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Sample records for genetic factors affecting

  1. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  2. Genetic and environmental factors affecting the coumarin anticoagulant level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Visser (Loes)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis introductory chapter has illustrated that various factors, such as genetic factors, drugs, diet and intercurrent diseases may affect anticoagulation levels. Most of the clinical and pharmacological data related to coumarin anticoagulants have so far been obtained from studying warfa

  3. Factors affecting student performance in an undergraduate genetics course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, J Minick; Moser, D W; Bates, K E

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine some of the factors that affect student success in a genetics course. Genetics for the Kansas State University College of Agriculture is taught in the Department of Animal Sciences and Industry and covers Mendelian inheritance, molecular genetics, and quantitative/population genetics. Data collected from 1,516 students over 7 yr included year and semester of the course; age; gender; state of residence; population of hometown; Kansas City metro resident or not; instructor of course; American College Testing Program (ACT) scores; number of transfer credits; major; college; preveterinary student or not; freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior grade point average (GPA); semester credits when taking genetics; class standing when enrolled in genetics; cumulative GPA before and after taking genetics; semester GPA in semester taking genetics, number of semesters between the biology prerequisite and genetics; grade in biology; location of biology course; and final percentage in genetics. Final percentage in genetics did not differ due to instructor, gender, state of residence, major, or college (P > 0.16). Transfer students tended to perform better than nontransfer students (P = 0.09), and students from the Kansas City metro outscored students from other areas (P = 0.03). Preveterinary option students scored higher in genetics than non-preveterinary students (P genetics (P = 0.06). Students who took biology at Kansas State University performed better in genetics than students who transferred the credit (P genetics (P genetics, students should take biology from Kansas State, perform well in biology, and wait until at least sophomore standing to enroll in genetics.

  4. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described, particularly in relation to their imvolvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  5. Genetic and physiological factors affecting repair and mutagenesis in yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemontt, J F

    1979-01-01

    Current views of DNA repair and mutagenesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are discussed in the light of recent data, and with emphasis on the isolation and characterization of genetically well-defined mutations that affect DNA metabolism in general (including replication and recombination). Various pathways of repair are described particularly in relation to their involvement in mutagenic mechanisms. In addition to genetic control, certain physiological factors such as cell age, DNA replication, and the regulatory state of the mating-type locus, are shown to also play a role in repair and mutagenesis.

  6. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting morphometry of Sirohi goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Dudhe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to estimate genetic and non-genetic factors affecting morphometric traits of Sirohi goats under field condition. Materials and Methods: The detailed information of all animals on body measurements at birth, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age was collected from farmer’s flock under field condition born during 2007-2013 to analyze the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors. The least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate genetic and non-genetic parameters affecting morphometric traits. Results and Discussion: Effect of sire, cluster, year of birth, and sex was found to be highly significant (p<0.01 on all three morphometric traits, parity was highly significant (p<0.01 for body height (BH and body girth (BG at birth. The h2 estimates for morphometric traits ranged among 0.528±0.163 to 0.709±0.144 for BH, 0.408±0.159 to 0.605±0.192 for body length (BL, and 0.503±0.197 to 0.695±0.161 for BG. Conclusion: The effect of sire was highly significant (p<0.01 and also h² estimate of all morphometric traits were medium to high; therefore, it could be concluded on the basis of present findings that animals with higher body measurements at initial phases of growth will perform better with respect to even body weight traits at later stages of growth.

  7. Genetic Factors that Affect Tumorigenesis in NF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Boles, R. and Korf, B. (1995) Sanitarias de la Seguridad Social (98-0992) and Institut Catali Deletion of the entire NFI gene detected by FISH: four...Washington, Medical Genetics, Seattle, WA, USA, 2Medical and Molecular Genetics Center- IRO, Hospital Duran i Reynals, Barcelona, Spain, 3Servizio di... Hospital . Western blot analysis, using an anti-NF1 antibody (NFIGRD(D)) (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc, Santa Cruz, NF1 mutation analysis CA) and

  8. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-09

    Dec 9, 2015 ... The basic principle of animal breeding and genetics is to improve ..... that FWEC can be influenced by seasonal variation, management practice .... Molento, M.B., Fortes, F.S., Pondelek, D.A.S., Borges, F.A., Chagas, A.C.S., ...

  9. Genetic factors affecting patient responses to pancreatic cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is a malignancy with a high lethal rate. Surgical resection is the only possible curative mode of treatment. Metastatic pancreatic cancer is incurable with modest results from the current treatment options. New genomic information could prove treatment efficacy. An independent review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed up to March 2016, using combinations of terms such pancreatic exocrine cancer, chemotherapy, genomic profile, pancreatic cancer pharmacogenomics, genomics, molecular pancreatic pathogenesis, and targeted therapy. Recent genetic studies have identified new markers and therapeutic targets. Our current knowledge of pancreatic cancer genetics must be further advanced to elucidate the molecular basis and pathogenesis of the disease, improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and guide tailor-made therapies. PMID:27708512

  10. Genetic Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rehman*§ and M. S. Khan1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on 23925 lactations of 5897 Sahiwal cows in five Government herds of Punjab province were collected to estimate the genetic control and genetic correlations among performance traits. A repeatability animal model having herd-year-season and parity was used for this purpose. The repeatability estimates for 305-d milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period were 0.40±0.015, 0.40±0.016, 0.33±0.013, 0.14±0.005, 0.15±0.004, and 0.14±0.005 respectively. The heritability estimates for these traits were 0.10±0.016, 0.09±0.016, 0.06±0.013, 0.14±0.009, 0.15±0.010, and 0.14±0.010, respectively. The phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlation of 305-d milk yield with lactation length was 0.71, 0.48 and 0.70, respectively, with dry period was -0.31, -0.43 and -0.22, respectively while with calving interval and service period exhibited similar pattern (0.08, 0.25 and 0.08, respectively. The estimated breeding values ranged from -447 to 1254 kg, -442 to 1265 kg, -24 to 38, -78 to 116, -84 to 107 and -81 to 91, days for 305-day milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period, respectively. No specific genetic trend was observed for performance traits during the period under study. Cows have not improved in their ability to perform in various economic traits. Accurate recording of pedigree and performance is necessary for improving the performance traits of Sahiwal. Due to high repeatability estimates of yield traits selection or culling may be practised from first few records.

  11. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-09

    Dec 9, 2015 ... In this experiment, the researchers studied animals ... if proper withdrawal times are not observed, which could negatively affect human health. ... Briefly, two lines of sheep that differ in reproductive performance were developed from 1986. .... with other fixed effects were excluded from the operational model.

  12. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting semen production traits in Karan Fries crossbred bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Indra Sen; Gupta, Ashok K; Khate, Keviletsu; Chauhan, Anuj; Rao, Thakur Krishna Shankar; Pathak, Shivendra; Hazra, Ritwik; Singh, Maneesh

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on production of breeding bulls and semen quality parameters in Karan Fries crossbred male by fitting least squares analysis. Genetically, the animals were divided into three subclasses. The non-genetic factors were season of birth, period of birth, and age group with three subclasses each for season of birth and period of birth. Age group was classified into four subclasses. The traits generated in the study were number of males reaching semen donation stage (AFSC) and first freezing (AFSF), age at last semen collection (ALSC) and last freezing (ALSF), age at disposal (AD), and lifetime semen production traits (up to 1 year after first freezing). The effect of period of birth was significant for AFSC, AFSF, ALSC, and AD. It was also significant for total ejaculates produced in a year. The age group had significant effect on AFSF. Effect of genetic group was significant for freezable ejaculates produced in a year, for frozen semen doses produced in a year, and for number of ejaculates cryoprocessed in a year. Season had no statistically significant effect on any of the traits studied. The influence of period revealed that the most of the traits of breeding bulls improved after intermediate period, which could be due to better care, training, feeding, and other management practices in the latter years. However, no consistent trend could be established for the effects of genetic groups and other non-genetic causes on the traits considered.

  13. Breed effect and non-genetic factors affecting growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-07-30

    Jul 30, 2013 ... Breed effect and non-genetic factors of growth performance of sheep. 5302. Breed effect and .... consisting of 25% cottonseed cake and 75% maize. The General Liner Model ..... and environmental changes have effect on the quality and quantity of pasture forages, which also affect the provision of food and ...

  14. Genetic and epigenetic factors affecting meiosis induction in eukaryotes revealed in paramecium research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajer, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    This review presents studies of the induction of meiosis undertaken on the ciliate Paramecium, a unicellular model eukaryotic organism. Meiosis in Paramecium, preceding the process of fertilization, appears in starved cells after passing a defined number of divisions (cell generations), starting from the last fertilization. Investigations were performed on clones of cells entering autogamy, a self-fertilization process. Genetic as well as epigenetic factors, i.e. endo- and exogenous factors, affecting the induction ofmeiosis and changing the duration of the interautogamous interval (IAI), were analyzed. The results show that: (1) Meiosis induction is controlled genetically by the somatic macronucleus. However, besides the nuclear factors, the cytoplasmic protein immaturin also affects this process (Haga & Hiwatashi 1981); (2) Epigenetic factors, such as non-genetically disturbed cytoskeleton structures and changes in the cell architecture observed in doublet Paramecium cells, exert internal mechanical stress (Ingber 2003), which constitutes the endogenous impulse accelerating meiosis; (3) Mild osmotic stress, acting as an exogenous factor, can initiate the specific MAP kinases signaling pathway resulting in earlier meiosis induction, as in other unicellular eukaryotes (Seet & Pawson 2004).

  15. Factors Affecting the Incidence of Angel Wing in White Roman Geese: Stocking Density and Genetic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M J; Chang, S C; Lin, T Y; Cheng, Y S; Lee, Y P; Fan, Y K

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated stocking density and genetic lines, factors that may alter the severity and incidence of angel wing (AW), in White Roman geese. Geese (n = 384) from two genetically selected lines (normal- winged line, NL, and angel-winged line, AL, respectively) and one commercial line (CL) were raised in four pens. Following common commercial practice, low-stocking-density (LD), medium-stocking-density, and high-stocking-density treatments were respectively administered to 24, 32, and 40 geese per pen at 0 to 3 weeks (1.92 m(2)/pen) and 4 to 6 weeks (13.2 m(2)/pen) of age and to 24, 30, and 36 geese at 7 to 14 weeks (20.0 m(2)/pen) of age. The results revealed that stocking density mainly affected body weight gain in geese younger than 4 weeks, and that geese subjected to LD had a high body weight at 2 weeks of age. However, the effect of stocking density on the severity score of AW (SSAW) and incidence of AW (IAW) did not differ significantly among the treatments. Differences were observed among the genetic stocks; that is, SSAW and IAW were significantly higher in AL than in NL and CL. Genetic selection generally aggravates AW, complicating its elimination. To effectively reduce IAW, stocking density, a suspected causal factor, should be lower than that presently applied commercially.

  16. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Genetically Modified Animals in the Food and Pharmaceutical Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of genetically modified (GM animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scoping study was conducted to assess research relevant to understanding the main drivers influencing the adoption of GM applications and their potential risks and benefits. Public and producers’ acceptance, public policies, human health, animal welfare, environmental impact and sustainability are considered as the main factors affecting the application of GM animal techniques in livestock and pharmaceutical chains.

  17. Genetic and environmental factors affecting peak bone mass in premenopausal Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Yoshika; Yanagi, Hisako; Hara, Shuichi; Amagai, Hitoshi; Endo, Kazue; Hamaguchi, Hideo; Tomura, Shigeo

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between peak bone mass and genetic and environmental factors. We measured whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), lumbar spine BMD, and radius BMD with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and analyzed eight genetic factors: vitamin D receptor (VDR)-3′, VDR-5′, estrogen receptor (ER), calcitonin receptor (CTR), parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), and fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) allelic polym...

  18. Environmental and genetic factors affecting mutability to aminoglycoside antibiotics among Escherichia coli K12 strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro A.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and genetic factors affecting the in vitro spontaneous mutation frequencies to aminoglycoside resistance in Escherichia coli K12 were investigated. Spontaneous mutation frequencies to kanamycin resistance were at least 100 fold higher on modified Luria agar (L2 plates, when compared to results obtained in experiments carried out with Nutrient agar (NA plates. In contrast to rifampincin, the increased mutability to kanamycin resistance could not be attributed to a mutator phenotype expressed by DNA repair defective strains. Kanamycin mutant selection windows and mutant preventive concentrations on L2 plates were at least fourfold higher than on NA plates, further demonstrating the role of growth medium composition on the mutability to aminoglycosides. Mutability to kanamycin resistance was increased following addition of sorbitol, suggesting that osmolarity is involved on the spontaneous mutability of E. coli K12 strains to aminoglycosides. The spontaneous mutation rates to kanamycin resistance on both L2 and NA plates were strictly associated with the selective antibiotic concentrations. Moreover, mutants selected at different antibiotic concentrations expressed heterogeneous resistance levels to kanamycin and most of them expressing multiple resistance to all tested aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin, neomycin, amykacin and tobramycin. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the complex nature of aminoglycoside resistance and the emergence of spontaneous resistant mutants among E. coli K12 strains.

  19. Genetic and environmental factors that affect gestation length in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Kuhn, M T; Hubbard, S M; Cole, J B; VanRaden, P M

    2009-05-01

    Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated. Data included information from >11 million parturitions from 1999 through 2006 for 7 US dairy breeds. Effects examined were year, herd-year, month, and age within parity of conception; parturition code (sex and multiple-birth status); lactation length and standardized milk yield of cow; service sire; cow sire; and cow. All effects were fixed except for service sire, cow sire, and cow. Mean GL for heifers and cows, respectively, were 277.8 and 279.4 d for Holsteins, 278.4 and 280.0 d for Jerseys, 279.3 and 281.1 d for Milking Shorthorns, 281.6 and 281.7 d for Ayrshires, 284.8 and 285.7 d for Guernseys, and 287.2 and 287.5 d for Brown Swiss. Estimated standard deviations of GL were greatly affected by data restrictions but generally were approximately 5 to 6 d. Year effects on GL were extremely small, but month effects were moderate. For Holstein cows, GL was 2.0 d shorter for October conceptions than for January and February conceptions; 4.7 and 5.6 d shorter for multiple births of the same sex than for single-birth females and males, respectively; 0.8 d longer for lactations of or =501 d; and 0.6 d shorter for standardized yield of or =14,001 kg. Estimates for GL heritability from parities 2 to 5 were 33 to 36% for service sire and 7 to 12% for cow sire; corresponding estimates from parity 1 were 46 to 47% and 10 to 12%. Estimates of genetic correlations between effects of service sire and cow sire on GL were 0.70 to 0.85 for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys, which indicates that those traits likely are controlled by many of the same genes and can be used to evaluate each other. More accurate prediction of calving dates can help dairy producers to meet management requirements of pregnant animals and to administer better health care during high-risk phases of animals' lives. However, intentional selection for either shorter or longer GL is not recommended without

  20. Genetic factors affecting gene transcription and catalytic activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanqing; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Gamazon, Eric R; Mirkov, Snezana; Chen, Peixian; Wu, Kehua; Sun, Chang; Cox, Nancy J; Cook, Edwin; Das, Soma; Ratain, Mark J

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to discover cis- and trans-acting factors significantly affecting mRNA expression and catalytic activity of human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Transcription levels of five major hepatic UGT1A (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6 and UGT1A9) and five UGT2B (UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17) genes were quantified in human liver tissue samples (n = 125) using real-time PCR. Glucuronidation activities of 14 substrates were measured in 47 livers. We genotyped 167 tagSNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in UGT1A (n = 43) and UGT2B (n = 124), as well as the known functional UGT1A1*28 and UGT2B17 CNV (copy number variation) polymorphisms. Transcription levels of 15 transcription factors (TFs) known to regulate these UGTs were quantified. We found that UGT expression and activity were highly variable among the livers (median and range of coefficient of variations: 135%, 74-217% and 52%, 39-105%, respectively). CAR, PXR and ESR1 were found to be the most important trans-regulators of UGT transcription (median and range of correlation coefficients: 46%, 6-58%; 47%, 9-58%; and 52%, 24-75%, respectively). Hepatic UGT activities were mainly determined by UGT gene transcription levels. Twenty-one polymorphisms were significantly (FDR-adjusted P transcription and testosterone glucuronidation rate, in addition to that attributable to the UGT2B17 CNV. Our study discovered novel pharmacogenetic markers and provided detailed insight into the genetic network regulating hepatic UGTs.

  1. Twins and virtual twins: Do genetic (as well as experiential) factors affect developmental risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L; Tan, Tony Xing; Graham, Jamie L

    2015-08-01

    Factors underlying developmental delays and psychosocial risks are of interest to international adoption communities. The current study administered a Pre-Adoption Adversity (PAA) Questionnaire to mostly American parents raising (a) adopted Chinese twins or (b) same-age unrelated adopted siblings. A goal was to replicate earlier analyses of pre-adoption adversity/adjustment among adopted preschool-age Chinese girls. A second goal was to conduct genetic analyses of four content areas (Developmental Delays at Adoption, Initial Adaptation to Adoption, Crying/Clinging, and Refusal/Avoidance) derived from the PAA Questionnaire. A key finding was that age at adoption added less than other predictors to adoptees' externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Family factors (e.g., parental education) contributed significantly to behavioral outcomes among the adopted Chinese twins. Genetic effects were indicated for all four content areas, with shared environmental effects evident for Developmental Delays at Adoption and Crying/Clinging. Future investigators should consider incorporating genetically sensitive designs into developmental research programs.

  2. Non Genetic Factors Affecting Pre-Weaning Weight and Growth Rate of Ettawah Grade Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sodiq

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of various non-genetic factors on live weights at different ages (at birth, 30, 60, 90, and 120 d of age, and on average daily gains (from birth to 30, 60, 90, and 120 d of Ettawah Grade kids. Data from 314 records kids at the national village breeding centre of Kaligesing Purworejo Central Java province were analyzed. Results showed that average live weights at birth (BW= 3.44 kg, 30 d of age (W30= 7.19 kg, 60 d of age (W60= 11.05 kg, 90 d of age (W90= 14.75 kg, 120 d of age (W120= 18.86 kg, and average daily gain from birth until 30 d of age (ADG30= 125.6 g, 60 d of age (ADG60= 126.97 g, 90 d of age (ADG90= 125.87 g, 120 d of age (ADG120= 128.78 g were influenced by sex, litter size, and age of dams. Means of BW, W30, W60, W90, W120, ADG30, ADG60, ADG90, and ADG120 of males were higher than females. Multiple (twin and triplets born kids were lighter than single. Mean of body weight and average daily gain increased with the dam’s age. The implication of these findings should be accounted in genetic evaluations and also should consider maternal ability for the improvement of Ettawah Grade.

  3. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting rabbit doe sexual receptivity as estimated from one generation of divergent selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Theau.Clément

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual receptivity of rabbit does at insemination greatly influences fertility and is generally induced by hormones or techniques known as “biostimulation”. Searching for more sustainable farming systems, an original alternative would be to utilise the genetic pathway to increase the does’receptivity. The purpose of the present study was to identify genetic and non-genetic factors that influence rabbit doe sexual receptivity, in the context of a divergent selection experiment over 1 generation. The experiment spanned 2 generations: the founder generation (G0 consisting of 140 rabbit does, and the G1 generation comprising 2 divergently selected lines (L and H lines with 70 does each and 2 successive batches from each generation. The selection rate of the G0 females to form the G1 lines was 24/140. The selection tests consisted of 16 to 18 successive receptivity tests at the rate of 3 tests per week. On the basis of 4716 tests from 275 females, the average receptivity was 56.6±48.2%. A batch effect and a test operator effect were revealed. The contribution of females to the total variance was 20.0%, whereas that of bucks was only 1.1%. Throughout the experiment, 18.2% of does expressed a low receptivity (< 34%, 50.7% a medium one and 33.1% a high one (>66%. Some does were frequently receptive, whereas others were rarely receptive. The repeatability of sexual receptivity was approximately 20%. The results confirmed the high variability of sexual receptivity of non-lactating rabbit does maintained without any biostimulation or hormonal treatment. A lack of selection response on receptivity was observed. Accordingly, the heritability of receptivity was estimated at 0.01±0.02 from an animal model and at 0.02±0.03 from a  sire and dam model. The heritability of the average receptivity of a doe was calculated as 0.04. In agreement with the low estimated heritability, the heritability determined was no different from zero

  4. Final Technical Report for the grant entitled "Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, William, F., Ph.D., D.Sc.

    2006-11-22

    The goal of this proposal was to test the hypothesis that mice heterozygous for the Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS1) gene are genetically susceptible to low doses of ionizing radiation. The rationale for this is that patients with NBS are radiation sensitive, because of defects in cellular responses to radiation induced genetic damage and haploinsufficiency at this genetic locus provides the potential for genetic susceptibility to low doses of ionizing radiation. Wild type and heterozygous NBS1 mice were irradiated and followed over their lifetime for radiation induced genomic instability, carcinogenesis and non-specific life shortening. No differences in cytogenetic damage, cancer induction or life span were observed between the hypomorphic mice indicating that genetic imbalance at the NBS1 loci does not modulate low dose radiation sensitivity.

  5. Genetic and environmental factors affecting rooting in Eucalyptus Grandis X Eucalyptus Longistrata hybrid cuttings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Naidoo1_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 108949 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Naidoo1_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 GENETIC... was assessed by determining the percentage of cuttings that developed roots using two different rooting methods. The variation between and within families and clones is presented. The study shows that root strike is under moderate genetic control...

  6. Factors affecting the adoption of genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this pape

  7. Individualizing Pharmacotherapy: Genetic factors and co-prescribed drugs affecting pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Becker (Matthijs)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDrug therapies may result in adverse drug reactions or in ineffective therapy. A better prediction which patients will not respond to drug therapy or will develop adverse drug reactions may avoid these events. In this thesis we studied the effect of drug-drug interactions and genetic

  8. Factors affecting the adoption of genetically modified animals in the food and pharmaceutical chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.

    2012-01-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this pape

  9. Non-genetic Factors Affecting Gestation Lenght and Postpartum Intervals in Gudali Zebu Cattle of the Adamawa Highlands of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah, DA.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of non-genetic factors (sex of calf, calf birth weight, age of cow, season of calving affecting gestation length (GL and open days period (OP in the Ngaoundere Gudali cattle of the Adamawa (Cameroon was investigated. Mean GL was 293.4 ± 0.4 d. Sex of the calf significantly (P< 0.05 affected GL, with male calves being carried in utero approximately 3 days longer than the females (294.1 ± 1.2 vs 291.1 ± 1.2 d. Calf birth weight tended to increase as gestation lengthened. Parity and age of the cow had no significant (P> 0.05 effect on GL. The mean duration of the OP (from calving to conception was 267.7 ± 7.4 d. Approximately 23.2% of the cows conceived within 90 days of calving and a total of 55.6% had conceived by 360 days. The distribution of the OP was bimodal, and could have been influenced by seasonal availability of feed, or long (6 months mating season allowing cows to calve during the following mating season. Calving to conception interval was significantly (P< 0.001 affected by month of calving and parity. Sex of the calf did not affect significantly the duration of the postpartum period, although this period was 5 days longer following the birth of a male calf.

  10. Developmental, genetic and environmental factors affect the expression of flavonoid genes, enzymes and metabolites in strawberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Fabrizio; Preuss, Anja; De Vos, Ric C H; D'Amico, Eleonora; Perrotta, Gaetano; Bovy, Arnaud G; Martens, Stefan; Rosati, Carlo

    2009-08-01

    The influence of internal (genetic and developmental) and external (environmental) factors on levels of flavonoid gene transcripts, enzyme activity and metabolites was studied in fruit of six cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) genotypes grown at two Italian locations. Gene expression and enzyme activity showed development- and genotype-associated patterns, revealing gene coordination. Analysis clarified the regulation mechanism of the hydroxylation status of the B-ring of the major flavonoid pools and pointed out examples of genotype-specific post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms and key steps of pathway regulation in strawberry fruits. Metabolite profiles were strongly affected by development and genotype. Flavan-3-ols, their proanthocyanidin (PA) derivatives and anthocyanins were the most abundant metabolites. Flavonol levels and PA-associated traits (epicatechin/catechin ratio and mean degree of polymerization) showed significant environmental effects. Multivariate and correlation analyses determined the relationships among genes, enzymes and metabolites. The combined molecular and biochemical information elucidated more in depth the role of genetic and environmental factors on flavonoid metabolism during strawberry fruit development, highlighting the major impact of developmental processes, and revealing genotype-dependent differences and environmental effects on PA-related traits.

  11. Characterization of Soybean Storage and Allergen Proteins Affected by Environmental and Genetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Khan, Farooq; Song, Qijian; Lakshman, Sukla; Cregan, Perry; Scott, Roy; Shipe, Emerson; Garrett, Wesley

    2016-02-17

    There is limited information on the influence of genetic and environmental variability on soybean protein composition. This study aimed to determine the role of genotype (G), environments (E), and the interrelationship of genotype and environment (G×E) on soybean seed protein. Three sets of nine soybean genotypes were grown in replicated trials at Maryland, South Carolina, and South Dakota. At each location, the nine genotypes were grown with two planting/sowing dates. We applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to study the variability of soybean storage and allergen proteins. Statistical analysis of 47 storage and 8 allergen proteins, in terms of differentially expressed protein spots significant at the p<0.005 level, was performed. We found more spots that showed statistically significant differences in expression among E compared to G and G×E interaction.

  12. Factors Affecting College Students' Knowledge and Opinions of Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Chad M.; Mosher, Gretchen A.; Freeman, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of biotechnology in food and agricultural applications has increased greatly during the past decade and is considered by many to be a controversial topic. Drawing upon a previous national study, a new survey was conducted of U.S. and international college students at a large, land-grant, Research University to determine factors that may…

  13. Assessment of factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of the unicellular green alga, Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Thye San; Yee, Willy; Aziz, Ahmad

    2012-04-01

    The successful establishment of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method and optimisation of six critical parameters known to influence the efficacy of Agrobacterium T-DNA transfer in the unicellular microalga Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1) are reported. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring the binary vector pCAMBIA1304 containing the gfp:gusA fusion reporter and a hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) selectable marker driven by the CaMV35S promoter were used for transformation. Transformation frequency was assessed by monitoring transient β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression 2 days post-infection. It was found that co-cultivation temperature at 24°C, co-cultivation medium at pH 5.5, 3 days of co-cultivation, 150 μM acetosyringone, Agrobacterium density of 1.0 units (OD(600)) and 2 days of pre-culture were optimum variables which produced the highest number of GUS-positive cells (8.8-20.1%) when each of these parameters was optimised individually. Transformation conducted with the combination of all optimal parameters above produced 25.0% of GUS-positive cells, which was almost a threefold increase from 8.9% obtained from un-optimised parameters. Evidence of transformation was further confirmed in 30% of 30 randomly-selected hygromycin B (20 mg L(-1)) resistant colonies by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using gfp:gusA and hpt-specific primers. The developed transformation method is expected to facilitate the genetic improvement of this commercially-important microalga.

  14. Environmental,and,genetic,factors,affecting,Saccharomyces+ cerevisiae,performance,during,second,fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Marti Raga, Maria

    2015-01-01

    El método tradicional utilizado en la producción de vinos espumosos (como el cava y el champagne) se caracteriza por una segunda fermentación que tiene lugar dentro de la botella. Esta segunda fermentación presenta unas características muy específicas como son un alto contenido de etanol, una presión de CO2 creciente, baja disponibilidad de nutrientes y baja temperatura. En esta tesis, se han analizado en primer lugar el efecto de factores ambientales sobre el desarrollo de la segunda ferment...

  15. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low Dose & Low Dose-Rate Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedford, Joel

    2014-04-18

    Our laboratory has, among other things, developed and used the gamma H2AX focus assay and other chromosomal and cell killing assays to show that differences in this DNA double strand break (dsb) related response can be clearly and distinctly demonstrated for cells which are mildly hyper-radiosensitive such as those associated with A-T heterozygosity. We have found this level of mild hypersensitivity for cells from some 20 to 30 % of apparently normal individuals and from apparently normal parents of Retinoblastoma patients. We found significant differences in gene expression in somatic cells from unaffected parents of Rb patients as compared with normal controls, suggesting that these parents may harbor some as yet unidentified genetic abnormality. In other experiments we sought to determine the extent of differences in normal human cellular reaponses to radiation depending on their irradiation in 2D monolayer vs 3D organized acinar growth conditions. We exmined cell reproductive death, chromosomal aberration induction, and the levels of γ-H2AX foci in cells after single acute gamma-ray doses and immediately after 20 hours of irradiation at a dose rate of 0.0017 Gy/min. We found no significant differences in the dose-responses of these cells under the 2D or 3D growth conditions. While this does not mean such differences cannot occur in other situations, it does mean that they do not generally or necessarily occur. In another series of studies in collaboration with Dr Chuan Li, with supprt from this current grant. We reported a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. In yet another collaboration with Dr, B. Chen with funds from this grant, the relative radiosensitivity to cell killing as well as chromosomal instability of 13 DNA-PKcs site-directed mutant cell lines (defective at phosphorylation sites or kinase

  16. Genetic and management factors affecting beef quality in grazing Hereford steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, L M; Panarace, M; Feula, P; Villarreal, E L; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Soria, L A; Mezzadra, C A; Arceo, M E; Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Corva, P M; Irurueta, M; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Miquel, M C

    2012-12-01

    Attributes contributing to differences in beef quality of 206 Hereford steers finished on pasture were assessed. Beef quality traits evaluated were: Warner-Bratzler meat tenderness and muscle and fat color at one and seven days after slaughter and trained sensory panel traits (tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and marbling) at seven days. Molecular markers were CAPN1 316 and an SNP in exon 2 on the leptin gene (E2FB). Average daily live weight gain, ultrasound monthly backfat thickness gain and rib-eye area gain were estimated. Molecular markers effects on meat quality traits were analyzed by mixed models. Association of meat quality with post weaning growth traits was analyzed by canonical correlations. Muscle color and marbling were affected by CAPN1 316 and E2FB and Warner-Bratzler meat tenderness by the former. The results confirm that marker assisted selection for tenderness is advisable only when beef aging is a common practice. The most important sources of variation in tenderness and color of meat remained unaccounted for.

  17. Familiality of factor analysis-derived YBOCS dimensions in OCD-affected sibling pairs from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Pinto, Anthony; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Samuels, Jack; Fyer, Abby J; Pauls, David; Knowles, James A; McCracken, James T; Piacentini, John; Riddle, Mark A; Rauch, Scott L; Rasmussen, Steven A; Willour, Virginia L; Grados, Marco A; Cullen, Bernadette; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Wang, Ying; Ronquillo, Jonne; Nestadt, Gerald; Murphy, Dennis L

    2007-03-01

    Identification of familial, more homogenous characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) may help to define relevant subtypes and increase the power of genetic and neurobiological studies of OCD. While factor-analytic studies have found consistent, clinically meaningful OCD symptom dimensions, there have been only limited attempts to evaluate the familiality and potential genetic basis of such dimensions. Four hundred eighteen sibling pairs with OCD were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) Symptom Checklist and Severity scales. After controlling for sex, age, and age of onset, robust sib-sib intraclass correlations were found for two of the four YBOCS factors: Factor IV (hoarding obsessions and compulsions (p = .001) and Factor I (aggressive, sexual, and religious obsessions, and checking compulsions; p = .002). Smaller, but still significant, familiality was found for Factor III (contamination/cleaning; p = .02) and Factor II (symmetry/ordering/arranging; p = .04). Limiting the sample to female subjects more than doubled the familiality estimates for Factor II (p = .003). Among potentially relevant comorbid conditions for genetic studies, bipolar I/II and major depressive disorder were strongly associated with Factor I (p < .001), whereas ADHD, alcohol dependence, and bulimia were associated with Factor II (p < .01). Factor-analyzed OCD symptom dimensions in sibling pairs with OCD are familial with some gender-dependence, exhibit relatively specific relationships to comorbid psychiatric disorders and thus may be useful as refined phenotypes for molecular genetic studies of OCD.

  18. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  19. Proteomic analysis of anti-nutritional factors (ANF's) in soybean seeds as affected by environmental and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria John, K M; Khan, Farooq; Luthria, Davanand L; Garrett, Wesley; Natarajan, Savithiry

    2017-03-01

    The genotype (G), environment (E), and the relationship between G and E on soybean seed anti-nutritional factors (ANF's) were examined under three different agro-climatic conditions. The field trials were conducted at Maryland, South Carolina and South Dakota using nine region specific genotypes. At each location, the nine genotypes were grown with two planting/sowing dates. Differentially expressed protein spots from the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were analyzed using mass spectrometry. Seven ANF's corresponding to soybean agglutinin and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor were identified based on the statistical significance levels at p<0.005. The G and E conditions (planting/sowing season) influences the ANF's content. This initial study suggests that early sowing reduces the total ANF's content irrespective of genotypes and their growing locations.

  20. Developmental, genetic and environmental factors affect the expression of flavonoid genes, enzymes and metabolites in strawberry fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, F.; Preuss, A.; Vos, de C.H.; Amico, d' E.; Perrotta, G.; Bovy, A.G.; Martens, S.; Rosati, C.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of internal (genetic and developmental) and external (environmental) factors on levels of flavonoid gene transcripts, enzyme activity and metabolites was studied in fruit of six cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) genotypes grown at two Italian locations. Gene expression

  1. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L A

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutane...

  2. Affective Factors: Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnimi, Mahshad

    2009-01-01

    Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…

  3. Evaluation of Animal Genetic and Physiological Factors That Affect the Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Soo Jin; Elzo, Mauricio; DiLorenzo, Nicolas; Lamb, G. Cliff; Jeong, Kwang Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle at the pre-harvest level is critical to reduce outbreaks of this pathogen in humans. Multilayers of factors including the environmental and bacterial factors modulate the colonization and persistence of E. coli O157 in cattle that serve as a reservoir of this pathogen. Here, we report animal factors contributing to the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle. We observe the lowest number of E. coli O157 in Brahman breed when compared with other crosses in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd, and bulls excrete more E. coli O157 than steers in the pens where cattle were housed together. The presence of super-shedders, cattle excreting >105 CFU/rectal anal swab, increases the concentration of E. coli O157 in the pens; thereby super-shedders enhance transmission of this pathogen among cattle. Molecular subtyping analysis reveal only one subtype of E. coli O157 in the multibreed herd, indicating the variance in the levels of E. coli O157 in cattle is influenced by animal factors. Furthermore, strain tracking after relocation of the cattle to a commercial feedlot reveals farm-to-farm transmission of E. coli O157, likely via super-shedders. Our results reveal high risk factors in the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle whereby animal genetic and physiological factors influence whether this pathogen can persist in cattle at high concentration, providing insights to intervene this pathogen at the pre-harvest level. PMID:23405204

  4. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  5. Genetic Factors in Rhizobium Affecting the Symbiotic Carbon Costs of N2 Fixation and Host Plant Biomass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøt, L.; Hirsch, P. R.; Witty, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of genetic factors in Rhizobium on host plant biomass production and on the carbon costs of N2 fixation in pea root nodules was studied. Nine strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum were constructed, each containing one of three symbiotic plasmids in combination with one of three different...... with the background of B151. The relationship between nitrogenase activity, carbon costs of N2 fixation and host plant biomass production is discussed....... the lowest carbon costs of N2 fixation (7.10–8.10 μmol C/μmol N2), but shoot dry weight of those plants was also smaller than that of plants nodulated by strains with the background of B151 or JI8400. Nodules formed by these two strain types had carbon costs of N2 fixation varying between 11.26 and 13...

  6. Genetic factors and diet affect long-bone length in the F34 LG,SM advanced intercross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgard, Elizabeth A; Lawson, Heather A; Pletscher, L Susan; Wang, Bing; Brooks, Victoria R; Wolf, Jason B; Cheverud, James M

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies on the LG,SM advanced intercross line have identified approximately 40 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for long -bone (humerus, ulna, femur, and tibia) lengths. In this study, long-bone-length QTL were fine-mapped in the F(34) generation (n = 1424) of the LG,SM advanced intercross. Environmental effects were assessed by dividing the population by sex between high-fat and low-fat diets, producing eight sex/diet cohorts. We identified 145 individual bone-length QTL comprising 45 pleiotropic QTL; 69 replicated QTL from previous studies, 35 were new traits significant at previously identified loci, and 41 were novel QTL. Many QTL affected only a subset of the population based on sex and/or diet. Eight of ten known skeletal growth genes were upregulated in 3-week-old LG/J male proximal tibial growth plates relative to SM/J. The sequences of parental strains LG/J and SM/J indicated the presence of over half a million polymorphisms in the confidence intervals of these 45 QTL. We examined 526 polymorphisms and found that 97 represented radical changes to amino acid composition while 40 were predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Additional experimentation is required to understand how changes in gene regulation or protein function can alter the genetic architecture and interact with the environment to produce phenotypic variation.

  7. Genetic predisposition of donors affects the allograft outcome in kidney transplantation; polymorphisms of stromal-derived factor-1 and CXC receptor 4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Pyo Lee

    Full Text Available Genetic interaction between donor and recipient may dictate the impending responses after transplantation. In this study, we evaluated the role of the genetic predispositions of stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1 [rs1801157 (G>A] and CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4 [rs2228014 (C>T] on renal allograft outcomes. A total of 335 pairs of recipients and donors were enrolled. Biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR and long-term graft survival were traced. Despite similar allele frequencies between donors and recipients, minor allele of SDF1 rs1801157 (GA+AA from donor, not from recipients, has a protective effect on the development of BPAR compared to wild type donor (GG (P  = 0.005. Adjustment for multiple covariates did not affect this result (odds ratio 0.39, 95% C.I 0.20-0.76, P = 0.006. CXCR4 rs2228014 polymorphisms from donor or recipient did not affect the incidence of acute rejection. SDF1 was differentially expressed in renal tubular epithelium with acute rejection according to genetic variations of donor rs1801157 showing higher expressions in the grafts from GG donors. Contrary to the development of BPAR, the presence of minor allele rs1801157 A, especially homozygocity, predisposed poor graft survival (P = 0.001. This association was significant after adjusting for several risk factors (hazard ratio 3.01; 95% C.I = 1.19-7.60; P = 0.020. The allelic variation of recipients, however, was not associated with graft loss. A donor-derived genetic polymorphism of SDF1 has influenced the graft outcome. Thus, the genetic predisposition of donor should be carefully considered in transplantation.

  8. Genetic and environmental factors affecting allergen-related gene expression in apple fruit (Malus domestica L. Borkh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Alessandro; Lezzer, Paolo; Dorigoni, Alberto; Barcaccia, Gianni; Ruperti, Benedetto; Ramina, Angelo

    2008-08-13

    Freshly consumed apples can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens, namely, Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3, and Mal d 4, and their cross-reactivity with sensitizing allergens of other species. Knowledge of environmental and endogenous factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information to apple breeders, growers, and consumers for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, the adoption of agronomical practices decreasing the allergenic potential, and the consumption of fruits with reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, expression studies were performed by means of real-time PCR for all the known allergen-encoding genes in apple. Fruit samples were collected from 15 apple varieties and from fruits of three different trials, set up to assess the effect of shadowing, elevation, storage, and water stress on the expression of allergen genes. Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed for the classification of varieties according to gene expression values, pointing out that the cultivars Fuji and Brina were two good hypoallergenic candidates. Shadowing, elevation, and storage significantly affected the transcription of the allergen-encoding genes, whereas water stress slightly influenced the expression of only two genes, in spite of the dramatic effect on both fruit size and vegetative growth of the trees. In particular, shadowing may represent an important cultural practice aimed at reducing apple cortex allergenicity. Moreover, elevation and storage may be combined to reduce the allergenic potential of apple fruits. The possible implications of the results for breeders, growers, and consumers are discussed critically.

  9. Molecular genetics in affective illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendlewicz, J.; Sevy, S.; Mendelbaum, K. (Erasme Univ. Hospital, Brussels (Belgium))

    1993-01-01

    Genetic transmission in manic depressive illness (MDI) has been explored in twins, adoption, association, and linkage studies. The X-linked transmission hypothesis has been tested by using several markers on chromosome X: Xg blood group, color blindness, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), factor IX (hemophilia B), and DNA probes such as DXS15, DXS52, F8C, ST14. The hypothesis of autosomal transmission has been tested by association studies with the O blood group located on chromosome 9, as well as linkage studies on chromosome 6 with the Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) haplotypes and on Chromosome 11 with DNA markers for the following genes: D2 dopamine receptor, tyrosinase, C-Harvey-Ras-A (HRAS) oncogene, insuline (ins), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Although linkage studies support the hypothesis of a major locus for the transmission of MDI in the Xq27-28 region, several factors are limiting the results, and are discussed in the present review. 105 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Genetic and environmental factors affecting growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles: modelling spatial correlations between hapas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charo-Karisa, H.; Komen, J.; Rezk, M.A.; Reynolds, S.; Ponzoni, R.W.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the environmental and genetic effects on early growth of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, in hapa-in-earthen pond systems. In a pilot study, we grew swim-up fry with or without supplementary feed in hapas suspended in fertilized ponds at 5, 10, 15, and 20 fr

  11. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  12. 'The edge effect': an exploratory study of some factors affecting referrals to cancer genetic services in rural Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iredale, Rachel; Jones, Lesley; Gray, Jonathon; Deaville, Jenny

    2005-09-01

    This exploratory study examines the role of rurality in referrals from primary care to the Cancer Genetics Service for Wales (CGSW) through a case study of referrals from Montgomeryshire, a predominantly rural area in mid-Wales located adjacent to the English border. Awareness of CGSW amongst practitioners is low. We found that rurality plays a role in referral behaviour as distance, time travelling and accessibility by car and public transport are all perceived to have an impact on the patient's decision to attend a clinic appointment. Some patients are being referred outside Wales as ease of access to services is considered more important than distance.

  13. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting the genetic structure and diversity of butternut in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda Parks; Michael Jenkins; Michael Ostry; Peng Zhao; Keith. Woeste

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) trees has severely declined rangewide over the past 50 years. An important factor in the decline is butternut canker, a disease caused by the fungus Ophiognomonia clavigigentijuglandacearum, which has left the remaining butternuts isolated and sparsely distributed. To manage the...

  14. Factors affecting soil cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil erodibility is a measure of a soil’s resistance against erosive forces and is affected by both intrinsic (or inherent) soil property and the extrinsic condition at the time erodibility measurement is made. Since soil erodibility is usually calculated from results obtained from erosion experimen...

  15. Factors affecting emotional divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Said Shabanlou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional Divorce is the most important factor in the rupture of the most fundamental structures of society, the family.Due to the sensitivity and position of the familyAnd its functions specifically to investigate the factors underlying emotional divorce has of particular importance.Emotional Divorce phenomenon is not a single factor, but rather a set of related factors together led to Emotional Divorce.In this paper the role of psychological factors such as early maladaptive schemas, negative body image, perfectionism is discussed on an emotional divorce.Also quality of life and family relationships of couples with emotional divorce,Such as quality of health, sexual dissatisfaction, ignoring the needs, expectations and opinions of women by men or vice versa,And also social and economic factors such as subcultures families, couples, the quality of social relationships, social networks couple,Economic situation of the families of the couple, financial crisis, unemployment and economic revenues couples studied and some suggestions are presented based on the findings.

  16. Genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing affect survival and assortative mating but not overall mating success in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Traoré, Sékou F; Tripet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies.

  17. Non-genetic factors affecting calving interval and weaning weight in a buffalo herd located in well drained savannas, Guárico state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Martínez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this research was to evaluate non-genetic factors affecting calving interval (CI and weaning weight (WW on a buffalo herd located in well drained savannas of Guárico state, Venezuela. The study involved records (1997-2001 related to monthly frequency of calving (n=486; calving interval (n=365 and weaning weight (n=376. Data analysis included year and calving season, calf sex, cow age and the interactions for CI. For WW, age at weaning was also included in the statistical analysis. Results revealed significant differences for calving distribution per year (P≤0.05 associated with year-on-year climatic factor changes and progressive herd stabilization. CI averaged 378 ± 1.8 (X – ± S.E. days, with a coefficient of variation (CV of 7.3% and a significant effect of calving month (P ≤ 0.05. CI frequency distribution for herd showed 75% cows lower than 400 days. Female age at calving was not significant (linear or quadratic due it was a young herd, with less than 2.6% animals older than 11 years. WW averaged 130.4±1.9 kg and CV of 24.4%; age to weaning 238.7±3.2 days, with calving month and age to weaning showing significant effect, while the weight average daily gain was 128g per animal. These findings suggest buffalo’s productive and reproductive potential under tropical conditions.

  18. Chemical and genetic blockade of HDACs enhances osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells by oppositely affecting osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroni, Paola [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Brini, Anna Teresa [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Arrigoni, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Girolamo, Laura de [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Niada, Stefania [Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Chirurgiche ed Odontoiatriche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Matteucci, Emanuela; Bendinelli, Paola [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina, E-mail: a.desiderio@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylation affected hASCs osteodifferentiation through Runx2-PPAR{gamma}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HDACs silencing early activated Runx2 and ALP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} reduction and calcium/collagen deposition occurred later. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Runx2/PPAR{gamma} target genes were modulated in line with HDACs role in osteo-commitment. -- Abstract: The human adipose-tissue derived stem/stromal cells (hASCs) are an interesting source for bone-tissue engineering applications. Our aim was to clarify in hASCs the role of acetylation in the control of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma}. These key osteogenic and adipogenic transcription factors are oppositely involved in osteo-differentiation. The hASCs, committed or not towards bone lineage with osteoinductive medium, were exposed to HDACs chemical blockade with Trichostatin A (TSA) or were genetically silenced for HDACs. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen/calcium deposition, considered as early and late osteogenic markers, were evaluated concomitantly as index of osteo-differentiation. TSA pretreatment, useful experimental protocol to analyse pan-HDAC-chemical inhibition, and switch to osteogenic medium induced early-osteoblast maturation gene Runx2, while transiently decreased PPAR{gamma} and scarcely affected late-differentiation markers. Time-dependent effects were observed after knocking-down of HDAC1 and 3: Runx2 and ALP underwent early activation, followed by late-osteogenic markers increase and by PPAR{gamma}/ALP activity diminutions mostly after HDAC3 silencing. HDAC1 and 3 genetic blockade increased and decreased Runx2 and PPAR{gamma} target genes, respectively. Noteworthy, HDACs knocking-down favoured the commitment effect of osteogenic medium. Our results reveal

  19. Genetic search feature selection for affective modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Héctor P.; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic feature selection is a critical step towards the generation of successful computational models of affect. This paper presents a genetic search-based feature selection method which is developed as a global-search algorithm for improving the accuracy of the affective models built...

  20. Sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 expression and genetic polymorphism significantly affect intramuscular fat deposition in the longissimus muscle of Erhualian and Sutai pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Yang, X J; Xia, D; Chen, J; Wegner, J; Jiang, Z; Zhao, R Q

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to elucidate the role of sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) in i.m. fat (IMF) deposition in pigs. In Exp. 1, LM samples were removed from 4 male and 4 female Erhualian piglets at 3, 20, and 45 d of age, and SREBF1 mRNA expression level and IMF content were measured. Intramuscular fat content and expression of SREBF1 mRNA was greater (P Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the reverse transcription PCR products of the SREBF1 gene revealed 3 genotypes in Sutai pigs with frequencies of 50% for AA, 36% for AB, and 14% for BB, respectively. Both SREBF1 mRNA level and IMF content in muscle were greater (P < 0.05) in AB and BB animals than in AA animals, whereas no difference in backfat thickness was observed among the 3 genotypes. Sequencing analysis identified 2 SNP at T1006C and C1033T within the open reading frame of the SREBF1 gene (NM_214157). Although both are silent mutations, they affected the secondary structure of SREBF1 mRNA. These results suggest that SREBF1 might play an important role in regulation of muscle fat deposition during postnatal growth of pigs. The SNP identified in the SREBF1 gene suggest that it could be used as a genetic marker to improve IMF content in pigs.

  1. Stress factors in affective diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzińska, E J

    1984-02-01

    An investigation carried out on 97 patients with affective disorders and on 100 healthy control subjects, revealed that acute and chronic stress factors occurred more in the group of patients with affective disorders than among healthy control over a similar time period. The frequency of stressful life situations was the same before the first affective episode in patients with unipolar and bipolar illness. The possible participation of such factors in triggering the first phase of illness is discussed. Similar factors appeared in both types of affective disorders. Significantly more frequent among patients than in the control group were: marital and family conflicts, health problems, emotional and ambitional failures, lack of success and work overload.

  2. On Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗琴

    2014-01-01

    In English teaching and learning, listening ability is an important part of communicative competence, is a very practical integrated skill. It has been a difficult skill in second language acquisition for many students. Many Chinese students are skilled in reading, but often they tend to neglect the listening. However, owing to the higher requirements of many English tests and the great importance in communication, students begin to pay attention to develop their English listening skills. But there are many factors affecting listening, the paper mainly focuses on linguistic factors and non-linguistic factors that affect listening, to provide a theoretical basis to help exploring ways of improving listening and comprehension skills.

  3. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians.Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran.Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Qu...

  4. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Methods Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Results Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhib...

  5. Analysis of factors affecting fattening of chickens

    OpenAIRE

    OBERMAJEROVÁ, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Poultry meat belongs to the basic assortment of human nutrition. The meat of an intensively fattened poultry is a source of easily digestible proteins, lipids, mineral substances and vitamins. The aim of this bachelor´s thesis was to write out a literature review, which is focused on the intensity of growth, carcass yield, quality and composition of broiler chickens meat. The following describes the internal and external factors that affect them, i.e. genetic foundation, hybrid combination, s...

  6. Genetic search feature selection for affective modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Héctor P.; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic feature selection is a critical step towards the generation of successful computational models of affect. This paper presents a genetic search-based feature selection method which is developed as a global-search algorithm for improving the accuracy of the affective models built....... The method is tested and compared against sequential forward feature selection and random search in a dataset derived from a game survey experiment which contains bimodal input features (physiological and gameplay) and expressed pairwise preferences of affect. Results suggest that the proposed method...

  7. Genetic Factors of Ophthalmic Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Zane F.

    Reviewed are chromosomal anomalies affecting one's eyes. Brief descriptions are given of the genetic etiology of bilateral retinoblastoma (malignant tumors), aniridia (absence of the iris), cataracts, congenital glaucoma, Reginitis Pigmentosa (progressive deterioration of the visual cells), Choroidermia (degeneration of the vascular coat of the…

  8. Genetic Factors of Ophthalmic Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Zane F.

    Reviewed are chromosomal anomalies affecting one's eyes. Brief descriptions are given of the genetic etiology of bilateral retinoblastoma (malignant tumors), aniridia (absence of the iris), cataracts, congenital glaucoma, Reginitis Pigmentosa (progressive deterioration of the visual cells), Choroidermia (degeneration of the vascular coat of the…

  9. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation.

  10. Psychological factors affecting equine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride Sebastian D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For optimal individual performance within any equestrian discipline horses must be in peak physical condition and have the correct psychological state. This review discusses the psychological factors that affect the performance of the horse and, in turn, identifies areas within the competition horse industry where current behavioral research and established behavioral modification techniques could be applied to further enhance the performance of animals. In particular, the role of affective processes underpinning temperament, mood and emotional reaction in determining discipline-specific performance is discussed. A comparison is then made between the training and the competition environment and the review completes with a discussion on how behavioral modification techniques and general husbandry can be used advantageously from a performance perspective.

  11. The Genetic and Environmental Factors for Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Shaag, Ariela; Millodot, Michel; Shneor, Einat; Liu, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is the most common cornea ectatic disorder. It is characterized by a cone-shaped thin cornea leading to myopia, irregular astigmatism, and vision impairment. It affects all ethnic groups and both genders. Both environmental and genetic factors may contribute to its pathogenesis. This review is to summarize the current research development in KC epidemiology and genetic etiology. Environmental factors include but are not limited to eye rubbing, atopy, sun exposure, and geography. Genetic discoveries have been reviewed with evidence from family-based linkage analysis and fine mapping in linkage region, genome-wide association studies, and candidate genes analyses. A number of genes have been discovered at a relatively rapid pace. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying KC pathogenesis will significantly advance our understanding of KC and promote the development of potential therapies. PMID:26075261

  12. Factors Affecting Radiologist's PACS Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the factors radiologist, examination category, time of week, and week effect PACS usage, with PACS usage defined as the sequential order of computer commands issued by a radiologist in a PACS during interpretation and dictation. We initially hypothesized that only radiologist and examination category would have significant effects on PACS usage. Command logs covering 8 weeks of PACS usage were analyzed. For each command trace (describing performed activities of an attending radiologist interpreting a single examination), the PACS usage variables number of commands, number of command classes, bigram repetitiveness, and time to read were extracted. Generalized linear models were used to determine the significance of the factors on the PACS usage variables. The statistical results confirmed the initial hypothesis that radiologist and examination category affect PACS usage and that the factors week and time of week to a large extent have no significant effect. As such, this work provides direction for continued efforts to analyze system data to better understand PACS utilization, which in turn can provide input to enable optimal utilization and configuration of corresponding systems. These continued efforts were, in this work, exemplified by a more detailed analysis using PACS usage profiles, which revealed insights directly applicable to improve PACS utilization through modified system configuration.

  13. Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Unal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486

  14. Liver fibrogenesis and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, Jérôme; Louvet, Alexandre

    2011-06-01

    Chronic liver diseases lead to the accumulation of fibrosis in the liver with eventual progression to cirrhosis and its complications. However, there is a wide range of inter-individual variation in the liver fibrogenesis process, thus posing a challenge to physicians to identify patients with poor prognosis. As demographic and environmental factors only account for a small portion of fibrogenesis variability, host genetic factors have been suggested as playing an important role. Due to technical limitations, the first genetic studies were restricted to the evaluation of candidate genes having a known or supposed function in liver fibrogenesis. Recently, technological improvements have made it possible to study the whole human genome in a single scan. Genome-wide association studies have considerably heightened the interest in genetics as part of the study of liver fibrogenesis through their identification of previously unsuspected genes that are statistically associated with liver fibrosis. It is thus possible to determine new diagnostic or prognostic genetic markers for the management of patients with chronic liver diseases. Moreover, functional analyses of these genes may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of liver fibrogenesis.

  15. Factors affecting tactile spatial acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J C; Kisner, J M

    1998-01-01

    Tactile spatial acuity on the fingerpad was measured using a grating orientation task. In this task, subjects are required to identify the orientation of square-wave gratings placed on the skin. Previous studies have shown that performance varies as a function of the width of the grooves in the gratings. In the present study, both groove width and the overall size and configuration of the contactors were varied. Sensitivity improved with wider grooves and with larger contactors. Additional measurements showed that the improved sensitivity is not the result of the increase in total area contacted, but rather is due to two other factors associated with larger contactors. One is the greater linear extent of the larger contactors. The other appears to be due to the reduction in the interference produced by the outer edge of the contactor. Specifically, as the contactor increases in size, the distance between the outer edge and the center portion of the grooves also increases. It was also shown that subjects are more sensitive to a single, continuous groove as compared with two grooves of the same total length but spatially discontinuous. Similarly, subjects are more sensitive to a contactor with a continuous groove than to a contactor in which just the end points of the groove are presented. The results are generally consistent with the results of peripheral, neurophysiological recordings. The results are discussed in terms of the way in which both spatial and intensive factors may affect sensitivity to grating orientation.

  16. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  17. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxu; Lin, Jintai; Ni, Ruijing

    2016-04-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant a large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RF of aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissions per unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size. South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions, its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency. The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is lowered by a small per capita GDP. Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The

  18. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  19. Factors Affecting Children Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠

    2002-01-01

    By reviewing the literature, the author points out some theoretical defects of the CPH on which the policy was based. CPH is the conceptualization formulation of the maturational constraints for SLA. The paper, based on the reality of China, put forward some suggestion, which includes the time factor, the teacher's factor and the content factor.

  20. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yongi-Mi; University of Oklahoma

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR); yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider univers...

  1. Macroenvironmental factors affecting ethical behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Önsel Ekici, Şule; Ekici, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to take a macroethical perspective and study the relationships between various structural factors and ethical behavior of firms. Using the data obtained from the Global Competitiveness Network of the World Economic Forum-WEF, and through the Bayesian Causal Map (BCM) methodology, we study how ethical behaviors of firms in a given country group are shaped by how managers perceive the political, legislative, and protective environment of business in these countries....

  2. Maritime Factors Affecting Iberian Security,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    AFECTAN LA SECURIDAD IBERICA FACTORES MARITIMOS QUE AFECTANJ LA SEGURIDAD IBE RICA Introduccion En lo que ataine a la seguridad ibe~rica, la realidad ...fuerzas naval.. sera~n de significado periferico. Aquella part. do la marina do guerra sovietica quo esta ya desplegada en el oce’ano sera/ aumentada ...nota de la realidad consabida de que tanto la hora de introduccion como la escala de emplec de las armas nlu- cleares en una guerra general anibas

  3. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  4. Environmental and genetical factors in airway allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Idzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that approximately 23% of the European population is clinically diagnosed with allergies. In the past three decades, an increase in the incidence of respiratory allergies was noted. At the beginning of the 20th century allergic inflammations affected only around 1% of the world population. Medical symptoms of allergic airway inflammation are variable for different patients. Airways allergy are complex phenotypes, which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Potential environmental factors include air pollution, tobacco smoke, diet and hygienic habits. The base of phenotypes diversity is still unknown. Genetic studies of allergic disease are complex , the disease derives from the global effect of a series of genes considered individually. What is more, there are epigenetic effects and interactions among the possible causal genes and a range of environmental factors. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in genes encoding chemokines and their receptors, interleukins and their receptors, eosinophil peroxidase and leukotrienes have been found as a possible factor for a development of allergic airway inflammation. It is known that SNPs are specific for different cohort.

  5. Teratogenic factors affect transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takuya; Asano, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Chemical compounds are produced every day, many with adverse effects on human health, and hence it is vital to predict the risks to humans simply, rapidly, and accurately. Teratogens have a serious impact on fetal development. This has been studied mainly by phenotypic analysis of experimental animals. However, since phenotypes can vary within different species, we established a new evaluation system based on our recent finding that teratogens influence Hox gene expression in mice. Similarly to the Hox gene expression changes, the expression patterns of several transcription factors involved in development, including the Dlx, Irx, Sall, and T-box families, were altered after 6 h of exposure to retinoic acid (RA) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The expression changes in Dlx4, Dlx6, Irx5, Sall2, Sall3, Sall4, Tbx10, and Tbx22 were linked to teratogen-induced phenotypes, and our results indicate that expression changes in developmental transcription factors can help to predict teratogenic risk.

  6. Genetic engineering and coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, D N; Toole, J J

    1985-06-01

    It is unfortunate that we cannot report, in the area of coagulation, advances that have been seen in related fields such as thrombolytic therapy. The reported progress (Gold et al, 1984; Van de Werf et al, 1984) with human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Pennica et al, 1983) augers well for the application of recombinant technology to the problems faced by patients with coagulation defects. While plasminogen activator is being assessed in an acute therapeutic setting, its use signals a beginning of the application of the technology to abnormalities of the haemostatic mechanism. Chronic administration of coagulation factors for prophylaxis and replacement therapy would appear to be just one more step down the pathway illuminated by the biochemists, microbiologists and cell biologists who have preceded the clinicians in this promising area. There is no record of the use of genetically engineered materials in the treatment of coagulation defects, primarily because the body of knowledge and refined techniques have only recently been acquired. For this reason we have had to project developments in other areas onto the problems that exist for the haemostatically compromised patient. In describing the potential usefulness of these technologies, it is difficult to ascertain where the logical projection, from a fully investigated model system, diverges from flights of imaginative fancy. Cloning projects considered overly ambitious and grandiose at the beginning of this decade are already accomplished feats. The feasibility of gene therapy in the mammalian system has been demonstrated, and trade publications now discuss governmental approval for investigative use of this procedure in 1985. Panels of physicians, scientists and even politicians now seriously contemplate and promulgate views and regulations pertaining to the efficacy and ethics of the use of genetic engineering in the treatment of human disease. The haemophilias will certainly be among the first

  7. Factors Affecting Traditional Markets Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotnier Sipahutar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, traditional market is increasingly squeezed by the emergence of modern market that develops rapidly. The dominance shift in national retail is apparent when globalization can no longer be contained, let alone be banned. Middle class and small class (traditional market business retail seem to be in increasingly difficult condition to compete with upscale retail business (modern market. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influencing the competitiveness of traditional market and to develop policies to improve the competitiveness of traditional market. This study utilizes research strategy of case study in Bandung City, Serang City, and Surabaya City with qualitative descriptive approach. The study shows that the factors inhibiting the competitiveness of traditional market with modern stores are (1 Traditional market’s bad image, and (2 Traditional market’s sellers and managers are unprofessional. To improve the competitiveness of traditional market, this study recommends: (1 routine and regular maintenance of buildings and infrastructure of traditional market, (2 professionalism improvement of traditional market’s sellers and managers, and (3 the partiality of local government in traditional markets.

  8. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

  9. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient

  10. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E Silva; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A. H.

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by g...

  11. Factors affecting the development of genetic testing service by using quantitative SWOT analysis%定量态势分析法分析我国基因检测服务发展影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包鹤龄; 王红漫

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究我国以基因组技术为基础的基因检测服务发展影响因素及发展策略.方法 通过目的 抽样的方法选择基因组学和基因检测领域相关专家,对11名专家进行深入访谈并设计问卷,通过调查问卷获取25名专家的数据信息,态势分析法、层次分析法、内部因素评价矩阵和外部因素评价矩阵相结合的定量态势分析法进行数据分析,随机一致性比率(CR)检验逻辑一致性(CR<10%).结果 共确定15项关键影响因素,其中重要性排在前三位的分别是法律与市场规范缺失、国家已出台政策扶持和缺少知识产权保护,权重分别为0.099、0.091和0.087,国内基因检测服务发展处于战略态势图的第三象限.结论 国内基因检测服务发展宜采取防御性战略,回避外部威胁,克服自身缺点,降低基因检测所带来的风险.%Objective To analyze the factors affecting the development of genome technology-based genetic testing services. Methods Purposive sampling was used to select experts in the field of genome or genetic testing. Following interview with 11 experts,data was obtained from 25 individuals and analyzed by using quantitative SWOT analysis, including the concept of SWOT method, Analytic Hierarchy Process,Internal Factor Evaluation ( IFE ) Matrix, and External Factor Evaluation ( EFE ) Matrix. Consistent ratio (CR) was chosen to test the logic. Results Of the 15 critical affecting factors, the weighting coefficient of deficiency of laws and market regulations, state supporting policies, and lack of intellectual property protection was 0. 099,0. 091 and 0. 087, respectively. The development of genetic testing services was found in the third quadrant of SWOT analysis. Conclusion These findings suggest that defensive strategy should be taken to improve genetic testing services and to reduce the risk of genetic testing.

  12. Environmental factors affecting autoimmune thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safran, M.; Paul, T.L.; Roti, E.; Braverman, L.E.

    1987-06-01

    A number of environmental factors affect the incidence and progression of autoimmune thyroid disease. Exposure to excess iodine, certain drugs, infectious agents and pollutants, and stress have all been implicated.

  13. Factors affecting effective performance of rural producers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Factors affecting effective performance of rural producers' organizations in the ... Linkages are vital for effective achievement of purposes and most RPOs (80%), had established them ..... Success: Learning from Instructive Experiences in Ru-.

  14. Factors Affecting the Difficulty of Verbal Analogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccas, Sonia; Moshinsky, Avital

    2003-01-01

    Examined factors affecting the difficulty of verbal analogies in a psychometric examination by characterizing 104 analogies using 5 defined attributes. Both knowledge and process attributes were found to contribute to the difficulty of verbal analogies assessed by 10 judges. (SLD)

  15. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58) and two state schools (n= 217)...

  16. EFL Teachers' Factors and Students' Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Individual learners' affective factors are very important for foreign language learning. In China foreign language learning mainly happens in the classroom. Foreign language teachers are the organizers and carriers of language classes, and thus they inevitably influence the students' affection. This study explores how EFL teachers influence…

  17. [Environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Claire; Cottereau, Edouard; de Pauw, Antoine; Elan, Camille; Dagousset, Isabelle; Fourchotte, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lae, Marick; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    In France, endometrial cancer is at the first rank of gynecological cancers for cancer incidence, before ovarian and cervical cancers. In fact, the number of incident cases has been estimated to 7275 for the year 2012; the number of death due to endometrial cancer to 2025. This cancer is hormone-dependent and endogenous (reproductive factors) or exogenous (oral combined contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy) causes of exposition to estrogens are the major environmental risk factors for both types of endometrial cancers: type I or well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas; and type II including all other histological types: papillary serous adenocarcinomas, clear cell adenocarcinomas and carcinosarcomas, also known as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor, MMMT. Obesity, diabetes mellitus and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer with tamoxifen are also associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Genetic factors may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer either as "minor genetic factors" (susceptibility factors), which remain largely unknown and are responsible for the increased observed risk in relatives of women affected with endometrial cancer; or as major genetic factors responsible for hereditary forms and namely for Lynch syndrome whose genetic transmission is of autosomic dominant type. The appropriate recognition of Lynch syndrome is of critical importance because affected patients and their relatives should benefit from specific care. The aims of this review is to describe major environmental and genetic risk factors for endometrial cancer with specific attention to most recent advances in this field and to describe recommendations for care of at-risk women.

  18. Factors Affecting University Library Website Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongi-Mi Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies have extensively explored factors that affect users’ intentions to use university library website resources (ULWR; yet little attention has been given to factors affecting university library website design. This paper investigates factors that affect university library website design and assesses the success of the university library website from both designers’ and users’ perspectives. The findings show that when planning a website, university web designers consider university guidelines, review other websites, and consult with experts and other divisions within the library; however, resources and training for the design process are lacking. While website designers assess their websites as highly successful, user evaluations are somewhat lower. Accordingly, use is low, and users rely heavily on commercial websites. Suggestions for enhancing the usage of ULWR are provided.

  19. Factors Affecting the Income of Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of factors affecting the income level of farmers in China,a total of 31 provinces,autonomous regions and municipality cities are taken as samples to select 13 factors affecting the income level of farmers,which are arable land area(X1),disaster area(X2),effective irrigation area(X3),fertilizer application(X4),mobile phone(X5),personal computer(X6),people joining in the new rural cooperative medical care(X7),rural investment(X8),household-use machine(X9),agricultural product price(X10),proportion of labor force with above junior high school education(X11),rural delivery route(X12),and rural electricity consumption(X13).At the same time,factor analysis method is used to analyze the factors affecting the income level of farmers.Result shows that common factors affecting the income of farmers are the agricultural production factor F1,the expanded reproduction factor F2,the information use factor F3,and the output reduction factor F4.At present,education degree of farmers and ability of farmers in grasping information have relatively great impact on the income of farmers,and can effectively promote the income growth of farmers.Scores of F1 in Henan,Shandong and Hebei are generally higher;Jiangsu,Guangdong,Zhejiang and Shandong Provinces have relatively high scores of F2;Shanghai,Beijing and Guangdong have relatively high scores of F3;and Hunan,Hubei and Xinjiang have relatively high scores of F4.Finally,countermeasures are put forward to improve the income of farmers based on empirical study.

  20. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Government Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry P. Haenisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been a variety of studies concerning government worker motivation and productivity, few, if any, studies have focused specifically on state government workers’ perceptions about what factors affect their productivity. With more than 5 million workers employed by state governments in the United States, any improvement in state workplace productivity could have significant financial and service impact for society. In this study, state government workers identified those factors perceived as most affecting their workplace productivity. Data were collected through a survey offered to state government workers in the state of Wyoming. Factor analysis was used to derive key productivity factors from survey responses. The results indicate that state government workers appreciate having freedom and autonomy, like their jobs and the sense of achievement, and welcome teamwork, but feel limited by poor supervision and management, poor communications, and insufficient budgets and staffing. To improve productivity, the workers would eliminate bureaucracy, supervise better, and improve communication.

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  2. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  3. Genetic risk factors for autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feltkamp, T.E.W.; Aarden, L.A.; Lucas, C.J.; Verweij, C.L.; Vries, R.R.P. de

    1999-01-01

    In most autoimmune diseases multigenic factors play a significant role in pathogenesis. Progress in identifying these genetic factors, many of which are located outside the major histocompatibility complex, was the subject of a recent meeting. Chemicals/CAS: Interleukin-10, 130068-27-8; Transforming

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING PERSISTENCE IN STUDENTS' LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShenPanyang

    2004-01-01

    It is one thing that currently in China English learning persists through a student's whole study life, but it is another how long his persistence, an important factor in any language learning, can last. The factors affecting a student's persistence in this regard practically merits our attention. This paper traces and observes twenty students chosen by random. The research conducted here included their study motivation, academic excellence, psychological aspects relating to language learning and established corresponding models showing how these factors affect a student's persistence in his English learning. Although a small sample number was taken,of different students in China.the twenty students were typical of different students in China. The students' backgrounds were varied including both educational and environmental. Some suggestions are given indicating three separate but inter-related ways in how to further develop a student's persistence.

  5. Micro and macro factors affecting childbearing aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y

    1992-01-01

    The conclusion of the discussion of factors affecting childbearing aspirations is that both a micro and a macro perspective must be included in an empirical analysis which would be useful for policy decisions. Micro factors tend to the economic function of the family, the economic value of children, cost of labor training, women's occupation, social security, household consumption, and education level. Attention to micro factors is important in the link between individual interests and state family planning (FP) policy. Macro factors tend to be ignored, but also impact on childbearing decisions. Macro factors are economic conditions, social and political factors, culture, and environmental factors such as ecology, natural resources, employment, economic development, and education. Macro factors affect the population as a whole and indirectly impact on individuals and the family. China's achievements in FP policy have been identified as a reduction of 200 million people, a shift in the population reproduction cycle downwards, increased standard of living, reduction in the burden of working people, and stabilization of macro factors. Successful policy should not rely on forced implementation. The past and present policies were successful not because of forced implementation, but because of awareness of macro and micro factors and voluntary use of FP. The voluntary nature of acceptance of FP suggests support for the FP policies. The current focus is on rural areas, and farmers in particular who are only aware of their needs and may feel state policy may interfere with their own interests. Implementation of FP among the rural population would be enhanced with an emphasis on their concerns such as social security in old age, the practical issues of having only daughters, and educational status. Educational campaigns promoting awareness of population pressure are needed and will benefit all the people. Social democratic doctrines can be introduced only from the outside

  6. Stroke Risk Factors, Genetics, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Amelia K; Esenwa, Charles; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-02-03

    Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome, and determining risk factors and treatment depends on the specific pathogenesis of stroke. Risk factors for stroke can be categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Age, sex, and race/ethnicity are nonmodifiable risk factors for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, while hypertension, smoking, diet, and physical inactivity are among some of the more commonly reported modifiable risk factors. More recently described risk factors and triggers of stroke include inflammatory disorders, infection, pollution, and cardiac atrial disorders independent of atrial fibrillation. Single-gene disorders may cause rare, hereditary disorders for which stroke is a primary manifestation. Recent research also suggests that common and rare genetic polymorphisms can influence risk of more common causes of stroke, due to both other risk factors and specific stroke mechanisms, such as atrial fibrillation. Genetic factors, particularly those with environmental interactions, may be more modifiable than previously recognized. Stroke prevention has generally focused on modifiable risk factors. Lifestyle and behavioral modification, such as dietary changes or smoking cessation, not only reduces stroke risk, but also reduces the risk of other cardiovascular diseases. Other prevention strategies include identifying and treating medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, that increase stroke risk. Recent research into risk factors and genetics of stroke has not only identified those at risk for stroke but also identified ways to target at-risk populations for stroke prevention. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external factors influencing the process of formation of tariffs of commercial services are considered in the article. External environment is known to be very diverse and changeable. Currently, pricing has become one of the key processes of strategic development of a company. Pricing in the service sector, in turn, is highly susceptible to changes in the external environment. Its components directly or indirectly affect the market of services, changing it adopted economic processes. As a rule, firms providing services can’t influence the changes in external factors. However, the service market is very flexible, which enables businesses to reshape pricing strategy, to adapt it to the new environment.

  8. The factors affecting the recarburization process indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janerka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the factors affecting the carburizing rates obtained (rate and efficiency during the process of melting cast iron. The analysis includes the recarburizer type (anthracite, natural and synthetic graphite, petroleum coke and particle size. Further factors considered in work are the methods of recarburization (recarburizer introduction to a solid charge and on the surface of the metal bath and the parameters of the melt (temperature and chemical composition. The analysis was based on experiments performed, the calculation results of computer simulations and literature data.

  9. Factors Affecting Students’ Achievement in Mathematics ∗

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem SAVAŞ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the factors that affect students’ mathematics achievement in secondary school mathematics grades of 6th, 7th and 8th were explored. For this purpose, the factors that affect mathematics education and mathematics achievement such as type of school, family income, studying time and students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses have been investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 275 students from one private (n=58 and two state schools (n= 217 in Van. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics and Chi-Square analysis. The result of study showed that type of school, family income, studying time, students’ attitude towards mathematics and attendance to private courses had statistically significant effects on students’ mathematics achievement.

  10. Factors affecting home delivery in rural Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Schellenberg, Joanna A; Mushi, Adiel K.; Obrist, Brigit; Mshinda, Hassan; Tanner, Marcel; Schellenberg, David

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies of factors affecting place of delivery have rarely considered the influence of gender roles and relations within the household. This study combines an understanding of gender issues relating to health and help-seeking behaviour with epidemiological knowledge concerning place of delivery. METHODS In-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation were used to explore determinants of home delivery in southern Tanzania. Quantitative data were ...

  11. Factors affecting the rural domestic waste generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Darban Astane

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to evaluate the quantity and quality of rural domestic waste generation and to identify the factors affecting it in rural areas of Khodabandeh county in Zanjan Province, Iran. Waste samplings consisted of 318 rural households in 11 villages. In order to evaluate the quality and quantity of the rural domestic waste, waste production was classified into 12 groups and 2 main groups of organic waste and solid waste. Moreover, kriging interpolation technique in ARC-GIS software was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the generated domestic waste and ultimately multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors affecting the generation of domestic waste. The results of this study showed that the average waste generated by each person was 0.588 kilograms per day. with the share of organic waste generated by each person being 0.409 kilograms per day and the share of solid waste generated by each person being 0.179 kilograms per day. The results from spatial distribution of waste generation showed a certain pattern in three groups and a higher rate of waste generation in the northern and northwestern parts, especially in the subdistrict. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the households’ income, assets, age, and personal attitude are respectively the most important variables affecting waste generation. The housholds’ attitude and indigenous knowledge on efficient use of materials are also the key factors which can help reducing waste generation.

  12. Factors Affecting Rural Facilitators’ Role: Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Kamali

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine key factors affecting rural female facilitators’ role in participatory rural developmentin Tehran Province. Since the researchers intended to have abetter insight into the facilitators’ role and employ inquiry as alearning forum for bringing about changes for all participants,they preferred to use a case study based upon an appreciativeinquiry method. The study divided the factors affecting thefacilitators’ role into two main categories: driving factors andpreventing factors. The former are: two-way communication,election of rural eligible facilitators, participation, sense ofresponsibility, and the latter are: cultural and tribal fanaticism,lack of permanent female extension workers and frequentmanagement changes. Appreciative inquiry as a positive modeof action research could facilitate the process of education andcommunication for all stakeholders. We suggested that thereshould be a shift from the extension as a knowledge transfer tofacilitation as people’s own knowledge creation. This studyshowed that appreciative inquiry could facilitate the process ofchange and gender-awareness. This research method couldalso facilitate mutual communication between the rural facilitatorsand extension workers.

  13. Human genetic factors in tuberculosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tong, Hoang; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Thye, Thorsten; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to human health, especially in many developing countries. Human genetic variability has been recognised to be of great relevance in host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and in regulating both the establishment and the progression of the disease. An increasing number of candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have focused on human genetic factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to TB. To update previous reviews on human genetic factors in TB we searched the MEDLINE database and PubMed for articles from 1 January 2014 through 31 March 2017 and reviewed the role of human genetic variability in TB. Search terms applied in various combinations were 'tuberculosis', 'human genetics', 'candidate gene studies', 'genome-wide association studies' and 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis'. Articles in English retrieved and relevant references cited in these articles were reviewed. Abstracts and reports from meetings were also included. This review provides a recent summary of associations of polymorphisms of human genes with susceptibility/resistance to TB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Systematic review of factors affecting pharmaceutical expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousnad, Mohamed Awad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham

    2014-06-01

    To systematically identify the main factors contributing to the increase in pharmaceutical expenditures. A systematic search of published studies was conducted utilising major widely used electronic databases using the search terms 'factors,' 'financing,' 'pharmaceutical,' and 'expenditures.' To be included, the studies needed to: (1) measure at least one of the following outcomes: total growth in pharmaceutical expenditures, price growth or quantity growth; (2) mention a clear method for analysing the impact of factors affecting the increases in drug expenditures; (3) be written in English. Nonprimary articles that were published only as an abstract, a review, a commentary or a letter were excluded. From a total of 2039 studies, only 25 were included in the full review. The main determinant categories that were identified in the review were factors related to price, utilisation, therapeutic choice, demand and health care system. The major cost drivers were found to be changes in drug quantities and therapies as well as new drugs. It is important for policymakers to understand pharmaceutical spending trends and the factors that influence them in order to formulate effective cost containment strategies and design optimum drug policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental and genetical factors in airway allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Idzik

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 23% of the European population is clinically diagnosed with allergies. In the past three decades, an increase in the incidence of respiratory allergies was noted. At the beginning of the 20th century allergic inflammations affected only around 1% of the world population. Medical symptoms of allergic airway inflammation are variable for different patients. Airways allergy are complex phenotypes, which are determined by both genetic and...

  16. Factors affecting the placental transfer of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikov, M.R.; Kelman, B.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to consider factors that affect the availability and transport of actinides from maternal blood, through the placenta, to the conceptus. These factors, of particular importance in scaling results from animals to man, include the route and temporal pattern of administration, the mass and physicochemical state of material administered, metabolism of the pregnant animal and fetal organs or tissue, and species-specific changes in placental structure relative to stage of gestation at exposure. Preliminary concepts for descriptive and kinetic models are proposed to integrate these results, to identify additional information required for developing more comprehensive models, and to provide a basis for scaling to human pregnancies for purposes of radiation dosimetry.

  17. State based factors affecting inward FDI employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kornecki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research investigates state based factors affecting the inward FDI employment among fifty states of the United States, uses annual data for the period of time from 1997 to 2007 and identifies several state-specific determinants of FDI employment. The results indicate that the major factors exerting positive impact on inward US FDI employment are: real wages, infrastructure, unionization level, educational attainment, FDI stock and manufacturing density.  In addition, the results show that gross state product growth rate, real per capita taxes and share of scientists and engineers have negative impact on FDI employment. Our findings indicate the importance of selected variables in evaluating the effects of FDI flow.Keywords: FDI, Growth, Employment, State, Economy

  18. Factors Affecting Linear Type Traits of Valdostana Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Mazza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Four composite and 22 individual linear type traits, measured between 1997 and 2012 on 33,206 Aosta Red Pied (ARP and 19,551 Aosta Black Pied and Aosta Chestnut (ABP-CN strains of Valdostana cattle, were used to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting morphological evaluation. Average values for type traits ranged from 2.81 (teat placement rear view and foot angle to 3.34 (thinness for ARP, and from 2.48 (teat placement side view to 3.67 (udder depth for ABP-CN. Results from the ANOVA showed significant effect of herd-year-classifier on type traits of both ARPand ABP-CN, and of days in milk and age at calving for almost all traits, with few exceptions. The model used in this study is a useful starting point to calculate genetic parameters for Valdostana cattle.

  19. Factors Affecting Current and Future CSA Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vassalos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Community Supported Agriculture (CSA is one of the widely used direct marketing strategies for small- and midsized farmers. CSA programs are an important option for sustainable production and consumption. It helps growers generate income (improve financial security and consumers obtain fresh local foods. Sustaining and growing CSA participation is critical in order to continue enjoying these benefits. We used a national online survey in conjunction with discrete choice models to investigate the impact of demographic characteristics, lifestyle preferences, and different information outlets on the probability that a consumer is or will become a CSA member. The results indicate that the factors affecting current and future CSA participation differ substantially. While none of the demographic characteristics has a significant impact on current CSA participation, some of them significantly affect the probability that a consumer will become a CSA member in the future. Lifestyle preferences have a significant impact on current and future CSA participation. Although none of the information outlets examined affect current CSA participation, word-of-mouth and online sources significantly influence the probability that a consumer will join a CSA program in the future. These findings may have important implications for policy makers’ and CSA farm managers’ efforts to sustain future CSA development.

  20. Shared genetic factors in migraine and depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, A H.; de Vries, B; Janssens, A C.J.W.; Vanmolkot, K R.J.; Aulchenko, Y S.; Henneman, P; Oostra, B A.; Frants, R R.; van den Maagdenberg, A M.J.M.; Ferrari, M D.; van Duijn, C M.; Terwindt, G M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the co-occurrence of migraine and depression and assess whether shared genetic factors may underlie both diseases. Methods: Subjects were 2,652 participants of the Erasmus Rucphen Family genetic isolate study. Migraine was diagnosed using a validated 3-stage screening method that included a telephone interview. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale and the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). The contribution of shared genetic factors in migraine and depression was investigated by comparing heritability estimates for migraine with and without adjustment for symptoms of depression, and by comparing the heritability scores of depression between migraineurs and controls. Results: We identified 360 migraine cases: 209 had migraine without aura (MO) and 151 had migraine with aura (MA). Odds ratios for depression in patients with migraine were 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98–1.70) for MO and 1.70 (95% CI 1.28–2.24) for MA. Heritability estimates were significant for all migraine (0.56), MO (0.77), and MA (0.96), and decreased after adjustment for symptoms of depression or use of antidepressant medication, in particular for MA. Comparison of the heritability scores for depression between patients with migraine and controls showed a genetic correlation between HADS-D score and MA. Conclusions: There is a bidirectional association between depression and migraine, in particular migraine with aura, which can be explained, at least partly, by shared genetic factors. GLOSSARY CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CI = confidence interval; ERF = Erasmus Rucphen Family; HADS-D = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IHS = International Headache Society; MA = migraine with aura; MO = migraine without aura; OR = odds ratio. PMID:20071666

  1. Factors Affecting Corneal Hysteresis in Taiwanese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Kang Wang; Tzu-Lun Huang; Pei-Yuan Su; Pei-Yao Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation of various corneal hysteresis (CH) factors in Chinese adults. Methods: From January 2009 to November 2011, the healthy right eyes of a total of 292 adults were recruited into the study. Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPG) and CH were measured using an ocular response analyzer (ORA). Central corneal thickness was measured using the ORA’s in-tegrated handheld ultrasonic pachymeter. The IOLMaster was used to obtain the ocular biometric measurements including axial length, anterior chamber depth, and keratometric values. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test correla-tions between CH and quantitative factors. The chi-square test was used to detect differences in categorical values. Results: Longer axial length (P=0.0001), lower IOPG (P=0.03), older age(P=0.003),and thinner central corneal thick-ness (P=0.0001) were significantly associated with lower CH. The anterior chamber depth (P=0.34), gender (P=0.23), and corneal curvature (P=0.18) had no relationship to CH. Conclusion:Various factors including axial length, intraocular pressure, age, and central corneal thickness can affect measure-ment of corneal biomechanical properties in Chinese adults. But the anterior chamber depth, gender, and corneal curvature were irrelevant to CH.

  2. Genetic and environmental factors of atopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Otsu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopy is a common immune disorder characterized by raised IgE levels, which lead to clinical disorders (i.e. primarily bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjuctivitis. Interleukin (IL-4 and IL-13, derived from T-helper cell type 2 (Th2 subsets, are central in mediating IgE production and development of immediate hypersensitivity. Atopy is also characterized by Th1/Th2 skewing that derives from genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of atopy has increased in recent decades, especially in developed countries among children and young adults. In the present review, we first discuss the relationship between the Th1/Th2 imbalance and the recent rise of allergy. Second, we present evidence that human genetic variation is also a key factor responsible for atopy.

  3. Factors Affecting Profitability of Layer Hens Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebraheem Altahat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Layer hen enterprises suffer from low profitability or losses in many of developing countries all over the world. Jordan is not an acceptance. Approach: This study aimed at investigating the influence of ten main factors affecting the profitability of layer hen producers. The investigated factors include price of purchased pullet, feed price, cost of labor, cost of veterinary service and medicine, building and machinery depreciation, repairs and maintenance and miscellaneous costs, length of production cycle, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate, egg sale price and laying percentage. Results: The study used a multiple regression profit model to estimate the effect of the above mentioned factors on profit per kg egg produced. The direction and quantity of relationship between profit per kg egg and variables affecting profit were investigated. Data from 40 operating and randomly selected egg production enterprises in the country was collected. Data was obtained directly from the producers during April to mid August 2010. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a pre-tested questionnaire. The data obtained via interview surveys were processed to calculate profit per kg egg and other relevant information for inclusion in a profit function model. Fifteen eggs are registered to be 1 kg in the study. Cost and income items used to calculate profit in the study. The results of the study revealed that the feed price was found to be the factor which has the highest negative impact on the profitability showing the coefficient-3.01. The egg sale price was with high positive impact on profitability showing the coefficient 2.633. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results of the study it could be concluded that higher prices of purchased or breeding pullet, higher feed price, higher cost of labor, higher cost of veterinary service and medicine, higher other costs including building and machinery depreciation, repairs and

  4. Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chlebicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

  5. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  6. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors Affecting Fertility Desires in the Philippines

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    Clarissa C. David

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting fertility desires in the Philippines were examined using data from a national survey and from individual and group qualitative interviews involving 143 respondents. Fertility goals usually range from two to three children, but evidence suggests that they are dynamic and may change over a person’s lifetime. Qualitative interviews reveal that when negotiating about family size, it is the partner who wants more children that will be followed. A strong demand for gender balance among offspring creates a willingness to have more children than originally desired. Fertility goals increase over time among women. While those who start childbirth at a very young age successfully space their children, they tend to want larger families than those who start late. Initial fertility goals among women are generally low but may increase because of higher fertility desires among men, a demand for gender balance in children, and the desire for babies once their children have grown.

  8. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  9. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  10. Environmental and genetic risk factors in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Hinney, Anke

    2009-01-01

    Because of its high prevalence and the associated medical and psychosocial risks, research into the causes of childhood obesity has experienced a tremendous upswing. Formal genetic data based on twin, adoption, and family studies lead to the conclusion that at least 50% of the interindividual variance of the body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is due to genetic factors. As a result of the recent advent of genome-wide association studies, the first polygenes involved in body weight regulation have been detected. Each of the predisposing alleles explain a few hundred grams of body weight. More polygenes will be detected in the near future, thus for the first time allowing in-depth analyses of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. They also will enable developmental studies to assess the effect of such alleles throughout childhood and adulthood. The recent increase in obesity prevalence rates illustrates the extreme relevance of environmental factors for body weight. Similar to polygenes, the effect sizes of most such environmental factors are likely to be small, thus rendering their detection difficult. In addition, the validation of the true causality of such factors is not a straightforward task. Important factors are socioeconomic status and television consumption. The authors conclude by briefly assessing implications for treatment and prevention of childhood obesity.

  11. Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Golbeck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from OpenCaching.com and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.

  12. FACTORS AFFECTING PHARMACOKINETIC DISPOSITION OF DRUGS

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    Mehta Hiren R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is a complex process the variability of which is influenced by many physicochemical and physiologic factors. The two most important physicochemical factors that affect both the extent and the rate of absorption are lipophilicity and solubility. The rate and extent of absorption are governed by the solubility, permeability and stability of the drug, with solubility being a pH-dependent parameter for weak acids and bases. The gastrointestinal tract can be viewed as discrete sections with a variety of differential local pH environments ranging from the acidic stomach to the more basic small intestine. The multiple peaking, double peaking or secondary peaking phenomena can occur in the disposition of a variety of xenobiotics during drug development (the pre-clinical phase and in subsequent clinical studies and use. The physicochemical and physiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence of this phenomenon are often multi factorial and include but are not limited to solubility-limited absorption, modified-release formulations, complexation, enterohepatic recirculation, gastric emptying and the intestinal transit time, site-specific absorption, gastric secretion-enteral reabsorption. Double peak absorption has been described with several orally administered drugs such as cimetidine furosemide, piroxicam, ranitidine, talinolol, alprazolam and phenazopyridine.

  13. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  14. Ranking agility factors affecting hospitals in Iran

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    M. Abdi Talarposht

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agility is an effective response to the changing and unpredictable environment and using these changes as opportunities for organizational improvement. Objective: The aim of the present study was to rank the factors affecting agile supply chain of hospitals of Iran. Methods: This applied study was conducted by cross sectional-descriptive method at some point of 2015 for one year. The research population included managers, administrators, faculty members and experts were selected hospitals. A total of 260 people were selected as sample from the health centers. The construct validity of the questionnaire was approved by confirmatory factor analysis test and its reliability was approved by Cronbach's alpha (α=0.97. All data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Friedman tests. Findings: The development of staff skills, the use of information technology, the integration of processes, appropriate planning, and customer satisfaction and product quality had a significant impact on the agility of public hospitals of Iran (P<0.001. New product introductions had earned the highest ranking and the development of staff skills earned the lowest ranking. Conclusion: The new product introduction, market responsiveness and sensitivity, reduce costs, and the integration of organizational processes, ratings better to have acquired agility hospitals in Iran. Therefore, planners and officials of hospitals have to, through the promotion quality and variety of services customer-oriented, providing a basis for investing in the hospital and etc to apply for agility supply chain public hospitals of Iran.

  15. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Liutvinavičius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars. Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios. The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors. The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless. Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient  attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  16. Research of Factors Affecting Pension Funds Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilijus Sakalauskas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently Lithuania has an old-age pension system of three pillars.Unfortunately, when making an investment decision, too few factors are used that affect strategy effectiveness. It is necessary to develop tools to better assess the risks and more accurately simulate the potential long-term investment scenarios.The article deals with the investment strategy to the second and third pillar pension funds in order to maximize investment returns and reduce risks. A smart software tool allows you to simulate an accrual depending on the rate of return, the accumulation period, the level of contributions, the fund’s profitability and other factors.The study shows that using the Social Insurance Fund contributions, personal contributions and the state provided additives can accumulate significantly greater amounts of money than collecting only the second pillar pension funds contributions. For implementation of the proposed methodology it is necessary to ensure a minimum level of personal pension scheme members fundraising to the third pillar pension funds. On the other hand, the study revealed that in some cases investment to private pension funds can be useless.Private pension funds have become popular between unprofessional investors who don’t have sufficient knowledge. Research shows that financial institutions do not always provide the optimal proposals. Advanced software tools can help make better investment decisions. Commercial tools usually show potential profits of investment, but not always pay sufficient attention to potential risks. This article analyzes both good and bad investment scenarios.

  17. Factors Affecting the Underperformance of Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeeka Amarasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama is the largest factory of Brandix Group of Companies catering to VS Pink. It has a labour force of 1250 employees including a direct labour force of 659. Production capabilities have been extended to in-house printing and embroidery sections in addition to cutting and shipping facilities. Like other apparel manufacturers in the industry, BASL Intimate Apparel Mirigama also faces much competition and problems in its day to day business operations. One of the major issues so faced is On-Time-Delivery due to underperformance of the employees. Therefore, with the objectives of studying factors affecting the underperformance of the employees of the production department, analysing and identifying such factors, and providing recommendations, a few variables i.e. machines and methods, skill level, financial incentives, leadership practices and working conditions were identified as having a potential impact over the performance of the production employees. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 64 team members from the 32 production modules, and research work continued to collate primary data through administrating a structured questionnaire among selected associates. Null and alternative hypotheses were tested using correlations, and the data is presented as graphical pictures, tables, and in narrative form. However, there were a few limitations such as management influence, sample basis selection, service period, level of understating, time availability and commitment, time availability for the study etc. which may have had an impact over the research findings.

  18. Factors that affecting mothers’ postnatal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Pınar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The comfort is defined as; “an expected result of a complex conformation of providing peace and help about individual’s needs in a physical, psycho-spiritual, social and environmental entity to overcome the problems”. The aim of this study was to determine the mother’s postnatal comfort and the affecting factors of it.Materials and Methods: This is a sectional and descriptive study. The study was performed on the mothers (n=150 who applied to the delivery service of the Başkent University Ankara Hospital between the date of 30.07.2008 to 31.12.2008. A questionnaire was developed by the investigators to collect data and determine patients’ postnatal comfort scores. Results: The mean age of women was 26.4±3.5 years, the majority of patients had an educational level of high school (68.7% and were multipara (66.0%. It was determined that the mothers had problems and needed help with the fatigue, pain, in standing up, the adverse effect of anesthesia, personal and perineal hygiene that affect their postnatal comfort. The comfort score of the mothers who had spontaneous vaginal birth was higher than those of underwent cesarean delivery (p<0.05.Conclusion: The mothers’ needs and expectations about themselves and their babies were generally supplied by midwifes and the nurses in the postnatal period. Opinion of the mothers about their comfort were influenced to a positive view and the comfort scores increased while the mothers’ satisfaction were augmented (p<0.05.

  19. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success.

  20. Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Phillips, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

  1. Factors Affecting Internationalization of Indonesia Franchise Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Halim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Franchise is one of successful business strategies in business expansion. Franchise format has been already adopted in all countries. The success is proven in the world and also in Indonesia. Franchise system can be implemented not only in franchisor country but also in other countries. The spirit of internalization is not only because of market saturated, but also to increase reputation of franchise companies and to follow competitors or customers. Important thing discussed in this research is the franchise life-cycle, franchise growth model, and franchise companies’ profile.  It is found that the Indonesia franchise companies are in the introduction stage. The stage in life-cycle shows its reputation. This study used literature review as methodology, and the purpose of this study is to give a big picture for Indonesia franchise companies to make internationalization. There are some Indonesia franchise business profiles in the discussion part. The factors affecting franchise internationalization were analyzed by PESTEL analysis. Some strategies should be prepared in making decision to go international.  At the end, there are some recommendations and future research relating to internationalize franchise business.

  2. Factors affecting lactose quantity in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubporn Kittivachra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize factors affecting lactose quantities in raw cow's milk. This study combined the survey design with laboratory analysis. Selected farm members of Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives, from Ban Pong and Photharam Districts, Ratchaburi Province, were sampled. From the selected farms, data collected included lactose quantities in the raw milk and dairy farming information. The raw milk of selected farms was sampled at the delivery site of Nong Poh dairy cooperatives in the morning during December 2003 till February 2004. Lactose in the raw milk was then quantified by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using the MilkoScan FT6000 at the Department of Livestock Development. The farm owners or managers of selected farms were in-depth interviewed on dairy farming information including cowsí health and cows' diet. The data revealed that all cows from the selected farms were fed with concentrate diet purchased from Nong Poh Dairy Cooperatives and grass as high fiber diets. Sample of eighteen farms also fed their cows with one of supplements: corn stem, soybean meal, or rice straw. All cows from these farms were Holstein-Friesian Hybrid. As supplemented high fiber diets, corn stem significantly increased the lactose quantities over soybean meal and rice straw (planned comparison, pvalue = 0.044. The study concluded that some high fiber diets, specifically corn stem, significantly contributed to the lactose quantities in raw milk.

  3. Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of β-Glucuronidase (GUS could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

  4. Factors affecting protoplast formation by Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tung-Hsen; Lin, Mei-Ju; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2010-02-28

    Novozym 234 was the most frequently used enzyme for production of Rhizoctonia solani protoplasts. Since manufacture of this enzyme was discontinued in the late 1990s, a new procedure was developed by testing lytic enzymes from Sigma and by examining factors affecting protoplast formation. The combination of 20 mg/mL Driselase and 10mg/mL lysing enzyme was effective in releasing protoplasts from R. solani. The optimal condition for enzyme treatment of mycelium was incubation at 37 degrees C for 15 min followed by 34 degrees C for 105 min. The amount of protoplasts produced was positively correlated with growth rate and negatively correlated with mycelial density. Under favorable conditions, R. solani mycelia released 1.68 x 10(6) protoplasts/mL that is comparable with that produced with Novozym 234. Among various media tested, the best solid medium for protoplast regeneration was 1% V-8 juice agar, while the best liquid medium was 10% potato dextrose broth. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic risk factors for hypertrophic scar development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Callie M; Hocking, Anne M; Honari, Shari; Muffley, Lara A; Ga, Maricar; Gibran, Nicole S

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTSs) occur in 30 to 72% patients after thermal injury. Risk factors include skin color, female sex, young age, burn site, and burn severity. Recent correlations between genetic variations and clinical conditions suggest that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be associated with HTS formation. The authors hypothesized that an SNP in the p27 gene (rs36228499) previously associated with decreased restenosis after coronary stenting would be associated with lower Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) measurements and decreased itching. Patient and injury characteristics were collected from adults with thermal burns. VSS scores were calculated at 4 to 9 months after injury. Genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for HTS as measured by a VSS score >7. Three hundred subjects had a median age of 39 years (range, 18-91); 69% were male and median burn size was 7% TBSA (range, 0.25-80). Consistent with literature, the p27 variant SNP had an allele frequency of 40%, but was not associated with reduced HTS formation or lower itch scores in any genetic model. HTS formation was associated with American Indian/Alaskan Native race (odds ratio [OR], 12.2; P = .02), facial burns (OR, 9.4; P = .04), and burn size ≥20% TBSA (OR, 1.99; P = .03). Although the p27 SNP may protect against vascular fibroproliferation, the effect cannot be generalized to cutaneous scars. This study suggests that American Indian/Alaskan Native race, facial burns, and higher %TBSA are independent risk factors for HTS. The American Indian/Alaskan Native association suggests that there are potentially yet-to-be-identified genetic variants.

  6. Factors Affecting Career Progress of MBA Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien T. Supangco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the factors that affect career progress of students in the MBA program of the University of the Philippines.To understand career progression, four measures of career progress were used in this study, namely: number of promotions, number of years in between promotions, total cash compensation, and number of administrative levels from the company president. On the other hand, the factors used to explain career progess included human capital, organizational, interpersonal and demographic variables.The results showed that the different measures of career progress had distinct determinants implying different dynamics. It appeared that measures of career progress that are sensitive to the value employers attach to the individual (Whitely, Dougherty, & Dreher, 1991 such as total compensation, total number of promotion and years per promotion were related with human capital factors such as work experience and number of companies worked for. On the other hand, measures that relate to centrality if the position, in which market forces have less impact, were associated with organizational variables such as organization size and the demographic variable gender.While gender did not explain variation in total compensation, number of promotions and number of uears between promotions, these null results are important for two reasons. First, it implies that the female MBA students were at par with their male counterparts as fas as these measures of career progress are concerned. Second, it challenges the generalizability of the finding of gender segregation at the organizational level-where men receive significantly higher wages that women-which is a common finding among studies done in the United States. The results using the MBA students as sample show that income and promotion parity may indeed be achievable and this brings hope to women in general.However, the statistical significance of gender in explaining career progress as centrality

  7. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  8. Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Home ... Your Pregnancy FAQ027, September 2013 PDF Format The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Pregnancy ...

  9. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin HK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyekyung Jin,1 Yeonhee Kim,2 Sandy Jeong Rhie1,3 1College of Pharmacy, 2Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, 3Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160 aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15. The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=-0.215, P=0.022, sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=-0.335, P=0.000, education level (β=-0.153, P=0.045, health-related problems (β=-0.239, P=0.004, and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018. Conclusion: In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists

  10. Genetics Home Reference: factor X deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency occurs in approximately 1 per million individuals worldwide. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic conditions more common ...

  11. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  12. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan...

  13. Factors affecting pelvic rotation in idiopathic scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunfei; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Changwei; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pelvic rotation (PR) is commonly seen in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), but factors contributing to this phenomenon and its relationship with the surgical outcome are not well established. This retrospective study included 85 IS patients in 2 groups: thoracic curve dominance group (group A) and lumbar curve dominance group (group B). Pre- and postoperative PR was measured on standing posteroanterior radiographs by the left/right ratio (L/R ratio) of horizontal distance between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the inferior ilium (SI) at the sacroiliac joint on the same side in both groups. Other radiographic data, age, sex, and Risser sign of each patient were recorded to analyze their correlations with PR before and after operation. The patients ranged in age from 10 to 35 years with a mean of 17.0 ± 5.2 years. The mean L/R ratio of PR before operation was 0.99 (0.73–1.40) versus 0.98 (0.87–1.26) after operation. The L/R ration was beyond the range of 1 ± 0.1 (indicating the presence of PR) in 17 (20%) patients before operation and in 14 (16.5%) patients after operation. There was no significant difference in PR between the 2 groups of patients either before (P = 0.468) or after (P = 0.944) surgery. The preoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = 0.220, P = 0.043), apex vertebral rotation (AVR) in the proximal thoracic curve (r = 0.242, P = 0.026), and AVR in the lumbar curve (r = 0.213, P = 0.049), while the postoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = −0.341, P = 0.001) and postoperative trunk shift (TS) (r = −0.282, P = 0.009). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that preoperative PR was affected by proximal thoracic curve AVR and lumbar curve AVR. There was no significant difference between PR before operation and 2 years after operation. Preoperative PR was mainly correlated with Risser sign and the rotation

  14. Genetic variation in genes affecting milk composition and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard

    In the past decade major advances in next generation sequencing technologies have provided new opportuneties for the detection of genetic variation. Combining the knowlegde of genetic variation with phenotypic distributions provides considerable possibilites for detection of candidate genes....... In addition, exploring genetic variation related to the major milk proteins of bovine milk indntified genetic variations with possitive effects on milk coagulation...

  15. GENETIC FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Vrabec

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a rare complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of motor neurons in the cerebral cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. The disease mainly occurs in adults, typically between 50. and 60. years and presents with symptoms like muscular weakness, atrophy and later on paralysis which lead to death due to respiratory failure within 2-5 years from onset and remains incurable. The symptoms typically start in the muscles of arms or legs (spinal onset or bulbary (bulbar onset. Most ALS cases are sporadic although about 5% are familiar. Genetic factors contribute to the disease in sporadic form as well as in familial form. Mutations have been found in 116 genes among which SOD1, TARDBP, FUS and C9ORF72 are represented in highest frequencies. Besides those four genes we are also describing 13 other genes involved in the disease process. Oligogenic model has been proposed for ALS that considers mutations in two or more genes in one patient. We emphasize the convergence between hereditary and sporadic form, which are clinically inseparable, and other neurodegenerative diseases that share with ALS genetic and clinical characteristics. Because about 2/3 of familial cases and only about 11% of sporadic cases are explained by mutations the research have been aimed at discovering new candidate genes using  genome –wide association studies and at the epigenetic causes of the disease. We have recently completed the first representative genetic analysis of patients with ALS in Slovenia and research on methylation and microRNAs is currently in progress.

  16. Identification of Factors Affecting Educational Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the variables that tend to affect educational performance among ... The population for the study consisted of students of Lagos State University, ... These were: Circumstances, Parental Authority, Socio- Economic Label, Self ...

  17. Genetic polymorphisms affect efficacy and adverse drug reactions of DMARDs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling Ling; Yang, Sen; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xue Jun

    2014-11-01

    Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological agents are critical in preventing the severe complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the outcome of treatment with these drugs in RA patients is quite variable and unpredictable. Drug-metabolizing enzymes (dihydrofolate reductase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, N-acetyltransferases, etc.), drug transporters (ATP-binding cassette transporters), and drug targets (tumor necrosis factor-α receptors) are coded for by variant alleles. These gene polymorphisms may influence the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and side effects of medicines. The cause for differences in efficacy and adverse drug reactions may be genetic variation in drug metabolism among individuals. Polymorphisms in drug transporter genes may change the distribution and excretion of medicines, and the sensitivity of the targets to drugs is strongly influenced by genetic variations. In this article, we review the genetic polymorphisms that affect the efficacy of DMARDs or the occurrence of adverse drug reactions associated with DMARDs in RA.

  18. Genetic factors in Threatened Species Recovery Plans on three continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threatened species' recovery planning is applied globally to stem the current species extinction crisis. Evidence supports a key role of genetic processes, such as inbreeding depression, in determining species viability. We examined whether genetic factors are considered in threa...

  19. Technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Gardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines (BAs are molecules which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in food is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BA accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting biogenic amine content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity and other BAs, environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, pH. In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolising BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances are addressed.

  20. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  1. Genomic composition factors affect codon usage in porcine genome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    j.khobondo

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... evolutionary biology, providing insight to the actions of ... of studying the degeneracy of genetic code, which ... and evolution, and adaptation to micro environment. The ..... molecular functions are controlled by several factors.

  2. Ecological factors affecting the distribution of zooplankton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Key words: Massa Lagoon, zooplankton, environmental factors. ... and Lucena, 2001) have also mentioned the influence of .... positive correlation with water temperature (r = 0.41) and .... carnivore species copepod, Acanthocyclops robustus.

  3. Dietary factors that affect carotenoid bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of increased vegetable consumption. To better understand the potential benefits of carotenoids, we investigated the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables and dietary factors which might influence carotenoid

  4. Factors affecting the retrieval of famous names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Rodrigues, Susana; Dias, Beatriz; Slade, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Tests of famous faces are used to study language and memory. Yet, the effect of stimulus properties on performance has not been fully investigated. To identify factors influencing proper name retrieval and to probe stimulus-specific parameters within proper name lexicon, we analysed the results obtained by 300 healthy participants on a test of famous faces that includes 74 personalities. A factor analysis yielded five main factors that were characterized by language (national or foreign names), epoch of peak popularity (current, recent or past) and occupation (politicians, entertainment and sports) of the personalities. Multiple regression analysis showed that participants' education, age and gender accounted for 10-32% of the variance in factor scores. These results indicate that there are variables of the stimulus and participants' that must be taken into account in proper name testing and in designing tests aimed to differentiate age-associated difficulties from cognitive decline.

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF WILD UNGULATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Wildlife Science - Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas. ... The major factors considered are vegetation, water, fire, cattle grazing, ... reproduction of ungulates on three ranches and then to relate these data to ...

  6. Factors affecting robust retail energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelman, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper briefly defines an active retail market, details the factors that influence market activity and their relative importance, compares activity in various retail energy markets to date, and predicts future retail energy market activity. Three primary factors translate into high market activity: supplier margins, translated into potential savings for actively shopping customers; market size; and market barriers. The author surveys activity nationwide and predicts hot spots for the coming year.

  7. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  8. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates.

  9. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease : a genetic-epidemiologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe work presented in this thesis has been motivated by the Jack of knowledge of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. It has been long recognised that genetic factors are implicated, in particular in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.4 But to what extent are genetic factors involved? Are

  10. Factors affecting levodopa effects in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa N

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Levodopa is the gold standard for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD because of its outstanding clinical efficacy. However, the majority of patients experience various adverse reactions, including the wearing-off phenomenon, the on-off phenomenon, dyskinesia and psychiatric symptoms. The response to levodopa depends not only on the intrinsic responsiveness of the patients, but also on various other important factors including the type of levodopa preparation, its absorption/metabolism, the blood-brain barrier, age at onset of disease and concomitant use of anti-parkinsonian drugs. This review summarizes factors which influence the effects of levodopa in PD. To minimize levodopa-induced adverse reactions and to relieve long-term parkinsonian symptoms, levodopa therapy should be conducted by taking these factors into consideration.

  11. Factors Affecting Postsurgery Hip Fracture Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Wallace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After hip fracture surgery, patients seldom return to their prefracture functional state and there is a 43% rate of mortality and institutionalisation of postsurgery hip fracture patients. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify preoperative, perioperative, postoperative, and psychosocial factors that may hinder postsurgery hip fracture patients from returning to previous functionality. Factors that were identified as being associated with postsurgical outcomes were age, muscle strength, prefracture living arrangements, number of daily medications taken, oxygen levels, fracture type and location, haemoglobin (Hb level, wait time prior to surgery, length of hospital stay (LOS, and dementia or depression.

  12. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  13. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic...

  14. Factors affecting the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昌德

    2001-01-01

    @@Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) occurs more frequently in young males than in females. The prevalence of AS in Taiwan, according to our previous study, is about 0.3%.1 AS mainly affects the spine, however, it can also result in peripheral arthritis that occurs in the toes, ankles, knees, hip joints and the tendon and ligaments around those joints.2 In addition, the spine of some AS patients may develop kyphoscoliosis due to late diagnosis or failure to cooperate in following the routine medication and exercises prescribed by their doctors.

  15. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    . A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  16. Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, John F.

    1993-01-01

    External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

  17. Internal factors affecting the jury members verdict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of socio-demographic and individual psychological characteristics that influence the verdict of jury. The study involved 38 men and women aged 25 to 64 years. With the help of a questionnaire, developed on the basis of legal development model by J. Tapp and F. Levine, we revealed levels of jury members’ legal conscience, which, together with socio-demographic characteristics and personality characteristics of the subjects, identified by R. Cattell 16PF Questionnaire, were related to the responses on the Questionnaire while returning verdict on specially selected criminal cases with implicit guilt of the defendant. According to the study, it was determined that the socio-demographic characteristics of the jurors did not significantly affect their verdict, and among the psychological characteristics of the jurors the greatest impact on their verdict has the level of legal development. Thus, depending on the nature of the crime (violent, non-violent or committed through negligence, the same level of legal conscience differently affect the decision of jurors.

  18. Factors affecting patient education from cultural perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient education is influenced by cultural factors. This study aims to find out the role of culture in patient education. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted on 23 Iranian nurses. Inclusion criteria were minimum 5 years of working experience in clinical nursing. Semistructured face to face interviews were used to collect the data. Interviews were taped, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis method. Results: The main theme of ‘cultural sensitivity’ was extracted from the interviews. Sub-themes were cultural divergence, cultural connection literacybased instruction. Conclusion: A dynamic process of patient education is influenced by various cultural factors. Nurses must be aware of the cultural norms in patient education to meet their expectations in a respectful manner.

  19. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdun Kuyucu; Ozgul Tap

    2009-01-01

    Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf) follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted til...

  20. Factors that Affect the Lung Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhala, Shweta; Singh, H. S.; Singh, S. K.; Lalwani, Gautam

    The lung is an external organ forming the site of unwanted material or particles. In order to protect it, the airways have to be highly effective filters and if the particle deposit they need to be cleared. Inhaled particles can cause a variety of diseases. There are various factors on which the prediction of depositing particles depends, such as age, particle size, flow rate gender, the physics of the particles, the anatomy of the respiratory tract etc.

  1. Environmental Factors Affecting Avian Reproduction and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Darcy Fay Kato

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate timing of reproduction is crucial to animals’ reproductive success and fitness. Animals living in unpredictable environments do not constrain their breeding to one season, but rather breed any time of the year in which good conditions occur. These animals, termed “opportunistic” breeders, cannot predict when good conditions will occur based on the seasons, and must instead respond quickly to proximate environmental factors to successfully breed and raise young. Animals may resp...

  2. Non-genetic risk factors and their influence on the management of patients in the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Teresa; Soto, Immaculada; Astermark, Jan

    2015-02-01

    The development of inhibitors is the most serious iatrogenic complication affecting patients with haemophilia. This complication is associated with impaired vital or functional prognosis, reduced quality of life and increased cost of treatment. The reasons why some patients develop antibodies to factor replacement and others do not remain unclear. It is however clear that inhibitor development results from a complex multifactorial interaction between genetic and non-genetic risk factors. Environmental influences implicated in increasing the risk of inhibitor formation can be viewed as modifiable risk factors. Therefore, identification of the non-genetic risk factors may offer the possibility of personalising haemophilia therapy by modifying treatment strategies in high-risk patients in the critical early phase of factor VIII exposure. In this article, we review the non-genetic factors reported as well as the potential impact of danger signals and the different scores for inhibitor development risk stratification.

  3. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan FERENCZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  4. Factors affecting the design of instrument flight procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan FERENCZ; František JÚN; Dušan KEVICKÝ

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights factors, which might affect the design of instrument flight procedures. Ishikawa diagram is used to distribute individual factors into classes, as are People, Methods, Regulations, Tools, Data and Environment.

  5. Factors affecting anxiety-fear of surgical procedures in dentistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting anxiety-fear of surgical procedures in dentistry. ... the questions concerning previous dental experience, education level, and previous ... structure and gender are the significantly effective factors on dental anxiety and fear.

  6. Circulation factors affecting precipitation over Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of circulation factors on precipitation in Bulgaria. The study succeeds investigation on the influence of circulation factors on air temperatures in Bulgaria, as the focus here is directed toward precipitation amounts. Circulation factors are represented through two circulation indices, showing west-east or south-north transport of air masses over Bulgaria and four teleconnection indices (patterns)—North Atlantic Oscillation, East Atlantic, East Atlantic/Western Russia, and Scandinavian. Omega values at 700-hPa level show vertical motions in the atmosphere. Annual precipitation trends are mixed and not statistically significant. A significant decrease of precipitation in Bulgaria is observed in November due to the strengthening of the eastward transport of air masses (strengthening of EA teleconnection pattern) and anticyclonal weather (increase of descending motions in the atmosphere). There is also a precipitation decrease in May and June due to the growing influence of the Azores High. An increase of precipitation happens in September. All this leads to a redistribution of annual precipitation course, but annual precipitation amounts remain the same. However, this redistribution has a negative impact on agriculture and winter ski tourism. Zonal circulation has a larger influence on precipitation in Bulgaria compared to meridional. Eastward transport throughout the year leads to lower than the normal precipitation, and vice versa. With regard to the four teleconnection patterns, winter precipitation in Bulgaria is determined mainly by EA/WR teleconnection pattern, spring and autumn by EA teleconnection pattern, and summer by SCAND teleconnection pattern.

  7. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  8. Factors affecting home range of mallard pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechmann, J.H.

    1976-06-01

    Certain habitat and social factors were investigated for their effect on home range size of mallard (Anas platyhynchos) pairs breeding in a forested region of north-central Minnesota during the spring of 1971--72. Data from 31 radio-marked hens and drakes were used, but primary emphasis was placed on 8 pairs (5 with both members of the pair marked). Pairs were radio-tracked on river marsh areas, river channels, and large sand lakes to provide comparative data for evaluating home range size differences. Home ranges varied from an average of 53 ha for pairs using primarily river habitat to 871 ha for pairs using only large sand lakes. River and lake shorelines varied considerably in species and density of vegetation. Interaction between pairs as well as density of flocked males appeared to be influenced by these habitat differences with resultant effects on home range sizes.

  9. Factors Affecting Methane Emission from Rice Paddies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于心科; 王卫东; 等

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of rice paddies and the uncovered water field in Taoyuan(Hunan) showed that methane emission from rice-vegetated paddy fields in 1993 was different from that in 1992(I,e,lower in rates and irregular in pattern).Climate has obvious influence on methane emission .And ebullition made a considerable contribution to the total flux of methane emission from rice paddies (45%).This implies that the intensification of paddy cultivation of rice might not be,as was proposed,the main con-tributor to the observed gradual increasing of atmospheric methane.24-hour automatic measurements of atmospheric temperature,air temperature and methane concentration in the static sampling boxes revealed that temperature,in addition to fertilization and irrigation style,is one of the most important factors that control the emission of methane from rice paddies.

  10. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  11. Factors affecting frontline workers' satisfaction with supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noelker, Linda S; Ejaz, Farida K; Menne, Heather L; Bagaka's, Joshua G

    2009-02-01

    Objective. This research was guided by a stress and support model to examine the effects of frontline workers' background characteristics, personal stressors, job-related stressors, and workplace support on satisfaction with supervision. Method. Survey data were collected from 644 workers in 49 long-term-care settings that employed them. Regression analysis were used to determine the effects of worker level and then Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) and organizational factors on the outcome. Results. Although all four variable categories made significant contributions to explaining satisfaction with supervision, the most powerful were personal stressors and job-related stressors. Results from HLM analysis showed frontline workers in nursing homes and those employed in for-profit organizations had lower levels of satisfaction with supervision. Discussion. Findings suggest organizational interventions to address workers' financial and health issues and management practices such as better training programs and peer mentoring could enhance workers' satisfaction with supervision.

  12. Physical factors affecting chloroquine binding to melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R L; Pendleton, P; Gerber, J P

    2015-10-01

    Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug but is also prescribed for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Long-term users risk toxic side effects, including retinopathy, thought to be caused by chloroquine accumulation on ocular melanin. Although the binding potential of chloroquine to melanin has been investigated previously, our study is the first to demonstrate clear links between chloroquine adsorption by melanin and system factors including temperature, pH, melanin type, and particle size. In the current work, two Sepia melanins were compared with bovine eye as a representative mammalian melanin. Increasing the surface anionic character due to a pH change from 4.7 to 7.4 increased each melanin's affinity for chloroquine. Although the chloroquine isotherms exhibited an apparently strong interaction with each melanin, isosteric heat analysis indicated a competitive interaction. Buffer solution cations competed effectively at low surface coverage; chloroquine adsorption occurs via buffer cation displacement and is promoted by temperature-influenced secondary structure swelling.

  13. Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Du, Weijing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng

    2010-01-01

    Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of calcium metabolic balance in Chinese adolescents. A total of 80 students (15.1+/-0.8 years) were recruited stratified by gender from a 1-year calcium supplementation study. Subjects were randomly designed to four groups and supplemented with calcium carbonate tablets providing elemental calcium at 63, 354, 660, and 966 mg/day, respectively. Subjects consumed food from a 3-day cycle menu prepared by staff for 10 days. Elemental calcium in samples of foods, feces, and urine was determined in duplicates by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The total calcium intake ranged from 352 to 1323 mg/day. The calcium apparent absorption efficiency and retention in boys were significantly higher than that in girls (68.7% vs. 46.4%, 480 mg/day vs. 204 mg/day, PCalcium retention increased with calcium intakes, but did not reach a plateau. Calcium absorption efficiency in boys increased with calcium intake up to 665 mg/day, and decreased after that. In girls, calcium absorption efficiency decreased with calcium intake. Calcium absorption efficiency increased within 1 year after first spermatorrhea in boys, but decreased with pubertal development in girls. Sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development were the most important determinants of calcium absorption (R(2)=0.508, Pcalcium intake, age, and pubertal development are important factors for calcium retention and absorption during growth, which should be considered for the development of calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents.

  14. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  15. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsa M.E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is one of the major risk factors for individuals’ and society’s health. Alcohol consumption is present since ancient years in Europe, constituting tradition, with Europeans preferring different kinds of alcohol depending on the geographic location of their country. The economic crisis that European citizens are undergoing nowadays, has an impact on their health and more specifically there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Material and Methods: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which effect the alcohol consumption and consequences of this consumption in Europe. Literature review of relevant articles, published from 2005 to 2013, to these databases: WHO, Google scholar, PubMed. Finally, 42 studies were used to our review. Results: The alcohol consumption is connected with the economic situation of the country, the availability of alcohol, the restrictions and taxes of each country. Alcohol consumption is also related with the gender and age of each individual. In Central-eastern Europe, in contrast to the south Europe, the greatest percentage of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption is found. 35,95% is the mortality rate which is found in Europe. Regarding Greece in recent years, alcohol consumption has declined, while the rates of intoxication have shown as light increase. Conclusions: The lack of legislation, the non-existence of a minimum sale price and the increased availability, can lead to increased incidence of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption. Further research regarding the correlation of economic crisis and alcohol consumption is necessary.

  16. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three texts…

  17. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three…

  18. Do Knowledge Arrangements Affect Student Reading Comprehension of Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Yi; Tung, Yu-Neng; Hwang, Bi-Chi; Lin, Chen-Yung; Che-Di, Lee; Chang, Yung-Ta

    2014-01-01

    Various sequences for teaching genetics have been proposed. Three seventh-grade biology textbooks in Taiwan share similar key knowledge assemblages but have different knowledge arrangements. To investigate the influence of knowledge arrangements on student understanding of genetics, we compared students' reading comprehension of the three texts…

  19. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR = 1.54, an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61, and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51, glucose (OR = 1.92, and triglycerides (OR = 1.27 significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05. Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74, and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42 significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects.

  20. Factors affecting mortality in patients with burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erbiş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The increase in life quality and expectancy causes an increase in the elderly population. Improvements in burn treatment resulted in decreased mortality in children and young adults but in elderly patients burns are still an important trauma that should be handed differently than other age groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors effecting mortality in patients with burns over 45 years old. Methods: Fifty-eight patients over 45 years of age, who were treated in our burns unit in the last 3 years were included in our study. Their age, burn percentage and depth, coexisting diseases and mortality rates were examined retrospectively. Results: The average age of surviving patients was 57.4 years while it was 70 years for nonsurviving patients (p=0.002. The width of burn area was 21.1 % in surviving and 50 % in nonsurviving patients (p<0.01. The effect of additional coexistent diseases on mortality was significant (p=0.001. The most common reasons of mortality were sepsis and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: We found out that the age, percentage of burns and coexistent diseases had a negative effect on success of treatment and mortality. Mortality rates will decrease in these cases with careful follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 240-243

  1. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  2. Quran Literacy Barriers and Factors Affecting Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Feizi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Holy Quran is the greatest gift of God to mankind and is the most precious legacy of So, in order to govern a society guided by Quran and the teachings of Quran by life style based on it, it is necessary that academic community pays attention to Quran education on their pattern Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate Quran literacy of the academic community. This study is intended to provide information to the student community planning principles for designing and implementing Quran based activities. Material and Methods: This study was a descriptive survey. A researcher-made questionnaire with content validation was used to collect data. The population consisted of 840 students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Descriptive statistics by SPSSS 11 software was used for data analysis. Results: Analysis of the findings indicated that 37.2% of the participants were male and 62.8% were females. Thirty percent were non-native students and 69.6% of them were natives. More than 80% of the participants had Quran literacy. The results  showed no significant relationship between academic major (p>%94, gender( p>%07 and familiarity with Quran and being native or non-native( p>%79  Individuals who had Tajvid voice and tone literacy with 35.5%, common meanings and interpretations with 23.1%, translation with 12.9%, sound and tone with 13.4% and Tajvid with 1.5%, respectively. Determinants affecting on Quran literacy includes father’s job, school education, high interest in Quran education and family members’ familiarity with Quran. The most frequent obstacle include:  educational priorities, lack of time, apathy and no interest in Quran. Conclusion: Since Quran is for everyone and Quran activities are distributed among different academic majors, no significant relationship was found between gender (p>%07, academic major (p>%94 and being native or non-native (p>%79. As a result, paying attention to Quran verses

  3. Analysis of genetics and risk factors of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panpalli Ates, M; Karaman, Y; Guntekin, S; Ergun, M A

    2016-06-14

    Alzheimer's Disease is the leading neurodegenerative cause of dementia. The pathogenesis is not clearly understood yet, is believed to be the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Consequently vascular risk factors and Apolipoprotein E genotyping are increasingly gaining importance. This study aimed at assessing the relationships between Alzheimer's Disease and Apolipoprotein E phenotype and vascular risk factors. Patients diagnosed with "possible Alzheimer's Disease" in the Gazi University, Department of Neurology, were included in the study and age-matched volunteer patients who attended the polyclinic were included as a control group. In this study, the risk factors including low education level, smoking, hyperlipidemia, higher serum total cholesterol levels, and hyperhomocysteinemia were found to be statistically significantly more common in the Alzheimer's Disease group in comparison to the Control Group, while all Apolipoprotein E ε4/ε4 genotypes were found in the Alzheimer's Disease group. The presence of the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele is believed to increase vascular risk factors as well as to affect Alzheimer's Disease directly. The biological indicators which are used in identifying the patients' genes will be probably used in the treatment plan of the patients in the future.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: factor V Leiden thrombophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions factor V Leiden thrombophilia factor V Leiden thrombophilia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Factor V Leiden thrombophilia is an inherited disorder of blood clotting . Factor ...

  5. Handing the pen to the patient: reflective writing for children and families affected by genetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Chaya; Fernbach, Susan D; Potocki, Lorraine

    2014-12-01

    Genetic diagnoses impact the Quality of Life (QoL) of patients and their families. While some patients and families report a positive impact on QoL, others are affected negatively by a genetic diagnosis. No matter the impact, it is clear that social support is needed for this population. Genetic healthcare providers should be aware of the need for psychosocial support and be equipped to provide or direct patients and families to the appropriate resources. Reflective writing offers a unique opportunity for families and health care providers to engage in self-reflection and expression, activities which have the potential to enhance QoL in a positive manner. The therapeutic potential of writing has been studied in many populations, from caregivers of elderly individuals with dementia, to cancer survivors, to survivors of traumatic experiences. Some of these interventions have shown promise for improving participants' QoL. However, reflective writing has never been studied in patients and families affected by genetic conditions. We propose that reflective writing therapy is a feasible, reproducible, and enjoyable approach to providing psychosocial support for our patients. Get it Write is a reflective writing workshop pilot project for those who have a personal or family history of a genetic diagnosis. Our hypothesis is that reflective writing will help engender acceptance and alleviate feelings of isolation. Get it Write does not focus on the stressful factors in the participants' lives, rather it serves to facilitate interactions with peers facing the same struggles, and with medical students in a non-medical context. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Is Ankyrin a genetic risk factor for psychiatric phenotypes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöber Gerald

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide association studies reported two single nucleotide polymorphisms in ANK3 (rs9804190 and rs10994336 as independent genetic risk factors for bipolar disorder. Another SNP in ANK3 (rs10761482 was associated with schizophrenia in a large European sample. Within the debate on common susceptibility genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, we tried to investigate common findings by analyzing association of ANK3 with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression. Methods We genotyped three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ANK3 (rs9804190, rs10994336, and rs10761482 in a case-control sample of German descent including 920 patients with schizophrenia, 400 with bipolar affective disorder, 220 patients with unipolar depression according to ICD 10 and 480 healthy controls. Sample was further differentiated according to Leonhard's classification featuring disease entities with specific combination of bipolar and psychotic syndromes. Results We found no association of rs9804190 and rs10994336 with bipolar disorder, unipolar depression or schizophrenia. In contrast to previous findings rs10761482 was associated with bipolar disorder (p = 0.015 but not with schizophrenia or unipolar depression. We observed no association with disease entities according to Leonhard's classification. Conclusion Our results support a specific genetic contribution of ANK3 to bipolar disorder though we failed to replicate findings for schizophrenia. We cannot confirm ANK3 as a common risk factor for different diseases.

  7. Biology, Genetics, and Environment: Underlying Factors Influencing Alcohol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Tamara L; Luczak, Susan E; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Gene variants encoding several of the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), are among the largest genetic associations with risk for alcohol dependence. Certain genetic variants (i.e., alleles)--particularly the ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3, ADH1C*1, and ALDH2*2 alleles--have been associated with lower rates of alcohol dependence. These alleles may lead to an accumulation of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, which can result in heightened subjective and objective effects. The prevalence of these alleles differs among ethnic groups; ADH1B*2 is found frequently in northeast Asians and occasionally Caucasians, ADH1B*3 is found predominantly in people of African ancestry, ADH1C*1 varies substantially across populations, and ALDH2*2 is found almost exclusively in northeast Asians. Differences in the prevalence of these alleles may account at least in part for ethnic differences in alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, these alleles do not act in isolation to influence the risk of AUD. For example, the gene effects of ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 seem to interact. Moreover, other factors have been found to influence the extent to which these alleles affect a person's alcohol involvement, including developmental stage, individual characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, antisocial behavior, and behavioral undercontrol), and environmental factors (e.g., culture, religion, family environment, and childhood adversity).

  8. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Baygeldi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients’ age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate, hematocrit (HCT value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation, trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS, and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3% and 28 females (25.7%, and the mean age was 37.6±18.28 (15–78 years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3% traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle, 27 (24.7% falling from a height, 14 (12.9% assaults, 5 (4.5% sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5% gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3% of grade I, 32 (46.4% of grade II, 22 (31.8% of grade III, and 1 (1.5% of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in

  9. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Ковальова

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  10. Coeliac disease : investigation of the genetic factors underlying coeliac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, M.J. (Martine Juliana) van

    2003-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a common food intolerance with a complex genetic aetiology. It is caused by ingestion of gluten peptides from wheat and related proteins from barley and rye in genetically susceptible individuals. The disease affects the small intestine and leads to abnormalities ranging from the

  11. Coeliac disease : investigation of the genetic factors underlying coeliac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, M.J. (Martine Juliana) van

    2004-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a common food intolerance with a complex genetic aetiology. It is caused by ingestion of gluten peptides from wheat and related proteins from barley and rye in genetically susceptible individuals. The disease affects the small intestine and leads to abnormalities ranging from the

  12. Affective, Cognitive and Social Factors in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the role of selected affective, cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition, in an attempt to define a group of factors associated with success in second language learning within the formal educational system. Also examined is the effect of different teaching programs on an optimal group of factors. (CLK)

  13. Motivational Factors Affecting Advanced Literacy Learning of Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Rebecca J.; Dagostino, Lorraine

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possible intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors that community college students may bring with them into the classroom. It examines how these motivational factors affect students' learning inside and outside the community college classroom walls. The motivational factors such as mastery, self-determination,…

  14. Factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Jr. Nevel

    1973-01-01

    The continued use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation is being threatened. A study of the influences that determine the choice of flooring indicates that economic, physical, or technological factors dominate. Most factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring are related to cost, availability, and compatibility. Of these factors, time and cost of installation...

  15. Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Faculty-Doctoral Student Coauthorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Michelle A.; Timmerman, Briana Crotwell; Feldon, David F.; Strickland, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Using faculty narratives, this study identifies factors affecting the occurrence of faculty-doctoral student coauthorship. Norms of the discipline, resources, faculty goals for students, faculty goals for themselves, and institutional expectations emerged as dominant factors. Each factor is explored separately and as part of an interlocking…

  16. The Application of Affective Factors to English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐倩茹

    2015-01-01

    Education should aim at promoting students’all-round development and unifying cognitive and emotional aspects. However, the reality is that teachers pay too much attention on language cognitive factors and neglect the influence of emotional factors in language learning. This article tries to discuss how to use the affective factors in English teaching so as to enhance students’ comprehensive development.

  17. Affective, Cognitive and Social Factors in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper examines the role of selected affective, cognitive and social factors in second language acquisition, in an attempt to define a group of factors associated with success in second language learning within the formal educational system. Also examined is the effect of different teaching programs on an optimal group of factors. (CLK)

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ljuba Štrbac; Snežana Trivunović; Mirjana Baban

    2015-01-01

    Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. ...

  19. Spatial factors affecting wayfinding and orientation in a shopping mall

    OpenAIRE

    Doğu, Güler Ufuk

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical refences. The aim of this thesis is to study the main factors which affect the wayfinding and orientation of individuals in a shopping mall and explain how their behaviors are influenced by these factors. The spatial and individual factors and their properties are defined. Among the spatiaf factors, shape and dimensions, light and color, bu...

  20. Targeting environmental and genetic aspects affecting life history traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldal, Egon Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This thesis comprises elementary work on the evolution of ageing. The issue of ageing, and especially of starvation resistance, has been approached from both the environmental and the genetic sides that are of relevance to the issue. Therewith, this study has a broad orientation, varying from ecophy

  1. Targeting environmental and genetic aspects affecting life history traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldal, Egon Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This thesis comprises elementary work on the evolution of ageing. The issue of ageing, and especially of starvation resistance, has been approached from both the environmental and the genetic sides that are of relevance to the issue. Therewith, this study has a broad orientation, varying from

  2. Do genetic modifications in crops affect soil fungi? a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannula, S.E.; Boer, de W.; Veen, van J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of genetically modified (GM) plants in agriculture has been a topic in public debate for over a decade. Despite their potential to increase yields, there may be unintended negative side-effects of GM plants on soil micro-organisms that are essential for functioning of agro-ecosystems. Fungi

  3. On the Affective Factors in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程墨芳

    2010-01-01

    The paper talks about the effective factors functioning in the field of education,psychology and foreign language teaching.And it also specifically elaborates the principles of helping language learners overcome negative affections and develop positive ones.

  4. Factors affecting career preferences of medical students at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting career preferences of medical students at the College of ... students, respondents from rural areas and small towns, and whose parents were ... between doctors' career expectations and the country's healthcare needs.

  5. Factors affecting oil palm production in Ondo state of Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sola

    Regression analysis showed that only two of the variables; level of education ... were predicted to have significant relationship with the yield of oil palm. ..... Table 5: Multiple Regression analysis of factors affecting oil palm production in.

  6. Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in the Eastern ... and for cash sales (23%), and only 15% kept goats for home meat consumption. ... is likely to increase to the detriment of other ruminant species in the future.

  7. Factors affecting the consumer trust for shopping through electronic media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James Ariel Sánchez Alzate; Luz Alexandra Montoya Restrepo

    2016-01-01

      In this article the main factors affecting consumer trust in online purchases are proposed, it demonstrates how consumers feel less fear and more willingness to purchase through electronic media...

  8. Socio-economic factors affecting the participation of women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the socio-economic factors affecting women's ... About 41% attended up to secondary school level of education while 4% attended tertiary ... would go a long way in removing some of the barriers to effective participation.

  9. Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small Holder Farmers ... 61.3% of the respondents had a minimum of secondary school education. ... Also, it can be inferred that effective utilization of loan is directly influenced by ...

  10. Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map Reading Skills: A ... In Ethiopia, the teaching and learning process of map reading skills is based on ... identifying effective study techniques, the students' willingness to do school ...

  11. Assessment Of Factors Affecting Farmers' Adoption And Utilisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment Of Factors Affecting Farmers' Adoption And Utilisation Of Major ... Level of respondents' education, participation in on-farm trials, contact with extension ... The study therefore recommended intensification of adequate and effective ...

  12. Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian University Students. ... Design: Cross-sectional survey. ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of ...

  13. Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting extension workers in their rendering of effective service to pre ... the objective of achieving sustainable livelihoods for the poor and commonages. ... marketing and management to adequately service the land reform programs.

  14. Pathogenesis of coronary artery disease: focus on genetic risk factors and identification of genetic variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayols-Baixeras S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sergi Sayols-Baixeras, Carla Lluís-Ganella, Gavin Lucas, Roberto ElosuaCardiovascular Epidemiology and Genetics Research Group, Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mèdiques, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and its prevalence is expected to increase in the coming years. CAD events are caused by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, the effects of which are mainly mediated through cardiovascular risk factors. The techniques used to study the genetic basis of these diseases have evolved from linkage studies to candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies. Linkage studies have been able to identify genetic variants associated with monogenic diseases, whereas genome-wide association studies have been more successful in determining genetic variants associated with complex diseases. Currently, genome-wide association studies have identified approximately 40 loci that explain 6% of the heritability of CAD. The application of this knowledge to clinical practice is challenging, but can be achieved using various strategies, such as genetic variants to identify new therapeutic targets, personal genetic information to improve disease risk prediction, and pharmacogenomics. The main aim of this narrative review is to provide a general overview of our current understanding of the genetics of coronary artery disease and its potential clinical utility.Keywords: coronary artery disease, pathogenesis, genetic risk factors, genetic variants

  15. Humanistic Approach and Affective Factors in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗馨

    2010-01-01

    For a long time,Chinese EFL teaching has been following the teacher-centered model,which emphasizes the cognitive aspect but ignores the affective factors. So "emotional illiteracy" is a common phemenon and harmful to language learning and students' all-round development. This essay lays special stress on humanistic approach and analyzes the influence of some important affective factors on language learning,for the purpose of inviting teachers' attention to students' emotions in fulfilling their teaching task.

  16. Analysis of Affective Factors and Corresponding Solution in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲松

    2009-01-01

    Affect is the related issues that influence the students' learning progress and result, including one's interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on. Affective factors are the motivation for the students' learning. In the past few decades, people have always been pursuing the effective methods of teaching, from the Grammar Translation Method, to Communicative Language Teaching. Now people start to focus on affective teaching and have got some good result.

  17. Genetics and behavioral medicine: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogler, G.P.; McClearn, G.E.; Snieder, H.; Boomsma, D.I.; Palmer, R.; Knijff, P. de; Slagboom, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles addressing the intersection of interests in behavioral genetics and behavioral medicine. In this article, we use risk factors for cardiovascular disease as a prototypical trait for which behavioral genetic approaches provide powerful tools for underst

  18. Genetics and behavioral medicine: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogler, G.P.; McClearn, G.E.; Snieder, H.; Boomsma, D.I.; Palmer, R.; Knijff, P. de; Slagboom, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles addressing the intersection of interests in behavioral genetics and behavioral medicine. In this article, we use risk factors for cardiovascular disease as a prototypical trait for which behavioral genetic approaches provide powerful tools for

  19. VOL 6. NO. 1 2015 EXTRINSIC FACTORS THAT AFFECT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    The general objective of this study was to identify the extrinsic factors affect employee ... individual mechanisms that directly affect job performance in an organization(Colquitt, ... Benjamin (2010) posits that fringe benefits are significant and positive ... Mouly (2009) asserts that questionnaires add value to research because.

  20. Identification of genetic risk factors for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Ferreira, M; Pinho, T; Sousa, A; Sequeiros, J; Lemos, C; Alonso, I

    2014-05-01

    Tooth agenesis affects 20% of the world population, and maxillary lateral incisors agenesis (MLIA) is one of the most frequent subtypes, characterized by the absence of formation of deciduous or permanent lateral incisors. Odontogenesis is a complex mechanism regulated by sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, controlled by activators and inhibitors involved in several pathways. Disturbances in these signaling cascades can lead to abnormalities in odontogenesis, resulting in alterations in the formation of the normal teeth number. Our aim was to study a large number of genes encoding either transcription factors or key components in signaling pathways shown to be involved in tooth odontogenesis. We selected 8 genes-MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA, SPRY2, TGFA, SPRY4, and WNT10A-and performed one of the largest case-control studies taking into account the number of genes and variants assessed, aiming at the identification of MLIA susceptibility factors. We show the involvement of PAX9, EDA, SPRY2, SPRY4, and WNT10A as risk factors for MLIA. Additionally, we uncovered 3 strong synergistic interactions between MLIA liability and MSX1-TGFA, AXIN2-TGFA, and SPRY2-SPRY4 gene pairs. We report the first evidence of the involvement of sprouty genes in MLIA susceptibility. This large study results in a better understanding of the genetic components and mechanisms underlying this trait.

  1. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Lifestyle, environment and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the results of studies aiming to identify risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are described. A population-based case-control design was used to perform (1) epidemiological risk factor studies, examining lifestyle factors and environmental exposures, and (2) genetic st

  2. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Lifestyle, environment and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the results of studies aiming to identify risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are described. A population-based case-control design was used to perform (1) epidemiological risk factor studies, examining lifestyle factors and environmental exposures, and (2) genetic st

  3. Obesity in childhood and adolescence, genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memedi, Rexhep; Tasic, Velibor; Nikolic, Erieta; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Gucev, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. The etiology is complex, but most often idiopathic. Hormonal, syndromic and medication-induced obesity are well investigated. Genetic causes are increasingly described. Novel technologies such as whole exome sequencing identify ever more candidate genes influencing or causing obesity. All insights into the complex problem of obesity in a team approach to treatment: diet, psychology, medications and surgery. We briefly review epidemiology, etiology, consequences and treatment approaches in childhood and adolescent obesity, with special emphasis on emerging knowledge of its genetics.

  4. Genetic, molecular and functional analyses of complement factor I deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, S.C.; Trouw, L.A.; Renault, N.;

    2009-01-01

    Complete deficiency of complement inhibitor factor I (FI) results in secondary complement deficiency due to uncontrolled spontaneous alternative pathway activation leading to susceptibility to infections. Current genetic examination of two patients with near complete FI deficiency and three...

  5. Genetic factors involves in intracranial aneurysms--actualities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohan, D; Munteanu, V; Coman, T; Ciurea, A V

    2015-01-01

    ...% of all IAs in the population. Cerebral aneurysm disease is related to hemodynamic and genetic factors, associated with structural weakness in the arterial wall, which was acquired by a specific, often unknown, event...

  6. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

    2013-08-01

    Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

  7. Orthodontic Treatment, Genetic Factors and Risk of Temporomandibular Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Gary D.; Diatchenko, Luda; Ohrbach, Richard; Maixner, William

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, four groups of factors have been identified in the etiology of temporomandibular disorder (TMD): anatomical variation in the masticatory system; psychosocial characteristics; pain in other body regions; and demographics. Orthodontic treatment has been variously cited both as a protective and harmful factor in TMD etiology. Recently, a search has begun for a genetic influence on TMD etiology. Genetic markers can be of additional value in identifying gene-environment interactions...

  8. Living in a Genetic World: How Learning About Interethnic Genetic Similarities and Differences Affects Peace and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimel, Sasha Y; Huesmann, Rowell; Kunst, Jonas R; Halperin, Eran

    2016-05-01

    Information about the degree of one's genetic overlap with ethnic outgroups has been emphasized in genocides, is frequently learned about through media reporting, and is increasingly being accessed via personal genetic testing services. However, the consequence of learning about whether your own ethnic group is either genetically related to or genetically distinct from a disliked ethnic group remains unknown. Across four experiments, using diverse samples, measures and contexts, we demonstrate that altering perceptions of genetic overlap between groups in conflict--in this case Arabs and Jews--impacts factors that are directly related to interethnic hostility (e.g., aggressive behaviors, support of conflict-related policies). Our findings indicate that learning about the genetic difference between oneself and an ethnic outgroup may contribute to the promotion of violence, whereas learning about the similarities may be a vital step toward fostering peace in some contexts. Possible interventions and implications are discussed. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING CHINESE POST-GRADUATE EFL LEARNERS’ ORAL PROFICIENCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The article investigates factors affecting Chinese postgraduate EFL learners’ oral proficiency. Little practice, fear of errors and unscientific classroom management are found to be the major factors. Also an overemphasis on written English instruction seems to be another root cause. After the discussion of the results of this investigation a series of methods are suggested for reference.

  10. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  11. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  12. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  13. Genetic and pharmacological factors that influence reproductive aging in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie E Hughes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related degenerative changes in the reproductive system are an important aspect of aging, because reproductive success is the major determinant of evolutionary fitness. Caenorhabditis elegans is a prominent organism for studies of somatic aging, since many factors that extend adult lifespan have been identified. However, mechanisms that control reproductive aging in nematodes or other animals are not well characterized. To use C. elegans to measure reproductive aging, we analyzed mated hermaphrodites that do not become sperm depleted and monitored the duration and level of progeny production. Mated hermaphrodites display a decline of progeny production that culminates in reproductive cessation before the end of the lifespan, demonstrating that hermaphrodites undergo reproductive aging. To identify factors that influence reproductive aging, we analyzed genetic, environmental, and pharmacological factors that extend lifespan. Dietary restriction and reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling delayed reproductive aging, indicating that nutritional status and a signaling pathway that responds to environmental stress influence reproductive aging. Cold temperature delayed reproductive aging. The anticonvulsant medicine ethosuximide, which affects neural activity, delayed reproductive aging, indicating that neural activity can influence reproductive aging. Some of these factors decrease early progeny production, but there is no consistent relationship between early progeny production and reproductive aging in strains with an extended lifespan. To directly examine the effects of early progeny production on reproductive aging, we used sperm availability to modulate the level of early reproduction. Early progeny production neither accelerated nor delayed reproductive aging, indicating that reproductive aging is not controlled by use-dependent mechanisms. The implications of these findings for evolutionary theories of aging are discussed.

  14. Susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury is genetically affected by CACNG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, Jonathan; Devor, Marshall; Seltzer, Ze'ev; Gebauer, Mathias; Michaelis, Martin; Tal, Michael; Dorfman, Ruslan; Abitbul-Yarkoni, Merav; Lu, Yan; Elahipanah, Tina; delCanho, Sonia; Minert, Anne; Fried, Kaj; Persson, Anna-Karin; Shpigler, Hagai; Shabo, Erez; Yakir, Benjamin; Pisanté, Anne; Darvasi, Ariel

    2010-09-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is affected by specifics of the precipitating neural pathology, psychosocial factors, and by genetic predisposition. Little is known about the identity of predisposing genes. Using an integrative approach, we discovered that CACNG2 significantly affects susceptibility to chronic pain following nerve injury. CACNG2 encodes for stargazin, a protein intimately involved in the trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors. The protein might also be a Ca(2+) channel subunit. CACNG2 has previously been implicated in epilepsy. Initially, using two fine-mapping strategies in a mouse model (recombinant progeny testing [RPT] and recombinant inbred segregation test [RIST]), we mapped a pain-related quantitative trait locus (QTL) (Pain1) into a 4.2-Mb interval on chromosome 15. This interval includes 155 genes. Subsequently, bioinformatics and whole-genome microarray expression analysis were used to narrow the list of candidates and ultimately to pinpoint Cacng2 as a likely candidate. Analysis of stargazer mice, a Cacng2 hypomorphic mutant, provided electrophysiological and behavioral evidence for the gene's functional role in pain processing. Finally, we showed that human CACNG2 polymorphisms are associated with chronic pain in a cohort of cancer patients who underwent breast surgery. Our findings provide novel information on the genetic basis of neuropathic pain and new insights into pain physiology that may ultimately enable better treatments.

  15. [Genetic and epigenetic factors of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczeg, Zita; Vanya, Melinda; Szili, Károly; Dézsi, Csilla; Nagy, Zsolt; Szabó, János

    2016-08-01

    The development of polycystic ovary syndrome and its exact pathophysiological mechanism is still unclear, but environmental and genetic factors likely play a role. Exposition to teratogenic effects during the prenatal development can lead to chronic diseases in the postnatal period. This finding confirms the common familial aggregation as well. A literature search was conducted up to January 1, 2016 for articles dealing with the genetic or epigenetic factors of polycystic ovary syndrome. This review will discuss the current understanding of the genetic basis and clinical presentation of this disease. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(32), 1275-1281.

  16. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  17. Design and Factors Affecting State Supervision of the Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Jeżowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to identify the factors that affect the development of the models of financial market state supervision and to identify the factors that have influenced the evolution of the supervision model in Poland. Methodology: critical analysis of literature, legal provisions and documents. Findings: The completely integrated and the fully dispersed model of supervision are located at the opposite ends of the spectrum. A variety of the hybrid models can be identified between them. Factors that affect supervision organization are both economic and non-economic. Factors that have influenced the Polish model of supervision include political aspects, administration costs and, in due course, also the development of the financial market. Research implications: The variety of state supervision structures, combined with the ambiguity and multiplicity of factors that affect their evolution create a new research challenge. Significant problems in accessing documents have been identified. Originality: The author presents an overview of models of state supervision of financial markets and factors affecting the evolution and structure of supervision. Conclusions drawn from the analysis were used to identify factors that influence the evolution and supervision of the Polish financial market.

  18. Importance of genetic factors in the etiology of atopic dermatitis: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F; Ulrik, Charlotte S; Kyvik, Kirsten O;

    2007-01-01

    ?" Latent factor models of genetic and environmental influences were fitted to the observed data using maximum likelihood methods. The overall lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 7.3%. A cotwin of an affected identical twin had a sevenfold increased risk of atopic dermatitis compared...

  19. Genetic and Environmental Factors That Impact Gestation Length in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated. Data from over 9 million parturitions from 1999 through 2006 for 7 dairy breeds were assembled from lactation, reproduction, and dystocia records from across the United States. Effects examined were year of ...

  20. Factors affecting acceptance of smartphone application for management of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2015-04-01

    The factors affecting the acceptance of mobile obesity-management applications (apps) by the public were analyzed using a mobile healthcare system (MHS) technology acceptance model (TAM). The subjects who participated in this study were Android smartphone users who had an intent to manage their weight. They used the obesity-management app for two weeks, and then completed an 18-item survey designed to determine the factors influencing the acceptance of the app. Three questions were asked pertaining to each of the following six factors: compatibility, self-efficacy, technical support and training, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and behavior regarding intention to use. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the reliability of the scales. Pathway analysis was also performed to evaluate the MHS acceptance model. A total of 94 subjects participated in this study. The results indicate that compatibility, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected the behavioral intention to use the mobile obesity-management app. Technical support and training also significantly affected the perceived ease of use; however, the hypotheses that self-efficacy affects perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were not supported in this study. This is the first attempt to analyze the factors influencing mobile obesity-management app acceptance using a TAM. Further studies should cover not only obesity but also other chronic diseases and should analyze the factors affecting the acceptance of apps among healthcare consumers in general.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VII deficiency , is caused by mutations in the F7 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein ... about the gene associated with factor VII deficiency F7 Related Information What is a gene? What is ...

  2. Construction Strategy and Affecting Factors of Positive-Strand RNA Virus Infectious Clone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Shichuan; YUE Kuizhong

    2008-01-01

    Construction of infectious clones by full-length eDNA is basic and key for recovering RNA virus and is core of reverse genetics. In this article, basic consideration and key technology were viewed and factors affecting infectivity of clones were also summarized. Some research advances were briefly introduced about positive-strand RNA viruses infectious clones. Finally, this article also reviewed the application of infectious clones.

  3. Factors Affecting Furfural as a Nematicide on Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Luc, J. E.; Crow, W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a furfural nematicide Multiguard Protect EC was launched for use on turfgrasses in the United States. A series of greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the concentration and exposure time required for this formulation to irreversibly affect Belonolaimus longicaudatus, and to study factors that might affect the practicality of furfural use in turfgrass systems. One experiment exposed B. longicaudatus to increasing concentrations of furfural (0 to 990 ppm) in vitro for eit...

  4. Genetic risk factors for Parkinson’s disease in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Koliada

    2015-03-01

    higher in έ2 allele carriers (OR = 2.35 and έ4 allele carriers (OR=1.97. People with genotype Е4/Е4 have chances to be affected by PD 3.48 times higher (OR = 3.48. Associations revealed in the different human populations between genetic factors and PD may vary that is associated with the genetic heterogeneity and proportion of environmental factors which affect people. Despite the results are sometimes controversial, they can be helpful in developing DNA-tests for early diagnosis of PD.

  5. Progress in the identification of genetic factors in periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Jepsen, S.; Loos, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to periodontitis is determined by a complex interplay between bacteria, the immune system, and life-style factors, and is mainly regulated by genes. The genetic factors contributing to the pathogenesis of periodontitis are still not fully defined. The aim of the present review is

  6. Genetic inflammatory factors predict restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monraats, PS; Pires, NMM; Agema, WRP; Zwinderman, AH; Schepers, A; de Maat, MPM; Doevendans, PA; de Winter, RJ; Tio, RA; Waltenberger, J; Frants, RR; Quax, PHA; van Vlijmen, BJM; Atsma, DE; van der Laarse, A; van der Wall, EE; Jukema, JW

    2005-01-01

    Background - Restenosis is a negative effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). No clinical factors are available that allow good risk stratification. However, evidence exists that genetic factors are important in the restenotic process as well as in the process of inflammation, a pivotal

  7. Progress in the identification of genetic factors in periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Jepsen, S.; Loos, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility to periodontitis is determined by a complex interplay between bacteria, the immune system, and life-style factors, and is mainly regulated by genes. The genetic factors contributing to the pathogenesis of periodontitis are still not fully defined. The aim of the present review is

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Štrbac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: factor XI deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common feature of factor XI deficiency is prolonged bleeding after trauma or surgery, especially involving the inside of the mouth and ... nasal cavities ) or the urinary tract . If the bleeding is left untreated after surgery, solid swellings consisting of congealed blood (hematomas) can ...

  10. Scale Development: Factors Affecting Diet, Exercise, and Stress Management (FADESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzke Susan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop scales measuring personal and environmental factors that affect dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income mothers. Methods FADESM (factors affecting diet, exercise, and stress management scales were developed using the Social Cognitive Theory to measure personal (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, emotional coping response and environmental (physical environment, social environment, situation factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management. Low-income African American and white mothers were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in three counties in Michigan. In Phase one, 45 mothers completed individual cognitive interviews. Content analyses were performed. In Phase two, items modified from the cognitive interviews were administered to 216 mothers. Factor analysis and multiple indicators/multiple causes were performed. Results Results of cognitive interviews were used to revise items for the instrument that was tested in Phase two. The factor solution revealed 19 dimensions to measure personal and environmental factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior (three dimensions, physical activity (eight dimensions, and stress management (eight dimensions. Results of multiple indicators/multiple causes model showed scale invariance. Of 19 dimensions, 15 had Cronbach alpha between 0.76 and 0.94 and four were between 0.66 and 0.69. All dimensions had composite construct reliability scores between 0.74 to 0.97 and satisfactory construct and discriminant validities. Conclusion The theory-based FADESM scales have documented good validity and reliability for measuring factors affecting dietary fat intake behavior, physical activity, and stress management in low-income women. Results of this study support the use of these scales with low-income African American

  11. Analysis of genetic and non genetic risk factors for cisplatin ototoxicity in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Yüksel; Aktaş, Safiye; Altun, Zekiye; Kırkım, Günay; Kızmazoğlu, Deniz Çakır; Erçetin, Ayşe Pınar; Demir, Banu; İnce, Dilek; Mutafoğlu, Kamer; Demirağ, Bengü; Ellidokuz, Hülya; Olgun, Nur; Güneri, Enis Alpin

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic and non genetic risk factors for cisplatin ototoxicity. This study was conducted on 72 children who received cisplatin based chemotherapy. Brock and Muenster classifications were used to evaluate ototoxicity seen in these children. 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); ERCC1 rs 11615, GSTP1 rs1138272, GSTP1 rs1695, LRP2 rs 2075252, TPMT rs 12201199, COMT rs 9332377, were evaluated as genetic factors by real time PCR. Non genetic factors such as cranial irradiation, cumulative doses of cisplatin, age, gender, administration of other ototoxic drugs were analysed as well. By using Chi-square test, risk factors were matched with the ototoxicity classifications. Significant risk factors were reevaluated using logistic regression modelling. According to univariate analyses, male gender, co-treatment with aminoglycosides and mutant genotype of GSTP1 rs1695 were significantly related with cisplatin ototoxicity. Logistic regression modelling analyses also showed that male gender, co-treatment with aminoglycosides were found to be significantly related with cisplatin ototoxicity. Mutant genotype of GSTP1 rs1695 was not found to be significant, but close to the level of statistical significance. Male gender, co-treatment with aminoglycosides are significant risk factors for cisplatin ototoxicity in pediatric patients. Mutant genotype of GSTP1 rs1695 seems to be a genetic risk factor in univariate analyses, although not confirmed by multivariate analyses. Therefore, GSTP1 rs1695 SNP needs to be studied in larger series. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic Factors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Contribution to Disease Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Perricone, Carlo; Borgiani, Paola; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Rufini, Sara; Cipriano, Enrica; Alessandri, Cristiano; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Sili Scavalli, Antonio; Novelli, Giuseppe; Valesini, Guido; Conti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors exert an important role in determining Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility, interplaying with environmental factors. Several genetic studies in various SLE populations have identified numerous susceptibility loci. From a clinical point of view, SLE is characterized by a great heterogeneity in terms of clinical and laboratory manifestations. As widely demonstrated, specific laboratory features are associated with clinical disease subset, with different severity degree. Similarly, in the last years, an association between specific phenotypes and genetic variants has been identified, allowing the possibility to elucidate different mechanisms and pathways accountable for disease manifestations. However, except for Lupus Nephritis (LN), no studies have been designed to identify the genetic variants associated with the development of different phenotypes. In this review, we will report data currently known about this specific association. PMID:26798662

  13. Genetic variants in MTNR1B affecting insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssig, Karsten; Staiger, Harald; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has markedly increased worldwide over the past decades. Pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction as well as central and peripheral insulin resistance appears to be elementary features in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Major environmental conditions predisposing to the development of type 2 diabetes are excessive food intake and sedentary life-style on the background of a genetic predisposition. Recent genome-wide association studies identified several novel type 2 diabetes risk genes, with impaired pancreatic beta-cell function as the underlying mechanism of increased diabetes risk in the majority of genes. Many of the novel type 2 diabetes risk genes, including MTNR1B which encodes one of the two known human melatonin receptors, were unexpected at first glance. However, previous animal as well as human studies already pointed to a significant impact of the melatonin system on the regulation of glucose homeostasis, in addition to its well known role in modulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. This brief review aims to give an overview of how alterations in the melatonin system could contribute to an increased diabetes risk, paying special attention to the role of melatonin receptors in pancreatic beta-cell function.

  14. Factors affecting influenza vaccination among pregnant women : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Choi-ching; 方賽貞

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancy has been recognized as a risk factor for severe pandemic influenza illness and this “vulnerable” group is suggested to be heightened alertness to the disease by WHO. This systemic review aims to identify the factors affecting the uptake of influenza vaccination among pregnant women as the immunization uptake among this particular group of population is low or suboptimal worldwide. Methods: Systematic literature reviews were conducted by using MEDLINE and PubMed with th...

  15. Factors Affecting the Value Relevance of Accounting Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Dehghan Nayeri; Ali Faal Ghayoumi; Mohammad Ali Bidari

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the factors affecting the value relevance of accounting information for investors in the Tehran Stock Exchange over the period of six years. In this study, the effect of four factors; being profitable or loss generating, company size, earnings stability and company growth on the value relevance of accounting information have been studied. For this purpose Ohlson model and the cumulative regression analysis is used in order to examine the hypotheses and as the basis ...

  16. Factors affecting on longevity in Northern Khorasan Kordish sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    razieh saghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The longevity is normally defined as the length of its productive life in the flock, which is the amount of time an animal spends producing (1. Longevity reflects the ability of ewe to avoid being culled for low production, low fertility, illness and influences the number and cost of replacements required to maintain the flock size. The benefit of increasing longevity are increased average age of the flock, having more ewes available for sale at the end of their four parity, having more ewe lambs to sell, and higher productivity from a slightly older flock age profile (2. Sheep population of Khorasan province (10. In sheep production, longevity has an important influence on the economic returns. Reliable estimates of non genetic effects of longevity are needed to aid establishing an efficient strategy for improving ewe productivity. Thus, the objective of this study was the factors affecting on longevity in Northern Khorasan Kordish sheep. We want to determine effect of environmental and non-genetic factors on longevity. Material and Methods In order to investigate on factors affecting longevity trait in Northen Khorasan Kordish sheep, records of 7469 sheep (187 sire and 2258 dam between 1990 to 2012 that were collected by breeding station of Hossein Abad in Shirvan (This city is located in the north of Mashhad were used. Flock has been kept under village system. Breeding ewes were identified in the data set as those that lambed at 2 year of age and culled at 6 to 7 year of age duo to oldness. Ram kept until a male offspring was available for replacement. In this study longevity was defined as the age of a ewe (in day when it leaves the flock. Ewes were generally removed from the flock due to poor production, low fertility, death and illness. Ewes were identified as being removed from the flock if a lambing record was present at n year of age but not at n+1 years of age. All females were culled before reaching 7 years of age

  17. Genetic and epigenetic factors: Role in male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M B Shamsi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors contribute upto 15%-30% cases of male infertility. Formation of spermatozoa occurs in a sequential manner with mitotic, meiotic, and postmeiotic differentiation phases each of which is controlled by an intricate genetic program. Genes control a variety of physiologic processes, such as hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, germ cell development, and differentiation. In the era of assisted reproduction technology, it is important to understand the genetic basis of infertility to provide maximum adapted therapeutics and counseling to the couple.

  18. Genetic factors associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are complex polygenic disorders, characterized by several genes together with environmental factors contributing to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent advances in research on genetic susceptibility have allowed the identification of diverse genes at different levels: (1) Innate immunity; (2) Antigen presentation molecules; (3) Epithelial integrity; (4) Drug transporter; (5) Cell adhesion. The application of genetic testing into clinical practice is close and all genetic markers may have several clinical implications: prediction of disease phenotype, molecular classification, prevention of complications, and prognosis.

  19. Attitudes toward prenatal genetic testing for Treacher Collins syndrome among affected individuals and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rebecca L; Lawson, Cathleen S; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Sanderson, Saskia C

    2012-07-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a craniofacial syndrome that is both phenotypically variable and heterogeneous, caused by mutations in the TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D genes. We examined attitudes towards TCS prenatal genetic testing among affected families using a telephone questionnaire. Participants were 31 affected adults and relatives recruited primarily through families cared for in the mid-Atlantic region. Nineteen participants (65%) reported that they would take a TCS prenatal genetic test which could not predict degree of disease severity. Interest in TCS genetic testing was associated with higher income, higher concern about having a child with TCS, lower religiosity, lower concern about genetic testing procedures, and having a sporadic rather than familial mutation. Over half reported that their decision to have TCS genetic testing would be influenced a great deal by their desire to relieve anxiety and attitudes toward abortion. Ten participants (32%) reported that they would be likely to end the pregnancy upon receiving a positive test result; this was lower amongst TCS affected individuals and higher amongst participants with children with TCS. Genetics healthcare providers need to be aware of affected individuals' and families' attitudes and interest in prenatal genetic testing for TCS, and the possible implications for other craniofacial disorders, so that patients' information needs can be met.

  20. [Factors affecting the educational environment in undergraduate medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave P, Guisela; Pérez V, Cristhian; Fasce H, Eduardo; Ortiz M, Liliana; Bastías V, Nancy; Márquez U, Carolina; Parra P, Paula; Ibáñez G, Pilar

    2016-10-01

    Educational environment has an important effect on the quality of learning and student satisfaction in medicine. Most of previous studies have been conducted using questionnaires that assess the phenomenon considering overall dimensions, without paying attention to the specific manifestations of this topic, especially those aspects that are related to the protagonists of the learning process: teachers and students. To describe factors that affect the educational environment in the preclinical Medical formation, according to Medical teachers in Concepción, Chile. Qualitative study, using the Grounded theory method. Semi-structured interviews were performed to 10 medical teachers in Concepcion, Chile. They were selected by theoretical sampling. Data were analyzed using open coding. Four emerging categories about the factors that affect the learning environment were identified: Personal factors of students, academic factors of students, personal factors of teachers and academic factors of teachers. According to interviewed teachers, both personal factors in teachers and students that promote a positive learning environment are related with an attitude oriented towards others and communication skills. Academic factors are related with the responsible exercise of student and teacher roles and with the promotion of participation in the educational process.

  1. A common genetic factor underlies hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spector Tim D

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain conditions characterised by blood vessel occlusion or vascular spasm have been found to cluster together in epidemiological studies. However the biological causes for these associations remain controversial. This study used a classical twin design to examine whether these conditions are linked through shared environmental exposures or by a common underlying genetic propensity to vasospasm. Methods We investigated the association between hypertension, migraine, Raynaud's phenomenon and coronary artery disease in twins from a national register. Phenotype status was determined using a questionnaire and the genetic and environmental association between phenotypes was estimated through variance components analysis. Results Responses were obtained from 2,204 individuals comprising 525 monozygotic and 577 dizygotic pairs. There was a significant genetic contribution to all four traits with heritabilities ranging from 0.34 to 0.64. Multivariate model-fitting demonstrated that a single common genetic factor underlies the four conditions. Conclusions We have confirmed an association between hypertension, migraine, Raynaud's phenomenon and coronary artery disease, and shown that a single genetic factor underlies them. The demonstration of a shared genetic factor explains the association between them and adds weight to the theory of an inherited predisposition to vasospasm.

  2. Moderation of genetic factors by parental divorce in adolescents' evaluations of family functioning and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Niels; Boomsma, Dorret I; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Bartels, Meike

    2010-04-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of family functioning may have a significant impact on their subjective well-being and adjustment. The aim of the study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life and the overlap between them. We assessed whether genetic and environmental influences are moderated by parental divorce by analyzing self-report data from 6,773 adolescent twins and their non-twin siblings. Genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in general family functioning and family conflict, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls than boys in general family functioning. Genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in quality of life, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls. Evidence was found for interaction between genetic factors and parental divorce: genetic influence on general family functioning was larger in participants from divorced families. The overlap between general family functioning and quality of life, and family conflict and quality of life was accounted for the largest part by genetic effects, with nonshared environmental effects accounting for the remaining part. By examining the data from monozygotic twins, we found evidence for interaction between genotype and nonshared, non-measured, environmental influences on evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life.

  3. Environmental factors affecting inflammatory bowel disease: have we made progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against ulcerative colitis and, after the onset of the disease, might improve its course, decreasing the need for colectomy. In contrast, smoking increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease and aggravates its course. The history of IBD is dotted by cyclic reports on the isolation of specific infectious agents responsible for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The more recently published cold chain hypothesis is providing an even broader platform by linking dietary factors and microbial agents. An additional, recent theory has suggested a breakdown in the balance between putative species of 'protective' versus 'harmful' intestinal bacteria - this concept has been termed dysbiosis resulting in decreased bacterial diversity. Other factors such as oral contraceptive use, appendectomy, dietary factors (e.g. refined sugar, fat, and fast food), perinatal events, and childhood infections have also been associated with both diseases, but their role is more controversial. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that economic development, leading to improved hygiene and other changes in lifestyle ('westernized lifestyle') may play a role in the increase in IBD. This review article focuses on the role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis and progression of IBDs.

  4. Exploring Genetic Factors Involved in Huntington Disease Age of Onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo, Mikel;

    2015-01-01

    Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim of ...

  5. Personality endophenotypes for bipolar affective disorder: a family-based genetic association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, J; van der Merwe, L; Ramesar, R

    2008-11-01

    Genetic analyses of complex conditions such as bipolar disorder (BD) may be facilitated by the use of intermediate phenotypes. Various personality traits are overrepresented in people with BD and their unaffected relatives, and may constitute genetically transmitted risk factors or endophenotypes of the illness. In this study, we administered a battery of seven different personality questionnaires comprising 19 subscales to 31 Caucasian BD families (n = 241). Ten of these personality traits showed significant evidence of heritability and were therefore selected as candidate endophenotypes. In addition, a principal components analysis produced two heritable components (negative affect and appetitive drive), which accounted for a considerable proportion of the variance (29% + 12%) and were also used in the analysis. A family-based quantitative association study was carried out using the orthogonal model from the quantitative transmission disequilibrium tests (QTDT) program. Monte Carlo permutations (M = 500), which allow for non-normal data and provide a global P value, corrected for multiple testing, were used to calculate empirical P values for the within-family component of association. The 3' untranslated region repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) was associated with self-directedness (P personality traits, 'Spirituality' (P = 0.040) and irritable temperament (P = 0.022). Furthermore, the met allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor val66met polymorphism was associated with higher hyperthymic temperament scores. We raise the possibility that the 10R allele of the SLC6A3 repeat polymorphism and the short allele of the SLC6A4 promoter variant constitute risk factors for irritable-aggressive and anxious-dysthymic subtypes of BD, respectively.

  6. Motivation factors affecting employees job performance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2011) > ... companies; and determine motivating factors affecting employees' job performance in selected oil ... promotion ( x = 4.86), random sack of workers ( x = 4.40) and absence of staff training ( x = 4.07).

  7. Factors Affecting Online Groupwork Interest: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the personal and contextual factors that may affect students' online groupwork interest. Using the data obtained from graduate students in an online course, both student- and group-level predictors for online groupwork interest were analyzed within the framework of hierarchical linear modeling…

  8. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  9. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  10. Factors affecting GPs workload in the period 1987-2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolthof, E.D.; Berg, M.J. van den; Bakker, D.H. de

    2003-01-01

    Background: Like in other countries, Dutch general practitioners (GPs) perceive an increase in workload. Too much work pressure will affect the quality of care and threats the accessibility of health care provided by GPs. Factors on organisational-level, patient-level as well as on GP-level may

  11. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  12. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  13. Factors affecting teachers' participation in professional learning activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, C.H.E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes two studies into teacher workplace learning. The first study aimed at developing a definition of teacher learning at the workplace and at exploring factors that may affect teacher learning at the workplace. Based on a conceptualization of teacher workplace learning as

  14. Factors Affecting Entrapment in Escalating Conflicts: The Importance of Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Joel; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Conducted two studies to test the notion that various factors, i.e., situation-personal, may differentially affect degrees of entrapment (amount invested) depending upon the point in time at which they are introduced. The results of both studies suggest amount invested depends upon timing in the entrapment process. (RC)

  15. Perceptions and factors affecting utilization of health services in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions and factors affecting utilization of health services in a rural ... to gender (p=0.889, OR=1.04; 0.55-2.00), educational level (p=0.707, OR=1.16; 0.50-2.79) and ... Identified barriers to access and effective use of qualitative health care ...

  16. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  17. Factors Affecting Academic Achievement of Students in Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The study investigated the factors affecting academic achievement ... The study established the following: Students who have positive attitude, interest and ... OTHER RESOURCES. ... Browse By Country · List All Titles · Open Access Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  18. An Analysis of the Social Distance Factor Affecting Language Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫宇

    2015-01-01

    The social distance is the main social factor that influences language use.This paper explores how the social distance affects language use in different ways based on solidarity,status and formality,in order to achieve a better understanding of language use.

  19. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  20. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  1. Developing Worksheet Based on Science Process Skills: Factors Affecting Solubility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli, Fethiye; Sahin, Cigdem

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a worksheet about the factors affecting solubility, which could be useful for the prospective science teachers (PST) to remind and regain their science process skills (SPS). The pilot study of the WS was carried out with 32 first grade PST during the 2007-2008 academic year in the education department at…

  2. Exploring the Factors that Affect Reading Comprehension of EAP Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nergis, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    As far as academic reading comprehension is concerned, a network of linguistic skills and strategies operate in a complex and integrated matter. Since it is impossible to examine all the factors affecting reading comprehension all at once, it is more reasonable to compare and contrast the predictive effects of specific variables against each other…

  3. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Stress Levels Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current research shows that stress levels among the teaching personnel has ... to determine: (1) factors that affect stress levels of teachers in primary school as a ... and gender of teachers; (2) coping strategies that are used by these teachers ...

  5. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  6. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  7. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  8. Factors Affecting Performance in an Introductory Sociology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenda, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting students' performances in an Introductory Sociology course over five semesters. Employing simple and ordered logit regression models, the author explains final grades by focusing on individual demographic and educational characteristics that students bring into the classroom. The results show that a student's…

  9. Relevant Affect Factors of Smartphone Mobile Data Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Husnjak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are used to access a wide range of different information and communication services and perform functions based on data transfer. A number of subscription contracts for smartphones is rapidly increasing, and the development of mobile communications network provides higher speed of data transfer. The continuous increase in the average amount of data traffic per one subscriber contract leads to an increase in the total Mobile Data Traffic (MDT, globally. This research represents a summary of factors that affect the amount of smartphone MDT. Previous literature shows only a few of the factors individually that affect the realization of smartphone MDT. The results of the research clarify the ways which influence the amount of MDT generated by a smartphone. This paper increases the awareness of the users of the methods of generating smartphone MDT. The research also allows users to specify parameters that affect the prediction of generated MDT of a smartphone.

  10. Factors affecting the carbon allowance market in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Seok; Koo, Won W. [Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Dept 7610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58103-6050 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The US carbon allowance market has different characteristic and price determination process from the EU ETS market, since emitting installations voluntarily participate in emission trading scheme. This paper examines factors affecting the US carbon allowance market. An autoregressive distributed lag model is used to examine the short- and long-run relationships between the US carbon allowance market and its determinant factors. In the long-run, the price of coal is a main factor in the determination of carbon allowance trading. In the short-run, on the other hand, the changes in crude oil and natural gas prices as well as coal price have significant effects on carbon allowance market. (author)

  11. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...... and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...

  12. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    predictive value of elevated cord blood IgE found in recent studies. Future studies should control for materno-fetal transfer of IgE or preferably use other markers of atopy. Variation in the gene coding for the skin barrier protein filaggrin (FLG) is the strongest known genetic risk factor for eczema. FLG......The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...

  13. Factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalene H. Awases

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional nurses play a vital role in the provision of health care globally. The performance of health care workers, including professional nurses, link closely to the productivity and quality of care provision within health care organisations. It was important to identify factors influencing the performance of professional nurses if the quality of health care delivery was to improved.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Method: A quantitative, descriptive survey was used to collect data by means of a questionnaire. A random sample of 180 professional nurses was selected from six hospitals in three regions of Namibia.Results: Factors affecting the performance of nurses negatively were identified such as: lack of recognition of employees who are performing well, quality performance outcomes and an absence of a formal performance appraisal system and poor working conditions. Various factors contribute to both the positive and negative performance of professional nurses in Namibia. Strategies were developed for addressing the negative factors that could positively affect the performance of professional nurses in Namibia.Conclusions: This study emphasises the importance of developing strategies to promote the performance of nurses; build knowledge and expertise; develop mechanisms for improving the performance of nurses; expand leadership and management capacity; and generate information and knowledge through research.

  14. Genetic Dissection of a QTL Affecting Bone Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Olivia L; Medrano, Juan F; Farber, Charles R

    2017-03-10

    Parameters of bone geometry such as width, length, and cross-sectional area are major determinants of bone strength. Although these traits are highly heritable, few genes influencing bone geometry have been identified. Here, we dissect a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) influencing femur size. This QTL was originally identified in an F2 cross between the C57BL/6J-hg/hg (HG) and CAST/EiJ strains and was referred to as femur length in high growth mice 2 (Feml2). Feml2 was located on chromosome (Chr.) 9 at ∼20 cM. Here, we show that the HG.CAST-(D9Mit249-D9Mit133)/Ucd congenic strain captures Feml2 In an F2 congenic cross, we fine-mapped the location of Feml2 to an ∼6 Mbp region extending from 57.3 to 63.3 Mbp on Chr. 9. We have identified candidates by mining the complete genome sequence of CAST/EiJ and through allele-specific expression (ASE) analysis of growth plates in C57BL/6J × CAST/EiJ F1 hybrids. Interestingly, we also find that the refined location of Feml2 overlaps a cluster of six independent genome-wide associations for human height. This work provides the foundation for the identification of novel genes affecting bone geometry. Copyright © 2017 Sabik et al.

  15. Cyanobacteria Affect Fitness and Genetic Structure of Experimental Daphnia Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugă, Bogdan; Turko, Patrick; Spaak, Piet; Pomati, Francesco

    2016-04-05

    Zooplankton communities can be strongly affected by cyanobacterial blooms, especially species of genus Daphnia, which are key-species in lake ecosystems. Here, we explored the effect of microcystin/nonmicrocystin (MC/non-MC) producing cyanobacteria in the diet of experimental Daphnia galeata populations composed of eight genotypes. We used D. galeata clones hatched from ephippia 10 to 60 years old, which were first tested in monocultures, and then exposed for 10 weeks as mixed populations to three food treatments consisting of green algae combined with cyanobacteria able/unable of producing MC. We measured the expression of nine genes potentially involved in Daphnia acclimation to cyanobacteria: six protease genes, one ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene, and two rRNA genes, and then we tracked the dynamics of the genotypes in mixed populations. The expression pattern of one protease and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme genes was positively correlated with the increased fitness of competing clones in the presence of cyanobacteria, suggesting physiological plasticity. The genotype dynamics in mixed populations was only partially related to the growth rates of clones in monocultures and varied strongly with the food. Our results revealed strong intraspecific differences in the tolerance of D. galeata clones to MC/non-MC-producing cyanobacteria in their diet, suggesting microevolutionary effects.

  16. Factors affecting growth and pigmentation of Penicillium caseifulvum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Haasum, I.; Steenstrup, L.D.;

    2002-01-01

    Color formation, metabolite production and growth of Penicillium caseifulvum were studied in order to elucidate factors contributing to. yellow discoloration of Blue Cheese caused by the mold. A screening experiment was set up to study the effect of pH, concentration of salt (NaCl), P, K, N, S, Mg...... and the trace metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn on yellow color formation, metabolite production and mold growth. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that the most important factor affecting yellow color formation was pH. The most pronounced formation of yellow color, supported by highest amount of colored metabolites......, appeared at low pH (pH 4). Mold growth was not correlated to the yellow color formation. Salt concentration was the most important factor affecting mold growth and length of lag phase. Production of secondary metabolites was strongly influenced by both pH and salt concentration. The screening results were...

  17. Host susceptibility factors in mycobacterial infection. Genetics and body morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guide, Shireen V; Holland, Steven M

    2002-03-01

    Through identification and evaluation of mutations and polymorphisms in components of the IFN gamma response pathways, a better understanding of the mechanisms and risk factors influencing the development of mycobacterial disease is gained. This may lead the way for development of therapeutic and preventative strategies. Although conventional science has focused on identifying discrete mutations, greater awareness of the impact of subtle changes, both at the genetic (polymorphisms) and physical levels (body morphotype), may prove critical in the investigative process. There has been extraordinary progress in the understanding of mycobacterial susceptibility factors over the last few years. The recognition of characteristic phenotypes will lead to the identification of new genetic bases for disease.

  18. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability....

  19. Population size and habitat quality affect genetic diversity and fitness in the clonal herb Cirsium dissectum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vere, de N.; Jongejans, E.; Plowman, A.; Williams, E.

    2009-01-01

    Remaining populations of plant species in fragmented landscapes are threatened by declining habitat quality and reduced genetic diversity, but the interactions of these major factors are rarely studied together for species conservation. In this study, the interactions between population size,

  20. Factors Affecting Adoption of Recommended Cauliflower Production Technology in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Raj Dhital

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Binary logit regression model of econometrics was used to identify the factors affecting adoption of recommended agricultural technology by the commercial farmers of Nepal. A survey was carried out in 2012 in 120 households from Kavre district, Nepal. The objective was to appraise factors affecting adoption of recommended technology of cauliflower, finding out the level of adoption, identifying the constraints of cauliflower cultivation, assessing the perceived level of satisfaction and studying the relationship of certain selected variables on the adoption. Education, Occupation, contact with Personal Localite sources of information, Group membership and Experience were the most influencing factors for adoption of recommended technology. Though, other factors were not strong enough to contribute significantly but indirectly influence the adoption decision of farmers as combined effects. Occupation was found as negatively associated. Landholding size was strongly and positively influencing among the non significant factors. The level of satisfaction and the constraints of cauliflower production were also identified. Transfer of technology will be effective if and only if the client adopts the technology. For an effective transfer of technology, it is better to go for activities for the welfare of the socioeconomic factors of the farmers.

  1. A Review of Affecting Factors on Sexual Satisfaction in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. Methods: In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. Results: The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Conclusions: Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women’s’ sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational. PMID:25685081

  2. Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

  3. Perceptions and management of psychosocial factors affecting type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Juliana; Halperin, Lucila; Ritholz, Marilyn D; Hsu, William C

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes has become a global pandemic and Chinese Americans are at least 60% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than White Americans, despite having lower body weight, due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Because of the increased risk, it is vitally important to address the issues of treatment adherence and diabetes self-management in the Chinese American population. Many factors affect an individual's ability to manage diabetes, including cultural beliefs, immigration experience, language abilities/health literacy, educational background, employment, and accessibility of healthcare services. In treating Chinese American patients, these factors must be considered to determine appropriate treatment. Eastern cultural and individual beliefs differ greatly from Western beliefs and, therefore, may affect the presentation of the patients. If left unacknowledged, these differences might be misinterpreted by healthcare providers as merely treatment non-adherence or unwillingness to change. Suggestions for providing culturally competent healthcare are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Affecting Accuracy of Data Abstracted from Medical Records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith N Zozus

    Full Text Available Medical record abstraction (MRA is often cited as a significant source of error in research data, yet MRA methodology has rarely been the subject of investigation. Lack of a common framework has hindered application of the extant literature in practice, and, until now, there were no evidence-based guidelines for ensuring data quality in MRA. We aimed to identify the factors affecting the accuracy of data abstracted from medical records and to generate a framework for data quality assurance and control in MRA.Candidate factors were identified from published reports of MRA. Content validity of the top candidate factors was assessed via a four-round two-group Delphi process with expert abstractors with experience in clinical research, registries, and quality improvement. The resulting coded factors were categorized into a control theory-based framework of MRA. Coverage of the framework was evaluated using the recent published literature.Analysis of the identified articles yielded 292 unique factors that affect the accuracy of abstracted data. Delphi processes overall refuted three of the top factors identified from the literature based on importance and five based on reliability (six total factors refuted. Four new factors were identified by the Delphi. The generated framework demonstrated comprehensive coverage. Significant underreporting of MRA methodology in recent studies was discovered.The framework generated from this research provides a guide for planning data quality assurance and control for studies using MRA. The large number and variability of factors indicate that while prospective quality assurance likely increases the accuracy of abstracted data, monitoring the accuracy during the abstraction process is also required. Recent studies reporting research results based on MRA rarely reported data quality assurance or control measures, and even less frequently reported data quality metrics with research results. Given the demonstrated

  5. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  6. Genetic factors associated with cancer male breast: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Maria Tomaz Silveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The male breast cancer is a rare neoplastic framework, covers 1% of cases of breast cancer worldwide, 1% of malignant tumors in men and has an annual incidence of 1 per 100,000 men. Information was gathered about the current studies related to genetic character in addressed condition, in which the goal was to analyze aspects of predisposition and association, using 16 original articles indexed in the period between January 2011 to February 2016, written in English and Spanish, with experimental design or observational, using male breast cancer descriptors, breast cancer and genetic factor for breast cancer, as well as their English translations male breast cancer, cancer treatment, breast cancer and genetic factors. It was mainly discussed the genetic influence on the occurrence of male breast cancer, such as changes in suppressors BRCA genes, relationships with CHECK2 checkpoint, family history and links with Klinefelter syndrome, among other factors. Environmental aspects are also suggested by the literature on the clinical neoplasic manifestation, but with less conclusive emphases. Although the literature on the subject still need growth and deepening, we observe scientific reassurances about the importance of genetic influence, especially the BRCA 1, about the Multifactorial etiology of the neoplasia.

  7. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  8. Single-tooth replacement: factors affecting different prosthetic treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Quran Firas A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between several treatment options for replacing a single missing tooth is influenced by clinical, dentist- and patient-immanent factors. This study aimed to determine the patient factors that would affect the treatment decision to replace a single missing tooth and to assess the satisfaction with several options. Method 200 volunteers involved (121 females and 79 males divided into four groups, Group A: consisted of patients with conventional fixed partial dentures or patients with resin bonded fixed partial dentures. Group B: consisted of patients who received removable partial dentures while Group C: consisted of patients who received a single implant supported crown, and a control group D: consisted of patients who received no treatment. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Results The highest percentage of males within groups (58% was within the removable prostheses category. The majority of the subjects in the study reported that the main reason for replacing a missing tooth was for esthetic and function. Most important factor affecting the choice between treatment modalities was damaging the neighboring teeth. Pain, post operative sensitivity and dental phobia were important factors in choosing the prosthesis type and affected the control group patients not to have any treatment. The highest satisfaction percentage among groups studied was recorded for dental implants then FPD groups, while the least percentage were in both the control and RPD groups, for all aspects of function, esthetic and speech efficiency. Conclusions The final choice between FPD, RPD and implant depended on several factors which affected the decision making; among these is cost and patients' awareness of the different treatment options.

  9. Genetic vs Environmental Factors That Correlate With Rosacea: A Cohort-Based Survey of Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Nely; Gerstenblith, Meg; Fu, Pingfu; Tuttle, Marie S; Varma, Priya; Gotow, Erica; Cooper, Kevin D; Mann, Margaret; Popkin, Daniel L

    2015-11-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first study on rosacea to formally define genetic and environmental contributions. To study a cohort of identical and fraternal twins to determine whether genetic factors contribute to rosacea development and, if genetic factors are present, quantitatively estimate the genetic contribution, as well as to identify environmental factors that correlate with rosacea by controlling for genetic susceptibility. Identical and fraternal twins were surveyed regarding risk factors implicated in rosacea. Faculty dermatologists determined a rosacea score for each twin participant according to the National Rosacea Society (NRS) grading system. Data were collected at the annual Twins Days Festival in Twinsburg, Ohio, on August 4-5, 2012, and August 2-3, 2013. Analysis was conducted for several months after each meeting. A cohort of 550 twin individuals, with most from Ohio, Pennsylvania, and the northeastern United States, participated. The NRS score and rosacea subtype were assessed using the NRS grading system and physical examination by board-certified dermatologists. Among the 275 twin pairs (550 individuals), there were 233 identical twin pairs with a mean rosacea score of 2.46 and 42 fraternal twin pairs with a mean rosacea score of 0.75. We observed a higher association of NRS scores between identical vs fraternal twins (r = 0.69 vs r = 0.46; P = .04), demonstrating a genetic contribution. Using the ACE model (proportion of variance in a trait heritable secondary to additive genetics [A] vs the proportions due to a common environment [C] and unique environment [E]), we calculated this genetic contribution to be 46%. A higher NRS score was also significantly associated with the following factors: age (r = 0.38; P twins allows us to separate genetic susceptibility and the influence of environmental factors affecting rosacea. We found that approximately half of the contribution to the NRS score could be accounted for by genetics

  10. Prognostic Factors for Distress After Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorwinden, Jan S; Jaspers, Jan P C

    2016-06-01

    The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result for counselees at risk for hereditary cancer seems to be limited: only 10-20 % of counselees have psychological problems after testing positive for a known familial mutation. The objective of this study was to find prognostic factors that can predict which counselees are most likely to develop psychological problems after presymptomatic genetic testing. Counselees with a 50 % risk of BRCA1/2 or Lynch syndrome completed questionnaires at three time-points: after receiving a written invitation for a genetic counseling intake (T1), 2-3 days after receiving their DNA test result (T2), and 4-6 weeks later (T3). The psychological impact of the genetic test result was examined shortly and 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Subsequently, the influence of various potentially prognostic factors on psychological impact were examined in the whole group. Data from 165 counselees were analyzed. Counselees with an unfavorable outcome did not have more emotional distress, but showed significantly more cancer worries 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Prognostic factors for cancer worries after genetic testing were pre-existing cancer worries, being single, a high risk perception of getting cancer, and an unfavorable test result. Emotional distress was best predicted by pre-existing cancer worries and pre-existing emotional distress. The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result appears considerable if it is measured as "worries about cancer." Genetic counselors should provide additional guidance to counselees with many cancer worries, emotional distress, a high risk perception or a weak social network.

  11. Rule-based models of the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in childhood allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bornelöv

    Full Text Available Both genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of allergic diseases. However, a detailed understanding of how such factors act together is lacking. To elucidate the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in allergic diseases, we used a novel bioinformatics approach that combines feature selection and machine learning. In two materials, PARSIFAL (a European cross-sectional study of 3113 children and BAMSE (a Swedish birth-cohort including 2033 children, genetic variants as well as environmental and lifestyle factors were evaluated for their contribution to allergic phenotypes. Monte Carlo feature selection and rule based models were used to identify and rank rules describing how combinations of genetic and environmental factors affect the risk of allergic diseases. Novel interactions between genes were suggested and replicated, such as between ORMDL3 and RORA, where certain genotype combinations gave odds ratios for current asthma of 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.6 and 3.2 (95% CI 2.0-5.0 in the BAMSE and PARSIFAL children, respectively. Several combinations of environmental factors appeared to be important for the development of allergic disease in children. For example, use of baby formula and antibiotics early in life was associated with an odds ratio of 7.4 (95% CI 4.5-12.0 of developing asthma. Furthermore, genetic variants together with environmental factors seemed to play a role for allergic diseases, such as the use of antibiotics early in life and COL29A1 variants for asthma, and farm living and NPSR1 variants for allergic eczema. Overall, combinations of environmental and life style factors appeared more frequently in the models than combinations solely involving genes. In conclusion, a new bioinformatics approach is described for analyzing complex data, including extensive genetic and environmental information. Interactions identified with this approach could provide useful hints for further in-depth studies

  12. Multiple Factors Affecting Human Repregnancy after Microsurgical Vasovasostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明孔; 吴晓庆; 付成善; 邹平; 高晓平; 黄强

    1997-01-01

    To determine the factors which might affect the recover), of fertility after an accurate microsurgical vasovasostomy, we conducted a 3 year-follow-up study in 56 men after microsurgical vasovasostomy. Twenty-two variables as putative factors associated with recovery of fertility were measured. The results of Logistic regression and ather statistical analyses suggest that 8 factors including age of husband, age of wife, history of past pregnancies of current wife, number of vasovasostomies, serum FSH, LH and T before vasovasostomy, and sperm granuloma of vas nodule are of no significance in recovery of fertility, whereas 14 factors including years after vasectomy, sperm concentration, progressive motility, sperm motility, viability, normal morphology, sperm egg penetration rate, TAT and SIT before and after vasovasostomy, MAR, IBT adherent IgG and IgA after vasovasostomy are significantly, associated with repregnancy.

  13. Factors affecting functional prognosis of patients with hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M T

    2011-01-01

    . A variety of factors such as age, prefracture function and health status, fracture type, pain, anaemia, muscle strength, and the early mobility level have been shown to influence patient outcome. Thus, the outcome of patients with hip fracture is considered multi-factorial, and can therefore not be related......Having a hip fracture is considered one of the most fatal fractures for elderly people, resulting in impaired function, and increased morbidity and mortality. This challenges clinicians in identifying patients at risk of worse outcome, in order to optimise and intensify treatment in these patients...... to just one or two single factors. The current article reviews important factors affecting the functional prognosis, and clinicians are encouraged to include all factors potentially influencing the outcome of patients with hip fracture in their individualised treatment and rehabilitation plan. Especially...

  14. Genetic compatibility affects division of labor in the Argentine ant Linepithema humile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Romain; Keller, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Division of labor is central to the organization of insect societies. Within-colony comparisons between subfamilies of workers (patrilines or matrilines) revealed genetic effects on division of labor in many social insect species. Although this has been taken as evidence for additive genetic effects on division of labor, it has never been experimentally tested. To determine the relative roles of additive and nonadditive genetic effects (e.g., genetic compatibility, epistasis, and parent-of-origin imprinting effects) on worker behavior, we performed controlled crosses using the Argentine ant Linepithema humile. Three of the measured behaviors (the efficiency to collect pupae, the foraging propensity, and the distance between non-brood-tenders and brood) were affected by the maternal genetic background and the two others (the efficiency to feed larvae and the distance between brood-tenders and brood) by the paternal genetic background. Moreover, there were significant interactions between the maternal and paternal genetic backgrounds for three of the five behaviors. These results are most consistent with parent-of-origin and genetic compatibility effects on division of labor. The finding of nonadditive genetic effects is in strong contrast with the current view and has important consequences for our understanding of division of labor in insect societies. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Factors Affecting Customer Retention in the Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghda Climis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study empirically investigated the factors that affect customer retention in the airline industry in North Cyprus. These factors were service quality attributes, perceived safety, customer satisfaction, loyalty reward program, relationship commitment and customer loyalty. The study also investigated four different groups for purposes of travel (business, education, vacation and family visit in the empirical model. Methodology: A descriptive approach was chosen to conduct this research. A quanhip between customer retention and the related study factors; however, not all of these relations are signifcant. The results also showed that the different purposes of travel had different influences on the variables regarding the positive and signifcant relations between them. Some independent variables had a negative effect on the dependent variables. Conclusions: This research was limited to one group and place: the students of Eastern Mediterranean University in North Cyprus. Originality: This study connected the retention, loyalty, satisfaction and service quality factors as attributes. In addition, this research was the frst to include other independent factors affecting satisfaction and loyalty in a comparison between four different groups regarding the purpose of travel in the airline industry.

  16. Investigating the factors affecting knowledge management application in new ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Shahidifar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is extensively used in large, medium and small firms. However, the larger the scale, the more knowledge management practices might be used in organizations. Unfortunately, application of knowledge management in new ventures is not sufficiently discussed in the extant literature. Thus this paper attempts to concentrate on this issue. Therefore, environmental, organizational and individual factors are enumerated and their effect on application of knowledge management in new ventures is examined. Findings revealed that all these factors significantly affect knowledge management application is new ventures.

  17. Genetic, Maternal, and Environmental Risk Factors for Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthold, Julia Spencer; Reinhardt, Susanne; Thorup, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism is an isolated anomaly in the majority of cases, with evidence to date suggesting that it is a complex disorder resulting from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Population, family, and limited genome-wide association data suggest modera...

  18. Shared Genetic Risk Factors of Intracranial, Abdominal, and Thoracic Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hof, Femke N G; Ruigrok, Ynte M; Lee, Cue Hyunkyu; Ripke, Stephan; Anderson, Graig; de Andrade, Mariza; Baas, Annette F; Blankensteijn, Jan D; Böttinger, Erwin P; Bown, Matthew J; Broderick, Joseph; Bijlenga, Philippe; Carrell, David S; Crawford, Dana C; Crosslin, David R; Ebeling, Christian; Eriksson, Johan G; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana; von Und Zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Friedrich, Christoph M; Gaál, Emília I; Gottesman, Omri; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Harrison, Seamus C; Hernesniemi, Juha; Hofman, Albert; Inoue, Ituro; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Jones, Gregory T; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kivisaari, Riku; Ko, Nerissa; Koskinen, Seppo; Kubo, Michiaki; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Kurki, Mitja I; Laakso, Aki; Lai, Dongbing; Leal, Suzanne M; Lehto, Hanna; LeMaire, Scott A; Low, Siew-Kee; Malinowski, Jennifer; McCarty, Catherine A; Milewicz, Dianna M; Mosley, Thomas H; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Niemelä, Mika; Pacheco, Jennifer; Peissig, Peggy L; Pera, Joanna; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rij, Andre M; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Saratzis, Athanasios; Slowik, Agnieszka; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tromp, Gerard; Uitterlinden, André G; Verma, Shefali S; Vermeulen, Sita H; Wang, Gao T; Han, Buhm; Rinkel, Gabriël J E; de Bakker, Paul I W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysms (IAs), abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) all have a familial predisposition. Given that aneurysm types are known to co-occur, we hypothesized that there may be shared genetic risk factors for IAs, AAAs, and TAAs. METHODS AND RE

  19. The genetic factors influencing the development of trichotillomania

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2012-08-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM), an obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder (OCSD), is a psychiatric condition characterized by repetitive hair pulling. Evidence from family and twin studies suggest a heritable link of TTM. Functional polymorphisms in genes involved in neuronal pathways might influence the susceptibility to TTM. This review is an attempt to compile the genetic factors reported to modify the development of TTM.

  20. Shared Genetic Risk Factors of Intracranial, Abdominal, and Thoracic Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hof, Femke N G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341753610; Ruigrok, Ynte M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303621222; Lee, Cue Hyunkyu; Ripke, Stephan; Anderson, Graig; de Andrade, Mariza; Baas, Annette F; Blankensteijn, Jan D; Böttinger, Erwin P; Bown, Matthew J; Broderick, Joseph; Bijlenga, Philippe; Carrell, David S; Crawford, Dana C; Crosslin, David R; Ebeling, Christian; Eriksson, Johan G; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana; von Und Zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Friedrich, Christoph M; Gaál, Emília I; Gottesman, Omri; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Harrison, Seamus C; Hernesniemi, Juha; Hofman, Albert; Inoue, Ituro; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Jones, Gregory T; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kivisaari, Riku; Ko, Nerissa; Koskinen, Seppo; Kubo, Michiaki; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Kurki, Mitja I; Laakso, Aki; Lai, Dongbing; Leal, Suzanne M; Lehto, Hanna; LeMaire, Scott A; Low, Siew-Kee; Malinowski, Jennifer; McCarty, Catherine A; Milewicz, Dianna M; Mosley, Thomas H; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Niemelä, Mika; Pacheco, Jennifer; Peissig, Peggy L; Pera, Joanna; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rij, Andre M; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Saratzis, Athanasios; Slowik, Agnieszka; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tromp, Gerard; Uitterlinden, André G; Verma, Shefali S; Vermeulen, Sita H; Wang, Gao T; Han, Buhm; Rinkel, Gabriël J E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/085712000; de Bakker, Paul I W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/342957082

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysms (IAs), abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) all have a familial predisposition. Given that aneurysm types are known to co-occur, we hypothesized that there may be shared genetic risk factors for IAs, AAAs, and TAAs. METHODS AND RE

  1. A Strong Case for Viral Genetic Factors in HIV Virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua T. Herbeck

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV infections show great variation in the rate of progression to disease, and the role of viral genetic factors in this variation had remained poorly characterized until recently. Now a series of four studies [1–4] published within a year has filled this important gap and has demonstrated a robust effect of the viral genotype on HIV virulence.

  2. Prognostic Factors for Distress After Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorwinden, Jan S; Jaspers, Jan P C

    2015-01-01

    The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result for counselees at risk for hereditary cancer seems to be limited: only 10-20 % of counselees have psychological problems after testing positive for a known familial mutation. The objective of this study was to find prognostic factors tha

  3. Resiliency to Victimization: The Role of Genetic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Mancini, Christina; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    There is a burgeoning line of criminological research examining the genetic underpinnings to a wide array of antisocial phenotypes. From this perspective, genes are typically viewed as risk factors that increase the odds of various maladaptive behaviors. However, genes can also have protective effects that insulate against the deleterious effects…

  4. Prognostic Factors for Distress After Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorwinden, Jan S.; Jaspers, Jan P C

    2016-01-01

    The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result for counselees at risk for hereditary cancer seems to be limited: only 10-20 % of counselees have psychological problems after testing positive for a known familial mutation. The objective of this study was to find prognostic factors tha

  5. The role of genetic factors in age at natural menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de J.P.; Bovenhuis, H.; Noord, van P.A.H.; Pearson, P.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Velde, ter E.R.; Kuurman, W.W.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Environmental factors explain only a small part of the age variance at which menopause commences. The variation in natural menopause is a trait predominantly determined by interaction of multiple genes, whose identity and causative genetic variation remains to be determined. Menopause is

  6. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia : the importance of genetic and environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. van Dooren (Marieke)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractFor the studies described in this thesis we used a study protocol 'Environmental and Genetic factors in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Esophageal Atresia', approved by the Institutional Review Board, in collaboration with the parent support groups, 'Stichting Hernia Diafragrnatica'

  7. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  8. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  9. Operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Chuan-udom

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the operating factors of Thai threshers affecting corn shelling losses,which comprised rotor speed (RS, louver inclination (LI, grain moisture content (MC, feed rate (FR, and grain to materialother than grain ratio (GM. Seventeen Thai corn-shelling threshers were random-sampled during the late rainy season cropof 2008 and ten threshers were sampled in the early rainy season crop of 2009 in Loei province, Northeast of Thailand.The results of this study indicated that LI and MC affected shelling losses whereas RS, FR and GM did not affect losses.Increased LI or decreased MC tended to reduce shelling losses. In operating the Thai threshers for corn shelling, if shellinglosses have to be kept lower that 0.5%, the moisture content should not exceed 20%wb and the louver inclination should notbe less than 85 degrees.

  10. Processes affecting genetic structure and conservation: a case study of wild and cultivated Brassica rapa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Naja Steen; Poulsen, Gert; Andersen, Bente Anni;

    2009-01-01

    a clear distinction of B. rapa and B. napus individuals except for three individuals that seemed to be backcrosses. The backcrossed hybrids descended from two Swedish populations, one wild and one escaped. The overall pattern of genetic variation and structure in B. rapa showed that cultivated and wild B...... cultivar. The study point to that many processes, e.g. spontaneous introgression, naturalisation, breeding and agricultural practise affected the genetic structure of wild and cultivated B. rapa populations....

  11. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of the recipient within a bovine embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Duica A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is a biotechnological technique that allows increasing the descendant of animals with high genetic value. The positive results, represented in pregnancy after the application of this technique, are affected by some factors that are inherent to the donor, the embryo, the technique, and the recipients which receive a strange embryo in the uterus allowing pregnancy. This review describes some factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of the recipients of bovine embryos within a program of embryo transfer. Its important to evaluate the parameters in this kind of recipients, as race, age, physiological status, health status, weight, reproductive tract integrity and management, and also too monitoring the ovarian structures while the estrus synchronization, and within previous and posterior stages in embryo transfer procedure. Therefore an optimum follicular development will be determinant to corpus luteum formation which generates enough serum progesterone concentrations to offer a right uterine environment allowing the optimum embryo development. Controlling the factors that affect the efficiency of the embryo transfer, it will obtain an increasing of positive results represented in pregnancies and births of individuals come from animals with high genetic value.

  12. Success factors affecting E-business:case Taobao

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    E-business has aroused great concern and become a hot topic in both information technology and business field. With many companies’ success in doing e-business, there are also abundant of failure cases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the success factors that can affect e-business so as to provide beneficial guidance to companies. Virtually, many researchers have also studied e-business relating to its success from different perspectives and in various areas. However, ...

  13. Motivation-One of the Affective Factors and its Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fang-hua

    2014-01-01

    Affective factors play a positive role in English study and motivation is the most important. Higher motivation predicts better second language acquisition. The types of motivation are mainly divided into two:extrinsic motivation and intrinsic moti-vation. Teachers should study their students as well as the teaching materials and then select scientific methods and make good use of them to reinforce their students' motivation.

  14. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  15. Classification tree analysis of factors affecting parking choices in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Shaaban, K.; Pande, A

    2015-01-01

    Qatar has experienced a significant population growth in the past decade. The growth has been accompanied by an increase in automobile ownership rates leading to parking problems especially in the capital city of Doha. The objective of this study was to find the factors affecting people's choice of parking in this rich developing country when different parking options are available. Two commercial centers located in the city of Doha, Qatar were selected for this study; the City Center mall an...

  16. Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2009-08-01

    Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

  17. Psychological Factors Associated with Genetic Test Decision-Making among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Richman, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    Making decisions to undergo Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) genetic testing can be challenging. It is important to understand how the perceptions of affected individuals might influence testing decision-making. Although evidence has shown that psychological factors are important in predicting testing decisions, affect-type variables have been…

  18. Influence of genetic and environmental factors on oral diseases and function in aged twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Y; Ikebe, K; Matsuda, K; Enoki, K; Ogata, S; Yamashita, M; Murakami, S; Hayakawa, K; Maeda, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantify the genetic and environmental contributions to oral disease and function in twins. Participants were middle-aged and old twins, 116 monozygotic and 16 dizygotic pairs whose mean age was 66·1 ± 10·3 (SD) years. Number of teeth, percentage of decayed, filled and missing teeth and periodontal status were recorded as indicators of oral disease. The widths of upper and lower dental arch served as indicators of morphological figures. Furthermore, stimulated salivary flow rate, occlusal force and masticatory performance were measured as indicators of oral function. Univariate genetic analysis with monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs was conducted to detect the fittest structural equation model of each outcome. Both number of teeth and periodontal status fitted the model composed of common environmental factor and unique environmental factor. Decayed, filled and missing teeth, morphological figures and measurements of oral function fitted the model composed of additive genetic factor and unique environmental factor. The model fitting of each measurement suggested that periodontal disease was mainly affected by environmental factors, while morphological figures and oral functions were influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.

  19. Psychological mechanisms in hyperactivity: II. The role of genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsi, J; Stevenson, J

    2001-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to combine two research approaches to hyperactivity: the behaviour genetic approach and the testing of psychological theories of hyperactivity. For a sample of 268 twin pairs aged 7-11 years we obtained ratings on the Conners' scales from both teachers (CTRS-28) and parents (CPRS-48). Forty-six hyperactive twin pairs (pairs in which at least one twin was pervasively hyperactive) and 47 control twin pairs were assessed on a psychological test battery. Confirming findings from previous twin studies, a substantial proportion of the variance in hyperactivity considered as a dimension was due to genetic effects. There was significant evidence of genetic effects also on extreme hyperactivity, although the present group heritability estimates were somewhat lower than those reported in most previous studies. We investigated the possibility that the psychological mechanisms we reported to be associated with hyperactivity (Kuntsi, Oosterlaan, & Stevenson, 2001) share common genetic factors with hyperactive behaviour. The data produced significant evidence of such shared genetic effects only on hyperactivity and the variability of reaction times. Given that the high variability in speed of responding would indicate a state-regulation problem, this is the psychological mechanism that could possibly be the "link" between genetic effects and hyperactive behaviour.

  20. Genetic factors in exercise adoption, adherence and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, M P; Sailors, M H; Bray, M S

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise play critical roles in energy balance. While many interventions targeted at increasing physical activity have demonstrated efficacy in promoting weight loss or maintenance in the short term, long term adherence to such programmes is not frequently observed. Numerous factors have been examined for their ability to predict and/or influence physical activity and exercise adherence. Although physical activity has been demonstrated to have a strong genetic component in both animals and humans, few studies have examined the association between genetic variation and exercise adherence. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the non-genetic and genetic predictors of physical activity and adherence to exercise. In addition, we report the results of analysis of 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms in six candidate genes examined for association to exercise adherence, duration, intensity and total exercise dose in young adults from the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study. Based on both animal and human research, neural signalling and pleasure/reward systems in the brain may drive in large part the propensity to be physically active and to adhere to an exercise programme. Adherence/compliance research in other fields may inform future investigation of the genetics of exercise adherence. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Importance of genetic factors in the etiology of atopic dermatitis: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon F; Ulrik, Charlotte S; Kyvik, Kirsten O;

    2007-01-01

    ?" Latent factor models of genetic and environmental influences were fitted to the observed data using maximum likelihood methods. The overall lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis was 7.3%. A cotwin of an affected identical twin had a sevenfold increased risk of atopic dermatitis compared......The susceptibility to develop atopic dermatitis can be attributed both to genetic and environmental causes. We estimated the relative impact of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of atopic dermatitis in a population-based sample of twins. From the birth cohorts of 1953-1982 who were...... enrolled in The Danish Twin Registry, a total of 11,515 twin pairs were identified in a nationwide questionnaire survey. Subjects were classified as atopic dermatitis cases when responding affirmatively to the question, "Do you have, or have you ever had, eczema in the folds of your elbows or knees...

  2. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Tatarinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  3. EXPLORING THE FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEES’ ADOPTION AND USE OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majharul Talukder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the factors affecting innovation adoption by individual employees within an organization in Australia. Following a qualitative research approach, this paper uses a series of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions involving academic and administrative employees at a tertiary educational institution in Australia. The qualitative approach is adopted to have a deeper insight into the complexities and dynamism associated with the factors influencing innovation adoption process in organizational settings. The findings of this research highlight the need for broadening an understanding of the key factors affecting employee’s decisions to uptake the adoption of innovation. The results provide important clues for comprehending the factors influencing and determining the employee’s adoption and continued use of innovation in the work environment. In the face of the current trend towards end-user applications of technological innovation, the results suggest some guidelines for management toward effective and efficient adoption and use of innovation in organizational settings. This paper has highlighted the above findings and their implications for management practices related to innovation management in an Australian organizational setting. This paper also identifies possible limitations and future research potential in the relevant field.

  4. Factors influencing uptake of familial long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Charlotte; McGaughran, Julie; Davis, Andrew; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing challenges of clinical assessment of long QT syndrome (LQTS) highlight the importance of genetic testing in the diagnosis of asymptomatic at-risk family members. Effective access, uptake, and communication of genetic testing are critical for comprehensive cascade family screening and prevention of disease complications such as sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to describe factors influencing uptake of LQTS genetic testing, including those relating to access and family communication. We show those who access genetic testing are overrepresented by the socioeconomically advantaged, and that although overall family communication is good, there are some important barriers to be addressed. There were 75 participants (aged 18 years or more, with a clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of LQTS; response rate 71%) who completed a survey including a number of validated scales; demographics; and questions about access, uptake, and communication. Mean age of participants was 46 ± 16 years, 20 (27%) were males and 60 (80%) had genetic testing with a causative gene mutation in 42 (70%). Overall uptake of cascade testing within families was 60% after 4 years from proband genetic diagnosis. All participants reported at least one first-degree relative had been informed of their risk, whereas six (10%) reported at least one first-degree relative had not been informed. Those who were anxious or depressed were more likely to perceive barriers to communicating. Genetic testing is a key aspect of care in LQTS families and intervention strategies that aim to improve equity in access and facilitate effective family communication are needed.

  5. ENIGMA and the individual: Predicting factors that affect the brain in 35 countries worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul M; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Bearden, Carrie E; Boedhoe, Premika S; Brouwer, Rachel M; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cannon, Dara M; Cohen, Ronald A; Conrod, Patricia J; Dale, Anders M; Deary, Ian J; Dennis, Emily L; de Reus, Marcel A; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Dima, Danai; Donohoe, Gary; Fisher, Simon E; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Francks, Clyde; Frangou, Sophia; Franke, Barbara; Ganjgahi, Habib; Garavan, Hugh; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hibar, Derrek P; Holland, Dominic; Hoogman, Martine; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Hosten, Norbert; Jahanshad, Neda; Kelly, Sinead; Kochunov, Peter; Kremen, William S; Lee, Phil H; Mackey, Scott; Martin, Nicholas G; Mazoyer, Bernard; McDonald, Colm; Medland, Sarah E; Morey, Rajendra A; Nichols, Thomas E; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shen, Li; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smit, Dirk J A; Smoller, Jordan W; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Jason L; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van den Heuvel, Odile L; van Erp, Theo G M; van Rooij, Daan; Veltman, Dick J; Walter, Henrik; Wang, Yalin; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Whelan, Christopher D; Wright, Margaret J; Ye, Jieping

    2017-01-15

    In this review, we discuss recent work by the ENIGMA Consortium (http://enigma.ini.usc.edu) - a global alliance of over 500 scientists spread across 200 institutions in 35 countries collectively analyzing brain imaging, clinical, and genetic data. Initially formed to detect genetic influences on brain measures, ENIGMA has grown to over 30 working groups studying 12 major brain diseases by pooling and comparing brain data. In some of the largest neuroimaging studies to date - of schizophrenia and major depression - ENIGMA has found replicable disease effects on the brain that are consistent worldwide, as well as factors that modulate disease effects. In partnership with other consortia including ADNI, CHARGE, IMAGEN and others(1), ENIGMA's genomic screens - now numbering over 30,000 MRI scans - have revealed at least 8 genetic loci that affect brain volumes. Downstream of gene findings, ENIGMA has revealed how these individual variants - and genetic variants in general - may affect both the brain and risk for a range of diseases. The ENIGMA consortium is discovering factors that consistently affect brain structure and function that will serve as future predictors linking individual brain scans and genomic data. It is generating vast pools of normative data on brain measures - from tens of thousands of people - that may help detect deviations from normal development or aging in specific groups of subjects. We discuss challenges and opportunities in applying these predictors to individual subjects and new cohorts, as well as lessons we have learned in ENIGMA's efforts so far. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors affecting Thai workers' use of hearing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantranont, Kunlayanee; Srisuphan, Wichit; Kaewthummanukul, Thanee; Suthakorn, Weeraporn; Jormsri, Pantip; Salazar, Mary K

    2009-11-01

    This study used an ecological model to examine Thai workers' beliefs and attitudes toward using occupational hearing protection. Data collection involved focus group sessions with 28 noise-exposed workers at four factories in Chiang Mai Province and an interview with a safety officer at each organization. Detailed content analysis resulted in the identification of three types of factors influencing the use of hearing protection: intrapersonal, including preventing impaired hearing, noise annoyance, personal discomfort, and interference with communication; interpersonal, including coworker modeling, supervisor support, and supervisor modeling; and organizational, including organizational rules and regulations, provision of hearing protection devices, dissemination of knowledge and information, noise monitoring, and hearing testing. Effective hearing protection programs depend on knowledge of all of these factors. Strategies to promote workers' use of hearing protection should include the complete range of factors having the potential to affect workers' hearing.

  7. Factors affecting enamel and ceramic wear: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Suck; Delong, Ralph; Anusavice, Kenneth J

    2002-04-01

    Enamel wear by ceramics may adversely affect maintenance of the vertical dimension of occlusion and can increase the potential for thermal sensitivity. In this article, factors related to the abrasion of enamel by dental ceramics are critically reviewed. Concepts of physical, microstructural, chemical, and surface characteristics of dental ceramics on wear are presented based on research published since 1950. A PubMed search for key words (wear of enamel and ceramic) was supplemented with a hand search to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles published in English. Based on the literature, it can be concluded that material factors, their proper handling, and control of the patient's intrinsic risk factors related to wear are critically important to the reduction of enamel wear by dental ceramics.

  8. Mutagen sensitivity: a genetic predisposition factor for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian; Spitz, Margaret R

    2007-04-15

    Mutagen sensitivity, measured by quantifying the chromatid breaks induced by mutagens in short-term cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes, has been used as an indirect measure of DNA repair capacity. Numerous epidemiologic studies have suggested that mutagen sensitivity is a cancer susceptibility factor for a variety of epithelial cancers. A recent classic twin study examined systematically the role of genetic and environmental factors on the mutagen sensitivity phenotype and provided compelling evidence that mutagen sensitivity is highly heritable. A new prospective analysis provides further support to the notion that mutagen sensitivity increases the risk of cancer. In this review, we briefly summarize nearly two decades of epidemiologic and genetic studies linking mutagen sensitivity and cancer risk. The evidence is becoming increasingly convincing that mutagen sensitivity is a risk factor for cancer development.

  9. Factors affecting the long-term renal allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; LI Xiao-bei; YIN Hang; YANG Xiao-yong; LIU Hang; REN Liang; HU Xiao-peng; WANG Yong; ZHANG Xiao-dong

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past decades, the one-year graft survival of cadaveric renal allografts has been markedly improved,but their long-term survival has not kept pace. The attrition rate of renal allografts surviving after one year remains almost unchanged. The causes for late graft loss are multiple. The aim of this study was to analyze the predictive factors that impact long-term survival of grafts after kidney transplantation.Methods We retrospectively analyzed 524 kidney transplantation patients who were treated in our hospital between January 1991 and January 2000, including 254 patients who had lived more than 10 years with normal graft function (long survival group), and 270 cases whose renal graft had survived less than 10 years (control group). Specifically, we analyzed 10 factors that may potentially affect graft survival by both univariate and Logistic model multivariate analyses to pinpoint the independent risk factors.Results Univariate analyses showed that no significant differences existed in the age or gender of recipients, dialysis time, lymphotoxin levels, or cold ischemia time between the two groups. However, the ratio of delayed graft function and acute rejection, and the uric acid levels of patients in the long survival group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P <0.01). Furthermore, we found that the concentration of cyclosporin A at one year after transplantation and the histocompatibility antigen match of donor-recipients for patients within the long survival group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P <0.01 ). Furthermore, multivariate analyses showed that these four factors were independent risk factors that impact patient survival.Conclusions The ratios of delayed graft function and acute rejection, the concentration of cyclosporin A at one year after transplantation, and serum uric acid levels are very important factors that affect the long-term survival of renal grafts.

  10. Survey on Factors Affecting the Recurrence of Multiple sclerosis Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanzadeh F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic and progressive disease of the central nervous system. The identification of effective factors and patient education on the prevention of exposure to these factors can be effective in reducing relapses. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the factors that affect recurrence in patients with multiple sclerosis. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 402 MS patients referred to the MS Association of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. The study participants were selected using purposive sampling method. Data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire and a 40-item researcher-made questionnaire concerning factors affecting the recurrence of MS. The 40-item questionnaire consisted of 4 domains personal factors, medical condition, pharmaceutical conditions, and environmental factors. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 21 and Mann Whitney, Pearson correlation, Kruskal Wallis, and chi-square statistical tests. Results: Among the patients, 21/4% were male and 78/6% female. Most patients were 20-29 years old. The highest prevalence of recurrence of MS was observed in the summer (70.8% and in August (50.3%. There was no significant relationship between patient’s gender and their views about the relationship between infections, fatigue, and heat and recurrence of MS. However, a higher rate of women believed stress (P < 0.029 and sexual development (P < 0.001 to be effective on the incidence of MS recurrence, in comparison to men. Conclusion: Most patients with MS are women, and they believe stress to be more effective on the incidence of MS attack recurrence. Therefore, nurses, as the primary care educators, can improve the patients’ capability, disease management, and quality of life through training of stress management techniques.

  11. The double-edged sword of genetic accounts of criminality: causal attributions from genetic ascriptions affect legal decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Benjamin Y; Heine, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Much debate exists surrounding the applicability of genetic information in the courtroom, making the psychological processes underlying how people consider this information important to explore. This article addresses how people think about different kinds of causal explanations in legal decision-making contexts. Three studies involving a total of 600 Mechanical Turk and university participants found that genetic, versus environmental, explanations of criminal behavior lead people to view the applicability of various defense claims differently, perceive the perpetrator's mental state differently, and draw different causal attributions. Moreover, mediation and path analyses highlight the double-edged nature of genetic attributions-they simultaneously reduce people's perception of the perpetrator's sense of control while increasing people's tendencies to attribute the cause to internal factors and to expect the perpetrator to reoffend. These countervailing relations, in turn, predict sentencing in opposite directions, although no overall differences in sentencing or ultimate verdicts were found. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  12. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  13. An Improved Reinforcement Learning System Using Affective Factors

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    Takashi Kuremoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As a powerful and intelligent machine learning method, reinforcement learning (RL has been widely used in many fields such as game theory, adaptive control, multi-agent system, nonlinear forecasting, and so on. The main contribution of this technique is its exploration and exploitation approaches to find the optimal solution or semi-optimal solution of goal-directed problems. However, when RL is applied to multi-agent systems (MASs, problems such as “curse of dimension”, “perceptual aliasing problem”, and uncertainty of the environment constitute high hurdles to RL. Meanwhile, although RL is inspired by behavioral psychology and reward/punishment from the environment is used, higher mental factors such as affects, emotions, and motivations are rarely adopted in the learning procedure of RL. In this paper, to challenge agents learning in MASs, we propose a computational motivation function, which adopts two principle affective factors “Arousal” and “Pleasure” of Russell’s circumplex model of affects, to improve the learning performance of a conventional RL algorithm named Q-learning (QL. Compared with the conventional QL, computer simulations of pursuit problems with static and dynamic preys were carried out, and the results showed that the proposed method results in agents having a faster and more stable learning performance.

  14. Factors potentially affecting the function of kidney grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jun; ZHENG Xin; XIE Ze-lin; SUN Wen; ZHANG Lei; TIAN Ye; GUO Yu-wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Donor and recipient risk factors on graft function have been well characterized.The contribution of demographic factors,such as age,gender,and other potential factors of donor and recipient at the time of transplantation on the function of a graft is much less well understood.In this study,we analyzed the effects of factors such as age,gender,etc.,on the short-term and long-term graft function in kidney transplant recipients from living donor.Methods A total of 335 living donors and their recipients,who had kidney transplantation in our center from May 2004 to December 2009,were included.Serum creatinine level was used as the assessment criterion (serum creatinine level lower than 115 mmol/L is normal).Factors related to graft function such as age,gender,blood relation by consanguinity,human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch,ABO type,etc.,were analyzed separately.Results Donor age is the key factor affecting both the short-term and long-term function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.The group with donors younger than 48 years showed the best kidney function post transplantation.Match of gender and age is another important factor that influences the function of grafted kidney from a living donor.The older donor to younger recipient group had the worst outcome after kidney transplantation.After 36 months post transplantation,female donor to male recipient group had worse kidney function compared to other groups.We also found that calcinerin inhibitor used in the maintenance period may influence the function of a grafted kidney.No significant statistical differences were found in consanguinity,blood type,and mismatch of HLA.Conclusions Donor age is an important factor affecting the function of a grafted kidney from a living donor.We also recommend taking nephron,immunology factor,infection,and demographic information all into consideration when assessing the outcome of kidney transplantation.

  15. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OHD concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OHD concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OHD response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OHD, aging, body mass index(BMI/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation and environment (season are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OHD, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined.

  16. Factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide measurements: the effect of sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Avis J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurements are used as a surrogate marker for eosinophilic airway inflammation. However, many constitutional and environmental factors affect FENO, making it difficult to devise reference values. Our aim was to evaluate the relative importance of factors affecting FENO in a well characterised adult population. Methods Data were obtained from 895 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study at age 32. The effects of sex, height, weight, lung function indices, smoking, atopy, asthma and rhinitis on FENO were explored by unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analyses. Results The effect of sex on FENO was both statistically and clinically significant, with FENO levels approximately 25% less in females. Overall, current smoking reduced FENO up to 50%, but this effect occurred predominantly in those who smoked on the day of the FENO measurement. Atopy increased FENO by 60%. The sex-related differences in FENO remained significant (p ENO. Conclusion Even after adjustment, FENO values are significantly different in males and females. The derivation of reference values and the interpretation of FENO in the clinical setting should be stratified by sex. Other common factors such as current smoking and atopy also require to be taken into account.

  17. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  18. A Novel Statistical Model to Estimate Host Genetic Effects Affecting Disease Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Garcia-Cortés, Luis Alberto; Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, John A.; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that genetic diversity can affect the spread of diseases, potentially affecting plant and livestock disease control as well as the emergence of human disease outbreaks. Nevertheless, even though computational tools can guide the control of infectious diseases, few epidemiological models can simultaneously accommodate the inherent individual heterogeneity in multiple infectious disease traits influencing disease transmission, such as the frequently modeled propensity to become infected and infectivity, which describes the host ability to transmit the infection to susceptible individuals. Furthermore, current quantitative genetic models fail to fully capture the heritable variation in host infectivity, mainly because they cannot accommodate the nonlinear infection dynamics underlying epidemiological data. We present in this article a novel statistical model and an inference method to estimate genetic parameters associated with both host susceptibility and infectivity. Our methodology combines quantitative genetic models of social interactions with stochastic processes to model the random, nonlinear, and dynamic nature of infections and uses adaptive Bayesian computational techniques to estimate the model parameters. Results using simulated epidemic data show that our model can accurately estimate heritabilities and genetic risks not only of susceptibility but also of infectivity, therefore exploring a trait whose heritable variation is currently ignored in disease genetics and can greatly influence the spread of infectious diseases. Our proposed methodology offers potential impacts in areas such as livestock disease control through selective breeding and also in predicting and controlling the emergence of disease outbreaks in human populations. PMID:26405030

  19. Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Industry in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of factors responsible for customer satisfaction is a key concern of marketing scholars and marketers in now a days and it will remain in the future. There is considerable evidence that quality factors affecting customer satisfaction in numerous ways. However, this empirical study is initiated to find out what particular factors responsible for customer satisfaction in the mobile tel- ecommunication industry in Bangladesh. 282 samples have been collected through structured questionnaire; study reveals that service innovativeness, service reli- ability, service competitiveness and service consistency have significant influence on making customer satisfied and the operator’s network/signal coverage, pricing, offering, fulfillment of customer demand, value added service, brand value and op - erators contribution for society have insignificant influences on making customer satisfied at five percent level of significant at multiple regression analysis. On the basis of these findings; study concludes that in promoting customer satisfaction mobile service providers should be concerned for factors responsible for insignifi- cant influence on customer satisfaction and care of those factors have significant influence on promoting customer satisfaction in telecommunication industry in Bangladesh.

  20. Main Factors for Affecting Photonic Bandgap of Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; XUE Wei; JIANG Yu-rong; YU Zhi-nong; WANG Hua-qing

    2007-01-01

    The factors affecting one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PhCs) are systemically analyzed in this paper by numerical simulation.Transfer matrix method (TMM) is employed for 1D PCs, both finite difference time domain method (FDTD) and plane wave expansion method (PWE) are employed for 2D PCs.The result shows that the photonic bandgaps (PBG) are directly affected by crystal type, crystal lattice constant, modulation of refractive index and periodicity, and it is should be useful for design of different type photonic crystals with the required PBG and functional devices.Finally, as an example, a near-IR 1D PCs narrow filter was designed.

  1. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was

  2. Determination of factors affecting seafood consumption pattern and consumption frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tolga Tolon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current seafood consumption pattern, consumer profile and factors affecting seafood consumption amount and frequency of the consumers residing in coastal region (İzmir, mixed region (Adana and countryside region (Ankara of Turkey were researched in this study. It is aimed to provide source to researchers and relevant institutions who are willing to guide the future sectoral initiatives and conduct more extensive research on seafood consumer habits. In this context, the research population was determined according to their distance to the sea and their populations by purposive sampling method. 43 % of total 400 survey was conducted in Ankara, 36% in İzmir and 21% in Adana by face to face interviews. According to the survey results, 6% of respondents never consume seafood, 25% once a month, 28% once every two weeks, and 42% consume once and more than once in a week. The most seafood consumption frequency was identified in Izmir. Nearly 90% of consumers in the entire regions prefer to consume seafood in fresh type. According to the answers of all consumers 4 major factors affecting seafood consumption preferences and habits in a negative way were "high price, cannot be easily found in the market, not recognition of seafood varieties and disfavor of the flavor of seafood". The relationship between frequency of seafood consumption and education level of consumer’s variables is determined as linear and strong but the relationship between consumer age and seafood consumption frequency is determined as reverse. On the factors affecting choice of seafood consumption in a positive way, 71% of consumers stated the beneficial to health perception and taste of seafood as the most important reason for their preference. Therefore, the relationship between consumption trend and beneficial to health perception of seafood is determined as linear and strong.

  3. Does the genetic and familial background of males undertaking ICSI affect the outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maiburg, M.; Alizadeh, B.; Kastrop, P.; Lock, M.; Lans, S.; Giltay, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the success rate of ICSI is (1) related to the etiology of infertility or (2) adversely affected by a family history of potential genetic disorders. Methods: All men with an ICSI indication in our hospital between 1994 and 2005 were included in our cohort study. Data

  4. Isolation and study of two mutants of Streptomyces cattleya affected in DNA repair and genetic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromic, A; Kirby, R

    1989-01-15

    Two mutants of Streptomyces cattleya affecting DNA repair were isolated. These mutants were analysed using spore survival curves and phage reactivation curves in the presence and absence of caffeine and arsenite. Two DNA repair systems (uvr1 and uvr2) were identified, the latter of which seems to influence genetic instability.

  5. Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in…

  6. Delineation of Behavioral Phenotypes in Genetic Syndromes: Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Affect and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Berg, Katy; Moss, Jo; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    We investigated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology, hyperactivity and affect in seven genetic syndromes; Angelman (AS; n = 104), Cri du Chat (CdCS; 58), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; 101), Fragile X (FXS; 191), Prader-Willi (PWS; 189), Smith-Magenis (SMS; 42) and Lowe (LS; 56) syndromes (age range 4-51). ASD symptomatology was heightened in…

  7. Factors Affecting Fertility – New Evidence from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Atif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research paper investigates long and short term determinants of fertility rates in Malaysia based on basic macroeconomic variables for the period 1980-2014 using Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL method. The study reveals that over a long term period, all the selected variables (GDP, infant mortality rate, females’ education and employment have had significant and negative impact on total fertility rates. Whilst during the short term period, only the infant mortality rate has had a positive impact. Since population growth is partly determined by fertility rates, efforts to increase population in Malaysia should consider factors that affect those rates.

  8. Chinese multinationals: how do institutional factors affect their location patterns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Quer Ramón

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of various host country institutional factors on the location patterns of 29 large Chinese multinationals. From a sample of 127 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made in 52 countries, our findings suggest that a greater difficulty in doing business and a high political risk in the host country do not discourage Chinese multinationals. However, the presence of overseas Chinese in the host country, a larger absolute host market size and a higher volume of Chinese exports to that country affect positively.

  9. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...

  10. Parents' communication with siblings of children affected by an inherited genetic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumridge, Gillian; Metcalfe, Alison; Coad, Jane; Gill, Paramjit

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore parents' communication about risk with siblings of children affected by an inherited genetic condition, and to ascertain what level of support, if any, is required from health professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with affected and unaffected children and their parents. Families were affected by one of six genetic conditions representing different patterns of inheritance and variations in age of onset, life expectancy and impact on families. Interviews were analysed using constructivist grounded theory and informed by models which focused on three different aspects of family communication. Interviews with 33 families showed that siblings' information and support needs go largely unrecognized by health professionals and sometimes by parents. Some siblings were actively informed about the genetic condition by parents, others were left to find out and assimilate information by themselves. Siblings were given information about the current symptoms and management of the genetic condition but were less likely to know about its hereditary nature and their own potential risk. When siblings were fully informed about the condition and included in family discussion, they had a better understanding of their role within their family, and family relationships were reported to be more harmonious. The information and support needs of siblings can be overlooked. Parents with the responsibility for caring for a child affected by a genetic condition may require support from health professionals to understand and respond to their unaffected children's need for more information about the genetic condition and its implications for the children's own future health and reproductive decision-making.

  11. Econometric Analysis of Factors Affecting Special Purpose Forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lanhui; Cai Fei

    2003-01-01

    The forest estate is one of our most important natural resources. It is also the material foundation for sustainable forestry development in China. It is a timely topic of concern within the forestry community and touches the entire society. From a social economic point of view, the sustainable development has been promoted by the efficient use of the forest resources in a continuing improvement of the environment. The objective of the present analysis is to measure the effect of various factors, such as population, economic development and related policies on the use of the forest resources. The 29 provinces of Mainland China are classified in three regions, based largely on their level of economic development. For each region, the factors which affect the area of special purpose forests (SPF) are analyzed. Some recommendations are made for further improvement.

  12. A review of factors affecting antler composition and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Estevez, Jose A; Ceacero, Francisco; Garcia, Andres J; Gallego, Laureano

    2012-06-01

    Antlers constitute the only mammal model for limb regeneration. A number of factors affect antler regeneration. In this review, we examine such factors and the potential consequences for organ regeneration. As body mineral stores are depleted to grow antlers, physiological exhaustion is shown in the mineral composition, mechanical performance and, according to preliminary studies, porosity of the antler bone material. Nutrition plays an important role in antler characteristics. Thus, antler composition can be used as a diagnostic tool to assess mineral deficiencies in deer. Studies on ecological effects of exceptional weather in plants suggest that minor minerals, particularly Mn, may play disproportionately roles in mechanical performance of bone material. This suggests that Mn (and perhaps other minerals) is essential to incorporate Ca and P from resorbed skeleton material in antlers. Apart from implications for game management, some effects may have applications for medicine.

  13. Extrinsic factors affecting accuracy of ultrasonic flowmeters for LMFBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Managan, W.W.

    1976-08-01

    Assuming that ultrasonic flowmeters of suitable intrinsic accuracy are feasible, this report explores factors extrinsic to the flowmeter which affect the accuracy such as asymmetric flow profile, regions of high turbulence and thermal stratification. By integrating isovelocity flow profile maps, the predicted performance of various flowmeter configurations may be compared to experimental data. For the two pipe arrangements analyzed, the single diametral path flowmeter results were within 5 percent of true flow rate. Theoretical correction factors could reduce the error for the straight pipe but increased the error for asymmetrical flow. On the same pipe arrangements a four path ultrasonic flowmeter spaced for Gaussian integration gave less than 1 percent error. For more general conclusions a range of flow profiles produced by typical LMFBR piping arrangements must be analyzed.

  14. Factors of affecting the spring back of compressed Paulownia wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In order to increase its hardness and gravity as well as dimension stability, the technology of hotcompressing on Paulownia wood was studied. The main factors of affecting the spring back of the compressed Paulownia samples were discussed. It was discovered that every factor in the experiment had obvious effects on wood hardness and dimension stability of compressed wood. When the MC (Moisture Content) of experimental specimens was 13.89%, it was useful to spray water on the surface of samples before hot pressing. The best resuit was the recovery of compression set could decrease from 90.69% of untreated wood to 45.51% of soaking specimens into PF (Phenol Formaldehyde) water solution. The hot pressing time was 8 min at 190 ℃.

  15. BELFAST nonagenarians: nature or nurture? Immunological, cardiovascular and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rea I M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonagenarians are the fastest growing sector of populations across Western European and the developed world. They are some of the oldest members of our societies and survivors of their generation and may help us understand how to age not only longer, but better. The Belfast Longevity Group enlisted the help of 500 community-living, mobile, mentally competent, 'elite' nonagenarians, as part of an ongoing study of ageing. We assessed some immunological, cardiovascular, nutritional and genetic factors and some aspects of their interaction in this group of 'oldest old'. Here we present some of the evidence related to genetic and nutritional factors which seem to be important for good quality ageing in nonagenarians from the Belfast Elderly Longitudinal Free-living Ageing STudy (BELFAST.

  16. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  17. Factors affecting adult feeding in a Drug rehabilitation Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Troncoso Pantoja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVES: To interpret the perception of the determining factors that influence the diet of a group of intern patients in a drug rehabilitation center in Concepción, Chile, during the year 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Through a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach, intern patients of a drug rehabilitation facility, who fulfilled the study assigned criteria, were interviewed. The collection of data was conducted through semi structured interviews; which were validated by experts and subject to a pilot test. Nonprobability convenience sampling was performed. The sample size was determined through theoretical saturation, which was completed at the eighth interview. The results were subject to triangulation of informants, and were analyzed using the technique of discourse analysis. RESULTS: The participants identify positive and negative factors that condition their diet. They claim that having a fixed schedule is positive since this helps them to have a more organized diet. However, some stressful situations within the facilities are described as limiting factors in their mood, thus affecting their appetite and reducing their food intake. Additionally, not being with their families, especially at the beginning of the treatment, is considered a negative aspect. The lack of variety in terms of food preparation is also negative since this does not correspond to their food preferences. During the drug withdrawal stage, the intake of food containing carbohydrates of rapid absorption was increased. CONCLUSIONS: It is interpreted that the interviewees at the drug rehabilitation facility identify conditioning factors that influence their diet, which promote or inhibit food intake, and affect the attitude they present towards their diet in the drug withdrawal stage.

  18. Group decision-making: Factors that affect group effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Osmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are operating in a dynamic and turbulent environment. In these conditions, they have to make decisions for new problems or situations. Most of decisions are therefore non-programmed and unstructured, accompanied by risk and uncertainty. Moreover, the problems and situations are complex. All organizations are oriented towards group decisionmaking processes, as useful tools to cope with uncertainty and complexity. Apart from the necessity, companies are turning towards participatory processes also to benefit from the important advantages that these processes offer. Organizations have realized the importance of group decision-making processes to contribute to the creation of sustainable competitive advantages. Main objective of this paper is to show that group decision-making processes do not offer guarantee for good decisions, because the effectiveness of group is affected by many factors. So, the first thing done in this paper is discussing about the benefits and limitations that accompany the use of groups with decision-making purpose. Afterwards, we stop on the different factors that influence the group’s ability to make good decisions. The aim is to emphasize that regardless of the many advantages of groups, some factors as group size, type of communication within the group, leadership style, the norms, the differentiation of roles and statuses, cohesion and compliance degree should be the main elements to keep into consideration because they affect the effectiveness of group. In this regard, is discussed how such factors influence the quality of decision and then we try to draw some conclusions that can improve and make better and easier group decision-making processes.

  19. A main factors affecting average number of teats in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Krupa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of factors (breed, year and season of farrowing, herd, parity order, sire of litter, total number of born piglets - TNB, number of piglets born alive - NBA, number of weaned piglets - NW, and linear and quadratic regression on the number of teats, found for all piglets in the litter till ten days after born, expressed as arithmetic mean for each litter as sum of all teats number of each piglet in appropriate litter divided by number of piglets in this litter at first litter (ANT1 and second and subsequent litters (ANT2+ were analysed. The coefficient of determination was 0.46 and 0.33 for ANT1 and ANT2+, respectively. The statistically high influence (P<0.001 on ANT1 and ANT2+ was determined for year and season of farrowing, herd, parity order (only for ANT2+ and sire of litter effects. Impact of breed was found only on ANT2+ (P<0.001. The rest of factors have negligible of no impact on traits. Based on the data available for analyses, obtained results will serve as a relevant set-up in developing the model for genetic evaluation for these traits.

  20. Identifying Common Genetic Risk Factors of Diabetic Neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Ini-Isabée; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Khalaf, Kinda; Lee, Sungmun; Khandoker, Ahsan H.; Alsafar, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global public health problem of epidemic proportions, with 60–70% of affected individuals suffering from associated neurovascular complications that act on multiple organ systems. The most common and clinically significant neuropathies of T2DM include uremic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. These conditions seriously impact an individual’s quality of life and significantly increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Although advances in gene sequencing technologies have identified several genetic variants that may regulate the development and progression of T2DM, little is known about whether or not the variants are involved in disease progression and how these genetic variants are associated with diabetic neuropathy specifically. Significant missing heritability data and complex disease etiologies remain to be explained. This article is the first to provide a review of the genetic risk variants implicated in the diabetic neuropathies and to highlight potential commonalities. We thereby aim to contribute to the creation of a genetic-metabolic model that will help to elucidate the cause of diabetic neuropathies, evaluate a patient’s risk profile, and ultimately facilitate preventative and targeted treatment for the individual. PMID:26074879

  1. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

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    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  2. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  3. FACTORS AFFECTING DEMAND FOR INTERNET ACCESS IN SAUDI ARABIA

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    Hisham Jameel Bardesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As internet use in Saudi Arabia are dramatically increasing, a powerful demand is being laid down on internet service purpose where this paper aims at identifying major factors that influence these demand pertaining to internet services. Within a selected theoretical model, such multiple factors are being conceptualized and interrelated. Using time series data, the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique is employed to analyze the relationships. The results of the model indicated clearly that using the internet in Saudi Arabia is influenced most strongly by the number of educated people, the number of mobile subscribers, income, the number of fixed lines, and employment level. The results also suggest that demographic factors have a significant impact on the demand for internet, specifically, the number of educated people and levels of employment. This paper concludes with a recommendation on increasing the level of understanding of those the factors affecting practitioners who plan and promote new forms of internet services in the current competitive market.

  4. Factor affecting happiness among nursing students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, W H; Jo, M J

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings

  5. Genetic and environmental factors in breakfast eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Viken, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Rose, Richard J

    2004-09-01

    Despite many studies on the prevalence of breakfast eating, we know little about factors that determine breakfast eating patterns. Our aim was to find out to which extent breakfast eating frequency is influenced by genetic and environmental factors using twin and twin-family models in a population sample of 16-year-old twins (n = 5250) and their parents (n = 4663). In common effects sex-limitation models, additive genetic effects explained 41% (95% CI: 21-63%) of the variance in breakfast eating in girls and 66% (95% CI: 47-79%) in boys, and common environmental effects 45% (95% CI: 23-62%) in girls and 14% (95% CI: 5-29%) in boys. Of twin-family models, phenotypic assortment models fitted the data best. Heritability estimates increased somewhat (72%, 95% CI: 46-98% in girls and 63%, 95% CI: 38-89%) in boys. Common family environment remained substantial in both sexes. Cultural transmission was nonsignificant. The relative influence of genetic and family factors on adolescent breakfast eating frequency differs by sex and is generation-specific.

  6. Factors Affecting the Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion of Cocoa Flavanols in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Gonzalez-Salvador, Isidro; Alañon, María Elena; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-09-09

    Cocoa is rich in a subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, the cardiovascular health benefits of which have been extensively reported. The appearance of flavanol metabolites in the systemic circulation after flavanol-rich food consumption is likely to mediate the physiological effects on the vascular system, and these levels are influenced by numerous factors, including food matrix, processing, intake, age, gender, or genetic polymorphisms, among others. This review will focus on our current understanding of factors affecting the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of cocoa flavanols in humans. Second, it will identify gaps in these contributing factors that need to be addressed to conclusively translate our collective knowledge into the context of public health, dietary guidelines, and evidence-based dietary recommendations.

  7. Factors Affecting Longevity of Tunneled Central Venous Cathe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate factors which affect the longevity of tunneled central venous catheters (T-CVCs). A retrospective study was conducted on 363 T-CVCs. We evaluated the relevant factors affecting the longevity of the T-CVCs, such as age, gender, indication for catheterization, site of entry vessel, diameter and type of T-CVC, catheter tip position, and underlying diseases. Of the 363 T-CVCs which had been inserted, 331 (91%) were placed through the right internal jugular vein (RIJV). The catheter tip position was the strongest predictor for the longevity of the T-CVC. The short limb of the catheter tip placed either at the cavoatrial junction (CA junction) or below the lower margin of the right main bronchus had a good prognosis. The vessel through which the T-CVC was placed significantly influenced the longevity of the T-CVC; the RIJV was associated with better results than the left internal jugular vein. Also, a split-type catheter was significantly associated with a better result. A two distinct and separate type T-CVC placed through the RIJV in which the short limb catheter tip position was at the level of the CA junction, significantly increased the longevity of T-CVCs.

  8. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  9. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

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    Abdullah Faruk Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.

  10. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  11. Identification and assessment of risk factors affecting construction projects

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    Mohamed Sayed Bassiony Ahmed Abd El-Karim

    2017-08-01

    Unexpected increase in cost and delays in construction projects are caused by owner, contractor, environments, etc. in which several types of risk factors may occur concurrently. The effect of cost overrun and schedule overrun do not only influence the construction industry but the overall economy as well. Even though construction project increasing in cost and schedule has received extensive attention of researchers, but because of continuous changes and development in the field, the study considered of added value to the construction industry in Egypt, in addition to risk strategy and plan analysis. In order to meet the deadline of a project and due to the complex nature of construction projects, cost and scheduling should be flexible enough to accommodate changes without negatively affecting the overall project cost and duration. As such, the objectives of the presented research in this paper are to identify, study, and assess the effect of the factors that affect cost and time contingency. Data are collected from sixteen construction companies in Egypt. The collected data, output charts and analyses spreadsheets will be used for the development of computerized model built by the authors with identification abbreviation RIAM.

  12. 11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity

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    Derya Erdoğan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality.Methods: Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively.Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery,operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN related complications.The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined.Findings: Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but notmortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section.Conclusion: In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years.

  13. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

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    Michael D. Cusimano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

  14. Factors affecting QOL of the home-bound elderly disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemasa, S

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of the elderly home-bound patients. Data were collected from 56 chronically disabled elderly persons (mean age of 76.7 years) who needed a long-term home-based care. They were assessed on QOL, range of activity, functional capacity, and capacity of family care functioning as well as socio-economic condition. The QOL was evaluated by using Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGC Morale Scale). The activities of daily living (ADL) and handicaps were evaluated by the Barthel index and the ESCROW profile, respectively. The capacity of family care functioning was also recorded according to the "Family Care Scale" developed by Hamamura. As a result, there was a significant difference between PGC Morale Scale score and Barthel index score (P QOL of the home-bound elderly disabled were determined by the motivation, functional capacity, and capacity of family care functioning (P QOL, ADL must be improved, therefore, rehabilitation should be continued to maintain their function after discharging from hospitals and that we should take these factors into consideration, such as living environments and social conditions of the family care. The results also indicate how the patient's independence in the daily life influences social and economic status, and consequently it affects the quality of life.

  15. Shared Genetic Factors Influence Amygdala Volumes and Risk for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald HH; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk. PMID:25079289

  16. Shared genetic factors influence amygdala volumes and risk for alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald H H; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk.

  17. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

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    Volker Salewski

    Full Text Available Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and

  18. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  19. Noninheritable Maternal Factors Useful for Genetic Manipulation in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Shindo, Takayuki; Sato, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian early embryogenesis is supported by maternal factors, such as messenger RNA (mRNA) and proteins, produced and accumulated during oogenesis at least up to the stage when zygotic activation commences. These maternal factors are involved in biologically important events such as epigenetic activation, reprogramming, and mitochondrial growth. Most of these maternal mRNAs are degraded by the 2-cell to 4 ~ 8-cell stages. Maternal proteins, which are produced during oogenesis or by the maternal mRNAs, are degraded by the 4 ~ 8-cell stage. In other words, the maternal factors exist during specific stages of early embryogenesis. In this chapter, we will briefly summarize the property of these maternal factors and mention possible applications of these factors for developing new reproduction engineering-related technologies and producing genetically modified animals. More specifically, we will show the usefulness of maternally accumulated Cas9 protein as a promising tool for CRISPR-/Cas9-based simultaneous genetic modification of multiple loci in mammals.

  20. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  1. Factors Affecting Exercise Test Performance in Patients After Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotarska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, low physical activity is a risk factor for cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Objectives This study examined potential relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an exercise test in liver-graft recipients. Patients and Methods A total of 107 participants (62 men/45 women who had received a liver transplantation (LT at least 6 months previously were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed using three different questionnaires, while HRQoL was assessed using the medical outcomes study short form (SF-36 questionnaire, and health behaviors were evaluated using the health behavior inventory (HBI. The exercise test was performed in a standard manner. Results Seven participants (6.5% had a positive exercise test, and these individuals were older than those who had a negative exercise test (P = 0.04. A significant association between a negative exercise test and a higher level of physical activity was shown by the Seven-day physical activity recall questionnaire. In addition, HRQoL was improved in various domains of the SF-36 in participants who had a negative exercise test. No correlations between physical activity, the exercise test and healthy behaviors, as assessed via the HBI were observed. Conclusions Exercise test performance was affected by lower quality of life and lower physical activity after LT. With the exception of hypertension, well known factors that affect the risk of coronary artery disease had no effect on the exercise test results.

  2. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  3. Dietary Factors Affecting Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Ae; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors are proposed to affect thyroid carcinogenesis, but previous studies have reported inconsistent findings. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis, including 18 eligible studies, to clarify the role of dietary factors in the risk of thyroid cancer. The relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated to assess the association and heterogeneity tests and subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and bias assessments were performed. When the results from all studies were combined, dietary iodine, fish, and cruciferous vegetable intake were not associated with thyroid cancer. However, when the data were divided by geographic location based on iodine availability, a slight increase in the risk of thyroid cancer was observed among those consuming a high total amount of fish in iodine nondeficient areas (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.03-1.35; P for heterogeneity = 0.282). When excluding the studies examining a single food item and hospital-based controls, a high intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in iodine-deficient areas (RR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.18-1.74; P for heterogeneity = 0.426). This meta-analysis implies that the role of dietary factors, such as fish and cruciferous vegetables, in thyroid cancer risk can differ based on iodine availability.

  4. Factors affecting couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Dorris, G; Charron-Moore, C

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the adjustment of women and their husbands to recurrent breast cancer and to examine the mutual effect that partners have on one another. An exploratory study was designed to determine the relationship between four predictor variables (support, uncertainty, symptom distress, hopelessness) and women's and husbands' adjustments. The sample consisted of 155 subjects; 81 women, who had a first recurrence of breast cancer, and 74 husbands. Multiple standardized instruments with established reliability and validity were used to measure the study variables. The independent variables were measured with the Social Support Questionnaire, the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale, McCorkle Symptom Distress Scale and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The dependent variable, psychosocial adjustment, was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. The results indicated that the independent variables accounted for 43% of the variance in women's distress and 32% of the variance in husbands' distress; they also explained 66% of the variance in women's role adjustment problems and 57% of the variance in husbands' role problems. Symptom distress and hopelessness accounted for the most variance in women's and husbands' levels of adjustment. A significant and positive relationship was found between women's and husbands' adjustment scores, indicating that partners have a mutual influence on one another. The findings suggest that there are multiple factors that influence couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer, and that these factors need to be taken into consideration when planning care for women and their partners.

  5. ANALYSIS FACTORS THAT AFFECTING THE WORK COMMITMENT OF TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsofiyati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the factors that affecting the work commitment of teachers.The research use descriptive quantitative method. The problem are the teachers who work without commitment, just to teach according to what was ordered by the principal. By having a high work commitment that is evident in the behavior of painstaking work, passionate, integrity of the work, responsibility, and maintain morale as educators. The results are: commitment to working both seen from the achievement an average score of 71.61, completion of the task is the highest factor in teachers' work commitment with an average score of 79.67, and development of self-efficacy is the lowest factor in teachers' work commitment with an average score of 73.00.Suggestions are: schools should give rewards to the teachers who complete the task on time and to sanction teachers who did not complete the task on time, provide education and training to the teachers continuously and sustainably as efforts to develop self-efficacy ofteachers, the teacher involvement in school activities further improved, so that the visible concern for the fate of school teachers and Teacher work program should be set up and executed in accordance with a predetermined plan.

  6. A Study on Factors Affecting Airborne LiDAR Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data from different periods, areas and parameters of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging surveys to understand the factors that influence airborne LiDAR penetration rate. A discussion is presented on the relationships between these factors and LiDAR penetration rate. The results show that the flight height above ground level (AGL does not have any relationship with the penetration rate. There are some factors that should have larger influence. For example, the laser is affected by a wet ground surface by reducing the number of return echoes. The field of view (FOV has a slightly negative correlation with the penetration rate, which indicates that the laser incidence angle close to zero should achieve the best penetration. The vegetation cover rate also shows a negative correlation with the penetration rate, thus bare ground and reduced vegetation in the aftermath of a typhoon also cause high penetration rate. More return echoes could be extracted from the full-waveform system, thereby effectively improving the penetration rate. This study shows that full-waveform LiDAR is an effective method for increasing the number of surface reflected echoes. This study suggests avoiding LiDAR survey employment directly following precipitation to prevent laser echo reduction.

  7. Factors Affecting Mortality After Major Nontraumatic Lower Extremity Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Tolga; Polat Duzgun, Arife; Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Erdogan, Ahmet; Yavuz, Zeynep; Coskun, Faruk

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the factors affecting the mortality of patients who underwent nontraumatic major lower limb amputation due to ischemic and/or diabetic causes. A total of 100 patients were included in the study. Among these patients, 70 (70%) underwent below-knee amputation, whereas 30 (30%) underwent above-knee amputation. Eleven (15.7%) of the 70 patients who underwent below-knee amputation and 12 (40%) of the 30 patients who underwent above-knee amputation (P = .008) were deceased. After multivariable Poisson regression analysis, female gender (risk ratio [RR] = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.07-3.74) and a neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) less than 6.8 (RR = 5.12, 95% CI = 1.86-14.08) were found to be independent risk factors for mortality. The value of 6.8 was used as a cutoff point for the NLR (area under the curve = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.62-0.85), with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 83%, 66%, 57%, and 92%, respectively. The NLR and female gender were found to be independent factors that are related to increased mortality in patients who underwent lower limb amputation due to diabetic and/or ischemic causes. The coexistence of congestive heart failure and the amputation level (above knee) were found to be predictors of mortality in univariable analysis, but significance could not be demonstrated in multivariable analysis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  9. Natural selection affects multiple aspects of genetic variation at putatively peutral sites across the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmueller, Kirk E; Albrechtsen, Anders; Li, Yingrui

    2011-01-01

    A major question in evolutionary biology is how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across the human genome. Previous work has documented a reduction in genetic diversity in regions of the genome with low recombination rates. However, it is unclear whether other summaries...... affected multiple aspects of linked neutral variation throughout the human genome and that positive selection is not required to explain these observations....... these questions by analyzing three different genome-wide resequencing datasets from European individuals. We document several significant correlations between different genomic features. In particular, we find that average minor allele frequency and diversity are reduced in regions of low recombination...

  10. Factors affecting harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) strandings in the Northwest Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulen, Brianne K; Cammen, Kristina; Schultz, Thomas F; Johnston, David W

    2013-01-01

    The effects of climate change on high latitude regions are becoming increasingly evident, particularly in the rapid decline of sea ice cover in the Arctic. Many high latitude species dependent on sea ice are being forced to adapt to changing habitats. Harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) are an indicator species for changing high-latitude ecosystems. This study analyzed multiple factors including ice cover, demographics, and genetic diversity, which could affect harp seal stranding rates along the eastern coast of the United States. Ice cover assessments were conducted for the month of February in the Gulf of St. Lawrence whelping region from 1991-2010 using remote sensing data, and harp seal stranding data were collected over the same time period. Genetic diversity, which may affect how quickly species can adapt to changing climates, was assessed using ten microsatellite markers to determine mean d (2) in a subset of stranded and by-caught (presumably healthy) seals sampled along the northeast U.S. coast. Our study found a strong negative correlation (R (2) = 0.49) between ice cover in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and yearling harp seal strandings, but found no relationship between sea ice conditions and adult strandings. Our analysis revealed that male seals stranded more frequently than females during the study period and that this relationship was strongest during light ice years. In contrast, we found no significant difference in mean d (2) between stranded and by-caught harp seals. The results demonstrate that sea ice cover and demographic factors have a greater influence on harp seal stranding rates than genetic diversity, with only a little of the variance in mean d (2) among stranded seals explained by ice cover. Any changes in these factors could have major implications for harp seals, and these findings should be considered in the development of future management plans for the Arctic that incorporate climate variability.

  11. Factors affecting harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus strandings in the Northwest Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne K Soulen

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on high latitude regions are becoming increasingly evident, particularly in the rapid decline of sea ice cover in the Arctic. Many high latitude species dependent on sea ice are being forced to adapt to changing habitats. Harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus are an indicator species for changing high-latitude ecosystems. This study analyzed multiple factors including ice cover, demographics, and genetic diversity, which could affect harp seal stranding rates along the eastern coast of the United States. Ice cover assessments were conducted for the month of February in the Gulf of St. Lawrence whelping region from 1991-2010 using remote sensing data, and harp seal stranding data were collected over the same time period. Genetic diversity, which may affect how quickly species can adapt to changing climates, was assessed using ten microsatellite markers to determine mean d (2 in a subset of stranded and by-caught (presumably healthy seals sampled along the northeast U.S. coast. Our study found a strong negative correlation (R (2 = 0.49 between ice cover in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and yearling harp seal strandings, but found no relationship between sea ice conditions and adult strandings. Our analysis revealed that male seals stranded more frequently than females during the study period and that this relationship was strongest during light ice years. In contrast, we found no significant difference in mean d (2 between stranded and by-caught harp seals. The results demonstrate that sea ice cover and demographic factors have a greater influence on harp seal stranding rates than genetic diversity, with only a little of the variance in mean d (2 among stranded seals explained by ice cover. Any changes in these factors could have major implications for harp seals, and these findings should be considered in the development of future management plans for the Arctic that incorporate climate variability.

  12. Multidimensional Evaluation of Endogenous and Health Factors Affecting Food Preferences, Taste and Smell Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, D; Perna, S; Carrai, M; Barale, R; Grassi, M; Rondanelli, M

    2016-01-01

    This study, by taking a holistic approach, investigates the relationships between taste, smell sensitivity and food preference with prognostic (endogenous and health) factors including age, gender, genetic taste markers, body mass, cigarette smoking, and number of drugs used. Cross sectional study. Northern Italy. 203 healthy subjects (160 women/43 men; mean age: 58.2±19.8 years) were examined. Individual taste sensitivity was determined by saccharose, sodium chloride, acetic acid and caffeine solutions and by 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) responsiveness test. Olfactory sensitivity has been assessed by «Sniffin' Sticks». Four tag Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in regions of interest were genotyped. Factor analysis and multivariate regression were performed for scaling food preferences and screening prognostic factors, respectively. Increasing age is associated with decreased responsiveness to NaCl (P=0.001), sweet solutions (P=0.044), and smell perception (Pmore than younger. Regarding number of drugs taken, there is a significant negative effect on smell perception (Peffect was shown, on sweet perception (P=0.006). Variation in taste receptor genes can give rise to differential perception of sweet, acid and bitter tastes. No effect of gender and smoking was observed. Our study suggested that age, genetic markers, BMI and drugs use are the factors which affect taste and smell perception and food preferences.

  13. Host genetic factors in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koushik Chatterjee

    2010-04-01

    HIV-1 infection has rapidly spread worldwide and has become the leading cause of mortality in infectious diseases. The duration for development of AIDS (AIDS progression) is highly variable among HIV–1 infected individuals, ranging from 2–3 years to no signs of AIDS development in the entire lifetime. Several factors regulate the rate at which HIV-1 infection progresses to AIDS. Host genetic factors play an important role in the outcome of such complex or multifactor diseases as AIDS and are also known to regulate the rate of disease progression. This review focuses on the major host genes reported to affect the progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected individuals.

  14. Search for biological/genetic markers in a long-term epidemiological and morbid risk study of affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieve, R R; Go, R; Dunner, D L; Elston, R

    1984-01-01

    groups revealed that none other than peptidase A showed significant linkage with affective disorder since one significant finding is expected by chance. We conclude from the overall morbid risk data and segregation analyses that bipolar manic-depressive illness is a spectrum disease inherited through a multifactorial mode of genetic transmission (which is not synonymous with polygenetic inheritance) with possible genetic heterogeneity and find no evidence for X-linkage. Additional studies with acetylcholinesterase, haptoglobin, GC, and properdin-factor B are needed to confirm their positive biological/genetic marker value suggested by our long-term epidemiological study.

  15. [Influence of genetic factors on human sexual orientation. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Larralde, Alvaro; Paradisi, Irene

    2009-09-01

    Human sexual orientation is a complex trait, influenced by several genes, experiential and sociocultural factors. These elements interact and produce a typical pattern of sexual orientation towards the opposite sex. Some exceptions exist, like bisexuality and homosexuality, which seem to be more frequent in males than females. Traditional methods for the genetic study of behavior multifactorial characteristics consist in detecting the presence of familial aggregation. In order to identify the importance of genetic and environmental factors in this aggregation, the concordance of the trait for monozygotic and dizygotic twins and for adopted sibs, reared together and apart, is compared. These types of studies have shown that familial aggregation is stronger for male than for female homosexuality. Based on the threshold method for multifactorial traits, and varying the frequency of homosexuality in the population between 4 and 10%, heritability estimates between 0.27 and 0.76 have been obtained. In 1993, linkage between homosexuality and chromosomal region Xq28 based on molecular approaches was reported. Nevertheless, this was not confirmed in later studies. Recently, a wide search of the genome has given significant or close to significant linkage values with regions 7q36, 8p12 and 10q26, which need to be studied more closely. Deviation in the proportion of X chromosome inactivation in mothers of homosexuals seems to favor the presence of genes related with sexual orientation in this chromosome. There is still much to be known about the genetics of human homosexuality.

  16. Lay responses to health messages about the genetic risk factors for salt sensitivity: do mass media genetic health messages result in genetic determinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerecnik, Chris M R

    2010-08-01

    Media coverage of genetics may lead to overestimation of the impact of genetics on disease development. In this study, we presented one student sample and one general public sample from the Netherlands with a general or a genetic health message (HM) about salt sensitivity. After reading the genetic (but not the general) HM, participants reported higher perceived impact of genetic versus lifestyle factors and a higher attributable fraction of genetics on disease development. Nevertheless, participants were able to recognise the balance between lifestyle and genetic risk factors in disease development. They also contextualised and restricted the message's implications to the specific information provided, and did not extrapolate these implications to other diseases. These results illustrate the nuanced understanding the general public may have concerning genetic risk factors.

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection affects mitochondrial function and DNA repair, thus, mediating genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Madsen, Claus Desler; Bøggild, Cecilie Sisse Line

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an important factor for the development of atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms explaining the effects of H. pylori infection are not fully elucidated. H. pylori infection is known to induce genetic instability in both nuclear...

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection affects mitochondrial function and DNA repair, thus, mediating genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel Dantas; Madsen, Claus Desler; Bøggild, Cecilie Sisse Line

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an important factor for the development of atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms explaining the effects of H. pylori infection are not fully elucidated. H. pylori infection is known to induce genetic instability in both nuclear and...

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosammod Mahamuda Parvin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pharmaceutical sector plays a vital role in underpinning the economic development of a country. This study attempts to evaluate job satisfaction of employees in different pharmaceutical companies. It focuses on the relative importance of job satisfaction factors and their impacts on the overall job satisfaction of employees. It also investigates the impacts of pharmaceutical type, work experience, age, and sex differences on the attitudes toward job Satisfaction. The result shows that salary, efficiency in work, fringe supervision, and co-worker relation are the most important factors contributing to job satisfaction. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in pharmaceutical sector is at the positive level. The nature of business operation, the work culture and the level of job satisfaction have undergone sea change for the pharmaceutical companies. As a business proposition initiated huge investment whereas majority of their stocks is going down bringing a high level of apprehension related to job security among its employees. This research paper highlights some of these problems and presents a picture of level of job satisfaction among employees of pharmaceutical companies. It also identifies unique issues of job satisfaction in the companies. Pharmaceuticals Companies are selected for the research because they are currently undergoing continued expansion. In order to gain competitive advantage and adapt to the dramatic changing environment, it is important for them to achieve management efficiency by increasing employee satisfaction in the organisation. Hence this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of pharmaceutical business, the factors causing the dissatisfaction

  20. Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Chrenková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.

  1. Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

    2004-08-01

    Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P body condition and service sire.

  2. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  3. Cultutal Factors Affecting English Proficiency in Rurl Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Chop Ler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to the rural and the ‘cultural’ and to determine their problems effect on the learning of English. Twenty students from different ethnic backgrounds and English language proficiency in six rural schools in Terengganu, Malaysia were interviewed. In addition the teachers also from different rural schools and ethnic backgrounds responded to a questionnaire. The problems discussed by both the teacher and student respondents arose due to the rural cultural setting. The findings of this study show that 1 five major problem areas exist, namely peer pressure and motivation, attitudes towards English ,teaching methodology, school culture ,influence of Islamic teaching on the learning of English 2 the problems discussed by the teachers and students are similar and 3 most importantly all these identified problems are closely related to the rural setting. Therefore, one can conclude that rural cultural factors adversely affect English Proficiency of the rural students of this study.

  4. An Analysis on the Contextual Factors Affecting Motivation in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>For us Chinese,a foreign language is something to be acquired as a kind of communicative tool,so we can infer that an effective way in SLA(Second Language Acquisition) must be learning the target language in a communicative context.A communicative context certainly concerns not only the interactional classroom activities designed in accordance with some stated curriculum tasks to lead the L2 students to learning swimming by swimming,but also other relevant elements which have a lot to do with all the situational,interactional and cultural contexts.In order to lessen some potential sources of conflict between L2 teacher and L2 learner,this article is an attempt to urge a careful study on the contextual factors affecting motivation in SLA.

  5. Factors affecting cellulose hydrolysis based on inactivation of adsorbed enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhuoliang; Berson, R Eric

    2014-09-01

    The rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose reaction is known to decrease significantly as the reaction proceeds. Factors such as reaction temperature, time, and surface area of substrate that affect cellulose conversion were analyzed relative to their role in a mechanistic model based on first order inactivation of adsorbed cellulases. The activation energies for the hydrolytic step and inactivation step were very close in magnitude: 16.3 kcal mol(-1) for hydrolysis and 18.0 kcal mol(-1) for inactivation, respectively. Therefore, increasing reaction temperature would cause a significant increase in the inactivation rate in addition to the catalytic reaction rate. Vmax,app was only 20% or less of the value at 72 h compared to at 2h as a result of inactivation of adsorbed cellulases, suggesting prolonged hydrolysis is not an efficient way to improve cellulose hydrolysis. Hydrolysis rate increased with corresponding increases in available substrate surface binding area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-05-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academic achievement compared with a high level (OR=3.72 and 4.38) were independently associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt, while better perceived health (OR=0.32) was independently associated with reduced odds of a suicide attempt. For adolescent drug users, preventive work should be directed toward the active treatment of drug use, depression, and physical health and reinforcing proper coping strategies for academic and other stress.

  7. Factors affecting the insurance sector development: Evidence from Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglantina Zyka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore factors potentially affecting the size of Albanian insurance market, over the period 1999 to 2009. The results of co- integration regression show that GDP and fraction urban population, both one lagged value, size of population and paid claims, both at contemporary value, have significant positive effect on aggregate insurance premium in Albania while the market share of the largest company in the insurance market, one lagged value, has significant negative effect on aggregate insurance premiums. Granger causality test shows statistically significance contribution of GDP growth to insurance premium growth, GDP drives insurance premium growth but not vice versa. The Albanian insurance market is under development, indicators as: insurance penetration, premium per capita, ect are still at low level and this can justify the insignificant role of the insurance in the economy

  8. Factors Affecting Information Security Focused on SME and Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the field of information and communication technology is a source of advantage that improves quality of business services; increases productivity levels and brings competitive advantage to enterprises and organisations related to agricultural production. However, the use of information and communication technology (ICT is connected with information security risks that threaten business continuity and information assets. The ICT in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME and agricultural enterprises is the source of several advantages as well as the risks resulting from information security violation and security incidents. This paper aims at the current situation of information security in SME and agricultural enterprises. Furthermore, the paper provides results of a survey focusing on identification and evaluation of the effects of internal and external factors affecting existence of risks in information security in Slovak SME and agricultural enterprises. Until now, there had not been a similar survey carried out.

  9. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not.

  10. Analysis of Factors Affecting Inflation in Indonesia: an Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Ratna Wulan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors affecting inflation. The research is descriptive quantitative in nature. The data used are reported exchange rates, interest rates, money supply and inflation during 2008-2012. The research data was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed in the year 2008-2012 the condition of each variable are (1 the rate of inflation has a negative trend, (2 the interest rate has a negative trend, (3 the money supply has a positive trend, (4 the value of exchange rate has a positive trend. The test results by using multiple linear regression analysis result that variable interest rates, the money supply and the exchange rate of the rupiah significant effect on the rate of inflation.

  11. Factors affecting the predictive validity of the Braden Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, M L; McDonald, D D

    1996-01-01

    This descriptive correlational study explored the predictive validity of the Braden Scale and factors affecting it A Braden score was determined within 4 hours of admission for 50 adult medical/surgical inpatients. Independent skin assessments were made three times a week and at discharge. Fourteen patients (28%) developed pressure ulcers. A Braden score cutoff of 18 or less resulted in a 71% sensitivity, 83% specificity, 63% predictive value of a positive test, and 88% predictive value of a negative test. Three of the four patients incorrectly predicted to be not at risk scored "inadequate" on the nutrition subscale. Two of the four also were underweight. Of the six patients incorrectly predicted at risk for a pressure ulcer, three had been placed on air mattresses and were receiving levothyroxine (Synthroid). This study provides further evidence of the Braden Scale's predictive validity. The results suggest that patients who are underweight or getting inadequate nutrition be considered at increased risk for pressure ulcers.

  12. Knowledge Elecitation for Factors Affecting Taskforce Productivity using a Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    Sohail, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as...

  13. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation of osteoid osteomas: factors affecting therapeutic outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribb, G.L.; Goude, W.H.; Cool, P.; Tins, B.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Mangham, D.C. [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    To examine factors which affect local recurrence of osteoid osteomas treated with percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation. A prospective study was carried out on 45 patients with osteoid osteoma who underwent percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation with a minimum follow-up of 12 months There were seven local recurrences (16%); all occurred within the first year. Local recurrence was significantly related to a non-diaphyseal location (P<0.01). There was no significant relationship (P=0.05) between local recurrence and age of the patient, duration of symptoms, previous treatment, size of the lesion, positive biopsy, radiofrequency generator used or the number of needle positions. There were no complications. Osteoid osteomas in a non-diaphyseal location are statistically more likely to recur than those in a diaphyseal location when treated with CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation. This relationship between local recurrence and location has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  14. Factors affecting characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    Three major factors affect the characterization of bulk high-temperature superconductors in terms of their levitation properties during interaction with permanent magnets. First, the appropriate parameter for the permanent magnet is internal magnetization, not the value of the magnetic field measured at the magnet`s surface. Second, although levitation force grows with superconductor thickness and surface area, for a given permanent magnet size, comparison of levitation force between samples is meaningful when minimum values are assigned to the superconductor size parameters. Finally, the effect of force creep must be considered when time-averaging the force measurements. In addition to levitational force, the coefficient of friction of a levitated rotating permanent magnet may be used to characterize the superconductor.

  15. Factors affecting the deterioration of concrete pavement slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Morozov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of constructions under actual operating conditions is affected by exposure to the environment. It is important that concrete roads and airport pavings are resistant not only to mechanical damage, but also to the effects of alternate freezing and thawing. The causes of early failure in concrete have been shown using prefabricated road slabs as an example. The causes of loss of performance properties of the roadway have been established, which are primarily dependent on the quality of raw materials in the concrete. It was found that, aside from durability, uniformity and porosity are important factors in determining the frost resistance of concrete roadways. It was shown that high aluminate content in the cement leads to concrete destruction in the first year of structure use. The results may also indirectly indicate a violation of forming technology during slab production.

  16. Discerning environmental factors affecting current tree growth in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, Emil; Russ, Radek; Šantrůčková, Hana; Altman, Jan; Kopáček, Jiří; Hůnová, Iva; Štěpánek, Petr; Oulehle, Filip; Tumajer, Jan; Ståhl, Göran

    2016-12-15

    We examined the effect of individual environmental factors on the current spruce tree growth assessed from a repeated country-level statistical landscape (incl. forest) survey in the Czech Republic. An extensive set of variables related to tree size, competition, site characteristics including soil texture, chemistry, N deposition and climate was tested within a random-effect model to explain growth in the conditions of dominantly managed forest ecosystems. The current spruce basal area increment was assessed from two consecutive landscape surveys conducted in 2008/2009 and six years later in 2014/2015. Tree size, age and competition within forest stands were found to be the dominant explanatory variables, whereas the expression of site characteristics, environmental and climatic drives was weaker. The significant site variables affecting growth included soil C/N ratio and soil exchangeable acidity (pH KCl; positive response) reflecting soil chemistry, long-term N-deposition (averaged since 1975) in combination with soil texture (clay content) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a drought index expressing moisture conditions. Sensitivity of growth to N-deposition was positive, although weak. SPI was positively related to and significant in explaining tree growth when expressed for the growth season. Except SPI, no significant relation of growth was determined to altitude-related variables (temperature, growth season length). We identified the current spruce growth optimum at elevations about 800ma.s.l. or higher in the conditions of the country. This suggests that at lower elevations, limitation by a more pronounced water deficit dominates, whereas direct temperature limitation may concern the less frequent higher elevations. The mixed linear model of spruce tree growth explained 55 and 65% of the variability with fixed and random effects included, respectively, and provided new insights on the current spruce tree growth and factors affecting it within the

  17. Risk factors that affect metabolic health status in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaogullari, Selin; Demirel, Fatma; Hatipoglu, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children. In total, 1085 patients aged 6-18 years, with age- and sex-matched BMI exceeding the 95th percentile were included in the study (mean 11.1±2.9 years, 57.6% female, 59.7% pubertal). Patients without dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatosteatosis, or hypertension were considered as MHO. Dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dL, triglyceride over 150 mg/dL, LDL over 130 mg/dL, or HDL under 40 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homeostasis model of assesment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Hepatosteatosis was evaluated with abdominal ultrasound. Duration of obesity, physical activity and nutritional habits, screen time, and parental obesity were questioned. Thyroid and liver function tests were performed. Six hundred and forty-two cases (59.2%) were MUO. Older age, male sex, increased BMI-SDS, and sedentary lifestyle were associated with MUO. Excessive junk food consumption was associated with MUO particularly among the prepubertal obese patients. Our results revealed that the most important factors that affect metabolic health in obesity are age and BMI. Positive effects of an active lifestyle and healthy eating habits are prominent in the prepubertal period and these habits should be formed earlier in life.

  18. Factors Affecting on Military Medical Job Satisfaction Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Job satisfaction (JS in the workplace affects absenteeism, turnover and performance. Objectives Considering the importance of JS, this study conducted with aim studying the factors affecting JS in a military hospital. Patients and Methods This descriptive analytical cross sectional study was carried out on 301 workers who worked in a military hospital in year 2009 using of stratified random sampling. In this study JSS questioner was used for measuring JS, ANOVA and Dunnett post hoc and SPSS and Excel software were used for statistical analysis and data analysis respectively. Results In this study, age, work experience, type of job and work position shown relationship with JS but gender, marriage status and education were not shown any statistical significant relationship with JS. In this study technician operating room and anesthesia (TORA had less, physicians and specialist and par clinical jobs had more and handy jobs and administrative jobs had same JS compare with nurses. Conclusions According to results of this study, we propose actions like modified and increased salaries and benefits of employees, making effective communication, improved working conditions, reform official promotion and more attention to TORA and nurses can be useful way for improving JS.

  19. The Study of Internal Factors Affecting Ethnic and National

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali Lahsaeizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present paper aims at studying the internal factors affecting ethnic and national identityamong Arab people of Ahwaz using quantitative method and survey technique. The sample of thisstudy was 384 male and female Arabs aging 18 to 65 years old. In order to have a more precisestudy, a pretest questionnaire was given to 52 Arab people of Ahwaz. The final questionnaire wasgiven to the sample during autumn and winter of 2006. The theoretical framework of this study isbased on modernization, relative deprivation and internal exploitation theories. In this study, theeffect of age, sex, marital status, employment, family income, the rate of family ownership, relativedeprivation feeling in economic dimension, urban residence, neighborhood (Arab dominant ormixed,the rate of ethnic trust, abiding by ethnic norms, education, using media, satisfaction withpolitical system, participation in political issues and relative deprivation feeling in politicaldimension were measured by ethnic identity variable. Finally, the relationship between ethnicidentity variable and national identity variable was tested among samples. The result of bivariateanalysis (T test, variance analysis and simple regression revealed that above mentioned variable -except 3 variables including sex, marital status and urban residence record - were significant. Ethnicidentity and national identity are significant negative relationship. The results of multivariateregression analysis revealed that 11 out of 16 independent variables affected ethnic identity whichfinaly explained 67 percent of ethnic identity variance.

  20. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Informal Payments in the Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad MESKARPOUR-AMIRI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Informal payments are a signifi cant source for fi nancing health systems in many developing and transition countries. The aim of our study was the assessment of the infl uence of patients’ socioeconomic status on their informal payment for health care. This article presents a cross-sectional and applied research that was conducted in a general public hospital in Iran during April 2014. The population of the study was all the 1,035 patients discharged during April 2014. Data gathering was done using a questionnaire. An ordered logistic regression model based on a truncated method was estimated to investigate factors affecting informal health payments. About 48% of respondents reported at least one experience of informal payment for health care during the previous year. The results showed that the patients’ socioeconomic status can signifi cantly affect the likelihood and frequency of informal payments for health care. Older people, members of small and wealthier families, employed persons, and those who are under coverage of only basic medical insurance are more at risk of making such payments. Policymakers should pay more attention to such socioeconomic groups in order to improve the effectiveness of policies.

  1. Factors affecting daughter cells' arrangement during the early bacterial divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Tzu Su

    Full Text Available On agar plates, daughter cells of Escherichia coli mutually slide and align side-by-side in parallel during the first round of binary fission. This phenomenon has been previously attributed to an elastic material that restricts apparently separated bacteria from being in string. We hypothesize that the interaction between bacteria and the underneath substratum may affect the arrangement of the daughter bacteria. To test this hypothesis, bacterial division on hyaluronic acid (HA gel, as an alternative substratum, was examined. Consistent with our proposition, the HA gel differs from agar by suppressing the typical side-by-side alignments to a rare population. Examination of bacterial surface molecules that may contribute to the daughter cells' arrangement yielded an observation that, with disrupted lpp, the E. coli daughter cells increasingly formed non-typical patterns, i.e. neither sliding side-by-side in parallel nor forming elongated strings. Therefore, our results suggest strongly that the early cell patterning is affected by multiple interaction factors. With oscillatory optical tweezers, we further demonstrated that the interaction force decreased in bacteria without Lpp, a result substantiating our notion that the side-by-side sliding phenomenon directly reflects the strength of in-situ interaction between bacteria and substratum.

  2. Genetic variations in FSH action affect sex hormone levels and breast tissue size in infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Louise Scheutz; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria

    2016-01-01

    , especially FSHR -29G>A and FSHR 2039A>G, affect female hormone profile and glandular breast tissue development already during minipuberty. Thus, genetic variations of FSH signaling appear to determine the individual set point of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis already early in life.......Context: Single nucleotide polymorphisms altering FSH action (FSHB -211G>T, FSHR -29G>A, and FSHR 2039A>G) are associated with peripubertal and adult levels of reproductive hormones and age at pubertal onset in girls. Objective: To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action...... present in homozygotes. FSHB -211T carriers had smaller breast tissue size than girls who without a minor allele; GT+TT 10.5 (confidence interval 9.4 -11.5) mm vs GG 12.1 (confidence interval 11.4-12.8) mm, P = .014. Conclusions: Our study indicates that 3 genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action...

  3. DEHP impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting critical factors in oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliana Carnevali

    Full Text Available Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 (ptgs2 were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRbeta levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg, maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs, and ovulation (ptgs2, deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans.

  4. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T B; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Banner, Jytte

    2000-01-01

    in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome......Sudden infant death syndrome or "cot death" has until the late eighties been a significant cause of death in children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year. Approximately two per 1000 children born alive dies of sudden infant death syndrome each year in Western Europe, North America, and Australia....... The vulnerability of the infant brain stem to ischemia has been suggested to be a conceivable cause of sudden infant death syndrome. This is compatible with a hypothesis that genetic risk factors for cerebral thrombosis could cause microinfarction in the brain stem during the first month of life, affecting vital...

  5. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, TB; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Lundemose, JB

    2000-01-01

    . The vulnerability of the infant brain stem to ischemia has been suggested to be a conceivable cause of sudden infant death syndrome. This is compatible with a hypothesis that genetic risk factors for cerebral thrombosis could cause microinfarction in the brain stem during the first month of life, affecting vital......Sudden infant death syndrome or "cot death" has until the late eighties been a significant cause of death in children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year. Approximately two per 1000 children born alive dies of sudden infant death syndrome each year in Western Europe, North America, and Australia...... in the child. This prompted us to investigate these genetic markers of thromboembolic disease in 121 cases of sudden infant death syndrome and in relevant controls, in the expectation of a more frequent occurrence of these markers if thrombosis is an etiological factor in sudden infant death syndrome...

  6. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  7. Study identifies socio-cultural factors affecting demographic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is undertaking a project that will produce a state-of-the-art paper on sociocultural factors affecting demographic behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on reproductive behavior in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Arab states region. The extent to which this information is incorporated in current population policies and programs will also be examined, and recommendations will be made. The factors to be studied include family and kinship structure; gender status and role; patterns of sexual relations and procreation in general and adolescent sexual behavior and fertility; religion, beliefs, customs, and traditions concerned with sexual relations and procreation; child rearing, socialization, and education; status and role of women; and sociocultural change, change agents, and influentials. The literature search will provide an inventory of methodologies. Guidelines on the use of the methodologies will be drafted for use by project personnel. These will later be tested in pilot studies in rural and urban communities in selected developing countries. The goal is to design programs that will accelerate contraceptive acceptance and sustain contraceptive practice by being sensitive to the sociocultural influences on the reproductive behavior of different subpopulations.

  8. Factors affecting the prevalence of obesity among primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kürtüncü

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the risk factors affecting obesity in students in the 6-15 years old age group. There were 868 students registered at Bahçelievler Elementary School in Zonguldak and were present for face-to-face meetings on the days the research data was collected. Data was collected using demographic questionary forms and weight-length measurements from March to April in 2010. Results: Difference is found to be statistically meaningful with respect to the relationship between obesity of children and their age, gender, number of siblings, fathers’ jobs, education level of their mothers, fast food consumption and family history of obesity (p<0.05. Conclusions: The study concludes that there are certain ciriteria related to the development of obesity during a specific period of childhood and that taking certain precautions are effective in preventing the development of obesity. Keywords: Body Mass Index; Children; Obesity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Turkey.

  9. Factors affecting the duration of orthodontic treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, Dimitrios; Athanasiou, Athanasios E

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews was utilized, five orthodontic journals were hand searched, the abstracts of related articles were reviewed to search for any relevant studies that might have been missed, and the reference lists of the retrieved articles were hand assessed. Eligibility was determined by reading the reports identified by the search. The end result of this search provided 41 articles. Although there is a need for more conclusive research, the present review revealed several conclusions concerning the duration of orthodontic treatment: (1) there are indications that extraction treatment lasts longer than the non-extraction therapy; (2) age does not seem to play a role provided the patients are in the permanent dentition; (3) when Class II division 1 malocclusions are considered, there is evidence that the earlier the orthodontic treatment begins the longer its duration; (4) there is conflicting information regarding treatment duration within public health systems; (5) combined orthodontic-surgical treatment duration is variable and appears to be operator sensitive; (6) various factors, such as the technique employed, the skill and number of operators involved, the compliance of the patients, and the severity of the initial malocclusion, all seem to play a role; and (7) impacted maxillary canines appear to prolong treatment.

  10. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C., E-mail: reedy@psi.edu

    2015-10-15

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object’s size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object’s bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  11. MICROECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING BANKS’ FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are important cells in the economy as they have a significant role by maintaining and encouraging the development of economic sectors. They refocus the resources from those who have surplus to those which have a deficit. Therefore, as any other enterprises, performance is highly desirable for banks and, then, it is crucial to discover what the main factors that influence this objective are. So, this paper analyzes the microeconomic factors affecting bank’s financial performance focusing on 11 entities for the period between 2003 and 2013. The performance is measured by return on assets. The independent variables used are bank’s size, financial leverage,loans to assets ratio, deposits to assets ratio, number of employees, liquidity, net result and monetary policy rate. The results show that bank’s size, loans to assets ratio and liquidity have not a significant impact on performance. Financial leverage has a negative impact, meanwhile the number of employees, deposits to assets ratio and net result have a positive effect.

  12. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  13. Identification of Immune-Relevant Factors Conferring Sarcoidosis Genetic Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Annegret; Ellinghaus, David; Nutsua, Marcel; Hofmann, Sylvia; Montgomery, Courtney G.; Iannuzzi, Michael C.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Petrek, Martin; Mrazek, Frantisek; Pabst, Stefan; Grohé, Christian; Grunewald, Johan; Ronninger, Marcus; Eklund, Anders; Padyukov, Leonid; Mihailovic-Vucinic, Violeta; Jovanovic, Dragana; Sterclova, Martina; Homolka, Jiri; Nöthen, Markus M.; Herms, Stefan; Gieger, Christian; Strauch, Konstantin; Winkelmann, Juliane; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Brand, Stephan; Büning, Carsten; Schürmann, Manfred; Ellinghaus, Eva; Baurecht, Hansjörg; Lieb, Wolfgang; Nebel, Almut; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Franke, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Genetic variation plays a significant role in the etiology of sarcoidosis. However, only a small fraction of its heritability has been explained so far. Objectives: To define further genetic risk loci for sarcoidosis, we used the Immunochip for a candidate gene association study of immune-associated loci. Methods: Altogether the study population comprised over 19,000 individuals. In a two-stage design, 1,726 German sarcoidosis cases and 5,482 control subjects were genotyped for 128,705 single-nucleotide polymorphisms using the Illumina Immunochip for the screening step. The remaining 3,955 cases, 7,514 control subjects, and 684 parents of affected offspring were used for validation and replication of 44 candidate and two established risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Measurements and Main Results: Four novel susceptibility loci were identified with genome-wide significance in the European case-control populations, located on chromosomes 12q24.12 (rs653178; ATXN2/SH2B3), 5q33.3 (rs4921492; IL12B), 4q24 (rs223498; MANBA/NFKB1), and 2q33.2 (rs6748088; FAM117B). We further defined three independent association signals in the HLA region with genome-wide significance, peaking in the BTNL2 promoter region (rs5007259), at HLA-B (rs4143332/HLA-B*0801) and at HLA-DPB1 (rs9277542), and found another novel independent signal near IL23R (rs12069782) on chromosome 1p31.3. Conclusions: Functional predictions and protein network analyses suggest a prominent role of the drug-targetable IL23/Th17 signaling pathway in the genetic etiology of sarcoidosis. Our findings reveal a substantial genetic overlap of sarcoidosis with diverse immune-mediated inflammatory disorders, which could be of relevance for the clinical application of modern therapeutics PMID:26051272

  14. Non-nutritional factors affecting lactation persistency in dairy ewes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is largely related to the shape of the lactation curve. Key elements of the lactation pattern are peak yield, which is the maximum daily yield reached during lactation, and lactation persistency, which is the medium rate of milk yield decrease after the lactation peak. The ideal lactation curve should have a reasonably high peak and a flat trend afterwards. A more persistent lactation is desirable because it is related to better animal health and reduction of feeding costs. Effective strategies to improve lactation persistency require a deep understanding of the main factors that affect this trait, including genetics, hormonal status and administration, udder morphology, seasonal changes, management, animal health (e.g. mastitis, stress and nutrition. This review covers the effects of non-nutritional factors on lactation persistency in dairy sheep.

  15. Factors Affecting in-Hospital Mortality of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salarifar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Considering immense socioeconomic damages of growing AMI in developing countries we estimated prognostic value of major risk factors of AMI to predict probable In-hospital AMI mortality."nMethods: In a cohort survey from June 2004 to March 2006, 1798 patients hospitalized with proven AMI entered into two groups: Survived (patients discharged alive and Expired (patients expired during hospitalization due to AMI. We evaluated relationship of 17 risk factors including age, sex, smoking, opium usage, hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, dyslipidemia, Killip class, existence of Q wave, St segment elevation, bundle branch blocks (BBB, involved surface of heart, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, mitral valve regurgitation (MR, and serum level of Troponin I and CKMB, with patients' survival and expiry by using chi square test, T test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant."nResults: There were 1629 (90.6% survived and 169 (9.4% expired patients. Factors significantly affected in-hospital mortality of AMI include: age (P< 0.001, femaleness (P< 0.001, smoking (P< 0.001, Killip class>II (P< 0.001, hy­per­tension (P= 0.036, DM (P< 0.001, bundle branch block (P< 0.001, Moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (P< 0.001, lower Mean LVEF (P< 0.001, and lower mean serum concentration of CKMB and Troponin I (P< 0.001. Mortality was significantly higher in anterolateral infarction."nConclusion: Mean age> 69.01 yr, femaleness, Killip class III & V, hypertension, DM, moderate to severe MR, anterolateral AMI, bundle branch block and higher serum concentration of CKMB & Troponin I are associated with higher In-hospital post-AMI mortality.

  16. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  17. Factors affecting mortality among victims of electrical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Çağrı; Haksal, Mustafa Celalettin; Yazıcıoğlu, Murat Burç; Çiftçi, Ali; Esen, Osman; Turgut, Hamdi Taner; Yıldırım, Abdullah; Güven, Murat

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting mortality rate among patients with an electrical burn. A total of 115 patients admitted to the emergency department and hospitalized in the Burn Treatment Center or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) due to the electrical burn, were included in the study. A total of 115 patients (4 female and 111 male) with a mean age of 32.88±12.87 years were included in the study. The mean hospitalization period was 25.03±20.50 days, and the mean total body surface area burned (% TBSA) was 22.83±15.54%. Among those patients, 9 (8.5%) expired, and the remaining 106 were discharged after treatment. In a logistic regression analysis, TBSA >20% (p=0.02, OR: 11.7, CI: 1.38-99.16); ICU requirement (p=0.005, OR: 1.28, CI: 1.08-1.58); erythrocyte transfusion requirement (p=0.02, OR: 12.48, CI: 1.44-107.83); fresh frozen plasma (FFP) requirement (p=0.03, OR: 10.23, CI: 1.18-88.17); albumin requirement (p=0.02, OR: 12.60, CI: 1.44-109.85); admission serum albumin level patients with electrical burns. In clinical practice, defining a mortality risk analyzer using these factors may be helpful in the management of patients with electrical burns. Additional, more comprehensive studies are required to define the risk factors for mortality and long-term morbidities in patients with electrical burns.

  18. Economic and geographic factors affecting the development of Greater Baku

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    Vusat AFANDIYEV

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the responsible factors for the ongoing development of urbanization are the high speed of population growth, and the mass migration of humans to cities and large urban areas. In most countries, this process resulted in the emergence of ‘pseudo-urbanization’ which is difficult to be regulated. The purpose of the carried researches to determine the development priorities in the territory of Greater Baku – the capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan; to define the problems that take place in this connection; and to develop ways of elimination of these problems. The reason of taking Baku as a research area is connected with some of the factors. Firstly, studies on Baku have been conducted based on the Soviet geographical and urban planning school and their methods for a long period. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out research in this field based on the principles adopted in most countries. Secondly, since 1992, the intensive accumulation of population in the territory of the capital city and the surrounding areas is being observed because of socio-economic problems. As a result, the process of pseudo-urbanization intensified, entailing a densely-populated area. Thirdly, low-rise buildings still continue to exist in the large areas within the territory of Baku, and they are not associated with the functional structure of the city. This situation creates many challenges, particularly in terms of density growth and effective use of the city’s territory. Finally, numerous new buildings have been constructed in the residential areas of Baku in recent years, and this may entailserious problems in water supply, energy provision, and utilities. The study is carried out referring to previous works of researchers, statistic data, and the results of the population census conducted in 1959-2009.The practical significance of the scientific work is that positive and negative factors affecting the further development of Greater Baku

  19. Genetic predisposition to chikungunya – a blood group study in chikungunya affected families

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna Vadde; Sarojamma Vemula; Sudarsanareddy Lokireddy

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of CHIKV virus infected Aedes mosquitoes. During monsoon outbreak of chikungunya fever, we carried out the genetic predisposition to chikungunya in disease affected 100 families by doing blood group (ABO) tests by focusing on individuals who were likely to have a risk of chikungunya and identified the blood group involved in susceptibility/resistance to chikungunya. In the present study, based on blood group antig...

  20. A Decade of Genetic Counseling in Frontotemporal Dementia Affected Families: Few Counseling Requests and much Familial Opposition to Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Riedijk, S. R.; Niermeijer, M. F. N.; Dooijes, D.; Tibben, A.

    2009-01-01

    A decade of genetic counseling of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) affected families has generated two important observations. First, the uptake rate for presymptomatic testing for FTD is low in our department of Clinical Genetics at the Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands. Second, FTD at-risk counselees reported substantial familial opposition to genetic testing, which is distinct from the attitude in Huntington Disease affected families. We hypothesize that the low acceptance for FTD gen...

  1. Intergenomic Rearrangements after Polyploidization of Kengyilia thoroldiana (Poaceae: Triticeae) Affected by Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuxia; Liu, Huitao; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xiuquan; Li, Lihui

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization is a major evolutionary process. Approximately 70–75% species of Triticeae (Poaceae) are polyploids, involving 23 genomes. To investigate intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Triticeae species and to determine the effects of environmental factors on them, nine populations of a typical polyploid Triticeae species, Kengyilia thoroldiana (Keng) J.L.Yang et al. (2n = 6x = 42, StStPPYY), collected from different environments, were studied using genome in situ hybridization (GISH). We found that intergenomic rearrangements occurred between the relatively large P genome and the small genomes, St (8.15%) and Y (22.22%), in polyploid species via various types of translocations compared to their diploid progenitors. However, no translocation was found between the relatively small St and Y chromosomes. Environmental factors may affect rearrangements among the three genomes. Chromosome translocations were significantly more frequent in populations from cold alpine and grassland environments than in populations from valley and lake-basin habitats (P<0.05). The relationship between types of chromosome translocations and altitude was significant (r = 0.809, P<0.01). Intergenomic rearrangements associated with environmental factors and genetic differentiation of a single basic genome should be considered as equally important genetic processes during species' ecotype evolution. PMID:22363542

  2. Intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Kengyilia thoroldiana (Poaceae: Triticeae affected by environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxia Wang

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is a major evolutionary process. Approximately 70-75% species of Triticeae (Poaceae are polyploids, involving 23 genomes. To investigate intergenomic rearrangements after polyploidization of Triticeae species and to determine the effects of environmental factors on them, nine populations of a typical polyploid Triticeae species, Kengyilia thoroldiana (Keng J.L.Yang et al. (2n = 6x = 42, StStPPYY, collected from different environments, were studied using genome in situ hybridization (GISH. We found that intergenomic rearrangements occurred between the relatively large P genome and the small genomes, St (8.15% and Y (22.22%, in polyploid species via various types of translocations compared to their diploid progenitors. However, no translocation was found between the relatively small St and Y chromosomes. Environmental factors may affect rearrangements among the three genomes. Chromosome translocations were significantly more frequent in populations from cold alpine and grassland environments than in populations from valley and lake-basin habitats (P<0.05. The relationship between types of chromosome translocations and altitude was significant (r = 0.809, P<0.01. Intergenomic rearrangements associated with environmental factors and genetic differentiation of a single basic genome should be considered as equally important genetic processes during species' ecotype evolution.

  3. Factores de riesgo de la enfermedad periodontal: factores genéticos Risks factors in periodontal diseases: genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rioboo Crespo

    2005-08-01

    factor de resistencia y susceptibilidad de la enfermedad periodontal así como los polimorfismos del gen de la vitamina D, del receptor fMLP , del receptor FcIIIb de los neutrófilos, del receptor FcgRII y de la N-acetyltransferasa (NAT2.Periodontitis is nowadays accepted as a multi-factorial disease with microbial agent as the initiator ,necessary but not enough , and a wide variety of determinants and factors that influence the manifestation and progression of the disease. The potencial importance of genetics and heredity to the knowledge about the pathogenesis and the clinic dental practice of periodontal diseases has been recognized since the earliest days of dentistry and medicine, but the relative complexity resulting from the interaction among the exposure to oral bacteria and the host response promote the dificulty of the genetics factors role clarification. Even so, genetic factors influence in periodontal diseases are suggest for several forms of periodontitis. In general, it’s considered the existence of sufficient scientific basis in favour of the genetic factors presence in Aggressive Periodontitis, whereas, the evidence of the genetic participation in Chronic Periodontitis isn’t so manifest. A multitude of host factors are involved in responses to microbial challenge and in the subsequent immune responses of the periodontal diseases, so, genetics polymorphisms probably exist in many of if not most of the inflammatory and immune mediators such as demonstrated by the IL-1,IL-4, IL-10,TNF, PGE2, specific HLA antigens (Human Leukocite Antigen, Vitamine D receptor, fMLP receptor, IgG Fc receptors (FcIIIb and FcgRII and the N-acetyltransferase (NAT2 receptor. Correlation of these genetic polymorphisms with phenotypic characteristics of periodontitis patients groups may provide the frame work for identification of individual risk profiles.

  4. Toward a biaxial model of "bipolar" affective disorders: further exploration of genetic, molecular and cellular substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askland, Kathleen

    2006-08-01

    Current epidemiologic and genetic evidence strongly supports the heritability of bipolar disease. Inconsistencies across linkage and association analyses have been primarily interpreted as suggesting polygenic, nonMendelian and variably-penetrant inheritance (i.e., in terms of interacting disease models). An equally-likely explanation for this genetic complexity is that trait, locus and allelic heterogeneities (i.e., a heterogeneous disease model) are primarily responsible for observed variability at the population level. The two models of genetic complexity are not mutually-exclusive, and are in fact likely to co-exist both in trait determination and disease expression. However, the current model proposes that, while both types of complex genetics are likely central to observable affective trait spectra, inheritance patterns, gross phenotypic categories and treatment-responsiveness in affective disease (as well as the widespread inconsistencies across such studies) may be primarily explained in terms of a heterogeneous disease model. Gene-gene, gene-protein and protein-protein interactions, then, are most likely to serve as trait determinants and 'phenotypic modifiers' rather than as primary pathogenic determinants. Moreover, while locus heterogeneity indicates the presence of multiple susceptibility genes at the population level, it does not necessitate polygenic inheritance at the individual or pedigree level. Rather, it is compatible with the possibility of mono- or bigenic determination of disease susceptibility within individuals/pedigrees. More specifically, the biaxial model proposes that integration of specific findings from genetic linkage and association studies, ion channels research as well as pharmacologic mechanism, phenotypic specificity and effectiveness studies suggests that each gene of potential etiologic significance in primary affective illness might be categorized into one of two classes, according to their primary role in neuronal

  5. Demographic factors and genetic variation influence population persistence under environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Yvonne; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2009-01-01

    Population persistence has been studied in a conservation context to predict the fate of small or declining populations. Persistence models have explored effects on extinction of random demographic and environmental fluctuations, but in the face of directional environmental change they should also integrate factors affecting whether a population can adapt. Here, we examine the population-size dependence of demographic and genetic factors and their likely contributions to extinction time under scenarios of environmental change. Parameter estimates were derived from experimental populations of the rainforest species, Drosophila birchii, held in the lab for 10 generations at census sizes of 20, 100 and 1000, and later exposed to five generations of heat-knockdown selection. Under a model of directional change in the thermal environment, rapid extinction of populations of size 20 was caused by a combination of low growth rate (r) and high stochasticity in r. Populations of 100 had significantly higher reproductive output, lower stochasticity in r and more additive genetic variance (V(A)) than populations of 20, but they were predicted to persist less well than the largest size class. Even populations of 1000 persisted only a few hundred generations under realistic estimates of environmental change because of low V(A) for heat-knockdown resistance. The experimental results document population-size dependence of demographic and adaptability factors. The simulations illustrate a threshold influence of demographic factors on population persistence, while genetic variance has a more elastic impact on persistence under environmental change.

  6. Motivating factors for physician ordering of factor V Leiden genetic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindorff, Lucia A; Burke, Wylie; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Rice, Kenneth M; Lumley, Thomas; Leppig, Kathleen; Rosendaal, Frits R; Larson, Eric B; Psaty, Bruce M

    2009-01-12

    The factor V Leiden (FVL) genetic test is used by many physicians despite its uncertain clinical utility. We investigate whether self-reported motivations and behaviors concerning FVL genetic testing differ between 2 groups of primary care physicians defined by frequency of previous FVL test use. In January 2007, 112 physicians (60 frequent and 52 infrequent FVL test users) at Group Health, a large health care delivery system, were surveyed. Survey content areas included primary reasons and motivating factors for ordering the FVL test, the likelihood of ordering the FVL test for hypothetical patients, potential barriers to genetic testing, and practices and skills regarding FVL test ordering. Responses between groups agreed concerning most clinical- and patient-related factors. Frequent-FVL physicians were more likely than infrequent-FVL physicians to report ordering the FVL test for hypothetical patients with mesenteric venous thrombosis (adjusted odds ratio, 4.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-13.53) or venous thrombosis after hospital discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 3.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-8.95). Frequent-FVL physicians were also less likely to identify several items on the survey as barriers to genetic testing and were more likely to report high confidence in interpreting and explaining FVL test results. Generally, both physician groups reported similar motivating factors for ordering FVL tests, and reported behaviors were consistent with existing guidelines. More striking differences were observed for measures such as barriers to and confidence in using genetic tests. Although additional research is necessary to evaluate the impact of these results, they inform several knowledge-to-practice translation issues that are important for the successful integration of genetic testing into primary care.

  7. Motivating factors for physician ordering of Factor V Leiden genetic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindorff, Lucia A.; Burke, Wylie; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Rice, Kenneth M.; Lumley, Thomas; Leppig, Kathleen; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Larson, Eric B.; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Factor V Leiden (FVL) genetic test is used by many physicians despite its uncertain clinical utility. This study investigated whether self-reported motivations and behaviors concerning FVL genetic testing differed between two groups of primary care physicians defined by frequency of prior FVL test use. Methods In January 2007, 112 primary care physicians (60 frequent, 52 infrequent FVL test users) at Group Health, a large health care delivery system, were surveyed. Survey content areas included: primary reasons and motivating factors for ordering FVL; likelihood of ordering FVL for hypothetical patients; potential barriers to genetic testing, and practices and skills regarding FVL test ordering. Results Responses between groups agreed concerning most clinical- or patient-related factors. Frequent-FVL physicians were more likely than infrequent-FVL physicians to report ordering FVL for hypothetical patients with mesenteric venous thrombosis (adjusted OR 4.57, 95% CI 1.55, 13.53) or venous thrombosis following hospital discharge (adjusted OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.30, 8.95). Frequent-FVL physicians were also less likely to agree with several potential barriers to genetic testing and more likely to report high confidence in interpreting and explaining FVL test results. Conclusions Generally, both groups of physicians reported similar motivating factors for ordering FVL, and reported behaviors were consistent with existing guidelines. More striking differences were observed for measures such as barriers to and confidence in using genetic tests. Though additional research is necessary to evaluate their impact, these results inform several knowledge-to-practice translation issues that are important to the successful integration of genetic testing into primary care. PMID:19139326

  8. Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a

  9. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  10. The Factors Affecting Performance of Nurse at Paniai General Hospital

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    Elias Tatogo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available General hospital of Paniai regency health service institution under Local Government Paniai Regency with amount of nurse resource counted 69 one who have duty to remain to can improve more certifiable service and reached by society, so to be form degree of health which at the farthest, so that nurse performance of vital importance in giving of health service. The goal of research: To knowing of factors affecting performance of nurse at Paniai general hospital. Method: Type research is causal associative by using quantitative approach. Sample is all of nurse as much 69 nurse with date implemented in October 2016. Data obtained used questioner and analyzed by chi square test. Result of research is obtained that factor’s affecting of nurse performance in Paniai General Hospital is motivation (p-value = 0,001; RP = 3,000; CI95%= 1,607 - 5,601, [job/activity] discipline (p-value = 0,043; RP = 2,068; CI95%= 1,150 - 3,719, reward (p- value = 0,001; RP = 5,008; CI95%= 1,656 - 15,142, punishment (p- value = 0,000 ; RP= 16,839; CI95%= ( 4,310 - 65,784 and style leadership [of] director (p- value = 0,000; RP = 3,333; CI95%= 1,742 - 6,380. The factor’s not related of nurse performance at Paniai general hospital is age (p- value = 1,000 ; RP = 0,908; CI95%= 0,456 - 1,806, long working (p- value = 1,000; RP = 0,908; CI95%= 0,456 - 1,806 and job rotation (p- value = 0,843; RP = 1,190; CI95%= 0,603 – 2,348.

  11. Pubertal Onset in Girls is Strongly Influenced by Genetic Variation Affecting FSH Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Casper P.; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Wohlfart-Veje, Christine; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M.; Meyts, Ewa Rajpert-De; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Age at pubertal onset varies substantially in healthy girls. Although genetic factors are responsible for more than half of the phenotypic variation, only a small part has been attributed to specific genetic polymorphisms identified so far. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estradiol synthesis which is responsible for breast development. We assessed the effect of three polymorphisms influencing FSH action on age at breast deveopment in a population-based cohort of 964 healthy girls. Girls homozygous for FSHR -29AA (reduced FSH receptor expression) entered puberty 7.4 (2.5–12.4) months later than carriers of the common variants FSHR -29GG+GA, p = 0.003. To our knowledge, this is the strongest genetic effect on age at pubertal onset in girls published to date. PMID:25231187

  12. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

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    Azin Ayatollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD.Methods: 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. The patient’s quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29.Results: Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001, but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL, disease duration and BMD of both site.Conclusion: As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients

  13. Factors affecting the depth of burns occurring in medical institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Yoon, Cheonjae; You, Je Sung

    2015-05-01

    Most cases of burns occurring in medical institutions are associated with activities involving heat. It is very difficult to detect these burns. To date, there are few reports on burns occurring in medical institutions. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the etiology of burns occurring in medical institutions and to elucidate the factors affecting burn depth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who visited our center from April 2008 to February 2013. This study enrolled all patients with burns occurring in the medical institution during or related to treatment. We excluded burn patients whose burns were not related to treatment (for example, we excluded patients with scalding burns that occurred in the hospital cafeteria and pediatric patients with hot water burns from the water purifier). However, patients with burns that occurred in the recovery room after general anesthesia were included. A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The average patient age was 41.5 years, with more women than men (M:F=31:84). There were 29 cases (25.3%) of superficial burns (first-degree and superficial second-degree) and 86 cases (74.7%) of deep burns (deep second-degree and third-degree). Hot packs were the most common cause of burns (27 cases, 23.5%), followed by laser therapy, heating pads, and grounding pads, accounting for 15 cases each. There were 89 cases (77.4%) of contact burns and 26 cases (22.6%) of non-contact burns. The most common site of burns was the lower extremities (41 cases, 35.7%). The burn site and contact burns were both factors affecting burn depth. The rate of deep burns was higher in patients with contact burns than in those with non-contact burns (odds ratio 4.26) and was associated with lower body burns (odds ratio 2.85). In burns occurring in medical institutions, there is a high probability of a deep burn if it is a contact burn or occurs in the lower body. Therefore, safety guidelines are needed

  14. Factors affecting recurrence after surgery for Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Yamamoto

    2005-01-01

    Although in Crohn's disease post-operative recurrence is common, the determinants of disease recurrence remain speculative. The aim of this study was to examine factors affecting post-operative recurrence of Crohn's disease. A Medline-based literature review was carried out. The following factors were investigated: age at onset of disease, sex, family history of Crohn's disease,smoking, duration of Crohn's disease before surgery,prophylactic medical treatment (corticosteroids, 5-amino salicylic acid [5-ASA] and immunosuppressants),anatomical site of involvement, indication for surgery (perforating or non-perforating disease), length of resected bowel, anast-omotic technique, presence of granuloma in the specimen, involvement of disease at the resection margin, blood transfusions and postoperative complications. Smoking significantly increases the risk of recurrence (risk is approximately twice as high), especially in women and heavy smokers. Quitting smoking reduces the post-operative recurrence rate. A number of studies have shown a higher risk when the duration of the disease before surgery was short. There were, however, different definitions of 'short' among the studies. Prophylactic cortic-osteroids therapy is not effective in reducing the post-operative recurrence. A number of randomized controlled trials offered evidence of the efficacy of 5-ASA (mesalazine) in reducing post-operative recurrence. Recently, the thera-peutic efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine) in the prevention of post-operative recurrence has been investigated and several studies have reported that these drugs might help prevent the recurrence. Further clinical trials would be necessary to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of immunosuppressants.Several studies showed a higher recurrence rate in patients with perforating disease than in those with non-perforating disease. However, evidence for differing recurrence rates in perforating and non

  15. [Endemic goiter in Latium: environmental and genetic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, A

    1998-01-01

    Most studies on the pathogenesis of endemic goiter focus above all on iodine deficiency. In some endemic goiter areas (i.e. Nigeria) there is no evidence of iodine deficiency; therefore, we suggest the taking into account of various factors, both environmental and non-environmental. We report the results of two studies carried out in three different areas in Latium: one of them (Cerveteri, RM) could be classified as high prevalence of goiter area, while the two others (Roccasecca dei Volsci, LT and Castel San Pietro Romano, RM) are true endemic goiter areas. The role of environmental factors, radioactivity and electromagnetism, foodstuff, the hydrogeological and chemical composition of natural water and the importance of genetics are here discussed, assuming that the endemic goiter could have a multifactorial pathogenesis.

  16. Plant genetics affects arthropod community richness and composition: evidence from a synthetic eucalypt hybrid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungey, H S; Potts, B M; Whitham, T G; Li, H F

    2000-12-01

    To examine how genetic variation in a plant population affects arthropod community richness and composition, we quantified the arthropod communities on a synthetic population of Eucalyptus amygdalina, E. risdonii, and their F1 and advanced-generation hybrids. Five major patterns emerged. First, the pure species and hybrid populations supported significantly different communities. Second, species richness was significantly greatest on hybrids (F1 > F2 > E. amygdalina > E. risdonii). These results are similar to those from a wild population of the same species and represent the first case in which both synthetic and wild population studies confirm a genetic component to community structure. Hybrids also acted as centers of biodiversity by accumulating both the common and specialist taxa of both parental species (100% in the wild and 80% in the synthetic population). Third, species richness was significantly greater on F1s than the single F2 family, suggesting that the increased insect abundance on hybrids may not be caused by the breakup of coadapted gene complexes. Fourth, specialist arthropod taxa were most likely to show a dominance response to F1 hybrids, whereas generalist taxa exhibited a susceptible response. Fifth, in an analysis of 31 leaf terpenoids that are thought to play a role in plant defense, hybrids were generally intermediate to the parental chemotypes. Within the single F2 family, we found significant associations between the communities of individual trees and five individual oil components, including oil yield, demonstrating that there is a genetic effect on plant defensive chemistry that, in turn, may affect community structure. These studies argue that hybridization has important community-level consequences and that the genetic variation present in hybrid zones can be used to explore the genetic-based mechanisms that structure communities.

  17. Are organisational factors affecting the emotional withdrawal of community nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Leila; Leggat, Sandra G; Cheng, Cindy; Donohue, Lisa; Bartram, Timothy; Oakman, Jodi

    2016-12-05

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of work organisation on the emotional labour withdrawal behaviour of Australian community nurses.Methods Using a paper-based survey, a sample of 312 Australian community nurses reported on their emotional dissonance, withdrawal behaviours (i.e. job neglect, job dissatisfaction, stress-related presenteeism) and work organisation. A model to determine the partial mediation effect of work organisation was developed based on a literature review. The fit of the proposed model was assessed via structural equation modelling using Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS; IMB).Results Community nurses with higher levels of emotional dissonance were less likely to be satisfied with their job and work organisation and had a higher tendency to exhibit withdrawal behaviours. Work organisational factors mediated this relationship.Conclusion Emotional dissonance can be a potential stressor for community nurses that can trigger withdrawal behaviours. Improving work organisational factors may help reduce emotional conflict and its effect on withdrawal behaviours.What is known about the topic? Although emotional labour has been broadly investigated in the literature, very few studies have addressed the effect of the quality of work organisation on nurses' withdrawal behaviours in a nursing setting.What does this paper add? This paper provides evidence that work organisation affects levels of emotional dissonance and has an effect on job neglect through stress-related presenteeism.What are the implications for practitioners? In order to minimise stress-related presenteeism and job neglect, healthcare organisations need to establish a positive working environment, designed to improve the quality of relationships with management, provide appropriate rewards, recognition and effective workload management and support high-quality relationships with colleagues.

  18. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface

  19. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  20. Factors affecting proprioceptive recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mou-wang; GU Li; CHEN Ya-ping; YU Chang-long; AO Ying-fang; HUANG Hong-shi; YANG Yan-yan

    2008-01-01

    Background Proprioception plays an important role in knee movements.Since there are controversies surrounding the overall recovery time of proprioception following surgery,it is necessary to define the factors affecting proprioceptive recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and to investigate the relationship between proprioception and muscle strength.Methods A total of 36 patients who had their ACL reconstructed with a semitendinosus/gracilis graft (reconstructed group:6 months post-surgery) and 13 healthy adults without any knee injury (control group) were included in the study.Knee proprioception was evaluated with a passive reproduction test.Isokinetic strength was measured using the Biodex System.Statistical analysis was used to compare proprioception of the reconstructed group versus the control group,and to define causal factors,including sex,hamstring/quadriceps ratio,and the course of injury before reconstruction.We also investigated the correlation between the passive reproduction error and quadriceps index.Results There was a significant difference in proprioception between the reconstructed and control groups (P <0.05).When the course of injury before reconstruction was less than 4 months,there was a linear correlation with proprioception 6 months after the operation (r=0.713,P <0.05).There was a positive correlation between post-surgery proprioception and the quadriceps index at 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Impaired knee proprioception is observed 6 months after ACL reconstruction.Within 4 months of injury,early undertaking of reconstruction is associated with better proprioception outcome.Patients with enhanced proprioception have a better quadriceps index.