University) in 2011, an intensive campaign to identify flow phenomena in the draft tube of a model bulb turbine has been done. A special focus was put on the draft tube component since it has a particular importance for recuperation in low head turbines. Particular operating points were chosen to analyse flow phenomena in this component. For each of these operating points, power, efficiency and pressure were measured following the IEC 60193 standard. Visualizations, unsteady wall pressure and efficiency measurements were performed in this component. The unsteady wall pressure was monitored at seven locations in the draft tube. The frequency content of each pressure signal was analyzed in order to characterize the flow phenomena across the efficiency hill chart. Visualizations were recorded with a high speed camera using tufts and cavitation bubbles as markers. The predominant detected phenomena were mapped and categorized in relation to the efficiency hill charts obtained for three runner blade openings. At partial load, the vortex rope was detected and characterized. An inflection in the partial load efficiency curves was found to be related to complex vortex rope instabilities. For overload conditions, the efficiency curves present a sharp drop after the best efficiency point, corresponding to an inflection on the power curves. This break off is more severe towards the highest blade openings. It is correlated to a flow separation at the wall of the draft tube. Also, due to the separation occurring in these conditions, a hysteresis effect was observed on the efficiency curves

  7. Visualization of frosting phenomena by using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Ryosuke; Umekawa, Hisashi; Ami, Takeyuki; Saito, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the frost formation on the fin-tube heat exchanger using neutron radiography. The visualization of the frost formation was estimated by the attenuation of the neutron beam through the water. The visualization image of the neutron radiography shows clearly the frost formation phenomena on the fin-tube heat exchanger. The rapid frost formation was observed at the fin and tube edges. Local mass transfer coefficient can be calculated from the differential images of the neutron radiography. (author)

  8. Fourth DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This conference allowed an interchange in the natural phenomena area among designers, safety professionals, and managers. The papers presented in Volume I of the proceedings are from sessions I - VIII which cover the general topics of: DOE standards, lessons learned and walkdowns, wind, waste tanks, ground motion, testing and materials, probabilistic seismic hazards, risk assessment, base isolation and energy dissipation, and lifelines and floods. Individual papers are indexed separately. (GH)

  9. Investigating Dissolution and Precipitation Phenomena with a Smartphone Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Arcia, Edgar

    2016-10-11

    A novel smartphone microscope can be used to observe the dissolution and crystallization of sodium chloride at a microscopic level. Observation of these seemingly simple phenomena through the microscope at 100× magnification can actually reveal some surprising behavior. These experiments offer the opportunity to discuss some basic concepts such as how the morphological features of the crystals dictates how the dissolution process proceeds, and how materials can be purified by re-crystallization techniques.

  10. Fourth DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation Conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This conference allowed an interchange in the natural phenomena area among designers, safety professionals, and managers. The papers presented in Volume I of the proceedings are from sessions I - VIII which cover the general topics of: DOE standards, lessons learned and walkdowns, wind, waste tanks, ground motion, testing and materials, probabilistic seismic hazards, risk assessment, base isolation and energy dissipation, and lifelines and floods. Individual papers are indexed separately. (GH)

  11. Critical phenomena in magnetic vortex formation probed by noise spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, E.; Harii, K.; Miyajima, H.; Yamaoka, T.

    2004-01-01

    Transition between a vortex magnetic state and a uniform magnetic state in a Ni 81 Fe 19 mesoscopic ring has been investigated in terms of resistive-noise spectroscopy. The observed low-frequency noise exhibits critical enhancement around the magnetization saturation. This noise enhancement can be argued from the viewpoint of the critical phenomena due to the chiral-symmetry breakdown of mesoscopic magnetic-structure, which can present a typical mechanism of symmetry transition of magnetic structure in mesoscopic ferromagnets

  12. Presentation and representation of biological phenomena from a vegetable garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Andrade Caldeira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology for science education based on the triad perceive/associate/experience. The analysis performed relied upon Charles Sanders Peirce’s semiotics framework. The research was develop at elementary school (nine-yar old students showing that the described methodology enable them the students to percieve, to set up relationships and to experience the natural phenomena, built up from the experienced sequences.

  13. Gamma-ray transients and related astrophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, R.E.; Hudson, H.S.; Worrall, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The workshop covered the study of the explosive phenomena responsible for the various gamma ray transients. X-ray burster observations and theories were also reviewed with emphasis on their relationship to gamma ray bursts. Recent observational data, particularly from the SMM, HEAO, and VENERA satellites made the workshop especially timely. Major headings include: gamma-ray transients, x-ray bursts, solar transients, and instrumental concepts. Individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  14. Emergence of dynamical order synchronization phenomena in complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Manrubia, Susanna C; Zanette, Damián H

    2004-01-01

    Synchronization processes bring about dynamical order and lead tospontaneous development of structural organization in complex systemsof various origins, from chemical oscillators and biological cells tohuman societies and the brain. This book provides a review and adetailed theoretical analysis of synchronization phenomena in complexsystems with different architectures, composed of elements withperiodic or chaotic individual dynamics. Special attention is paid tostatistical concepts, such as nonequilibrium phase transitions, orderparameters and dynamical glasses.

  15. 5. International workshop on autoionization phenomena in atoms. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Summaries of the reports presented at the 5 International Workshop on Autoionization Phenomena in Atoms (Dubna, 12-14 December 1995). The main topics of these 53 reports are the following ones: photoexcitation of autoionizing states in atoms and ions, autoionization in electron-atom collisions, autoionization in heavy particle collisions, coincidence experiments in autoionization studies, investigations of autoionizing states with lasers and wave functions and decay characteristics of autoionizing states

  16. Dynamical system analysis of unstable flow phenomena in centrifugal blower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia David

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of dynamical system analysis were employed to analyze unsteady phenomena in a centrifugal blower. Pressure signals gathered at different control points were decomposed into their Principal Components (PCs by means of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA. Certain number of PCs was considered in the analysis based on their statistical correlation. Projection of the original signal onto its PCs allowed to draw the phase trajectory that clearly separated non-stable blower working conditions from its regular operation.

  17. Transport phenomena and drying of solids and particulate materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, AG

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book, Transport Phenomena and Drying of Solids and Particulate Materials, is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer, transport phenomena, drying and wetting of solids and particulate materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the heat and mass transfer in solids and particulate materials. It includes a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena, drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional c...

  18. Regional Phenomena of Vertical Deformation in Southern Part of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsito, D. A.; Susilo; Andreas, H.; Pradipta, D.; Gumilar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Distribution of present-day horizontal and vertical deformation across the Southern Part of Indonesia at Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara now days can be determined from continuous and campaign types of GNSS GPS data monitoring. For vertical deformation in this case we use the continuous types since they are give better quality of data consistency compare to campaign type. Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) are maintaining by Geospatial Information Agency for more than a decade. The vertical displacements or velocity rates are estimated from time series analysis after multi-baseline GPS processing using GAMIT-GLOBK software with respect to the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The result shows some interesting phenomena where the northern part of research area majority have negative value that may indicate land subsidence with or without tectonic subsidence combination. In the middle part, the uplift phenomena are clearly shown and in the southern part show combine pattern between uplift and subsidence. The impacts of those phenomena would be discuss also in this paper since many population and infrastructure are located in the areas that will need more protection planning to reduce the negative impact such as earthquake and flooding.

  19. Physics education students’ cognitive and affective domains toward ecological phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitupulu, N. D.; Munandar, A.; Redjeki, S.; Tjasyono, B.

    2018-05-01

    Environmental education is become prominent in dealing with natural phenomena that occur nowadays. Studying environmental physics will lead students to have conceptual understanding which are importent in enhancing attitudes toward ecological phenomena that link directry to cognitive and affective domains. This research focused on the the relationship of cognitive and affective domains toward ecological phenomena. Thirty-seven Physics Education students participated in this study and validated sources of data were collected to eksplore students’ conceptual understanding as cognitive domain and to investigate students’ attitudes as affective domain. The percentage of cognitive outcome and affective outcome are explore. The features of such approaches to environmental learning are discussion through analysis of contribution of cognitive to develop the attitude ecological as affective outcome. The result shows that cognitive domains do not contribute significantly to affective domain toward ecological henomena as an issue trend in Central Sulawesi although students had passed Environmental Physics instruction for two semester. In fact, inferior knowledge in a way actually contributes to the attitude domain caused by the prior knowledge that students have as ombo as a Kaili local wisdom.

  20. Vibration phenomena in large scale pressure suppression tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.; Boettcher, G.; Kolb, M.; Sattler, P.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1982-01-01

    Structure und fluid vibration phenomena (acceleration, strain; pressure, level) were observed during blow-down experiments simulating a LOCA in the GKSS full scale multivent pressure suppression test facility. The paper describes first the source related excitations during the two regimes of condensation oscillation and of chugging, and deals then with the response vibrations of the facility's wetwell. Modal analyses of the wetwell were run using excitation by hammer and by shaker in order to separate phenomena that are particular to the GKSS facility from more general ones, i.e. phenomena specific to the fluid related parameters of blowdown and to the geometry of the vent pipes only. The lowest periodicities at about 12 and 16 Hz stem from the vent acoustics. A frequency of about 36 to 38 Hz prominent during chugging seems to result from the lowest local models of two of the wetwell's walls when coupled by the wetwell pool. Further peaks found during blowdown in the spectra of signals at higher frequencies correspond to global vibration modes of the wetwell. (orig.)

  1. Auroral and sub-auroral phenomena: an electrostatic picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Keyser

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Many auroral and sub-auroral phenomena are manifestations of an underlying magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. In the electrostatic perspective the associated auroral current circuit describes how the generator (often in the magnetosphere is connected to the load (often in the ionosphere through field-aligned currents. The present paper examines the generic properties of the current continuity equation that characterizes the auroral circuit. The physical role of the various elements of the current circuit is illustrated by considering a number of magnetospheric configurations, various auroral current-voltage relations, and different types of behaviour of the ionospheric conductivity. Based on realistic assumptions concerning the current-voltage relation and the ionospheric conductivity, a comprehensive picture of auroral and sub-auroral phenomena is presented, including diffuse aurora, discrete auroral arcs, black aurora, and subauroral ion drift. The electrostatic picture of field-aligned potential differences, field-aligned currents, ionospheric electric fields and plasma drift, and spatial scales for all these phenomena is in qualitative agreement with observations.

  2. Toward a CFD-grade database addressing LWR containment phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladino, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.paladino@psi.ch [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Andreani, Michele; Zboray, Robert; Dreier, Joerg [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SETH-2 PANDA tests have supplied data with CFD-grade on plumes and jets at large-scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PANDA tests have contributed to the understanding of phenomena with high safety relevance for LWRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analytical activities related increased confidence in the use of various computational tools for safety analysis. - Abstract: The large-scale, multi-compartment PANDA facility (located at PSI in Switzerland) is one of the state-of-the-art facilities which is continuously upgraded to progressively match the requirements of CFD-grade experiments. Within the OECD/SETH projects, the PANDA facility has been used for the creation of an experimental database on basic containment phenomena e.g. gas mixing, transport, stratification, condensation. In the PANDA tests, these phenomena are driven by large scale plumes or jets. In the paper is presented a selection of the SETH PANDA experimental results. Examples of analytical activities performed at PSI using the GOTHIC, CFX-4 and CFX-5 codes will be used to illustrate how the spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurement grid in PANDA tests are adequate for CFD code (and advanced containment codes) assessment and validation purposes.

  3. Superfluous neuroscience information makes explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Diego; Evans, Jessica; Christian, Colton; Hodges, Sara D

    2015-05-01

    Does the presence of irrelevant neuroscience information make explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing? Do fMRI pictures further increase that allure? To help answer these questions, 385 college students in four experiments read brief descriptions of psychological phenomena, each one accompanied by an explanation of varying quality (good vs. circular) and followed by superfluous information of various types. Ancillary measures assessed participants' analytical thinking, beliefs on dualism and free will, and admiration for different sciences. In Experiment 1, superfluous neuroscience information increased the judged quality of the argument for both good and bad explanations, whereas accompanying fMRI pictures had no impact above and beyond the neuroscience text, suggesting a bias that is conceptual rather than pictorial. Superfluous neuroscience information was more alluring than social science information (Experiment 2) and more alluring than information from prestigious "hard sciences" (Experiments 3 and 4). Analytical thinking did not protect against the neuroscience bias, nor did a belief in dualism or free will. We conclude that the "allure of neuroscience" bias is conceptual, specific to neuroscience, and not easily accounted for by the prestige of the discipline. It may stem from the lay belief that the brain is the best explanans for mental phenomena.

  4. APRI - Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.; Hammar, L.; Soederman, E.

    1996-12-01

    The APRI-project started in 1992 with participation of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish utilities. The Finnish utility TVO joined the project in 1993. The aim of the project has been to work with phenomenological questions in severe accidents, concentrating on the risk-dominating issues. The work is reported in separate sub-project reports, the present is the final report of the methodological studies as well as a final report for the total project. The research has led to clarifications of the risk complex, and ameliorated the basis for advanced probabilistic safety analyses, specially for the emission risks (PSA level 2) which are being studied at the Swedish plants. A new method has been tried for analysis of complicated accident courses, giving a possibility for systematic evaluation of the impact of different important phenomena (e.g. melt-through, high pressure melt-through with direct heating of the containment atmosphere, steam explosions). In this method, the phenomena are looked upon as top events of a 'phenomena-tree', illustrating how various conditions must be met before the top-event can happen. This method has been useful, in particular for applying 'expert estimates'. 47 refs

  5. Similarity rules of thermal stratification phenomena for water and sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, M.; Ikeda, T.; Yamakawa, M.; Shibata, Y.; Moriya, S.; Ushijima, S.; Fujimoto, K.

    1988-01-01

    Similarity rules for thermal stratification phenomena were studied using sodium and water experiments with scaled cylindrical vessels. The vessel dimensions were identical to focus on the effect of differences in fluid properties upon the phenomena. Comparisons of test results between sodium and water elucidated similar and dissimilar characteristics for thermal stratification phenomena which appeared in the scaled vessels. Results were as follows: (1) The dimensionless upward velocity of the thermal stratification interface was proportional to Ri -0.74 for water and sodium during the period when the buoyancy effect was dominant. (2) Dimensionless temperature transient rate at the outlet slit decreased with Ri for sodium and remained constant for water where Ri>0.2. The applicability of the scaled test results to an actual power plant was also studied by using multi-dimensional numerical analysis which was verified by the water and sodium experiments. Water experiments could simulate liquid metal fast breeder reactor flows more accurately than sodium experiments for dimensionless temperature gradient at the thermal stratification interface and dimensionless temperature transient rate at the intermediate heat exchanger inlet

  6. Flow reduction due to degassing and redissolution phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    At the Stripa mine in Sweden, flow and transport experiments in a water-saturated fractured granite were conducted to investigate techniques for site characterization for a geologic nuclear waste repository. In the Simulated Drift Experiment, measured water inflow to an excavated drift with pressure held at 1 bar was only 1/9th the value expected based on inflow to boreholes with pressure held at 2.7 bars. Several physical and chemical mechanisms were hypothesized to be responsible for this reduction in flow. One possibility is that significant degassing of dissolved nitrogen takes place between 2.7 and 1 bars, credating a two-phase regime with an accompanying decrease in fluid mobility, resulting in a decrease in flow to the drift. To investigate this process, theoretical studies on degassing and redissolution phenomena have been carried out, beginning with an idealized model which yields a simple analytical solution, then relaxing some of the simplifying assumptions and using TOUGH2 to study the phenomena numerically. In conjunction with these theoretical studies, laboratory experiments on flow and degassing in transparent fracture replicas are being carried out, and are being used to check the modeling approach. We need to develop a fundamental understanding of degassing and redissolution in particular and two-phase flow phenomena in general for flow in fractures and fracture networks, in order to successfully model conditions around a nuclear waste repository, where long time and large space scales may preclude conclusive field experiments.

  7. Replication unreliability in psychology: elusive phenomena or elusive statistical power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio E Tressoldi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to analyse whether the unreliability of results related to certain controversial psychological phenomena may be a consequence of their low statistical power.Applying the Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing (NHST, still the widest used statistical approach, unreliability derives from the failure to refute the null hypothesis, in particular when exact or quasi-exact replications of experiments are carried out.Taking as example the results of meta-analyses related to four different controversial phenomena, subliminal semantic priming, incubation effect for problem solving, unconscious thought theory, and non-local perception, it was found that, except for semantic priming on categorization, the statistical power to detect the expected effect size of the typical study, is low or very low.The low power in most studies undermines the use of NHST to study phenomena with moderate or low effect sizes.We conclude by providing some suggestions on how to increase the statistical power or use different statistical approaches to help discriminate whether the results obtained may or may not be used to support or to refute the reality of a phenomenon with small effect size.

  8. 8th International symposium on transport phenomena in combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The 8th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Combustion will be held in San Francisco, California, U.S.A., July 16-20, 1995, under the auspices of the Pacific Center of Thermal-Fluids Engineering. The purpose of the Symposium is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners from around the world to present new developments and discuss the state of the art and future directions and priorities in the areas of transport phenomena in combustion. The Symposium is the eighth in a series; previous venues were Honolulu 1985, Tokyo 1987, Taipei 1988, Sydney 1991, Beijing 1992, Seoul 1993 and Acapulco 1994, with emphasis on various aspects of transport phenomena. The current Symposium theme is combustion. The Symposium has assembled a balanced program with topics ranging from fundamental research to contemporary applications of combustion theory. Invited keynote lecturers will provide extensive reviews of topics of great interest in combustion. Colloquia will stress recent advances and innovations in fire spread and suppression, and in low NO{sub x} burners, furnaces, boilers, internal combustion engines, and other practical combustion systems. Finally, numerous papers will contribute to the fundamental understanding of complex processes in combustion. This document contains abstracts of papers to be presented at the Symposium.

  9. Universal role of correlation entropy in critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Shijian; Sun Changpu; Lin Haiqing

    2008-01-01

    In statistical physics, if we divide successively an equilibrium system into two parts, we will face a situation that, to a certain length ξ, the physics of a subsystem is no longer the same as the original one. The extensive property of the thermal entropy S(A union B) = S(A) + S(B) is then violated. This observation motivates us to introduce a concept of correlation entropy between two points, as measured by the mutual information in information theory, to study the critical phenomena. A rigorous relation is established to display some drastic features of the non-vanishing correlation entropy of a subsystem formed by any two distant particles with long-range correlation. This relation actually indicates a universal role played by the correlation entropy for understanding the critical phenomena. We also verify these analytical studies in terms of two well-studied models for both the thermal and quantum phase transitions: the two-dimensional Ising model and the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model. Therefore, the correlation entropy provides us with a new physical intuition of the critical phenomena from the point of view of information theory

  10. Toward a CFD-grade database addressing LWR containment phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladino, Domenico; Andreani, Michele; Zboray, Robert; Dreier, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The SETH-2 PANDA tests have supplied data with CFD-grade on plumes and jets at large-scale. ► The PANDA tests have contributed to the understanding of phenomena with high safety relevance for LWRs. ► The analytical activities related increased confidence in the use of various computational tools for safety analysis. - Abstract: The large-scale, multi-compartment PANDA facility (located at PSI in Switzerland) is one of the state-of-the-art facilities which is continuously upgraded to progressively match the requirements of CFD-grade experiments. Within the OECD/SETH projects, the PANDA facility has been used for the creation of an experimental database on basic containment phenomena e.g. gas mixing, transport, stratification, condensation. In the PANDA tests, these phenomena are driven by large scale plumes or jets. In the paper is presented a selection of the SETH PANDA experimental results. Examples of analytical activities performed at PSI using the GOTHIC, CFX-4 and CFX-5 codes will be used to illustrate how the spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurement grid in PANDA tests are adequate for CFD code (and advanced containment codes) assessment and validation purposes.

  11. Genetic GIScience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey; Sabel, Clive E; Shi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The exposome, defined as the totality of an individual's exposures over the life course, is a seminal concept in the environmental health sciences. Although inherently geographic, the exposome as yet is unfamiliar to many geographers. This article proposes a place-based synthesis, genetic...... geographic information science (genetic GIScience), that is founded on the exposome, genome+, and behavome. It provides an improved understanding of human health in relation to biology (the genome+), environmental exposures (the exposome), and their social, societal, and behavioral determinants (the behavome......). Genetic GIScience poses three key needs: first, a mathematical foundation for emergent theory; second, process-based models that bridge biological and geographic scales; third, biologically plausible estimates of space?time disease lags. Compartmental models are a possible solution; this article develops...

  12. The experiment and analysis on small leak phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyung Chai; Hwang, S. T.; Kim, B. H.; Jeong, J. Y.

    2000-07-01

    The liquid sodium which is used as a coolant in LMFBR, may give rise to a serious trouble in the safety aspect of steam generator. The defects in a heat transfer tube, such as pin-hole or tube welding defect, will result in a leakage of high pressure steam into the sodium side and production of hydrogen gas and corrosive sodium compounds which can cause significant damage to the tube wall of steam generator by using exothermic reaction. In significant damage to the tube wall of steam generator by using exothermic reaction. In this case, initial leak size will be enlarged with time and the leak rate developed to large leak through the micro, small, intermediate leaks. Therefore, the analysis of sodium-water reaction phenomena on the micro and small water leaks in the heat transfer tube is very important in the initial leak stage in the aspects of the protection of leak progress and safety evaluation of steam generator. In this study, firstly, the micro and small leaks phenomena, such as reopen size, shape, and time of leak path, self-wastage, corrosion of tube materials, was analyzed from the literature survey and water leakage experiments using the leak specimen. In small water leak experiments, the leak path was plugged by the sodium-water reaction products at the leak path of a specimen, and re-open phenomena were not observed in initial experiments. Other leak experiments, reopen phenomena of self-plugged leak path was observed. Re-open mechanism of sealed path could be explained by the thermal transient and vibration of heat transfer tube. As a result, perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen was appeared with double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2 mm diameter on sodium side. Also, the corrosion of a specimen initiated from sodium side, the segregation phenomena of Cr in the specimen was found much more than those of

  13. Desktop Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Soren H; Ajetunmobi, Ayokunmi; Brody, Leigh; Humphryes-Kirilov, Neil; Perello, Edward

    2016-11-01

    Desktop Genetics is a bioinformatics company building a gene-editing platform for personalized medicine. The company works with scientists around the world to design and execute state-of-the-art clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) experiments. Desktop Genetics feeds the lessons learned about experimental intent, single-guide RNA design and data from international genomics projects into a novel CRISPR artificial intelligence system. We believe that machine learning techniques can transform this information into a cognitive therapeutic development tool that will revolutionize medicine.

  14. Development of a preliminary PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Hee Cheol; Song, Jin Ho; Sim, Suk Ku [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The work reported in this paper identifies the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that are expected to occur during a number of key transients in SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is under development at KAERI. The result of this effort is based on the current design concept of SMART integral reactor. Although the design is still evolving, the preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) has been developed based on the experts` knowledge and experience. The preliminary PIRT has been developed by consensus of KAERI expert panelists and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process). Preliminary PIRT developed in this paper is intended to be used to identify and integrate development areas of further experimental tests needed, thermal hydraulic models and correlations and code improvements for the safety analysis of the SMART. 8 refs., 4 tabs (Author)

  15. Development of a preliminary PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Hee Cheol; Song, Jin Ho; Sim, Suk Ku [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The work reported in this paper identifies the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that are expected to occur during a number of key transients in SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is under development at KAERI. The result of this effort is based on the current design concept of SMART integral reactor. Although the design is still evolving, the preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) has been developed based on the experts` knowledge and experience. The preliminary PIRT has been developed by consensus of KAERI expert panelists and AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process). Preliminary PIRT developed in this paper is intended to be used to identify and integrate development areas of further experimental tests needed, thermal hydraulic models and correlations and code improvements for the safety analysis of the SMART. 8 refs., 4 tabs (Author)

  16. Development of a preliminary PIRT(Phenomena Indentification and Ranking Table) of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Hee Cheol; Song, Jin Ho; Sim, Suk Ku

    1997-01-01

    The work reported in this paper identifies the thermal-hydraluic phenomena that are expected to occur during a number of key transients in SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is under development at KAERI. The result of this effort is based on the current design concept of SMART integral reactor. Although the design is still evolving, the preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) has been developed based on the expert's knowledge and experience. The preliminary PIRT has been developed by consensus of KAERI expert panelists and AHP (Analytical Hierachy Process). Preliminary PIRT developed in this paper is intended to be used to identify and integrate development areas of further experimental test needed, thermal hydraulic models and correlations and code improvements for the safety analysis of the SMART

  17. Anomalous transport phenomena in Fermi liquids with strong magnetic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent developments in the theory of transport phenomena based on the Fermi liquid theory. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticles relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems. The most famous example would be high-T c superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. This issue has been one of the most significant unresolved problems in HTSCs for a long time. Similar anomalous transport phenomena have been observed in metals near their antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP). The main goal of this study is to demonstrate whether the anomalous transport phenomena in HTSC is evidence of a non-Fermi liquid ground state, or just RTA violation in strongly correlated Fermi liquids. Another goal is to establish a unified theory of anomalous transport phenomena in metals with strong magnetic fluctuations. For these purposes, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. In a Fermi liquid, an excited quasiparticle induces other excited quasiparticles by collision, and current due to these excitations is called a current vertex correction (CVC). Landau noticed the existence of CVC first, which is indispensable for calculating transport coefficients in accord with the conservation laws. Here, we develop a transport theory involving resistivity and the Hall coefficient on the basis of the microscopic Fermi liquid theory, by considering the CVC. In nearly AF Fermi liquids, we find that the strong backward scattering due to AF fluctuations induces the CVC with prominent momentum dependence. This feature of the CVC can account for the significant enhancement in the Hall coefficient, magnetoresistance

  18. Genetic technology and agricultural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, W J; Blase, M G

    1971-07-09

    The genetic technologies being adopted in South Asia are significant factors in the agricultural development of the area. But, labeling them " miracle seeds," solely responsible for recent agricultural growth, is misleading. Certainly the introduction of new genetic technology has catalyzed South Asian agriculture and has instilled a new dynamism essential to economic development. Somewhat similar phenomena have, however, been observed in other parts of the world in other periods of history. The nature of these genetic technologies, how they are being applied, and their limits and potential have been explored above. Also, the effects of these varieties on the generation of employment, and the distribution of benefits accruing from them have been examined in preliminary fashion. Stemming from the preceding discussion, two areas of priority appear obvious. First, the close association of genetic technologies with irrigation suggests that irrigation should receive more attention than it has in the past. Large-scale public irrigation schemes are expensive and have tended to yield low rates of return. However, there appears to be room for marginal increases in, or improvements of, existing irrigation facilities. Second, even with a rapid spread of the practices associated with highyeild varieties, it may be too much to expect the farm sector to absorb the expected increases in the rural labor force. The generation of employment is a major problem in India as well as in most other developing countries. Hence, possibilities for expanding rural, nonfarm employment and controlling population growth should be sought vigorously.

  19. New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the booklet. » more Chapter 1: How Genes Work Covers DNA, RNA, transcription, RNA splicing, translation, ribosomes, antibiotics, genetic diseases, gene chips. » more Chapter 2: RNA and DNA Revealed: New Roles, New Rules Covers microRNAs, RNAi, epigenetics, telomeres, mtDNA, recombinant DNA. » ...

  20. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    In 1948-1953 a large scale field survey was conducted to investigate the possible genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on over 70,000 pregnancy terminations in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indices of possible genetic effect including sex ratio, birth weight, frequency of malformation, stillbirth, neonatal death, deaths within 9 months and anthropometric measurements at 9 months of age for these children were investigated in relation to their parent's exposure status to the A-bomb. There were no detectable genetic effects in this sample, except for a slight change in sex ratio which was in the direction to be expected if exposure had induced sex-linked lethal mutations. However, continued study of the sex ratio, based upon birth certificates in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for 1954-1962, did not confirm the earlier trend. Mortality in these children of A-bomb survivors is being followed using a cohort of 54,000 subjects. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the children has been demonstrated up to 1972 (age 17 on the average). On the basis of the regression data, the minimal genetic doubling dose of this type of radiation for mutations resulting in death is estimated at 46 rem for the father and 125 rem for the mother. (auth.)

  1. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence of herita......Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence...... in a combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely...... polygenic component to susceptibility, and a unique level of personal melanoma risk influenced by multiple low-risk alleles and genetic modifiers. In addition to conferring a risk of cutaneous melanoma, some 'melanoma' predisposition genes have been linked to other cancers, with cancer clustering observed...

  2. Genetic Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  3. Genetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, M.; Alonso-Blanco, C.; Stam, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mendelian analysis of genetic variation, available as induced mutants or as natural variation, requires a number of steps that are described in this chapter. These include the determination of the number of genes involved in the observed trait's variation, the determination of dominance

  4. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.R.; Krontiris, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the authors review new findings concerning the molecular genetics of malignant melanoma in the context of other information obtained from clinical, epidemiologic, and cytogenetic studies in this malignancy. These new molecular approaches promise to provide a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of melanoma, thereby suggesting new methods for its treatment and prevention

  5. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  6. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.; Abrahamson, S.; Denniston, C.; Schull, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major classes of genetic diseases that would be increased as a result of an increased gonadal radiation exposure to a human population. The risk analysis takes on two major forms: the increase in genetic disease that would be observed in the immediate offspring of the exposed population, and the subsequent transmission of the newly induced mutations through future generations. The major classes of genetic disease will be induced at different frequencies, and will also impact differentially in terms of survivability and fertility on the affected individuals and their descendants. Some classes of disease will be expected to persist for only a few generations at most. Other types of genetic disease will persist through a longer period. The classes of genetic diseases studied are: dominant gene mutation, X-linked gene mutation, chromosome disorders and multifactorial disorders which involve the interaction of many mutant genes and environmental factors. For each of these classes we have derived the general equations of mutation induction for the male and female germ cells of critical importance in the mutation process. The frequency of induced mutations will be determined initially by the dose received, the type of radiation and, to some extent at high dose, by the manner in which the dose is received. We have used the modeling analyses to predict the outcomes for two nuclear power plant accident scenarios, the first in which the population receives a chronic dose of 0.1 Gy (10 rad) over a 50-year period, the second in which an equivalent population receives an acute dose of 2 Gy. In both cases the analyses are projected over a period of five generations

  7. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.

  8. Switching Phenomena in a System with No Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-02-01

    It is widely believed that switching phenomena require switches, but this is actually not true. For an intriguing variety of switching phenomena in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. For example, financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating increasing trends ("bubble formation") and decreasing trends ("financial collapse"). Such switching occurs on time scales ranging from macroscopic bubbles persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic bubbles persisting only for a few seconds. We analyze a database containing 13,991,275 German DAX Future transactions recorded with a time resolution of 10 msec. For comparison, a database providing 2,592,531 of all S&P500 daily closing prices is used. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching phenomena have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the volatility after each switching occurs. We interpret our findings as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in transaction volume and time intervals between trades. We show that these financial market switching processes have properties similar to those of phase transitions. We suggest that the well-known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales—such as the most recent financial crisis—are no outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the switching between upward and downward trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large (≈102 days) down to very small (≈10 ms).

  9. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare - Università degli studi di Salerno Via Ponte Don Melillo - 84084 Fisciano SA (Italy)

    2015-01-22

    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.

  10. Study on the phenomena of natural circulation in LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hirofumi; Koga, Tomonari

    1993-01-01

    Decay heat removal with natural circulation is to be introduced to the LMFBR operation under loss of the electric power supply. The natural circulation is highly reliable, but the phenomenon is essentially unstable and subtle, which makes fine prediction difficult. The difficulties of experimental prediction are explained by facts that the phenomena are ruled by the delicate balance between the buoyancy force and the low pressure loss and are influenced by the various parameters such as local geometry, heat capacity and so on. Therefore the similarity rule for the natural circulation has not been fully understood. This study has been conducted to establish the simulation method for the natural circulation phenomena and the detailed phenomena have been reviewed. For the natural circulation in an LMFBR plant, there are no readily available reference velocity and temperature. These values are related only with the heating and cooling rate, the characteristic length and physical properties of the testing fluid. Basic equations were transformed by these values, and dimensionless equations were derived and then two dimensionless numbers, the Gr' number and the Bo' number, were identified. In order to examine the similarity rule for natural circulation we performed experiments using the different scale water models, a 1/20th and a 1/6th model. The temperatures and velocities at typical points were measured in the transient condition with various heating rate as a parameter. Measured temperatures and velocities were transformed to dimensionless forms for comparison and the effects of the Bo' number and the Gr' number were examined. As a result, it was clarified that the effect of the Gr' number is negligibly small but the effect of Bo' number still remained in our experimental range. The Bo' number of an actual plant is within the range of this experiment. Accordingly similitude of the Bo' number becomes important in an experiment to simulate an actual plant. (author)

  11. Religious Fundamentalism/Religious Modernism: Conceptual Adversaries or Ambivalent Phenomena?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. GOLOVUSHKIN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Both religious modernism and religious fundamentalism appeared as problems in academic and theological literature at the beginning of the 20th century. They came about as the result of the dynamic development of modernistic ideology in Russia, the United States, Western Europe and the Islamic world. Today, the concepts of religious modernism and religious fundamentalism are widely used to describe religious processes and phenomena which are the result of interaction between religion (as a dynamic spiritual and social subsystem and society - as a social system experiencing evolution. The concept of religious modernism is traditionally associated with religious renewal, the contemporary world, and innovation. Fundamentalism, on the contrary, is an ideological commitment to the “roots and origins” of religion. Under the aegis of fundamentalism, any religious idea, value or concept has a right to exist. Religious Studies, during the course of time and the production of ever new material, encountered a serious theoretic-methodological problem: How can various religious movements and religious traditions be organized into groups since some of them combine elements of religious modernism and of religious fundamentalism? Already at the end of the nineteen-eighties, the well-established view defining “fundamentalism-modernism” as contrary positions had to be rethought. Studies dating from the nineteen-nineties and the beginning of the new millennium concentrated on noting the social origins and the political character of these phenomena. They demonstrated that neither fundamentalism nor modernism present the whole picture. The lines dividing them are so blurred, that they become confl uent. Consequently, the author concludes that religious fundamentalism and religious modernism are ambivalent phenomena, which can, on occasion, interact with each other.

  12. New methods for analyzing transport phenomena in supersonic ejectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberts, Olivier; Chatelain, Philippe; Bartosiewicz, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation of a supersonic ejector with the open source software for CFD OpenFOAM. • Validation of the numerical tool based on flow structures obtained by schlieren. • Application of the momentum and energy tube analysis tools to a supersonic ejector. • Extension of this framework to exergy to construct exergy transport tubes. • Quantification of local transfers and losses of exergy within the ejector. - Abstract: This work aims at providing novel insights into the quantification and the location of the transfers and the irreversibilities within supersonic ejectors, and their connection with the entrainment. In this study, we propose two different and complementary approaches. First of all, recent analysis tools based on momentum and energy tubes (Meyers and Meneveau (2013)) are extended to the present compressible flow context and applied to the mean-flow structure of turbulent flow within the ejector. Furthermore, the transport equation for the mean-flow total exergy is derived and exergy transport tubes are proposed as a tool for the investigation of transport phenomena within supersonic ejectors. In addition to this topological approach, an analysis based on classical stream tubes is performed in order to quantitatively investigate transfers between the primary and the secondary streams all along the ejector. Finally, the present work identifies the location of exergy losses and their origins. Throughout this analysis, new local and cumulative parameters related to transfers and irreversibilities are introduced. The proposed methodology sheds light on the complex phenomena at play and may serve as a basis for the analysis of transport phenomena within supersonic ejectors. For the ejector under consideration, although global transfers are more important in on-design conditions, it is shown that the net gain in exergy of the secondary stream is maximum for a value of the back pressure that is close to the critical back pressure, as

  13. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating

  14. A model for hot electron phenomena: Theory and general results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, J.L.; Rodriquez, M.A.

    1988-10-01

    We propose a model for the description of the hot electron phenomena in semiconductors. Based on this model we are able to reproduce accurately the main characteristics observed in experiments of electric field transport, optical absorption, steady state photoluminescence and relaxation process. Our theory does not contain free nor adjustable parameters, it is very fast computerwise, and incorporates the main collision mechanisms including screening and phonon heating effects. Our description on a set of nonlinear rate equations in which the interactions are represented by coupling coefficients or effective frequencies. We calculate three coefficients from the characteristic constants and the band structure of the material. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  15. Jump phenomena. [large amplitude responses of nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers jump phenomena composed of large amplitude responses of nonlinear systems caused by small amplitude disturbances. Physical problems where large jumps in the solution amplitude are important features of the response are described, including snap buckling of elastic shells, chemical reactions leading to combustion and explosion, and long-term climatic changes of the earth's atmosphere. A new method of rational functions was then developed which consists of representing the solutions of the jump problems as rational functions of the small disturbance parameter; this method can solve jump problems explicitly.

  16. Study of electric phenomena in energy dumping of LCT coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Koichi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nishi, Masataka; Shimamoto, Susumu

    1980-03-01

    In IEA-LCT coil, electric phenomena in energy dumping were studied analytically and experimentally. Protection resistance of the Japanese LCT coil is chosen as 0.1 Ω considering the quenching voltage, so that temperature rise of the coil is no problem. Energy dumping characteristic of the six-coil system is calculated under different conditions. It is concluded that simultaneous dumping of all the coils with the equivalent resistance values of protection is necessary. Flashover voltage tests of the model in 4.2 K liquid helium, 4.2 K gas helium and 4.2 K boiling helium show margin in practical quenching voltage of the coil. (author)

  17. Searches for New Phenomena with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Many theories beyond the Standard Model (BSM) predict new phenomena accessible by the LHC which prevent the need of fine-tuning of the Higgs Boson mass or expand the gauge sectors of the SM to name a few. Searches for new physics models are performed using the ATLAS experiment at the LHC focusing on exotic signatures that can be realized in serval BSM theories. The results reported do not touch on Dark Matter signatures and use the pp collision data sample collected in 2015 and 2016 by the ATLAS detector at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV.

  18. Manifestations of quantum gravity in scalar QED phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S.D.; Romeo, A.

    1995-01-01

    Quantum gravitational corrections to the effective potential, at the one-loop level and in the leading-log approximation, for scalar quantum electrodynamics with higher-derivative gravity, which is taken as an effective theory for quantum gravity (QG), are calculated. We point out the appearance of relevant phenomena caused by quantum gravity, such as dimensional transmutation, QG-driven instabilities of the potential, QG corrections to scalar-to-vector mass ratios, and curvature-induced phase transitions, whose existence is shown by means of analytical and numerical study

  19. Wave-particle interaction phenomena observed by antarctic rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, I.; Hirasawa, T.

    1979-01-01

    Rocket measurements of wave and particles activities made at Syowa Station in Antarctica during IMS period are reviewed. Nine rockets were used for such observations, out of which 6 rockets were launched in the auroral sky. In the VLF frequency range, 0 - 10 KHz, wideband spectra of wave electric and magnetic fields, Poynting flux and the direction of propagation vector were measured for chorus, ELF and VLF hiss, and for electrostatic noises. In the MF and HF range, the dynamic frequency spectra of 0.1 - 10 MHz were measured. The relationship of these wave phenomena with energetic particle activities measured by the same rockets are discussed. (author)

  20. Imaging episodic memory: implications for cognitive theories and phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, L

    1999-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies are beginning to identify neuroanatomical correlates of various cognitive functions. This paper presents results relevant to several theories and phenomena of episodic memory, including component processes of episodic retrieval, encoding specificity, inhibition, item versus source memory, encoding-retrieval overlap, and the picture-superiority effect. Overall, by revealing specific activation patterns, the results provide support for existing theoretical views and they add some unique information which may be important to consider in future attempts to develop cognitive theories of episodic memory.

  1. Magnetic phenomena in UNi1-xRhxAl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A.V.; Dremov, R.V.; Uwatoko, Y.; Mushnikov, N.V.; Goto, T.; Shiokawa, Y.; Homma, Y.; Hagmusa, I.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.

    1999-01-01

    We report on structure investigation and magnetization study of UNi 1-x Rh x Al solid solutions between an antiferromagnet UNiAl and a ferromagnet URhAl. The ZrNiAl-type hexagonal crystal structure of the parent compounds is preserved in the whole concentration range. Magnetization was measured as a function of magnetic field, temperature and external hydrostatic pressure. The observed complex evolution of magnetic phenomena with Rh substitution for Ni is discussed in terms of effects of the varying 5f-ligand hybridization. A tentative magnetic phase diagram is proposed. (orig.)

  2. A review of experimental investigations on thermal phenomena in nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Shijo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanoparticle suspensions (nanofluids have been recommended as a promising option for various engineering applications, due to the observed enhancement of thermophysical properties and improvement in the effectiveness of thermal phenomena. A number of investigations have been reported in the recent past, in order to quantify the thermo-fluidic behavior of nanofluids. This review is focused on examining and comparing the measurements of convective heat transfer and phase change in nanofluids, with an emphasis on the experimental techniques employed to measure the effective thermal conductivity, as well as to characterize the thermal performance of systems involving nanofluids.

  3. Interfacial phenomena as related to oil recovery mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melrose, J C

    1970-12-01

    Thermodynamic and hydrostatic principles are applied to commingled immiscible fluid phases occupying the interstices fo a porous solid. Particular attention is given to the conditions of hydrostatic equilibrium for systems which include both fluid-fluid interfacial and 3-phase contact line regions. The configurational stability of fluid interfaces also is examined. Some model pore systems are considered, and estimates obtained for the magnitude of the hysteresis in capillary pressure in such cases. These considerations define the role of interfacial phenomena in determining the extent to which a nonwetting fluid can be displaced from a porous solid. (31 refs.)

  4. Learning from Analogies between Robotic World and Natural Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Igor M.; Cuperman, Dan

    This paper proposes an approach which combines robotics and science education through the development of robotic models and inquiry into natural phenomena. The robotic models are constructed using the PicoCricket kit. The approach is implemented and evaluated in the framework of teacher training courses for Technion students given in connection with outreach courses for middle school and high school students. The educational study indicated that the proposed approach facilitated acquisition of both technology and science concepts and inspired analogical reasoning and crossdisciplinary connections between the two domains.

  5. Transient Phenomena in Multiphase and Multicomponent Systems: Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur Beurteilung von Stoffen in der Landwirtschaft, Senatskommission

    2000-09-01

    Due to the reinforced risk and safety-analysis of industrial plants in chemical and energy-engineering there has been increased demand in industry for more information on thermo- and fluiddynamic effects of non-equilibria during strong transients. Therefore, the 'Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft' initiated a special research program focusing on the study of transient phenomena in multiphase systems with one or several components. This book describes macroscopic as well as microscopic transient situations. A large part of the book deals with numerical methods for describing transients in two-phase mixtures. New developments in measuring techniques are also presented.

  6. Fundamentals of Cryobiology Physical Phenomena and Mathematical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Zhmakin, Alexander I

    2009-01-01

    The book gives a summary of the state-of-the-art of cryobiology and its applications. The accent is on the underlying physical phenomena, which are common in such opposite applications as cryosurgery and cryoconservation, and the corresponding mathematical models, including numerical ones. The treatment of some more special issues is moved to the appendices. The glossary contains definitions and explanations of the major entities. All the topics considered are well referenced. The book is useful to both biologists and physicits of different level including practioners and graduate students.

  7. Measuring and characterizing beat phenomena with a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, M.; Pereyra, C. J.; Gau, D. L.; Laguarda, A.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, smartphones are in everyone’s life. Apart from being excellent tools for work and communication, they can also be used to perform several measurements of simple physical magnitudes, serving as a mobile and inexpensive laboratory, ideal for use physics lectures in high schools or universities. In this article, we use a smartphone to analyse the acoustic beat phenomena by using a simple experimental setup, which can complement lessons in the classroom. The beats were created by the superposition of the waves generated by two tuning forks, with their natural frequencies previously characterized using different applications. After the characterization, we recorded the beats and analysed the oscillations in time and frequency.

  8. Nanophenomena at surfaces fundamentals of exotic condensed matter phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Michailov, Michail

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in nanoscale surface physics. It outlines contemporary trends in the field covering a wide range of topical areas: atomic structure of surfaces and interfaces, molecular films and polymer adsorption, biologically inspired nanophysics, surface design and pattern formation, and computer modeling of interfacial phenomena. Bridging 'classical' and 'nano' concepts, the present volume brings attention to the physical background of exotic condensed-matter properties. The book is devoted to Iwan Stranski and Rostislaw Kaischew, remarkable scientists, who played

  9. Cavitation phenomena occurring on Pelton turbines buckets. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brivio, R.; Zappi, O.

    1995-01-01

    The article takes into consideration the erosion and/or cavitation phenomena occurring on the Pelton turbine buckets. It describes the main geometrical parameters that can cause the deterioration of the hydraulic profile and the provisions taken for avoid it or at least reduce it at the minimum when this deterioration has taken place. Furthermore, this article describes the development of the profiles up to the definition of bucket shapes that can assure high efficiencies and lack of cavitation. Some significant results, obtained about ten years ago in the hydraulic laboratory utilizing a closed circuit and reduced scale models, are then illustrated

  10. Linguistic Phenomena in Men and Women - TOT, FOK, Verbal Fluency

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Szepietowska; Barbara Gawda; Agnieszka Gawda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the differences between women and men in the phenomena of feeling of knowing/know (FOK), tip of the tongue (TOT), and verbal fluency. Two studies are presented. The first included a group of 60 participants and focused on the analysis of FOK and TOT in men and women. The second study described the performance of 302 participants in verbal fluency tasks. Both studies showed that sex is not a significant predictor of linguistic abilities. Rather, the main fa...

  11. Collective phenomena in synchrotron radiation sources. Prediction, diagnostics, countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.

    2006-01-01

    This book helps to dispel the notion that collective phenomena, which have become increasingly important in modern storage rings, are an obscure and inaccessible topic. Despite an emphasis on synchrotron light sources, the basic concepts presented here are valid for other facilities as well. Graduate students, scientists and engineers working in an accelerator environment will find this to be a systematic exposition of the principles behind collective instabilities and lifetime-limiting effects. Experimental methods to identify and characterize collective effects are also surveyed. Among other measures to improve the performance of a projected or existing facility, a detailed account of feedback control of instabilities is given. (orig.)

  12. Neutron scattering studies of pretransitional phenomena in structural phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.M.

    1979-03-01

    Materials exhibiting structural phase transformations are well known to possess pretransitional phenomena. Below the transition temperature, T/sub c/, an order parameter appears and the pretransitional effects are associated with the fluctuations of the order parameter. Neutron scattering techniques have proved invaluable in studying the temporal and spatial dependence of these fluctuations. SrTiO 3 is the prototypical example of a structural phase transformation exhibiting features observable in other transformations such as martensitic and order-disorder. The experimental evolution of the understanding of the phase transformation in SrTiO 3 will be reviewed and the features observed will be shown to typify other systems

  13. Search for new phenomena with the CDF detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzi, P.

    1997-05-01

    We present the results of the searches for new phenomena in pp collisions at √s=1.8 TeV with the CDF detector using the full data sample of 110 pb -1 collected between 1992 and 1995. We have searched for new physics in events with two photons, testing some of the hypotheses proposed to explain the appearance of the CDF eeγγ E T event. New results on the search for a heavy neutral scalar object, charged Higgs bosons (H ± ) and the scalar top quark are presented. Finally we summarize the CDF results on the search for third generation leptoquarks

  14. Possilibity of estimating payoff matrix from model for hit phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Akira; Sakaidani, Shota; Iwanaga, Saori

    2016-01-01

    The conflicts of topics on social media is considered using an extended mathematical model based on the mathematical model for hit phenomena that has been used to analyze entertainment hits. The social media platform used in this study was blog. The calculation results shows examples of strong conflict, weak conflict, and no conflict cases. Since the conflict of two topics can be considered in the framework of game theory, the results can be used to determine each matrix element of the payoff matrix of game theory.

  15. Interference phenomena at backscattering by ice crystals of cirrus clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoi, Anatoli; Kustova, Natalia; Konoshonkin, Alexander

    2015-09-21

    It is shown that light backscattering by hexagonal ice crystals of cirrus clouds is formed within the physical-optics approximation by both diffraction and interference phenomena. Diffraction determines the angular width of the backscattering peak and interference produces the interference rings inside the peak. By use of a simple model for distortion of the pristine hexagonal shape, we show that the shape distortion leads to both oscillations of the scattering (Mueller) matrix within the backscattering peak and to a strong increase of the depolarization, color, and lidar ratios needed for interpretation of lidar signals.

  16. Dialectic and science: Galen, Herophilus and Aristotle on phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieleman, T

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of Galen's argument in the De placitis Hippocratis et Platonis, books 2-3, concerned with the location of the psychic functions within the body. To this question Galen applies a coherent set of methodological principles, integrating Aristotelian dialectic and scientific demonstration based on anatomical experiments. Galen disagrees with Aristotle in that he relegates the endoxa from the realm of dialectic to that of rhetoric. His attitude is marked by a distinctive emphasis on perceptible phenomena as the starting point for scientific inquiry. This and other features can be traced back to the Hellenistic scientist Herophilus.

  17. Introduction to wave scattering, localization, and mesoscopic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Ping

    1995-01-01

    This book gives readers a coherent picture of waves in disordered media, including multiple scattered waves. The book is intended to be self-contained, with illustrated problems and solutions at the end of each chapter to serve the double purpose of filling out the technical and mathematical details and giving the students exercises if used as a course textbook.The study of wave behavior in disordered media has applications in:Condensed matter physics (semi and superconductor nanostructures and mesoscopic phenomena)Materials science/analytical chemistry (analysis of composite and crystalline structures and properties)Optics and electronics (microelectronic and optoelectronic devices)Geology (seismic exploration of Earths subsurface)

  18. Critical point phenomena: universal physics at large length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, A.; Wallace, D.

    1993-01-01

    This article is concerned with the behaviour of a physical system at, or close to, a critical point (ebullition, ferromagnetism..): study of the phenomena displayed in the critical region (Ising model, order parameter, correlation length); description of the configurations (patterns) formed by the microscopic degrees of freedom near a critical point, essential concepts of the renormalization group (coarse-graining, system flow, fixed-point and scale-invariance); how these concepts knit together to form the renormalization group method; and what kind of problems may be resolved by the renormalization group method. 12 figs., 1 ref

  19. Simulation of thermohydraulic phenomena and model test for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kazuziro

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the major thermohydraulic phenomena of FBRs and the conventional ways of their model tests, and introduces the recent findings regarding measurement technology and computational science. In the future commercial stage of FBRs, the design optimization will becomes important to improve economy and safety more and more. It is indispensable to use computational science to the plant design and safety evaluation. The most of the model tests will be replaced by the simulation analyses based on computational science. The measurement technology using ultrasonic and the numerical simulation with super parallel computing are considered to be the key technology to realize the design by analysis method. (author)

  20. Nuclear phenomena and the short distance structure of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1979-09-01

    In certain cases, nuclear corrections to hadronic phenomena depend in detail on the nature of quark and gluon interactions, as well as the effects of jet development within the nuclear medium. Applications of quantum chromodynamics to fast particle production in nuclear collisions, nuclear form factors, and shadowing in deep inelastic lepton processes are reviewed. Also discussed is a new approach to particle production in hadron-nucleus, nucleus-nucleus and deep-inelastic nuclear reactions from the standpoint of a color-neutralization model. 74 references

  1. Secondary Flow Phenomena in Rotating Radial Straight Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, K. C.; Wang, Liqiu

    1995-01-01

    Flow visualization results for secondary flow phenomena near the exit of a rotating radial-axis straight pipe (length ࡁ = 82 cm, inside diameter d = 3.81 cm, ࡁ/d 21.52) are presented to study the stabilizing (relaminarization) and destabilizing (early transition from laminar to turbulent flow) effects of Coriolis forces for Reynolds numbers Re = 500 ∼ 4,500 and rotating speeds n = 0 ∼ 200 rpm. The flow visualization was realised by smoke injection method. The main features of the trans...

  2. Crossover Improvement for the Genetic Algorithm in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrajitoru, Dana

    1998-01-01

    In information retrieval (IR), the aim of genetic algorithms (GA) is to help a system to find, in a huge documents collection, a good reply to a query expressed by the user. Analysis of phenomena seen during the implementation of a GA for IR has led to a new crossover operation, which is introduced and compared to other learning methods.…

  3. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Denniston, C.; Schull, W.

    1985-01-01

    Modeling analyses are used to predict the outcomes for two nuclear power plant accident scenarios, the first in which the population received a chronic dose of 0.1 Gy (10 rad) over a 50 year period, the second in which an equivalent population receives acute dose of 2 Gy. In both cases the analyses are projected over a period of five generations. The risk analysis takes on two major forms: the increase in genetic disease that would be observed in the immediate offspring of the exposed population, and the subsequent transmission of the newly induced mutations through future generations. The classes of genetic diseases studied are: dominant gene mutation, X-linked gene mutation, chromosome disorders and multifactorial disorders which involve the interaction of many mutant genes and environmental factors. 28 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  4. Procedure for Prioritization of Natural Phenomena Hazards Evaluations for Existing DOE Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-07

    This document describes the procedure to be used for the prioritization for natural phenomena hazards evaluations of existing DOE facilities in conformance with DOE Order 5480.28, `Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation.`

  5. 78 FR 8202 - Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and...

  6. Cooperative phenomena within organised bi-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armand, Franck

    2001-01-01

    In this report produced for an Accreditation to Supervise Research, the author defines a cooperative phenomenon as a phenomenon occurring each time a cooperation between elementary entities results in a collective property which exceeds the simple addition of disorganised individual properties. He reports works and researches which show that such phenomena can be generated by molecular architectures developed in laboratory, but also requires an appropriate organisation of active elementary entities. This can be obtained by self-organisation in solution. However, many applications assume the use of solid phases, and notably thin layers. In this respect, the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and self-assembly are very interesting techniques to produce mono-molecular thin layers, without however controlling molecule in-plane orientation and organisation. The author propose an overview of his works which aimed at obtaining this control, and reports three examples of cooperative phenomena: the generation of a second harmonic, spin transition with hysteresis, and electron conduction (one-dimensional and bi-dimensional electron transfer). The report also contains articles published in various scientific publications, and contributions to congresses [fr

  7. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Pokorný, Jan; Fišer, Jan; Toma, Róbert; Tuhovčák, Ján

    Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning) systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  8. Computer simulation of phenomena in plasma via particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.V.; Bittencourt, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    The method of plasma computer simulation via particles has become an efficient tool to investigate the time and spatial evolution of various physical phenomena in plasmas. This method is based on the study of the individual plasma particle motions interacting with one another and with the externally applied fields. Although fairly simple, it allows a non-linear analysis of complex plasma physical phenomena and to obtain diagnostics even for regions of the system where experimental measurements would be difficult to make. In this report, a general view of the electrostatic one-dimensional computer code ES1, originally developed by A. Bruce Langdon, is presented. The main mathematical artifice in this code is the use of a spatial grid in which various plasma particles are represented by ''superparticles'', using a given shape function. The principal characteristics of the model, the approximations made and the mathematical methods used to solve the equations involved, are described. The specification of the input parameters which characterize the system, the initial conditions and the graphic diagnostics which can be utilized, are also described. Results are presented illustrating graphically the behavior of the plasma oscillations, the two-stream instability and the beam-plasma instability. (author) [pt

  9. Numerical study of effects of accommodation coefficients on slip phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Jae; Kwon, Oh Joon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    An unstructured mesh Navier-Stokes solver employing a Maxwell slip boundary condition was developed. The present flow solver was applied to the simulation of flows around an axisymmetric hollow cylinder in a Mach 10.4 free stream, known as Calspan-UB Research Center (CUBRC) Run 14 case, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump on the cylinder surface were investigated. The effect of tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients used in the Maxwell condition was also investigated by adjusting their values. The results show that the reverse flow region is developed on the body surface due to the interaction between the shock and the boundary layer. Also, the shock impingement makes pressure high. The flow properties on the surface agree well with the experimental data, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump vary consistently with the local Knudsen number change. The accommodation coefficients affect the slip phenomena and the size of the flow region. The slip phenomena become larger when both tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients are decreased. However, the range of the reverse flow region decreases when the momentum accommodation coefficient is decreased. The characteristics of the momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients also are overlapped when they are altered together.

  10. Observation of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.

    1995-01-01

    When an electron beam is injected into a plasma, unstable waves are excited spontaneously near the electron plasma frequency f pe by the electron beam plasma instability. The experiment on subharmonics in an electron beam plasma system was performed with a glow discharge tube. The bifurcation of unstable waves with the electron plasma frequency f pe and 1/2 f pe was observed using a double-plasma device. Furthermore, the period doubling route to chaos around the ion plasma frequency in an electron beam plasma system was reported. However, the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system has not been clarified so far. We have studied nonlinear behaviors of the electron beam plasma instability. It was found that there are some cases: the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 2 period are excited by the electron beam plasma instability, the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 3 period are excited. In this paper, we measured the energy distribution functions of electrons and the dispersion relation of test waves in order to examine the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

  11. Heat Transfer Phenomena in Concentrating Solar Power Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Shinde, Subhash L.

    2016-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) utilizes solar thermal energy to drive a thermal power cycle for the generation of electricity. CSP systems are facilitated as large, centralized power plants , such as power towers and trough systems, to take advantage of ec onomies of scale through dispatchable thermal energy storage, which is a principle advantage over other energy generation systems . Additionally, the combination of large solar concentration ratios with high solar conversion efficiencies provides a strong o pportunity of employment of specific power cycles such as the Brayton gas cycle that utilizes super critical fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide (s CO 2 ) , compared to other sola r - fossil hybrid power plants. A comprehensive thermal - fluids examination is provided by this work of various heat transfer phenomena evident in CSP technologies. These include sub - systems and heat transfer fundamental phenomena evident within CSP systems , which include s receivers, heat transfer fluids (HTFs), thermal storage me dia and system designs , thermodynamic power block systems/components, as well as high - temperature materials. This work provides literature reviews, trade studies, and phenomenological comparisons of heat transfer media (HTM) and components and systems, all for promotion of high performance and efficient CSP systems. In addition, f urther investigations are also conducted that provide advanced heat transfer modeling approaches for gas - particle receiver systems , as well as performance/efficiency enhancement re commendations, particularly for solarized supercritical power systems .

  12. Transport phenomena of nanoparticles in plants and animals/humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos; Moulick, Amitava; Heger, Zbynek; Kopel, Pavel; Zítka, Ondřej; Adam, Vojtech; Lukatkin, Alexander S; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Kizek, Rene

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of a plethora nanoparticles with major biota such as plants and animals/humans has been the subject of various multidisciplinary studies with special emphasis on toxicity aspects. However, reports are meager on the transport phenomena of nanoparticles in the plant-animal/human system. Since plants and animals/humans are closely linked via food chain, discussion is imperative on the main processes and mechanisms underlying the transport phenomena of nanoparticles in the plant-animal/human system, which is the main objective of this paper. Based on the literature appraised herein, it is recommended to perform an exhaustive exploration of so far least explored aspects such as reproducibility, predictability, and compliance risks of nanoparticles, and insights into underlying mechanisms in context with their transport phenomenon in the plant-animal/human system. The outcomes of the suggested studies can provide important clues for fetching significant benefits of rapidly expanding nanotechnology to the plant-animal/human health-improvements and protection as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling of particular phenomena observed in PANDA with Gothic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandurski, Th.; Putz, F.; Andreani, M.; Analytis, M.

    2000-01-01

    PANDA is a large scale facility for investigating the long-term decay heat removal from the containment of a next generation 'passive' Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR). The first test series was aimed at the investigation of the long-term LOCA response of the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) for the General Electric (GE) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). Recently, the facility is used in the framework of two European projects for investigating the performance of four passive cooling systems, i.e. the Building Condenser (BC) designed by Siemens for the SWR-1000 long-term containment cooling, the Passive Containment Cooling System for the European Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR), the Containment Plate Condenser (CPC) and the Isolation Condenser (IC) for cooling of a BWR core. The PANDA tests have the dual objectives of improving confidence in the performance of the passive heat removal mechanisms underlying the design of the tested safety systems and extending the data base available for containment analysis code qualification. Among others, the containment analysis code Gothic was chosen for the analysis of particular phenomena observed during the PANDA tests. Ibis paper presents selected safety relevant phenomena observed in the PANDA tests and identified for the analyses and possible approaches for their modeling with Gothic. (author)

  14. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  15. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table for K-DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kye Min; Kang, Myung Suk; Heo, Gyun Young; Kim, Hyoung Chan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the current status of the Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) for the conceptual design of K-DEMO, Korean Fusion DEMO Plant. K-DEMO is to be planned as the first fusion power plant constructed in South Korea. However, several key technologies such as plasma, materials, and cooling still have large uncertainties. There are also no relevant references to facilitate the design process of K-DEMO due to its different size, commercializing purpose, and regulatory framework. It was proposed to define the phenomena of systems, components, and processes in an accident condition. In this paper, PIRT for K-DEMO was described and analysis based on this tool was performed. We have carried out researches related to safety for fusion power plant in collaboration with the academies funded by NFRI during the past 3 years. As part of this research, Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM), which was used to develop GEN-IV nuclear systems, was used to determine the technical safety issues and regulatory requirements for K-DEMO. PIRT is one of ISAM tools. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional research. The results through this tool are expected to contribute on detailed design for K-DEMO as guidance for regulatory requirements and safety systems in the future

  16. Selected social phenomena following the extraction of mineral resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocoń Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author, due to the didactic needs and seeing a small gap in the way of presenting scientific data on the area of social science, have decided to present this work hoping that it will influence on widening both the social science and geography knowledge of the recipients, having connected the development and creation of certain social phenomena with particular economic activity, that is, the extraction of mineral resources. The aim of the hereby text is to present such social phenomena like organizational culture, discourse and social capital. The notions mentioned above ought to concern not only students, but also the specialists and scientists dealing with any of those two fields, as it seems prudent to follow the path of closely connecting two major issues emerging from two distinctively separate areas of science if that may help to better understand how such mixture influence people’s behaviour and allows to draw conclusion on the effect such actions may have on community or society. Moreover, such fact was prior for the author to decide to work on the problem of protests for mining in the future. On the other hand, the article may help in organizing the process of exploitation of mineral resources in the different organizations involved in this type of activity.

  17. Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes. PMID:25731969

  18. Change Blindness Phenomena for Virtual Reality Display Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinicke, Frank; Bruder, Gerd; Hinrichs, Klaus; Willemsen, Pete

    2011-09-01

    In visual perception, change blindness describes the phenomenon that persons viewing a visual scene may apparently fail to detect significant changes in that scene. These phenomena have been observed in both computer-generated imagery and real-world scenes. Several studies have demonstrated that change blindness effects occur primarily during visual disruptions such as blinks or saccadic eye movements. However, until now the influence of stereoscopic vision on change blindness has not been studied thoroughly in the context of visual perception research. In this paper, we introduce change blindness techniques for stereoscopic virtual reality (VR) systems, providing the ability to substantially modify a virtual scene in a manner that is difficult for observers to perceive. We evaluate techniques for semiimmersive VR systems, i.e., a passive and active stereoscopic projection system as well as an immersive VR system, i.e., a head-mounted display, and compare the results to those of monoscopic viewing conditions. For stereoscopic viewing conditions, we found that change blindness phenomena occur with the same magnitude as in monoscopic viewing conditions. Furthermore, we have evaluated the potential of the presented techniques for allowing abrupt, and yet significant, changes of a stereoscopically displayed virtual reality environment.

  19. Comparative modeling for power generating systems with interaction phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2007-01-01

    From a conflicting viewpoint, comprehensive assessment of various national power systems can be treated as a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In reality, there are interaction phenomena among the decision elements. The main objective of this work is to propose a comprehensive framework to determinate the priority of appropriate national power sources involving various degrees of interaction among the decision elements (e.g., decision goal, decision criteria, and decision alternatives) such as inner dependence, outer dependence, and feedback effect. In the context of a generic hierarchical network (or hiernet) structure instead of one-way directional tree structure, the impact of the interaction phenomena on the grade of priority is investigated using a supermatrix technique or an analytic network process (ANP) method. Moreover, the three types of attitudes towards nuclear power system of the multiple actors are incorporated into the network structure to figure out the effect of characteristics of power systems. An illustrative example of the generic hiernet structure is demonstrated in comparison to the specific hierarchy structure without any interaction among the decision elements. The proposed framework can be applied to select the appropriate power systems, to understand the effect of its underlying decision structures, and to include risk attitudes towards a certain alternative. (author)

  20. Emergent Topological Phenomena in Thin Films of Pyrochlore Iridates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bohm-Jung; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-06-01

    Because of the recent development of thin film and artificial superstructure growth techniques, it is possible to control the dimensionality of the system, smoothly between two and three dimensions. In this Letter we unveil the dimensional crossover of emergent topological phenomena in correlated topological materials. In particular, by focusing on the thin film of pyrochlore iridate antiferromagnets grown along the [111] direction, we demonstrate that the thin film can have a giant anomalous Hall conductance, proportional to the thickness of the film, even though there is no Hall effect in 3D bulk material. Moreover, in the case of ultrathin films, a quantized anomalous Hall conductance can be observed, despite the fact that the system is an antiferromagnet. In addition, we uncover the emergence of a new topological phase, the nontrivial topological properties of which are hidden in the bulk insulator and manifest only in thin films. This shows that the thin film of correlated topological materials is a new platform to search for unexplored novel topological phenomena.

  1. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table for K-DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kye Min; Kang, Myung Suk; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Chan [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the current status of the Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT) for the conceptual design of K-DEMO, Korean Fusion DEMO Plant. K-DEMO is to be planned as the first fusion power plant constructed in South Korea. However, several key technologies such as plasma, materials, and cooling still have large uncertainties. There are also no relevant references to facilitate the design process of K-DEMO due to its different size, commercializing purpose, and regulatory framework. It was proposed to define the phenomena of systems, components, and processes in an accident condition. In this paper, PIRT for K-DEMO was described and analysis based on this tool was performed. We have carried out researches related to safety for fusion power plant in collaboration with the academies funded by NFRI during the past 3 years. As part of this research, Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM), which was used to develop GEN-IV nuclear systems, was used to determine the technical safety issues and regulatory requirements for K-DEMO. PIRT is one of ISAM tools. It can recognize vulnerabilities of systems and identify the gaps in technical areas requiring additional research. The results through this tool are expected to contribute on detailed design for K-DEMO as guidance for regulatory requirements and safety systems in the future.

  2. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  3. Manipulating novel quantum phenomena using synthetic gauge fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Liang; Zhou, Qi

    2017-11-01

    The past few years have seen fascinating progress in the creation and utilization of synthetic gauge fields for charge-neutral ultracold atoms. Whereas the synthesis of gauge fields in itself is readily interesting, it is more exciting to explore the new era that will be brought by the interplay between synthetic gauge fields and many other degrees of freedom of highly tunable ultracold atoms. This topical review surveys recent developments in using synthetic gauge fields to manipulate novel quantum phenomena that are not easy to access in other systems. We first summarize current experimental methods of creating synthetic gauge fields, including the use of Raman schemes, shaken lattices, and Raman-dressed lattices. We then discuss how synthetic gauge fields bring new physics to non-interacting systems, including degenerate single-particle ground states, quartic dispersions, topological band structures in lattices, and synthetic dimensions. As for interacting systems, we focus on novel quantum many-body states and quantum macroscopic phenomena induced by interactions in the presence of unconventional single-particle dispersions. For bosons, we discuss how a quartic dispersion leads to non-condensed bosonic states at low temperatures and at the ground state. For fermions, we discuss chiral superfluids in the presence of attractive s-wave interaction, where high partial-wave interactions are not required. Finally, we discuss the challenges in current experiments, and conclude with an outlook for what new exciting developments synthetic gauge fields may bring us in the near future.

  4. Initiating Young Children into Basic Astronomical Concepts and Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallery, M.

    2010-07-01

    In the present study we developed and implemented three units of activities aiming at acquainting very young children with basic astronomical concepts and phenomena such as the sphericity of the earth, the earth’s movements and the day/night cycle. The activities were developed by a group composed of a researcher/facilitator and six early-years teachers. In the activities children were presented with appropriate for their age scientific information along with conceptual tools such as a globe and an instructional video. Action research processes were used to optimize classroom practices and to gather useful information for the final shaping of the activities and the instruction materials. In these activities the adopted approach to learning can be characterized as socially constructed. The results indicated awareness of concepts and phenomena that the activities dealt with in high percentages of children, storage of the new knowledge in the long term memory and easy retrieval of it, and children’s enthusiasm for the subject.

  5. Large p sub( t) phenomena and the structure of jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowski, R.

    1979-01-01

    The modern history of high transverse momentum phenomena started in 1972 when it was found that the spectrum of the transverse momentum p sub(T) of secondaries produced in hadronic collisions did not drop as fast as expected from its behavior at low transverse momentum. Now it is possible to study the production of secondaries at transverse momenta as high as 16 GeV/c. The aim of this review is to systematize the existing experimental knowledge in this field. It is believed that the production of objects with high transverse momenta in the collision of two hadrons is due to the hard scattering of their constituents. According to this hard scattering picture, in the collision causing hard scattering, two scattered constituents with high transverse momenta should show up as two jets of hadrons, trigger jet and away jet. Two incoming hadrons, one constituent is removed by hard scattering from each, are expected to create two spectator jets. The present review is made through the four-jet world. The experimental studies of high p sub(T) phenomena in hadronic collision showed this four-jet structure. The observed structure is consistent with the assumption that high p sub(T) objects originate from scattered hadronic constituents. Many aspects of the collision indicate that the scattering constituents are quarks. (Kako, I.)

  6. Modeling as an Anchoring Scientific Practice for Explaining Friction Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Drew; Campbell, Todd

    2017-12-01

    Through examining the day-to-day work of scientists, researchers in science studies have revealed how models are a central sense-making practice of scientists as they construct and critique explanations about how the universe works. Additionally, they allow predictions to be made using the tenets of the model. Given this, alongside research suggesting that engaging students in developing and using models can have a positive effect on learning in science classrooms, the recent national standards documents in science education have identified developing and using models as an important practice students should engage in as they apply and refine their ideas with peers and teachers in explaining phenomena or solving problems in classrooms. This article details how students can be engaged in developing and using models to help them make sense of friction phenomena in a high school conceptual physics classroom in ways that align with visions for teaching and learning outlined in the Next Generation Science Standards. This particular unit has been refined over several years to build on what was initially an inquiry-based unit we have described previously. In this latest iteration of the friction unit, students developed and refined models through engaging in small group and whole class discussions and investigations.

  7. Analysis of graphic representation ability in oscillation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, A. R. C.; Putra, N. M. D.; Susilo

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to investigates how the ability of students to representation graphs of linear function and harmonic function in understanding of oscillation phenomena. Method of this research used mix methods with concurrent embedded design. The subjects were 35 students of class X MIA 3 SMA 1 Bae Kudus. Data collection through giving essays and interviews that lead to the ability to read and draw graphs in material of Hooke's law and oscillation characteristics. The results of study showed that most of the students had difficulty in drawing graph of linear function and harmonic function of deviation with time. Students’ difficulties in drawing the graph of linear function is the difficulty of analyzing the variable data needed in graph making, confusing the placement of variable data on the coordinate axis, the difficulty of determining the scale interval on each coordinate, and the variation of how to connect the dots forming the graph. Students’ difficulties in representing the graph of harmonic function is to determine the time interval of sine harmonic function, the difficulty to determine the initial deviation point of the drawing, the difficulty of finding the deviation equation of the case of oscillation characteristics and the confusion to different among the maximum deviation (amplitude) with the length of the spring caused the load.Complexity of the characteristic attributes of the oscillation phenomena graphs, students tend to show less well the ability of graphical representation of harmonic functions than the performance of the graphical representation of linear functions.

  8. Enhanced Understanding of High Energy Arcing Fault Phenomena in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Seuk; Kim, Me Kyoung; Lee, Sang Kyu [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study reviews the recent HEAF events in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and investigates the HEAF phenomena with the experiment data performed at KEMA supported by OECD/NEA HEAF project. High Energy Arcing Fault (HEAF) can occur in an electrical components or systems through an arc path to ground and has the potential to cause extensive damage to the equipment involved. The intense radiant heat produced by the arc can cause significant damage or even destructions of equipment and can injure people. Affected components include a specific high-energy electrical devices, such as switch gears, load centers, bus bars/ducts, transformers, cables, etc., operating mainly on voltage levels of more than 380V but the voltage levels in NUREG/CR-6580 is more than 440. As stated before, HEAF may cause the significant damage to adjacent facilities as well as the equipment involved. Quantitative estimation of the equipment damage, determining the damage area, and predicting the secondary fire after initiating HEAF event should be further studied in depth. Draft test report produced by KEMA does not give comprehensive understanding of the HEAF phenomena. It is expected that a detail information of slug calorimeter and the test data to show the HEAF characteristics will be given in the final test reports.

  9. Minerve: thermal-hydraulic phenomena simulation and virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffont, A.; Pentori, B.

    2003-01-01

    MINERVE is a 3D interactive application representing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena happening in a nuclear plant. Therefore, the 3D geometric model of the French 900 MW PWR installations has been built. The users can interact in real time with this model to see at each step of the simulation what happens in the pipes. The thermal-hydraulic simulation is made by CATHARE-2, which calculates at every time step data on about one thousand meshes (the whole primary circuit, a part of the second circuit, and the Residual Heat Removal System). The simulation covers incidental and accidental cases on these systems. There are two main innovations in MINERVE: In the domain of nuclear plant's visualization, it is to introduce interactive 3D software mechanisms to visualize results of a physical simulation. In the domain of real-time 3D, it is to visualize fluids in a pipe, while they can have several configurations, like bubbles or single liquid phase. These mechanisms enable better comprehension and better visual representation of the possible phenomena. This paper describes the functionalities of MINERVE, and the difficulties to represent fluids with several characteristics like speed, configuration,..., in 3D. On the end, we talk about the future of MINERVE, and more widely of the possible futures of such an application in scientific visualization. (authors)

  10. Minerve: thermal-hydraulic phenomena simulation and virtual reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffont, A.; Pentori, B. [EDF R and D, EDF SEPTEN Electricity of France - Research and Development, Department SINETICS, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2003-07-01

    MINERVE is a 3D interactive application representing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena happening in a nuclear plant. Therefore, the 3D geometric model of the French 900 MW PWR installations has been built. The users can interact in real time with this model to see at each step of the simulation what happens in the pipes. The thermal-hydraulic simulation is made by CATHARE-2, which calculates at every time step data on about one thousand meshes (the whole primary circuit, a part of the second circuit, and the Residual Heat Removal System). The simulation covers incidental and accidental cases on these systems. There are two main innovations in MINERVE: In the domain of nuclear plant's visualization, it is to introduce interactive 3D software mechanisms to visualize results of a physical simulation. In the domain of real-time 3D, it is to visualize fluids in a pipe, while they can have several configurations, like bubbles or single liquid phase. These mechanisms enable better comprehension and better visual representation of the possible phenomena. This paper describes the functionalities of MINERVE, and the difficulties to represent fluids with several characteristics like speed, configuration,..., in 3D. On the end, we talk about the future of MINERVE, and more widely of the possible futures of such an application in scientific visualization. (authors)

  11. Investigations of fundamental phenomena in quantum mechanics with neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Neutron interferometer and polarimeter are used for the experimental investigations of quantum mechanical phenomena. Interferometry exhibits clear evidence of quantum-contextuality and polarimetry demonstrates conflicts of a contextual model of quantum mechanics á la Leggett. In these experiments, entanglements are achieved between degrees of freedom in a single-particle: spin, path and energy degrees of freedom are manipulated coherently and entangled. Both experiments manifest the fact that quantum contextuality is valid for phenomena with matter waves with high precision. In addition, another experiment is described which deals with error-disturbance uncertainty relation: we have experimentally tested error-disturbance uncertainty relations, one is derived by Heisenberg and the other by Ozawa. Experimental results confirm the fact that the Heisenberg's uncertainty relation is often violated and that the new relation by Ozawa is always larger than the limit. At last, as an example of a counterfactual phenomenon of quantum mechanics, observation of so-called quantum Cheshire Cat is carried out by using neutron interferometer. Experimental results suggest that pre- and post-selected neutrons travel through one of the arms of the interferometer while their magnetic moment is located in the other arm.

  12. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  13. Micro ball lightning and its accelerator proposed to control natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Taka-aki

    2002-01-01

    Micro Ball Lightning (BL) was recently discovered in laboratory. It was also observed during natural phenomena such as volcanic eruption and earthquake. This paper described a brief review of micro BL observed in laboratory as well as during two natural phenomena. Being based on a hypothesis of that those natural phenomena could have been caused by explosive reactions of micro BL, a potential accelerator of micro BL was proposed to control the natural phenomena. (author)

  14. A thermodynamic derivation of equations for dielectric-relaxation phenomena in anisotropic polarizable media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciancio, V.; Kluitenberg, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Using the general methods of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, a theory for anisotropic polarizable media in which dielectric relaxation phenomena occur is developed. Assuming that ii microscopic phenomena give rise to dielectric relaxation, the contributions of these phenomena to the macroscopic

  15. Going forward with genetics: recent technological advances and forward genetics in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Li, Xiaohong; Beutler, Bruce

    2013-05-01

    Forward genetic analysis is an unbiased approach for identifying genes essential to defined biological phenomena. When applied to mice, it is one of the most powerful methods to facilitate understanding of the genetic basis of human biology and disease. The speed at which disease-causing mutations can be identified in mutagenized mice has been markedly increased by recent advances in DNA sequencing technology. Creating and analyzing mutant phenotypes may therefore become rate-limiting in forward genetic experimentation. We review the forward genetic approach and its future in the context of recent technological advances, in particular massively parallel DNA sequencing, induced pluripotent stem cells, and haploid embryonic stem cells. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of drops and bubbles and chaotic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Eugene H.; Leal, L. G.; Feng, Z. C.; Holt, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena associated with the dynamics of free drops and bubbles are investigated analytically, numerically and experimentally. Although newly developed levitation and measurement techniques have been implemented, the full experimental validation of theoretical predictions has been hindered by interfering artifacts associated with levitation in the Earth gravitational field. The low gravity environment of orbital space flight has been shown to provide a more quiescent environment which can be utilized to better match the idealized theoretical conditions. The research effort described in this paper is a closely coupled collaboration between predictive and guiding theoretical activities and a unique experimental program involving the ultrasonic and electrostatic levitation of single droplets and bubbles. The goal is to develop and to validate methods based on nonlinear dynamics for the understanding of the large amplitude oscillatory response of single drops and bubbles to both isotropic and asymmetric pressure stimuli. The first specific area on interest has been the resonant coupling between volume and shape oscillatory modes isolated gas or vapor bubbles in a liquid host. The result of multiple time-scale asymptotic treatment, combined with domain perturbation and bifurcation methods, has been the prediction of resonant and near-resonant coupling between volume and shape modes leading to stable as well as chaotic oscillations. Experimental investigations of the large amplitude shape oscillation modes of centimeter-size single bubbles trapped in water at 1 G and under reduced hydrostatic pressure, have suggested the possibility of a low gravity experiment to study the direct coupling between these low frequency shape modes and the volume pulsation, sound-radiating mode. The second subject of interest has involved numerical modeling, using the boundary integral method, of the large amplitude shape oscillations of charged and uncharged drops in the presence

  17. Iris small break loca phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, T.K.; Moody, F.J.; Wilson, G.E.; Brown, W.L.; Frepoli, C.; Hartz, J.; Woods, B.G.; Oriani, L.

    2007-01-01

    The international reactor innovative and secure (IRIS) is a modular pressurized water reactor with an integral configuration (all primary system components - reactor core, internals, pumps, steam generators, pressurizer, and control rod drive mechanisms - are inside the reactor vessel). The IRIS plant conceptual design was completed in 2001 and the preliminary design is currently underway. The pre-application licensing process with the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) started in October 2002. The first line of defense in IRIS is to eliminate event initiators that could potentially lead to core damage. If it is not possible to eliminate certain accidents altogether, then the design inherently reduces their consequences and/or decreases their probability of occurring. One of the most obvious advantages of the IRIS Safety-by-Design TM approach is the elimination of large break loss-of-coolant accidents (LBLOCAs), since no large primary penetrations of the reactor vessel or large loop piping exist. While the IRIS Safety-by-Design TM approach is a logical step in the effort to produce advanced reactors, the desired advances in safety must still be demonstrated in the licensing arena. With the elimination of LBLOCA, an important next consideration is to show the IRIS design fulfills the promise of increased safety also for small break LOCAs (SBLOCAs). Accordingly, the SBLOCA phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) project was established. The primary objective of the IRIS SBLOCA PIRT project was to identify the relative importance of phenomena in the IRIS response to SBLOCAs. This relative importance, coupled with the current relative state of knowledge for the phenomena, provides a framework for the planning of the continued experimental and analytical efforts. To satisfy the SBLOCA PIRT project objectives, Westinghouse organized an expert panel whose members were carefully selected to insure that the PIRT results reflect internationally

  18. The Fragility of Interdependency: Coupled Networks Switching Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-03-01

    Recent disasters ranging from abrupt financial ``flash crashes'' and large-scale power outages to sudden death among the elderly dramatically exemplify the fact that the most dangerous vulnerability is hiding in the many interdependencies among different networks. In the past year, we have quantified failures in model of interconnected networks, and demonstrated the need to consider mutually dependent network properties in designing resilient systems. Specifically, we have uncovered new laws governing the nature of switching phenomena in coupled networks, and found that phenomena that are continuous ``second order'' phase transitions in isolated networks become discontinuous abrupt ``first order'' transitions in interdependent networks [S. V. Buldyrev, R. Parshani, G. Paul, H. E. Stanley, and S. Havlin, ``Catastrophic Cascade of Failures in Interdependent Networks,'' Nature 464, 1025 (2010); J. Gao, S. V. Buldyrev, H. E. Stanley, and S. Havlin, ``Novel Behavior of Networks Formed from Interdependent Networks,'' Nature Physics 8, 40 (2012). We conclude by discussing the network basis for understanding sudden death in the elderly, and the possibility that financial ``flash crashes'' are not unlike the catastrophic first-order failure incidents occurring in coupled networks. Specifically, we study the coupled networks that are responsible for financial fluctuations. It appears that ``trend switching phenomena'' that we uncover are remarkably independent of the scale over which they are analyzed. For example, we find that the same laws governing the formation and bursting of the largest financial bubbles also govern the tiniest finance bubbles, over a factor of 1,000,000,000 in time scale [T. Preis, J. Schneider, and H. E. Stanley, ``Switching Processes in Financial Markets,'' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 7674 (2011); T. Preis and H. E. Stanley, ``Bubble Trouble: Can a Law Describe Bubbles and Crashes in Financial Markets?'' Physics World 24, No. 5, 29 (May 2011

  19. Causal relations among events and states in dynamic geographical phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaoqiang; Feng, Xuezhi; Xuan, Wenling; Chen, Xiuwan

    2007-06-01

    There is only a static state of the real world to be recorded in conventional geographical information systems. However, there is not only static information but also dynamic information in geographical phenomena. So that how to record the dynamic information and reveal the relations among dynamic information is an important issue in a spatio-temporal information system. From an ontological perspective, we can initially divide the spatio-temporal entities in the world into continuants and occurrents. Continuant entities endure through some extended (although possibly very short) interval of time (e.g., houses, roads, cities, and real-estate). Occurrent entities happen and are then gone (e.g., a house repair job, road construction project, urban expansion, real-estate transition). From an information system perspective, continuants and occurrents that have a unique identity in the system are referred to as objects and events, respectively. And the change is represented implicitly by static snapshots in current spatial temporal information systems. In the previous models, the objects can be considered as the fundamental components of the system, and the change is modeled by considering time-varying attributes of these objects. In the spatio-temporal database, the temporal information that is either interval or instant is involved and the underlying data structures and indexes for temporal are considerable investigated. However, there is the absence of explicit ways of considering events, which affect the attributes of objects or the state. So the research issue of this paper focuses on how to model events in conceptual models of dynamic geographical phenomena and how to represent the causal relations among events and the objects or states. Firstly, the paper reviews the conceptual modeling in a temporal GIS by researchers. Secondly, this paper discusses the spatio-temporal entities: objects and events. Thirdly, this paper investigates the causal relations amongst

  20. Role of genetic in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Narayanrao Wankhede

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is the study and understanding of the phenomena of heredity and variation. A large number of genes are associated with many systemic conditions. Periodontitis is inflammatory condition of periodontium. Periodontium consists of gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. It is considered being a multifactorial disease. Studies of animals and humans support the concept that a large number of genes' factor may be associated with periodontitis and clearly play a role in the predisposition and progression of periodontal diseases. It has been proven that genetic factors impair inflammatory and immune responses during periodontal diseases. Research on identifying specific genes causing periodontitis may improve and prevent the disease progression. The aim of this article is to focus on genetic risk factors and its influence for the various forms of periodontal disease.