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Sample records for genetic merit

  1. Bayesian inference on genetic merit under uncertain paternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tempelman Robert J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hierarchical animal model was developed for inference on genetic merit of livestock with uncertain paternity. Fully conditional posterior distributions for fixed and genetic effects, variance components, sire assignments and their probabilities are derived to facilitate a Bayesian inference strategy using MCMC methods. We compared this model to a model based on the Henderson average numerator relationship (ANRM in a simulation study with 10 replicated datasets generated for each of two traits. Trait 1 had a medium heritability (h2 for each of direct and maternal genetic effects whereas Trait 2 had a high h2 attributable only to direct effects. The average posterior probabilities inferred on the true sire were between 1 and 10% larger than the corresponding priors (the inverse of the number of candidate sires in a mating pasture for Trait 1 and between 4 and 13% larger than the corresponding priors for Trait 2. The predicted additive and maternal genetic effects were very similar using both models; however, model choice criteria (Pseudo Bayes Factor and Deviance Information Criterion decisively favored the proposed hierarchical model over the ANRM model.

  2. Short communication: Genetic lag represents commercial herd genetic merit more accurately than the 4-path selection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, C D; Rogers, G W

    2018-05-01

    Expectation of genetic merit in commercial dairy herds is routinely estimated using a 4-path genetic selection model that was derived for a closed population, but commercial herds using artificial insemination sires are not closed. The 4-path model also predicts a higher rate of genetic progress in elite herds that provide artificial insemination sires than in commercial herds that use such sires, which counters other theoretical assumptions and observations of realized genetic responses. The aim of this work is to clarify whether genetic merit in commercial herds is more accurately reflected under the assumptions of the 4-path genetic response formula or by a genetic lag formula. We demonstrate by tracing the transmission of genetic merit from parents to offspring that the rate of genetic progress in commercial dairy farms is expected to be the same as that in the genetic nucleus. The lag in genetic merit between the nucleus and commercial farms is a function of sire and dam generation interval, the rate of genetic progress in elite artificial insemination herds, and genetic merit of sires and dams. To predict how strategies such as the use of young versus daughter-proven sires, culling heifers following genomic testing, or selective use of sexed semen will alter genetic merit in commercial herds, genetic merit expectations for commercial herds should be modeled using genetic lag expectations. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Linear reaction norm models for genetic merit prediction of Angus cattle under genotype by environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, F F; Tempelman, R J

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this work were to assess alternative linear reaction norm (RN) models for genetic evaluation of Angus cattle in Brazil. That is, we investigated the interaction between genotypes and continuous descriptors of the environmental variation to examine evidence of genotype by environment interaction (G×E) in post-weaning BW gain (PWG) and to compare the environmental sensitivity of national and imported Angus sires. Data were collected by the Brazilian Angus Improvement Program from 1974 to 2005 and consisted of 63,098 records and a pedigree file with 95,896 animals. Six models were implemented using Bayesian inference and compared using the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC). The simplest model was M(1), a traditional animal model, which showed the largest DIC and hence the poorest fit when compared with the 4 alternative RN specifications accounting for G×E. In M(2), a 2-step procedure was implemented using the contemporary group posterior means of M(1) as the environmental gradient, ranging from -92.6 to +265.5 kg. Moreover, the benefits of jointly estimating all parameters in a 1-step approach were demonstrated by M(3). Additionally, we extended M(3) to allow for residual heteroskedasticity using an exponential function (M(4)) and the best fitting (smallest DIC) environmental classification model (M(5)) specification. Finally, M(6) added just heteroskedastic residual variance to M(1). Heritabilities were less at harsh environments and increased with the improvement of production conditions for all RN models. Rank correlations among genetic merit predictions obtained by M(1) and by the best fitting RN models M(3) (homoskedastic) and M(5) (heteroskedastic) at different environmental levels ranged from 0.79 and 0.81, suggesting biological importance of G×E in Brazilian Angus PWG. These results suggest that selection progress could be optimized by adopting environment-specific genetic merit predictions. The PWG environmental sensitivity of

  4. Metabolic safety-margins do not differ between cows of high and low genetic merit for milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knight, Christopher Harold; Alamer, Mohammed A; Sorensen, Annette

    2004-01-01

    Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of ea...... the commonly held belief that selective breeding of dairy cows for high milk production has rendered them markedly more susceptible to metabolic disturbances.......Three galactopoietic stimuli, frequent milking (4X), bovine somatotrophin (bST) and thyroxine (T4) were used in an additive stair-step design to achieve maximum output (metabolic capacity) in six peak-lactation cows of high genetic merit (HT) and six of low genetic merit (LT). A further six of each...... elevated heart rate and significant loss of body weight and condition compared with the combination of 4X and bST. As a result, treatments were discontinued, on an individual cow basis, before completion of this 6-week phase. Time on experiment did not differ between HT and LT. The results do not support...

  5. Relationships between Milk Progesterone Profiles and Genetic Merit for Milk Production, Milking Frequency, and Feeding Regimen in Dairy Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Milk progesterone profiles were determined from samples obtained twice weekly for 100 d postpartum in 100 Holstein primiparous cows at a Dutch experimental farm. Three treatments were applied in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with high-low genetic merit for overall production, high-low caloric

  6. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feed efficiency with growth performance, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F; Chen, L; Vinsky, M; Okine, E; Wang, Z; Basarab, J; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-05-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular importance to the beef industry, as feed costs represent the single largest variable cost in beef production systems. Selection for more efficient cattle will lead to reduction of feed related costs, but should not have adverse impacts on quality of the carcass. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic and genetic correlations of residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for end-of-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf), and RFI adjusted for ultrasound backfat thickness and LM area (RFIfr) with growth, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in an Angus population of 551 steers and in a Charolais population of 417 steers. In the Angus steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlation of RFI with carcass merit traits including HCW, carcass backfat, carcass LM area, lean meat yield, and carcass marbling were not significant or weak with correlations coefficients ranging from -0.0007 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.21. In the Charolais steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with the carcass merit traits were also weak, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.19 ± 0.18, except for the genetic correlation with carcass average backfat, which was moderate with a magnitude of 0.42 ± 0.29. Inclusion of ultrasound backfat thickness in the model to predict the expected daily DMI for maintenance explained on average an additional 0.5% variation of DMI in the Angus steers and 2.3% variation of DMI in the Charolais steer population. Inclusion of both the ultrasound backfat and LM area in the model explained only 0.7% additional variance in DMI in the Angus steer population and only 0.6% in the Charolais steer population on top of the RFIf model. We concluded that RFIf adjusted for ultrasound backfat at the end of the test will lead to decreases of both the phenotypic and genetic correlations with carcass backfat and marbling score to a greater extent for late-maturing beef breeds such as Charolais than

  7. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: I. Production characteristics and reproductive efficiency in a pasture-based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, S B; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Berry, D P; Evans, R D; Butler, S T

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the phenotypic performance of cows with similar proportions of Holstein genetics, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but with good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that cows with a negative estimated breeding value for calving interval would have superior fertility performance and would have detectable differences in body reserve mobilization and circulating concentrations of metabolic hormones and metabolites compared with cows that had a positive estimated breeding value for calving interval. For the duration of the study, cows were managed identically as a single herd in a typical grass-based, spring-calving production system. A total of 80 lactation records were available from 26 Fert+ and 26 Fert- cows over 2 consecutive years (2008 and 2009). During yr 1, cows were monitored during a 20-wk breeding season to evaluate reproductive performance. Milk production, body condition score (scale 1 to 5), body weight, grass dry matter intake, energy balance, and metabolic hormone and metabolite data were collected during both years. The Fert+ cows had greater daily milk yield (19.5 vs. 18.7 kg/d), shorter interval from calving to conception (85.6 vs. 113.8 d), and fewer services per cow (1.78 vs. 2.83). No difference between groups in grass dry matter intake, energy balance, or body weight was observed. The Fert+ cows maintained greater BCS during mid (2.84 vs. 2.74 units) and late lactation (2.82 vs. 2.73 units). Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I were greater throughout the gestation-lactation cycle in Fert+ cows (148.3 vs. 128.2 ng/mL). The Fert+ cows also had greater circulating concentrations of insulin during the first 4 wk of lactation (1.71 vs. 1.24 μIU/mL). Analysis of records from national herd data verified the association between genetic merit for fertility traits and phenotypic reproductive

  8. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer

  9. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feed intake and measures of efficiency with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Li, C; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Crews, D H; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feed intake and efficiency of growth are economically important traits of beef cattle. This study determined the relationships of daily DMI, feed:gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F) and therefore increases as the efficiency of gain decreases and vice versa, residual feed intake (RFI), and partial efficiency of growth (efficiency of ADG, PEG) with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle. Residual feed intake was calculated from phenotypic regression (RFIp) or genetic regression (RFIg) of ADG and metabolic BW on DMI. An F1 half-sib pedigree file containing 28 sires, 321 dams, and 464 progeny produced from crosses between Alberta Hybrid cows and Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls was used. Families averaged 20 progeny per sire (range = 3 to 56). Performance, ultrasound, and DMI data was available on all progeny, of which 381 had carcass data. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were obtained using SAS and ASREML software, respectively. Differences in RFIp and RFIg, respectively, between the most and least efficient steers (i.e., steers with the lowest PEG) were 5.59 and 6.84 kg of DM/d. Heritabilities for DMI, F:G, PEG, RFIp, and RFIg were 0.54 +/- 0.15, 0.41 +/- 0.15, 0.56 +/- 0.16, 0.21 +/- 0.12, and 0.42 +/- 0.15, respectively. The genetic (r = 0.92) and phenotypic (r = 0.97) correlations between RFIp and RFIg indicated that the 2 indices are very similar. Both indices of RFI were favorably correlated phenotypically (P 0.50), but only DMI had strong genetic (r = 0.87 +/- 0.10) and phenotypic (r = 0.65) correlations with metabolic BW. Generally, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with carcass merit were not different from zero, except genetic correlations of RFI with ultrasound and carcass LM area and carcass lean yield and phenotypic correlations of RFI with backfat thickness (P < 0.01). Daily DMI had moderate to high phenotypic (P < 0.01) and genetic correlations with all the ultrasound and carcass traits

  10. Merits and pitfalls of genetic testing in a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Michael; Monserrat, Lorenzo; Haron-Khun, Shiraz; Seidman, Jonathan G; Seidman, Christine E; Arbustini, Eloisa; Glikson, Michael; Freimark, Dov

    2014-11-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a familial disease with autosomal dominant inheritance and age-dependent penetrance, caused primarily by mutations of sarcomere genes. Because the clinical variability of HCM is related to its genetic heterogeneity, genetic studies may improve the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation in HCM. To analyze the impact of genetic diagnosis on the clinical management of HCM. Genetic studies were performed for either research or clinical reasons. Once the disease-causing mutation was identified, the management plan was reevaluated. Family members were invited to receive genetic counseling and encouraged to be tested for the mutation. Ten mutations in sarcomere protein genes were identified in 9 probands: 2 novel and 8 previously described. Advanced heart failure or sudden death in a young person prompted the genetic study in 8 of the 9 families. Of 98 relatives available for genotyping, only 53 (54%) agreed to be tested. The compliance was higher in families with sudden death and lower in what appeared to be sporadic HCM or elderly-onset disease. Among the healthy we identified 9 carriers and 19 non-carriers. In 6 individuals the test result resolved an uncertainty about "possible HCM." In several cases the genetic result was also used for family planning and played a role in decisions on cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Recurrence of a same mutation in different families created an opportunity to apply the information from the literature for risk stratification of individual patients. We suggest that the clinical context determines the indication for genetic testing and interpretation of the results.

  11. Effects of genomic selection on genetic improvement, inbreeding, and merit of young versus proven bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.P.W.; Schrooten, C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Genomic selection has the potential to revolutionize dairy cattle breeding because young animals can be accurately selected as parents, leading to a much shorter generation interval and higher rates of genetic gain. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of genomic selection and reduction

  12. Sow behaviour during parturition in relation to the observed and the genetic merit for weaning survival .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, K.A.; Ekkel, E.D.; Kanis, E.; Knol, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    The sow's breeding value for mothering ability (EBVma) can be estimated as the genetic effect of the foster sow on piglet survival at weaning. Sows with a high EBVma have litters with a short average interval from birth until first colostrum intake. In the present study, it was investigated whether

  13. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of serum leptin concentration with performance, efficiency of gain, and carcass merit of feedlot cattle.

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    Nkrumah, J D; Keisler, D H; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Li, C; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Moore, S S

    2007-09-01

    Leptin is the hormone product of the obese gene that is synthesized and predominantly expressed by adipocytes. This study estimated the genetic variation in serum leptin concentration and evaluated the genetic and phenotypic relationships of serum leptin concentration with performance, efficiency of gain, and carcass merit. There were 464 steers with records for serum leptin concentration, performance, and efficiency of gain and 381 steers with records for carcass traits. The analyses included a total of 813 steers, including those without phenotypic records. Phenotypic and genetic parameter estimates were obtained using SAS and ASREML, respectively. Serum leptin concentration was moderately heritable (h2 = 0.34 +/- 0.13) and averaged 13.91 (SD = 5.74) ng/mL. Sire breed differences in serum leptin concentration correlated well with breed differences in body composition. Specifically, the serum leptin concentration was 20% greater in Angus-sired steers compared with Charolais-sired steers (P 0.10). Serum leptin concentration was correlated phenotypically with ultrasound backfat (r = 0.41; P < 0.001), carcass 12th-rib fat (r = 0.42; P < 0.001), ultrasound marbling (r = 0.25; P < 0.01), carcass marbling (r = 0.28; P < 0.01), ultrasound LM area (r = -0.19; P < 0.01), carcass LM area (r = -0.17; P < 0.05), lean meat yield (r = -0.38; P < 0.001), and yield grade (r = 0.32; P < 0.001). The corresponding genetic correlations were generally greater than the phenotypic correlations and included ultrasound backfat (r = 0.76 +/- 0.19), carcass 12th-rib fat (r = 0.54 +/- 0.23), ultrasound marbling (r = 0.27 +/- 0.22), carcass marbling (r = 0.76 +/- 0.21), ultrasound LM area (r = -0.71 +/- 0.19), carcass LM area (r = -0.75 +/- 0.20), lean meat yield (r = -0.59 +/- 0.22), and yield grade (r = 0.39 +/- 0.26). Serum leptin concentration can be a valuable tool that can be incorporated into appropriate selection programs to favorably improve the carcass merit of cattle.

  14. Herd-specific random regression carcass profiles for beef cattle after adjustment for animal genetic merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englishby, Tanya M; Moore, Kirsty L; Berry, Donagh P; Coffey, Mike P; Banos, Georgios

    2017-07-01

    Abattoir data are an important source of information for the genetic evaluation of carcass traits, but also for on-farm management purposes. The present study aimed to quantify the contribution of herd environment to beef carcass characteristics (weight, conformation score and fat score) with particular emphasis on generating finishing herd-specific profiles for these traits across different ages at slaughter. Abattoir records from 46,115 heifers and 78,790 steers aged between 360 and 900days, and from 22,971 young bulls aged between 360 and 720days, were analysed. Finishing herd-year and animal genetic (co)variance components for each trait were estimated using random regression models. Across slaughter age and gender, the ratio of finishing herd-year to total phenotypic variance ranged from 0.31 to 0.72 for carcass weight, 0.21 to 0.57 for carcass conformation and 0.11 to 0.44 for carcass fat score. These parameters indicate that the finishing herd environment is an important contributor to carcass trait variability and amenable to improvement with management practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feeding behavior and temperament with performance, feed efficiency, ultrasound, and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Wang, Z; Li, C; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feeding behavior and temperament may be useful in genetic evaluations either as indicator traits for other economically relevant traits or because the behavior traits may have a direct economic value. We determined the variation in feeding behavior and temperament of beef cattle sired by Angus, Charolais, or Hybrid bulls and evaluated their associations with performance, efficiency, and carcass merit. The behavior traits were daily feeding duration, feeding head down (HD) time, feeding frequency (FF), and flight speed (FS, as a measure of temperament). A pedigree file of 813 animals forming 28 paternal half-sib families with about 20 progeny per sire was used. Performance, feeding behavior, and efficiency records were available on 464 animals of which 381 and 302 had records on carcass merit and flight speed, respectively. Large SE reflect the number of animals used. Direct heritability estimates were 0.28 +/- 0.12 for feeding duration, 0.33 +/- 0.12 for HD, 0.38 +/- 0.13 for FF, and 0.49 +/- 0.18 for FS. Feeding duration had a weak positive genetic (r(g)) correlation with HD (r(g) = 0.25 +/- 0.32) and FS (r(g) = 0.42 +/- 0.26) but a moderate negative genetic correlation with FF (r(g) = -0.40 +/- 0.30). Feeding duration had positive phenotypic (r(p)) and genetic correlations with DMI (r(p) = 0.27; r(g) = 0.56 +/- 0.20) and residual feed intake (RFI; r(p) = 0.49; r(g) = 0.57 +/- 0.28) but was unrelated phenotypically with feed conversion ratio [FCR; which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of growth (G:F)]. Feeding duration was negatively correlated with FCR (r(g) = -0.25 +/- 0.29). Feeding frequency had a moderate to high negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.74 +/- 0.15), FCR (r(g) = -0.52 +/- 0.21), and RFI (r(g) = -0.77 +/- 0.21). Flight speed was negatively correlated phenotypically with DMI (r(p) = -0.35) but was unrelated phenotypically with FCR or RFI. On the other hand, FS had a weak negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.11 +/- 0

  16. Moderation of Genetic Influences on Alcohol Involvement by Rural Residency among Adolescents: Results from the 1962 National Merit Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christal N; Natta, Shanaliz S; Slutske, Wendy S

    2017-11-01

    Adolescents in rural and urban areas may experience different levels of environmental restrictions on alcohol use, with those in rural areas experiencing greater monitoring and less access to alcohol. Such restrictions may limit expression of genetic vulnerability for alcohol use, resulting in a gene-environment interaction (G × E). This phenomenon has previously been reported in Finnish and Minnesota adolescents. The current study used data from 839 same-sex twin pairs from the 1962 National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test to determine whether the G × E interaction would be evident in this earlier time period. We also assessed whether the G × E interaction would be moderated by sex, and whether family socioeconomic status (SES; income and parental education) may mediate the G × E interaction. Findings showed the expected interaction among females, with a weaker contribution of genes (2 vs. 44%) and greater contribution of shared environment (62 vs. 29%) to variation in alcohol involvement among rural as compared to urban residents. The G × E interaction was not observed among males, and operated independently from differences in family SES among rural and urban adolescents. This study represents a partial replication in a novel setting of the moderation of the genetic contribution to alcohol use by rural/urban residency, and suggests that SES differences may not explain this effect.

  17. Genetic parameters of racing merit of Thoroughbred horses in steeplechase races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Stefler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate variance components of racing ability in Thoroughbreds involved in steeplechase races. Race results were collected from steeplechase races in France (n=9041, in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n=8314 and contained the results of overall 106 020 runs from 1998 to 2003. Performance was measured by two criteria: earnings and ranks after mathematical transformation. The effects of year, sex, age, and race were considered as fixed, animal, permanent environment and maternal as random. Maternal environmental component for ranks were 0.021 in France and 0.000 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Estimated heritabilities for the ranking criteria were 0.18 (repeatability 0.33 in France and 0.06 (repeatability 0.19 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The high genetic correlation between the two traits (0.94 and 0.97 gives the opportunity to find out the most suitable criteria for breeding value estimation.

  18. Proteome profiling of exosomes derived from plasma of heifers with divergent genetic merit for fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yong Qin; Peiris, Hassendrini N; Vaswani, Kanchan; Almughlliq, Fatema B; Meier, Susanne; Burke, Chris R; Roche, John R; Reed, Charlotte B; Arachchige, Buddhika J; Reed, Sarah; Mitchell, Murray D

    2018-04-25

    The current study evaluated exosomes isolated from plasma of heifers bred to have high or low fertility through developing extreme diversity in fertility breeding values, however, key animal traits (e.g., body weight, milk production, and percentage of North American genetics) remained similar between the 2 groups. The exosomes were isolated by a combined ultracentrifugation and size exclusion chromatography approach and characterized by their size distribution (nanoparticle tracking analysis), morphology (transmission electron microscopy), and presence of exosomal markers (immunoblotting). In addition, a targeted mass spectrometry approach was used to confirm the presence of 2 exosomal markers, tumor susceptibility gene 101 and flotillin 1. The number of exosomes from plasma of high fertility heifers was greater compared with low fertility heifers. Interestingly, the exosomal proteomic profile, evaluated using mass spectrometry, identified 89 and 116 proteins in the high and low fertility heifers respectively, of which 4 and 31 were unique, respectively. These include proteins associated with specific biological processes and molecular functions of fertility. Most notably, the tetratricopeptide repeat protein 41-related, glycodelin, and kelch-like protein 8 were identified in plasma exosomes unique to the low fertility heifers. These proteins are suggested to play a role in reproduction; however, the role of these proteins in dairy cow reproduction remains to be elucidated. Their identification underscores the potential for proteins within exosomes to provide information on the fertility status and physiological condition of the cow. This may potentially lead to the development of prognostic tools and interventions to improving dairy cow fertility. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: IV. Transition period, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S G; Fair, T; Lonergan, P; Butler, S T

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the dry matter intake (DMI), metabolic status, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity in cows with similar genetic merit for milk production traits but with either good (Fert+) or poor genetic merit (Fert-) for fertility traits. Twenty-six cows were enrolled in the study and data are reported for 15 Fert+ and 10 Fert- cows that completed the study. All cows received a total mixed ration diet during early lactation and were turned out to pasture in late spring. Dry matter intake was recorded daily from wk -2 to 5 relative to parturition. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones were measured from wk -2 to 8 relative to parturition. Milk production, body condition score, and body weight until wk 35 of lactation are reported. To monitor uterine health, vaginal mucus was scored weekly on a scale of 0 (no pus) to 3 (≥ 50% pus) from parturition to wk 8 and uterine polymorphonuclear neutrophil count was measured at wk 3 and 6 postpartum. Prepartum DMI was similar between genotypes, but Fert+ cows had significantly greater DMI than Fert- cows (19.7 vs. 16.8 kg of dry matter/d) during the postpartum period. Energy balance at wk 1 was significantly greater in Fert+ cows than in Fert- cows [2.3 vs. -1.12 unité fourragère lait (UFL)/d]. The Fert+ cows had significantly greater daily milk solids production (1.89 vs. 1.74 kg/d) and tended to have greater daily milk yield (24.2 vs. 22.3 kg/d). The Fert+ cows had significantly greater mean circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (102.62 vs. 56.85 ng/mL) and tended to have greater mean circulating insulin (3.25 vs. 2.62 μIU/mL) compared with Fert- cows from wk -2 to 8 relative to parturition. Mean circulating glucose (3.40 vs. 3.01 mmol/L) concentrations were significantly greater in Fert+ cows compared with Fert- cows from wk -2 to 3 relative to parturition. The Fert+ cows maintained significantly greater mean body condition score throughout lactation compared with Fert- cows

  20. The relationship between genetic merit for yield and live weight, condition score, and energy balance of spring calving Holstein Friesian dairy cows on grass based systems of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the effects of genetic merit for milk yield on energy balance, DM intake (DMI), and fertility for cows managed on three different grass-based feeding systems and to estimate possible interactions between genetic merit and feeding system. Individual

  1. The effect of level of feeding, genetic merit, body condition score and age on biological parameters of a mammary gland model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J R; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Pryce, J E; Pitman, G D; Davis, S R

    2007-03-01

    An evolutionary algorithm was applied to a mechanistic model of the mammary gland to find the parameter values that minimised the difference between predicted and actual lactation curves of milk yields in New Zealand Jersey cattle managed at different feeding levels. The effect of feeding level, genetic merit, body condition score at parturition and age on total lactation yields of milk, fat and protein, days in milk, live weight and evolutionary algorithm derived mammary gland parameters was then determined using a multiple regression model. The mechanistic model of the mammary gland was able to fit lactation curves that corresponded to actual lactation curves with a high degree of accuracy. The senescence rate of quiescent (inactive) alveoli was highest at the very low feeding level. The active alveoli population at peak lactation was highest at very low feeding levels, but lower nutritional status at this feeding level prevented high milk yields from being achieved. Genetic merit had a significant linear effect on the active alveoli population at peak and mid to late lactation, with higher values in animals, which had higher breeding values for milk yields. A type of genetic merit × feeding level scaling effect was observed for total yields of milk and fat, and total number of alveoli produced from conception until the end of lactation with the benefits of increases in genetic merit being greater at high feeding levels. A genetic merit × age scaling effect was observed for total lactation protein yields. Initial rates of differentiation of progenitor cells declined with age. Production levels of alveoli from conception to the end of lactation were lowest in 5- to 8-year-old animals; however, in these older animals, quiescent alveoli were reactivated more frequently. The active alveoli population at peak lactation and rates of active alveoli proceeding to quiescence were highest in animals of intermediate body condition scores of 4.0 to 5.0. The results

  2. Ability of dairy cows to be inseminated according to breed and genetic merit for production traits under contrasting pasture-based feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedere, N; Disenhaus, C; Ducrocq, V; Leurent-Colette, S; Delaby, L

    2017-05-01

    Strong genetic selection on production traits is considered to be responsible for the declined ability of dairy cows to ensure reproduction. The present study aimed to quantify the effect of genetic characteristics (breeds and genetic merit for production traits) and feeding systems (FS) on the ability of dairy cows to be inseminated. An experiment was conducted during 9 years on Normande and Holstein cows assigned to contrasted pasture-based FS. Diets were based on maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate in spring in the High FS; and on grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate during spring in the low FS. Within breed, cows were classified into two genetic groups with similar estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk solids: cows with high EBV for milk yield were included in a Milk-Group and those with high EBV for fat and protein contents were included in a Content-Group. Holstein produced more milk throughout lactation than Normande cows (+2294 kg in the High FS and +1280 kg in the Low FS, PGenetic group neither affected ovulation detection rate nor DAI1. Within breed and FS, cows with high genetic merit for milk yield had later CLA and DAI1. Cows in the High FS produced more milk and lost less condition to nadir than cows in the Low FS. FS did not affect dairy cows' ability to be inseminated. However, cows with higher milk protein content, and presumably better energy balance, had earlier CLA (P<0.01) and DAI1 (P<0.10). In addition, higher milk yield was associated with poorer ovulation detection rate and oestrus intensity (P<0.05). The study showed that at similar EBV level for milk solids, selection for increased milk fat and protein content resulted in improved cyclicity and similar oestrous expression and submission rates compared with selection for increased milk yield.

  3. Live animal measurements, carcass composition and plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations in male progeny of sires differing in genetic merit for beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A M; Drennan, M J; McGee, M; Kenny, D A; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2009-07-01

    In genetic improvement programmes for beef cattle, the effect of selecting for a given trait or index on other economically important traits, or their predictors, must be quantified to ensure no deleterious consequential effects go unnoticed. The objective was to compare live animal measurements, carcass composition and plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations of male progeny of sires selected on an economic index in Ireland. This beef carcass index (BCI) is expressed in euros and based on weaning weight, feed intake, carcass weight and carcass conformation and fat scores. The index is used to aid in the genetic comparison of animals for the expected profitability of their progeny at slaughter. A total of 107 progeny from beef sires of high (n = 11) or low (n = 11) genetic merit for the BCI were compared in either a bull (slaughtered at 16 months of age) or steer (slaughtered at 24 months of age) production system, following purchase after weaning (8 months of age) from commercial beef herds. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 factorial design (two levels of genetic merit by two production systems). Progeny of high BCI sires had heavier carcasses, greater (P animal value (obtained by multiplying carcass weight by carcass value, which was based on the weight of meat in each cut by its commercial value) than progeny of low BCI sires. Regression of progeny performance on sire genetic merit was also undertaken across the entire data set. In steers, the effect of BCI on carcass meat proportion, calculated carcass value (c/kg) and animal value was positive (P carcass fat proportion (P carcass weight followed the same trends as BCI. Muscularity scores, carcass meat proportion and calculated carcass value increased, whereas scanned fat depth, carcass fat and bone proportions decreased with increasing sire EPD for conformation score. The opposite association was observed for sire EPD for fat score. Results from this study show that selection using the BCI had positive

  4. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feeding behavior with feed intake, growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Mao, F; Crews, D H; Vinsky, M; Li, C

    2014-03-01

    Feeding behavior traits including daily feeding duration (FD), daily feeding head down time (HD), average feeding duration per feeding event (FD_AVE), average feeding head down time per feeding event (HD_AVE), feeding frequency (FF), and meal eating rate (ER) were analyzed to estimate their phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake, growth performance, residual feed intake (RFI), ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais finishing steers. Heritability estimates for FD, HD, FD_AVE, HD_AVE, FF, and ER were 0.27 ± 0.09 (SE), 0.25 ± 0.09, 0.19 ± 0.06, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.24 ± 0.08, and 0.38 ± 0.10, respectively, in the Angus population and 0.49 ± 0.12, 0.38 ± 0.11, 0.31 ± 0.09, 0.29 ± 0.10, 0.43 ± 0.11, and 0.56 ± 0.13, respectively, in the Charolais population. In both the Angus and Charolais steer populations, FD and HD had relatively stronger phenotypic (0.17 ± 0.06 to 0.32 ± 0.04) and genetic (0.29 ± 0.17 to 0.54 ± 0.18) correlations with RFI in comparison to other feeding behavior traits investigated, suggesting the potential of FD and HD as indicators in assessing variation of RFI. In general, feeding behavior traits had weak phenotypic correlations with most of the ultrasound and carcass merit traits; however, estimated genetic correlations of the feeding behavior traits with some fat deposition related traits were moderate to moderately strong but differed in magnitude or sign between the Angus and Charolais steer populations, likely reflecting their different biological types. Genetic parameter estimation studies involving feeding behavior traits in beef cattle are lacking and more research is needed to better characterize the relationships between feeding behavior and feed intake, growth, feed utilization, and carcass merit traits, in particular with respect to different biological types of cattle.

  5. Ability of dairy cows to ensure pregnancy according to breed and genetic merit for production traits under contrasted pasture-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedere, N; Disenhaus, C; Ducrocq, V; Leurent-Colette, S; Delaby, L

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess and measure the effects of breed, genetic merit for production traits, and feeding systems (FS) on the ability of dairy cows to ensure pregnancy through its components (fertilization, embryonic losses, recalving). An experiment was conducted over 9 yr on Normande and Holstein cows assigned to contrasted FS. Diets were based on maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate in spring in the high FS group, and on grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate during spring in the low FS group. Within breeds, cows were classified into 2 groups with similar estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk solids: cows with high EBV for milk yield were included in a milk group and those with high EBV for fat and protein contents were included in a content group. Holstein cows produced more milk throughout lactation than Normande cows (the differential was greater in the high FS group, +2,294 kg, compared with +1,280 kg in the low FS group) and lost more body condition to nadir (the differential was greater in the high FS group, -1.00 point, compared with -0.80 point in the low FS group). Within breeds, milk solids production was similar between genetic groups. Cows in the high FS group produced more milk (+2,495 kg for Holstein and +1,481 kg for Normande cows) and had a higher body condition score at nadir (+0.40 point for Holstein and +0.60 point for Normande) than cows in the low FS group. Holstein cows had a lower recalving rate than Normande cows (-19 percentage units). We found no effect of genetic group and FS on fertility of Normande cows. However, according to FS, Holstein cows in the content group exhibited different fertility failure patterns. In the low FS group, Holstein cows in the content group had more nonfertilizations or early embryo mortality (+26 percentage units at first and second services) than Holstein cows in the milk group. In the high FS group, Holstein cows in the content group had a higher proportion of

  6. Estimating Additive and Non-Additive Genetic Variances and Predicting Genetic Merits Using Genome-Wide Dense Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Guosheng; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Ostersen, Tage

    2012-01-01

    of genomic predictions for daily gain in pigs. In the analysis of daily gain, four linear models were used: 1) a simple additive genetic model (MA), 2) a model including both additive and additive by additive epistatic genetic effects (MAE), 3) a model including both additive and dominance genetic effects...

  7. The accuracies of DNA-based estimates of genetic merit derived from Angus or multibreed beef cattle training populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K L; Drake, D J; Taylor, J F; Garrick, D J; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Schnabel, R D; Snelling, W M; Pollak, E J; Van Eenennaam, A L

    2012-12-01

    Several organizations have developed prediction models for molecular breeding values (MBV) for quantitative growth and carcass traits in beef cattle using Bovine SNP50 genotypes and phenotypic or EBV data. Molecular breeding values for Angus cattle have been developed by IGENITY, Pfizer Animal Genetics, and a collaboration between researchers from Iowa State University and the University of Missouri-Columbia (ISU/UMC). The U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC; Clay Center, NE) has also developed MBV for 16 cattle breeds using 2 multibreed populations, the Germplasm Evaluation (GPE) Program and the 2,000 Bull Project (2K(ALL)), and 2 single breed subpopulations of the 2,000 Bull Project, Angus (2K(AN)) and Hereford (2K(HH)). In this study, these MBV were assessed relative to commercial ranch EBV estimated from the progeny phenotypes of Angus bulls naturally mated in multisire breeding pastures to commercial cows: 121 for USMARC MBV, 99 for ISU/UMC MBV, and 29 for IGENITY and Pfizer MBV (selected based on number of progeny carcass records). Five traits were analyzed: weaning weight (WW), HCW, marbling score (MS), rib-eye muscle area (RE), and, for IGENITY and Pfizer only, feedlot ADG. The average accuracies of MBV across traits were 0.38 ± 0.05 for IGENITY, 0.61 ± 0.12 for Pfizer, 0.46 ± 0.12 for ISU/UMC, 0.16 ± 0.04 for GPE, 0.26 ± 0.05 for 2K(ALL), 0.24 ± 0.04 for 2K(AN), and 0.02 ± 0.12 for 2K(HH). Angus-based MBV (IGENITY, Pfizer, ISU/UMC, and 2K(AN)) explained larger proportions of genetic variance in this population than GPE, 2K(ALL), or 2K(HH) MBV for the same traits. In this data set, IGENITY, Pfizer, and ISU/UMC MBV were predictive of realized performance of progeny, and incorporation of that information into national genetic evaluations would be expected to improve EPD accuracy, particularly for young animals.

  8. Estimating additive and non-additive genetic variances and predicting genetic merits using genome-wide dense single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosheng Su

    Full Text Available Non-additive genetic variation is usually ignored when genome-wide markers are used to study the genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits in human, wild life, model organisms or farm animals. However, non-additive genetic effects may have an important contribution to total genetic variation of complex traits. This study presented a genomic BLUP model including additive and non-additive genetic effects, in which additive and non-additive genetic relation matrices were constructed from information of genome-wide dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. In addition, this study for the first time proposed a method to construct dominance relationship matrix using SNP markers and demonstrated it in detail. The proposed model was implemented to investigate the amounts of additive genetic, dominance and epistatic variations, and assessed the accuracy and unbiasedness of genomic predictions for daily gain in pigs. In the analysis of daily gain, four linear models were used: 1 a simple additive genetic model (MA, 2 a model including both additive and additive by additive epistatic genetic effects (MAE, 3 a model including both additive and dominance genetic effects (MAD, and 4 a full model including all three genetic components (MAED. Estimates of narrow-sense heritability were 0.397, 0.373, 0.379 and 0.357 for models MA, MAE, MAD and MAED, respectively. Estimated dominance variance and additive by additive epistatic variance accounted for 5.6% and 9.5% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. Based on model MAED, the estimate of broad-sense heritability was 0.506. Reliabilities of genomic predicted breeding values for the animals without performance records were 28.5%, 28.8%, 29.2% and 29.5% for models MA, MAE, MAD and MAED, respectively. In addition, models including non-additive genetic effects improved unbiasedness of genomic predictions.

  9. The merit of meritocracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son Hing, Leanne S; Bobocel, D Ramona; Zanna, Mark P; Garcia, Donna M; Gee, Stephanie S; Orazietti, Katie

    2011-09-01

    We argue that the preference for the merit principle is a separate construct from hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies (i.e., system justification beliefs, prejudice, social dominance orientation), including descriptive beliefs that meritocracy currently exists in society. Moreover, we hypothesized that prescriptive beliefs about merit should have a stronger influence on reactions to the status quo when hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies are weak (vs. strong). In 4 studies, participants' preference for the merit principle and hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies were assessed; later, the participants evaluated organizational selection practices that support or challenge the status quo. Participants' prescriptive and descriptive beliefs about merit were separate constructs; only the latter predicted other hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies. In addition, as hypothesized, among participants who weakly endorsed hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies, the stronger their preference for the merit principle, the more they opposed selection practices that were perceived to be merit violating but the more they supported practices that were perceived to be merit restoring. In contrast, those who strongly endorsed hierarchy-legitimizing ideologies were always motivated to support the status quo, regardless of their preference for the merit principle. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. RESEARCH ON THE MULTITRAIT ASSESSMENT OF THE GENETIC MERIT FOR MILK AND MEAT PRODUCTION IN THE ROMANIAN FRIESIAN USING A BLUP SIMPLIFIED MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper objective was to assess the genetic merit for milk and meat production using a sample of 16 Romanian Friesian bulls and a BLUP simplified model as well as the contemporary comparison method. The bulls' 730 daughters (half-sisters registered during the 305 days first lactation 3,034.89 kg milk with 22.86 % variation coefficient, 3.79 % fat with 6.06 % variation and 115.72 kg fat with 23.49 % variation. The 249 sons (half-brothers recorded 138.05 kg atthe age of 6 months with 19.31 % variation coefficient, 293.41kg at the age of 12 months with 4.33 % variation, and 881.97 g/day daily gain with 3.14% variation. The heritability was 0.505 for milk yield, 0.741 for fat %, 0.567 for milk fat, 0.524 for the weight at 6 months, 0.642 for the weight at 12 months and 0.372 for daily gain. The genotypic correlations have been -0.245 between milk yield and fat % and 0.465 between milk and fat yield, -0.287 between the weight at 6 months and 12 months and 0.850 between the weight at 12 months and daily gain. Breeding value varied from 637.6 and -68.1 for milk yield and between 26.26 and -2.07 for milk fat. The breeding value precision ranged between 92 and 58 in case of milk traits. Breeding value varied between 48.6 and - 27.8 for the weight at 12 months and between 168.2 and 2.2. for daily gain. The accuracy of the breeding value for meat traits ranged between 76 and 60. Rank correlations between bull ranking for milk traits were 0.377** between milk fat and fat %, 0.974** between milk yield and fat yield. Rank correlations between bull ranking for meat traits were 0.766** between the weight at 6 months and at 12 months and 0.847** between the weight at 12 months and daily gain. The rank correlation between bull hierarchy by BLUP and contemporary comparison was 0.563 significantly for P=0.05 and P=0.01. As a conclusion, the high accuracy of BLUP model recommends it to be used for breeding value assessment. The position occupied by bulls in their

  11. Reward Merit with Praise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Hans A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the efforts of two educational institutions to reward teaching excellence using positive feedback rather than merit pay incentives. An Arizona district, drawing on Herzberg's motivation theories, offers highly individualized rewards ranging from computers to conference money, while an Illinois community college bestows engraved plaques…

  12. 2017 MERIT exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Slide from HR public meeting. In 2017, the annual advancement exercise MARS will be replaced by the annual performance evaluation and recognition exercise MERIT. The HR Department has invited staff members to attend two information meetings “2017 MERIT Public Sessions”, the purpose of which is to explain the “general principles of the Merit, Evaluation and Recognition Integrated Toolkit”. The first meeting was held in English on Tuesday, 6 December. The second meeting will be in French on Thursday, 15 December at 10.00, in room 774-R-013 (Prévessin site). The Staff Association appreciates the HR Department’s efforts to inform staff members, especially regarding the changes between the MARS system and the MERIT system. Nevertheless, we find it useful if we inform you, from our side, taking up the issues we find the most pertinent. Benchmark jobs and the new salary scale The HR presentation looks back on the changes that took place in September 20...

  13. Merit Pay Misfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Al

    2011-01-01

    Critics argue that the uniform salary schedule is unfair because it promotes mediocrity by rewarding poor performers while failing to recognize outstanding achievement on the job. Advocates for merit pay systems for preK-12 education also contend that the uniform salary schedule ignores the basic purpose of education--student learning. Although…

  14. 2008 annual merit review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The 2008 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review was held February 25-28, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 280 individual activities were reviewed, by a total of just over 100 reviewers. A total of 1,908 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews, and an additional 29 individual review responses were received for the plenary session review.

  15. Cybersecurity Figure of Merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command The Cybersecurity Challenge in Acquisition Sonia Kaestner, Adjunct Professor, McDonough School of Business ...qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Cybersecurity Figure of Merit CAPT Brian Erickson, USN, SPAWAR...the Acquisition Research Program of the Graduate School of Business & Public Policy at the Naval Postgraduate School. To request defense acquisition

  16. Value-Added Merit Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Daniel F.

    The purpose of merit pay is to reward employees for their accomplishments and motivate them to continue improving. Critics of merit pay say the increased extrinsic motivation that it prompts is more than offset by the decrease in intrinsic motivation. Supporters of performance-based pay claim several benefits of the practice. This study addressed…

  17. Merit Principles Survey 2016 Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Merit Systems Protection Board — MPS contains a combination of core items that MSPB tracks over time and special-purpose items developed to support a particular special study. This survey differs...

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of Merit Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Vanessa; Langheinrich, Cornelia; Loth, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to show the various perceptions teachers have on merit pay. This research was designed to examine the perceptions and attitudes of teachers towards the idea of performance based pay. This topic has been an ongoing battle within school systems since the 1800s. The participants in this study were teachers from the state…

  19. 4 CFR 5.3 - Merit pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Merit pay. 5.3 Section 5.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.3 Merit pay. The Comptroller General may promulgate regulations establishing a merit pay system for such employees of the Government Accountability Office as the...

  20. Epistemic merit, autonomy, and testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús VEGA ENCABO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that both the informer and the hearer in a testimonial situation deserve epistemic merit insofar as they contribute to the collaborative achievement of sharing knowledge. The paper introduces a distinction between the ideals of self-sufficiency and epistemic autonomy. The autonomous exercise of our epistemic agency is very often carried out under strong conditions of epistemic dependence. Testimony exhibits a kind of social dependence that does not threaten the autonomy of the subjects that need to consider their own epistemic capacities. When involved in a testimonial situation, both speaker and hearer declare, at least implicitly, the standings they occupy in an epistemic space and are obliged to recognise certain epistemic requirements.

  1. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, Xuening; ZHAN, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods, preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life, increasing varieties of foods, enhancing convenience of foods, facilitating food processing, and satisfying other demands. However, excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security. Therefore, it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food addi...

  2. Chess players' fame versus their merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, M V; Roychowdhury, V P

    2015-12-12

    We investigate a pool of international chess title holders born between 1901 and 1943. Using Elo ratings, we compute for every player his expected score in a game with a randomly selected player from the pool. We use this figure as the player's merit. We measure players' fame as the number of Google hits. The correlation between fame and merit is 0.38. At the same time, the correlation between the logarithm of fame and merit is 0.61. This suggests that fame grows exponentially with merit.

  3. Merit-Based Scholarships and Student Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Julian, Rey

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-one states offer merit scholarships that require students to maintain a minimum grade point average (GPA). Using a comprehensive administrative database from Clemson University, this study estimates the relationship between the incentives created by a South Carolina merit scholarship (LIFE) and students' academic performance. I hypothesize…

  4. An Accounting Program Merit Pay Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.; Wagner, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. Before the effectiveness of merit-based salary plans can be examined empirically, it must be determined which accounting programs use such a system. In this study, the 852 accounting programs in the United…

  5. 2017 MERIT Exercise close to completion!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 MERIT Guidelines, approved by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC), concern various processes and procedures, among which those for the annual exercise (or MERIT interview), promotions, and changes of benchmark job. The processes for “annual exercise” and “promotions” – “changes of benchmark job” have been programmed for two periods: from 1st December 2016 to 15 June 2017: MERIT interviews, evaluation, performance qualification and payment with effect as of the salary of May; from 3 April 2017 to 1st July 2017: promotions and changes of benchmark job. 2017 MERIT Interviews The results of the MERIT interviews have been announced to staff members, most of whom saw their salary increase. Only persons who are not eligible and those with “Insufficient” performance qualification did not receive a raise. Same goes for performance payments – the staff members whose performance was qualified as &ldq...

  6. Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berini, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    Three figures of merit are proposed as quality measures for surface plasmon waveguides. They are defined as benefit-to-cost ratios where the benefit is confinement and the cost is attenuation. Three different ways of measuring confinement are considered, leading to three figures of merit. One of the figures of merit is connected to the quality factor. The figures of merit were then used to assess and compare the wavelength response of hree popular 1-D surface plasmon waveguides: the single metal-dielectric interface, the metal slab bounded by dielectric and the dielectric slab bounded by metal. Closed form expressions are given for the figures of merit of the single metal-dielectric interface.

  7. Merits and Demerits of Food Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuening; YANG; Yong; ZHAN

    2014-01-01

    Food additive is a double-edged sword. It has merits and demerits. Food additives have such merits as improving sensory properties of foods,preventing deterioration and extending the shelf life,increasing varieties of foods,enhancing convenience of foods,facilitating food processing,and satisfying other demands. However,excessive and illegal use of food additives will exert adverse influence on food security.Therefore,it is required to take proper measures to bring merits of food additives into full play,and get rid of their demerits.

  8. Performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The 2007 performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 8 January 2007 to 16 April 2007. Interconnection with the 5-yearly review, a number of modifications to the procedures relating to the performance appraisal and merit recognition are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from January onwards. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  9. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences--including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity--and the ethical...

  10. Policy Perspectives: No Merit in these Scholarships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Fay

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Fay Vincent, former Commissioner of Major League Baseball and Executive Vice President of The Coca Cola Company, provides a crisp, concise assessment of a trend that has worried us for quite a while: the growing trend of rewarding academically-gifted and typically-affluent students with an extra dose of merit aid, often at the expense of…

  11. Merit Pay and the Music Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpus, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Current proponents of education reform are at present seeking to fundamentally change the system of teacher compensation by eliminating the traditional single salary schedule and instituting a merit pay system that directly links teacher pay to student achievement. To date, the scholarly literature in music education has been silent on the subject…

  12. 45 CFR 201.11 - Personnel merit system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel merit system review. 201.11 Section 201... STATES FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Review and Audits § 201.11 Personnel merit system review. A personnel merit system review is carried out by the Office of State Merit Systems of the Office of the...

  13. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Marije Van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  14. Clinical track faculty: merits and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Hee; Kim, Cho Ja; Roh, Young Sook; Shin, Hyunsook; Kim, Mi Ja

    2007-01-01

    Clinical track faculty (CTF) has been in operation for more than two decades in the United States, and 12 of the top 20 schools of nursing with the highest National Institutes of Health funding in the United States have CTF in place. Yet, only limited articles have been published regarding the merits and issues related to its operation. This article examines the advantages/merits of establishing CTF in schools of nursing, discusses the qualification criteria and types of appointment for CTF, and analyzes issues related to operating CTF in Korea. A questionnaire survey and two workshops were conducted involving faculty from a college of nursing and clinical nurse managers from university-affiliated medical centers and community agencies. Most of the respondents indicated that establishing CTF was advantageous. Merits included the following: increasing reality-based clinical education and training; decreasing the reality shock of students; increasing student satisfaction; and linking education, practice, and research more effectively. Major issues were as follows: getting the approval of medical centers/universities; developing an agreement on CTF operation between the college of nursing and clinical agencies; clarifying types and criteria of appointment and promotion; and developing a statement on role and compensation policies. Most issues are similar to what U.S. schools of nursing have faced, except for the first one. In conclusion, establishing CTF in Korea appears to be highly desirable. Merits outweigh issues/concerns, and Korean nursing schools may look for an opportune time for obtaining the approval of medical centers/universities. Nursing schools in other countries that face a similar challenge of providing clinical teaching with high research performance may consider instituting CTF.

  15. Merit exponents and control area diagrams in materials selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, Johan; Sandstroem, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Merit exponents are introduced to generalise the merit indices commonly used in materials selection. → The merit exponents can rank materials in general design situations. → To allow identification of the active merit exponent(s), control area diagrams are used. → Principles for generating the control area diagrams are presented. -- Abstract: Merit indices play a fundamental role in materials selection, since they enable ranking of materials. However, the conventional formulation of merit indices is associated with severe limitations. They are dependent on the explicit solution of the variables in the equations for the constraints from the design criteria. Furthermore, it is not always easy to determine which the controlling merit index is. To enable the ranking of materials in more general design cases, merit exponents are introduced as generalisations of the merit indices. Procedures are presented for how to compute the merit exponents numerically without having to solve equations algebraically. Merit exponents (and indices) are only valid in a certain range of property values. To simplify the identification of the controlling merit exponent, it is suggested that so called control area diagrams are used. These diagrams consist of a number of domains, each showing the active constraints and the controlling merit exponent. It is shown that the merit exponents play a crucial role when the control area diagram (CAD) is set up. The principles in the paper are developed for mechanically loaded components and are illustrated for engineering beams with two or three geometric variables.

  16. Merit in Principle, Merit in Practice: An Investigation into Merit-based Human Resources Management Through the Lens of Title 5-exempt Federal Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Woodard, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation research investigates whether merit-based principles and practices are embedded into the HRM systems of 19 Title 5-exempt federal organizations. Title 5-exempt organizations, such as government corporations, serve as a vehicle for exploring the question of what constitutes merit in more loosely regulated public environments. This research fills a void in the discussion about how we can sustain a merit foundation in deregulated and decentralized federal human resources syste...

  17. An economics figure of merit in ALPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatilla, Y.A.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing the deregulated nuclear electric power industry is its economic competitiveness when compared to other sources of electrical power. Traditionally, finding the optimum loading pattern (LP) that meets all the safety and operational objective functions and at the same time produces the most attractive economical solutions is an iterative process. This is because (a) LP search tools usually lack the capability to generate equilibrium solutions and (b) economics objective functions are hard to include in the search process. In this paper, the Westinghouse Advanced Loading Pattern Search code (ALPS) has been demonstrated to successfully find LPs that meet user-defined operational and safety as well as economics objectives. This has been made possible by the development of TULIP language that allows the integration of external procedures into the search process of the main program, ALPS. In the example given, an economic figure of merit (EFM) has been defined and included via TULIP script into the fuel management optimization problem of a three-loop Westinghouse core operating an 18-month cycle. The LPs found by ALPS exhibit a clear trend of meeting and, in some cases, exceeding the EFM objective function defined for the ALPS search process a priori

  18. 4 CFR 2.4 - Merit system principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) Merit personnel systems are based on the principle that an organization is best served by... embody the following merit system principles: (1) Recruitment should be from qualified individuals from...) Equal pay should be provided for work of substantially equal value, with appropriate consideration of...

  19. Profiles of Merit Pay Provisions in Ohio School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Chris; Ingle, W. Kyle

    2018-01-01

    A small number of districts in Ohio from a variety of locales have adopted merit pay provisions. Using Springer's (2009) taxonomy of teacher compensation, we analyzed compensation provisions of these districts. We asked: What are the characteristics of these districts? What criteria are used to determine merit? Who is determining who receives…

  20. Merit Pay and Music Education: A Motivation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recently, state and federal legislators have emphasized teacher quality in their efforts to improve public education. Many reformers believe that merit pay may prove invaluable in attracting highly qualified educators to the workforce and retaining them, as well as in improving students' test scores. While merit pay's ability to recruit and retain…

  1. Characteristics of National Merit Scholars from Small Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Gary; And Others

    This study compares 1988 National Merit Scholars enrolled in rural public schools with a senior class smaller than 99 students to other merit scholars and the national sample of SAT takers. Rural scholars were more likely to be female (45.5%) and Caucasian (98%) than other scholars. Involvement in extracurricular activities was significantly…

  2. Employee Reactions to Merit Pay: Cognitive Approach and Social Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingchun

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation aims to tackle one of the most pressing questions facing the merit pay system researchers and practitioners: Why do merit pay raises have such a small effect on employees' satisfaction, commitment and job performance? My approach to the study of this question is to develop explanatory frameworks from two perspectives: cognitive…

  3. Redefining the merit order of stochastic generation in forward markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Zugno, Marco; Pineda Morente, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This letter proposes a new merit order for the dispatch of stochastic production in forward markets (e.g., dayahead markets). The proposed merit order considers not only the marginal cost of the stochastic generating unit, which is often very low or zero, but also the projected cost of balancing...

  4. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  5. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  6. Relative Merits of Four Methods for Scoring Cloze Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1980-01-01

    Describes study comparing merits of exact answer, acceptable answer, clozentropy and multiple choice methods for scoring tests. Results show differences among reliability, mean item facility, discrimination and usability, but not validity. (BK)

  7. Wind energy and electricity prices. Exploring the 'merit order effect'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthost, P.E.; Ray, S.; Munksgaard, J.; Sinner, A.F.

    2010-04-01

    This report focuses on the effect of wind energy on the electricity price in the power market. As the report will discuss, adding wind into the power mix has a significant influence on the resulting price of electricity, the so called merit order effect (MOE). The merit order effect has been quantified and discussed in many scientific publications. This report ends the first phase of a study on the MOE, evaluating the impact of EWEA's 2020 scenarios on future European electricity prices. The basic principles of the merit order effect are provided in the first part of the document. The literature review itself contains methods and tools not only to quantify the merit order effect but also in order to forecast its future range and volume.

  8. Figures of Merit Guiding Research on Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Kaienburg, Pascal; Baran, Derya

    2018-01-01

    these criteria considering thermodynamic limits, their correlation to photocurrent and photovoltage, and effects on the fill factor. Each criterion is quantified by a figure of merit (FOM) that directly relates to device performance. To ensure a wide

  9. Young children consider merit when sharing resources with others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Warneken, Felix

    2012-01-01

    MERIT IS A KEY PRINCIPLE OF FAIRNESS: rewards should be distributed according to how much someone contributed to a task. Previous research suggests that children have an early ability to take merit into account in third-party situations but that merit-based sharing in first-party contexts does not emerge until school-age. Here we provide evidence that three- and five-year-old children already use merit to share resources with others, even when sharing is costly for the child. In Study 1, a child and a puppet-partner collected coins that were later exchanged for rewards. We varied the work-contribution of both partners by manipulating how many coins each partner collected. Children kept fewer stickers in trials in which they had contributed less than in trials in which they had contributed more than the partner, showing that they took merit into account. Few children, however, gave away more than half of the stickers when the partner had worked more. Study 2 confirmed that children related their own work-contribution to their partner's, rather than simply focusing on their own contribution. Taken together, these studies show that merit-based sharing is apparent in young children; however it remains constrained by a self-serving bias.

  10. Young children consider merit when sharing resources with others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kanngiesser

    Full Text Available MERIT IS A KEY PRINCIPLE OF FAIRNESS: rewards should be distributed according to how much someone contributed to a task. Previous research suggests that children have an early ability to take merit into account in third-party situations but that merit-based sharing in first-party contexts does not emerge until school-age. Here we provide evidence that three- and five-year-old children already use merit to share resources with others, even when sharing is costly for the child. In Study 1, a child and a puppet-partner collected coins that were later exchanged for rewards. We varied the work-contribution of both partners by manipulating how many coins each partner collected. Children kept fewer stickers in trials in which they had contributed less than in trials in which they had contributed more than the partner, showing that they took merit into account. Few children, however, gave away more than half of the stickers when the partner had worked more. Study 2 confirmed that children related their own work-contribution to their partner's, rather than simply focusing on their own contribution. Taken together, these studies show that merit-based sharing is apparent in young children; however it remains constrained by a self-serving bias.

  11. 78 FR 12422 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission relevance, and the... Program Manager, Scientific Merit Review Board, Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Services Research...

  12. 75 FR 40036 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... is to review rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and technical merit...

  13. Pedagogical Merit Review of Animal Use for Education in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc T Avey

    Full Text Available There are two components to the review of animal based protocols in Canada: review for the merit of the study itself, and review of the ethical acceptability of the work. Despite the perceived importance for the quality assurance these reviews provide; there are few studies of the peer-based merit review system for animal-based protocols for research and education. Institutional animal care committees (ACCs generally rely on the external peer review of scientific merit for animal-based research. In contrast, peer review for animal based teaching/training is dependent on the review of pedagogical merit carried out by the ACC itself or another committee within the institution. The objective of this study was to evaluate the views of ACC members about current practices and policies as well as alternate policies for the review of animal based teaching/training. We conducted a national web-based survey of ACC members with both quantitative and qualitative response options. Responses from 167 ACC members indicated broad concerns about administrative burden despite strong support for both the current and alternate policies. Participants' comments focused mostly on the merit review process (54% relative to the efficiency (21%, impact (13%, and other (12% aspects of evaluation. Approximately half (49% of the comments were classified into emergent themes that focused on some type of burden: burden from additional pedagogical merit review (16%, a limited need for the review (12%, and a lack of resources (expertise 11%; people/money 10%. Participants indicated that the current system for pedagogical merit review is effective (60%; but most also indicated that there was at least some challenge (86% with the current peer review process. There was broad support for additional guidance on the justification, criteria, types of animal use, and objectives of pedagogical merit review. Participants also supported the ethical review and application of the Three Rs in

  14. 75 FR 65404 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... & Regenerative Medicine Subcommittee of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit..., examination, reference to, [[Page 65405

  15. The merit of cogeneration: Measuring and rewarding performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2008-01-01

    Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is a thermal power generation cycle with the merit of recovering part or all of the heat that is fatally discarded by such cycles. This merit of higher efficiency is subject of rewarding by public authorities. When the EU enacts CHP promotion in a Directive (1997-2004), crucial measurement and qualification issues remain unsolved. CEN (coordinator of the European Bureaus of Standards) contributes in clarifying the measurement of CHP activities, but shortfalls remain, while CEN bypasses the debate on qualifying CHP performance. This article offers appropriate methods for measuring CHP activities based on design characteristics of the plants. The co-generated electric output is a necessary and sufficient indicator of CHP merit and performance. Regulators can extend this indicator, but should avoid the perverse effects of biased external benchmarking as the EU Directive entails

  16. Estimating total economic merit for the Portuguese Holstein cattle population under new economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana B.M. Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a total economic merit index that identifies more profitable animals using Portugal as a case study to illustrate the recent economic changes in milk production. Economic values were estimated following future global prices and EU policy, and taking into consideration the priorities of the Portuguese dairy sector. Economic values were derived using an objective system analysis with a positive approach, that involved the comparison of several alternatives, using real technical and economic data from national dairy farms. The estimated relative economic values revealed a high importance of production traits, low for morphological traits and a value of zero for somatic cell score. According to several future market expectations, three scenarios for milk production were defined: a realistic, a pessimistic and an optimistic setting, each with projected future economic values. Responses to selection and efficiency of selection of the indices were compared to a fourth scenario that represents the current selection situation in Portugal, based on individual estimated breeding values for milk yield. Although profit resulting from sale of milk per average lactation in the optimistic scenario was higher than in the realistic scenario, the volatility of future economic conditions and uncertainty about the future milk pricing system should be considered. Due to this market instability, genetic improvement programs require new definitions of profit functions for the near future. Effective genetic progress direction must be verified so that total economic merit formulae can be adjusted and selection criteria redirected to the newly defined target goals.

  17. Improving Teaching Effectiveness: Merit Pay vs. Organizational Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushardt, Stephen C.; Fowler, Aubrey R.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies four conditions which cause merit pay systems to fail to increase teacher performance: lack of skills, the poor timing of rewards, an inability to measure performance; and competing reinforcers. Explains why organizational culture is a more effective mediator of rewards. (SD)

  18. HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes of a survey conducted at a large mining organisation in South Africa. ... These baseline prevalence data also provide an opportunity for monitoring of proposed interventions using cross-sectional surveys at designated intervals in the future. South African ...

  19. Exercice MERIT 2017 en passe de s’achever !

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les lignes directrices 2017 du MERIT (https://cds.cern.ch/record/2239422/files/2017_MERIT_Guidelines.pdf?version=1), approuvées par le Comité de Concertation permanent (CCP), concernent divers processus et procédures parmi lesquels, l’exercice annuel (ou entretien MERIT), la promotion, le changement d’emploi repère. Les processus « exercice annuel » et « promotions » - « changement d’emploi repère » ont été programmés sur deux périodes : du 1er décembre 2016 au 15 juin 2017, les entretiens MERIT, l’évaluation, la qualification et la rétribution de la performance, avec effet sur le salaire de mai ; du 3 avril 2017 au 1er juillet 2017, les promotions et les changements d’emploi repère. Entretie...

  20. Teacher Merit Pay: Is It a Good Idea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2009-01-01

    President Obama's education agenda, which unhappily seems to be George W. Bush's program squared, contains two major features that will impact teacher pay and working conditions. The first is that charter schools are to be promoted aggressively. The second is an insistence on teacher merit pay. In this article, the author talks about teacher merit…

  1. First MARS exercise of merit recognition: what's the outcome?

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2007-01-01

    In June, the decisions concerning the various forms of merit recognition of the staff are taken. The Staff Association commends all those involved and, in particular, the supervisors who, for this first exercise, have had to assess your performance in record time, in accordance with the new provisions in the recently revised administrative circular no. 26.

  2. Merit Goods, Education Public Policy--India at Cross Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Satya Narayan; Ghadai, Sanjaya Ku.

    2015-01-01

    Merit Goods have always received handsome attention and allocation from countries which have witnessed a congruence between high significant economic growth and Human Development Index (HDI). The Emerging Market Economies (EMEs) have become significant manufacturing hubs by universalizing education and improving their Incremental Capital Output…

  3. The thermoelectric figure of merit of poor thermal conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    Calculations are given to show that for low thermal conductivity materials the radiation losses at even moderate temperatures preclude the use of the Harman technique for measuring the thermoelectric figure of merit. Measurements on liquid Tl 66 Se 34 , which has suitable thermoelectric properties, confirm this. (author)

  4. The merits of a robot : A Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the merits of a robot at the community pharmacy in a quasi-experiment. Method: The applied methods for data-collection were barcode-time measurements, direct observations, time-interval studies, and tally at a Dutch community pharmacy. The topics consisted of workload, waiting

  5. 2009 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting to review the FY2008 accomplishments and FY2009 plans for the Vehicle Technologies Program, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academic to give inputs to DOE on the Program with a structured and formal methodology.

  6. 78 FR 66384 - Membership of the Merit Systems Protection Board's Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Membership of the Merit Systems Protection Board's Performance Review Board AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the members of the Merit Systems Protection Board's Performance Review Board. DATES: November 5, 2013...

  7. 76 FR 42140 - Public Availability of the Merit Systems Protection Board's FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Public Availability of the Merit Systems Protection Board's FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Merit.../service-contract-inventories-guidance-11052010.pdf . The MSPB's inventory is posted on its Web site at...

  8. 75 FR 3939 - Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Provides Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Provides Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 7521 and 5 CFR 1201.131, the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is providing notice of...

  9. Metacognitive reflection and insight therapy (MERIT) for patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, S; van Donkersgoed, R J M; Timmerman, M E; Aan Het Rot, M; Wunderink, L; Arends, J; van Der Gaag, M; Aleman, A; Lysaker, P H; Pijnenborg, G H M

    2018-04-25

    Impaired metacognition is associated with difficulties in the daily functioning of people with psychosis. Metacognition can be divided into four domains: Self-Reflection, Understanding the Other's Mind, Decentration, and Mastery. This study investigated whether Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT) can be used to improve metacognition. This study is a randomized controlled trial. Patients in the active condition (n = 35) received forty MERIT sessions, the control group (n = 35) received treatment as usual. Multilevel intention-to-treat and completers analyses were performed for metacognition and secondary outcomes (psychotic symptomatology, cognitive insight, Theory of Mind, empathy, depression, self-stigma, quality of life, social functioning, and work readiness). Eighteen out of 35 participants finished treatment, half the drop-out stemmed from therapist attrition (N = 5) or before the first session (N = 4). Intention-to-treat analysis demonstrated that in both groups metacognition improved between pre- and post-measurements, with no significant differences between the groups. Patients who received MERIT continued to improve, while the control group returned to baseline, leading to significant differences at follow-up. Completers analysis (18/35) showed improvements on the Metacognition Assessment Scale (MAS-A) scales Self Reflectivity and metacognitive Mastery at follow-up. No effects were found on secondary outcomes. On average, participants in the MERIT group were, based on MAS-A scores, at follow-up more likely to recognize their thoughts as changeable rather than as facts. MERIT might be useful for patients whose self-reflection is too limited to benefit from other therapies. Given how no changes were found in secondary measures, further research is needed. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  10. Thermoelectric figure of merit of chiral carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah-Buandoh, G.K.; Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Twum, A.K.

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectrical properties of chiral carbon nanotube and numerically evaluated the figure of merit. We observed that the properties are highly anisotropic and depend on the geometric chiral angle (GCA) θ h , temperature and the overlapping integrals (exchange energy) for the jumps along the tubular axis Δ z and the base helix Δ s . The thermopower α exhibited giant values with the peak occurring between 100 K and 150 K. The electron thermal conductivity showed unusually high value with the peaks shifting towards high temperature. We attribute the high peak values to electron-phonon interactions. Finally we noted that by changing the Δ s and Δ z it is possible to get a figure of merit greater than 1. (author)

  11. Merit pay: the Federal Government's pay-for-performance experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Holliman, Sherry Diane.

    1983-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited For many years, businesses in private industry have been utilizing and experimenting with various forms of performance-based pay. These innovations have been part of a continuing search by organizations for better approaches to administering pay. With the passing of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978, the Federal Government began its form of this concept entitled, 'Merit Pay'. Although many studies have examined uses in the areas of ...

  12. Merit pay as a motivator in the federal sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, James D.

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 required the implementation of the Merit Pay System for a portion of the Federal civilian workforce as a means of increasing productivity through the use of monetary incentives. To test the validity of this concept, several theories of worker motivation are reviewed and their relation to money motivation and pay-for-performance is established. These relationships are compared to the results of dat...

  13. 2012 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-26

    The 2012 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting was held May 14-18, 2012 in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the Hydrogen Program and the Vehicle Technologies Program: a total of 309 individual activities were reviewed for Vehicle Technologies, by a total of 189 reviewers. A total of 1,473 individual review responses were received for the technical reviews.

  14. Genetic control of dairy cow reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The decline in dairy cow reproductive performance compromised the productivity and profitability of dairy production worldwide. The phenotypic performance of lactating cows with similar proportions of Holstein genes, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but either good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits managed in a standardised environment was compared. The objective of this study was to elucidate the physiological mechanisms contributing to suboptimal re...

  15. 76 FR 42167 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... subcommittees of the Board will meet to evaluate merit review applications: August 9--Rehabilitation Engineering... Rehabilitation. August 16--Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics/Orthotics. August 16-17--Psychological... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...

  16. 75 FR 3542 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... Board is to review rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and technical...

  17. Magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of Co/Cu multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, X. K., E-mail: xiukun.hu@ptb.de; Krzysteczko, P.; Liebing, N.; Schumacher, H. W. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Serrano-Guisan, S. [International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, 4715-330 Braga (Portugal); Rott, K.; Reiss, G. [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Kimling, J.; Böhnert, T.; Nielsch, K. [Institut für Angewandte Physik, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-03

    The switching of the magnetic configuration of giant magnetoresistance multilayers not only changes the electrical and thermal conductivities but also the thermopower. We study the magnetotransport and the magnetothermoelectric properties of Co/Cu multilayer devices in a lateral thermal gradient. The Seebeck coefficient reaches values up to −18 μV/K at room temperature and shows a magnetic field dependence up to 28.6% upon spin reversal. In combination with thermal conductivity data of the same Co/Cu stack, we find a magnetothermoelectric figure of merit of up to 65%. Furthermore, a magneto-power factor of up to 110% is derived.

  18. Agreement in polar motion measurements during the MERIT campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurovic, D.; Techy, C.; Paquet, P.

    From the original polar motion (PM) measurements performed during the MERIT Campaign, the Chandler and the annual components are removed. The analysis of the residuals shows a high level of significant correlation between the various techniques mainly for phenomenon ranging from 30 days to a few months. For periods smaller than one month the series are not correlated except for the X component, deduced from laser and Doppler techniques, which remains significant at the 99 percent level. These results led to the belief for a new earth rotation service open to different sources of data.

  19. Figures of merit for measuring aging management program effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, R.; Sciacca, F.; Walsh, R.; Zigler, G.

    1991-01-01

    One of the requirements for nuclear plant license renewal may be the establishment and demonstration of an effective aging management program. An analysis of both qualitative and quantitative information will be required to define the contents of this aging management program. The authors propose two quantitative figures of merit, Mean Event Detection Frequency and Mean Renewal Rate, that can be used to compare the effectiveness of various inspection, surveillance, test, and monitoring (ISTM) activities for aging mitigation. An example showing the relative effectiveness of an enhanced Loose Parts Monitoring System with current ISTM activities for steam generators and reactor internals is provided. (author)

  20. Risk Aversion and Support for Merit Pay: Theory and Evidence from Minnesota's Q Comp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Carl; Wiswall, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Recent research attributes the lack of merit pay in teaching to the resistance of teachers. This article examines whether the structure of merit pay affects the types of teachers who support it. We develop a model of the relative utility teachers receive from merit pay versus the current fixed schedule of raises. We show that if teachers are risk…

  1. 78 FR 6854 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on February 13-14, 2013, at the... research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit. Recommendations regarding funding...

  2. Merits and difficulties in adopting codes, standards and nuclear regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Saiedi, A.F.; Morsy, S.; Mariy, A.

    1978-01-01

    Developing countries planning for introducing nuclear power plants as a source of energy have to develop or adopt sound regulatory practices. These are necessary to help governmental authorities to assess the safety of nuclear power plants and to perform inspections needed to confirm the established safe and sound limits. The first requirement is to form an independent regulatory body capable of setting up and enforcing proper safety regulations. The formation of this body is governed by several considerations related to local conditions in the developing countries, which may not always be favourable. It is quite impractical for countries with limited experience in the nuclear power field to develop their own codes, standards and regulations required for the nuclear regulatory body to perform its tasks. A practical way is to adopt codes, standards and regulations of a well-developed country. This has merits as well as drawbacks. The latter are related to problems of personnel, software, equipment and facilities. The difficulties involved in forming a nuclear regulatory body, and the merits and difficulties in adopting foreign codes, standards and regulations required for such body to perform its tasks, are discussed in this paper. Discussions are applicable to many developing countries and particular emphasis is given to the conditions and practices in Egypt. (author)

  3. Cooling System for the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, F; Silva, P; Pezzeti, M; Pavlov, O; Pirotte, O; Metselaar, J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fabich, A; Lettry, J; Kirk, H G; McDonald, K T; Titus, P; Bennett, J R J

    2010-01-01

    MERIT is a proof-of-principle experiment of a target station suitable as source for future muon colliders or neutrino factories. When installed at the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) PS (Proton Synchrotron)complex fast-extracted high-intensity proton beams intercepted a free mercury jet inside a normal-conducting, pulsed 15-T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid nitrogen. Up to 25 MJ of Joule heat was dissipated in the magnet during a pulse. The fully automated, remotely controlled cryogenic system of novel design permitted the transfer of nitrogen by the sole means of differential pressures inside the vessels. This fast cycling system permitted several hundred tests in less than three weeks during the 2007 data taking campaign.

  4. Optimization principles and the figure of merit for triboelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Kang, Stephen Dongmin; Snyder, G Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    Energy harvesting with triboelectric nanogenerators is a burgeoning field, with a growing portfolio of creative application schemes attracting much interest. Although power generation capabilities and its optimization are one of the most important subjects, a satisfactory elemental model that illustrates the basic principles and sets the optimization guideline remains elusive. We use a simple model to clarify how the energy generation mechanism is electrostatic induction but with a time-varying character that makes the optimal matching for power generation more restrictive. By combining multiple parameters into dimensionless variables, we pinpoint the optimum condition with only two independent parameters, leading to predictions of the maximum limit of power density, which allows us to derive the triboelectric material and device figure of merit. We reveal the importance of optimizing device capacitance, not only load resistance, and minimizing the impact of parasitic capacitance. Optimized capacitances can lead to an overall increase in power density of more than 10 times.

  5. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev.10) - Recognition of merit

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 10) entitled “Recognition of Merit”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 5 December 2013 and entering into force on 1 January 2014, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to staff members. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) entitled “Recognition of Merit” of December 2011. The circular was revised in order to take into account the work performed in the framework of an elective mandate during the exercise of merit recognition of staff members. In addition, the circular was revised to provide that, in the case of staff members on special leave for professional reasons for a period equal to or longer than half a year, it will no longer be possible to grant an exceptional advancement. Department Head Office HR Department

  6. 2015 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: 258 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by 170 reviewers. A total of 1,095 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  7. 2017 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-31

    The 2017 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 5-9, 2017, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed work done by the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and VTO: 263 individual activities were reviewed for VTO by 191 reviewers. Exactly 1,241 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  8. 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-12-01

    The 2016 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 6-9, 2016, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed work done by the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and VTO: 226 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by 171 reviewers. A total of 1,044 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  9. 2014 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The 2014 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 295 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 179 reviewers. A total of 1,354 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  10. 2013 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The 2013 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) and Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR) was held May 13-17, 2013, in Crystal City, Virginia. The review encompassed all of the work done by the FCTO and the VTO: a total of 287 individual activities were reviewed for VTO, by a total of 187 reviewers. A total of 1,382 individual review responses were received for the VTO technical reviews. The objective of the meeting was to review the accomplishments and plans for VTO over the previous 12 months, and provide an opportunity for industry, government, and academia to give inputs to DOE on the Office with a structured and formal methodology. The meeting also provided attendees with a forum for interaction and technology information transfer.

  11. A Figure-of-Merit for Beta Cell Detector Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Brian W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suarez, Rey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-02

    In order to decrease the minimum detectable activities (MDAs) of beta-gamma radioxenon detectors, it is important to increase the ability to resolve the individual isotopes. One proposed method for doing this is to increase the energy resolution of the beta cell through the use of silicon detectors. While silicon detectors can improve the energy resolution, it is accompanied with a decrease in detection efficiency compared to plastic scintillator beta cells. Due to the uncertainty on the impact of the competing variables, we have developed a figure-of-merit (FOM) capable of determining the impact of detector parameters on the MDAs. By utilizing the FOM to analyze different detectors, we are able to directly compare current and future detectors and estimate their impact on the radioxenon MDAs.

  12. Figures of merit for the evaluation of regenerative power converters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083258; Rossini, Stefano; Le Godec, Gilles; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Carrica, Daniel; Retegui, Rogeli Garcia

    2016-01-01

    In some applications, like those for particle accelerators and transfer lines, electromagnet loads operate in cycling mode i.e. absorbing or extracting energy from or to a power source. Built-in energy storage such as electrochemical capacitors can be used whose lifetime is heavily depended on the current ripple and depth of discharge. Moreover, the sizing of this storage element is a trade-off between power taken from the grid and energy stored. Additionally, the adopted power conversion structure and control strategy impact on such decision process. In this work, a number of topologies have been evaluated for these applications and the key metrics used to compare them. The proposed figures of merit are used through examples to highlight the trade-offs related with the choice of dc-bus regulation topology and control strategy.

  13. Publication of administrative circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – "Recognition of merit", approved by the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 3 September 2008, is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 7) – "Recognition of merit of staff members" of May 2007. Paper copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  14. Publication of administrative circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – Recognition of merit Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) – "Recognition of merit", approved by the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 3 September 2008, is now available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 7) – "Recognition of merit of staff members" of May 2007. Paper copies will shortly be available in Departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  15. The merits of measuring challenge and hindrance appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Ben J; Auton, Jaime C

    2015-01-01

    The challenge-hindrance framework has shown that challenge stressors (work characteristics associated with potential personal gain) tend to have positive outcomes, whereas hindrance stressors (those which obstruct goals) have negative outcomes. However, typical research methods assume that stressors allocated to these categories are appraised consistently by different people and across different situations. We validate new measures of challenge and hindrance appraisals and demonstrate their utility in stress research. We used a cross-sectional survey of American employees (Study 1, n = 333), a diary survey of Australian employees (Study 2, n = 241), and a survey of Australian college students whose performance was evaluated independently (Study 3, n = 350). Even after accounting for the effects of stressors, challenge and hindrance appraisals consistently explained unique variance in affective states, with indications that stressors have indirect effects via appraisals. Such effects were seen within- as well as between-participants (Study 2). Appraisals also had expected associations with specific coping behaviors (Study 1), while challenge appraisal was associated with task performance (Study 3). The scales of challenge and hindrance appraisals were psychometrically sound across multiple contexts. RESULTS highlight the merit of considering appraisal in stress research.

  16. Figures of Merit Guiding Research on Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchartz, Thomas

    2018-03-02

    While substantial progress in the efficiency of polymer-based solar cells was possible by optimizing the energy levels of the polymer and more recently also the acceptor molecule, further progress beyond 10% efficiency requires a number of criteria to be fulfilled simultaneously, namely, low energy-level offsets at the donor–acceptor heterojunction, low open-circuit voltage losses due to nonradiative recombination, and efficient charge transport and collection. In this feature article we discuss these criteria considering thermodynamic limits, their correlation to photocurrent and photovoltage, and effects on the fill factor. Each criterion is quantified by a figure of merit (FOM) that directly relates to device performance. To ensure a wide applicability, we focus on FOMs that are easily accessible from common experiments. We demonstrate the relevance of these FOMs by looking at the historic and recent achievements of organic solar cells. We hope that the presented FOMs are or will become a valuable tool to evaluate, monitor, and guide further development of new organic absorber materials for solar cells.

  17. Public Entrepreneurs and the Adoption of Broad-Based Merit Aid beyond the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, William Kyle; Petroff, Ruth Ann

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of broad-based merit aid adoption in the southeastern United States has been well noted in the literature. However, there are states that have adopted broad-based merit aid programs outside of the Southeast. Guided by multiple theoretical frameworks, including innovation diffusion theory (e.g., Gray, 1973, 1994; Rogers, 2003),…

  18. 5 CFR 335.106 - Special selection procedures for certain veterans under merit promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterans under merit promotion. 335.106 Section 335.106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.106 Special selection procedures for certain veterans under merit promotion. Preference eligibles or veterans who have...

  19. 78 FR 50144 - Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit... management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D...

  20. 77 FR 21622 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will be held on April 20, 2012, 131 M Street NE., Washington, DC...

  1. 77 FR 42365 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that various subcommittees of the Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on August 28-30, 2012, at the Boston Omni Parker...

  2. 75 FR 72872 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will be held on December 13-14, 2010, at the Hilton Alexandria Old...

  3. 78 FR 18680 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review... Service, and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and technical merit, the mission... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service...

  4. An Optimization Model for the Allocation of University Based Merit Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrue, Paul K.

    2010-01-01

    The allocation of merit-based financial aid during the college admissions process presents postsecondary institutions with complex and financially expensive decisions. This article describes the application of linear programming as a decision tool in merit based financial aid decisions at a medium size private university. The objective defined for…

  5. The Impact of Merit Pay on Teaching and Research Outcomes of Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David H.; Campbell, Annhenrie; Tan, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    Basing the compensation of accounting professors on merit pay in order to encourage better teaching, research and service is controversial. This study uses data from a survey of the 852 accounting programs in the United States to empirically examine the influence of merit-based salary plans. Findings indicate a strong positive association between…

  6. 49 CFR 1103.19 - Advising upon the merits of a client's cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advising upon the merits of a client's cause. 1103... Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.19 Advising upon the merits of a client's cause. A practitioner shall try to obtain full knowledge of his client's cause before advising thereon...

  7. Enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit in a quantum dot due to external ac field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiao, E-mail: cqhy1127@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Wang, Zhi-yong, E-mail: wzyong@cqut.edu.cn [School of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Xie, Zhong-Xiang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China)

    2013-08-15

    We investigate the figure of merit of a quantum dot (QD) system irradiated with an external microwave filed by nonequilibrium Green's function (NGF) technique. Results show that the frequency of microwave field influence the figure of merit ZT significantly. At low temperature, a sharp peak can be observed in the figure of merit ZT as the frequency of ac field increases. As the frequency varies, several zero points and resonant peaks emerge in the figure of merit ZT. By adjusting the frequency of the microwave field, we can obtain high ZT. The figure of merit ZT increases with the decreasing of linewidth function Γ. In addition, Wiedemann–Franz law does not hold, particularly in the low frequency region due to multi-photon emission and absorption. Some novel thermoelectric properties are also found in two-level QD system.

  8. The merits of a robot: a Dutch experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobach, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    To determine the merits of a robot at the community pharmacy in a quasi-experiment. The applied methods for data-collection were barcode-time measurements, direct observations, time-interval studies, and tally at a Dutch community pharmacy. The topics consisted of workload, waiting times, congestion, slack, general work, counter work, and work at the consultation room. The topics were studied in pre-test and post-test stages, each stage during six weeks. By using these topics and some additional data from the pharmacy, the economics of the robot were also assessed. The workload decreased with 15 prescriptions per person per day. The waiting times decreased with one minute and 18 seconds per dispensing process, reducing the wait until counter contact. The day congestion decreased with one hour 27 minutes and 36 seconds, and the day slack increased with 28 minutes. The analysis of the general work showed no appreciable difference in the bulk of the care-related activities and the other activities. However, some work was re-shuffled: 7% increase at counter work and 7% decrease at logistics. Moreover, statistically significant increases were observed at counter work (5%) and robot work (4%), and significant decreases at telephone (3%) and filling work in presence of the patient (4%). The counter tally study showed a rise in care-related activities with 8%. Moreover, it also illuminated a statistically significant decrease at no information (11%) and an increase at only social (2%). The consultation room was never used during the study. The pharmacy economics of the robot showed that the robot had high estimated costs for purchase, depreciation, and maintenance: EUR 187,024 in the first year. Moreover, the robot had positive impact on waiting times, congestion, staffing, logistics, and care-related work, which was estimated on EUR 91,198 in the first year. The estimated payback time of the robot was three years. An introduction of the robot may indeed have the often

  9. Reactions to merit pay increases: a longitudinal test of a signal sensitivity perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jason D; Duffy, Michelle K; Mitra, Atul; Lockhart, Daniel E; Bowler, Matthew

    2003-06-01

    The relationships among merit pay raises, trait positive affectivity (PA), and reactions to merit pay increases (pay attitudes and behavioral intentions) were explored in a longitudinal study of hospital employees. Drawing on signal sensitivity theory, the authors expected that PA would moderate the relationship between merit pay raise size and reactions to the increase such that pay raise size would be more strongly related to pay attitudes and behavioral intentions among those low in PA. Results strongly supported the predictions in the case of reactions to the raise amount (happiness and effort intentions) but not for pay level satisfaction. Implications of the results and directions for future research are identified.

  10. Does true Gleason pattern 3 merit its cancer descriptor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Ahmed, Hashim U; Freeman, Alex; Emberton, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Nearly five decades following its conception, the Gleason grading system remains a cornerstone in the prognostication and management of patients with prostate cancer. In the past few years, a debate has been growing whether Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 prostate cancer is a clinically significant disease. Clinical, molecular and genetic research is addressing the question whether well characterized Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 disease has the ability to affect the morbidity and quality of life of an individual in whom it is diagnosed. The consequences of treatment of Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 disease are considerable; few men get through their treatments without sustaining some harm. Further modification of the classification of prostate cancer and dropping the label cancer for Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 disease might be warranted.

  11. 77 FR 9731 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...--Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics/Orthotics. March 7--Career Development Award Program. March 13--Spinal... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development...

  12. 76 FR 5650 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Rehabilitation. March 1--Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics/Orthotics. March 1-2--Psychological Health... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development...

  13. 77 FR 40412 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ...: August 7 Aging and Neurodegenerative Disease; Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics/Orthotics; and... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that subcommittees of the Rehabilitation Research and Development...

  14. Genetic analysis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    In this introduction we discuss some basic genetic tools and techniques that are used with the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Genes commonly used for selection or as reporters are discussed, with an emphasis on genes that permit counterselection, intragenic complementation, or colony......-color assays. S. pombe is most stable as a haploid organism. We describe its mating-type system, how to perform genetic crosses and methods for selecting and propagating diploids. We discuss the relative merits of tetrad dissection and random spore preparation in strain construction and genetic analyses...

  15. Advanced combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels merit review and peer evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.

  16. Risk Aversion and Support for Merit Pay: Theory and Evidence from Minnesota's Q Comp Program. Working Paper #09-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Carl; Wiswall, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Recent research attributes the lack of merit pay in teaching to the resistance of teachers. This paper examines whether the structure of merit pay affects the types of teachers who support it. We develop a model of the relative utility teachers receive from merit pay versus the current fixed schedule of raises. We show that if teachers are risk…

  17. 75 FR 25885 - The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus Briefs in the Matter of Larry L. Evans v. Department of Veterans Affairs, MSPB Docket Number AT-3330-09-0953- I-1. AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice...

  18. 75 FR 20007 - The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Is Providing Notice of the Opportunity To File Amicus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) Is Providing Notice of the Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs in the Matter of Hyginus U. Aguzie v. Office of Personnel Management, MSPB Docket Number DC-0731- 09-0261-R-1 AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice...

  19. 75 FR 6728 - The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB) is Providing Notice of the Opportunity to File Amicus Briefs in the Matters of Conyers v. Department of Defense, Docket No...: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On January 25, 2010, the MSPB published in the...

  20. The effective communication methodology and influence of merit information on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiso, Shinichi

    2007-01-01

    It was found by the survey the author carried out in 2005 that there is a possibility that even the person who opposes nuclear power generation may change his or her opinion after understanding the advantage of nuclear power. Then, how should merit information be transmitted? Is there a possibility that people feel repulsion after receiving merit information? What is the influence of providing merit information of nuclear power? Those kinds of questions were investigated in 2006. As a result, it was found that the use of magazine and NPO/NGO is effective. The utilization of all-night television broadcasting, iPod, energy environmental education in schools and science cafe have an effect too, especially for young generation. It was also found that 20% or less of the people feel repulsion for providing merit information of nuclear power. Concerning people's attitude towards nuclear power utilization, it was found that the number of those who support nuclear power generation tended to increase significantly by providing information depicting merits or benefits of nuclear power, however, it did not increase by explaining electric power companies' effort to promote nuclear power. Further more, concerning to the image of a nuclear power station site, it became clear that merit information of nuclear power provided positive effect for some items in explaining nuclear power generation. (author)

  1. Measuring Provider Performance for Physicians Participating in the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squitieri, Lee; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-07-01

    In 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services began requiring all eligible providers to participate in the Quality Payment Program or face financial reimbursement penalty. The Quality Payment Program outlines two paths for provider participation: the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System and Advanced Alternative Payment Models. For the first performance period beginning in January of 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services estimates that approximately 83 to 90 percent of eligible providers will not qualify for participation in an Advanced Alternative Payment Model and therefore must participate in the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System program. The Merit-Based Incentive Payment System path replaces existing quality-reporting programs and adds several new measures to evaluate providers using four categories of data: (1) quality, (2) cost/resource use, (3) improvement activities, and (4) advancing care information. These categories will be combined to calculate a weighted composite score for each provider or provider group. Composite Merit-Based Incentive Payment System scores based on 2017 performance data will be used to adjust reimbursed payment in 2019. In this article, the authors provide relevant background for understanding value-based provider performance measurement. The authors also discuss Merit-Based Incentive Payment System reporting requirements and scoring methodology to provide plastic surgeons with the necessary information to critically evaluate their own practice capabilities in the context of current performance metrics under the Quality Payment Program.

  2. Universal Curve of Optimum Thermoelectric Figures of Merit for Bulk and Low-Dimensional Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen T.; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Saito, Riichiro

    2018-02-01

    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. Analytical formulas for thermoelectric figures of merit and power factors are derived based on the one-band model. We find that there is a direct relationship between the optimum figures of merit and the optimum power factors of semiconductors despite of the fact that the two quantities are generally given by different values of chemical potentials. By introducing a dimensionless parameter consisting of the optimum power factor and lattice thermal conductivity (without electronic thermal conductivity), it is possible to unify optimum figures of merit of both bulk and low-dimensional semiconductors into a single universal curve that covers many materials with different dimensionalities.

  3. A Review of NASA Human Research Program's Scientific Merit Processes: Letter Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelczyk, James A. (Editor); Strawbridge, Larisa M. (Editor); Schultz, Andrea M. (Editor); Liverman, Catharyn T. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    At the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Review of NASA Human Research Program's (HRP's) Scientific Merit Assessment Processes in December 2011. The committee was asked to evaluate the scientific merit assessment processes that are applied to directed research tasks2 funded through the HRP and to determine best practices from similar assessment processes that are used in other federal agencies. This letter report and its recommendations are the product of a 10-member ad hoc committee, which included individuals who had previously conducted research under the HRP, were familiar with the HRP s research portfolio and operations, had specific knowledge of peer review processes, or were familiar with scientific merit assessment processes used in other organizations and federal agencies, such as the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR); National Institutes of Health (NIH); National Science Foundation (NSF); and U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA), Defense (DOD), and Transportation.

  4. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2007 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2007, in Washington, D.C. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  5. Exact Solution of a Constraint Optimization Problem for the Thermoelectric Figure of Merit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Seifert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the classical theory of thermoelectricity, the performance integrals for a fully self-compatible material depend on the dimensionless figure of merit zT. Usually these integrals are evaluated for constraints z = const. and zT = const., respectively. In this paper we discuss the question from a mathematical point of view whether there is an optimal temperature characteristics of the figure of merit. We solve this isoperimetric variational problem for the best envelope of a family of curves z(TT.

  6. Exact Solution of a Constraint Optimization Problem for the Thermoelectric Figure of Merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Wolfgang; Pluschke, Volker

    2012-03-21

    In the classical theory of thermoelectricity, the performance integrals for a fully self-compatible material depend on the dimensionless figure of merit zT. Usually these integrals are evaluated for constraints z = const. and zT = const., respectively. In this paper we discuss the question from a mathematical point of view whether there is an optimal temperature characteristics of the figure of merit. We solve this isoperimetric variational problem for the best envelope of a family of curves z(T)T.

  7. Measurement of the figure of merit M for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørn Erik Berril; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1997-01-01

    High precision measurements of the linear part of the Paschen curve are reported for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures. From these measurements, values for the pressure-reduced limiting electric field strength (E/p)lim and the associated figure of merit M are derived. These two parameters can be used to charac......High precision measurements of the linear part of the Paschen curve are reported for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures. From these measurements, values for the pressure-reduced limiting electric field strength (E/p)lim and the associated figure of merit M are derived. These two parameters can be used...

  8. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2006 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliken, J.

    2006-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 16-19, 2006, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  9. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2005 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S. G.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the FY 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 23-26, 2005, in Arlington, Virginia. The projects evaluated support the Department of Energy and President Bush's Hydrogen Initiative. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE to make funding decisions. Project areas include hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  10. 78 FR 50144 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Review Board; Notice of Meetings The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) gives notice under the Federal... Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on the dates indicated below: Subcommittee Date(s) Location Career Development Award Program.... August 6, 2013........ VHA National...

  11. Cui Bono? On the Relative Merits of Technology-Enhanced Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhnenko, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    This article provides evidence from a 4-year longitudinal study on the comparative use of illustrative video podcasts during Economic Geography lectures vis-à-vis traditional educational methods in order to guide pedagogic practice and future research on the relative merits of technology-enhanced learning in higher education. Key benefits derived…

  12. The Effect of Merit Aid on Enrollment: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Iowa's National Scholars Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Daniel M.; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The cost of attending college has risen steadily over the past 30 years, making financial aid an important determinant of college choice for many students and a subject of concern for colleges and state governments. In this paper, we estimate the effect of rule-based merit aid assignment on students' enrollment decisions at the University of Iowa.…

  13. Optimization of Nonlinear Figure-of-Merits of Integrated Power MOSFETs in Partial SOI Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art power semiconductor industry uses figure-of-merits (FOMs) for technology-to-technology and/or device-to-device comparisons. However, the existing FOMs are fundamentally nonlinear due to the nonlinearities of the parameters such as the gate charge and the output charge versus...

  14. 78 FR 9455 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    .... Rehabilitation Engineering and February 20, 2013 Courtyard DC/U.S. Prosthetics/Orthotics. Capitol. Brain Injury... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the subcommittees of the Rehabilitation Research and...

  15. High figure-of-merit SOI power LDMOS for power integrated circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashvir Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural modifications in the conventional power laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOS are carried out to improve the breakdown voltage, on-resistance, gate-charge and figure-of-merits of the device with reduced cell pitch. The modified device has planer structure implemented on silicon-on-insulator which is suitable for low to medium voltage power integrated circuits. The proposed LDMOS consists of two gate electrodes placed vertically in two separate trenches build in the drift region and single source and drain contacts are taken on the top. The trench structure reduces the electric field inside the drift region and allow increased drift layer doping concentration leading to higher breakdown voltage, lower specific on-resistance, reduced gate-drain charge, and substantial improvement in the figure-of-merits. Using two-dimensional simulations, the performance of the proposed LDMOS is optimized and results are compared with the conventional LDMOS. Our simulation results show that the proposed device exhibits 110% higher breakdown voltage, 40% reduction in cell pitch, 19% lower specific on-resistance, 30% lower gate-to-drain charge leading to 5.5 times improvement in Baliga's figure-of-merit and 43% reduction in dynamic figure-of-merit over the conventional device.

  16. 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  17. 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 9-13, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  18. 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; and systems analysis.

  19. DOE Hydrogen Program: 2010 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-01

    This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the FY 2010 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held June 7-11, 2010 in Washington, D.C.

  20. Islands Unto Themselves: How Merit Pay Schemes May Undermine Positive Teacher Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, T. Jameson; Myers, P. S.; Zhang, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Educational reforms have become the new policy mainstay in educational discourse and policy. Without doubt, "fixing" teachers and increasing student test scores have both been a large component of much of the reform rhetoric. Moreover, calls for implementing merit pay schemes have uniquely combined reformer's efforts to "fix"…

  1. Blocked, Diluted, and Co-Opted: Interest Groups Wage War against Merit Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stuart; Greene, Jay P.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest "Education Next" poll, public support for merit pay gained significant ground over the past year and now outdistances opposition by a 2:1 margin. Replacing the standardized salary schedule, where the only factors that determine teacher salaries are the number of years on the job and academic credentials, seems a…

  2. 76 FR 6197 - Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Board will be held March 2-3, 2011, at the Hilton San Francisco Financial District, 750 Kearny Street... management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit... subcommittee on Nursing Research Initiatives will convene from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m.; the subcommittee for pilot...

  3. A figure of merit for selective absorbers in flat plate solar water heaters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive from first principles an analytical expression for a figure of merit (FM) for a selective solar absorber in a single glazed flat plate water heater. We first show that the efficiency of a collector with an absorber with absorptance α...

  4. Lifetime Net Merit vs. annualized net present value as measures of profitability of selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current USDA linear selection indexes such as Lifetime Net Merit (NM$) estimate lifetime profit given a combination of 13 traits. In these indexes, every animal gets credit for 2.78 lactations of the traits expressed per lactation, independent of its productive life (PL). Selection among animals wit...

  5. Handover training: does one size fit all? The merits of mass customisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kicken, Wendy; Van der Klink, Marcel; Barach, Paul; Boshuizen, Els

    2012-01-01

    Kicken, W., Van der Klink, M., Barach, P., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012). Handover training: does one size fit all? The merits of mass customisation. British Medical Journal Quality & Safety, 21, i84-i88. doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2012-001164

  6. 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 13-17, 2013, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  7. 76 FR 17846 - Objective Merit Review of Discretionary Financial Assistance and Other Transaction Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    .... 2. Merit Review Panel Member Selection. The DOE Senior Procurement Executive (SPE) has the ultimate.... Reviewers shall not accept any invitations, gratuities (i.e., meals, gifts, favors, etc.), or job offers... single case deviation, while the Director, Procurement and Assistance Management (Senior Procurement...

  8. 77 FR 8330 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Disorders; HCR 2--Substance Use Disorders; HCR 3--Rehabilitation/Rural; HCR 4--Women's Health; HCR 5--Pain... Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on March 6-8, 2012, at the Hilton New Orleans... to the Chief Research and Development Officer. On March 6, the subcommittee on Nursing Research...

  9. Reflections on receiving the ASIS&T 2016 Award of Merit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    At the ASIS&T Annual Meeting in Copenhagen, Peter Ingwersen expressed surprise and gratitude for being honored with the Association’s 2016 Award of Merit. The professor emeritus from Denmark’s Royal School of Library and Information Science thanked peers for recognizing him as a mentor and research...

  10. Research on the Effects of Rewards: Implications for Annual Merit Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Richard R.

    Some research suggests reduced cooperation and collaboration among college faculty may result when annual pay increments are based on merit evaluations. Various theories and principles have been put forward to explain these effects. The overjustification theory suggests that extrinsically presented rewards become more salient than one's intrinsic…

  11. Walter Scandale receives the decoration of Knight of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 December 2008, Walter Scandale, a member of the EN Department, received the decoration of Knight of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, one of Italy's highest decorations. He was awarded the medal by the Consul-General of Italy in Geneva.

  12. Performance Appraisal and Merit Compensation. Community Colleges: Quality Education for a Learning Society. Round Table Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert A., Jr.

    Detailed information is provided on the Performance Appraisal/Salary System adopted by the New Mexico Junior College (NMJC) Board in 1981 as the basis for the performance evaluation of all college employees. Introductory material discusses the concepts of performance appraisal and merit compensation and provides an update on changes in NMJC's…

  13. The Role of Merit-Based Scholarships in Meeting Affordability Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Susan L.; Thompson, Roger J.

    2010-01-01

    Institutions across the country continue to ponder and evaluate strategies for aligning financial aid to complement their enrollment goals. Two Indiana University enrollment managers examine the purposeful application of institutional aid in financial aid packaging. In response to the debate about the of merit-based aid vs. the appropriate share…

  14. 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 16-20, 2014, in Washington, DC. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  15. 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-06-13

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2008 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on June 9-13, 2008, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; systems analysis; and manufacturing.

  16. 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyapal, S. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 18-22, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; education; safety, codes, and standards; technology validation; systems analysis; and manufacturing R&D.

  17. 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes comments from the Peer Review Panel at the 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review, held on May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia. It covers the program areas of hydrogen production and delivery; hydrogen storage; fuel cells; manufacturing R&D; technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; education; market transformation; and systems analysis.

  18. Minimización de una función normal-merit mediante un algoritmo convergente globalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Suárez, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos dos conceptos relacionados con la solución de sistemas de ecuaciones no lineales y con desigualdades. El primer concepto es el de una función normal merit, que resume las propiedades básicas que tienen distintas funciones merit conocidas. El segundo concepto es el de un operador Newtoniano, cuyos valores generalizan el concepto de Hessiana para la función normal merit. Combinando el resultado del método generalizado de Newton con ciertos métodos de primer orden, obtenemos un algoritmo de convergencia global para minimizar funciones normales merit.

  19. An empirically derived figure of merit for the quality of overall task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Moira

    1989-01-01

    The need to develop an operationally relevant figure of merit for the quality of performance of a complex system such as an aircraft cockpit stems from a hypothesized dissociation between measures of performance and those of workload. Performance can be measured in terms of time, errors, or a combination of these. In most tasks performed by expert operators, errors are relatively rare and often corrected in time to avoid consequences. Moreover, perfect performance is seldom necessary to accomplish a particular task. Moreover, how well an expert performs a complex task consisting of a series of discrete cognitive tasks superimposed on a continuous task, such as flying an aircraft, does not depend on how well each discrete task is performed, but on their smooth sequencing. This makes the amount of time spent on each subtask of paramount importance in measuring overall performance, since smooth sequencing requires a minimum amount of time spent on each task. Quality consists in getting tasks done within a crucial time interval while maintaining acceptable continuous task performance. Thus, a figure of merit for overall quality of performance should be primarily a measure of time to perform discrete subtasks combined with a measure of basic vehicle control. Thus, the proposed figure of merit requires doing a task analysis on a series of performance, or runs, of a particular task, listing each discrete task and its associated time, and calculating the mean and standard deviation of these times, along with the mean and standard deviation of tracking error for the whole task. A set of simulator data on 30 runs of a landing task was obtained and a figure of merit will be calculated for each run. The figure of merit will be compared for voice and data link, so that the impact of this technology on total crew performance (not just communication performance) can be assessed. The effect of data link communication on other cockpit tasks will also be considered.

  20. Time Structure of Particle Production in the Merit High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I; Palm, M; Lettry, J; Haug, F; Pereira, H; Pernegger, H; Steerenberg, R; Grudiev, A; Kirk, H G; Park, H; Tsang, T; Mokhov, N; Striganov, S; Carroll, A J; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; McDonald, K T; Bennett, J R J; Caretta, O; Loveridge, P

    2010-01-01

    The MERIT experiment is a proof-of-principle test of a target system for high power proton beam to be used as front-end for a neutrino factory complex or amuon collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of about 30 × 1012 protons per pulse. We report results from the portion of the MERIT experiment in which separated beam pulses were delivered to a free mercury jet target with time intervals between pulses varying from 2 to 700 μs. The analysis is based on the responses of particle detectors placed along side and downstream of the target.

  1. Half-metallic perovskite superlattices with colossal thermoelectric figure of merit

    KAUST Repository

    Upadhyay Kahaly, M.; Ozdogan, K.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays heavy experimental efforts are focussed on doped oxide thermoelectrics to increase the thermopower and thermoelectric performance. We propose a high thermoelectric figure of merit for half-metallic SrTi1−xCoxO3 (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) in a superlattice with SrTiO3, which is stable at high temperatures and in an oxygen environment. The maximal value of Z hardly depends on the doping, while the temperature at which the maximum occurs increases with the Co concentration. The easy tunability from being an insulator to a half-metal under substitutional doping combined with the colossal figure of merit opens up great potential in the emerging field of spin-caloritronics.

  2. Free parameter, figure of merit and ionization quench in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carles, P. Grau; Malonda, A. Grau

    2001-01-01

    A statistical study of the detection process demonstrates that the free parameter is essential to compute the counting efficiency in both CIEMAT/NIST and TDCR methods. An analysis of the computed counting efficiencies shows the uselessness of old definition of the figure of merit. A new definition is required and we adopt the idea of taking quantities related with the output of the photomultiplier. In addition, we justify the application of the chemical quenching simulation with the electronic variation of the photomultiplier gain. Finally, we describe a new procedure to determine the figure of merit and the optimum ionization-quenching factor from the pulse spectrum of different radionuclides. The robustness of the new procedure is tested with three different sets of stopping power for low-energy electrons

  3. Thermoelectric System in Different Thermal and Electrical Configurations: Its Impact in the Figure of Merit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vargas-Almeida

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analyze different configurations of a thermoelectric system (TES composed of three thermoelectric generators (TEGs. We present the following considerations: (a TES thermally and electrically connected in series (SC; (b TES thermally and electrically connected in parallel (PSC; and (c parallel thermally and series electrical connection (SSC. We assume that the parameters of the TEGs are temperature-independent. The systems are characterized by three parameters, as it has been showed in recent investigations, namely, its internal electrical resistance, R, thermal conductance under open electrical circuit condition, K, and Seebeck coefficient α. We derive the equivalent parameters for each of the configurations considered here and calculate the Figure of Merit Z for the equivalent system. We show the impact of the configuration of the system on Z, and we suggest optimum configuration. In order to justify the effectiveness of the equivalent Figure of Merit, the corresponding efficiency has been calculated for each configuration.

  4. Half-metallic perovskite superlattices with colossal thermoelectric figure of merit

    KAUST Repository

    Upadhyay Kahaly, M.

    2013-05-09

    Nowadays heavy experimental efforts are focussed on doped oxide thermoelectrics to increase the thermopower and thermoelectric performance. We propose a high thermoelectric figure of merit for half-metallic SrTi1−xCoxO3 (x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, and 0.5) in a superlattice with SrTiO3, which is stable at high temperatures and in an oxygen environment. The maximal value of Z hardly depends on the doping, while the temperature at which the maximum occurs increases with the Co concentration. The easy tunability from being an insulator to a half-metal under substitutional doping combined with the colossal figure of merit opens up great potential in the emerging field of spin-caloritronics.

  5. Arsenene and Antimonene: Two-Dimensional Materials with High Thermoelectric Figures of Merit

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, S.

    2017-10-25

    We study the thermoelectric properties of As and Sb monolayers (arsenene and antimonene) using density-functional theory and the semiclassical Boltzmann transport approach. The materials show large band gaps combined with low lattice thermal conductivities. Specifically, the small phonon frequencies and group velocities of antimonene lead to an excellent thermoelectric response at room temperature. We show that n-type doping enhances the figure of merit.

  6. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2017 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-16

    The fiscal year 2017 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June June 5-9, 2017, in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  7. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-11-01

    The fiscal year 2016 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 6-10, 2016, in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  8. Non-invasive method of determination of thermoelectric materials figure of merit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashcheulov А. А.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric effects arising in a sample placed in a measuring oscillating loop have been studied. It has been shown that asymmetric character of flowing current results in a volumetric bundle of induced Foucault currents and regions of Peltier heat release by thermoelectric sample which leads to increasing of irreversible heat losses recorded by measuring oscillating loop. The presence of this effect has caused the emergence of ingenious non-invasive method for recording of thermoelectric materials figure of merit.

  9. On-Chip Sensing of Thermoelectric Thin Film’s Merit

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Zhigang; Zhu, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric thin films have been widely explored for thermal-to-electrical energy conversion or solid-state cooling, because they can remove heat from integrated circuit (IC) chips or micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices without involving any moving mechanical parts. In this paper, we report using silicon diode-based temperature sensors and specific thermoelectric devices to characterize the merit of thermoelectric thin films. The silicon diode temperature sensors and thermoelect...

  10. CERN's Merit Appraisal and Recognition System from the point of view of the supervisor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The required training consists of 2 parts : This presentation explaining “CERN’s merit recognition system”, followed by a session of questions/answers – duration : 2 hours A training session on “How to get, as a supervisor, the most out of the annual interview” – duration : 1 day. This hands-on training focuses on how to set smart work and development objectives, how to give feedback and how to run the annual interview in a constructive way.

  11. Figures of merit for detectors in digital radiography. II. Finite number of secondaries and structured backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, Angel R.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2004-01-01

    The current paradigm for evaluating detectors in digital radiography relies on Fourier methods. Fourier methods rely on a shift-invariant and statistically stationary description of the imaging system. The theoretical justification for the use of Fourier methods is based on a uniform background fluence and an infinite detector. In practice, the background fluence is not uniform and detector size is finite. We study the effect of stochastic blurring and structured backgrounds on the correlation between Fourier-based figures of merit and Hotelling detectability. A stochastic model of the blurring leads to behavior similar to what is observed by adding electronic noise to the deterministic blurring model. Background structure does away with the shift invariance. Anatomical variation makes the covariance matrix of the data less amenable to Fourier methods by introducing long-range correlations. It is desirable to have figures of merit that can account for all the sources of variation, some of which are not stationary. For such cases, we show that the commonly used figures of merit based on the discrete Fourier transform can provide an inaccurate estimate of Hotelling detectability

  12. Significant enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit of polycrystalline Si films by reducing grain size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valalaki, K; Nassiopoulou, A G; Vouroutzis, N

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of p-type polycrystalline silicon thin films deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) were accurately determined at room temperature and the thermoelectric figure of merit was deduced as a function of film thickness, ranging from 100 to 500 nm. The effect of film thickness on their thermoelectric performance is discussed. More than threefold increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit of the 100 nm thick polysilicon film was observed compared to the 500 nm thick film, reaching a value as high as 0.033. This enhancement is mainly the result of the smaller grain size in the thinner films. With the decrease in grain size the resistivity of the films is increased twofold and electrical conductivity decreased, however the Seebeck coefficient is increased by 30% and the thermal conductivity is decreased eightfold, being mainly at the origin of the increased figure of merit of the 100 nm film. Our experimental results were compared to known theoretical models and the possible mechanisms involved are presented and discussed. (paper)

  13. Optimal Genetic Contribution Selection in Danish Holstein Depends on Pedigree Qualtiy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M K; Sørensen, A C; Baumung, R

    2008-01-01

    . In the analyses earlier breeding decisions were considered by including all AI waiting- and young bulls and contract matings. Twenty potential sires, 2169 potential dams, 1421 AI-bulls and 754 contract matings plus pedigree animals were included. Results showed that the outcome was very dependent on quality...... the increase in future inbreeding. The more weight put on the average additive genetic relationship in next generation relative to genetic merit, the lower the average merit of the matings, and the lower average additive genetic relationship among the chosen matings and the present breeding animals...

  14. The clinical case report: a review of its merits and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Trygve; Wynn, Rolf

    2014-04-23

    The clinical case report has a long-standing tradition in the medical literature. While its scientific significance has become smaller as more advanced research methods have gained ground, case reports are still presented in many medical journals. Some scholars point to its limited value for medical progress, while others assert that the genre is undervalued. We aimed to present the various points of view regarding the merits and limitations of the case report genre. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed and select textbooks on epidemiology and medical research for articles and book-chapters discussing the merits and limitations of clinical case reports and case series. The major merits of case reporting were these: Detecting novelties, generating hypotheses, pharmacovigilance, high applicability when other research designs are not possible to carry out, allowing emphasis on the narrative aspect (in-depth understanding), and educational value. The major limitations were: Lack of ability to generalize, no possibility to establish cause-effect relationship, danger of over-interpretation, publication bias, retrospective design, and distraction of reader when focusing on the unusual. Despite having lost its central role in medical literature in the 20th century, the genre still appears popular. It is a valuable part of the various research methods, especially since it complements other approaches. Furthermore, it also contributes in areas of medicine that are not specifically research-related, e.g. as an educational tool. Revision of the case report genre has been attempted in order to integrate the biomedical model with the narrative approach, but without significant success. The future prospects of the case report could possibly be in new applications of the genre, i.e. exclusive case report databases available online, and open access for clinicians and researchers.

  15. Treatment planning figures of merit in thermal and epithermal boron capture therapy of brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.A.; Mathur, J.N. (Wollongong Univ., NSW (Australia)); Allen, B.J. (Ansto PMB 1 Menai, NSW (Australia). Biomedicine and Health)

    1994-05-01

    The boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) figures of merit of advantage depth, therapeutic depth, modified advantage depth and maximum therapeutic depth have been studied as functions of [sup 10]B tumour to blood ratios and absolute levels. These relationships were examined using the Monte Carlo neutron photon transport code, MCNP, with an ideal 18.4 cm diameter neutron beam incident laterally upon an ellipsoidal neutron photon brain-equivalent model. Mono-energetic beams of 0.025 eV (thermal) and 35 eV (epithermal) were simulated. Increasing the tumour to blood [sup 10]B ratio predictably increases all figures of merit. [sup 10]B concentration was also shown to have a strong bearing on the figures of merit when low levels were present in the system. This is the result of a non-[sup 10]B dependent background dose. At higher levels however, the concentration of [sup 10]B has a diminishing influence. For boron sulphydryl (BSH), little advantage is gained by extending the blood [sup 10]B level beyond 30 ppm, whilst for D, L,-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) this limit is 10 ppm. Applying the epithermal beam under identical conditions, the therapeutic depth reaches the brain mid-line with a tumour to blood [sup 10]B ratio of only 5.7 for BPA. For BSH, the maximum therapeutic depth reaches the brain mid-line with a tumour to blood ratio of only 1.9 with 30 ppm in the blood. Human data for these compounds are very close to these requirements. (author).

  16. Search for thermoelectrics with high figure of merit in half-Heusler compounds with multinary substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Mukesh K.; Ravindran, P.

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve the thermoelectric performance of TiCoSb we have substituted 50% of Ti equally with Zr and Hf at Ti site and Sb with Sn and Se equally at Sb site. The electronic structure of Ti0.5Zr0.25Hf0.25CoSn0.5Se0.5 is investigated using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method and the thermoelectric transport properties are calculated on the basis of semi-classical Boltzmann transport theory. Our band structure calculations show that Ti0.5Zr0.25Hf0.25CoSn0.5Se0.5 has semiconducting behavior with indirect band gap value of 0.98 eV which follow the empirical rule of 18 valence-electron content to bring semiconductivity in half Heusler compounds, indicating that one can have semiconducting behavior in multinary phase of half Heusler compounds if they full fill the 18 VEC rule and this open-up the possibility of designing thermoelectrics with high figure of merit in half Heusler compounds. We show that at high temperature of around 700K Ti0.5Zr0.25Hf0.25CoSn0.5Se0.5 has high thermoelectric figure of merit of ZT = 1.05 which is higher than that of TiCoSb (˜ 0.95) suggesting that by going from ternary to multinary phase system one can enhance the thermoelectric figure of merit at higher temperatures.

  17. A user's perspective on the merits and shortcomings of ASME Section III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antaki, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are several aspects of Section III which when compared to process industry codes (ASME VIII, ASME B31.3, API, etc.) have proven to be a significant improvement in engineering practice. There are, however, other aspects of ASME III which have added to costs without clear benefits in safety or reliability. The authors present a user's perspective on some of the relative merits and shortcomings of the nuclear codes (ASME III and XI) compared to the process industry codes (such as ASME VIII, B31.3 and API)

  18. High Thermoelectric Figure of Merit by Resonant Dopant in Half-Heusler Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Long; Liu, Yamei; He, Jian; Tritt, Terry M.; Poon, S. Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Half-Heusler alloys have been one of the benchmark high temperature thermoelectric materials owing to their thermal stability and promising figure of merit ZT. Simonson et al. early showed that small amounts of vanadium doped in Hf0.75Zr0.25NiSn enhanced the Seebeck coefficient and correlated the change with the increased density of states near the Fermi level. We herein report a systematic study on the role of vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), and tantalum (Ta) as prospective resonant dopants in e...

  19. Relative merits of travelling-wave and resonant operation of linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoffstall, D.R.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of the relative merits of so-called standing wave vis-a-vis travelling wave operation of linear accelerator waveguides is complicated by various considerations. In the first instance, standing wave should be distinguished from resonant operation. Standing wave operation is exactly the same as travelling wave, excepting that the waveguide is terminated by a total reflection of power instead of a matched load. In resonant operation a length of slow wave structure is terminated, theoretically at reflection planes of symmetry; the discrete modes of resonance consist of two oppositely directed travelling wave ensembles, one of which will provide a space harmonic of an intended phase velocity

  20. High thermoelectric figure of merit in nanocrystalline polyaniline at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Chandrani; Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in, E-mail: okram@csr.res.in [Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784 028 (India); Kuo, Yung-Kang [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Okram, Gunadhor Singh, E-mail: ask@tezu.ernet.in, E-mail: okram@csr.res.in [Electrical Transport Laboratory, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India)

    2014-09-29

    Thermoelectric coolers with figure of merit (ZT) close to unity at low temperatures are the need of the hour with new advances in high temperature superconductors, superconducting microelectronic circuits, quantum computers, and photonics. Here, we demonstrate that the conducting polymer polyaniline (Pani) doped with camphor sulfonic acid synthesized in semi-crystalline nanostructures, possesses a giant Seebeck effect at low temperatures. The resulting enormously large Seebeck coefficient (up to 0.6 V/K) combined with an intrinsically low electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity give rise to a ZT = 0.77 at 45 K and ZT = 2.17 at 17 K.

  1. Figures of merit for microwave photonic phase shifters based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Juan; Lloret, Juan; Gasulla, Ivana; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2012-05-07

    We theoretically and experimentally compare the performance of two fully tunable phase shifter structures based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) by means of several figures of merit common to microwave photonic systems. A single SOA stage followed by a tailored notch filter is compared with a cascaded implementation comprising three SOA-based phase shifter stages. Attention is focused on the assessment of the RF net gain, noise figure and nonlinear distortion. Recommendations on the performance optimization of this sort of approaches are detailed.

  2. Figures of merit for self-beating filtered microwave photonic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Daniel; Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José; Fandiño, Javier S; Muñoz, Pascual; Alavi, Hossein

    2016-05-02

    We present a model to compute the figures of merit of self-beating Microwave Photonic systems, a novel class of systems that work on a self-homodyne fashion by sharing the same laser source for information bearing and local oscillator tasks. General and simplified expressions are given and, as an example, we have considered their application to the design of a tunable RF MWP BS/UE front end for band selection, based on a Chebyshev Type-II optical filter. The applicability and usefulness of the model are also discussed.

  3. The Zernike expansion--an example of a merit function for 2D/3D registration based on orthogonal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuo; Kettenbach, Joachim; Hinterleitner, Isabella; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Current merit functions for 2D/3D registration usually rely on comparing pixels or small regions of images using some sort of statistical measure. Problems connected to this paradigm the sometimes problematic behaviour of the method if noise or artefacts (for instance a guide wire) are present on the projective image. We present a merit function for 2D/3D registration which utilizes the decomposition of the X-ray and the DRR under comparison into orthogonal Zernike moments; the quality of the match is assessed by an iterative comparison of expansion coefficients. Results in a imaging study on a physical phantom show that--compared to standard cross--correlation the Zernike moment based merit function shows better robustness if histogram content in images under comparison is different, and that time expenses are comparable if the merit function is constructed out of a few significant moments only.

  4. Improved merit order and augmented Lagrange Hopfield network for short term hydrothermal scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Ngoc Dieu; Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved merit order (IMO) combined with an augmented Lagrangian Hopfield network (ALHN) for solving short term hydrothermal scheduling (HTS) with pumped-storage hydro plants. The proposed IMO-ALHN consists of a merit order based on the average production cost of generating units enhanced by heuristic search algorithm for finding unit scheduling and a continuous Hopfield neural network with its energy function based on augmented Lagrangian relaxation for solving constrained economic dispatch (CED). The proposed method is applied to solve the HTS problem in five stages including thermal, hydro and pumped-storage unit commitment by IMO and heuristic search, constraint violations repairing by heuristic search and CED by ALHN. The proposed method is tested on the 24-bus IEEE RTS with 32 units including 4 fuel-constrained, 4-hydro, and 2 pumped-storage units scheduled over a 24-h period. Test results indicate that the proposed IMO-ALHN is efficient for hydrothermal systems with various constraints.

  5. Development of the PRO-LOCA Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics Code, MERIT Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Paul; Kurth, Robert; Cox, Andrew; Olson, Rick; Rudland, Dave

    2010-12-01

    The MERIT project has been an internationally financed program with the main purpose of developing probabilistic models for piping failure of nuclear components and to include these models in a probabilistic code named PRO-LOCA. The principal objective of the project has been to develop probabilistic models for piping failure of nuclear components and to include these models in a probabilistic code. The MERIT program has produced a code named PRO-LOCA with the following features: - Crack initiation models for fatigue or stress corrosion cracking for previously unflawed material. - Subcritical crack growth models for fatigue and stress corrosion cracking for both initiated and pre-existing circumferential defects. - Models for flaw detection by inspections and leak detection. - Crack stability. The PRO-LOCA code can thus predict the leak or break frequency for the whole sequence of initiation, subcritical crack growth until wall penetration and leakage, instability of the through-wall crack (pipe rupture). The outcome of the PRO-LOCA code are a sequence of failure frequencies which represents the probability of surface crack developing, a through-wall crack developing and six different sizes of crack opening areas corresponding to different leak flow rates or LOCA categories. Note that the level of quality assurance of the PRO-LOCA code is such that the code in its current state of development is considered to be more of a research code than a regulatory tool.

  6. Ultrahigh figure-of-merit for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride using ternary metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lunghao; Ceccato, R.; Raj, R.

    We report further increase in the figure-of-merit (FOM) for hydrogen generation from NaBH 4 than reported in an earlier paper [1], where a sub-nanometer layer of metal catalysts are deposited on carbon nanotube paper (CNT paper) that has been functionalized with polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic film. Ternary, Ru-Pd-Pt, instead of the binary Pd-Pt catalyst used earlier, together with a thinner CNT paper is shown to increase the figure-of-merit by up to a factor of six, putting is above any other known catalyst for hydrogen generation from NaBH 4. The catalysts are prepared by first impregnating the functionalized CNT-paper with solutions of the metal salts, followed by reduction in a sodium borohydride solution. The reaction mechanism and the catalyst efficiency are described in terms of an electric charge transfer, whereby the negative charge on the BH 4 - ion is exchanged with hydrogen via the electronically conducting SiCN/CNT substrate [1].

  7. [The long pilgrimage of Spanish biomedical journals toward excellence. Who helps? Quality, impact and research merit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Biomedical journals must adhere to strict standards of editorial quality. In a globalized academic scenario, biomedical journals must compete firstly to publish the most relevant original research and secondly to obtain the broadest possible visibility and the widest dissemination of their scientific contents. The cornerstone of the scientific process is still the peer-review system but additional quality criteria should be met. Recently access to medical information has been revolutionized by electronic editions. Bibliometric databases such as MEDLINE, the ISI Web of Science and Scopus offer comprehensive online information on medical literature. Classically, the prestige of biomedical journals has been measured by their impact factor but, recently, other indicators such as SCImago SJR or the Eigenfactor are emerging as alternative indices of a journal's quality. Assessing the scholarly impact of research and the merits of individual scientists remains a major challenge. Allocation of authorship credit also remains controversial. Furthermore, in our Kafkaesque world, we prefer to count rather than read the articles we judge. Quantitative publication metrics (research output) and citations analyses (scientific influence) are key determinants of the scientific success of individual investigators. However, academia is embracing new objective indicators (such as the "h" index) to evaluate scholarly merit. The present review discusses some editorial issues affecting biomedical journals, currently available bibliometric databases, bibliometric indices of journal quality and, finally, indicators of research performance and scientific success. Copyright 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of the PRO-LOCA Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics Code, MERIT Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Paul; Kurth, Robert; Cox, Andrew; Olson, Rick (Battelle Columbus (United States)); Rudland, Dave (Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States))

    2010-12-15

    The MERIT project has been an internationally financed program with the main purpose of developing probabilistic models for piping failure of nuclear components and to include these models in a probabilistic code named PRO-LOCA. The principal objective of the project has been to develop probabilistic models for piping failure of nuclear components and to include these models in a probabilistic code. The MERIT program has produced a code named PRO-LOCA with the following features: - Crack initiation models for fatigue or stress corrosion cracking for previously unflawed material. - Subcritical crack growth models for fatigue and stress corrosion cracking for both initiated and pre-existing circumferential defects. - Models for flaw detection by inspections and leak detection. - Crack stability. The PRO-LOCA code can thus predict the leak or break frequency for the whole sequence of initiation, subcritical crack growth until wall penetration and leakage, instability of the through-wall crack (pipe rupture). The outcome of the PRO-LOCA code are a sequence of failure frequencies which represents the probability of surface crack developing, a through-wall crack developing and six different sizes of crack opening areas corresponding to different leak flow rates or LOCA categories. Note that the level of quality assurance of the PRO-LOCA code is such that the code in its current state of development is considered to be more of a research code than a regulatory tool.

  9. Relative merits of size, field, and current on ignited tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    A simple global analysis is developed to examine the relative merits of size (L = a or R/sub 0 /), field (B/sub 0 /), and current (I) on ignition regimes of tokamaks under various confinement scaling laws. Scalings of key parameters with L, B/sub 0 /, and I are presented at several operating points, including (a) optimal path to ignition (saddle point), (b) ignition at minimum beta, (c) ignition at 10 keV, and (d) maximum performance at the limits of density and beta. Expressions for the saddle point and the minimum conditions needed for ohmic ignition are derived analytically for any confinement model of the form tau/sub E/ ∼ n/sup x/T/sup y/. For a wide range of confinement models, the ''figure of merit'' parameters and I are found to give a good indication of the relative performance of the devices where q* is the cylindrical safety factor. As an illustration, the results are applied to representative ''CIT'' (as a class of compact, high-field ignition tokamaks) and ''Super-JETs'' [a class of large-size (few x JET), low-field, high-current (≥20-MA) devices.

  10. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  11. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  12. The assessment of science: the relative merits of post-publication review, the impact factor, and the number of citations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre-Walker, Adam; Stoletzki, Nina

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of scientific publications is an integral part of the scientific process. Here we investigate three methods of assessing the merit of a scientific paper: subjective post-publication peer review, the number of citations gained by a paper, and the impact factor of the journal in which the article was published. We investigate these methods using two datasets in which subjective post-publication assessments of scientific publications have been made by experts. We find that there are moderate, but statistically significant, correlations between assessor scores, when two assessors have rated the same paper, and between assessor score and the number of citations a paper accrues. However, we show that assessor score depends strongly on the journal in which the paper is published, and that assessors tend to over-rate papers published in journals with high impact factors. If we control for this bias, we find that the correlation between assessor scores and between assessor score and the number of citations is weak, suggesting that scientists have little ability to judge either the intrinsic merit of a paper or its likely impact. We also show that the number of citations a paper receives is an extremely error-prone measure of scientific merit. Finally, we argue that the impact factor is likely to be a poor measure of merit, since it depends on subjective assessment. We conclude that the three measures of scientific merit considered here are poor; in particular subjective assessments are an error-prone, biased, and expensive method by which to assess merit. We argue that the impact factor may be the most satisfactory of the methods we have considered, since it is a form of pre-publication review. However, we emphasise that it is likely to be a very error-prone measure of merit that is qualitative, not quantitative.

  13. Genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the number of genetic tests performed more than tripled, and public concern about genetic privacy emerged. The majority of states and the U.S. government have passed regulations protecting genetic information. However, research has shown that concerns about genetic privacy are disproportionate to known instances of information misuse. Beliefs in genetic determinacy explain some of the heightened concern about genetic privacy. Discussion of the debate over genetic testing within families illustrates the most recent response to genetic privacy concerns.

  14. Optical Diagnostic Results from the MERIT High-Power Target Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, H G; Tsang, T; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fabich, A; Haug, F; Lettry, J; Palm, M; Mokhov, N; Striganov, S; Carroll, A J; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; McDonald, K T; Bennett, J R J; Caretta, O; Loveridge, P

    2010-01-01

    We re­port on the anal­y­sis of data col­lect­ed from the op­ti­cal di­ag­nos­tics of the MERIT ex­per­i­ment which was run at CERN in the fall of 2007. The breakup of the free mer­cury jet re­sult­ing from the im­pact of in­tense pro­ton beams from the CERN PS with­in a mag­net­ic field en­vi­ron­ment is de­scribed.

  15. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with hexapole collision cell: figures of merit and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen]|[Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk (Belarus); Becker, J.S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen

    2000-11-01

    The use of gas-filled multipole collision cells represents important progress in ICP-MS instrumentation. It enables an increase in element sensitivity based on the improvement of ion transmission efficiency from near thermalization and collisional focusing of ions. In addition, gas-phase ion-molecule chemistry can be applied in order to reduce mass spectral interferences via charge transfer reaction of interfering ions with reaction gas or via fragmentation of interfering molecular ions by collision-induced dissociation. The application of a hexapole collision cell in quadrupole based ICP-MS (HEX-ICP-QMS) was studied systematically in order to characterize the analytical figures of merit of this approach. Additionally, the performance of different solution introduction systems as well as an inductively coupled plasma shielded torch was studied for use with HEX-ICP-QMS. (orig.)

  16. Current developments on the coal and gas markets and their retroactive effects on the Merit Order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecking, Harald; Cam, Eren; Schoenfisch, Max; Schulte, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Coal and gas continue to play a significant role in the European power generation system, especially in Germany. According to the AG energy balances, the share of hard coal in German gross electricity generation in 2016 was 17.2% and natural gas 12.4%. In addition to the CO 2 price, the prices for steam coal and natural gas are a key factor in determining which gas or coal power station is in Merit Order and whether it comes to a fuel switch. Declining gas prices have been rising sharply since the middle of 2016, and the volatile prices for steam coal have been rising. This article discusses the developments and factors responsible for these developments, which could be expected in the near future, and the implications for the gas-coal spread in the electricity market. [de

  17. Analysis of Scaling Law and Figure of Merit of Fiber-Based Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Teng Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a normalized transmitted signal (NTS of a fiber-based sensor using gold nanorods as the plasmon excitation medium of the evanescent wave. The NTS and the refractive index (RI sensitivity is calculated as a function of the gold aspect ratio (R, the RI of the sensing medium, and a scaling parameter given by the ratio of the fiber length and its diameter. Finally, the optimal value of gold aspect ratio is calculated to be R = (3.0–4.0 for maximum figure of merits (FOMs defined by the ratio of the refractive index sensitivity and the full width at half maximum. The scaling laws and the FOM presented in this paper may serve as the guidelines for optimal designs in fiber-based nanosensors.

  18. Gamma and neutron detection modeling in the nuclear detection figure of merit (NDFOM) portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, Phillip D.; Saeger, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Detection Figure Of Merit (NDFOM) portal is a database of objects and algorithms for evaluating the performance of radiation detectors to detect nuclear material. This paper describes the algorithms used to model the physics and mathematics of radiation detection. As a first-principles end-to-end analysis system, it starts with the representation of the gamma and neutron spectral fluxes, which are computed with the particle and radiation transport code MCNPX. The gamma spectra emitted by uranium, plutonium, and several other materials of interest are described. The impact of shielding and other intervening material is computed by the method of build-up factors. The interaction of radiation with the detector material is computed by a detector response function approach. The construction of detector response function matrices based on MCNPX simulation runs is described in detail. Neutron fluxes are represented in a three group formulation to treat differences in detector sensitivities to thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons.

  19. Plasmonic Refractive Index Sensor with High Figure of Merit Based on Concentric-Rings Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojian; Yang, Junbo; He, Xin; Zhang, Jingjing; Huang, Jie; Chen, Dingbo; Han, Yunxin

    2018-01-01

    A plasmonic refractive index (RI) sensor based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide coupled with concentric double rings resonator (CDRR) is proposed and investigated numerically. Utilizing the novel supermodes of the CDRR, the FWHM of the resonant wavelength can be modulated, and a sensitivity of 1060 nm/RIU with high figure of merit (FOM) 203.8 is realized in the near-infrared region. The unordinary modes, as well as the influence of structure parameters on the sensing performance, are also discussed. Such plasmonic sensor with simple framework and high optical resolution could be applied to on-chip sensing systems and integrated optical circuits. Besides, the special cases of bio-sensing and triple rings are also discussed. PMID:29300331

  20. Thermoelectric figure of merit of polymeric systems for low-power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarini, Luigi; Ruini, Alice; Catellani, Alessandra; Calzolari, Arrigo

    2017-10-01

    The request of thermoelectric materials for low-power and flexible applications fosters the investigation of the intrinsic electron and thermal transport of conducting polymeric chains, which are building blocks of the complex variety of organic composites proposed in experimental samples. Using calculations from first principles and the Landauer approach for both electron and phonon carriers, we study the thermoelectric figure of merit zT of three representative and largely used polymer chains, namely poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), polyaniline and polyfluorene. Our results provide an upper-limit estimate of zT, due to the intrinsic electronic and vibrational properties of the selected compounds, and pave the way to a microscopic understanding of the mechanisms that affect their electronic and transport characteristics in terms of structural distortions and chemical doping.

  1. A bottom-up route to enhance thermoelectric figures of merit in graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevincli, Haldun; Sevik, Cem; Cagin, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    We propose a hybrid nano-structuring scheme for tailoring thermal and thermoelectric transport properties of graphene nanoribbons. Geometrical structuring and isotope cluster engineering are the elements that constitute the proposed scheme. Using first-principles based force constants and Hamilto......We propose a hybrid nano-structuring scheme for tailoring thermal and thermoelectric transport properties of graphene nanoribbons. Geometrical structuring and isotope cluster engineering are the elements that constitute the proposed scheme. Using first-principles based force constants...... and Hamiltonians, we show that the thermal conductance of graphene nanoribbons can be reduced by 98.8% at room temperature and the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, can be as high as 3.25 at T = 800 K. The proposed scheme relies on a recently developed bottom-up fabrication method, which is proven to be feasible...

  2. Merits of CMOS/SIMOX technology for low-voltage SRAM macros

    CERN Document Server

    Kumagai, K; Yamada, T; Nakamura, H; Onishi, H; Matsubara, Y; Imai, K; Kurosawa, S

    1999-01-01

    A 128-kbit SRAM (static random access memory) macro with the 0.35 mu m FD (fully-depleted) CMOS/SIMOX (separation by implantation of oxygen) technology has been developed to demonstrate the merits of that technology for low-voltage $9 applications. Its access time at Vdd =1.5 V was comparable with that obtained with the 0.35 mu m standard bulk CMOS technology at Vdd=3.3 V, due to the combination of the small S/D capacitance and the small back-bias effect. As the $9 yield of the 128-kbit SRAM macros was almost the same as the standard bulk CMOS technology, the manufacturability of the 0.35 mu m FD-CMOS/SIMOX technology has also been demonstrated. (7 refs).

  3. 2013 MARS – Refresher presentation | General principles of the Merit, Appraisal and Recognition Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Staff members are invited to attend one of the three following information sessions that shall outline the general principles of the 2013 annual Merit, Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS).   Monday 14 January at 10:00-11:30 – Filtration Plant (222-R-001) Thursday 17 January at 10:00-11:30 – Kjell Johnsen Auditorium (30-7-018) Monday 21 January at 10:00-11:30 - BE Amphitheatre Prévessin (864-1-D02)   General information on the MARS exercise may also be found in the CERN admin e-guide: https://admin-eguide.web.cern.ch/admin-eguide/mars/mars.asp. Human Resources Department Tel. 72728

  4. The Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS): A Primer for Otolaryngologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Vinay K; Naunheim, Matthew R; Varvares, Mark A; Holmes, Kenneth; Gagliano, Nancy; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2018-05-01

    Following passage of the 2015 Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act, most clinicians caring for Medicare Part B patients were required to participate in a new value-based reimbursement system known as the Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) beginning in 2017. The MIPS adjusts payment rates to providers based on a composite score of performance across 4 categories: quality, advancing care information, clinical practice improvement activities, and resource use. However, factors such as practice size, setting, informational capabilities, and patient population may pose challenges as otolaryngologists endeavor to adapt to this broad-reaching payment reform. Given potential barriers to adoption, otolaryngologists should be aware of several important initiatives to help optimize their performance, including advocacy efforts by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, the development of otolaryngology-specific MIPS quality measures, and the launch of a Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services-qualified otolaryngology clinical data registry to facilitate reporting.

  5. Effect of microemulsion component purity on the chromatographic figures of merit in chiral microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojtari, Adeline B; Foley, Joe P

    2009-04-17

    Numerous combinations of one-, two-, and three-chiral-component microemulsions have been previously prepared in our group, using N-dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV), 2-hexanol, and ethyl acetate, dibutyl tartrate, or diethyl tartrate. A few results of the various formulations investigated suggested the possible presence of minor impurities in one or more components of the microemulsion. In this study, the purity of the current lots of R- and S-surfactant were measured, as was the subsequent effect of minor impurities on the relevant chromatographic figures of merit (CFOMs) that describe a chiral separation, i.e., efficiency, enantioselectivity, retention, migration window (elution range), and resolution. Two related methods are proposed for correcting enantioselectivities measured in the presence of chiral impurities in the chiral microemulsion.

  6. The Merit(nTOF-11) High Intensity Liquid Mercury Target Experiment at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I; Caretta, O; Carroll, A J; Fabich, A; Graves, V B; Grudiev, A; Haug, F; Kirk, H G; Lettry, Jacques; Loveridge, P; McDonald, K T; Mokhov, N; Palm, M; Park, H; Pernegger, H; Spampinato, P T; Steerenberg, R; Striganov, S; Tsang, T

    2008-01-01

    The MERIT(nTOF-11) experiment is a proof-ofprinciple test of a target system for a high power proton beam to be used as front-end for a neutrino factory or a muon collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast-extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of $30 × 10^{12}$ per pulse. The target system, based on a free mercury jet, is capable of intercepting a 4-MW proton beam inside a 15-T magnetic field required to capture the low energy secondary pions as the source for intense muon beams. Partice detectors installed around the target setup measure the secondary particle flux out of the target and can probe cavitation effects in the mercury jet when excited by an intense proton beam.Preliminary results of the data analysis will be presented here.

  7. 2011 Mars - Refresher presentation - General principles of the Merit, Appraisal and Recognition Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Staff members are invited to attend one of the following three information sessions that shall outline the general principles of the 2011 annual Merit, Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS). Monday 10 January at 16:00-17:00 BE Auditorium Prévessin (864-1-D-02) – French;   Tuesday 11 January at 15:00-16:00 – Council Chamber (503-1-001) – English;   Thursday 13 January at 15:00-16:00 - Kjell Johnsen Auditorium (30-7-018) – French. General information on the MARS exercise may also be found on the Human Resources website: https://hr-eguide.web.cern.ch/hr-eguide/mars/mars.asp Tel. 70674 / 72728

  8. Enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit in strained Tl-doped Bi2Se3

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Y.

    2014-07-21

    We explain recent experimental findings on Tl-doped Bi2Se3 by determining the electronic and transport properties by first-principles calculations and semi-classical Boltzmann theory. Though Tl-doping introduces a momentum-dependent spin-orbit splitting, the effective mass of the carriers is essentially not modified, while the band gap is reduced. Tl is found to be exceptional in this respect as other dopants modify the dispersion, which compromises thermoelectricity. Moreover, we demonstrate that only after Tl-doping strain becomes an efficient tool for enhancing the thermoelectric performance. A high figure of merit of 0.86 is obtained for strong p-doping (7 × 10^20 cm^(−3), maximal power factor) at 500 K under 2% tensile strain.

  9. Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS): Harsh Choices For Interventional Pain Management Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm Ii, Standiford; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    The Merit-based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) was created by the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) to improve the health of all Americans by providing incentives and policies to improve patient health outcomes. MIPS combines 3 existing programs, Meaningful Use (MU), now called Advancing Care Information (ACI), contributing 25% of the composite score; Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), changed to Quality, contributing 50% of the composite score; and Value-based Payment (VBP) system to Resource Use or cost, contributing 10% of the composite score. Additionally, Clinical Practice Improvement Activities (CPIA), contributing 15% of the composite score, create multiple strategic goals to design incentives that drive movement toward delivery system reform principles with inclusion of Advanced Alternative Payment Models (APMs). Under the present proposal, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has estimated approximately 30,000 to 90,000 providers from a total of over 761,000 providers will be exempt from MIPS. About 87% of solo practitioners and 70% of practitioners in groups of less than 10 will be subjected to negative payments or penalties ranging from 4% to 9%. In addition, MIPS also will affect a provider's reputation by making performance measures accessible to consumers and third-party physician rating Web sites.The MIPS composite performance scoring method, at least in theory, utilizes weights for each performance category, exceptional performance factors to earn bonuses, and incorporates the special circumstances of small practices.In conclusion, MIPS has the potential to affect practitioners negatively. Interventional Pain Medicine practitioners must understand the various MIPS measures and how they might participate in order to secure a brighter future. Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, merit-based incentive payment system, quality performance measures, resource use, clinical practice

  10. EDCTP regional networks of excellence: initial merits for planned clinical trials in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miiro, George M; Oukem-Boyer, Odile Ouwe Missi; Sarr, Ousmane; Rahmani, Maerangis; Ntoumi, Francine; Dheda, Keertan; Pym, Alexander; Mboup, Souleymane; Kaleebu, Pontiano

    2013-03-22

    Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and combating hotspots with escalating but preventable communicable diseases remain major challenges in Africa. The European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) intervened to combat poverty-related diseases including malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, and to conduct multi-centre clinical trials and multi-disciplinary health research through an innovative model of regional Networks of Excellence (NoEs). We participated in a quasi-formative evaluation between October and December 2011 on the 4 regional-led research networks. These included the: Central Africa Network on Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and Malaria (CANTAM); East African Consortium for Clinical Research (EACCR); West African Network of Excellence for TB, AIDS and Malaria (WANETAM), and the Trials of Excellence for Southern Africa (TESA) launched between 2009 and 2010. We shared a participatory appraisal of field reports, progress reports and presentations from each network to jointly outline the initial experiences of the merits, outputs and lessons learnt. The self-regulating democratic networks, with 64 institutions in 21 African countries, have trained over 1, 000 African scientists, upgraded 36 sites for clinical trials, leveraged additional € 24 million and generated 38 peer-reviewed publications through networking and partnerships. The shared initial merits and lessons learnt portray in part the strengthened capacity of these networks for improved research coordination and conduct of planned multi-center clinical trials in Africa. Increased funding by African agencies, governments and international health partners will ensure sustainability of these networks for research capacity development and demonstrate their commitment to achieving the MDGs in Africa.

  11. Nuclear Detection Figure Of Merit (NDFOM) Version 1.2 User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, Phillip D.; Dufresne, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    NDFOM is a detector database and detector evaluation system, accessible as a web service. It runs on the same server as the Patriot service, but uses port 8081. In this user's guide, we will use the example case that the patriot service is running on http://patriot.lanl.gov. Then the NDFOM service would be accessible at the URL http://patriot.lanl.gov:8081/ndfom. In addition to local server installations, common server locations are 1) a patriot server running on a virtual machine (use the virtual machine URL with :8081/ndfom), and 2) a patriot server running on a local machine (use http://localhost:8081/ndfom or http://127.0.0.1:8081/ndfom). The home screen provides panels to select detectors, a scenario, and a figure-of-merit. It also has an 'analyze' button, which will evaluate the selected figure-of-merit for the selected detectors, for the scenario selected by the user. The detector effectiveness evaluations are presented through the browser in a ranked list of detectors. The user does not need to log in to perform analysis with pre-supplied detectors, scenarios, and FOMs. The homepage view is shown in Figure 1. The first panel displays a list of the detectors in the current detector database. The user can select one, some, or all detectors to evaluate. On the right of each listed detector, there is a star icon. Clicking that icon will open a panel that displays the details about that detector, such as detector material, dimensions, thresholds, etc. The center panel displays the pre-supplied scenarios that are in the database. A scenario specifies the source of interest, the spectrum of the radiation, the background radiation spectrum, the distance or distance of closest approach, the allowable false positive rate, and the dwell time or speed. Scenario details can be obtained by clicking the star to the right of a scenario. A scenario can be selected by clicking it.

  12. Operational testing of a figure of merit for overall task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Moira

    1990-01-01

    An overall indicator or figure of merit (FOM), for the quality of pilot performance is needed to define optimal workload levels, predict system failure, measure the impact of new automation in the cockpit, and define the relative contributions of subtasks to overall task performance. A normative FOM was developed based on the calculation of a standard score for each component of a complex task. It reflected some effects, detailed in an earlier study, of the introduction of new data link technology into the cockpit. Since the technique showed promise, further testing was done. A new set of data was obtained using the recently developed Multi-Attribute Task Battery. This is a complex battery consisting of four tasks which can be varied in task demand, and on which performance measures can be obtained. This battery was presented to 12 subjects in a 20 minute trial at each of three levels of workload or task demand, and performance measures collected on all four tasks. The NASA-TLX workload rating scale was presented at minutes 6, 12, and 18, of each trial. A figure of merit was then obtained for each run of the battery by calculating a mean, SD, and standard score for each task. Each task contributed its own proportion to the overall FOM, and relative contributions changed with increasing workload. Thus, the FOM shows the effect of task changes, not only on the individual task that is changed, but also on the performance of other tasks and of the whole task. The cost to other tasks of maintaining constant performance on an individual task can be quantified.

  13. Thermoelectric-figure-of-merit enhancement of silicon-germanium through nanocomposite concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dezhi

    SiGe alloy has been the thermoelectric material element of RTGs (Radioisotope thermoelectric power generators) for more than 20 years because of its good performance at high temperature. It also has a very high potential application in converting exhaust heat into useful electricity, which currently attracts a lot of research interest in the automotive industry where 40% of the energy was rejected as exhaust heat. However, its low conversion efficiency (8%) is a major concern although it is the best in practice. A new concept, namely Si-Ge nanocomposite, was proposed to enhance thermoelectric figure-of-merit. Fast heating pressure sintering was found to be an appropriate synthesizing method and a lab-made direct current-induced hot press system was established. It can reach l200°C within several minutes and many parameters can be controlled. The uniquely designed graphite die assembly can stand l60MPa pressure which is better than the best commercial products (127MPa). Numerous Si-Ge nanocomposite samples were pressed using our DC hot press. Fully dense n-type Si-Ge nanocomposite samples of nanoSi80nanoGe20P were finally obtained. The nanocomposite structure was characterized via XRD, SEM, EDS, and TEM. The proposed nanocomposite structure, dots in a matrix, was observed. Most importantly, the thermoelectric property measurements showed that the Si-Ge nanocomposite of n-type nanoSi80nanoGe20 possessed higher electrical conductivity but lower thermal conductivity, thus a higher ZT than that of n-type nanoSi80microGe20. This result proved that thermoelectric-figure-of-merit enhancement through the nanocomposite concept was the right direction.

  14. The influence nuclear power has on corporate image and the effect of offering merit information of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiso, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    Many electric power companies in Japan, irrespective of their nuclear power generation ratio's difference, have nuclear power plants. These days, corporate brand image is becoming more and more important. Therefore, a survey was carried out to study the effect that nuclear power (including comparison with the other type of industry besides electric power) has on the corporate image of an electric power company. Further more, the survey includes a research about the effect on people's attitude change towards nuclear power before and after discovering the merits or benefits of nuclear power. The possibility of enhancing the corporate brand image of electric power companies by providing merit information of nuclear power was studied. (author)

  15. Discharge Onset Voltage Prediction for a Gas-Insulated System Via the Figure-of-Merit Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Vibholm, Svend

    1987-01-01

    The accuracy of discharge onset prediction via thefigur figure-of-merit concept for a strongly electronegative gas is examined. A coaxial system is employed, for which the inner electrode possesses a surface roughness of Ra=35 ¿m. With SF6 as the insulating medium a reference discharge......-onset characteristic is obtained for gas pressures up to 0.8 MPa. From a knowledge of this onset characteristic, the direct calculation of discharge onset voltages in other strongly electronegative gases is undertaken by utilizing thefigur figure-of-merit concept. For gas pressures in the range O.02...

  16. Anomalous enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit by V co-doping of Nb-SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Ozdogan, K.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Upadhyay Kahaly, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of V co-doping of Nb-SrTiO3 is studied by full-potential density functional theory. We obtain a stronger increase of the carrier density for V than for Nbdopants. While in Nb-SrTiO3 a high carrier density counteracts a high thermoelectric figure of merit, the trend is inverted by V co-doping. The mechanism leading to this behavior is explained in terms of a local spin-polarization introduced by the V ions. Our results indicate that magnetic co-doping can be a prominent tool for improving the thermoelectric figure of merit.

  17. Anomalous enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit by V co-doping of Nb-SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Ozdogan, K.

    2012-05-10

    The effect of V co-doping of Nb-SrTiO3 is studied by full-potential density functional theory. We obtain a stronger increase of the carrier density for V than for Nbdopants. While in Nb-SrTiO3 a high carrier density counteracts a high thermoelectric figure of merit, the trend is inverted by V co-doping. The mechanism leading to this behavior is explained in terms of a local spin-polarization introduced by the V ions. Our results indicate that magnetic co-doping can be a prominent tool for improving the thermoelectric figure of merit.

  18. Enhancement in figure-of-merit with superlattices structures for thin-film thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, R; Colpitts, T

    1997-07-01

    Thin-film superlattice (SL) structures in thermoelectric materials are shown to be a promising approach to obtaining an enhanced figure-of-merit, ZT, compared to conventional, state-of-the-art bulk alloyed materials. In this paper the authors describe experimental results on Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Si/Ge SL structures, relevant to thermoelectric cooling and power conversion, respectively. The short-period Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Si/Ge SL structures appear to indicate reduced thermal conductivities compared to alloys of these materials. From the observed behavior of thermal conductivity values in the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} SL structures, a distinction is made where certain types of periodic structures may correspond to an ordered alloy rather than an SL, and therefore, do not offer a significant reduction in thermal conductivity values. The study also indicates that SL structures, with little or weak quantum-confinement, also offer an improvement in thermoelectric power factor over conventional alloys. They present power factor and electrical transport data in the plane of the SL interfaces to provide preliminary support for the arguments on reduced alloy scattering and impurity scattering in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Si/Ge SL structures. These results, though tentative due to the possible role of the substrate and the developmental nature of the 3-{omega} method used to determine thermal conductivity values, suggest that the short-period SL structures potentially offer factorial improvements in the three-dimensional figure-of-merit (ZT3D) compared to current state-of-the-art bulk alloys. An approach to a thin-film thermoelectric device called a Bipolarity-Assembled, Series-Inter-Connected Thin-Film Thermoelectric Device (BASIC-TFTD) is introduced to take advantage of these thin-film SL structures.

  19. Theory and Applications of Covalent Docking in Drug Discovery: Merits and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiel Mathambo Kumalo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available he present art of drug discovery and design of new drugs is based on suicidal irreversible inhibitors. Covalent inhibition is the strategy that is used to achieve irreversible inhibition. Irreversible inhibitors interact with their targets in a time-dependent fashion, and the reaction proceeds to completion rather than to equilibrium. Covalent inhibitors possessed some significant advantages over non-covalent inhibitors such as covalent warheads can target rare, non-conserved residue of a particular target protein and thus led to development of highly selective inhibitors, covalent inhibitors can be effective in targeting proteins with shallow binding cleavage which will led to development of novel inhibitors with increased potency than non-covalent inhibitors. Several computational approaches have been developed to simulate covalent interactions; however, this is still a challenging area to explore. Covalent molecular docking has been recently implemented in the computer-aided drug design workflows to describe covalent interactions between inhibitors and biological targets. In this review we highlight: (i covalent interactions in biomolecular systems; (ii the mathematical framework of covalent molecular docking; (iii implementation of covalent docking protocol in drug design workflows; (iv applications covalent docking: case studies and (v shortcomings and future perspectives of covalent docking. To the best of our knowledge; this review is the first account that highlights different aspects of covalent docking with its merits and pitfalls. We believe that the method and applications highlighted in this study will help future efforts towards the design of irreversible inhibitors.

  20. Additional merit of coronal STIR imaging for MR imaging of lumbar spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Back pain is a common clinical problem and is the frequent complaint for referral of lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Coronal short tau inversion recovery sequence (STIR can provide diagnostically significant information in small percentage of patients. Materials and Methods: MRI examinations of a total of 350 patients were retrospectively included in the study. MR sequences were evaluated in two settings. One radiologist evaluated sagittal and axial images only, while another radiologist evaluated all sequences, including coronal STIR sequence. After recording the diagnoses, we compared the MRI findings in two subsets of patients to evaluate additional merit of coronal STIR imaging. Results: With addition of coronal STIR imaging, significant findings were observed in 24 subjects (6.8%. Twenty-one of these subjects were considered to be normal on other sequences and in three subjects diagnosis was changed with the addition of coronal STIR. Additional diagnoses on STIR included sacroiliitis, sacroiliac joint degenerative disease, sacral stress/insufficiency fracture/Looser′s zones, muscular sprain and atypical appendicitis. Conclusion: Coronal STIR imaging can provide additional diagnoses in a small percentage of patients presenting for lumbar spine MRI for back pain. Therefore, it should be included in the routine protocol for MR imaging of lumbar spine.

  1. Merit of Ginseng in the Treatment of Heart Failure in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the merit of ginseng in the improvement of heart failure in diabetic rats and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ. We used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ-rat to screen the effects of ginseng on cardiac performance and PPARδ expression. Changes of body weight, water intake, and food intake were compared in three groups of age-matched rats; the normal control (Wistar rats received vehicle, STZ-rats received vehicle and ginseng-treated STZ-rats. We also determined cardiac performances in addition to blood glucose level in these animals. The protein levels of PPARδ in hearts were identified using Western blotting analysis. In STZ-rats, cardiac performances were decreased but the food intake, water intake, and blood glucose were higher than the vehicle-treated control. After a 7-day treatment of ginseng in STZ-rats, cardiac output was markedly enhanced without changes in diabetic parameters. This treatment with ginseng also increased the PPARδ expression in hearts of STZ-rats. The related signal of cardiac contractility, troponin I phosphorylation, was also raised. Ginseng-induced increasing of cardiac output was reversed by the cotreatment with PPARδ antagonist GSK0660. Thus, we suggest that ginseng could improve heart failure through the increased PPARδ expression in STZ-rats.

  2. Computed a multiple band metamaterial absorber and its application based on the figure of merit value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Sheng, Yuping; Jun, Wang

    2018-01-01

    A high performed multiple band metamaterial absorber is designed and computed through the software Ansofts HFSS 10.0, which is constituted with two kinds of separated metal particles sub-structures. The multiple band absorption property of the metamaterial absorber is based on the resonance of localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes excited near edges of metal particles. The damping constant of gold layer is optimized to obtain a near-perfect absorption rate. Four kinds of dielectric layers is computed to achieve the perfect absorption perform. The perfect absorption perform of the metamaterial absorber is enhanced through optimizing the structural parameters (R = 75 nm, w = 80 nm). Moreover, a perfect absorption band is achieved because of the plasmonic hybridization phenomenon between LSP modes. The designed metamaterial absorber shows high sensitive in the changed of the refractive index of the liquid. A liquid refractive index sensor strategy is proposed based on the computed figure of merit (FOM) value of the metamaterial absorber. High FOM values (116, 111, and 108) are achieved with three liquid (Methanol, Carbon tetrachloride, and Carbon disulfide).

  3. Errors in the calculation of new salary positions and performance premiums – 2017 MERIT exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Following the receipt of the letters dated May 12th announcing the qualification of their performance (MERIT 2017), and the notification of their salary slips for the month of May, several colleagues have come to us to enquire about the calculation of salary increases and performance premiums. After verification, the Staff Association has informed the Management, in a meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on June 1st, about errors owing to rounding in the applied formulas. James Purvis, Head of HR department, has published in the CERN Bulletin dated July 18th an article, under the heading “Better precision (rounding)”, that gives a short explanation of these rounding effects. But we want to further bring you more precise explanations. Advancement On the salary slips for the month of May, the calculations of the advancement and new salary positions were done, by the services of administrative computing in the FAP department, on the basis of the salary, rounded to the nearest franc...

  4. High thermoelectric figure of merit by resonant dopant in half-Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Liu, Yamei; He, Jian; Tritt, Terry M.; Poon, S. Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Half-Heusler alloys have been one of the benchmark high temperature thermoelectric materials owing to their thermal stability and promising figure of merit ZT. Simonson et al. early showed that small amounts of vanadium doped in Hf0.75Zr0.25NiSn enhanced the Seebeck coefficient and correlated the change with the increased density of states near the Fermi level. We herein report a systematic study on the role of vanadium (V), niobium (Nb), and tantalum (Ta) as prospective resonant dopants in enhancing the ZT of n-type half-Heusler alloys based on Hf0.6Zr0.4NiSn0.995Sb0.005. The V doping was found to increase the Seebeck coefficient in the temperature range 300-1000 K, consistent with a resonant doping scheme. In contrast, Nb and Ta act as normal n-type dopants, as evident by the systematic decrease in electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient. The combination of enhanced Seebeck coefficient due to the presence of V resonant states and the reduced thermal conductivity has led to a state-of-the-art ZT of 1.3 near 850 K in n-type (Hf0.6Zr0.4)0.99V0.01NiSn0.995Sb0.005 alloys.

  5. A Figure-of-Merit for Designing High-Performance Inductive Power Transmission Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-11-16

    Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL) are two key inductive link design parameters that relate to the power source and driver specs, power loss, transmission range, robustness against misalignment, variations in loading, and interference with other devices. Designers need to strike a delicate balance between these two because designing the link to achieve high PTE will degrade the PDL and vice versa. We are proposing a new figure-of-merit (FoM), which can help designers to find out whether a two-, three-, or four-coil link is appropriate for their particular application and guide them through an iterative design procedure to reach optimal coil geometries based on how they weigh the PTE versus PDL for that application. Three design examples at three different power levels have been presented based on the proposed FoM for implantable microelectronic devices, handheld mobile devices, and electric vehicles. The new FoM suggests that the two-coil links are suitable when the coils are strongly coupled, and a large PDL is needed. Three-coil links are the best when the coils are loosely coupled, the coupling distance varies considerably, and large PDL is necessary. Finally, four-coil links are optimal when the PTE is paramount, the coils are loosely coupled, and their relative distance and alignment are stable. Measurement results support the accuracy of the theoretical design procedure and conclusions.

  6. Phase transition enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in copper chalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Brown

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available While thermoelectric materials can be used for solid state cooling, waste heat recovery, and solar electricity generation, low values of the thermoelectric figure of merit, zT, have led to an efficiency too low for widespread use. Thermoelectric effects are characterized by the Seebeck coefficient or thermopower, which is related to the entropy associated with charge transport. For example, coupling spin entropy with the presence of charge carriers has enabled the enhancement of zT in cobalt oxides. We demonstrate that the coupling of a continuous phase transition to carrier transport in Cu2Se over a broad (360–410 K temperature range results in a dramatic peak in thermopower, an increase in phonon and electron scattering, and a corresponding doubling of zT (to 0.7 at 406 K, and a similar but larger increase over a wider temperature range in the zT of Cu1.97Ag.03Se (almost 1.0 at 400 K. The use of structural entropy for enhanced thermopower could lead to new engineering approaches for thermoelectric materials with high zT and new green applications for thermoelectrics.

  7. The directivity of a compact antenna: an unforgettable figure of merit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziolkowski Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When an electrically small antenna is conceived, designed, simulated, and tested, the main emphasis is usually placed immediately on its impedance bandwidth and radiation efficiency. All too often it is assumed that its directivity will only be that of a Hertzian dipole and, hence, its directivity becomes a minor consideration. This is particularly true if such a compact antenna radiates in the presence of a large ground plane. Attention is typically focused on the radiator and its size, while the ground plane is forgotten. This has become a too frequent occurrence when antennas, such as patch antennas that have been augmented with metamaterial structures, are explored. In this paper, it is demonstrated that while the ground plane has little impact on the resonance frequency and impedance bandwidth of patch antennas or metamaterial-inspired three-dimensional magnetic EZ antennas, it has a huge impact on their directivity performance. Moreover, it is demonstrated that with both a metamaterial-inspired two-element array and a related Huygens dipole antenna, one can achieve broadside-radiating electrically small systems that have high directivities. Several common and original designs are used to highlight these issues and to emphasize why a fundamental figure of merit such as directivity should never be overlooked.

  8. Figures of Merit Software: Description, User's Guide, Installation Notes, Versions Description, and License Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    hoelzer, H. D.; Fourroux, K. A.; Rickman, D. L.; Schrader, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Figures of Merit (FoMs) and the FoM software provide a method for quantitatively evaluating the quality of a regolith simulant by comparing the simulant to a reference material. FoMs may be used for comparing a simulant to actual regolith material, specification by stating the value a simulant s FoMs must attain to be suitable for a given application and comparing simulants from different vendors or production runs. FoMs may even be used to compare different simulants to each other. A single FoM is conceptually an algorithm that computes a single number for quantifying the similarity or difference of a single characteristic of a simulant material and a reference material and provides a clear measure of how well a simulant and reference material match or compare. FoMs have been constructed to lie between zero and 1, with zero indicating a poor or no match and 1 indicating a perfect match. FoMs are defined for modal composition, particle size distribution, particle shape distribution, (aspect ratio and angularity), and density. This TM covers the mathematics, use, installation, and licensing for the existing FoM code in detail.

  9. High-performance piezoelectric nanogenerators for self-powered nanosystems: quantitative standards and figures of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenzhuo

    2016-03-01

    Harvesting energies from the atmosphere cost-effectively is critical for both addressing worldwide long-term energy needs at the macro-scale, and achieving the sustainable maintenance-free operation of nanodevices at the micro-scale (Wang and Wu 2012 Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51 11700-21). Piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) technology has demonstrated its great application potential in harvesting the ubiquitous and abundant mechanical energy. Despite of the progress made in this rapidly-advancing field, a fundamental understanding and common standard for consistently quantifying and evaluating the performance of the various types of piezoelectric NGs is still lacking. In their recent study Crossley and Kar-Narayan (2015 Nanotechnology 26 344001), systematically investigated dynamical properties of piezoelectric NGs by taking into account the effect of driving mechanism and load frequency on NG performance. They further defined the NGs’ figures of merit as energy harvested normalized by applied strain or stress for NGs under strain-driven or stress-driven conditions, which are commonly seen in the vibrational energy harvesting. This work provides new insight and a feasible approach for consistently evaluating piezoelectric nanomaterials and NG devices, which is important for designing and optimizing nanoscale piezoelectric energy harvesters, as well as promoting their applications in emerging areas e.g. the internet of things, wearable devices, and self-powered nanosystems.

  10. Electrical properties and figures of merit for new chalcogenide-based thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, J L; Hogan, T P; Brazis, P W; Kannewurf, C R; Chung, D Y; Kanatzidis, M G

    1997-07-01

    New Bi-based chalcogenide compounds have been prepared using the polychalcogenide flux technique for crystal growth. These materials exhibit characteristics of good thermoelectric materials. Single crystals of the compound CsBi{sub 4}Te{sub 6} have shown conductivity as high as 2440 S/cm with a p-type thermoelectric power of {approx}+110 {micro}V/K at room temperature. A second compound, {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} shows lower conductivity {approx}240 S/cm, but a larger n-type thermopower {approx}{minus}200 {micro}V/K. Thermal transport measurements have been performed on hot-pressed pellets of these materials and the results show comparable or lower thermal conductivities than Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. This improvement may reflect the reduced lattice symmetry of the new chalcogenide thermoelectrics. The thermoelectric figure of merit for CsBi{sub 4}Te{sub 6} reaches ZT {approx} 0.32 at 260 K and for {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} ZT {approx} 0.32 at room temperature, indicating that these compounds are viable candidates for thermoelectric refrigeration applications.

  11. MERIT - The high intensity liquid mercury target experiment at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Efthymiopoulos, I

    2009-01-01

    The MERIT experiment is a proof-of-principle test of a target system for high power proton beams to be used as front-end for a Neutrino Factory complex or a Muon Collider. The experiment took data in autumn 2007 with the fast extracted beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to a maximum intensity of about 30 × 1012 protons per pulse. The target system, based on a free mercury jet, allowed investigation of the interseption of a 4-MW proton beam inside a 15-T magnetic field required to capture the low-energy secondary pions as the source of the required intense muon beams. Particle detectors have been installed around the target setup to measure the secondary particle flux out of the target and probe cavitation effects in the mercury jet when exited with a beam of variable intensity. With the analysis of the data ongoing, results will be presented here that demonstrate the validity of the liquid target concept.

  12. Analytical model and figures of merit for filtered Microwave Photonic Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasulla, Ivana; Capmany, José

    2011-09-26

    The concept of filtered Microwave Photonic Links is proposed in order to provide the most general and versatile description of complex analog photonic systems. We develop a field propagation model where a global optical filter, characterized by its optical transfer function, embraces all the intermediate optical components in a linear link. We assume a non-monochromatic light source characterized by an arbitrary spectral distribution which has a finite linewidth spectrum and consider both intensity modulation and phase modulation with balanced and single detection. Expressions leading to the computation of the main figures of merit concerning the link gain, noise and intermodulation distortion are provided which, to our knowledge, are not available in the literature. The usefulness of this derivation resides in the capability to directly provide performance criteria results for complex links just by substituting in the overall closed-form formulas the numerical or measured optical transfer function characterizing the link. This theory is presented thus as a potential tool for a wide range of relevant microwave photonic application cases which is extendable to multiport radio over fiber systems. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. An initial test of a normative Figure Of Merit for the quality of overall task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Moira; Comstock, J. R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An overall indicator, or Figure Of Merit (FOM), of the quality of crew/vehicle system performance is needed to establish the effect of workload on efficiency and to identify overload conditions. A normative FOM is proposed in which performance is measured on a representative task and a normative data base obtained. FOMs for subsequent executions of the task are then reported in terms of weighted deviations from average task performance. Performance of discrete tasks is measured primarily in terms of subtask time and errors. Discrete task performance is then combined with a measure of continuous vehicle control. In order to test the normative FOM procedure, the technique was applied to an existing set of data from a simulated landing task in which standard communications with ATC was compared with a data link communications system. The results indicated that while mean task performance was not affected, task variability, as measured by the FOM, was significantly higher when data link communications were used. In order to establish the sensitivity of the normative FOM method, further testing of the measure is recommended.

  14. The effects of demand uncertainty on strategic gaming in the merit-order electricity pool market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frem, Bassam

    In a merit-order electricity pool market, generating companies (Gencos) game with their offered incremental cost to meet the electricity demand and earn bigger market shares and higher profits. However when the demand is treated as a random variable instead of as a known constant, these Genco gaming strategies become more complex. After a brief introduction of electricity markets and gaming, the effects of demand uncertainty on strategic gaming are studied in two parts: (1) Demand modelled as a discrete random variable (2) Demand modelled as a continuous random variable. In the first part, we proposed an algorithm, the discrete stochastic strategy (DSS) algorithm that generates a strategic set of offers from the perspective of the Gencos' profits. The DSS offers were tested and compared to the deterministic Nash equilibrium (NE) offers based on the predicted demand. This comparison, based on the expected Genco profits, showed the DSS to be a better strategy in a probabilistic sense than the deterministic NE. In the second part, we presented three gaming strategies: (1) Deterministic NE (2) No-Risk (3) Risk-Taking. The strategies were then tested and their profit performances were compared using two assessment tools: (a) Expected value and standard deviation (b) Inverse cumulative distribution. We concluded that despite yielding higher profit performance under the right conjectures, Risk-Taking strategies are very sensitive to incorrect conjectures on the competitors' gaming decisions. As such, despite its lower profit performance, the No-Risk strategy was deemed preferable.

  15. Faraday rotation and magneto-optical figure of merit for the magnetite magnetic fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalandadze L.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, using magnetite magnetic fluids as examples, we consider the optical and magneto-optical properties of magnetic fluids based on particles of magnetic oxides, for the optical constants of the material of which, n and k , the relation k2 ≺≺ n2 holds. In this work the Faraday rotation is represented within the theoretical Maxwell-Garnett model. A theoretical analysis has shown that Faraday rotation for magnetic fluids is related to the Faraday rotation on the material of particles by the simple relation. According to this result  in specific experimental conditions the values of the Faraday rotation prorate to q , which is the occupancy of the volume of the magnetic fluid with magnetic particles and spectral dependences of effect in magnetic fluid and in the proper bulk magnetic are similar. We also show that the values of the magneto-optical figure of merit for ultrafine medium and for the bulk material are equal.

  16. Paper Prototyping: The Surplus Merit of a Multi-Method Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bettina Linek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a multi-method approach for usability testing. The approach combines paper prototyping and think-aloud with two supplemental methods: advanced scribbling and a handicraft task. The method of advanced scribbling instructs the participants to use different colors for marking important, unnecessary and confusing elements in a paper prototype. In the handicraft task the participants have to tinker a paper prototype of their wish version. Both methods deliver additional information on the needs and expectations of the potential users and provide helpful indicators for clarifying complex or contradictory findings. The multi-method approach and its surplus benefit are illustrated by a pilot study on the redesign of the homepage of a library 2.0. The findings provide positive evidence for the applicability of the advanced scribbling and the handicraft task as well as for the surplus merit of the multi-method approach. The article closes with a discussion and outlook. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150379

  17. Measuring Student Growth within a Merit-Pay Evaluation System: Perceived Effects on Music Teacher Motivation Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Angela

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study, music teachers from a large school district were randomly assigned to one of two hypothetical conditions reflecting different methods for measuring student growth under a merit pay compensation system. In Scenario A, half of a teacher's effectiveness rating was based on student standardized test scores in reading,…

  18. A Comparison of Individual and School Level Approaches to Merit Pay: A Case Study of the Dade County Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.; And Others

    This policy study discusses two models of merit pay programs enacted in Florida: the Florida Meritorious Teacher Program and the Quality Instruction Incentives Program (QUIIP). Using the Motivation-Hygiene Theory (Herzberg et al.) as a theoretical framework, each program was analyzed from the perspective of how it worked as a motivator and source…

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2011 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satypal, S.

    2011-09-01

    This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the FY 2011 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held May 9-13, 2011 in Arlington, Virginia

  20. State Merit-Based Aid and Enrolling in Graduate Study: Evidence from the Kentucky Educational Excellence Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the effect of a state merit-based aid program for undergraduate students on subsequent enrollment in graduate school. It uses student unit record data to analyze the impact of the Kentucky Educational Excellence Scholarship (KEES). Price theory is used as a framework for understanding the incentives provided by KEES. Using a…

  1. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  2. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are computational optimisation schemes with an ... The algorithms solve optimisation problems ..... Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimisation and Machine. Learning, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1989.

  3. From Genetics to Genetic Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    artificial genetic system) string feature or ... called the genotype whereas it is called a structure in artificial genetic ... assigned a fitness value based on the cost function. Better ..... way it has produced complex, intelligent living organisms capable of ...

  4. The equivalent width as a figure of merit for XPS narrow scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bhupinder; Velázquez, Daniel; Terry, Jeff; Linford, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We introduce a new figure of merit for XPS narrow scans: the equivalent width (EW XPS ). • EW XPS is less subjective and involves lesser user bias than traditional peak fitting. • EW XPS is responsive to changes in chemical states of materials. • EW XPS could be used for quality control and comparing spectra from similar samples. • EW XPS has the potential to be part of an expert software system for machine interpretation of spectra. - Abstract: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a widely used surface analytical tool that provides information about the near surface regions of materials. And while indispensable for XPS data analysis, peak fitting of narrow scans is often a fairly subjective exercise. Herein we introduce the equivalent width (EW) as an additional and less subjective figure of merit for XPS narrow scans. We believe that this parameter will prove particularly useful for analyzing series of similar or nominally identical spectra, perhaps as a component of an expert software system for the machine interpretation of spectra. It also appears to be useful, shedding light on the chemical state of materials, when additional information about a sample is known. The EW XPS is simply defined as the area of a narrow scan divided by the height of the maximum of its peak envelope. To limit any ambiguity in EW XPS for a series of spectra, we may also list the peak position of the maximum of the envelope (PE max ). The potential usefulness and limitations of the EW XPS and PE max parameters are demonstrated by their application to the narrow scans of: (i) four sets of ozone-treated carbon nanotubes (EW XPS ∼ 2.11–2.16 eV for a Shirley background, and up to 2.88 eV for no background, PE max ∼ 284.4–284.5 eV), (ii) a series of silicon wafers with different oxide thicknesses (EW XPS ∼ 1.5–2.8 eV, PE max ∼ 99–103 eV), (iii) hydrogen-terminated silicon before and after derivatization with pentyl groups, and after annealing of

  5. The equivalent width as a figure of merit for XPS narrow scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupinder [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, C-100 BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Velázquez, Daniel [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Terry, Jeff, E-mail: terryj@iit.edu [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Linford, Matthew R., E-mail: mrlinford@chem.byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, C-100 BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We introduce a new figure of merit for XPS narrow scans: the equivalent width (EW{sub XPS}). • EW{sub XPS} is less subjective and involves lesser user bias than traditional peak fitting. • EW{sub XPS} is responsive to changes in chemical states of materials. • EW{sub XPS} could be used for quality control and comparing spectra from similar samples. • EW{sub XPS} has the potential to be part of an expert software system for machine interpretation of spectra. - Abstract: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is a widely used surface analytical tool that provides information about the near surface regions of materials. And while indispensable for XPS data analysis, peak fitting of narrow scans is often a fairly subjective exercise. Herein we introduce the equivalent width (EW) as an additional and less subjective figure of merit for XPS narrow scans. We believe that this parameter will prove particularly useful for analyzing series of similar or nominally identical spectra, perhaps as a component of an expert software system for the machine interpretation of spectra. It also appears to be useful, shedding light on the chemical state of materials, when additional information about a sample is known. The EW{sub XPS} is simply defined as the area of a narrow scan divided by the height of the maximum of its peak envelope. To limit any ambiguity in EW{sub XPS} for a series of spectra, we may also list the peak position of the maximum of the envelope (PE{sub max}). The potential usefulness and limitations of the EW{sub XPS} and PE{sub max} parameters are demonstrated by their application to the narrow scans of: (i) four sets of ozone-treated carbon nanotubes (EW{sub XPS} ∼ 2.11–2.16 eV for a Shirley background, and up to 2.88 eV for no background, PE{sub max} ∼ 284.4–284.5 eV), (ii) a series of silicon wafers with different oxide thicknesses (EW{sub XPS} ∼ 1.5–2.8 eV, PE{sub max} ∼ 99–103 eV), (iii) hydrogen-terminated silicon before

  6. Merit-Based Incentive Payment System: Meaningful Changes in the Final Rule Brings Cautious Optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm Ii, Standiford; Calodney, Aaron K; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2017-01-01

    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) eliminated the flawed Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) act formula - a longstanding crucial issue of concern for health care providers and Medicare beneficiaries. MACRA also included a quality improvement program entitled, "The Merit-Based Incentive Payment System, or MIPS." The proposed rule of MIPS sought to streamline existing federal quality efforts and therefore linked 4 distinct programs into one. Three existing programs, meaningful use (MU), Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), value-based payment (VBP) system were merged with the addition of Clinical Improvement Activity category. The proposed rule also changed the name of MU to Advancing Care Information, or ACI. ACI contributes to 25% of composite score of the four programs, PQRS contributes 50% of the composite score, while VBP system, which deals with resource use or cost, contributes to 10% of the composite score. The newest category, Improvement Activities or IA, contributes 15% to the composite score. The proposed rule also created what it called a design incentive that drives movement to delivery system reform principles with the inclusion of Advanced Alternative Payment Models (APMs).Following the release of the proposed rule, the medical community, as well as Congress, provided substantial input to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS),expressing their concern. American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) focused on 3 important aspects: delay the implementation, provide a 3-month performance period, and provide ability to submit meaningful quality measures in a timely and economic manner. The final rule accepted many of the comments from various organizations, including several of those specifically emphasized by ASIPP, with acceptance of 3-month reporting period, as well as the ability to submit non-MIPS measures to improve real quality and make the system meaningful. CMS also provided a mechanism for

  7. The MERIT High-Power Target Experiment at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, K T; Park, H; Tsang, T; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fabich, A; Haug, F; Lettry, J; Palm, M; Pereira, H; Mokhov, N; Striganov, S; Carroll, A J; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; Bennett, J R J; Caretta, O; Loveridge, P

    2010-01-01

    The MERIT (MER­cury In­tense Tar­get) ex­per­i­ment was run in the fall of 2007 using 14 and 24 GeV in­tense pro­ton beams from the CERN PS. It is a proof-of-prin­ci­ple ex­per­i­ment de­signed to val­i­date a tar­get con­cept for pro­duc­ing an in­tense muon source for a fu­ture muon col­lid­er or neu­tri­no fac­to­ry. The ex­per­i­ment suc­cess­ful­ly demon­strat­ed a tar­get tech­nique for mul­ti-MW pro­ton beams that uti­lizes a free-flow­ing liq­uid metal jet with­in the con­fines of a high-field solenoid. We de­scribe the ex­per­i­men­tal strat­e­gy and pa­ram­e­ters, as well as the re­sults ob­tained and their im­pli­ca­tions for fu­ture muon-based ac­cel­er­a­tor fa­cil­i­ties.

  8. Strategic Genco offers in electric energy markets cleared by merit order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Ebrahim A. Rahman

    In an electricity market cleared by merit-order economic dispatch we identify necessary and sufficient conditions under which the market outcomes supported by pure strategy Nash equilibria (NE) exist when generating companies (Gencos) game through continuously variable incremental cost (IC) block offers. A Genco may own any number of units, each unit having multiple blocks with each block being offered at a constant IC. Next, a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) scheme devoid of approximations or iterations is developed to identify all possible NE. The MILP scheme is systematic and general but computationally demanding for large systems. Thus, an alternative significantly faster lambda-iterative approach that does not require the use of MILP was also developed. Once all NE are found, one critical question is to identify the one whose corresponding gaming strategy may be considered by all Gencos as being the most rational. To answer this, this thesis proposes the use of a measure based on the potential profit gain and loss by each Genco for each NE. The most rational offer strategy for each Genco in terms of gaming or not gaming that best meets their risk/benefit expectations is the one corresponding to the NE with the largest gain to loss ratio. The computation of all NE is tested on several systems of up to ninety generating units, each with four incremental cost blocks. These NE are then used to examine how market power is influenced by market parameters, specifically, the number of competing Gencos, their size and true ICs, as well as the level of demand and price cap.

  9. About Genetic Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clinical care in many areas of medicine. Assisted Reproductive Technology/Infertility Genetics Cancer Genetics Cardiovascular Genetics Cystic Fibrosis Genetics Fetal Intervention and Therapy Genetics Hematology Genetics Metabolic Genetics ...

  10. An approximate multitrait model for genetic evaluation in dairy cattle with a robust estimation of genetic trends (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madsen Per

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a stochastic simulation study of a dairy cattle population three multitrait models for estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values were compared. The first model was an approximate multitrait model using a two-step procedure. The first step was a single trait model for all traits. The solutions for fixed effects from these analyses were subtracted from the phenotypes. A multitrait model only containing an overall mean, an additive genetic and a residual term was applied on these preadjusted data. The second model was similar to the first model, but the multitrait model also contained a year effect. The third model was a full multitrait model. Genetic trends for total merit and for the individual traits in the breeding goal were compared for the three scenarios to rank the models. The full multitrait model gave the highest genetic response, but was not significantly better than the approximate multitrait model including a year effect. The inclusion of a year effect into the second step of the approximate multitrait model significantly improved the genetic trend for total merit. In this study, estimation of genetic parameters for breeding value estimation using models corresponding to the ones used for prediction of breeding values increased the accuracy on the breeding values and thereby the genetic progress.

  11. How Money Helps Keep Students in College: The Relationship between Family Finances, Merit-Based Aid, and Retention in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrecht, Alexandre M.; Romano, Christopher; Teigen, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we leverage detailed, individual-level student data to understand the relationships between family finances, merit-based aid, and first-year student retention. With three cohorts of student data that comprise family financial status, institutional merit scholarships, and many of the other known correlates of student retention, we…

  12. Environmental Science and Engineering Merit Badges: An Exploratory Case Study of a Non-Formal Science Education Program and the U.S. Scientific and Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Matthew E.; Garvey, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America's Environmental Science and Engineering merit badges are two of their over 120 merit badges offered as a part of a non-formal educational program to U.S. boys. The Scientific and Engineering Practices of the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards provide a vision of science education that includes integrating eight…

  13. Examining the Impact of a Highly Targeted State Administered Merit Aid Program on Brain Drain: Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis of Missouri's Bright Flight Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James R.; Muñoz, José; Curs, Bradley R.; Ehlert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of state-funded merit-based aid programs has become increasingly popular among policy-makers, particularly in the southeastern part of the United States. One of the primary rationales of state-funded merit-based aid is to provide scholarships to the best and brightest students as a means to retain high quality human capital in the…

  14. The influence of genetic selection and feed system on the reproductive performance of spring-calving dairy cows within future pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2009-10-01

    Three genetic groups of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were established from within the Moorepark (Teagasc, Ireland) dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of the Irish national average-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNA, high-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNZ, high-genetic-merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Genetic merit in this study was based on the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index. Animals from within each genetic group were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible post-European Union-milk-quota pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark (MP) pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genetic group, FS, and the interaction between genetic group and FS on reproductive performance, body weight, body condition score, and blood metabolite concentrations were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genetic groups and FS. Odds ratios were used in the analysis of binary fertility traits, and survival analysis was used in the analysis of survival after first calving. When treatment means were compared, the HighNA and HighNZ genotypes (with greater genetic merit for fertility performance) had greater first-service pregnancy rates and had a greater proportion of cows pregnant after 42 d of the breeding season than the LowNA group. Both HighNA and HighNZ genotypes were submitted for artificial insemination earlier in the breeding season and had greater survival than the LowNA genotype. There was no significant FS or genotype by FS interactions for any of the reproductive

  15. Efficacy and safety of maraviroc versus efavirenz, both with zidovudine/lamivudine: 96-week results from the MERIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Madero, Juan; Di Perri, Giovanni; Wood, Robin; Saag, Michael; Frank, Ian; Craig, Charles; Burnside, Robert; McCracken, Jennifer; Pontani, Dennis; Goodrich, James; Heera, Jayvant; Mayer, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The MERIT study evaluated maraviroc versus efavirenz, both with zidovudine/lamivudine, in treatment-naïve patients with CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1. Post hoc analyses previously assessed week 48 outcomes in patients rescreened with R5 virus by a more sensitive tropism assay. Week 96 efficacy (post hoc, n = 614) and safety (n = 721) were assessed. Proportions of subjects <50 copies/mL (58.8% maraviroc, 62.7% efavirenz) and time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR) responders (<50 copies/mL: 60.5% vs 60.7%) were similar. Maraviroc recipients had greater CD4 increases (+ 212 vs + 171 cells/mm(3)) and fewer adverse event discontinuations (6.1% vs 15.5%), malignancies, and category C events. Week 96 data confirm week 48 observations in MERIT.

  16. High room-temperature figure of merit of thin layers prepared by laser ablation from Bi2Te3 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walachova, J.; Zeipl, R.; Zelinka, J.; Malina, V.; Pavelka, M.; Jelinek, M.; Studnicka, V.; Lost'ak, P.

    2005-01-01

    The figure of merit ZT is measured by a Harman method on simple devices prepared on single thermoelectric layers of different thicknesses. The thermoelectric layers are prepared at different conditions by laser ablation from Bi 2 Te 3 target. The best measured figure of merit ZT is for our devices ZT=2.65. This result is comparable with the results obtained on superlattices. ZT oscillated with the thickness of the layers. On some devices the Seebeck coefficient is measured and using conductivity measurements along the thermoelectric layers the thermal conductivity is estimated from ZT. The low thermal conductivity of samples is explained by the quantum size effect and by existence of few phases of type Bi 2(m+n) Te 3n in the thermoelectric layers

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2017 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Neil A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-18

    The fiscal year 2017 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June June 5-9, 2017, in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  18. Aid allocation through various official and private channels: need, merit and self-interest as motives of German donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nunnenkamp, Peter; Öhler, Hannes

    2009-01-01

    Previous literature largely ignores the heterogeneity of aid channels used by each single donor country. We estimate Tobit models to assess the relative importance of recipient need, recipient merit and self-interest of donors for various channels of official and private German aid across a large sample of recipient countries in 2005-2007. Our findings strongly underscore the need for a disaggregated analysis of aid allocation. Aid channels differ significantly in the extent to which need and...

  19. Kas õpetajad on teie kaudu tööd otsinud? / Natalija Gansen, Merit Laan, Ilmar Kütt... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad: Eesti töötukassa Tallinna ja Harjumaa osakonna teenusekonsultant Natalija Gansen, Eesti töötukassa Viljandimaa osakonna juhataja Merit Laan, Viljandi maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Ilmar Kütt, CV-Online Estonia OÜ värbamisspetsialist Ivika Born, Lääne-Viru maavalitsuse haridus- ja sotsiaalosakonna vanemspetsialist Tiina Halling ja Valga maavalitsuse haridus- ja kultuuritalituse juhataja Kalle Vister

  20. AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RELIABLE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICE APPROACHES: ECONOMIC AND NON-PROLIFERATION MERITS OF NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; Brothers, Alan J.; Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of international nuclear policy since the dawn of nuclear power has been the peaceful expansion of nuclear energy while controlling the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology. Numerous initiatives undertaken in the intervening decades to develop international agreements on providing nuclear fuel supply assurances, or reliable nuclear fuel services (RNFS) attempted to control the spread of sensitive nuclear materials and technology. In order to inform the international debate and the development of government policy, PNNL has been developing an analytical framework to holistically evaluate the economics and non-proliferation merits of alternative approaches to managing the nuclear fuel cycle (i.e., cradle-to-grave). This paper provides an overview of the analytical framework and discusses preliminary results of an economic assessment of one RNFS approach: full-service nuclear fuel leasing. The specific focus of this paper is the metrics under development to systematically evaluate the non-proliferation merits of fuel-cycle management alternatives. Also discussed is the utility of an integrated assessment of the economics and non-proliferation merits of nuclear fuel leasing.

  1. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  2. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  3. Genetic Romanticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro

    2016-01-01

    inheritance as a way to unify populations within politically and geographically bounded areas. Thus, new genetics have contributed to the development of genetic romanticisms, whereby populations (human, plant, and animal) can be delineated and mobilized through scientific and medical practices to represent...

  4. Figure of merit for dark energy constraints from current observational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun

    2008-01-01

    In order to make useful comparisons of different dark energy experiments, it is important to choose the appropriate figure of merit (FoM) for dark energy constraints. Here we show that for a set of dark energy parameters (f i ), it is most intuitive to define FoM=1/√(detCov(f 1 ,f 2 ,f 3 ,...)), where Cov(f 1 ,f 2 ,f 3 ,...) is the covariance matrix of (f i ). In order for this FoM to represent the dark energy constraints in an optimal manner, the dark energy parameters (f i ) should have clear physical meaning and be minimally correlated. We demonstrate two useful choices of (f i ) using 182 SNe Ia (from the HST/GOODS program, the first year Supernova Legacy Survey, and nearby SN Ia surveys), [R(z * ),l a (z * ),Ω b h 2 ] from the five year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, assuming the Hubble Space Telescope prior of H 0 =72±8 (km/s) Mpc -1 , and without assuming spatial flatness. We find that for a dark energy equation of state linear in the cosmic scale factor a, the correlation of (w 0 ,w 0.5 ) [w 0 =w X (z=0), w 0.5 =w X (z=0.5), with w X (a)=3w 0.5 -2w 0 +3(w 0 -w 0.5 )a] is significantly smaller than that of (w 0 ,w a ) [with w X (a)=w 0 +(1-a)w a ]. In order to obtain model-independent constraints on dark energy, we parametrize the dark energy density function X(z)=ρ X (z)/ρ X (0) as a free function with X 0.5 , X 1.0 , and X 1.5 [values of X(z) at z=0.5, 1.0, and 1.5] as free parameters estimated from data. If one assumes a linear dark energy equation of state, current observational data are consistent with a cosmological constant at 68% C.L. If one assumes X(z) to be a free function parametrized by (X 0.5 ,X 1.0 ,X 1.5 ), current data deviate from a cosmological constant at z=1 at 68% C.L., but are consistent with a cosmological constant at 95% C.L. Future dark energy experiments will allow us to dramatically increase the FoM of constraints on (w 0

  5. Assessment of the relative merits of a few methods to detect evolutionary trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Michel

    2010-12-01

    Some of the most basic questions about the history of life concern evolutionary trends. These include determining whether or not metazoans have become more complex over time, whether or not body size tends to increase over time (the Cope-Depéret rule), or whether or not brain size has increased over time in various taxa, such as mammals and birds. Despite the proliferation of studies on such topics, assessment of the reliability of results in this field is hampered by the variability of techniques used and the lack of statistical validation of these methods. To solve this problem, simulations are performed using a variety of evolutionary models (gradual Brownian motion, speciational Brownian motion, and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck), with or without a drift of variable amplitude, with variable variance of tips, and with bounds placed close or far from the starting values and final means of simulated characters. These are used to assess the relative merits (power, Type I error rate, bias, and mean absolute value of error on slope estimate) of several statistical methods that have recently been used to assess the presence of evolutionary trends in comparative data. Results show widely divergent performance of the methods. The simple, nonphylogenetic regression (SR) and variance partitioning using phylogenetic eigenvector regression (PVR) with a broken stick selection procedure have greatly inflated Type I error rate (0.123-0.180 at a 0.05 threshold), which invalidates their use in this context. However, they have the greatest power. Most variants of Felsenstein's independent contrasts (FIC; five of which are presented) have adequate Type I error rate, although two have a slightly inflated Type I error rate with at least one of the two reference trees (0.064-0.090 error rate at a 0.05 threshold). The power of all contrast-based methods is always much lower than that of SR and PVR, except under Brownian motion with a strong trend and distant bounds. Mean absolute value of error

  6. Genetic architecture of gene expression in ovine skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette Johanna Antonia; Byrne, Keren; Vuocolo, Tony

    2011-01-01

    architecture to the gene expression data, which also discriminated the sire-based Estimated Breeding Value for the trait. An integrated systems biology approach was then used to identify the major functional pathways contributing to the genetics of enhanced muscling by using both Estimated Breeding Value...... has potential, amongst other mechanisms, to alter gene expression via cis- or trans-acting mechanisms in a manner that impacts the functional activities of specific pathways that contribute to muscling traits. By integrating sire-based genetic merit information for a muscling trait with progeny...

  7. Milk production and composition, and progeny performance in young ewes with high merit for rapid growth and muscle and fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, C A; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Bencini, R; Thompson, A N

    2018-02-26

    In ewe lambs, acceleration of growth and accumulation of both muscle and fat leads to earlier sexual maturity and better reproductive performance. The next stage in the development of this theme is to test whether these aspects of growth in young ewes affect milk production in their first lactation and the growth of their first progeny. We studied 75 young Merino ewes that had known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT), and known Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning weight (PWT) and depths of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). They lambed for the first time at 1 year of age. Their lambs were weighed weekly from birth to weaning at 10 weeks to determine live weight gain and weaning weight. Progeny birth weight was positively associated with live weight gain and weaning weight (P0.05). The PWT of the sire was positively associated with live weight gain (P0.05). The concentrations of fat, protein, lactose and total solids in the milk were not affected by the phenotype or genotype of the mothers or of the sires of the mothers, or by the sex of the progeny (P>0.05). We conclude that selection of young Merino ewes for better growth, and more rapid accumulation of muscle and fat, will lead to progeny that are heavier at birth, grow faster and are heavier at weaning. Moreover, milk production and composition do not seem to be affected by the genetic merit of the mother for post-weaning live weight or PEMD or PFAT. Therefore, Merino ewes can lamb at 1 year of age without affecting the production objectives of the Merino sheep industry.

  8. Genetic parameters and genetic and phenotypic trends of performance traits of equines from the Brazilian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Almeida Dornelles

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the magnitude of genetic parameters (coefficients of heritability and genetic correlation as estimated by the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML method and Bayesian Inference, and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic trends to the traits height at the withers (HW24 and weight at 24 months of age (W24. The average heritability estimated by Bayesian Inference to HW24 was 0.47, and it was lower than that obtained by REML bi-trait analysis (0.52; however, the value estimated to W24 (0.39 was higher than that obtained by REML bi-trait analysis (0.38. The genetic correlation estimate between W24 and HW24 traits obtained by the REML method (0.66 was lower than that obtained by the Bayesian Inference Method (0.72. From the regression of the average additive genetic merit in the year of birth of the animals, it was found that the averaged genetic values of the animals for HW24 showed a genetic trend near zero (-0.0008cm/year, and the averaged genetic values for W24 showed a negative trend of -0.38 kg/year. The values to the direct heritability estimated for HW24 and W24 suggest that the direct selection for these traits can provide genetic gain in this population. The genetic correlation between the traits, high and positive, suggests that the selection for HW24 should promote increase in W24 at this age. The genetic trends obtained for the traits studied, near zero, indicate that the selection performed produced a slight reduction of the weight of the animals at 24 months of age; however, it did not promote increase in height at the wither at this same age, in this population.

  9. Evolutionary genetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maynard Smith, John

    1989-01-01

    .... It differs from other textbooks of population genetics in applying the basic theory to topics, such as social behaviour, molecular evolution, reiterated DNA, and sex, which are the main subjects...

  10. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  11. Arthropod Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalde, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on arthropod genetics that involves phenotype and genotype identification of the creature and the construction process. Includes a list of required materials and directions to build a model arthropod. (YDS)

  12. Relations between the efficiency, power and dissipation for linear irreversible heat engine at maximum trade-off figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyappan, I.; Ponmurugan, M.

    2018-03-01

    A trade of figure of merit (\\dotΩ ) criterion accounts the best compromise between the useful input energy and the lost input energy of the heat devices. When the heat engine is working at maximum \\dotΩ criterion its efficiency increases significantly from the efficiency at maximum power. We derive the general relations between the power, efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion and minimum dissipation for the linear irreversible heat engine. The efficiency at maximum \\dotΩ criterion has the lower bound \

  13. [New International Classification of Chronic Pancreatitis (M-ANNHEIM multifactor classification system, 2007): principles, merits, and demerits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimmerman, Ia S

    2008-01-01

    The new International Classification of Chronic Pancreatitis (designated as M-ANNHEIM) proposed by a group of German specialists in late 2007 is reviewed. All its sections are subjected to analysis (risk group categories, clinical stages and phases, variants of clinical course, diagnostic criteria for "established" and "suspected" pancreatitis, instrumental methods and functional tests used in the diagnosis, evaluation of the severity of the disease using a scoring system, stages of elimination of pain syndrome). The new classification is compared with the earlier classification proposed by the author. Its merits and demerits are discussed.

  14. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, 2013 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-10-01

    The fiscal year (FY) 2013 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from May 13-16, 2013, at the Crystal City Marriott and Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).

  15. Custom Hardware Processor to Compute a Figure of Merit for the Fit of X-Ray Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Pulido, P.J.A.; Vega-Rodriguez, M.A.; Sanchez-Perez, J.M.; Sanchez-Bajo, F.; Santos, S.P.D.

    2008-01-01

    A custom processor based on re configurable hardware technology is proposed in order to compute the figure of merit used to measure the quality of the fit of X-ray diffraction peaks. As the experimental X-ray profiles can present many peaks severely overlapped, it is necessary to select the best model among a large set of reasonably good solutions. Determining the best solution is computationally intensive, because this is a hard combinatorial optimization problem. The proposed processors, working in parallel, increase the performance relative to a software implementation.

  16. Desktop Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Soren H; Ajetunmobi, Ayokunmi; Brody, Leigh; Humphryes-Kirilov, Neil; Perello, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Desktop Genetics is a bioinformatics company building a gene-editing platform for personalized medicine. The company works with scientists around the world to design and execute state-of-the-art clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) experiments. Desktop Genetics feeds the lessons learned about experimental intent, single-guide RNA design and data from international genomics projects into a novel CRISPR artificial intelligence system. We believe that machine learni...

  17. Blue moon neurovirology: the merits of studying rare CNS diseases of viral origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lauren A; Rall, Glenn F

    2010-09-01

    While measles virus (MV) continues to have a significant impact on human health, causing 150,000-200,000 deaths worldwide each year, the number of fatalities that can be attributed to MV-triggered central nervous system (CNS) diseases are on the order of a few hundred individuals annually (World Health Organization 2009). Despite this modest impact, substantial effort has been expended to understand the basis of measles-triggered neuropathogenesis. What can be gained by studying such a rare condition? Simply stated, the wealth of studies in this field have revealed core principles that are relevant to multiple neurotropic pathogens, and that inform the broader field of viral pathogenesis. In recent years, the emergence of powerful in vitro systems, novel animal models, and reverse genetics has enabled insights into the basis of MV persistence, the complexity of MV interactions with neurons and the immune system, and the role of immune and CNS development in virus-triggered disease. In this review, we highlight some key advances, link relevant measles-based studies to the broader disciplines of neurovirology and viral pathogenesis, and propose future areas of study for the field of measles-mediated neurological disease.

  18. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  19. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  20. Figure of merit comparison of PP-based electret and PVDF-based piezoelectric polymer energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrlík, M.; Leadenham, S.; AlMaadeed, M. A.; Erturk, A.

    2016-04-01

    The harvesting of mechanical strain and kinetic energy has received great attention over the past two decades in order to power wireless electronic components such as those used in passive and active monitoring applications. Piezoelectric ceramics, such as PZT (lead zirconate titanate), constitute the most commonly used electromechanical interface in vibration energy harvesters. However, there are applications in which piezoelectric ceramics cannot be used due to their low allowable curvature and brittle nature. Soft polymer PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) is arguably the most popular non-ceramic soft piezoelectric energy harvester material for such scenarios. Another type of polymer that has received less attention is PP (polypropylene) for electret-based energy harvesting using the thickness mode (33- mode). This work presents figure of merit comparison of PP versus PVDF for off-resonant energy harvesting in thickness mode operation, revealing substantial advantage of PP over PVDF. For thickness mode energy harvesting scenarios (e.g. dynamic compression) at reasonable ambient vibration frequencies, the figure of merit for the maximum power output is proportional to the square of the effective piezoelectric strain constant divided by the effective permittivity constant. Under optimal conditions and for the same volume, it is shown that PP can generate more than two orders of magnitude larger electrical power as compared to PVDF due to the larger effective piezoelectric strain constant and lower permittivity of the former.

  1. Genetic GIScience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey; Sabel, Clive E; Shi, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The exposome, defined as the totality of an individual's exposures over the life course, is a seminal concept in the environmental health sciences. Although inherently geographic, the exposome as yet is unfamiliar to many geographers. This article proposes a place-based synthesis, genetic...... geographic information science (genetic GIScience), that is founded on the exposome, genome+, and behavome. It provides an improved understanding of human health in relation to biology (the genome+), environmental exposures (the exposome), and their social, societal, and behavioral determinants (the behavome......). Genetic GIScience poses three key needs: first, a mathematical foundation for emergent theory; second, process-based models that bridge biological and geographic scales; third, biologically plausible estimates of space?time disease lags. Compartmental models are a possible solution; this article develops...

  2. Desktop Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Soren H; Ajetunmobi, Ayokunmi; Brody, Leigh; Humphryes-Kirilov, Neil; Perello, Edward

    2016-11-01

    Desktop Genetics is a bioinformatics company building a gene-editing platform for personalized medicine. The company works with scientists around the world to design and execute state-of-the-art clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) experiments. Desktop Genetics feeds the lessons learned about experimental intent, single-guide RNA design and data from international genomics projects into a novel CRISPR artificial intelligence system. We believe that machine learning techniques can transform this information into a cognitive therapeutic development tool that will revolutionize medicine.

  3. Current developments on the coal and gas markets and their retroactive effects on the Merit Order; Aktuelle Entwicklungen auf den Kohle- und Gasmaerkten und ihre Rueckwirkungen auf die Merit Order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecking, Harald; Cam, Eren; Schoenfisch, Max; Schulte, Simon [ewi Energy Research and Scenarios gGmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Coal and gas continue to play a significant role in the European power generation system, especially in Germany. According to the AG energy balances, the share of hard coal in German gross electricity generation in 2016 was 17.2% and natural gas 12.4%. In addition to the CO{sub 2} price, the prices for steam coal and natural gas are a key factor in determining which gas or coal power station is in Merit Order and whether it comes to a fuel switch. Declining gas prices have been rising sharply since the middle of 2016, and the volatile prices for steam coal have been rising. This article discusses the developments and factors responsible for these developments, which could be expected in the near future, and the implications for the gas-coal spread in the electricity market. [German] Kohle und Gas spielen weiterhin eine bedeutende Rolle im europaeischen Stromerzeugungssystem, insbesondere in Deutschland. Laut AG Energiebilanzen lag 2016 der Anteil der Steinkohle an der deutschen Bruttostromerzeugung bei 17,2 % und der von Erdgas bei 12,4 %. Neben dem CO{sub 2}-Preis sind die Preise fuer Kesselkohle und Erdgas massgeblich dafuer verantwortlich, welches Gas- bzw. Kohlekraftwerk welche Position in der Merit Order einnimmt und ob es zu einem Fuel Switch kommt. Sinkende Preise beim Gas stehen seit Mitte 2016 stark gestiegenen und volatilen Preisen fuer Kesselkohle gegenueber. Dieser Artikel diskutiert, welche Entwicklungen und Faktoren fuer diese Entwicklungen verantwortlich sind, womit in naher Zukunft zu rechnen sein koennte und welche Implikationen dies fuer den Gas-Kohle-Spread im Strommarkt hat.

  4. New Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the booklet. » more Chapter 1: How Genes Work Covers DNA, RNA, transcription, RNA splicing, translation, ribosomes, antibiotics, genetic diseases, gene chips. » more Chapter 2: RNA and DNA Revealed: New Roles, New Rules Covers microRNAs, RNAi, epigenetics, telomeres, mtDNA, recombinant DNA. » ...

  5. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    In 1948-1953 a large scale field survey was conducted to investigate the possible genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on over 70,000 pregnancy terminations in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indices of possible genetic effect including sex ratio, birth weight, frequency of malformation, stillbirth, neonatal death, deaths within 9 months and anthropometric measurements at 9 months of age for these children were investigated in relation to their parent's exposure status to the A-bomb. There were no detectable genetic effects in this sample, except for a slight change in sex ratio which was in the direction to be expected if exposure had induced sex-linked lethal mutations. However, continued study of the sex ratio, based upon birth certificates in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for 1954-1962, did not confirm the earlier trend. Mortality in these children of A-bomb survivors is being followed using a cohort of 54,000 subjects. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the children has been demonstrated up to 1972 (age 17 on the average). On the basis of the regression data, the minimal genetic doubling dose of this type of radiation for mutations resulting in death is estimated at 46 rem for the father and 125 rem for the mother. (auth.)

  6. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence of herita......Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence...... in a combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely...... polygenic component to susceptibility, and a unique level of personal melanoma risk influenced by multiple low-risk alleles and genetic modifiers. In addition to conferring a risk of cutaneous melanoma, some 'melanoma' predisposition genes have been linked to other cancers, with cancer clustering observed...

  7. Genetic Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  8. Genetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, M.; Alonso-Blanco, C.; Stam, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mendelian analysis of genetic variation, available as induced mutants or as natural variation, requires a number of steps that are described in this chapter. These include the determination of the number of genes involved in the observed trait's variation, the determination of dominance

  9. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.R.; Krontiris, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the authors review new findings concerning the molecular genetics of malignant melanoma in the context of other information obtained from clinical, epidemiologic, and cytogenetic studies in this malignancy. These new molecular approaches promise to provide a more complete understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of melanoma, thereby suggesting new methods for its treatment and prevention

  10. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  11. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.; Abrahamson, S.; Denniston, C.; Schull, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a comprehensive analysis of the major classes of genetic diseases that would be increased as a result of an increased gonadal radiation exposure to a human population. The risk analysis takes on two major forms: the increase in genetic disease that would be observed in the immediate offspring of the exposed population, and the subsequent transmission of the newly induced mutations through future generations. The major classes of genetic disease will be induced at different frequencies, and will also impact differentially in terms of survivability and fertility on the affected individuals and their descendants. Some classes of disease will be expected to persist for only a few generations at most. Other types of genetic disease will persist through a longer period. The classes of genetic diseases studied are: dominant gene mutation, X-linked gene mutation, chromosome disorders and multifactorial disorders which involve the interaction of many mutant genes and environmental factors. For each of these classes we have derived the general equations of mutation induction for the male and female germ cells of critical importance in the mutation process. The frequency of induced mutations will be determined initially by the dose received, the type of radiation and, to some extent at high dose, by the manner in which the dose is received. We have used the modeling analyses to predict the outcomes for two nuclear power plant accident scenarios, the first in which the population receives a chronic dose of 0.1 Gy (10 rad) over a 50-year period, the second in which an equivalent population receives an acute dose of 2 Gy. In both cases the analyses are projected over a period of five generations

  12. Comparative merits of radioimmunoscintigraphy and computer tomography in diagnosis and follow-up of primary ovarial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzen, G.; Cordes, M.; Langer, M.; Felix, R.; Friedman, W.; Mayr, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    In this prospective study the diagnostic merit of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) was compared with computed tomography (CT) and operation in the primary diagnostic procedure and follow-up of women with suspected ovarial cancer. In primary diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy was 100%, 60% and 90% for RIS. In follow-up, sensitivity for local recurrence was slightly higher in CT than in RIS. It was possible to detect peritoneal carcinosis in the pelvis and lower abdominal region better with RIS, but in the upper abdominal region, peritoneal carcinosis was detected better with CT. If no differentiation between benign or malignant lesion, is possible with CT, differentiation will in many cases be possible with RIS. (orig.) [de

  13. Relationship between the merit factor of thermoelectric materials and the air conditioning unit of urban electric cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffet, J.

    1994-01-01

    The main benefit of electric cars is to reduce air pollution in cities that is thus desirable to equip them with non polluting air conditioning units and this rules out frigorific compressors operating with CFC. The planned replacement of CFC by HFC is at best an interim solution. The best solution is certainly to use thermoelectric air conditioning units, which are inherently pollution-free. However, these have a fairly low COPF when compared to traditional compressor units. We study the relationship between the cooling of the interior of urban electric cars and the merit factor of the thermoelectric material in their Peltier unit. This should help provide concrete target properties of future T E materials. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  14. Broadband nonvolatile photonic switching based on optical phase change materials: beyond the classical figure-of-merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihang; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Junying; Soref, Richard; Gu, Tian; Hu, Juejun

    2018-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a broadband, nonvolatile on-chip switch design in the telecommunication C-band with record low loss and crosstalk. The unprecedented device performance builds on: 1) a new optical phase change material (O-PCM) Ge 2 Sb 2 Se 4 Te 1 (GSST), which exhibits significantly reduced optical attenuation compared to traditional O-PCMs, and 2) a nonperturbative design that enables low-loss device operation beyond the classical figure-of-merit (FOM) limit. We further demonstrate that the 1-by-2 and 2-by-2 switches can serve as basic building blocks to construct nonblocking and nonvolatile on-chip switching fabric supporting arbitrary numbers of input and output ports.

  15. Application of the MERIT survey in the multi-criteria quality assessment of occupational health and safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korban, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health and safety management systems apply audit examinations as an integral element of these systems. The examinations are used to verify whether the undertaken actions are in compliance with the accepted regulations, whether they are implemented in a suitable way and whether they are effective. One of the earliest solutions of that type applied in the mining industry in Poland involved the application of audit research based on the MERIT survey (Management Evaluation Regarding Itemized Tendencies). A mathematical model applied in the survey facilitates the determination of assessment indexes WOPi for each of the assessed problem areas, which, among other things, can be used to set up problem area rankings and to determine an aggregate (synthetic) assessment. In the paper presented here, the assessment indexes WOPi were used to calculate a development measure, and the calculation process itself was supplemented with sensitivity analysis.

  16. Solar feed-in tariffs and the merit order effect: A study of the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, Åsa Grytli; Bolkesjø, Torjus Folsland; Martinsen, Thomas; Hvarnes, Håvard

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the merit order effect (MOE) of the recent years' implementation of solar power in Germany. Market clearing electricity prices and production levels are compared for the years 2009–2011, and a model for the relationship between the electricity price and price sensitive electricity production is developed and applied to predict electricity prices in Germany from July 2010 to July 2011 with and without solar electricity generation (SEG). The results show that the SEG has caused a 7% reduction in average electricity prices for this period. The average daily maximum price and daily price variation are also found to decrease, by 13% and 23%, respectively. When taking the MOE into account the net consumer's cost of the solar feed-in tariff (FIT) system is found to be 23% less than the charge listed in the electricity bill. The German FIT policy for solar power has been subject to considerable public debate, and a common argument brought up in disfavor of the system is the high cost for the consumers. In this study we demonstrate the importance of including the MOE when evaluating the total costs and benefits of the FIT policy mechanism. - Highlights: • The merit order effect (MOE) of the German solar feed-in tariffs (FITs) is analyzed. • Solar power is found to substitute thermal power on the margin in peak hours. • In a 1 year period, solar power has reduced electricity prices by 7%, on average. • The solar power has also reduced the daily price variation by 23%, on average. • When including the MOE, the net consumer's cost of solar FITs are reduced by 23%

  17. The merit order effect of wind and photovoltaic electricity generation in Germany 2008–2016: Estimation and distributional implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cludius, Johanna; Hermann, Hauke; Matthes, Felix Chr.; Graichen, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Generation from renewable energy sources in Germany has experienced a considerable uptake in recent years. Mainly responsible for this development is the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz, EEG). This paper considers redistributive implications of the EEG for different electricity consumers. Using time-series regression analysis, we show that electricity generation by wind and PV has reduced spot market prices considerably by 6 €/MWh in 2010 rising to 10 €/MWh in 2012. We use these results to build a near-term forecasting tool for merit order effects, projected to reach 14-16 €/MWh in 2016. On the other hand, the costs of the EEG are passed forward to consumers in the form of a surcharge. Our findings highlight significant redistributive transfers under the current design of the EEG. In particular, some energy-intensive industries are benefiting from lower wholesale electricity prices whilst being largely exempted from contributing to the costs of the scheme. We also highlight implications of our results for other areas for reform of the EEG, such as adequate remuneration mechanisms that ensure efficient operation and investment decisions are made under the scheme. More generally, these findings suggest that policy makers need to integrate distributional assessments into policy design and implementation. - Highlights: • The German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) has important distributional impacts on different electricity consumers. • Likely wealth transfers from households and small business to energy-intensive industry. • Merit order effects of around 10 €/MWh in 2012 are set to rise to 14–16 €/MWh in 2016. • These effects likely overcompensate exempt industry for contribution to cost of the EEG. • Implications for short- and long-term reform of the EEG and the design of renewable energy policy in general

  18. The merits and problems of Neuropsychiatric Inventory as an assessment tool in people with dementia and other neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai CKY

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Claudia KY LaiSchool of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China Objective: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI is one of the most commonly used ­assessment scales for assessing symptoms in people with dementia and other neurological disorders. This paper analyzes its conceptual framework, measurement mode, psychometric properties, and merits and problems.Method: All articles discussing the psychometric properties and factor structure of the NPI were searched for in Medline via Ovid. The abstracts of these papers were read to determine their relevance to the purpose of this paper. If deemed appropriate, a full paper was then obtained and read. Results: The NPI has reasonably good content validity and internal consistency, and good test–retest and interrater reliability. There is limited information about its sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and, in particular, responsiveness. Merits of the NPI include being comprehensive, avoiding symptom overlap, ease of use, and flexibility. It has problems in scoring (no multiples of 5, 7, and 11 and, therefore, analysis using parametric tests may not be appropriate. The use of individual subscales also warrants further investigation.Conclusion: In terms of its content and concurrent validity, intra- and interrater reliability, test–retest reliability, and internal consistency, the NPI can be considered as valid and reliable, and can be used across different ethnic groups. The tool is most likely unable to deliver as good a performance in terms of discriminating between different disorders. More studies are required to further evaluate its psychometric properties, particularly in the areas of factor structure and responsiveness. The clinical utility of the NPI also needs to be further explored. Keywords: measurement, neuropsychiatric symptoms, outcome assessment

  19. Transparent conductors from layer-by-layer assembled SWNT films: importance of mechanical properties and a new figure of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Bong Sup; Zhu, Jian; Jan, Edward; Critchley, Kevin; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2010-07-27

    New transparent conductors (TCs) capable of replacing traditional indium tin oxide (ITO) are much needed for displays, sensors, solar cells, smart energy-saving windows, and flexible electronics. Technical requirements of TCs include not only high electrical conductivity and transparency but also environmental stability and mechanical property which are often overlooked in the research environment. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) coatings have been suggested as alternative TC materials but typically lack sufficient wear resistance compared to ITO. Balancing conductance, transparency, durability, and flexibility is a formidable challenge, which leads us to the introduction of a new TC figure of merit, PiTC, incorporating all these qualities. Maximization of PiTC to that of ITO or better can be suggested as an initial research goal. Fine tuning of SWNT layer-by-layer (LBL) polymeric nanocomposite structures makes possible integration of all the necessary properties. The produced TC demonstrated resistivity of 86 Omega/sq with 80.2% optical transmittance combined with tensile modulus, strength, and toughness of the film of 12.3+/-3.4 GPa, 218+/-13 MPa, and 8+/-1.7 J/g, respectively. A new transparent capping layer to conserve these properties in the hostile environment with matching or better strength, toughness, and transparency parameters was also demonstrated. Due to application demands, bending performance of TC made by LBL was of special interest and exceeded that of ITO by at least 100 times. Cumulative figure of merit PiTC for the produced coatings was 0.15 Omega(-1), whereas the conventional ITO showed PiTCOmega(-1). With overall electrical and optical performance comparable to ITO and exceptional mechanical properties, the described coatings can provide an excellent alternative to ITO or other nanowire- and nanotube-based TC specifically in flexible electronics, displays, and sensors.

  20. Wind power merit-order and feed-in-tariffs effect: A variability analysis of the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azofra, D.; Jiménez, E.; Martínez, E.; Blanco, J.; Saenz-Díez, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • M5P algorithm-based model determines influence of wind power on Spanish spot market. • Assessment of the wind power influence for different levels of wind resource. • Cost-benefit analysis is developed, accounting feed-in-tariffs and merit order effect. • The worst and best levels of wind power production for the system are determined. - Abstract: The incipient large-scale energy-storage technologies are not sufficiently developed yet, which means that the wind power production depends on the wind speed at every moment. This, along with the fact that the wind resource is not constant over time, makes wind power production quite variable. Therefore, an artificial intelligence-based technique (M5P algorithm) is applied to empirical hourly data to determine the influence of wind power technology on the spot market for different levels of wind resource in 2012. It concludes that wind power depressed the spot prices between 7.42 and 10.94 €/MW h for a wind power production of 90% and 110% of the real one, respectively. Furthermore, taking into account the important presence of wind power in the Spanish generation mix, the above range has been extended up to 0% in order to determine the worst and best level of wind power production for the Spanish electrical system (from an economical point of view). To do so, both feed-in-tariffs and wind power impact on spot market (merit order effect) have been accounted in accordance with the different levels of wind power production. Since empirical data from 2012 have been used to conduct the research, the results presented in this paper may provide policy makers with a worst and best-case scenario to discuss about the convenience of the last cutting expenses over wind power technology in Spain

  1. In defense of prenatal genetic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2014-09-01

    Jürgen Habermas has argued against prenatal genetic interventions used to influence traits on the grounds that only biogenetic contingency in the conception of children preserves the conditions that make the presumption of moral equality possible. This argument fails for a number of reasons. The contingency that Habermas points to as the condition of moral equality is an artifact of evolutionary contingency and not inviolable in itself. Moreover, as a precedent for genetic interventions, parents and society already affect children's traits, which is to say there is moral precedent for influencing the traits of descendants. A veil-of-ignorance methodology can also be used to justify prenatal interventions through its method of advance consent and its preservation of the contingency of human identities in a moral sense. In any case, the selection of children's traits does not undermine the prospects of authoring a life since their future remains just as contingent morally as if no trait had been selected. Ironically, the prospect of preserving human beings as they are--to counteract genetic drift--might even require interventions to preserve the ability to author a life in a moral sense. In light of these analyses, Habermas' concerns about prenatal genetic interventions cannot succeed as objections to their practice as a matter of principle; the merits of these interventions must be evaluated individually. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of dry period length and concentrate protein content in late lactation on body condition score change and subsequent lactation performance of thin high genetic merit dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A J; Purcell, P J; Wylie, A R G; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2017-03-01

    Improving body condition score of thin cows in late lactation is necessary, because cows that are thin at drying off exhibit decreased fertility postpartum and are at increased risk of disease and of being culled in the subsequent lactation. Offering a diet low in crude protein (CP) content in late lactation may help to improve body condition score (BCS) at drying off, whereas imposing an extended dry period (EDP) has been advocated as another way to increase BCS at calving. To test these hypotheses, 65 thin cows (mean BCS 2.25 at 14 wk precalving) were managed on 1 of 3 treatments between 13 and 9 wk prepartum: normal protein control {NP; grass silage + 5 kg/d of a normal protein concentrate [228 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)]}, low protein [LP; grass silage + 5 kg/d of a low-protein concentrate (153 g of CP/kg of DM)], or EDP (cows dried off at 13 wk precalving and offered a grass silage-only diet). Both NP and LP cows were dried off at wk 8 prepartum, after which all cows were offered a grass silage-only diet until calving. After calving, all cows were offered a common diet (supplying 11.1 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day) for 19 wk. Between 13 and 9 wk prepartum, LP cows had lower DM intake, milk yield, and body weight than NP cows. Whereas EDP cows had lower serum β-hydroxybutyrate and fatty acid concentrations than those of NP cows, BCS at wk 9 prepartum did not differ between treatments. Cows on the LP treatment continued to have lower DMI and BW than those of NP and EDP cows between 8 wk prepartum and calving, but only EDP cows had a higher BCS at calving. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score or calf birth weight. Although all cows were offered a common diet postpartum, cows on the LP treatment had lower DM intake and milk fat + plus protein yield than cows on any other treatment during the 19-wk period postpartum, but we found no differences in any postpartum indicator of body tissue reserves. The treatments imposed from wk 13 to 9 prepartum had no effect on any fertility or health parameters examined postpartum. Extending the dry period for thin cows improved their BCS at calving but did not allow these cows to achieve the target BCS of 2.75, and we found no beneficial effects of this treatment on cow performance postpartum. Offering a lower-protein diet to thin cows in late lactation did not improve BCS at calving above that of cows on a normal protein diet, but had unexplained long-term negative effects on cow performance. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Denniston, C.; Schull, W.

    1985-01-01

    Modeling analyses are used to predict the outcomes for two nuclear power plant accident scenarios, the first in which the population received a chronic dose of 0.1 Gy (10 rad) over a 50 year period, the second in which an equivalent population receives acute dose of 2 Gy. In both cases the analyses are projected over a period of five generations. The risk analysis takes on two major forms: the increase in genetic disease that would be observed in the immediate offspring of the exposed population, and the subsequent transmission of the newly induced mutations through future generations. The classes of genetic diseases studied are: dominant gene mutation, X-linked gene mutation, chromosome disorders and multifactorial disorders which involve the interaction of many mutant genes and environmental factors. 28 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  4. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  5. Quasispecies theory in the context of population genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke Claus O

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recent papers have cast doubt on the applicability of the quasispecies concept to virus evolution, and have argued that population genetics is a more appropriate framework to describe virus evolution than quasispecies theory. Results I review the pertinent literature, and demonstrate for a number of cases that the quasispecies concept is equivalent to the concept of mutation-selection balance developed in population genetics, and that there is no disagreement between the population genetics of haploid, asexually-replicating organisms and quasispecies theory. Conclusion Since quasispecies theory and mutation-selection balance are two sides of the same medal, the discussion about which is more appropriate to describe virus evolution is moot. In future work on virus evolution, we would do good to focus on the important questions, such as whether we can develop accurate, quantitative models of virus evolution, and to leave aside discussions about the relative merits of perfectly equivalent concepts.

  6. The Merits of Emeriti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Seth Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The silver tide of faculty retirement continues to ebb and flow. While much of today's scholarship on faculty retirement focuses on the financial implications for colleges and universities, arguing that older faculty members clog up the faculty pipeline, cost more in salary and benefits, and are ineffective teachers who fear technology, little…

  7. Enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in thermally robust, nanostructured superlattices based on SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2015-03-24

    Thermoelectric (TE) metal oxides overcome crucial disadvantages of traditional heavy-metal-alloy-based TE materials, such as toxicity, scarcity, and instability at high temperatures. Here, we report the TE properties of metal oxide superlattices, composed from alternating layers of 5% Pr3+-doped SrTiO3-δ (SPTO) and 20% Nb5+-doped SrTiO3-δ (STNO) fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Excellent stability is established for these superlattices by maintaining the crystal structure and reproducing the TE properties after long-time (20 h) annealing at high temperature (∼1000 K). The introduction of oxygen vacancies as well as extrinsic dopants (Pr3+ and Nb5+), with different masses and ionic radii, at different lattice sites in SPTO and STNO layers, respectively, results in a substantial reduction of thermal conductivity via scattering a wider range of phonon spectrum without limiting the electrical transport and thermopower, leading to an enhancement in the figure-of-merit (ZT). The superlattice composed of 20 SPTO/STNO pairs, 8 unit cells of each layer, exhibits a ZT value of 0.46 at 1000 K, which is the highest among SrTiO3-based thermoelectrics. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  8. Merits of the fat-tailed Barbarine sheep raised in different production systems in Tunisia: digestive, productive and reproductive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Hichem; Lassoued, Narjess; Rekik, Mourad

    2011-10-01

    Barbarine sheep is the dominant breed in Tunisia. This fat-tailed breed present in all production systems is characterised by metabolic and digestive adaptation to the contrasting environment conditions prevailing in the country (heat stress, water deprivation, salinity etc.). The fat tail (1.5 to 7 kg) is an energy reservoir that is used in periods of feed scarcity. Moreover, the rumen of this breed harbours a microflora enabling it to valorize low-quality roughages and native range vegetation. Barbarine sheep could make benefit from a wide range of local feed resources like fodder shrubs (e.g. cactus and oldman saltbushes), tannin-containing shrubs (e.g. Acacia cyanophylla) and agro-industrial by-products (e.g. olive cake, bran etc. conserved in the form of feed blocks or pellets). It has a very shallow anoestrous, the intensity of which is dependant upon nutrition conditions rather than day length as temperate breeds. Productive and reproductive performances of late pregnant-early suckling, pre-mating ewes and also rams of this breed are not affected when some alternative feed resources replace common feedstuffs which are expensive and cannot afford regularly to smallholders. In brief, the merits of the Barbarine sheep in the production systems and other main adaptive mechanisms of this breed are discussed in this paper. The prospective of Barbarine sheep husbandry in the system dynamics, climate change and the evolution of the socioeconomic context are also envisaged.

  9. Methodology for predicting the characteristics and performance of different PET camera designs: The choice of figures of merit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconinck, F.; Defrise, M.; Kuyk, S.; Bossuyt, A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to compare different PET camera designs (ring and planar geometry), this paper proposes ''figures of merit which allow questions such as ''Is it better, given an particular design, to achieve a coincidence rate of 10 kHz with 5% randoms, or a 20 kHz rate with 10% randoms?'' to be answered. The authors propose a methodology based on information theory. The image is the three dimensional distribution which conveys the information to the human or electronic observer. The image is supposed to consist of discrete image elements (voxels) of uniform size, and each characterized by a coincidence density. The performance of a non-ideal imager can be studied by evaluating the effect on the visibility surface: the number of events per image element will be affected by the limited efficiency, geometrical acceptance angle, temporal resolution, energy resolution. The authors show that the effect of the degradations can be introduced in the formula by replacing the number of true coincidences by an effective number of coincidences. The non-ideal imager will distort the visibility surface, so the authors compare the performance of different PET cameras by comparing the different distortions which they induce and hence their ability to detect the information present in study objects

  10. The use of net analyte signal (NAS) in near infrared spectroscopy pharmaceutical applications: interpretability and figures of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda Cruz; Lopes, João Almeida

    2009-05-29

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been extensively used as an analytical method for quality control of solid dosage forms for the pharmaceutical industry. Pharmaceutical formulations can be extremely complex, containing typically one or more active product ingredients (API) and various excipients, yielding very complex near infrared (NIR) spectra. The NIR spectra interpretability can be improved using the concept of net analyte signal (NAS). NAS is defined as the part of the spectrum unique to the analyte of interest. The objective of this work was to compare two different methods to estimate the API's NAS vector of different pharmaceutical formulations. The main difference between the methods is the knowledge of API free formulations NIR spectra. The comparison between the two methods was assessed in a qualitative and quantitative way. Results showed that both methods produced good results in terms of the similarity between the NAS vector and the pure API spectrum, as well as in the ability to predict the API concentration of unknown samples. Moreover, figures of merit such as sensitivity, selectivity, and limit of detection were estimated in a straightforward manner.

  11. Figures of merit for the determination of the polymorphic purity of carbamazepine by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Jez Willian B; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2004-08-01

    Polymorphism is an important property in the quality control of pharmaceutical products. In this regard, partial least squares regression and the net analytical signal were used to build and validate a multivariate calibration model using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy in the region of 900-1100 cm(-1) for the determination of the polymorphic purity of carbamazepine. Physical mixtures of the polymorphs were made by weight, from 80 to 100% (w/w) form III mixed with form I. Figures of merit, such as sensitivity, analytical sensitivity, selectivity, confidence limits, precision (mean, repeatability, intermediate), accuracy, and signal-to-noise ratio were calculated. Feasible results were obtained with maximum absolute error of 2% and an average error of 0.53%, indicating that the proposed methodology can be used by the pharmaceutical industry as an alternative to the X-ray diffraction (United States Pharmacopoeiamethod). Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 93:2124-2134, 2004

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF THE ITER IGNITION FIGURE OF MERIT AT q95>4 IN STATIONARY PLASMAS IN DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WADE, M.R.; LUCE, T.C.; POLITZER, P.A.; FERRON, J.R.; HYATT, A.W.; SCOVILLE, J.T.; La HAYE, R.J.; KINSEY, J.E.; LASNIER, C.J.; MURAKAMI, M.; PETY, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    In order to maximize the probability of achieving ignition, the present International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [1] design (as well as many of its predecessors) is based on operation at high plasma current. This constraint poses many significant engineering challenges, primarily related to the possibility of a sudden termination of the plasma current. Currents induced in the vessel and associated systems in such an event can lead to large forces, and runaway electrons may cause damage to the interior of the vacuum vessel. Present design methods (including those used for ITER) assume that the probability of experiencing such a major disruption increases with plasma current at fixed magnetic field and size. Because fusion performance is assumed to scale in a similar manner, reactor designs tend to seek a compromise between increased fusion performance and reduced susceptibility to disruptions, generally resulting in a design with q 95 ∼ 3.0. Discharges recently developed in the DIII-D tokamak offer a way to obtain equivalent fusion performance with more margin against disruption consequences, having obtained an ignition figure of merit comparable to the ITER baseline scenario with q 95 = 4.5. These discharges have been shown to be stationary on the thermal, resistive, and wall time scales and involve feedback control only of global quantities rather than profiles

  13. Enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in thermally robust, nanostructured superlattices based on SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.; Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Li, Kun; Dehkordi, Arash Mehdizadeh; Tritt, Terry M.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) metal oxides overcome crucial disadvantages of traditional heavy-metal-alloy-based TE materials, such as toxicity, scarcity, and instability at high temperatures. Here, we report the TE properties of metal oxide superlattices, composed from alternating layers of 5% Pr3+-doped SrTiO3-δ (SPTO) and 20% Nb5+-doped SrTiO3-δ (STNO) fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Excellent stability is established for these superlattices by maintaining the crystal structure and reproducing the TE properties after long-time (20 h) annealing at high temperature (∼1000 K). The introduction of oxygen vacancies as well as extrinsic dopants (Pr3+ and Nb5+), with different masses and ionic radii, at different lattice sites in SPTO and STNO layers, respectively, results in a substantial reduction of thermal conductivity via scattering a wider range of phonon spectrum without limiting the electrical transport and thermopower, leading to an enhancement in the figure-of-merit (ZT). The superlattice composed of 20 SPTO/STNO pairs, 8 unit cells of each layer, exhibits a ZT value of 0.46 at 1000 K, which is the highest among SrTiO3-based thermoelectrics. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  14. What Are the Relative Macroeconomic Merits and Environmental Impacts of Direct Job Creation and Basic Income Guarantees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina R. Tcherneva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a body of literature that favors universal and unconditional public assurance policies over those that are targeted and means-tested. Two such proposals—the basic income proposal and job guarantees—are discussed here. The paper evaluates the impact of each program on macroeconomic stability, arguing that direct job creation has inherent stabilization features that are lacking in the basic income proposal. A discussion of modern finance and labor market dynamics renders the latter proposal inherently inflationary, and potentially stagflationary. After studying the macroeconomic viability of each program, the paper elaborates on their environmental merits. It is argued that the “green” consequences of the basic income proposal are likely to emerge, not from its modus operandi, but from the tax schemes that have been advanced for its financing. By contrast, the job guarantee proposal can serve as an institutional vehicle for achieving various environmental goals by explicitly targeting environmental rehabilitation, conservation, and sustainability. Finally, in the hope of consensus building, the paper advances a joint policy proposal that is economically viable, environmentally friendly, and socially just.

  15. 1 küsimus noorele juhile : Mis teha, kui kopp on ees - kuidas sa stressist jagu saad? / Riho Jürvetson, Merit Miller, Krister Rekkaro ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad EMT erakliendi osakonna juhataja Riho Jürvetson, KPMG Baltics müügijuht Merit Miller, ArtPrint juht Krister Rekkaro, Dateli juhatuse liige Triin Sepp, Media House projektijuht Tanel Tarkmees, Ober-Haus Kinnisvara tegevjuht Katrin Klein-Näppi

  16. Investigation of High-Efficiency Wireless Power Transfer Criteria of Resonantly-Coupled Loops and Dipoles through Analysis of the Figure of Merit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Moorey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a Wireless Power Transfer (WPT system is greatly dependent on both the geometry and operating frequency of the transmitting and receiving structures. By using Coupled Mode Theory (CMT, the figure of merit is calculated for resonantly-coupled loop and dipole systems. An in-depth analysis of the figure of merit is performed with respect to the key geometric parameters of the loops and dipoles, along with the resonant frequency, in order to identify the key relationships leading to high-efficiency WPT. For systems consisting of two identical single-turn loops, it is shown that the choice of both the loop radius and resonant frequency are essential in achieving high-efficiency WPT. For the dipole geometries studied, it is shown that the choice of length is largely irrelevant and that as a result of their capacitive nature, low-MHz frequency dipoles are able to produce significantly higher figures of merit than those of the loops considered. The results of the figure of merit analysis are used to propose and subsequently compare two mid-range loop and dipole WPT systems of equal size and operating frequency, where it is shown that the dipole system is able to achieve higher efficiencies than the loop system of the distance range examined.

  17. Getting More Value from the LibQUAL+® Survey: The Merits of Qualitative Analysis and Importance-Satisfaction Matrices in Assessing Library Patron Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlor, Brian; Ball, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the merit of conducting a qualitative analysis of LibQUAL+® survey comments as a means of leveraging quantitative LibQUAL+ results, and using importance-satisfaction matrices to present and assess qualitative findings. Comments collected from the authors' institution's LibQUAL+ survey were analyzed using a codebook based on…

  18. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board's Survey of Sexual Harassment: The Fit of a Three-Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Margaret S.; Hope, Kathryn G.

    1997-01-01

    Factor analysis of data from 1,070 federal employees, 575 undergraduates and 575 graduate students, faculty, and staff uncovered some weaknesses in the Merit Systems Protection Board's sexual harassment survey instrument. This type of survey does not adequately measure sexual coercion or quid pro quo forms of harassment. (SK)

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2012 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report: May 14-18, 2012, Arlington, VA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-01

    This document summarizes the comments provided by peer reviewers on hydrogen and fuel cell projects presented at the fiscal year (FY) 2012 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), held May 14-18, 2012, in Arlington, VA.

  20. Merit-order effects of renewable energy and price divergence in California’s day-ahead and real-time electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Moore, J.; Schneiderman, B.; Ho, T.; Olson, A.; Alagappan, L.; Chawla, K.; Toyama, N.; Zarnikau, J.

    2016-01-01

    We answer two policy questions: (1) what are the estimated merit-order effects of renewable energy in the California Independent System Operator’s (CAISO’s) day-ahead market (DAM) and real-time market (RTM)? and (2) what causes the hourly DAM and RTM prices to systematically diverge? The first question is timely and relevant because if the merit-order effect estimates are small, California’s renewable energy development is of limited help in cutting electricity consumers’ bills but also has a lesser adverse impact on the state’s investment incentive for natural-gas-fired generation. The second question is related to the efficient market hypothesis under which the hourly RTM and DAM prices tend to converge. Using a sample of about 21,000 hourly observations of CAISO market prices and their fundamental drivers during 12/12/2012–04/30/2015, we document statistically significant estimates (p-value≤0.01) for the DAM and RTM merit-order effects. This finding lends support to California’s adopted procurement process to provide sufficient investment incentives for natural-gas-fired generation. We document that the RTM-DAM price divergence partly depends on the CASIO’s day-ahead forecast errors for system loads and renewable energy. This finding suggests that improving the performance of the CAISO’s day-ahead forecasts can enhance trading efficiency in California’s DAM and RTM electricity markets. - Highlights: •Estimate the day-ahead and real-time merit-order effects of renewable energy in California. •Document statistically significant merit-order effects of solar and wind energy. •Document the difference between the day-ahead and real-time prices. •Attribute the price differences to forecast errors for load, solar and wind energy. •Discuss the evidence’s implications for California’s energy policy.

  1. Molecular genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the nature and action of lethal and mutagenic lesions in DNA and the mechanisms by which these are produced in bacteria by ionizing radiation or by decay of radioisotopes incorporated in DNA. Studies of radioisotope decay provide the advantages that the original lesion is localized in the genetic material and the immediate physical and chemical changes that occur at decay are known. Specific types of DNA damage were related to characteristic decay properties of several radioisotopes. Incorporated 125 I, for example, induces a double-stranded break in DNA with almost every decay, but causes remarkably little damage of any other kind to the DNA. (U.S.)

  2. Thermal performance study of a box type solar cooker: evaluation of second figure of merit, F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudh Kumar

    2006-01-01

    The thermal performance of a box type solar cooker can be evaluated through the determination of two figures of merit-F 1 and F 2 . The F 1 is defined as the ratio of optical efficiency factor (η o ) the overall heat loss coefficient (U L ) and F 2 relates to the effectiveness of heat exchange between cooker interiors and contents of the pots. The values of F 1 and F 2 can be found experimentally from the stagnation (no-load) and load (water) tests respectively. The sensible heating curve (a plot between pot water temperature and time) from the load test is used for determination of F 2 . An accurate determination of F 2 is necessary for making the correct and reliable assessment of solar cooker performance. In the present work, the thermal analysis has been carried out to simulate the sensible heating curves for different loads of water in the commercially available, fibre body double-glazed box type solar cooker (size 0.245 m 2 ) by using the heat balance equation. The comparison between the simulated and experimental sensible heating curves is presented. The close agreement in the results shows that the simulated heating curve can be employed for predicting the thermal performance (or F 2 ) of the solar cooker. The F 2 for different loads of water in the solar cooker have been obtained using the computer simulation, while considering the variable overall heat loss coefficient U L (a function of pot water temperature). The results indicate that F 2 increases linearly up to a load of 1.5 kg. Thereafter, the increase in the value of F 2 decreases gradually with the load

  3. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... 70%, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  4. Genetic programming in microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopwood, D A

    1981-11-01

    Formerly, when microbiologists had only existing organisms at their disposal whose characteristics could only be changed randomly by genetic experiments, they used to dream of programmed genetic changes. This dream has come true with modern genetic engineering.

  5. Genetic parameters of ovarian and uterine reproductive traits in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate genetic parameters of detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract as well as their genetic correlations with traditional reproductive traits. A total of 226,141 calving and insemination records as well as 74,134 ultrasound records from Irish dairy cows were used. Traditional reproductive traits included postpartum interval to first service, conception, and next calving, as well as the interval from first to last service; number of inseminations, pregnancy rate to first service, pregnant within 42 d of the herd breeding season, and submission in the first 21 d of the herd breeding season were also available. Detailed reproductive traits included resumed cyclicity at the time of ultrasound examination, incidence of multiple ovulations, incidence of early postpartum ovulation, heat detection, ovarian cystic structures, embryo loss, and uterine score; the latter was a subjectively assessed on a scale of 1 (little fluid with normal uterine tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid uterine tone). Variance (and covariance) components were estimated using repeatability animal linear mixed models. Heritability for all reproductive traits were generally low (0.001-0.05), with the exception of traits related to cyclicity postpartum, regardless if defined traditionally (0.07; calving to first service) or from ultrasound examination [resumed cyclicity at the time of examination (0.07) or early postpartum ovulation (0.10)]. The genetic correlations among the detailed reproductive traits were generally favorable. The exception was the genetic correlation (0.29) between resumed cyclicity and uterine score; superior genetic merit for cyclicity postpartum was associated with inferior uterine score. Superior genetic merit for most traditional reproductive traits was associated with superior genetic merit for resumed cyclicity (genetic correlations ranged from -0.59 to -0.36 and from 0

  6. Decouple electronic and phononic transport in nanotwinned structures: a new strategy for enhancing the figure-of-merit of thermoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanguang; Gong, Xiaojing; Xu, Ben; Hu, Ming

    2017-07-20

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials manifest themselves to enable direct conversion of temperature differences to electric power and vice versa. Though remarkable advances have been achieved in the past decades for various TE systems, the energy conversion efficiency of TE devices, which is characterized by a dimensionless figure-of-merit (ZT = S 2 σT/(κ el + κ ph )), generally remains a poor factor that severely limits TE devices' competitiveness and range of employment. The bottleneck for substantially boosting the ZT coefficient lies in the strong interdependence of the physical parameters involved in electronic (S and σ, and κ el ) and phononic (κ ph ) transport. Herein, we propose a new strategy of incorporating nanotwinned structures to decouple electronic and phononic transport. Combining the new concept of nanotwinned structures with the previously widely used nanocrystalline approach, the power factor of the nanotwin-nanocrystalline Si heterostructures is enhanced by 120% compared to that of bulk crystalline Si, while the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced to a level well below the amorphous limit, yielding a theoretical limit of 0.52 and 0.9 for ZT coefficient at room temperature and 1100 K, respectively. This value is almost two orders of magnitude larger than that for bulk Si and twice that for polycrystalline Si. Even for the experimentally obtained nanotwin-nanocrystalline heterostructures (e.g. grain size of 5 nm), the ZT coefficient can be as high as 0.26 at room temperature and 0.7 at 1100 K, which is the highest ZT value among all Si-based bulk nanostructures found thus far. Such substantial improvement stems from two aspects: (1) the improvement in the power factor is caused due to an increase in the Seebeck coefficient (degeneracy of the band valley) and the enhancement of electrical conductivity (the reduction of the effective band mass) and (2) the significant reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity is mainly caused due to the

  7. Active placebo control groups of pharmacological interventions were rarely used but merited serious consideration: a methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob Solgaard; Bielefeldt, Andreas Ørsted; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2017-07-01

    active placebo control interventions are rarely used in randomized clinical trials, but they constitute a methodological tool which merits serious consideration. We suggest that active placebos are used more often in trials of drugs with noticeable side effects, especially in situations where the expected therapeutic effects are modest and the risk of bias due to unblinding is high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of automatic dose rate control for flat panel imaging using a spatial frequency domain figure of merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehairs, M.; Bosmans, H.; Desmet, W.; Marshall, N. W.

    2017-08-01

    Current automatic dose rate controls (ADRCs) of dynamic x-ray imaging systems adjust their acquisition parameters in response to changes in patient thickness in order to achieve a constant signal level in the image receptor. This work compares a 3 parameter (3P) ADRC control to a more flexible 5-parameter (5P) method to meet this goal. A phantom composed of 15 composite poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA)/aluminium (Al) plates was imaged on a Siemens Artis Q dynamic system using standard 3P and 5P ADRC techniques. Phantom thickness covered a water equivalent thickness (WET) range of 2.5 cm to 37.5 cm. Acquisition parameter settings (tube potential, tube current, pulse length, copper filtration and focus size) and phantom entrance air kerma rate (EAKR) were recorded as the thickness changed. Signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) was measured using a 0.3 mm iron insert centred in the PMMA stack, positioned at the system isocentre. SDNR was then multiplied by modulation transfer function (MTF) based correction factors for focal spot penumbral blurring and motion blurring, to give a spatial frequency dependent parameter, SDNR(u). These MTF correction factors were evaluated for an object motion of 25 mm s-1 and at a spatial frequency of 1.4 mm-1 in the object plane, typical for cardiac imaging. The figure of merit (FOM) was calculated as SDNR(u)²/EAKR for the two ADRC regimes. Using 5P versus 3P technique showed clear improvements over all thicknesses. Averaged over clinically relevant adult WET values (20 cm-37.5 cm), EAKR was reduced by 13% and 27% for fluoroscopy and acquisition modes, respectively, while the SDNR(u) based FOM increased by 16% and 34% for fluoroscopy and acquisition. In conclusion, the generalized FOM, taking into account the influence of focus size and object motion, showed benefit in terms of image quality and patient dose for the 5-parameter control over 3-parameter method for the ADRC programming of dynamic x-ray imaging systems.

  9. Global terrain classification using Multiple-Error-Removed Improved-Terrain (MERIT) to address susceptibility of landslides and other geohazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, J.; Yamazaki, D.; Matsuoka, M.; Thamarux, P.; Herrick, J.; Yong, A.; Mital, U.

    2017-12-01

    A seamless model of landform classifications with regional accuracy will be a powerful platform for geophysical studies that forecast geologic hazards. Spatial variability as a function of landform on a global scale was captured in the automated classifications of Iwahashi and Pike (2007) and additional developments are presented here that incorporate more accurate depictions using higher-resolution elevation data than the original 1-km scale Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model (DEM). We create polygon-based terrain classifications globally by using the 280-m DEM interpolated from the Multi-Error-Removed Improved-Terrain DEM (MERIT; Yamazaki et al., 2017). The multi-scale pixel-image analysis method, known as Multi-resolution Segmentation (Baatz and Schäpe, 2000), is first used to classify the terrains based on geometric signatures (slope and local convexity) calculated from the 280-m DEM. Next, we apply the machine learning method of "k-means clustering" to prepare the polygon-based classification at the globe-scale using slope, local convexity and surface texture. We then group the divisions with similar properties by hierarchical clustering and other statistical analyses using geological and geomorphological data of the area where landslides and earthquakes are frequent (e.g. Japan and California). We find the 280-m DEM resolution is only partially sufficient for classifying plains. We nevertheless observe that the categories correspond to reported landslide and liquefaction features at the global scale, suggesting that our model is an appropriate platform to forecast ground failure. To predict seismic amplification, we estimate site conditions using the time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the upper 30-m (VS30) measurements compiled by Yong et al. (2016) and the terrain model developed by Yong (2016; Y16). We plan to test our method on finer resolution DEMs and report our findings to obtain a more globally consistent terrain model as there

  10. Effects of the Boy Scouts of America Personal Fitness Merit Badge on Cardio-Metabolic Risk, Health Related Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Justin; Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of adolescents are more sedentary and have fewer formal opportunities to participate in physical activity. With the mounting evidence that sedentary time has a negative impact on cardiometabolic profiles, health related fitness and physical activity, there is a pressing need to find an affordable adolescent physical activity intervention. One possible intervention that has been overlooked in the past is Boy Scouts of America. There are nearly 900,000 adolescent boys who participate in Boy Scouts in the United States. The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the effect of the Personal Fitness merit badge system on physical activity, health-related fitness, and cardio-metabolic blood profiles in Boy Scouts 11-17 years of age. Participants were fourteen (N = 14) Boy Scouts from the Great Salt Lake Council of the Boy Scouts of America who earned their Personal Fitness merit badge. Classes were held in the Spring of 2016 where boys received the information needed to obtain the merit badge and data were collected. Results from the related-samples Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that the median of differences between VO 2 peak pre-test and post-test scores were statistically significant ( p = 0.004). However, it also showed that the differences between the Pre-MetS (metabolic syndrome) and Post-MetS scores (p = 0.917), average steps taken per day ( p = 0.317), and BMI ( p = 0.419) were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the merit badge program had a positive impact on cardiovascular endurance, suggesting this program has potential to improve cardiovascular fitness and should be considered for boys participating in Boy Scouts.

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report: June 6-10, 2016, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Neil

    2016-10-01

    The fiscal year 2016 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 6-10, 2015, in Washington, D.C.. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report: June 8-12, 2015, Arlington, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Neil

    2015-10-01

    The fiscal year 2015 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  13. Understanding the Merits and Demerits of High and Low Context Oriented Communication Cultures in Intercultural Business Conflict : the case of Fukushima and Japanese communication schema

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shall highlight the merits and demerits of both high and low context oriented communication cultures - particularly in cross-cultural business contexts. Intercultural Communication (IC) theories such as high . low context, universalism . particularism and monochromic . polychromic time are meant to serve as guideposts for the international sojourner to communicate effectively in the host country. We shall also briefly discuss the idea that the English language serves as a low conte...

  14. Ultrahigh pyroelectric figures of merit associated with distinct bistable dielectric phase transition in a new molecular compound: di-n-butylaminium trifluoroacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhihua; Tang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Shuquan; Ji, Chengmin; Chen, Tianliang; Luo, Junhua

    2015-08-26

    Ultrahigh pyroelectric figures of merit are achieved in a new phase-transition material, di-n-butylaminium trifluoroacetate, of which the peak values are an order of magnitude larger than those of their inorganic counterparts. Such an attractive behavior of pyroelectric detectivity is strongly related to its distinct bistable dielectric behavior, which recalls excellent thermoelectric response in organic molecular phase-transition systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A Critical Examination of Figure of Merit (FOM). Assessing the Goodness-of-Fit in Gamma/X-ray Peak Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Brian Phillip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burr, Thomas Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McElroy, R. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-06

    In this paper we develop and investigate several criteria for assessing how well a proposed spectral form fits observed spectra. We consider the classical improved figure of merit (FOM) along with several modifications, as well as criteria motivated by Poisson regression from the statistical literature. We also develop a new FOM that is based on the statistical idea of the bootstrap. A spectral simulator has been developed to assess the performance of these different criteria under multiple data configurations.

  16. Merits and demerits of engaging in athletic, academic and part-time job roles among university student-athletes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Ebara, Takeshi; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2011-12-01

    Although role conflict management is necessary for the prevention of dropout from participation in sports, little has been known about it, especially regarding Japanese university student-athletes. Hence, this study examined the aspects of merit and demerit involved in their performances of academic, athletic, part-time job, family and human relationship roles. The merits and demerits were evaluated using the theoretical concepts of negative spillover (NSP), positive spillover (PSP), compensation and segmentation. In the research, a total of 108 participants (63 males, 45 females) described information about their multiple roles in the Multiple Roles Map (MRM) form. NSP with high frequency rates (3rd quartile) showed demerit that negative condition in athletic and part-time job roles tended to disturb performance of other roles (male ≥ 17.5%, female ≥ 15.6%). The results of PSP showed merit that positive condition in the athletic, part-time job and academic roles contributes to accomplishment of good performance in other roles (male ≥ 19.0%, female ≥ 17.8%). Compensation indicated that negative conditions in the roles were compensated by satisfaction in the human relationships and family roles and private time (male ≥ 9.5%, female ≥ 11.1%). The family role was segmented from other roles (male ≥ 71.4%, female ≥ 68.9%). Sharing these findings will be effective in helping to solve role conflict problems of university student-athletes in Japan.

  17. Inspirations in medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Reza

    2016-02-01

    There are abundant instances in the history of genetics and medical genetics to illustrate how curiosity, charisma of mentors, nature, art, the saving of lives and many other matters have inspired great discoveries. These achievements from deciphering genetic concepts to characterizing genetic disorders have been crucial for management of the patients. There remains, however, a long pathway ahead. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Instrument design and optimization using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelzel, Robert; Bentley, Phillip M.; Fouquet, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the design of highly complex physical instruments by using a canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The procedure can be applied to all instrument designs where performance goals can be quantified. It is particularly suited to the optimization of instrument design where local optima in the performance figure of merit are prevalent. Here, a GA is used to evolve the design of the neutron spin-echo spectrometer WASP which is presently being constructed at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. A comparison is made between this artificial intelligence approach and the traditional manual design methods. We demonstrate that the search of parameter space is more efficient when applying the genetic algorithm, and the GA produces a significantly better instrument design. Furthermore, it is found that the GA increases flexibility, by facilitating the reoptimization of the design after changes in boundary conditions during the design phase. The GA also allows the exploration of 'nonstandard' magnet coil geometries. We conclude that this technique constitutes a powerful complementary tool for the design and optimization of complex scientific apparatus, without replacing the careful thought processes employed in traditional design methods

  19. Instrument design and optimization using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Robert; Bentley, Phillip M.; Fouquet, Peter

    2006-10-01

    This article describes the design of highly complex physical instruments by using a canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The procedure can be applied to all instrument designs where performance goals can be quantified. It is particularly suited to the optimization of instrument design where local optima in the performance figure of merit are prevalent. Here, a GA is used to evolve the design of the neutron spin-echo spectrometer WASP which is presently being constructed at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. A comparison is made between this artificial intelligence approach and the traditional manual design methods. We demonstrate that the search of parameter space is more efficient when applying the genetic algorithm, and the GA produces a significantly better instrument design. Furthermore, it is found that the GA increases flexibility, by facilitating the reoptimization of the design after changes in boundary conditions during the design phase. The GA also allows the exploration of "nonstandard" magnet coil geometries. We conclude that this technique constitutes a powerful complementary tool for the design and optimization of complex scientific apparatus, without replacing the careful thought processes employed in traditional design methods.

  20. What Is Genetic Ancestry Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is genetic ancestry testing? What is genetic ancestry testing? Genetic ancestry testing, or genetic genealogy, is ... with other groups. For more information about genetic ancestry testing: The University of Utah provides video tutorials ...

  1. A population-based survey in Australia of men's and women's perceptions of genetic risk and predictive genetic testing and implications for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S

    2011-01-01

    Community attitudes research regarding genetic issues is important when contemplating the potential value and utilisation of predictive testing for common diseases in mainstream health services. This article aims to report population-based attitudes and discuss their relevance to integrating genetic services in primary health contexts. Men's and women's attitudes were investigated via population-based omnibus telephone survey in Queensland, Australia. Randomly selected adults (n = 1,230) with a mean age of 48.8 years were interviewed regarding perceptions of genetic determinants of health; benefits of genetic testing that predict 'certain' versus 'probable' future illness; and concern, if any, regarding potential misuse of genetic test information. Most (75%) respondents believed genetic factors significantly influenced health status; 85% regarded genetic testing positively although attitudes varied with age. Risk-based information was less valued than certainty-based information, but women valued risk information significantly more highly than men. Respondents reported 'concern' (44%) and 'no concern' (47%) regarding potential misuse of genetic information. This study contributes important population-based data as most research has involved selected individuals closely impacted by genetic disorders. While community attitudes were positive regarding genetic testing, genetic literacy is important to establish. The nature of gender differences regarding risk perception merits further study and has policy and service implications. Community concern about potential genetic discrimination must be addressed if health benefits of testing are to be maximised. Larger questions remain in scientific, policy, service delivery, and professional practice domains before predictive testing for common disorders is efficacious in mainstream health care. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthy, T R; Ryan, D P; Fitzgerald, A M; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the genetic relationships between detailed reproductive traits derived from ultrasound examination of the reproductive tract and a range of performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. The performance traits investigated included calving performance, milk production, somatic cell score (i.e., logarithm transformation of somatic cell count), carcass traits, and body-related linear type traits. Detailed reproductive traits included (1) resumed cyclicity at the time of examination, (2) multiple ovulations, (3) early ovulation, (4) heat detection, (5) ovarian cystic structures, (6) embryo loss, and (7) uterine score, measured on a 1 (little or no fluid with normal tone) to 4 (large quantity of fluid with a flaccid tone) scale, based on the tone of the uterine wall and the quantity of fluid present in the uterus. (Co)variance components were estimated using a repeatability animal linear mixed model. Genetic merit for greater milk, fat, and protein yield was associated with a reduced ability to resume cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlations ranged from -0.25 to -0.15). Higher genetic merit for milk yield was also associated with a greater genetic susceptibility to multiple ovulations. Genetic predisposition to elevated somatic cell score was associated with a decreased likelihood of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of -0.32) and a greater risk of both multiple ovulations (genetic correlation of 0.25) and embryo loss (genetic correlation of 0.32). Greater body condition score was genetically associated with an increased likelihood of resumption of cyclicity postpartum (genetic correlation of 0.52). Genetically heavier, fatter carcasses with better conformation were also associated with an increased likelihood of resumed cyclicity by the time of examination (genetic correlations ranged from 0.24 to 0.41). Genetically heavier carcasses were associated with an inferior uterine score as well as a greater

  3. Multi-gene genetic programming based predictive models for municipal solid waste gasification in a fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Daya Shankar; Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi; Leahy, James J; Kwapinski, Witold

    2015-03-01

    A multi-gene genetic programming technique is proposed as a new method to predict syngas yield production and the lower heating value for municipal solid waste gasification in a fluidized bed gasifier. The study shows that the predicted outputs of the municipal solid waste gasification process are in good agreement with the experimental dataset and also generalise well to validation (untrained) data. Published experimental datasets are used for model training and validation purposes. The results show the effectiveness of the genetic programming technique for solving complex nonlinear regression problems. The multi-gene genetic programming are also compared with a single-gene genetic programming model to show the relative merits and demerits of the technique. This study demonstrates that the genetic programming based data-driven modelling strategy can be a good candidate for developing models for other types of fuels as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the equivalent width, the autocorrelation width, and the variance as figures of merit for XPS narrow scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupinder [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, C-100 BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Velázquez, Daniel; Terry, Jeff [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Linford, Matthew R., E-mail: mrlinford@chem.byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, C-100 BNSN, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We apply the equivalent and autocorrelation widths and variance to XPS narrow scans. • This approach is complementary to traditional peak fitting methods. • It is bias free and responsive to subtle chemical changes in spectra. • It has the potential for machine interpretation of spectra and quality control. • It has the potential for analysis of complex spectra and tracking charging/artifacts. - Abstract: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is widely used in surface and materials laboratories around the world. It is a near surface technique, providing detailed chemical information about samples in the form of survey and narrow scans. To extract the maximum amount of information about materials it is often necessary to peak fit XPS narrow scans. And while indispensable to XPS data analysis, even experienced practitioners can struggle with their peak fitting. In our previous publication, we introduced the equivalent width (EW{sub XPS}) as both a possible machine automated method, one that requires less expert judgment for characterizing XPS narrow scans, and as an approach that may be well suited for the analysis of complex spectra. The EW{sub XPS} figure of merit was applied to four different data sets. However, as previously noted, other width functions are also regularly employed for analyzing functions. Here we evaluate two other width functions for XPS narrow scan analysis: the autocorrelation width (AW{sub XPS}) and the variance (σ{sub XPS}{sup 2}). These widths were applied to the same four sets of spectra studied before: (a) four C 1s narrow scans of ozone-treated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (EW{sub XPS}: ∼2.11–2.16 eV, AW{sub XPS}: ∼3.9–4.1 eV, σ{sub XPS}{sup 2}: ∼5.0–5.2 eV, and a modified form of σ{sub XPS}{sup 2}, denoted σ{sub XPS}{sup 2*}: ∼6.3–6.8 eV), (b) silicon wafers with different oxide thicknesses (EW{sub XPS}: ∼1.5–2.9 eV, AW{sub XPS}: ∼2.28–4.9, and σ{sub XPS}{sup 2}: ∼0.7–4.9 eV), (iii

  5. The merits of DNA content and cell kinetic parameters for the assessment of intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity to photon and high-LET neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, C.S.; Serafin, A.; Bohm, L.; Slabbert, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Differences of the intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity between tumours make the selection of patients for specific radiation schedules very difficult. The reasons for these variations are still unclear, but are thought to be due to genomic and cellular characteristics. Radiosensitivities vary between cell cycle stages, with S-phase cells being most radioresistant and G2/M phase cells most radiosensitive. It is also well established that most tumour cells have an abnormal ploidy. DNA content and cellular proliferation kinetics therefore could influence the intrinsic radiosensitivity. This prompted us to assess the merits of these parameters as predictors of radiation response. (authors)

  6. Figures of merit of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for compliant analysis of waters and wastes using USEPA standard operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, I.B.; Spence, B.; Walder, A.

    2004-01-01

    The scope of this study is to critically review the performance of the ICP-MS instrumentation and aspects of the analytical methodology for compliant determination of Al, Sb, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se, Ag, Tl, V, and Zn in surface and subsurface water, soil, sludge, sediments and various solid wastes. The evaluation was performed using conventional and practical figures of analytical merit detailed in using USEPA SW (Solid Waste) 846 procedures and ISO/EC 17025

  7. Matrix Organization and Merit Factor Evaluation as a Method to Address the Challenge of Finding a Polymer Material for Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Livi, Francesco; Hagemann, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The results presented demonstrate how the screening of 104 light-absorbing low band gap polymers for suitability in roll coated polymer solar cells can be accomplished through rational synthesis according to a matrix where 8 donor and 13 acceptor units are organized in rows and columns. Synthesis...... silver comb back electrode structure. The matrix organization enables fast identification of active layer materials according to a weighted merit factor that includes more than simply the power conversion efficiency and is used as a method to identify the lead candidates. Based on several characteristics...

  8. Self-Care for Nurse Leaders in Acute Care Environment Reduces Perceived Stress: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study Merits Further Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyess, Susan Mac Leod; Prestia, Angela S; Marquit, Doren-Elyse; Newman, David

    2018-03-01

    Acute care practice settings are stressful. Nurse leaders face stressful demands of numerous competing priorities. Some nurse leaders experience unmanageable stress, but success requires self-care. This article presents a repeated measures intervention design study using mixed methods to investigate a self-care simple meditation practice for nurse leaders. Themes and subthemes emerged in association with the three data collection points: at baseline (pretest), after 6 weeks, and after 12 weeks (posttest) from introduction of the self-care simple meditation practice. An analysis of variance yielded a statistically significant drop in perceived stress at 6 weeks and again at 12 weeks. Conducting future research is merited.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2014 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report: June 16-20, 2014, Washington, D.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The fiscal year (FY) 2014 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting (AMR), in conjunction with DOE's Vehicle Technologies Office AMR, was held from June 16-20, 2014, at the Washington Marriott Wardman Park in Washington, D.C. This report is a summary of comments by AMR peer reviewers about the hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).

  10. Genetics Home Reference: SADDAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description SADDAN (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) is a ... Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans Other Diagnosis ...

  11. Genetic Brain Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  12. Genetic Testing for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic counselor can help you work through the pros and cons of genetic testing based on your ... showing symptoms or what their progression will be. Technology is changing rapidly and costs of testing are ...

  13. Genetically engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioengineered foods; GMOs; Genetically modified foods ... helps speed up the process of creating new foods with desired traits. The possible benefits of genetic engineering include: More nutritious food Tastier food Disease- and ...

  14. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: osteopetrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. ... infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy Genetic Testing Registry: Osteopetrosis autosomal dominant type 1 Genetic Testing Registry: Osteopetrosis autosomal dominant ...

  16. Genetics and Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, C. O.

    1973-01-01

    Can genetic evolution be controlled by man in a manner which does not violate a civilized, humane, and democratic ethos? The genetics of health and illhealth and of normal variation are discussed with respect to this question. (PEB)

  17. Genetic Science Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic Science Learning Center Making science and health easy for everyone to understand Home News Our Team What We Do ... Collaboration Conferences Current Projects Publications Contact The Genetic Science Learning Center at The University of Utah is a ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: homocystinuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an increased risk of abnormal blood clotting, and brittle bones that are prone to fracture ( osteoporosis ) or other ... information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic conditions more common in particular ...

  19. Protecting genetic privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, P A; Annas, G J

    2001-05-01

    This article outlines the arguments for and against new rules to protect genetic privacy. We explain why genetic information is different to other sensitive medical information, why researchers and biotechnology companies have opposed new rules to protect genetic privacy (and favour anti-discrimination laws instead), and discuss what can be done to protect privacy in relation to genetic-sequence information and to DNA samples themselves.

  20. Genetic Pathways to Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie J. Lind; Philip R. Gehrman

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current research on the genetics of insomnia, as genetic contributions are thought to be important for insomnia etiology. We begin by providing an overview of genetic methods (both quantitative and measured gene), followed by a discussion of the insomnia genetics literature with regard to each of the following common methodologies: twin and family studies, candidate gene studies, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Next, we summarize the most recent gene identif...

  1. The genetic difference principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Colin

    2004-01-01

    In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice.

  2. Phenylketonuria Genetic Screening Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Patti

    2012-01-01

    After agreeing to host over 200 students on a daylong genetics field trip, the author needed an easy-to-prepare genetics experiment to accompany the DNA-necklace and gel-electrophoresis activities already planned. One of the student's mothers is a pediatric physician at the local hospital, and she suggested exploring genetic-disease screening…

  3. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information about the effects of genetic variation on human health. Health Conditions More than 1,200 health ...

  4. Feline genetics: clinical applications and genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2010-11-01

    DNA testing for domestic cat diseases and appearance traits is a rapidly growing asset for veterinary medicine. Approximately 33 genes contain 50 mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. A variety of commercial laboratories can now perform cat genetic diagnostics, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. DNA is easily obtained from a cat via a buccal swab with a standard cotton bud or cytological brush, allowing DNA samples to be easily sent to any laboratory in the world. The DNA test results identify carriers of the traits, predict the incidence of traits from breeding programs, and influence medical prognoses and treatments. An overall goal of identifying these genetic mutations is the correction of the defect via gene therapies and designer drug therapies. Thus, genetic testing is an effective preventative medicine and a potential ultimate cure. However, genetic diagnostic tests may still be novel for many veterinary practitioners and their application in the clinical setting needs to have the same scrutiny as any other diagnostic procedure. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, potential sources of error for genetic testing, and the pros and cons of DNA results in veterinary medicine. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's internal genome. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preimplantation Genetic Screening and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Pyke, Chantae; Dokras, Anuja

    2018-03-01

    Preimplantation genetic testing encompasses preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). PGS improves success rates of in vitro fertilization by ensuring the transfer of euploid embryos that have a higher chance of implantation and resulting in a live birth. PGD enables the identification of embryos with specific disease-causing mutations and transfer of unaffected embryos. The development of whole genome amplification and genomic tools, including single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays, comparative genomic hybridization microarrays, and next-generation sequencing, has led to faster, more accurate diagnoses that translate to improved pregnancy and live birth rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantum confinement effects on the thermoelectric figure of merit in Si/Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X; Dresselhaus, M S; Wang, K L; Tanner, M O

    1997-07-01

    The Si/Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x} quantum well system is attractive for high temperature thermoelectric applications and for demonstration of proof-of-principle for enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit Z, since the interfaces and carrier densities can be well controlled in this system. The authors report here theoretical calculations for Z in this system, and results from theoretical modeling of quantum confinement effects in the presence of {delta}-doping within the barrier layers. The {delta}-doping layers are introduced by growing very thin layers of wide band gap materials within the barrier layers in order to increase the effective barrier height within the barriers and thereby reduce the barrier width necessary for the quantum confinement of carriers within the quantum well. The overall figure of merit is thereby enhanced due to the reduced barrier width and hence reduced thermal conductivity, {kappa}. The {delta}-doping should further reduce {kappa} in the barriers by introducing phonon scattering centers within the barrier region. The temperature dependence of Z for Si quantum wells is also discussed.

  7. Analysis of nanostructuring in high figure-of-merit Ag{sub 1-x}Pb{sub m}SbTe{sub 2+m} thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Bruce A; Harringa, Joel L [Materials and Engineering Physics Program, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University Ames, IA (United States); Kramer, Matthew J [Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University Ames, IA (United States); Han, Mi-Kyung [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University Evanston, IL (United States); Chung, Duck-Young [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Kanatzidis, Mercouri G [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University Evanston, IL (United States); Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    2009-04-23

    Thermoelectric materials based on quaternary compounds Ag{sub 1-x}Pb{sub m}SbTe{sub 2+m} exhibit high dimensionless figure-of-merit values, ranging from 1.5 to 1.7 at 700 K. The primary factor contributing to the high figure of merit is a low lattice thermal conductivity, achieved through nanostructuring during melt solidification. As a consequence of nucleation and growth of a second phase, coherent nanoscale inclusions form throughout the material, which are believed to result in scattering of acoustic phonons while causing only minimal scattering of charge carriers. Here, characterization of the nanosized inclusions in Ag{sub 0.53}Pb{sub 18}Sb{sub 1.2}Te{sub 20} that shows a strong tendency for crystallographic orientation along the {l_brace}001{r_brace} planes, with a high degree of lattice strain at the interface, consistent with a coherent interfacial boundary is reported. The inclusions are enriched in Ag relative to the matrix, and seem to adopt a cubic, 96 atom per unit cell Ag{sub 2}Te phase based on the Ti{sub 2}Ni type structure. In-situ high-temperature synchrotron radiation diffraction studies indicated that the inclusions remain thermally stable to at least 800 K. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. The application of a figure of merit for nuclear explosive utility as a metric for material attractiveness in a nuclear material theft scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Wayne E.; Bradley, Keith; Jones, Edwin D.; Kramer, Kevin J.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Robel, Martin; Sleaford, Brad W.

    2010-01-01

    Effective integration of nonproliferation management into the design process is key to the broad deployment of advanced nuclear energy systems, and is an explicit goal of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The nuclear explosives utility of a nuclear material to a state (proliferator) or sub-state (terrorist) is a critical factor to be assessed and is one aspect of material attractiveness. In this work, we approached nuclear explosives utility through the calculation of a 'figure of merit' (FOM) that has recently been developed to capture the relative viability and difficulty of constructing nuclear explosives starting from various nuclear material forms and compositions. We discuss the integration of the figure of merit into an assessment of a nuclear material theft scenario and its use in the assessment. This paper demonstrates that material attractiveness is a multidimensional concept that embodies more than the FOM. It also seeks to propose that other attributes may be able to be quantified through analogous FOMs (e.g., transformation) and that, with quantification, aggregation may be possible using concepts from the risk community.

  9. The application of a figure of merit for nuclear explosive utility as a metric for material attractiveness in a nuclear material theft scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Wayne E., E-mail: weking@llnl.go [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bradley, Keith [Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Jones, Edwin D. [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Kramer, Kevin J.; Latkowski, Jeffery F. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Robel, Martin [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Sleaford, Brad W. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Effective integration of nonproliferation management into the design process is key to the broad deployment of advanced nuclear energy systems, and is an explicit goal of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The nuclear explosives utility of a nuclear material to a state (proliferator) or sub-state (terrorist) is a critical factor to be assessed and is one aspect of material attractiveness. In this work, we approached nuclear explosives utility through the calculation of a 'figure of merit' (FOM) that has recently been developed to capture the relative viability and difficulty of constructing nuclear explosives starting from various nuclear material forms and compositions. We discuss the integration of the figure of merit into an assessment of a nuclear material theft scenario and its use in the assessment. This paper demonstrates that material attractiveness is a multidimensional concept that embodies more than the FOM. It also seeks to propose that other attributes may be able to be quantified through analogous FOMs (e.g., transformation) and that, with quantification, aggregation may be possible using concepts from the risk community.

  10. What Is Genetic Ancestry Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consumer genetic testing? What kinds of direct-to-consumer genetic tests are available? What is genetic ancestry testing? What are the benefits and risks of direct-to-consumer genetic testing? ...

  11. Prenatal Genetic Counseling (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Prenatal Genetic Counseling KidsHealth / For Parents / Prenatal Genetic Counseling What's in ... can they help your family? What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling is the process of: evaluating family ...

  12. All about Genetics (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español All About Genetics KidsHealth / For Parents / All About Genetics What's in ... the way they pick up special laboratory dyes. Genetic Problems Errors in the genetic code or "gene ...

  13. Which Individuals To Choose To Update the Reference Population? Minimizing the Loss of Genetic Diversity in Animal Genomic Selection Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia E. Eynard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a potential loss of genetic diversity. Existing methods to conserve genetic diversity depend mostly on the choice of the breeding individuals. In this study, we propose a modification of the reference population composition to mitigate diversity loss. Since the high cost of phenotyping is the limiting factor for GS, our findings are of major economic interest. This study aims to answer the following questions: how would decisions on the reference population affect the breeding population, and how to best select individuals to update the reference population and balance maximizing genetic gain and minimizing loss of genetic diversity? We investigated three updating strategies for the reference population: random, truncation, and optimal contribution (OC strategies. OC maximizes genetic merit for a fixed loss of genetic diversity. A French Montbéliarde dairy cattle population with 50K SNP chip genotypes and simulations over 10 generations were used to compare these different strategies using milk production as the trait of interest. Candidates were selected to update the reference population. Prediction bias and both genetic merit and diversity were measured. Changes in the reference population composition slightly affected the breeding population. Optimal contribution strategy appeared to be an acceptable compromise to maintain both genetic gain and diversity in the reference and the breeding populations.

  14. Which Individuals To Choose To Update the Reference Population? Minimizing the Loss of Genetic Diversity in Animal Genomic Selection Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynard, Sonia E; Croiseau, Pascal; Laloë, Denis; Fritz, Sebastien; Calus, Mario P L; Restoux, Gwendal

    2018-01-04

    Genomic selection (GS) is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a potential loss of genetic diversity. Existing methods to conserve genetic diversity depend mostly on the choice of the breeding individuals. In this study, we propose a modification of the reference population composition to mitigate diversity loss. Since the high cost of phenotyping is the limiting factor for GS, our findings are of major economic interest. This study aims to answer the following questions: how would decisions on the reference population affect the breeding population, and how to best select individuals to update the reference population and balance maximizing genetic gain and minimizing loss of genetic diversity? We investigated three updating strategies for the reference population: random, truncation, and optimal contribution (OC) strategies. OC maximizes genetic merit for a fixed loss of genetic diversity. A French Montbéliarde dairy cattle population with 50K SNP chip genotypes and simulations over 10 generations were used to compare these different strategies using milk production as the trait of interest. Candidates were selected to update the reference population. Prediction bias and both genetic merit and diversity were measured. Changes in the reference population composition slightly affected the breeding population. Optimal contribution strategy appeared to be an acceptable compromise to maintain both genetic gain and diversity in the reference and the breeding populations. Copyright © 2018 Eynard et al.

  15. Validation for 2D/3D registration II: The comparison of intensity- and gradient-based merit functions using a new gold standard data set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendrin, Christelle; Markelj, Primoz; Pawiro, Supriyanto Ardjo; Spoerk, Jakob; Bloch, Christoph; Weber, Christoph; Figl, Michael; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A new gold standard data set for validation of 2D/3D registration based on a porcine cadaver head with attached fiducial markers was presented in the first part of this article. The advantage of this new phantom is the large amount of soft tissue, which simulates realistic conditions for registration. This article tests the performance of intensity- and gradient-based algorithms for 2D/3D registration using the new phantom data set. Methods: Intensity-based methods with four merit functions, namely, cross correlation, rank correlation, correlation ratio, and mutual information (MI), and two gradient-based algorithms, the backprojection gradient-based (BGB) registration method and the reconstruction gradient-based (RGB) registration method, were compared. Four volumes consisting of CBCT with two fields of view, 64 slice multidetector CT, and magnetic resonance-T1 weighted images were registered to a pair of kV x-ray images and a pair of MV images. A standardized evaluation methodology was employed. Targets were evenly spread over the volumes and 250 starting positions of the 3D volumes with initial displacements of up to 25 mm from the gold standard position were calculated. After the registration, the displacement from the gold standard was retrieved and the root mean square (RMS), mean, and standard deviation mean target registration errors (mTREs) over 250 registrations were derived. Additionally, the following merit properties were computed: Accuracy, capture range, number of minima, risk of nonconvergence, and distinctiveness of optimum for better comparison of the robustness of each merit. Results: Among the merit functions used for the intensity-based method, MI reached the best accuracy with an RMS mTRE down to 1.30 mm. Furthermore, it was the only merit function that could accurately register the CT to the kV x rays with the presence of tissue deformation. As for the gradient-based methods, BGB and RGB methods achieved subvoxel accuracy (RMS m

  16. Molecular genetics made simple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sh. Kassem

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients.

  17. Molecular genetics made simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Heba Sh.; Girolami, Francesca; Sanoudou, Despina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients. PMID:25610837

  18. BPA genetic monitoring - BPA Genetic Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Initiated in 1989, this study monitors genetic changes associated with hatchery propagation in multiple Snake River sub-basins for Chinook salmon and steelhead. We...

  19. Molecular Population Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Sònia; Barbadilla, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Molecular population genetics aims to explain genetic variation and molecular evolution from population genetics principles. The field was born 50 years ago with the first measures of genetic variation in allozyme loci, continued with the nucleotide sequencing era, and is currently in the era of population genomics. During this period, molecular population genetics has been revolutionized by progress in data acquisition and theoretical developments. The conceptual elegance of the neutral theory of molecular evolution or the footprint carved by natural selection on the patterns of genetic variation are two examples of the vast number of inspiring findings of population genetics research. Since the inception of the field, Drosophila has been the prominent model species: molecular variation in populations was first described in Drosophila and most of the population genetics hypotheses were tested in Drosophila species. In this review, we describe the main concepts, methods, and landmarks of molecular population genetics, using the Drosophila model as a reference. We describe the different genetic data sets made available by advances in molecular technologies, and the theoretical developments fostered by these data. Finally, we review the results and new insights provided by the population genomics approach, and conclude by enumerating challenges and new lines of inquiry posed by increasingly large population scale sequence data. Copyright © 2017 Casillas and Barbadilla.

  20. Heritability of rectal temperature and genetic correlations with production and reproduction traits in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2012-06-01

    Genetic selection for body temperature during heat stress might be a useful approach to reduce the magnitude of heat stress effects on production and reproduction. Objectives of the study were to estimate the genetic parameters of rectal temperature (RT) in dairy cows in freestall barns under heat stress conditions and to determine the genetic and phenotypic correlations of rectal temperature with other traits. Afternoon RT were measured in a total of 1,695 lactating Holstein cows sired by 509 bulls during the summer in North Florida. Genetic parameters were estimated with Gibbs sampling, and best linear unbiased predictions of breeding values were predicted using an animal model. The heritability of RT was estimated to be 0.17 ± 0.13. Predicted transmitting abilities for rectal temperature changed 0.0068 ± 0.0020°C/yr from (birth year) 2002 to 2008. Approximate genetic correlations between RT and 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields, productive life, and net merit were significant and positive, whereas approximate genetic correlations between RT and somatic cell count score and daughter pregnancy rate were significant and negative. Rectal temperature during heat stress has moderate heritability, but genetic correlations with economically important traits mean that selection for RT could lead to lower productivity unless methods are used to identify genes affecting RT that do not adversely affect other traits of economic importance. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of genetic architecture on the prediction accuracy of quantitative traits in samples of unrelated individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgante, Fabio; Huang, Wen; Maltecca, Christian; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2018-06-01

    Predicting complex phenotypes from genomic data is a fundamental aim of animal and plant breeding, where we wish to predict genetic merits of selection candidates; and of human genetics, where we wish to predict disease risk. While genomic prediction models work well with populations of related individuals and high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (e.g., livestock), comparable models perform poorly for populations of unrelated individuals and low LD (e.g., humans). We hypothesized that low prediction accuracies in the latter situation may occur when the genetics architecture of the trait departs from the infinitesimal and additive architecture assumed by most prediction models. We used simulated data for 10,000 lines based on sequence data from a population of unrelated, inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines to evaluate this hypothesis. We show that, even in very simplified scenarios meant as a stress test of the commonly used Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (G-BLUP) method, using all common variants yields low prediction accuracy regardless of the trait genetic architecture. However, prediction accuracy increases when predictions are informed by the genetic architecture inferred from mapping the top variants affecting main effects and interactions in the training data, provided there is sufficient power for mapping. When the true genetic architecture is largely or partially due to epistatic interactions, the additive model may not perform well, while models that account explicitly for interactions generally increase prediction accuracy. Our results indicate that accounting for genetic architecture can improve prediction accuracy for quantitative traits.

  2. Genetic relationships among body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Buckley, F; Dillon, P; Evans, R D; Rath, M; Veerkamp, R F

    2003-06-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk production, and fertility-related traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 8591 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, milk production, and/or fertility from 78 seasonal calving grass-based farms throughout southern Ireland. Of the cows included in the analysis, 4402 had repeated records across the 2 yr of the study. Genetic correlations between level of BCS at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were negative (-0.51 to -0.14). Genetic correlations between BW at different stages of lactation and total lactation milk production were all close to zero but became positive (0.01 to 0.39) after adjusting BW for differences in BCS. Body condition score at different stages of lactation correlated favorably with improved fertility; genetic correlations between BCS and pregnant 63 d after the start of breeding season ranged from 0.29 to 0.42. Both BW at different stages of lactation and milk production tended to exhibit negative genetic correlations with pregnant to first service and pregnant 63 d after the start of the breeding season and positive genetic correlations with number of services and the interval from first service to conception. Selection indexes investigated illustrate the possibility of continued selection for increased milk production without any deleterious effects on fertility or average BCS, albeit, genetic merit for milk production would increase at a slower rate.

  3. Economic trade-offs between genetic improvement and longevity in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, A

    2017-05-01

    Genetic improvement in sires used for artificial insemination (AI) is increasing faster compared with a decade ago. The genetic merit of replacement heifers is also increasing faster and the genetic lag with older cows in the herd increases. This may trigger greater cow culling to capture this genetic improvement. On the other hand, lower culling rates are often viewed favorably because the costs and environmental effects of maintaining herd size are generally lower. Thus, there is an economic trade-off between genetic improvement and longevity in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the principles, literature, and magnitude of these trade-offs. Data from the Council on Dairy Cattle Breeding show that the estimated breeding value of the trait productive life has increased for 50 yr but the actual time cows spend in the herd has not increased. The average annual herd cull rate remains at approximately 36% and cow longevity is approximately 59 mo. The annual increase in average estimated breeding value of the economic index lifetime net merit of Holstein sires is accelerating from $40/yr when the sire entered AI around 2002 to $171/yr for sires that entered AI around 2012. The expectation is therefore that heifers born in 2015 are approximately $50 more profitable per lactation than heifers born in 2014. Asset replacement theory shows that assets should be replaced sooner when the challenging asset is technically improved. Few studies have investigated the direct effects of genetic improvement on optimal cull rates. A 35-yr-old study found that the economically optimal cull rates were in the range of 25 to 27%, compared with the lowest possible involuntary cull rate of 20%. Only a small effect was observed of using the best surviving dams to generate the replacement heifer calves. Genetic improvement from sires had little effect on the optimal cull rate. Another study that optimized culling decisions for individual cows also showed that the

  4. Increasing milk solids production across lactation through genetic selection and intensive pasture-based feed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index (EBI), on overall performance and lactation profiles for milk, milk solids, body weight (BW), and body condition score (BCS) within 2 pasture-based systems of milk production likely to be used in the future, following abolition of the European Union's milk quota system. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of animals with North American origin and average or lower genetic merit at the time of the study; HighNA, North American Holstein-Friesians of high genetic merit; and HighNZ, New Zealand Holstein-Friesians of high genetic merit. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark pasture (MP) system (2.64 cows/ha and 344 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,056 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). Pasture was allocated to achieve similar postgrazing residual sward heights for both treatments. A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, FS, and the interaction between genotype and FS on milk production, BW, and BCS across lactation were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotype and FS accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype by FS interaction was observed for any of the variables measured. Results show that milk solids production of the national average dairy cow can be increased across lactation through increased EBI. High EBI genotypes (HighNA and HighNZ) produced more milk solids per cow and

  5. Genetic parameters for body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility estimated using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Buckley, F; Dillon, P; Evans, R D; Rath, M; Veerkamp, R F

    2003-11-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk yield, and fertility were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. The data analyzed included 81,313 BCS observations, 91,937 BW observations, and 100,458 milk test-day yields from 8725 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows. A cubic random regression was sufficient to model the changing genetic variances for BCS, BW, and milk across different days in milk. The genetic correlations between BCS and fertility changed little over the lactation; genetic correlations between BCS and interval to first service and between BCS and pregnancy rate to first service varied from -0.47 to -0.31, and from 0.15 to 0.38, respectively. This suggests that maximum genetic gain in fertility from indirect selection on BCS should be based on measurements taken in midlactation when the genetic variance for BCS is largest. Selection for increased BW resulted in shorter intervals to first service, but more services and poorer pregnancy rates; genetic correlations between BW and pregnancy rate to first service varied from -0.52 to -0.45. Genetic selection for higher lactation milk yield alone through selection on increased milk yield in early lactation is likely to have a more deleterious effect on genetic merit for fertility than selection on higher milk yield in late lactation.

  6. Genetics of nonsyndromic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung Seng

    2013-12-01

    Common obesity is widely regarded as a complex, multifactorial trait influenced by the 'obesogenic' environment, sedentary behavior, and genetic susceptibility contributed by common and rare genetic variants. This review describes the recent advances in understanding the role of genetics in obesity. New susceptibility loci and genetic variants are being uncovered, but the collective effect is relatively small and could not explain most of the BMI heritability. Yet-to-be identified common and rare variants, epistasis, and heritable epigenetic changes may account for part of the 'missing heritability'. Evidence is emerging about the role of epigenetics in determining obesity susceptibility, mediating developmental plasticity, which confers obesity risk from early life experiences. Genetic prediction scores derived from selected genetic variants, and also differential DNA methylation levels and methylation scores, have been shown to correlate with measures of obesity and response to weight loss intervention. Genetic variants, which confer susceptibility to obesity-related morbidities like nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, were also discovered recently. We can expect discovery of more rare genetic variants with the advent of whole exome and genome sequencing, and also greater understanding of epigenetic mechanisms by which environment influences genetic expression and which mediate the gene-environment interaction.

  7. Preimplantation genetic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C

    2018-03-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was first successfully performed in 1989 as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis for couples at risk of transmitting a genetic or chromosomal abnormality, such as cystic fibrosis, to their child. From embryos generated in vitro, biopsied cells are genetically tested. From the mid-1990s, this technology has been employed as an embryo selection tool for patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation, screening as many chromosomes as possible, in the hope that selecting chromosomally normal embryos will lead to higher implantation and decreased miscarriage rates. This procedure, preimplantation genetic screening, was initially performed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, but 11 randomised controlled trials of screening using this technique showed no improvement in in vitro fertilisation delivery rates. Progress in genetic testing has led to the introduction of array comparative genomic hybridisation, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and next generation sequencing for preimplantation genetic screening, and three small randomised controlled trials of preimplantation genetic screening using these new techniques indicate a modest benefit. Other trials are still in progress but, regardless of their results, preimplantation genetic screening is now being offered globally. In the near future, it is likely that sequencing will be used to screen the full genetic code of the embryo.

  8. Methods for mapping recreational and social values in urban green spaces in the nordic countries and their comparative merits for urban planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Hjorth Caspersen, Ole; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil C

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges faced by urban planning is to identify and evaluate recreational and social values of urban and peri-urban green spaces. Over the past 30 years a number of methods for mapping recreational and social values have been developed and implemented in the Nordic countries......, in dialogue between research and urban planning practice. This paper provides a framework for assessment of planning methods and an analysis of the comparative merits of seven Nordic mapping methods and how they address the challenges of identification and evaluation of recreational and social values....... The assessment shows that challenges are addressed in complementary ways and are tailored to different planning purposes. There is also scope for further improvements of the link between research and planning....

  9. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  10. MASS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF A FLOW-THROUGH ELECTROLYTIC REACTOR USING A POROUS ELECTRODE: PERFORMANCE AND FIGURES OF MERIT FOR Pb(II REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertazzoli R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of lead from an acid borate-nitrate solution containing Pb(II was used to characterize the mass transport properties of an electrolytic reactor with reticulated vitreous carbon cathodes, operated in the flow-through mode. Current potential curves recorded at a rotating vitreous carbon disc electrode were used to determine the diffusion coefficient for Pb(II under the conditions of the experiments. The performance and figures of merit of the electrolytic reactor were investigated by using different flowrates and cathode porosities. Dimensionless Sherwood and Reynolds numbers were correlated to characterize the mass transport properties of the reactor, and they were fitted to the equation Sh=24Re0.32Sc0.33.

  11. A high figure of merit localized surface plasmon sensor based on a gold nanograting on the top of a gold planar film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zu-Yin; Wang Li-Na; Hu Hai-Feng; Li Kang-Wen; Ma Xun-Peng; Song Guo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity and figure of merit (FOM) of a localized surface plasmon (LSP) sensor with gold nanograting on the top of planar metallic film. The sensitivity of the localized surface plasmon sensor is 317 nm/RIU, and the FOM is predicted to be above 8, which is very high for a localized surface plasmon sensor. By employing the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method, we analyze the distribution of the magnetic field and find that the sensing property of our proposed system is attributed to the interactions between the localized surface plasmon around the gold nanostrips and the surface plasmon polarition on the surface of the gold planar metallic film. These findings are important for developing high FOM localized surface plasmon sensors. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. Curve resolution and figures of merit estimation for determination of trace elements in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorber, A.; Harel, A.; Goldbart, Z.; Brenner, I.B.

    1987-01-01

    In geochemical analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), spectral interferences and background enhancement in response to sample concomitants are the main cause of deterioration of the limit of detection (LOD) and inaccuracy of the determination at the trace and minor element levels. In this account, the authors describe the chemometric procedure of curve resolution for compensating for these sources of error. A newly developed method for calculating figures of merit is used to evaluate the correction procedure, test the statistical significance of the determined concentration, and determine LODs for each sample. The technique involves scanning the vicinity of the spectral line of the analyte. With prior knowledge of potential spectral interferences, deconvolution of the overlapped response is possible. Analytical data for a wide range of geological standard reference materials demonstrate the effectiveness of the chemometric techniques. Separation of 0.002 nm spectral coincidence, employing a 0.02 nm resolution spectrometer, is demonstrated

  13. Synthetic Genetic Targeting of Genome Instability in Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajesh, Babu V.; Guppy, Brent J.; McManus, Kirk J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death throughout the World. A limitation of many current chemotherapeutic approaches is that their cytotoxic effects are not restricted to cancer cells, and adverse side effects can occur within normal tissues. Consequently, novel strategies are urgently needed to better target cancer cells. As we approach the era of personalized medicine, targeting the specific molecular defect(s) within a given patient’s tumor will become a more effective treatment strategy than traditional approaches that often target a given cancer type or sub-type. Synthetic genetic interactions are now being examined for their therapeutic potential and are designed to target the specific genetic and epigenetic phenomena associated with tumor formation, and thus are predicted to be highly selective. In general, two complementary approaches have been employed, including synthetic lethality and synthetic dosage lethality, to target aberrant expression and/or function associated with tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, respectively. Here we discuss the concepts of synthetic lethality and synthetic dosage lethality, and explain three general experimental approaches designed to identify novel genetic interactors. We present examples and discuss the merits and caveats of each approach. Finally, we provide insight into the subsequent pre-clinical work required to validate novel candidate drug targets

  14. Retrospective modeling of the merit-order effect on wholesale electricity prices from distributed photovoltaic generation in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Dylan; Hearps, Patrick; Eales, Dominic; Sandiford, Mike; Dunn, Rebecca; Wright, Matthew; Bateman, Lachlan

    2013-01-01

    In electricity markets that use a merit order dispatch system, generation capacity is ranked by the price that it is bid into the market. Demand is then met by dispatching electricity according to this rank, from the lowest to the highest bid. The last capacity dispatched sets the price received by all generation, ensuring the lowest cost provision of electricity. A consequence of this system is that significant deployments of low marginal cost electricity generators, including renewables, can reduce the spot price of electricity. In Australia, this prospect has been recognized in concern expressed by some coal-fired generators that delivering too much renewable generation would reduce wholesale electricity prices. In this analysis we calculate the likely reduction of wholesale prices through this merit order effect on the Australian National Electricity Market. We calculate that for 5 GW of capacity, comparable to the present per capita installation of photovoltaics in Germany, the reduction in wholesale prices would have been worth in excess of A$1.8 billion over 2009 and 2010, all other factors being equal. We explore the implications of our findings for feed-in tariff policies, and find that they could deliver savings to consumers, contrary to prevailing criticisms that they are a regressive form of taxation. - Highlights: ► We model the impact of photovoltaic generation on the Australian electricity market. ► Photovoltaic generation depresses electricity prices, particularly in summer peaks. ► Over the course of a year, the depression in wholesale prices has significant value. ► 5 GW of solar generation would have saved $1.8 billion in the market over two years. ► The depression of wholesale prices offsets the cost of support mechanisms

  15. The merit-order effect in the Italian power market: The impact of solar and wind generation on national wholesale electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Cataldi, Alessandra; Zoppoli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Italy promoted one of the most generous renewable support schemes worldwide which resulted in a high increase of solar power generation. We analyze the Italian day-ahead wholesale electricity market, finding empirical evidence of the merit-order effect. Over the period 2005–2013 an increase of 1 GWh in the hourly average of daily production from solar and wind sources has, on average, reduced wholesale electricity prices by respectively 2.3€/MWh and 4.2€/MWh and has amplified their volatility. The impact on prices has decreased over time in correspondence with the increase in solar and wind electricity production. We estimate that, over the period 2009–2013, solar production has generated higher monetary savings than wind production, mainly because the former is more prominent than the latter. However, in the solar case, monetary savings are not sufficient to compensate the cost of the related supporting schemes which are entirely internalized within end-user tariffs, causing a reduction of the consumer surplus, while the opposite occurs in the case of wind. - Highlights: • We find empirical evidence of the merit-order effect in the Italian market. • 1 GWh from solar and wind (hourly average) reduces prices by 2.3€/MW and 4.2€/MWh. • The impact of RES on price has declined as RES production has increased. • Monetary savings from solar production do not compensate the cost of the incentives. • Monetary savings from wind production are higher than the cost of the incentives

  16. An Investigation of How Black STEM Faculty at Historically Black Colleges and Universities Approach the National Science Foundation Merit Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, Falcon

    This qualitative inquiry explored the ways in which US-born, Black faculty member participants in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) interact with the National Science Foundation (NSF). Eight Black HBCU STEM faculty members with a range of involvement in NSF-related activities were individually interviewed. Topics of discussion with participants included their prior experiences with NSF, their understanding of the merit review process, and their understanding of their personal and institutional relationships with NSF and the STEM community. Two broad findings emerged from the conversations. The first was that issues of communities and social identity were important to the participants' work as research scientists. Participants prioritized advancing people and communities over advancing the knowledge of ambiguous, disembodied scientific disciplines, and some participants were motivated by interests in social justice. However, participants maintained strong identities as scientists and the discussions provided no evidence that other social factors influenced their application of the scientific method. The second major finding dealt with the role participants perceived their institutions playing in their involvement with NSF. All participants described challenges associated with pursuing research in HBCU environments and, in some cases, the institutional challenges served as the motivation for participants' projects, with varying consequences. The participants' discussions about their institutions also raised important questions about how well-aligned participants' visions are with the visions of their institutional leadership, regarding how research should be incorporated into the HBCU mission. Finally, this study developed and refined a theoretical framework for explaining the underrepresentation of HBCUs in NSF funding streams. In developing this framework, a brief history of

  17. Towards a genetic architecture of cryptic genetic variation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 84; Issue 3. Towards a genetic architecture of cryptic genetic variation and genetic assimilation: the contribution of K. G. Bateman. Ian Dworkin. Commentary on J. Genet. Classic Volume 84 Issue 3 December 2005 pp 223-226 ...

  18. Genetic Testing Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RefSeqGene UniGene All Genes & Expression Resources... Genetics & Medicine Bookshelf Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) Genetic Testing ... ProtMap HomoloGene Protein Clusters All Homology Resources... Literature Bookshelf E-Utilities Journals in NCBI Databases MeSH Database ...

  19. Genetics in the courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Heather; Drell, Dan

    2000-12-01

    Various: (1)TriState 2000 Genetics in the Courts (2) Growing impact of the new genetics on the courts (3)Human testing (4) Legal analysis - in re G.C. (5) Legal analysis - GM ''peanots'', and (6) Legal analysis for State vs Miller

  20. Quo Vadis, Medical Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizel, Andrew E.

    The beginning of human genetics and its medical part: medical genetics was promising in the early decades of this century. Many genetic diseases and defects with Mendelian origin were identified and it helped families with significant genetic burden to limit their child number. Unfortunately this good start was shadowed by two tragic events. On the one hand, in the 1930s and early 1940s the German fascism brought about the dominance of an unscientific eugenics to mask vile political crimes. People with genetic diseases-defects were forced to sterilisation and several of them were killed. On the other hand, in the 1950s lysenkoism inhibitied the evolution of genetics in the Soviet Union and their satelite countries. Lysenko's doctrine declared genetics as a product of imperialism and a guilty science, therefore leading geneticists were ousted form their posts and some of them were executed or put in prison. Past decades genetics has resulted fantastic new results and achieved a leading position within the natural sciences. To my mind, however, the expected wider use of new eugenics indicates a new tragedy and this Cassandra's prediction is the topic of this presentation.

  1. Formal genetic maps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... ome/transcriptome/proteome, experimental induced maps that are intentionally designed and con- ... genetic maps imposed their application in nearly all fields of medical genetics including ..... or genes located adjacent to, or near, them. ...... types of markers, e.g., clinical markers (eye color), genomic.

  2. Cryptic Genetic Variation in Evolutionary Developmental Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise B. Paaby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental genetics has traditionally been conducted by two groups: Molecular evolutionists who emphasize divergence between species or higher taxa, and quantitative geneticists who study variation within species. Neither approach really comes to grips with the complexities of evolutionary transitions, particularly in light of the realization from genome-wide association studies that most complex traits fit an infinitesimal architecture, being influenced by thousands of loci. This paper discusses robustness, plasticity and lability, phenomena that we argue potentiate major evolutionary changes and provide a bridge between the conceptual treatments of macro- and micro-evolution. We offer cryptic genetic variation and conditional neutrality as mechanisms by which standing genetic variation can lead to developmental system drift and, sheltered within canalized processes, may facilitate developmental transitions and the evolution of novelty. Synthesis of the two dominant perspectives will require recognition that adaptation, divergence, drift and stability all depend on similar underlying quantitative genetic processes—processes that cannot be fully observed in continuously varying visible traits.

  3. Genetics of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2012-01-01

    Aggression mediates competition for food, mating partners, and habitats and, among social animals, establishes stable dominance hierarchies. In humans, abnormal aggression is a hallmark of neuropsychiatric disorders and can be elicited by environmental factors acting on an underlying genetic susceptibility. Identifying the genetic architecture that predisposes to aggressive behavior in people is challenging because of difficulties in quantifying the phenotype, genetic heterogeneity, and uncontrolled environmental conditions. Studies on mice have identified single-gene mutations that result in hyperaggression, contingent on genetic background. These studies can be complemented by systems genetics approaches in Drosophila melanogaster, in which mutational analyses together with genome-wide transcript analyses, artificial selection studies, and genome-wide analysis of epistasis have revealed that a large segment of the genome contributes to the manifestation of aggressive behavior with widespread epistatic interactions. Comparative genomic analyses based on the principle of evolutionary conservation are needed to enable a complete dissection of the neurogenetic underpinnings of this universal fitness trait.

  4. Genetic improvement of vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Vasquez, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Some genetic bases of the improvement of vegetables are given. The objectives of the genetic improvement and the fundamental stages of this process are done. The sources of genetic variation are indicated and they are related the reproduction systems of the main horticultural species. It is analyzed the concept of genetic inheritance like base to determine the procedures more appropriate of improvement. The approaches are discussed, has more than enough phenotypic value, genetic action and genotypic variance; Equally the heredability concepts and value of improvement. The conventional methods of improvement are described, like they are: the introduction of species or varieties, the selection, the pure line, the pedigree method, the selection for families, the recurrent selection, the selection for unique seed, the haploids method, the selection for heterosis and the synthetic varieties

  5. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics.......Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be inherited? More about Inheriting Genetic Conditions Diagnosis & Management Resources Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Ateleiotic dwarfism Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant isolated somatotropin deficiency ...

  7. Genetic variation and its maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.F.; De Stefano, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains several papers divided among three sections. The section titles are: Genetic Diversity--Its Dimensions; Genetic Diversity--Its Origin and Maintenance; and Genetic Diversity--Applications and Problems of Complex Characters

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Farber lipogranulomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features. Type 1 is the most common, or classical, form of this condition and is associated with ... be inherited? More about Inheriting Genetic Conditions Diagnosis & Management Resources Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: ...

  9. Genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hartono, Hartono

    2015-01-01

    Genetic heterogeneity is a phenomenon in which a genetic disease can be transmitted by several modes of inheritance. The understanding of genetic heterogeneity is important in giving genetic counselling.The presence of genetic heterogeneity can be explained by the existence of:1.different mutant alleles at a single locus, and2.mutant alleles at different loci affecting the same enzyme or protein, or affecting different enzymes or proteins.To have an overall understanding of genetic heterogene...

  10. Computational cluster validation for microarray data analysis: experimental assessment of Clest, Consensus Clustering, Figure of Merit, Gap Statistics and Model Explorer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utro Filippo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inferring cluster structure in microarray datasets is a fundamental task for the so-called -omic sciences. It is also a fundamental question in Statistics, Data Analysis and Classification, in particular with regard to the prediction of the number of clusters in a dataset, usually established via internal validation measures. Despite the wealth of internal measures available in the literature, new ones have been recently proposed, some of them specifically for microarray data. Results We consider five such measures: Clest, Consensus (Consensus Clustering, FOM (Figure of Merit, Gap (Gap Statistics and ME (Model Explorer, in addition to the classic WCSS (Within Cluster Sum-of-Squares and KL (Krzanowski and Lai index. We perform extensive experiments on six benchmark microarray datasets, using both Hierarchical and K-means clustering algorithms, and we provide an analysis assessing both the intrinsic ability of a measure to predict the correct number of clusters in a dataset and its merit relative to the other measures. We pay particular attention both to precision and speed. Moreover, we also provide various fast approximation algorithms for the computation of Gap, FOM and WCSS. The main result is a hierarchy of those measures in terms of precision and speed, highlighting some of their merits and limitations not reported before in the literature. Conclusion Based on our analysis, we draw several conclusions for the use of those internal measures on microarray data. We report the main ones. Consensus is by far the best performer in terms of predictive power and remarkably algorithm-independent. Unfortunately, on large datasets, it may be of no use because of its non-trivial computer time demand (weeks on a state of the art PC. FOM is the second best performer although, quite surprisingly, it may not be competitive in this scenario: it has essentially the same predictive power of WCSS but it is from 6 to 100 times slower in time

  11. Genetic effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the most important findings concerning the genetic effects of radiation have been obtained in the Biology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The paper focuses on some of the major discoveries made in the Biology Division and on a new method of research that assesses damage to the skeletons of mice whose fathers were irradiated. The results discussed have considerable influence upon estimates of genetic risk in humans from radiation, and an attempt is made to put the estimated amount of genetic damage caused by projected nuclear power development into its proper perspective

  12. Genetically Engineered Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruanbao (Inventor); Gibbons, William (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The disclosed embodiments provide cyanobacteria spp. that have been genetically engineered to have increased production of carbon-based products of interest. These genetically engineered hosts efficiently convert carbon dioxide and light into carbon-based products of interest such as long chained hydrocarbons. Several constructs containing polynucleotides encoding enzymes active in the metabolic pathways of cyanobacteria are disclosed. In many instances, the cyanobacteria strains have been further genetically modified to optimize production of the carbon-based products of interest. The optimization includes both up-regulation and down-regulation of particular genes.

  13. Statistics for Learning Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Abigail Sheena

    This study investigated the knowledge and skills that biology students may need to help them understand statistics/mathematics as it applies to genetics. The data are based on analyses of current representative genetics texts, practicing genetics professors' perspectives, and more directly, students' perceptions of, and performance in, doing statistically-based genetics problems. This issue is at the emerging edge of modern college-level genetics instruction, and this study attempts to identify key theoretical components for creating a specialized biological statistics curriculum. The goal of this curriculum will be to prepare biology students with the skills for assimilating quantitatively-based genetic processes, increasingly at the forefront of modern genetics. To fulfill this, two college level classes at two universities were surveyed. One university was located in the northeastern US and the other in the West Indies. There was a sample size of 42 students and a supplementary interview was administered to a select 9 students. Interviews were also administered to professors in the field in order to gain insight into the teaching of statistics in genetics. Key findings indicated that students had very little to no background in statistics (55%). Although students did perform well on exams with 60% of the population receiving an A or B grade, 77% of them did not offer good explanations on a probability question associated with the normal distribution provided in the survey. The scope and presentation of the applicable statistics/mathematics in some of the most used textbooks in genetics teaching, as well as genetics syllabi used by instructors do not help the issue. It was found that the text books, often times, either did not give effective explanations for students, or completely left out certain topics. The omission of certain statistical/mathematical oriented topics was seen to be also true with the genetics syllabi reviewed for this study. Nonetheless

  14. Figures of merit and constraints from testing general relativity using the latest cosmological data sets including refined COSMOS 3D weak lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossett, Jason N.; Moldenhauer, Jacob; Ishak, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We use cosmological constraints from current data sets and a figure of merit approach in order to probe any deviations from general relativity at cosmological scales. The figure of merit approach is used to study and compare the constraining power of various combinations of data sets on the modified gravity (MG) parameters. We use the recently refined HST-COSMOS weak-lensing tomography data, the ISW-galaxy cross correlations from 2MASS and SDSS luminous red galaxy surveys, the matter power spectrum from SDSS-DR7 (MPK), the WMAP7 temperature and polarization spectra, the baryon acoustic oscillations from Two-Degree Field and SDSS-DR7, and the Union2 compilation of type Ia supernovae, in addition to other bounds from Hubble parameter measurements and big bang nucleosynthesis. We use three parametrizations of MG parameters that enter the perturbed field equations. In order to allow for variations of the parameters with the redshift and scale, the first two parametrizations use recently suggested functional forms while the third is based on binning methods. Using the first parametrization, we find that the CMB+ISW+WL combination provides the strongest constraints on the MG parameters followed by CMB+WL or CMB+MPK+ISW. Using the second parametrization or the binning methods, we find that the combination CMB+MPK+ISW consistently provides some of the strongest constraints. This shows that the constraints are parametrization dependent. We find that adding up current data sets does not improve consistently the uncertainties on MG parameters due to tensions between the best-fit MG parameters preferred by different data sets. Furthermore, some functional forms imposed by the parametrizations can lead to an exacerbation of these tensions. Next, unlike some studies that used the CFHTLS lensing data, we do not find any deviation from general relativity using the refined HST-COSMOS data, confirming previous claims in those studies that their result may have been due to some

  15. Enhancing Thermoelectric Figure-of-Merit of Polycrystalline Na y CoO2 by a Combination of Non-stoichiometry and Co-substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Md. Mofasser; Vitta, Satish

    2018-06-01

    Co-oxides with a layered structure are of interest for high-temperature thermoelectric applications as they can be tuned to enhance their electrical conductivity while retaining their low thermal conductivity. The figure-of-merit of Na y CoO2 has been enhanced using the combined effects of Na-non-stoichiometry and non-isoelectronic Co-substitution. A series of compounds Na0.7Co1- x Ni x O2 with x ≤ 0.1 have been synthesized using conventional techniques. Structural analysis using x-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement shows the formation of a γ-NaCoO2-type phase in all the compounds. The presence of a small amount of NiO for x > 0.05 indicates that the solubility limit of Ni in Na0.7CoO2 is 5 at.%. All the compounds have been found to be p-type with the thermopower reaching a maximum of 220 μV K-1 at 1023 K for x = 0.1. The thermopower has been found to vary linearly with temperature for all the compounds; a degenerate metallic behavior. The electrical resistivity varies between 3 and 10 mΩ cm at all temperatures and has a metallic temperature dependence in agreement with the thermopower results. The power factor for the x = 0.1 compound reaches a maximum value of 0.55 mW m-1 K-2 at ˜ 900 K compared to 0.45 mW m-1 K-2 for the compound with no substitution. The thermal conductivity at 1023 K decreases from 1.2 to 0.9 W m-1 K-1 for x = 0.1. These factors lead to an increase of the figure-of-merit, zT, to 0.58 at 1023 K for x = 0.1, an increase of 57% compared to the unsubstituted compound. The magnetic studies show that Na0.7CoO2 is paramagnetic with an antiferromagnetic transition at ˜ 36 K. Substitution of Ni2+ for Co3+ has been found to induce a ferromagnetic-like transition at ˜ 240 K which is suppressed at high fields.

  16. High figure of merit and thermoelectric properties of Bi-doped Mg2Si0.4Sn0.6 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Yin, Kang; Chi, Hang; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Tang, Xinfeng; Uher, Ctirad

    2013-01-01

    The study of Mg 2 Si 1−x Sn x -based thermoelectric materials has received widespread attention due to a potentially high thermoelectric performance, abundant raw materials, relatively low cost of modules, and non-toxic character of compounds. In this research, Mg 2.16 (Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 ) 1−y Bi y solid solutions with the nominal Bi content of 0≤y≤0.03 are prepared using a two-step solid state reaction followed by spark plasma sintering consolidation. Within this range of Bi concentrations, no evidence of second phase segregation was found. Bi is confirmed to occupy the Si/Sn sites in the crystal lattice and behaves as an efficient n-type dopant in Mg 2 Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 . Similar to the effect of Sb, Bi doping greatly increases the electron density and the power factor, and reduces the lattice thermal conductivity of Mg 2.16 Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 solid solutions. Overall, the thermoelectric figure of merit of Bi-doped Mg 2.16 Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 solid solutions is improved by about 10% in comparison to values obtained with Sb-doped materials of comparable dopant content. This improvement comes chiefly from a marginally higher Seebeck coefficient of Bi-doped solid solutions. The highest ZT∼1.4 is achieved for the y=0.03 composition at 800 K. - Graphical abstract: (a)The relationship between electrical conductivity and power factor for Sb/Bi-doped Mg 2.16 (Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 ) 1−y (Sb/Bi) y (0 2.16 (Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 ) 1−y Bi y (0≤y≤0.03) solid solutions. (c)Temperature dependent dimensionless figure of merit ZT of Mg 2.16 (Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 ) 1−y Bi y (0≤y≤0.03) solid solutions. - Highlights: • Bi doped Mg 2.16 Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 showed 15% enhancement in the power factor as compared to Sb doped samples. • Bi doping reduced κ ph of Mg 2.16 Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 due to stronger point defect scattering. • The highest ZT=1.4 at 800 K was achieved for Mg 2.16 (Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 ) 0.97 Bi 0.03

  17. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjorn; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether women conceiving after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and their children have greater risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with children conceived spontaneously or after IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN...

  18. Genetics and Neuromuscular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing that reveals a young child’s genet- ic destiny may affect relationships within the family or may ... linked inheritance don’t apply at all. An embryo receives its mitochondria from the mother’s egg cell, ...

  19. LSD and Genetic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishotsky, Norman I.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reviews studies of the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on man and other organisms. Concludes that pure LSD injected in moderate doses does not cause chromosome or detectable genetic damage and is not a teratogen or carcinogen. (JM)

  20. Genetics Home Reference: piebaldism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be a feature of other conditions, such as Waardenburg syndrome ; these conditions have other genetic causes and additional ... 140S. Review. Citation on PubMed Spritz RA. Piebaldism, Waardenburg syndrome, and related disorders of melanocyte development. Semin Cutan ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: sialuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inheritance of sialuria, an inborn error of feedback inhibition. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Jun;68(6): ... Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & Players ...

  2. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...... to the number of patients suffering from the disease. This hypothesis is based on a study of bipolar disorder....

  3. Genetics of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A A Listen En Español Genetics of Diabetes You've probably wondered how you developed diabetes. ... to develop diabetes than others. What Leads to Diabetes? Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different ...

  4. [The genetics of addictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez Cuadrado, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The addictions are common chronic psychiatric diseases which represent a serious worldwide public-health problem. They have a high prevalence and negative effects at individual, family and societal level, with a high sanitary cost. Epidemiological genetic research has revealed that addictions are moderately to highly heritable. Also the investigation has evidenced that environmental and genetic factors contribute to individual differences in vulnerability to addictions. Advances in the neurobiology of addiction joined to the development of new molecular genetic technologies, have led to the identification of a variety of underlying genes and pathways in addiction process, leading to the description of common molecular mechanisms in substance and behaviour dependencies. Identifying gene-environment interactions is a crucial issue in future research. Other major goal in genetic research is the identification of new therapeutic targets for treatment and prevention.

  5. Genetics for the ophthalmologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan A Sadagopan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The eye has played a major role in human genomics including gene therapy. It is the fourth most common organ system after integument (skin, hair and nails, nervous system, and musculoskeletal system to be involved in genetic disorders. The eye is involved in single gene disorders and those caused by multifactorial etiology. Retinoblastoma was the first human cancer gene to be cloned. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy was the first mitochondrial disorder described. X-Linked red-green color deficiency was the first X-linked disorder described. The eye, unlike any other body organ, allows directly visualization of genetic phenomena such as skewed X-inactivation in the fundus of a female carrier of ocular albinism. Basic concepts of genetics and their application to clinical ophthalmological practice are important not only in making a precise diagnosis and appropriate referral, but also in management and genetic counseling.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: sitosterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also helps regulate cholesterol levels in a similar fashion; normally about 50 percent of cholesterol in the ... 10 All Bulletins Features What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What are genome editing and CRISPR- ...

  7. Review of genetic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, practitioners of medicine have become increasingly aware of the importance of genetics in the understanding of physical and mental health and in the management of disease. The last decades have witnessed unprecedented developments in genetics that have increased our understanding of the basic processes of heredity enormously. New techniques and understanding have provided insights directly applicable to medicine. The fundamental fact of heredity may be considered the ability of living organisms to produce offspring that resemble their parents more than others. One of the basic characteristics of the human condition is the uniqueness and diversity of all individuals. This results from their genetic individuality (with the exception of identical twins) and the interaction of the genetic constitution (the genome) with the environment, which is generally unique to the individual as well. In short, the interaction of genes with the environment is what confers biologic uniqueness to all humans

  8. Genetic Sample Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected primarily from the U.S. east coast. The collection includes samples from field programs,...

  9. Specific Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  10. Genetic Mutations in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many different types of genetic mutations are found in cancer cells. This infographic outlines certain types of alterations that are present in cancer, such as missense, nonsense, frameshift, and chromosome rearrangements.

  11. Genetic Sample Inventory - NRDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database archives genetic tissue samples from marine mammals collected in the North-Central Gulf of Mexico from 2010-2015. The collection includes samples from...

  12. Regulation of Genetic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Genomics Research Intellectual Property Issues in Genetics Archive Online Bioethics Resources Privacy in Genomics Regulation of ... are not regulated, meaning that they go to market without any independent analysis to verify the claims ...

  13. Genetics of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fontenla, Cristina; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex disease caused by the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors. This review focuses on the studies that have contributed to the discovery of genetic susceptibility factors in OA. The most relevant associations discovered until now are discussed in detail: GDF-5, 7q22 locus, MCF2L, DOT1L, NCOA3 and also some important findings from the arcOGEN study. Moreover, the different approaches that can be used to minimize the specific problems of the study of OA genetics are discussed. These include the study of microsatellites, phenotype standardization and other methods such as meta-analysis of GWAS and gene-based analysis. It is expected that these new approaches contribute to finding new susceptibility genetic factors for OA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ... into human evolution and origins and serving as a springboard for important medical research. It also addresses issues of confidentiality and individual privacy for participants in genetic diversity research studies.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Encyclopedia: Familial hypercholesterolemia Encyclopedia: High blood cholesterol and triglycerides Encyclopedia: Xanthoma Health Topic: Cholesterol Health Topic: High Cholesterol in Children and Teens Health Topic: Lipid Metabolism Disorders Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 ...

  16. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  17. Applications of Genetic Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Toma, Laura

    1996-01-01

    In this report a study of genetic programming (GP) has been performed with respect to a number of applications such as Symbolic function regression, Solving Symbolic Differential Equations, Image encoding, the ant problem etc.......In this report a study of genetic programming (GP) has been performed with respect to a number of applications such as Symbolic function regression, Solving Symbolic Differential Equations, Image encoding, the ant problem etc....

  18. Genetics and developmental biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on research activities in the fields of mutagenesis in Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli; radioinduced chromosomal aberrations in mammalian germ cells; effects of uv radiation on xeroderma pigmentosum skin cells; mutations in Chinese hamster ovary cells; radioinduced hemoglobin variants in the mouse; analysis of mutants in yeast; Drosophila genetics; biochemical genetics of Neurospora; DNA polymerase activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes; uv-induced damage in Bacillus subtilis; and others

  19. Christianity, health, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David H

    2009-02-15

    Health is an intrinsic value that Christians should respect, but it is not the highest value. Christians should be willing to jeopardize their own health for the health of others, and should repudiate any idea that genetic problems are the result of sin. Rather, sin leads us to make genetic problems harder to live with than they should be. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Somatic and genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on somatic and genetic effects of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: haematopoietic and immune systems, mechanisms of late effects in various tissues, endogenous and exogenous factors in radiation carcinogenesis, teratogenic effects, genetic effects, in vitro transformation, tumour induction in different tissues, carcinogenesis in incorporated tissues, cancer epidemology and risk assessment. refs.; figs.; tabs

  1. Contemporary Genetics for Gender Researchers: Not Your Grandma's Genetics Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Rachel H.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past century, much of genetics was deterministic, and feminist researchers framed justified criticisms of genetics research. However, over the past two decades, genetics research has evolved remarkably and has moved far from earlier deterministic approaches. Our article provides a brief primer on modern genetics, emphasizing contemporary…

  2. 50. Brazilian congress on genetics. 50 years developing genetics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in genetics is presented. Several aspects related to men, animals,plants and microorganisms are reported highlighting biological radiation effects, evolution, mutagenesis and genetic engineering. Genetic mapping, gene mutations, genetic diversity, DNA damages, plant cultivation and plant grow are studied as well

  3. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Andy

    2012-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  4. Genetic and environmental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Cancer may result from a multistage process occurring over a long period of time. Presumably, initial and progressive stages of carcinogenesis may be modified by both genetic and environmental factors. Theoretically, genetic factors may alter susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of an environmental agent at the initial exposure due to variation in metabolism of the carcinogen or variation in specific target cell response to the active carcinogen, or during the latent phase due to numerous factors that might increase the probability of tumor expression, including growth-promoting factors or immunodeficiency states. Observed genetic and environmental interactions in carcinogenesis include an association between genetically determined inducibility of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and smoking-related cancers, familial susceptibility to certain environmental carcinogens, an association between hereditary disorders of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, and enhancement of tissue-specific, dominantly inherited tumor predisposition by radiation. Multiple primary tumors occur frequently in genetically predisposed individuals. Specific markers for susceptibility must be sought in order that high-risk individuals be identified and appropriate measures taken for early cancer detection or prevention. Study of the nature of the genetically determined susceptibility and interactions with environmental agents may be revealing in the understanding of carcinogenesis in general

  5. Uus turunduskangelane SMS / Merit Raju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raju, Merit

    2002-01-01

    Lühisõnum SMS (Short Message Service) ja multimeediasõnum MMS (Multimedia Messaging System) - uued võimalused reklaami edastamiseks klientidele. Kommenteerib Henri Österlund. Lisa: SMS-reklaami võimalused

  6. The merits of neutral theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, D.; Etienne, R.S.; McKane, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity has challenged the classic niche-based view of ecological community structure. Although there have been many attempts to falsify Hubbell's theory, we argue that falsification should not lead to rejection, because there is more to the theory than neutrality

  7. Under Under Under / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2006-01-01

    20. nov. esietendub Kumu auditooriumis MTÜ Ühenduse R.A.A.A.M teatriprojekt "Under" poetess Marie Underist. Lavastajad Merle Karusoo ja Raimo Pass, kunstnik Jaagup Roomet, helilooja Urmas Lattikas, peaosas Katrin Saukas

  8. Korvpall algab tantsuga / Merit Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Merit

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusest korvpallimeeskonna BIG/new balance Rapla ergutustüdrukutega ehk cheerleaderitega. Võrreldes tavaliste showtantsudega on cheerleaderite tantsud palju koormavamad. Arutletakse selle üle mida tähendab olla cheerleader

  9. Current controversies, is there merit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    Xylitol has become a debated measure in caries prevention. This paper aims to examine and comment on some possible controversies, with emphasis on the most recent literature. A search for clinical trials was conducted through 2007 in PubMed, and papers describing a controlled xylitol intervention...

  10. BACKWARD INDUCTION: MERITS AND FLAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Marek M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Backward induction (BI was one of the earliest methods developed for solving finite sequential games with perfect information. It proved to be especially useful in the context of Tom Schelling’s ideas of credible versus incredible threats. BI can be also extended to solve complex games that include an infinite number of actions or an infinite number of periods. However, some more complex empirical or experimental predictions remain dramatically at odds with theoretical predictions obtained by BI. The primary example of such a troublesome game is Centipede. The problems appear in other long games with sufficiently complex structure. BI also shares the problems of subgame perfect equilibrium and fails to eliminate certain unreasonable Nash equilibria.

  11. How Merit Pay Undermines Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Al

    2001-01-01

    Why cannot teachers be "incentivized" like lawyers and salespeople? The seemingly logical link between employee production and compensation is debatable and highly subjective. Educators' jobs involve more than teaching academic subjects and often extend beyond the measurable. Input/output reward systems ignore basic human-motivation…

  12. Figure-of-merit (FOM), an improved criterion over the normalized chi-squared test for assessing goodness-of-fit of gamma-ray spectral peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garo Balian, H.; Eddy, N.W.

    1977-01-01

    A careful experimenter knows that in order to choose the best curve fits of peaks from a gamma ray spectrum for such purposes as energy or intensity calibration, half-life determination, etc., the application of the normalized chi-squared test, [chisub(N)] 2 =chi 2 /(n-m), is insufficient. One must normally verify the goodness-of-fit with plots, detailed scans of residuals, etc. Because of different techniques of application, variations in backgrounds, in peak sizes and shapes, etc., quotation of the [chisub(N)] 2 value associated with an individual peak fit conveys very little information unless accompanied by considerable ancillary data. (This is not to say that the traditional chi 2 formula should not be used as the source of the normal equations in the least squares fitting procedure. But after the fitting, it is unreliable as a criterion for comparison with other fits.) The authors present a formula designated figure-of-merit (FOM) which greatly improves on the uncertainty and fluctuations of the [chisub(N)] 2 formula. An FOM value of less than 2.5% indicates a good fit (in the authors' judgement) irrespective of background conditions and variations in peak sizes and shapes. Furthermore, the authors feel the FOM formula is less subject to fluctuations resulting from different techniques of application. (Auth.)

  13. An Electrosurgical Endoknife with a Water-Jet Function (Flushknife Proves Its Merits in Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Especially for the Cases Which Should Be Removed En Bloc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Takeuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previously, we reported that the Flushknife (electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function could reduce the operation time of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD however, suitable situation for the Flushknife was obscure. This subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial was aimed to investigate the suitable situation for the Flushknife. Methods. A total of 48 superficial colorectal neoplasms that underwent ESD using either the Flexknife or the Flushknife in a referral center were enrolled. The differences of operation time between the Flexknife and the Flushknife groups in each subgroup (tumor size, location, and macroscopic type were analyzed. Results. Median (95% CI operation time calculated using survival curves was significantly shorter in the Flushknife group than in the Flexknife group (55.5 min [41, 78] versus 74.0 [57, 90] min; , Hazard Ratio HR: 0.53; 95% CI (0.29–0.97. In particular, the HR in patients with laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG in the Flushknife group was significantly smaller than in the Flexknife group (HR: 0.1650.17; 95% CI (0.04–0.66. There was a trend of decreasing HRs according to larger lesion size. Conclusions. The Flushknife proved its merits in colorectal ESD especially for the lesions which should be removed en bloc (LST-NG and large lesion.

  14. Optimization of Counting Times, Figure of Merit and Mass Thickness for Low-background Alpha/beta Proportional Counter in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakkong, Pannee; Wongsanit, Sarinya; Tumnoi, Yutthana; Udomsomporn, Suchin

    2011-06-01

    Full text: The determination of gross alpha and beta activity in environmental aqueous samples can be done by using a low-background alpha/beta proportional counter with multiple detector type (Bert hold LB770). The co precipitate sea water samples were considered for optimal regime of counting time, the minimum detectable activity (MDA), mass thickness of samples (mg/cm-2) and figure of merit (FOM). The result showed that the MDA of the measurements were estimated to be 0.07 Bq/l for gross alpha and 0.05 Bq/l for gross beta at counting time of 100 and 200 minute, respectively. The thickness of samples prepared by coprecipitation technique indicated more parochial range when compared to evaporation to dryness method. In addition, the samples were in the suitable range that can be corrected by the previous self-absorption correction factor (F a ) as 0.0003w 2 -0.0414 w+1.692; where F a is the self-absorption correction factor and w is the weight of the final precipitate in milligrams

  15. Ga2O3 Schottky rectifiers with 1 ampere forward current, 650 V reverse breakdown and 26.5 MW.cm-2 figure-of-merit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Ren, F.; Tadjer, Marko; Pearton, S. J.; Kuramata, A.

    2018-05-01

    A key goal for Ga2O3 rectifiers is to achieve high forward currents and high reverse breakdown voltages. Field-plated β-Ga2O3 Schottky rectifiers with area 0.01 cm2, fabricated on 10 μm thick, lightly-doped drift regions (1.33 x 1016 cm-3) on heavily-doped (3.6 x 1018 cm-3) substrates, exhibited forward current density of 100A.cm-2 at 2.1 V, with absolute current of 1 A at this voltage and a reverse breakdown voltage (VB) of 650V. The on-resistance (RON) was 1.58 x 10-2 Ω.cm2, producing a figure of merit (VB2/RON) of 26.5 MW.cm-2. The Schottky barrier height of the Ni was 1.04 eV, with an ideality factor of 1.02. The on/off ratio was in the range 3.3 x 106 - 5.7 x 109 for reverse biases between 5 and 100V. The reverse recovery time was ˜30 ns for switching from +2V to -5V. The results show the capability of β-Ga2O3 rectifiers to achieve exceptional performance in both forward and reverse bias conditions.

  16. Enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in environmentally benign BaxSr2-xTiCoO6 double perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Mandvi; Roy, Pinku; Acharya, Megha; Bose, Imon; Tanwar, Khagesh; Maiti, Tanmoy

    2016-12-01

    Environmental friendly, non-toxic double perovskite BaxSr2-xTiCoO6 compositions with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 were synthesized using solid-state reaction route for high temperature thermoelectric (TE) applications. XRD and SEM studies confirmed the presence of single-phase solid solution with highly dense microstructure for all the oxide compositions. Temperature dependent electrical conductivity measurement showed semiconductor to metal (M-S) transition in these double perovskites. Incorporation of barium in Sr2TiCoO6 pushed M-S transition to higher temperature making it a potential candidate for high temperature TE applications. Conductivity behaviors of these oxides were explained by small polaron model. Furthermore, these oxides exhibit a glass like behavior resulting in low thermal conductivity. Low temperature dielectric measurement revealed relaxor ferroelectric behavior in these oxides below room temperature. Transition of these relaxors into a glassy state beyond Burns temperature (TD) was found responsible for having low thermal conductivity in these oxides. Maximum dimensionless TE figure-of-merit ZT = 0.29 at 1223 K was achieved for BaxSr2-xTiCoO6 composition with x = 0.2.

  17. Enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in Bi-Sb-Te nanocomposites with homogenously dispersed oxide ceramic ZrO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madavali, B.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, K. H.; Hong, S. J.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, p-type BiSbTe/ZrO2 nanocomposite powders were fabricated by high-energy ball milling. Different weight percentages of ZrO2 (2, 4, and 6 wt. %) nanoparticles were incorporated into the bulk (BiSbTe) matrix by consolidation of as-synthesized nanocomposites (NCs) powder by spark plasma sintering at 673 K. The phase and existence of ZrO2 nano-inclusions was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy-selected area electron diffraction analysis. The Seebeck coefficient of the BiSbTe/ZrO2 NCs was significantly improved (˜36% for 4 wt. % added NCs) by a decrease in the carrier concentration and energy filtering effect, whereas the thermal conductivity was much reduced via strong scattering of carriers/phonons. The peak thermoelectric figure-of-merit (1.34 ± 0.06) was obtained for BiSbTe into which 2 wt. % ZrO2 was dispersed, which was approximately 20% greater than that of the undispersed sample. The hardness of the nanocomposites was significantly improved (˜27%) due to grain-boundary hardening and a dispersion strengthening mechanism.

  18. The merit-order effect: A detailed analysis of the price effect of renewable electricity generation on spot market prices in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensfuss, Frank; Ragwitz, Mario; Genoese, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    The German feed-in support of electricity generation from renewable energy sources has led to high growth rates of the supported technologies. Critics state that the costs for consumers are too high. An important aspect to be considered in the discussion is the price effect created by renewable electricity generation. This paper seeks to analyse the impact of privileged renewable electricity generation on the electricity market in Germany. The central aspect to be analysed is the impact of renewable electricity generation on spot market prices. The results generated by an agent-based simulation platform indicate that the financial volume of the price reduction is considerable. In the short run, this gives rise to a distributional effect which creates savings for the demand side by reducing generator profits. In the case of the year 2006, the volume of the merit-order effect exceeds the volume of the net support payments for renewable electricity generation which have to be paid by consumers. (author)

  19. Optoelectronic figure of merit of a metal nanoparticle—quantum dot (MNP-QD) hybrid molecule for assessing its suitability for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapuarachchi, Harini; Mallawaarachchi, Sudaraka; Hattori, Haroldo T.; Zhu, Weiren; Premaratne, Malin

    2018-02-01

    Recently, many have studied various configurations of metal nanoparticle-quantum dot (MNP-QD) hybrid molecules based on different metals and tunable parameters. In this paper, we aim to incite the interest in using MNP-QD nanohybrids, which possess sensing capabilities superior to those of the individual constituents, for sensing applications that rely on scattered light. When assessing whether a given MNP-QD configuration is suited for an application, sometimes it is hard to assess the pros and cons of a given configuration against other candidates. Here we propose a simple, elegant relative figure of merit (RFoM), which focuses on maximizing the scattered intensity and the refractive index sensitivity of the nanohybrid, to rank the suitability of viable MNP-QD configurations for a particular sensing application. We use the proposed RFoM to analyse the optical spectra of noble, transition, post transition and alkali metal based MNP-QD nanohybrids using the representative metals Au, Ag, Cu, Al and Na, adopting a generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) method based cavity QED approach. Based on our observations, we suggest how the usage of MNP-QD nanohybrids could improve the conventionally studied tumour targeting applications. Moreover, we propose potential substitutes for noble metals conventionally considered for MNP-QD nanohybrids.

  20. Biopsychosocial influence on exercise-induced injury: genetic and psychological combinations are predictive of shoulder pain phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven Z; Parr, Jeffrey J; Wallace, Margaret R; Wu, Samuel S; Borsa, Paul A; Dai, Yunfeng; Fillingim, Roger B

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is influenced by biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. The current study investigated potential roles for combinations of genetic and psychological factors in the development and/or maintenance of chronic musculoskeletal pain. An exercise-induced shoulder injury model was used, and a priori selected genetic (ADRB2, COMT, OPRM1, AVPR1 A, GCH1, and KCNS1) and psychological (anxiety, depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, and kinesiophobia) factors were included as predictors. Pain phenotypes were shoulder pain intensity (5-day average and peak reported on numerical rating scale), upper extremity disability (5-day average and peak reported on the QuickDASH), and shoulder pain duration (in days). After controlling for age, sex, and race, the genetic and psychological predictors were entered as main effects and interaction terms in separate regression models for the different pain phenotypes. Results from the recruited cohort (N = 190) indicated strong statistical evidence for interactions between the COMT diplotype and 1) pain catastrophizing for 5-day average upper extremity disability and 2) depressive symptoms for pain duration. There was moderate statistical evidence for interactions for other shoulder pain phenotypes between additional genes (ADRB2, AVPR1 A, and KCNS1) and depressive symptoms, pain catastrophizing, or kinesiophobia. These findings confirm the importance of the combined predictive ability of COMT with psychological distress and reveal other novel combinations of genetic and psychological factors that may merit additional investigation in other pain cohorts. Interactions between genetic and psychological factors were investigated as predictors of different exercise-induced shoulder pain phenotypes. The strongest statistical evidence was for interactions between the COMT diplotype and pain catastrophizing (for upper extremity disability) or depressive symptoms (for pain duration). Other novel

  1. Genetic evaluations for growth heat tolerance in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, H L; Fragomeni, B O; Bertrand, J K; Lourenco, D A L; Misztal, I

    2016-10-01

    The objectives were to assess the impact of heat stress and to develop a model for genetic evaluation of growth heat tolerance in Angus cattle. The American Angus Association provided weaning weight (WW) and yearling weight (YW) data, and records from the Upper South region were used because of the hot climatic conditions. Heat stress was characterized by a weaning (yearling) heat load function defined as the mean temperature-humidity index (THI) units greater than 75 (70) for 30 (150) d prior to the weigh date. Therefore, a weaning (yearling) heat load of 5 units corresponded to 80 (75) for the corresponding period prior to the weigh date. For all analyses, 82,669 WW and 69,040 YW were used with 3 ancestral generations in the pedigree. Univariate models were a proxy for the Angus growth evaluation, and reaction norms using 2 B-splines for heat load were fit separately for weaning and yearling heat loads. For both models, random effects included direct genetic, maternal genetic, maternal permanent environment (WW only), and residual. Fixed effects included a linear age covariate, age-of-dam class (WW only), and contemporary group for both models and fixed regressions on the B-splines in the reaction norm. Direct genetic correlations for WW were strong for modest heat load differences but decreased to less than 0.50 for large differences. Reranking of proven sires occurred for only WW direct effects for the reaction norms with extreme heat load differences. Conversely, YW results indicated little effect of heat stress on genetic merit. Therefore, weaning heat tolerance was a better candidate for developing selection tools. Maternal heritabilities were consistent across heat loads, and maternal genetic correlations were greater than 0.90 for nearly all heat load combinations. No evidence existed for a genotype × environment interaction for the maternal component of growth. Overall, some evidence exists for phenotypic plasticity for the direct genetic effects of WW

  2. [Genetic aspects of genealogy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetushkin, E Iu

    2011-11-01

    The supplementary historical discipline genealogy is also a supplementary genetic discipline. In its formation, genetics borrowed from genealogy some methods of pedigree analysis. In the 21th century, it started receiving contribution from computer-aided genealogy and genetic (molecular) genealogy. The former provides novel tools for genetics, while the latter, which employing genetic methods, enriches genetics with new evidence. Genealogists formulated three main laws ofgenealogy: the law of three generations, the law of doubling the ancestry number, and the law of declining ancestry. The significance and meaning of these laws can be fully understood only in light of genetics. For instance, a controversy between the exponential growth of the number of ancestors of an individual, i.e., the law of doubling the ancestry number, and the limited number of the humankind is explained by the presence of weak inbreeding because of sibs' interference; the latter causes the pedigrees' collapse, i.e., explains also the law of diminishing ancestry number. Mathematic modeling of pedigrees' collapse presented in a number of studies showed that the number of ancestors of each individual attains maximum in a particular generation termed ancestry saturated generation. All representatives of this and preceding generation that left progeny are common ancestors of all current members of the population. In subdivided populations, these generations are more ancient than in panmictic ones, whereas in small isolates and social strata with limited numbers of partners, they are younger. The genealogical law of three generations, according to which each hundred years contain on average three generation intervals, holds for generation lengths for Y-chromosomal DNA, typically equal to 31-32 years; for autosomal and mtDNA, this time is somewhat shorter. Moving along ascending lineas, the number of genetically effective ancestors transmitting their DNA fragment to descendants increases far

  3. From observational to dynamic genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. A. Haworth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twin and family studies have shown that most traits are at least moderately heritable. But what are the implications of finding genetic influence for the design of intervention and prevention programs? For complex traits, heritability does not mean immutability, and research has shown that genetic influences can change with age, context and in response to behavioural and drug interventions. The most significant implications for intervention will come when we move from observational genetics to investigating dynamic genetics, including genetically sensitive interventions. Future interventions should be designed to overcome genetic risk and draw upon genetic strengths by changing the environment.

  4. Genetics of human hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael A.; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  5. Modifying the Genetic Regulation of Bone and Cartilage Cells and Associated Tissue by EMF Stimulation Fields and Uses Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Shackelford, Linda C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus and method to modify the genetic regulation of mammalian tissue, bone, or any combination. The method may be comprised of the steps of tuning at least one predetermined profile associated with at least one time-varying stimulation field thereby resulting in at least one tuned time-varying stimulation field comprised of at least one tuned predetermined profile, wherein said at least one tuned predetermined profile is comprised of a plurality of tuned predetermined figures of merit and is controllable through at least one of said plurality of tuned predetermined figures of merit, wherein said plurality of predetermined tuned figures of merit is comprised of a tuned B-Field magnitude, tuned rising slew rate, tuned rise time, tuned falling slew rate, tuned fall time, tuned frequency, tuned wavelength, and tuned duty cycle; and exposing mammalian chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, nucleus pulposus, associated tissue, or any combination to said at least one tuned time-varying stimulation field comprised of said at least one tuned predetermined profile for a predetermined tuned exposure time or plurality of tuned exposure time sequences.

  6. How Are Genetic Conditions Treated or Managed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Help Me Understand Genetics Genetic Consultation How are genetic conditions treated or managed? How are genetic conditions treated or managed? Many ...

  7. Integrated genetic analysis microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, Eric T; Mathies, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the ongoing DNA sequencing of the genomes of other animals, bacteria, plants and others, a wealth of new information about the genetic composition of organisms has become available. However, as the demand for sequence information grows, so does the workload required both to generate this sequence and to use it for targeted genetic analysis. Microfabricated genetic analysis systems are well poised to assist in the collection and use of these data through increased analysis speed, lower analysis cost and higher parallelism leading to increased assay throughput. In addition, such integrated microsystems may point the way to targeted genetic experiments on single cells and in other areas that are otherwise very difficult. Concomitant with these advantages, such systems, when fully integrated, should be capable of forming portable systems for high-speed in situ analyses, enabling a new standard in disciplines such as clinical chemistry, forensics, biowarfare detection and epidemiology. This review will discuss the various technologies available for genetic analysis on the microscale, and efforts to integrate them to form fully functional robust analysis devices. (topical review)

  8. Genetics of gallstone disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease is a complex disorder where both environmental and genetic factors contribute towards susceptibility to the disease. Epidemiological and family studies suggest a strong genetic component in the causation of this disease. Several genetically derived phenotypes in the population are responsible for variations in lipoprotein types, which in turn affect the amount of cholesterol available in the gall bladder. The genetic polymorphisms in various genes for apo E, apo B, apo A1, LDL receptor, cholesteryl ester transfer and LDL receptor-associated protein have been implicated in gallstone formation. However, presently available information on genetic differences is not able to account for a large number of gallstone patients. The molecular studies in the animal models have not only confirmed the present paradigm of gallstone formation but also helped in identification of novel genes in humans, which might play an important role in pathogenesis of the disease. Precise understanding of such genes and their molecular mechanisms may provide the basis of new targets for rational drug designs and dietary interventions.

  9. Genetic classes and genetic categories : Protecting genetic groups through data protection law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallinan, Dara; de Hert, Paul; Taylor, L.; Floridi, L.; van der Sloot, B.

    2017-01-01

    Each person shares genetic code with others. Thus, one individual’s genome can reveal information about other individuals. When multiple individuals share aspects of genetic architecture, they form a ‘genetic group’. From a social and legal perspective, two types of genetic group exist: Those which

  10. Broad Bandwidth or High Fidelity? Evidence from the Structure of Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Facets of the Five Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Daniel A.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2017-01-01

    The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality is well-established at the phenotypic level, but much less is known about the coherence of the genetic and environmental influences within each personality domain. Univariate behavioral genetic analyses have consistently found the influence of additive genes and nonshared environment on multiple personality facets, but the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on specific facets reflect more general influences on higher order factors is less clear. We applied a multivariate quantitative-genetic approach to scores on the CPI-Big Five facets for 490 monozygotic and 317 dizygotic twins who took part in the National Merit Twin Study. Our results revealed a complex genetic structure for facets composing all five factors, with both domain-general and facet-specific genetic and environmental influences. Models that required common genetic and environmental influences on each facet to occur by way of effects on a higher order trait did not fit as well as models allowing for common genetic and environmental effects to act directly on the facets for three of the Big Five domains. These results add to the growing body of literature indicating that important variation in personality occurs at the facet level which may be overshadowed by aggregating to the trait level. Research at the facet level, rather than the factor level, is likely to have pragmatic advantages in future research on the genetics of personality. PMID:22695681

  11. A new approach to dose estimation and in-phantom figure of merit measurement in BNCT by using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahangari, R.; Afarideh, H.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In-phantom figures of merit of the radiobiological dose distribution are the main criteria for evaluation of the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) plan and neutron beam evaluation. Since in BNCT there are several reactions, which contribute to the total dose of the tissue, the calculation of the dose distribution is complicated and requires lengthy and time-consuming simulations. Any changes in the beam shaping assembly (BSA) design would lead to the change of the neutron/gamma spectrum at exit of therapeutic window. As a result of any changes in the beam spectrum, the dose distribution in the tissue will be altered; therefore, another set of lengthy and time-consuming simulations to recalculate the dose distribution would have to be performed. This study proposes a method that applies artificial neural network (ANN) for quick dose prediction in order to avoid lengthy calculations. This method allows us to estimate the depth-dose distribution and in-phantom figures of merit for any energy spectrum without performing a complete Monte Carlo code (MCNP) simulation. To train the ANNs for modeling the depth-dose distribution, this study used a database containing 500 simulations of the neutron depth-dose distribution and 280 simulations of the gamma depth-dose distribution. The calculations were carried out by the MCNP for various mono-energetic neutrons, ranging from thermal up to 10 MeV energy and 280 gamma energy group, ranging from 0.01 MeV up to 20 MeV, through the SNYDER head phantom which is located at the exit of the BSA. The trained ANN was capable of establishing a map between the neutron/gamma beam energy and the dose distribution in the phantom as an input and a response, respectively. The current method is founded upon the observation that the dose which is released by the beam of composite energy spectrum can be decomposing into the various energy components which make the neutron/gamma spectrum. Therefore, in this procedure the neutron

  12. Different measures of energetic efficiency and their phenotypic relationships with growth, feed intake, and ultrasound and carcass merit in hybrid cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Ammoura, A; Guercio, S; Hansen, C; Li, C; Benkel, B; Murdoch, B; Moore, S S

    2004-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been proposed as an index for determining beef cattle energetic efficiency. Although the relationship of RFI with feed conversion ratio (FCR) is well established, little is known about how RFI compares to other measures of efficiency. This study examined the phenotypic relationships among different measures of energetic efficiency with growth, feed intake, and ultrasound and carcass merit of hybrid cattle (n = 150). Dry matter intake, ME intake (MEI), ADG, metabolic weight (MWT), and FCR during the test averaged 10.29 kg/d (SD = 1.62), 1,185.45 kJ/(kg0.75 x d) (SD = 114.69), 1.42 kg/d (SD = 0.25), 86.67 kg0.75 (SD = 10.21), and 7.27 kg of DM/kg of gain (SD = 1.00), respectively. Residual feed intake averaged 0.00 kg/d and ranged from -2.25 kg/d (most efficient) to 2.61 kg/d (least efficient). Dry matter intake (r = 0.75), MEI (r = 0.83), and FCR (r = 0.62) were correlated with RFI (P 0.5 SD) RFI vs. those with medium (+/-0.5 SD) or low (<0.5 SD) RFI (P < 0.001). Partial efficiency of growth (PEG; energetic efficiency for ADG) was correlated with RFI (r = -0.89, P < 0.001) and was lower (P < 0.001) for high- vs. medium- or low-RFI animals. However, RFI was not related to ADG (r = -0.03), MWT (r = -0.02), relative growth rate (RGR; growth relative to instantaneous body size; r = -0.04), or Kleiber ratio (KR; ADG per unit of MWT; r = -0.004). Also, DMI was correlated (P < 0.01) with ADG (r = 0.66), MWT (r = 0.49), FCR (r = 0.49), PEG (r = -0.52), RGR (r = 0.18), and KR (r = 0.36). Additionally, FCR was correlated (P < 0.001) with ADG (r = -0.63), PEG (r = -0.83), RGR (r = -0.75), and KR (r = -0.73), but not with MWT (r = 0.07). Correlations of measures of efficiency with ultrasound or carcass traits generally were not different from zero except for correlations of RFI, FCR, and PEG, respectively, with backfat gain (r = 0.30, 0.20, and -0.30), ultrasound backfat (r = 0.19, 0.21, and -0.25), grade fat (r = 0.25, 0.19, and -0.27), lean meat

  13. Genetics of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottyan, L C; Rothenberg, M E

    2017-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, allergic disease associated with marked mucosal eosinophil accumulation. EoE disease risk is multifactorial and includes environmental and genetic factors. This review will focus on the contribution of genetic variation to EoE risk, as well as the experimental tools and statistical methodology used to identify EoE risk loci. Specific disease-risk loci that are shared between EoE and other allergic diseases (TSLP, LRRC32) or unique to EoE (CAPN14), as well as Mendellian Disorders associated with EoE, will be reviewed in the context of the insight that they provide into the molecular pathoetiology of EoE. We will also discuss the clinical opportunities that genetic analyses provide in the form of decision support tools, molecular diagnostics, and novel therapeutic approaches.

  14. Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spind......SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes...... on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade....

  15. Crystal Genetics, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Bahram G

    2016-07-01

    Crystal Genetics, Inc. is an early-stage genetic test company, focused on achieving the highest possible clinical-grade accuracy and comprehensiveness for detecting germline (e.g., in hereditary cancer) and somatic (e.g., in early cancer detection) mutations. Crystal's mission is to significantly improve the health status of the population, by providing high accuracy, comprehensive, flexible and affordable genetic tests, primarily in cancer. Crystal's philosophy is that when it comes to detecting mutations that are strongly correlated with life-threatening diseases, the detection accuracy of every single mutation counts: a single false-positive error could cause severe anxiety for the patient. And, more importantly, a single false-negative error could potentially cost the patient's life. Crystal's objective is to eliminate both of these error types.

  16. Whakapapa, genealogy and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Donald

    2012-05-01

    This paper provides part of an analysis of the use of the Maori term whakapapa in a study designed to test the compatibility and commensurability of views of members of the indigenous culture of New Zealand with other views of genetic technologies extant in the country. It is concerned with the narrow sense of whakapapa as denoting biological ancestry, leaving the wider sense of whakapapa as denoting cultural identity for discussion elsewhere. The phenomenon of genetic curiosity is employed to facilitate this comparison. Four levels of curiosity are identified, in the Maori data, which penetrate more or less deeply into the psyche of individuals, affecting their health and wellbeing. These phenomena are compared with non-Maori experiences and considerable commonalities are discovered together with a point of marked difference. The results raise important questions for the ethical application of genetic technologies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Genetic autonomic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Felicia B

    2013-03-01

    Genetic disorders affecting the autonomic nervous system can result in abnormal development of the nervous system or they can be caused by neurotransmitter imbalance, an ion-channel disturbance or by storage of deleterious material. The symptoms indicating autonomic dysfunction, however, will depend upon whether the genetic lesion has disrupted peripheral or central autonomic centers or both. Because the autonomic nervous system is pervasive and affects every organ system in the body, autonomic dysfunction will result in impaired homeostasis and symptoms will vary. The possibility of genetic confirmation by molecular testing for specific diagnosis is increasing but treatments tend to remain only supportive and directed toward particular symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Groundwater prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits: the merits of mineral-solution equilibria versus single element tracer methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatham, J.R.; Wanty, R.B.; Langmuir, D.

    1981-02-01

    Groundwaters from aquifers in two different sandstone-type uranium mining districts in Texas and Wyoming were collected and chemically analyzed. The data were used to compare the merits of using the computed saturation state of the groundwater with respect to uranium minerals, to that of single-element tracers in the groundwater for geochemical prospecting. Chemical properties of the Texas waters were influenced locally by preferred groundwater flow within buried fluvial channel deposits; upward leakage of brines along growth faults into the aquifer; and the establishment of a redox interface (Eh = 0 volts) within the aquifer. Chemical characteristics of aquifer waters in Wyoming changed gradually downdip, reflecting regional homogeneity in groundwater flow and a more gradual downdip reduction of Eh values than in Texas. The most reliable indicator of reduced uranium ore in both study sites was the saturation state of groundwater with respect to uraninite or coffinite. For both minerals, this saturation state increased from 15 to 20 log units as reduced ore deposits were approached over distances of 3 to 4.5 km in both sites. Tyuyamunite and carnotite approached or exceeded saturation in some oxidized waters of the Texas site reflecting possible occurrences of these minerals. The radiogenic elements Ta and Rn were excellent indicators of ore directly within the deposits, where anomalous values were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude above background. Helium also increased near the ore, although anomalies were generally displaced in the direction of groundwater flow. Uranium and uranium isotope values did not individually pinpoint ore, but may be used together to classify groundwater samples in terms of their position relative to uranium mineralization

  19. High figure of merit ultra-compact 3-channel parallel-connected photonic crystal mini-hexagonal-H1 defect microcavity sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhong; Sun, Fujun; Fu, Zhongyuan; Ding, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Chao; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Jiawen; Tian, Huiping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a photonic crystal (PhC) butt-coupled mini-hexagonal-H1 defect (MHHD) microcavity sensor is proposed. The MHHD microcavity is designed by introducing six mini-holes into the initial H1 defect region. Further, based on a well-designed 1 ×3 PhC Beam Splitter and three optimal MHHD microcavity sensors with different lattice constants (a), a 3-channel parallel-connected PhC sensor array on monolithic silicon on insulator (SOI) is proposed. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations method is performed to demonstrate the high performance of our structures. As statistics show, the quality factor (Q) of our optimal MHHD microcavity attains higher than 7×104, while the sensitivity (S) reaches up to 233 nm/RIU(RIU = refractive index unit). Thus, the figure of merit (FOM) >104 of the sensor is obtained, which is enhanced by two orders of magnitude compared to the previous butt-coupled sensors [1-4]. As for the 3-channel parallel-connected PhC MHHD microcavity sensor array, the FOMs of three independent MHHD microcavity sensors are 8071, 8250 and 8250, respectively. In addition, the total footprint of the proposed 3-channel parallel-connected PhC sensor array is ultra-compactness of 12.5 μm ×31 μm (width × length). Therefore, the proposed high FOM sensor array is an ideal platform for realizing ultra-compact highly parallel refractive index (RI) sensing.

  20. Multivariate analytical figures of merit as a metric for evaluation of quantitative measurements using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Parastar, Hadi

    2016-09-30

    The present contribution is devoted to develop multivariate analytical figures of merit (AFOMs) as a new metric for evaluation of quantitative measurements using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS). In this regard, new definition of sensitivity (SEN) is extended to GC×GC-MS data and then, other multivariate AFOMs including analytical SEN (γ), selectivity (SEL) and limit of detection (LOD) are calculated. Also, two frequently used second- and third-order calibration algorithms of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) as representative of multi-set methods and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) as representative of multi-way methods are discussed to exploit pure component profiles and to calculate multivariate AFOMs. Different GC×GC-MS data sets with different number of components along with various levels of artifacts are simulated and analyzed. Noise, elution time shifts in both chromatographic dimensions, peak overlap and interferences are considered as the main artifacts in this work. Additionally, a new strategy is developed to estimate the noise level using variance-covariance matrix of residuals which is very important to calculate multivariate AFOMs. Finally, determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aromatic fraction of heavy fuel oil (HFO) analyzed by GC×GC-MS is considered as real case to confirm applicability of the proposed metric in real samples. It should be pointed out that the proposed strategy in this work can be used for other types of comprehensive two-dimensional chromatographic (CTDC) techniques like comprehensive two dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.