WorldWideScience

Sample records for genetic engineering methods

  1. Exergetic optimization of turbofan engine with genetic algorithm method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turan, Onder [Anadolu University, School of Civil Aviation (Turkey)], e-mail: onderturan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the growth of passenger numbers, emissions from the aeronautics sector are increasing and the industry is now working on improving engine efficiency to reduce fuel consumption. The aim of this study is to present the use of genetic algorithms, an optimization method based on biological principles, to optimize the exergetic performance of turbofan engines. The optimization was carried out using exergy efficiency, overall efficiency and specific thrust of the engine as evaluation criteria and playing on pressure and bypass ratio, turbine inlet temperature and flight altitude. Results showed exergy efficiency can be maximized with higher altitudes, fan pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature; the turbine inlet temperature is the most important parameter for increased exergy efficiency. This study demonstrated that genetic algorithms are effective in optimizing complex systems in a short time.

  2. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  3. TMTI Task 1.6 Genetic Engineering Methods and Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, T; Lenhoff, R; Allen, J; Borucki, M; Vitalis, E; Gardner, S

    2009-12-04

    A large number of GE techniques can be adapted from other microorganisms to biothreat bacteria and viruses. Detection of GE in a microorganism increases in difficulty as the size of the genetic change decreases. In addition to the size of the engineered change, the consensus genomic sequence of the microorganism can impact the difficulty of detecting an engineered change in genomes that are highly variable from strain to strain. This problem will require comprehensive databases of whole genome sequences for more genetically variable biothreat bacteria and viruses. Preliminary work with microarrays for detecting synthetic elements or virulence genes and analytic bioinformatic approaches for whole genome sequence comparison to detect genetic engineering show promise for attacking this difficult problem but a large amount of future work remains.

  4. Genetic-evolution-based optimization methods for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Pan, T. S.; Dhingra, A. K.; Venkayya, V. B.; Kumar, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the applicability of a biological model, based on genetic evolution, for engineering design optimization. Algorithms embodying the ideas of reproduction, crossover, and mutation are developed and applied to solve different types of structural optimization problems. Both continuous and discrete variable optimization problems are solved. A two-bay truss for maximum fundamental frequency is considered to demonstrate the continuous variable case. The selection of locations of actuators in an actively controlled structure, for minimum energy dissipation, is considered to illustrate the discrete variable case.

  5. Genetic-evolution-based optimization methods for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Pan, T. S.; Dhingra, A. K.; Venkayya, V. B.; Kumar, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the applicability of a biological model, based on genetic evolution, for engineering design optimization. Algorithms embodying the ideas of reproduction, crossover, and mutation are developed and applied to solve different types of structural optimization problems. Both continuous and discrete variable optimization problems are solved. A two-bay truss for maximum fundamental frequency is considered to demonstrate the continuous variable case. The selection of locations of actuators in an actively controlled structure, for minimum energy dissipation, is considered to illustrate the discrete variable case.

  6. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  7. Genetically engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioengineered foods; GMOs; Genetically modified foods ... helps speed up the process of creating new foods with desired traits. The possible benefits of genetic engineering include: More nutritious food Tastier food Disease- and ...

  8. Genetically Engineered Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruanbao (Inventor); Gibbons, William (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The disclosed embodiments provide cyanobacteria spp. that have been genetically engineered to have increased production of carbon-based products of interest. These genetically engineered hosts efficiently convert carbon dioxide and light into carbon-based products of interest such as long chained hydrocarbons. Several constructs containing polynucleotides encoding enzymes active in the metabolic pathways of cyanobacteria are disclosed. In many instances, the cyanobacteria strains have been further genetically modified to optimize production of the carbon-based products of interest. The optimization includes both up-regulation and down-regulation of particular genes.

  9. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  11. Paper Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacClintic, Scott D.; Nelson, Genevieve M.

    Bacterial transformation is a commonly used technique in genetic engineering that involves transferring a gene of interest into a bacterial host so that the bacteria can be used to produce large quantities of the gene product. Although several kits are available for performing bacterial transformation in the classroom, students do not always…

  12. Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

    1973-01-01

    Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

  13. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jacob Hedemand

    , including genetic tools that allow metabolic engineering. The cyanobacterial phylum represents a diverse group of aerobic photosynthetic bacteria that are widespread in nature. Cyanobacteria shaped our atmosphere by oxygen evolution through the splitting of water using energy from sunlight. The sole carbon...... and characterized for growth phenotype and glycogen content. While no difference in growth rate or glycogen content was detected between the phosphorylase double mutant and wild type strain, we found that both glycogen phophyrylases must be genetically inactivated to eliminate glycogen phosphorylase activity...

  14. Genetic engineering in biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedate, C.A.; Morales, J.C.; Lopez, E.H.

    1981-09-01

    The objective of this book is to encourage the use of genetic engineering for economic development. The report covers: (1) Precedents of genetic engineering; (2) a brief description of the technology, including the transfer of DNA in bacteria (vectors, E. coli and B. subtilis hosts, stages, and technical problems), practical examples of techniques used and their products (interferon; growth hormone; insulin; treatment of blood cells, Talasemia, and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome; and more nutritious soya), transfer to higher organisms, and cellular fusion; (3) biological risks and precautions; (4) possible applications (production of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, alcohol, chemicals, enzymes, peptides, viral antigens, monoclonal antibodies, genes, proteins, and insecticides; metal extraction; nitrogen fixation; biodegradation; and new varieties of plants and animals; and (5) international activities.

  15. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jacob Hedemand

    , including genetic tools that allow metabolic engineering. The cyanobacterial phylum represents a diverse group of aerobic photosynthetic bacteria that are widespread in nature. Cyanobacteria shaped our atmosphere by oxygen evolution through the splitting of water using energy from sunlight. The sole carbon...... and its natural ability to take up and stably integrate heterologous DNA make Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 a good candidate for metabolic engineering. For targeted gene inactivation, a suite of vectors were made by adaptation of a system previously used in plants and fungi. The vectors include a cassette...... and characterized for growth phenotype and glycogen content. While no difference in growth rate or glycogen content was detected between the phosphorylase double mutant and wild type strain, we found that both glycogen phophyrylases must be genetically inactivated to eliminate glycogen phosphorylase activity...

  16. Genetic and metabolic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yang,Yea-Tyng; Bennett, George N.; San, Ka-yiu

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology techniques, analytical methods and mathematical tools have led to a growing interest in using metabolic engineering to redirect metabolic fluxes for industrial and medical purposes. Metabolic engineering is referred to as the directed improvement of cellular properties through the modification of specific biochemical reactions or the introduction of new ones, with the use of recombinant DNA technology (Stephanopoulos, 1999). This multidisciplinary field dr...

  17. A genetic engineering approach to genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, J S; Kazakov, V

    2001-01-01

    We present an extension to the standard genetic algorithm (GA), which is based on concepts of genetic engineering. The motivation is to discover useful and harmful genetic materials and then execute an evolutionary process in such a way that the population becomes increasingly composed of useful genetic material and increasingly free of the harmful genetic material. Compared to the standard GA, it provides some computational advantages as well as a tool for automatic generation of hierarchical genetic representations specifically tailored to suit certain classes of problems.

  18. Moral Fantasy in Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, C. Keith

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the main ethical issues generated by the new genetics and suggests ways to think about them. Concerns include "playing God," violation of the natural order of the universe, and abuse of genetic technology. Critical distinctions for making difficult decisions about genetic engineering issues are noted. (DH)

  19. Genetic Engineering of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Khurshid, Muhammad; Sun, Zhan Min; Tang, Yi Xiong; Zhou, Mei Liang; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is excellent perennial legume forage for its extensive ecological adaptability, high nutrition value, palatability and biological nitrogen fixation. It plays a very important role in the agriculture, animal husbandry and ecological construction. It is cultivated in all continents. With the development of modern plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques, a large amount of work has been carried out on alfalfa. Here we summarize the recent research advances in genetic engineering of alfalfa breeding, including transformation, quality improvement, stress resistance and as a bioreactor. The review article can enables us to understand the research method, direction and achievements of genetic engineering technology of Alfalfa.

  20. Genetic engineering, medicine and medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G

    1984-01-01

    The impact of DNA technology in the near future will be on the manufacture of biologic agents and reagents that will lead to improved therapy and diagnosis. The use of DNA technology for prenatal and preclinical diagnosis in genetic diseases is likely to affect management of genetic diseases considerably. New and old questions regarding selective abortion and the psychosocial impact of early diagnosis of late appearing diseases and of genetic susceptibilities are being raised. Somatic therapy with isolated genes to treat disease has not been achieved. True germinal genetic engineering is far off for humans but may find applications in animal agriculture.

  1. A Quantitative Volumetric Micro-Computed Tomography Method to Analyze Lung Tumors in Genetically Engineered Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B. Haines

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two genetically engineered, conditional mouse models of lung tumor formation, K-rasLSL-G12D and K-rasLSL-G12D/p53LSL-R270H, are commonly used to model human lung cancer. Developed by Tyler Jacks and colleagues, these models have been invaluable to study in vivo lung cancer initiation and progression in a genetically and physiologically relevant context. However, heterogeneity, multiplicity and complexity of tumor formation in these models make it challenging to monitor tumor growth in vivo and have limited the application of these models in oncology drug discovery. Here, we describe a novel analytical method to quantitatively measure total lung tumor burden in live animals using micro-computed tomography imaging. Applying this methodology, we studied the kinetics of tumor development and response to targeted therapy in vivo in K-ras and K-ras/p53 mice. Consistent with previous reports, lung tumors in both models developed in a time- and dose (Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Furthermore, the compound K-rasLSL-G12D/p53LSL-R270H mice developed tumors faster and more robustly than mice harboring a single K-rasLSL-G12D oncogene, as expected. Erlotinib, a small molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor, significantly inhibited tumor growth in K-rasLSL-G12D/p53LSL-R270H mice. These results demonstrate that this novel imaging technique can be used to monitor both tumor progression and response to treatment and therefore supports a broader application of these genetically engineered mouse models in oncology drug discovery and development.

  2. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    into ecological functional groups and selecting those that deliver the identified environmental values. (3) All of the species or ecosystem processes related to the selected functional groups are identified and (4) multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is used to rank the indicator endpoint entities, which may......-driven, ecologically-based decision-making and provides formal methods for completing a screening level-ERA that can focus ERA on the most significant concerns. The process requires substantial human input but the human capital is available in most countries and regions of the world.......The environmental risks associated with genetically-engineered (GE) organisms have been controversial, and so have the models for the assessment of these risks. We propose an ecologically-based environmental risk assessment (ERA) model that follows the 1998 USEPA guidelines, focusing on potential...

  3. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    -driven, ecologically-based decision-making and provides formal methods for completing a screening level-ERA that can focus ERA on the most significant concerns. The process requires substantial human input but the human capital is available in most countries and regions of the world.......The environmental risks associated with genetically-engineered (GE) organisms have been controversial, and so have the models for the assessment of these risks. We propose an ecologically-based environmental risk assessment (ERA) model that follows the 1998 USEPA guidelines, focusing on potential....... Knowledge about the specific transgene and its possible environmental effects in other countries can be used to assist development of risk hypotheses. (6) The risk hypotheses are ranked using MCDA with criteria related to the severity of the potential risk. The model emphasizes transparent, expert...

  4. Genetically engineered yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising an active fermentation pathway producing 3-HP expresses an exogenous gene expressing the aminotransferase YhxA from Bacillus cereus AH1272 catalysing a transamination reaction between beta-alanine and pyruvate to produce malonate semialde......A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprising an active fermentation pathway producing 3-HP expresses an exogenous gene expressing the aminotransferase YhxA from Bacillus cereus AH1272 catalysing a transamination reaction between beta-alanine and pyruvate to produce malonate...

  5. Genetic Engineering Workshop Report, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J; Slezak, T

    2010-11-03

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioinformatics group has recently taken on a role in DTRA's Transformation Medical Technologies (TMT) program. The high-level goal of TMT is to accelerate the development of broad-spectrum countermeasures. To achieve this goal, there is a need to assess the genetic engineering (GE) approaches, potential application as well as detection and mitigation strategies. LLNL was tasked to coordinate a workshop to determine the scope of investments that DTRA should make to stay current with the rapid advances in genetic engineering technologies, so that accidental or malicious uses of GE technologies could be adequately detected and characterized. Attachment A is an earlier report produced by LLNL for TMT that provides some relevant background on Genetic Engineering detection. A workshop was held on September 23-24, 2010 in Springfield, Virginia. It was attended by a total of 55 people (see Attachment B). Twenty four (44%) of the attendees were academic researchers involved in GE or bioinformatics technology, 6 (11%) were from DTRA or the TMT program management, 7 (13%) were current TMT performers (including Jonathan Allen and Tom Slezak of LLNL who hosted the workshop), 11 (20%) were from other Federal agencies, and 7 (13%) were from industries that are involved in genetic engineering. Several attendees could be placed in multiple categories. There were 26 attendees (47%) who were from out of the DC area and received travel assistance through Invitational Travel Orders (ITOs). We note that this workshop could not have been as successful without the ability to invite experts from outside of the Beltway region. This workshop was an unclassified discussion of the science behind current genetic engineering capabilities. US citizenship was not required for attendance. While this may have limited some discussions concerning risk, we felt that it was more important for this first workshop to focus on the scientific state of

  6. "Genetically Engineered" Nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos H.; Stoica, Adrian; Cwik, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The quantum mechanical functionality of nanoelectronic devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared-photodetectors (QWIPs), quantum well lasers, and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) is enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The design and optimization of such devices requires a fundamental understanding of electron transport in such dimensions. The Nanoelectronic Modeling Tool (NEMO) is a general-purpose quantum device design and analysis tool based on a fundamental non-equilibrium electron transport theory. NEW was combined with a parallelized genetic algorithm package (PGAPACK) to evolve structural and material parameters to match a desired set of experimental data. A numerical experiment that evolves structural variations such as layer widths and doping concentrations is performed to analyze an experimental current voltage characteristic. The genetic algorithm is found to drive the NEMO simulation parameters close to the experimentally prescribed layer thicknesses and doping profiles. With such a quantitative agreement between theory and experiment design synthesis can be performed.

  7. Genetic Engineering Strategies for Enhanced Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Krishnamoorthy; Chandra, Niharika; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Veeranki, Venkata Dasu

    2015-07-01

    The focus on biodiesel research has shown a tremendous growth over the last few years. Several microbial and plant sources are being explored for the sustainable biodiesel production to replace the petroleum diesel. Conventional methods of biodiesel production have several limitations related to yield and quality, which led to development of new engineering strategies to improve the biodiesel production in plants, and microorganisms. Substantial progress in utilizing algae, yeast, and Escherichia coli for the renewable production of biodiesel feedstock via genetic engineering of fatty acid metabolic pathways has been reported in the past few years. However, in most of the cases, the successful commercialization of such engineering strategies for sustainable biodiesel production is yet to be seen. This paper systematically presents the drawbacks in the conventional methods for biodiesel production and an exhaustive review on the present status of research in genetic engineering strategies for production of biodiesel in plants, and microorganisms. Further, we summarize the technical challenges need to be tackled to make genetic engineering technology economically sustainable. Finally, the need and prospects of genetic engineering technology for the sustainable biodiesel production and the recommendations for the future research are discussed.

  8. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2007-01-01

    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  9. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  10. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  11. Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic engineering has evolved through three stages in history: transgenesis, gene targeting, and gene editing. Since the birth of the first transgenic pig, genetic engineering in livestock has been advancing slowly due to inherent technical limitations. A major breakthrough has been the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer, which, for the first time, provided the technical ability to produce site-specific genome-modified domestic animals. However, the low efficiency of gene targeting events in somatic cells prohibits its wide use in agricultural and biomedical applications. Recently, rapid progress in tools and methods of genome engineering has been made, allowing genetic editing from mutation of a single base pair to the deletion of entire chromosomes. Here, we review the major advances of genetic engineering in domestic animals with emphasis placed on the introduction of latest designer nucleases.

  12. Method for the production of l-serine using genetically engineered microorganisms deficient in serine degradation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the microbiological industry, and specifically to the production of L-serine using genetically modified bacteria. The present invention provides genetically modified microorganisms, such as bacteria, wherein the expression of genes encoding for enzymes...... concentrations of serine. The present invention also provides methods for the production of L-serine or L-serine derivative using such genetically modified microorganisms....

  13. Genetic engineering of microbial pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce C. Carlton

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in genetics and molecular biology make possible the cloning and genetic manipulation of genes for insecticidal activities from natural insect pathogens. Using recombinant DNA methods and site-directed mutagenesis of specific gene regions, production of new and improved biorationals should be possible.

  14. Improved Quantum Genetic Algorithm in Application of Scheduling Engineering Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaixiao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To verify the availability of the improved quantum genetic algorithm in solving the scheduling engineering personnel problem, the following work has been carried out: the characteristics of the scheduling engineering personnel problem are analyzed, the quantum encoding method is proposed, and an improved quantum genetic algorithm is applied to address the issue. Taking the low efficiency and the bad performance of the conventional quantum genetic algorithm into account, a universal improved quantum genetic algorithm is introduced to solve the scheduling engineering personnel problem. Finally, the examples are applied to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the improved quantum genetic algorithm and the rationality of the encoding method.

  15. Chromosome engineering: power tools for plant genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Simon W L

    2010-12-01

    The term "chromosome engineering" describes technologies in which chromosomes are manipulated to change their mode of genetic inheritance. This review examines recent innovations in chromosome engineering that promise to greatly increase the efficiency of plant breeding. Haploid Arabidopsis thaliana have been produced by altering the kinetochore protein CENH3, yielding instant homozygous lines. Haploid production will facilitate reverse breeding, a method that downregulates recombination to ensure progeny contain intact parental chromosomes. Another chromosome engineering success is the conversion of meiosis into mitosis, which produces diploid gametes that are clones of the parent plant. This is a key step in apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) and could help to preserve hybrid vigor in the future. New homologous recombination methods in plants will potentiate many chromosome engineering applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Overcoming Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, M J; Söll, D; Church, G M

    2016-02-27

    Withstanding 3.5 billion years of genetic drift, the canonical genetic code remains such a fundamental foundation for the complexity of life that it is highly conserved across all three phylogenetic domains. Genome engineering technologies are now making it possible to rationally change the genetic code, offering resistance to viruses, genetic isolation from horizontal gene transfer, and prevention of environmental escape by genetically modified organisms. We discuss the biochemical, genetic, and technological challenges that must be overcome in order to engineer the genetic code.

  17. Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer them to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will be multiplied and infused into the patient to fight the cancer

  18. Genetic engineering and sustainable production of ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Müller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    and reduction of chemicals applied during production of ornamental plants. Numerous chemicals used in modern plant production have negative impacts on human health and are hazardous to the environment. In Europe, several compounds have lost their approval and further legal restrictions can be expected....... This review presents the more recent progress of genetic engineering in ornamental breeding, delivers an overview of the biological background of the used technologies and critically evaluates the usefulness of the strategies to obtain improved ornamental plants. First, genetic engineering is addressed......Abstract Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources...

  19. Genetically engineering adenoviral vectors for gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviral (Ad) vectors are commonly used for various gene therapy applications. Significant advances in the genetic engineering of Ad vectors in recent years has highlighted their potential for the treatment of metastatic disease. There are several methods to genetically modify the Ad genome to incorporate retargeting peptides which will redirect the natural tropism of the viruses, including homologous recombination in bacteria or yeast. However, homologous recombination in yeast is highly efficient and can be achieved without the need for extensive cloning strategies. In addition, the method does not rely on the presence of unique restriction sites within the Ad genome and the reagents required for this method are widely available and inexpensive. Large plasmids containing the entire adenoviral genome (~36 kbp) can be modified within Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and genomes easily rescued in Escherichia coli hosts for analysis or amplification. A method for two-step homologous recombination in yeast is described in this chapter.

  20. Improved Quantum Genetic Algorithm in Application of Scheduling Engineering Personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Huaixiao Wang; Ling Li; Jianyong Liu; Yong Wang; Chengqun Fu

    2014-01-01

    To verify the availability of the improved quantum genetic algorithm in solving the scheduling engineering personnel problem, the following work has been carried out: the characteristics of the scheduling engineering personnel problem are analyzed, the quantum encoding method is proposed, and an improved quantum genetic algorithm is applied to address the issue. Taking the low efficiency and the bad performance of the conventional quantum genetic algorithm into account, a universal improved q...

  1. Genetic engineering and coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, D N; Toole, J J

    1985-06-01

    It is unfortunate that we cannot report, in the area of coagulation, advances that have been seen in related fields such as thrombolytic therapy. The reported progress (Gold et al, 1984; Van de Werf et al, 1984) with human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (Pennica et al, 1983) augers well for the application of recombinant technology to the problems faced by patients with coagulation defects. While plasminogen activator is being assessed in an acute therapeutic setting, its use signals a beginning of the application of the technology to abnormalities of the haemostatic mechanism. Chronic administration of coagulation factors for prophylaxis and replacement therapy would appear to be just one more step down the pathway illuminated by the biochemists, microbiologists and cell biologists who have preceded the clinicians in this promising area. There is no record of the use of genetically engineered materials in the treatment of coagulation defects, primarily because the body of knowledge and refined techniques have only recently been acquired. For this reason we have had to project developments in other areas onto the problems that exist for the haemostatically compromised patient. In describing the potential usefulness of these technologies, it is difficult to ascertain where the logical projection, from a fully investigated model system, diverges from flights of imaginative fancy. Cloning projects considered overly ambitious and grandiose at the beginning of this decade are already accomplished feats. The feasibility of gene therapy in the mammalian system has been demonstrated, and trade publications now discuss governmental approval for investigative use of this procedure in 1985. Panels of physicians, scientists and even politicians now seriously contemplate and promulgate views and regulations pertaining to the efficacy and ethics of the use of genetic engineering in the treatment of human disease. The haemophilias will certainly be among the first

  2. Mathematical methods in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a careful selection of the contributions presented at the Mathematical Methods in Engineering (MME10) International Symposium, held at the Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra- Engineering Institute of Coimbra (IPC/ISEC), Portugal, October 21-24, 2010. The volume discusses recent developments about theoretical and applied mathematics toward the solution of engineering problems, thus covering a wide range of topics, such as:  Automatic Control, Autonomous Systems, Computer Science, Dynamical Systems and Control,  Electronics, Finance and Economics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Fractional Mathematics, Fractional Transforms and Their Applications,  Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Image and Signal Analysis, Image Processing, Mechanics, Mechatronics, Motor Control and Human Movement Analysis, Nonlinear Dynamics, Partial Differential Equations, Robotics, Acoustics, Vibration and Control, and Wavelets.

  3. Advances in genetic engineering of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Lin, Hanzhi; Jiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Algae are a component of bait sources for animal aquaculture, and they produce abundant valuable compounds for the chemical industry and human health. With today's fast growing demand for algae biofuels and the profitable market for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals made from algal natural products, the genetic engineering of marine algae has been attracting increasing attention as a crucial systemic technology to address the challenge of the biomass feedstock supply for sustainable industrial applications and to modify the metabolic pathway for the more efficient production of high-value products. Nevertheless, to date, only a few marine algae species can be genetically manipulated. In this article, an updated account of the research progress in marine algal genomics is presented along with methods for transformation. In addition, vector construction and gene selection strategies are reviewed. Meanwhile, a review on the progress of bioreactor technologies for marine algae culture is also revisited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e.

  5. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  6. Recent Advances in Genetic Engineering - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sobiah Rauf; Zubair Anwar; Hussain Mustatab Wahedi; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak; Talal Jamil

    2012-01-01

    Humans have been doing genetic engineering, a technology which is transforming our world, for thousands of years on a wide range of plants, animals and micro organism and have applications in the field of medicine, research, industry and agriculture. The rapid developments in the field of genetic engineering have given a new impetus to biotechnology. This introduces the possibility of tailoring organisms in order to optimize the production of established or novel metabolites of commercial imp...

  7. Genetic elements of plant viruses as tools for genetic engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Mushegian, A R; Shepherd, R J

    1995-01-01

    Viruses have developed successful strategies for propagation at the expense of their host cells. Efficient gene expression, genome multiplication, and invasion of the host are enabled by virus-encoded genetic elements, many of which are well characterized. Sequences derived from plant DNA and RNA viruses can be used to control expression of other genes in vivo. The main groups of plant virus genetic elements useful in genetic engineering are reviewed, including the signals for DNA-dependent a...

  8. Natural genetic engineering: intelligence & design in evolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David

    2011-01-01

    function. Shapiro argues that what we see in genomes is 'Natural Genetic Engineering', or designed evolution: "Thinking about genomes from an informatics perspective, it is apparent that systems engineering is a better metaphor for the evolutionary process than the conventional view of evolution...

  9. 130 FEMINISM AND HUMAN GENETIC ENGINEERING: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Abstract. Human genetic in the area of Bio-ethics is a new, rapidly advancing. Science. ... Human genetic engineering, a recent one in medical science and practice, is one ..... The Church on Cloning and Stem Cell Research. The teaching of ...

  10. Genetic Engineering: The Modification of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes somatic and genetic manipulations of individual genotypes, using diabetes control as an example of the first mode that is potentially realizable be derepression or viral transduction of genes. Advocates the use of genetic engineering of the second mode to remove man from his biological limitations, but offers maxims to ensure the…

  11. Plant Genetic Resources: Selected Issues from Genetic Erosion to Genetic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hammer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant Genetic Resources (PGR continue to play an important role in the development of agriculture. The following aspects receive a special consideration:1. Definition. The term was coined in 1970. The genepool concept served as an important tool in the further development. Different approaches are discussed.2. Values of Genetic Resources. A short introduction is highlighting this problem and stressing the economic usfulness of PGR.3. Genetic Erosion. Already observed by E. Baur in 1914, this is now a key issue within PGR. The case studies cited include Ethiopia, Italy, China, S Korea, Greece and S. Africa. Modern approaches concentrate on allelic changes in varieties over time but neglect the landraces. The causes and consequences of genetic erosion are discussed.4. Genetic Resources Conservation. Because of genetic erosion there is a need for conservation. PGR should be consigned to the appropriate method of conservation (ex situ, in situ, on-farm according to the scientific basis of biodiversity (genetic diversity, species diversity, ecosystem diversity and the evolutionary status of plants (cultivated plants, weeds, related wild plants (crop wild relatives.5. GMO. The impact of genetically engineered plants on genetic diversity is discussed.6. The Conclusions and Recommendations stress the importance of PGR. Their conservation and use are urgent necessities for the present development and future survival of mankind.

  12. Commercialising genetically engineered animal biomedical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Eddie J; Pommer, Jerry; Robl, James M

    2008-01-01

    Research over the past two decades has increased the quality and quantity of tools available to produce genetically engineered animals. The number of potentially viable biomedical products from genetically engineered animals is increasing. However, moving from cutting-edge research to development and commercialisation of a biomedical product that is useful and wanted by the public has significant challenges. Even early stage development of genetically engineered animal applications requires consideration of many steps, including quality assurance and quality control, risk management, gap analysis, founder animal establishment, cell banking, sourcing of animals and animal-derived material, animal facilities, product collection facilities and processing facilities. These steps are complicated and expensive. Biomedical applications of genetically engineered animals have had some recent successes and many applications are well into development. As researchers consider applications for their findings, having a realistic understanding of the steps involved in the development and commercialisation of a product, produced in genetically engineered animals, is useful in determining the risk of genetic modification to the animal nu. the potential public benefit of the application.

  13. Recent Advances in Genetic Engineering - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobiah Rauf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans have been doing genetic engineering, a technology which is transforming our world, for thousands of years on a wide range of plants, animals and micro organism and have applications in the field of medicine, research, industry and agriculture. The rapid developments in the field of genetic engineering have given a new impetus to biotechnology. This introduces the possibility of tailoring organisms in order to optimize the production of established or novel metabolites of commercial importance and of transferring genetic material from one organism to another. In order to achieve potential benefits of genetic engineering the only need is to develop perfect tools and techniques. Once it has been perfected then all of the problems associated with food production can be solved, the world environment can be restored, and human health and lifestyle will improve beyond imagination. No doubt that there are almost no limits to what can be achieved through responsible genetic engineering. Classical field of genetic engineering and some of its advancements are discussed in this review.

  14. Genetically engineered nanocarriers for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi P

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pu Shi, Joshua A Gustafson, J Andrew MacKayDepartment of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Cytotoxicity, low water solubility, rapid clearance from circulation, and off-target side-effects are common drawbacks of conventional small-molecule drugs. To overcome these shortcomings, many multifunctional nanocarriers have been proposed to enhance drug delivery. In concept, multifunctional nanoparticles might carry multiple agents, control release rate, biodegrade, and utilize target-mediated drug delivery; however, the design of these particles presents many challenges at the stage of pharmaceutical development. An emerging solution to improve control over these particles is to turn to genetic engineering. Genetically engineered nanocarriers are precisely controlled in size and structure and can provide specific control over sites for chemical attachment of drugs. Genetically engineered drug carriers that assemble nanostructures including nanoparticles and nanofibers can be polymeric or non-polymeric. This review summarizes the recent development of applications in drug and gene delivery utilizing nanostructures of polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as elastin-like polypeptides, silk-like polypeptides, and silk-elastin-like protein polymers, and non-polymeric genetically engineered drug carriers such as vault proteins and viral proteins.Keywords: polymeric drug carrier, non-polymeric drug carrier, gene delivery, GE drug carriers

  15. Manipulating DNA repair for improved genetic engineering in Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødvig, Christina Spuur

    engineering strategies. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to the genus Aspergillus and some of the tools relevant to fungal genetic engineering. It also contains a short introduction to DNA repair and its interplay with gene targeting and finally an overview over the different genome editing technologies......Aspergillus is a genus of filamentous fungi, which members includes industrial producers of enzymes, organic acids and secondary metabolites, important pathogens and a model organism. As such no matter the specific area of interest there are many reasons to perform genetic engineering, whether...... it is metabolic engineering to create better performing cell factory, elucidating pathways to study secondary metabolism etc. In this thesis, the main focus is on different ways to manipulate DNA repair for optimizing gene targeting, ultimately improving the methods available for faster and better genetic...

  16. Enhanced genetic tools for engineering multigene traits into green algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Rasala

    Full Text Available Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization.

  17. Genetic Engineering: and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Journal of Mental Retardation, 1977

    1977-01-01

    In a transcript from a radio show, Nobel Prize Winner Sir Macfarlane Burnet stresses the critical need for scientists to regulate their own activities in genetic research and cites the potential danger of creating a new form of polio which might escape. (CL)

  18. Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

    2016-01-01

    Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic enginee...

  19. Advances in genetic engineering of domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Shaohua WANG,Kun ZHANG,Yunping DAI

    2016-01-01

    Global population will increase to over nine billion by 2050 with the doubling in demand for meat and milk. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to breed highly efficient and productive livestock. Furthermore, livestock are also excellent models for human diseases and ideal bioreactors to produce pharmaceutical proteins. Thus, genetic engineering of domestic animals presents a critical and valuable tool to address these agricultural and biomedical applications. Overall, genetic enginee...

  20. Exogenous enzymes upgrade transgenesis and genetic engineering of farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pablo; Forcato, Diego O; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Alessio, Ana P; Fili, Alejandro E; Olmos Nicotra, María F; Liaudat, Ana C; Rodríguez, Nancy; Talluri, Thirumala R; Kues, Wilfried A

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic farm animals are attractive alternative mammalian models to rodents for the study of developmental, genetic, reproductive and disease-related biological questions, as well for the production of recombinant proteins, or the assessment of xenotransplants for human patients. Until recently, the ability to generate transgenic farm animals relied on methods of passive transgenesis. In recent years, significant improvements have been made to introduce and apply active techniques of transgenesis and genetic engineering in these species. These new approaches dramatically enhance the ease and speed with which livestock species can be genetically modified, and allow to performing precise genetic modifications. This paper provides a synopsis of enzyme-mediated genetic engineering in livestock species covering the early attempts employing naturally occurring DNA-modifying proteins to recent approaches working with tailored enzymatic systems.

  1. Engine and method for operating an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauper, Jr., John Christian; Willi, Martin Leo; Thirunavukarasu, Balamurugesh; Gong, Weidong

    2008-12-23

    A method of operating an engine is provided. The method may include supplying a combustible combination of reactants to a combustion chamber of the engine, which may include supplying a first hydrocarbon fuel, hydrogen fuel, and a second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber. Supplying the second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber may include at least one of supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into an intake system of the engine and supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into the combustion chamber. Additionally, the method may include combusting the combustible combination of reactants in the combustion chamber.

  2. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in the mid-1990s, genetically engineered (GE) crops have been the topic of much debate. This report reviews evidence accumulated from experiences on the most widely grown GE crops to date: herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties of maize, soybean, and cotton. Whil

  3. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in the mid-1990s, genetically engineered (GE) crops have been the topic of much debate. This report reviews evidence accumulated from experiences on the most widely grown GE crops to date: herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties of maize, soybean, and cotton.

  4. [The microencapsulated genetic engineering cells: a new platform on treatment of cancer instead of genetic engineering drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuelong; Zheng, Shu

    2003-06-01

    The microencapsulated genetic cells may be a new platform instead of genetic engineering drugs, as they can overcome the genetic engineering drugs' shortages such as short half-life in vivo, low activity, and incomplete elimination of organic solvent. This article reviews and summarizes the advantages, possible problems and solution and the feasibility of using microencapsulated genetic engineering cells in the treatment of cancer.

  5. Formal Methods in Knowledge Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Fensel, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a general discussion of the role of formal methods in Knowledge Engineering. We give an historical account of the development of the field of Knowledge Engineering towards the use of formal methods. Subsequently, we discuss the pro's and cons of formal methods. We do this by summ

  6. Formal Methods in Knowledge Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Fensel, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a general discussion of the role of formal methods in Knowledge Engineering. We give an historical account of the development of the field of Knowledge Engineering towards the use of formal methods. Subsequently, we discuss the pro's and cons of formal methods. We do this by

  7. Field Performance of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Pink Bollworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Gregory S.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Morrison, Neil I.; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S.; Phillips, Caroline E.; Miller, Ernie D.; Rose, Robert I.; Staten, Robert T.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) – mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts – has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field – ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area – were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

  8. Field performance of a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Simmons

    Full Text Available Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT--mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts--has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field--ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area--were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests.

  9. Genetic program based data mining to reverse engineer digital logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F., III; Nguyen, Thanh Vu H.

    2006-04-01

    A data mining based procedure for automated reverse engineering and defect discovery has been developed. The data mining algorithm for reverse engineering uses a genetic program (GP) as a data mining function. A genetic program is an algorithm based on the theory of evolution that automatically evolves populations of computer programs or mathematical expressions, eventually selecting one that is optimal in the sense it maximizes a measure of effectiveness, referred to as a fitness function. The system to be reverse engineered is typically a sensor. Design documents for the sensor are not available and conditions prevent the sensor from being taken apart. The sensor is used to create a database of input signals and output measurements. Rules about the likely design properties of the sensor are collected from experts. The rules are used to create a fitness function for the genetic program. Genetic program based data mining is then conducted. This procedure incorporates not only the experts' rules into the fitness function, but also the information in the database. The information extracted through this process is the internal design specifications of the sensor. Uncertainty related to the input-output database and the expert based rule set can significantly alter the reverse engineering results. Significant experimental and theoretical results related to GP based data mining for reverse engineering will be provided. Methods of quantifying uncertainty and its effects will be presented. Finally methods for reducing the uncertainty will be examined.

  10. Genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng

    2004-11-02

    The present invention relates to a novel DNA sequence, which encodes a previously unidentified lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that regulates the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in plants. Also provided are methods for incorporating this novel SAD gene sequence or substantially similar sequences into a plant genome for genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants.

  11. What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

  12. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria as biodiesel feedstock.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne.; Trahan, Christine Alexandra; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Algal biofuels are a renewable energy source with the potential to replace conventional petroleum-based fuels, while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The economic feasibility of commercial algal fuel production, however, is limited by low productivity of the natural algal strains. The project described in this SAND report addresses this low algal productivity by genetically engineering cyanobacteria (i.e. blue-green algae) to produce free fatty acids as fuel precursors. The engineered strains were characterized using Sandias unique imaging capabilities along with cutting-edge RNA-seq technology. These tools are applied to identify additional genetic targets for improving fuel production in cyanobacteria. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates successful fuel production from engineered cyanobacteria, identifies potential limitations, and investigates several strategies to overcome these limitations. This project was funded from FY10-FY13 through the President Harry S. Truman Fellowship in National Security Science and Engineering, a program sponsored by the LDRD office at Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. Genetic Engineering and Competitiveness of Livestock Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A.Pinkert

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to modify whole animal genetics has grown considerably in the last two decades. We have seen concerns regarding food safety and protection of breeding rights of genetically modified animals compel redirection of genetic engineering experimentation toward biomedical applications. Indeed, it has been nearly twenty years since the first transgenic livestock appeared in the literature, yet at this time, there are no commercially viable agricultural species. In contrast to commercialization concerns, in a variety of existing transgenic animal models, basic research into the regulation and function of specific genes (including both gain-of-function and ablation of potentially deleterious gene products has persevered. Pioneering efforts in transgenic animal technology have markedly influenced our appreciation of the factors that govern gene regulation and expression, and have contributed significantly to our understanding of the biology of mammalian development.

  14. Statistical methods in spatial genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Leblois, Raphael; Coulon, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    The joint analysis of spatial and genetic data is rapidly becoming the norm in population genetics. More and more studies explicitly describe and quantify the spatial organization of genetic variation and try to relate it to underlying ecological processes. As it has become increasingly difficult...... to keep abreast with the latest methodological developments, we review the statistical toolbox available to analyse population genetic data in a spatially explicit framework. We mostly focus on statistical concepts but also discuss practical aspects of the analytical methods, highlighting not only...

  15. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples.

  16. Xenomicrobiology: a roadmap for genetic code engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G; Budisa, Nediljko

    2016-09-01

    Biology is an analytical and informational science that is becoming increasingly dependent on chemical synthesis. One example is the high-throughput and low-cost synthesis of DNA, which is a foundation for the research field of synthetic biology (SB). The aim of SB is to provide biotechnological solutions to health, energy and environmental issues as well as unsustainable manufacturing processes in the frame of naturally existing chemical building blocks. Xenobiology (XB) goes a step further by implementing non-natural building blocks in living cells. In this context, genetic code engineering respectively enables the re-design of genes/genomes and proteins/proteomes with non-canonical nucleic (XNAs) and amino (ncAAs) acids. Besides studying information flow and evolutionary innovation in living systems, XB allows the development of new-to-nature therapeutic proteins/peptides, new biocatalysts for potential applications in synthetic organic chemistry and biocontainment strategies for enhanced biosafety. In this perspective, we provide a brief history and evolution of the genetic code in the context of XB. We then discuss the latest efforts and challenges ahead for engineering the genetic code with focus on substitutions and additions of ncAAs as well as standard amino acid reductions. Finally, we present a roadmap for the directed evolution of artificial microbes for emancipating rare sense codons that could be used to introduce novel building blocks. The development of such xenomicroorganisms endowed with a 'genetic firewall' will also allow to study and understand the relation between code evolution and horizontal gene transfer. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Computational methods in earthquake engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Plevris, Vagelis; Lagaros, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    This is the third book in a series on Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering. The purpose of this volume is to bring together the scientific communities of Computational Mechanics and Structural Dynamics, offering a wide coverage of timely issues on contemporary Earthquake Engineering. This volume will facilitate the exchange of ideas in topics of mutual interest and can serve as a platform for establishing links between research groups with complementary activities. The computational aspects are emphasized in order to address difficult engineering problems of great social and economic importance. .

  18. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Paul

    1972-01-01

    Presented are issues related to genetic engineering. Increased knowledge of techniques to manipulate genes are apt to create confusion about moral values in relation to unborn babies and other living organisms on earth. Human beings may use this knowledge to disturb the balance maintained by nature. (PS)

  19. Genetic engineering with T cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Morgan, Richard A

    2012-06-01

    In the past two decades, human gene transfer research has been translated from a laboratory technology to clinical evaluation. The success of adoptive transfer of tumor-reactive lymphocytes to treat the patients with metastatic melanoma has led to new strategies to redirect normal T cells to recognize tumor antigens by genetic engineering with tumor antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR) genes. This new strategy can generate large numbers of defined antigen-specific cells for therapeutic application. Much progress has been made to TCR gene transfer systems by optimizing gene expression and gene transfer protocols. Vector and protein modifications have enabled excellent expression of introduced TCR chains in human lymphocytes with reduced mis-pairing between the introduced and endogenous TCR chains. Initial clinical studies have demonstrated that TCR gene-engineered T cells could mediate tumor regression in vivo. In this review, we discuss the progress and prospects of TCR gene-engineered T cells as a therapeutic strategy for treating patients with melanoma and other cancers.

  20. Genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, Martijn C.; Bergman, Andreas M.; van der Poel, Henk G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Mouse models of prostate cancer are used to test the contribution of individual genes to the transformation process, evaluate the collaboration between multiple genetic lesions observed in a single tumour, and perform preclinical intervention studies in prostate cancer research. Methods:

  1. GENETIC ENGINEERING OF ENHANCED MICROBIAL NITRIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to introduce genetic information in the form of antibiotic or mercuric ion resistance genes into Nitrobacter hamburgensis strain X14. The resistance genes were either stable components of broad host range plasmids or transposable genes on methods for p...

  2. Human Genetic Engineering: A Survey of Student Value Stances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sara McCormack; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)

  3. Engine systems and methods of operating an engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto, Mark Vincent

    2015-08-25

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique method for operating an engine. Another embodiment is a unique engine system. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for engines and engine systems. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  4. Seeking perfection: a Kantian look at human genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Martin

    2007-01-01

    It is tempting to argue that Kantian moral philosophy justifies prohibiting both human germ-line genetic engineering and non-therapeutic genetic engineering because they fail to respect human dignity. There are, however, good reasons for resisting this temptation. In fact, Kant's moral philosophy provides reasons that support genetic engineering-even germ-line and non-therapeutic. This is true of Kant's imperfect duties to seek one's own perfection and the happiness of others. It is also true of the categorical imperative. Kant's moral philosophy does, however, provide limits to justifiable genetic engineering.

  5. Induction of Atherosclerosis in Mice and Hamsters Without Germline Genetic Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørklund, Martin Mæng; Hollensen, Anne K; Hagensen, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Atherosclerosis can be achieved in animals by germline genetic engineering, leading to hypercholesterolemia, but such models are constrained to few species and strains, and they are difficult to combine with other powerful techniques involving genetic manipulation or variation. OBJECTIVE......: To develop a method for induction of atherosclerosis without germline genetic engineering. METHODS AND RESULTS: Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors were engineered to encode gain-of-function proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 mutants, and mice were given a single intravenous vector...... are a rapid and versatile method to induce atherosclerosis in animals. This method should prove useful for experiments that are high-throughput or involve genetic techniques, strains, or species that do not combine well with current genetically engineered models....

  6. Non-genetic engineering of cells for drug delivery and cell-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Cheng, Hao; Peng, Haisheng; Zhou, Hao; Li, Peter Y; Langer, Robert

    2015-08-30

    Cell-based therapy is a promising modality to address many unmet medical needs. In addition to genetic engineering, material-based, biochemical, and physical science-based approaches have emerged as novel approaches to modify cells. Non-genetic engineering of cells has been applied in delivering therapeutics to tissues, homing of cells to the bone marrow or inflammatory tissues, cancer imaging, immunotherapy, and remotely controlling cellular functions. This new strategy has unique advantages in disease therapy and is complementary to existing gene-based cell engineering approaches. A better understanding of cellular systems and different engineering methods will allow us to better exploit engineered cells in biomedicine. Here, we review non-genetic cell engineering techniques and applications of engineered cells, discuss the pros and cons of different methods, and provide our perspectives on future research directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Programmable genetic circuits for pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Moon, Tae Seok

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology has the potential to provide decisive advances in genetic control of metabolic pathways. However, there are several challenges that synthetic biologists must overcome before this vision becomes a reality. First, a library of diverse and well-characterized sensors, such as metabolite-sensing or condition-sensing promoters, must be constructed. Second, robust programmable circuits that link input conditions with a specific gene regulation response must be developed. Finally, multi-gene targeting strategies must be integrated with metabolically relevant sensors and complex, robust logic. Achievements in each of these areas, which employ the CRISPR/Cas system, in silico modeling, and dynamic sensor-regulators, among other tools, provide a strong basis for future research. Overall, the future for synthetic biology approaches in metabolic engineering holds immense promise.

  8. Modularization of genetic elements promotes synthetic metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hao; Li, Bing-Zhi; Zhang, Wen-Qian; Liu, Duo; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-11-15

    In the context of emerging synthetic biology, metabolic engineering is moving to the next stage powered by new technologies. Systematical modularization of genetic elements makes it more convenient to engineer biological systems for chemical production or other desired purposes. In the past few years, progresses were made in engineering metabolic pathway using synthetic biology tools. Here, we spotlighted the topic of implementation of modularized genetic elements in metabolic engineering. First, we overviewed the principle developed for modularizing genetic elements and then discussed how the genetic modules advanced metabolic engineering studies. Next, we picked up some milestones of engineered metabolic pathway achieved in the past few years. Last, we discussed the rapid raised synthetic biology field of "building a genome" and the potential in metabolic engineering.

  9. Finite element methods for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Fenner, Roger T

    2013-01-01

    This book is intended as a textbook providing a deliberately simple introduction to finite element methods in a way that should be readily understandable to engineers, both students and practising professionals. Only the very simplest elements are considered, mainly two dimensional three-noded “constant strain triangles”, with simple linear variation of the relevant variables. Chapters of the book deal with structural problems (beams), classification of a broad range of engineering into harmonic and biharmonic types, finite element analysis of harmonic problems, and finite element analysis of biharmonic problems (plane stress and plane strain). Full Fortran programs are listed and explained in detail, and a range of practical problems solved in the text. Despite being somewhat unfashionable for general programming purposes, the Fortran language remains very widely used in engineering. The programs listed, which were originally developed for use on mainframe computers, have been thoroughly updated for use ...

  10. PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND THE CHOICE TO PURCHASE GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey conducted on public perception of genetic engineering in Jamaica. Our findings suggest that the safety of genetically modified foods is a major concern for consumers and that the perception of the prospects for genetic engineering to improve the quality of life represents a major factor in a consumer's decision to purchase GM foods.

  11. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Adam; Walczak, Piotr; Janowski, Miroslaw; Lukomska, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can be obtained from various organs and easily propagated in vitro, are one of the most extensively used types of stem cells and have been shown to be efficacious in a broad set of diseases. The unique and highly desirable properties of MSCs include high migratory capacities toward injured areas, immunomodulatory features, and the natural ability to differentiate into connective tissue phenotypes. These phenotypes include bone and cartilage, and these properties predispose MSCs to be therapeutically useful. In addition, MSCs elicit their therapeutic effects by paracrine actions, in which the metabolism of target tissues is modulated. Genetic engineering methods can greatly amplify these properties and broaden the therapeutic capabilities of MSCs, including transdifferentiation toward diverse cell lineages. However, cell engineering can also affect safety and increase the cost of therapy based on MSCs; thus, the advantages and disadvantages of these procedures should be discussed. In this review, the latest applications of genetic engineering methods for MSCs with regenerative medicine purposes are presented.

  12. Engineered Plant Minichromosome and Its Application in Genomics and Genetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Engineered minichromosomes have been constructed as novel artificial chromosome platforms for future genetic engineering in maize.We demonstrated that minichromosomes could be created by telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation of both normal A chromosomes and the supernumerary B

  13. Efforts and Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Yu, Allen Chi Shing; Chan, Ting Fung

    2017-03-14

    This year marks the 48th anniversary of Francis Crick's seminal work on the origin of the genetic code, in which he first proposed the "frozen accident" hypothesis to describe evolutionary selection against changes to the genetic code that cause devastating global proteome modification. However, numerous efforts have demonstrated the viability of both natural and artificial genetic code variations. Recent advances in genetic engineering allow the creation of synthetic organisms that incorporate noncanonical, or even unnatural, amino acids into the proteome. Currently, successful genetic code engineering is mainly achieved by creating orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA/synthetase pairs to repurpose stop and rare codons or to induce quadruplet codons. In this review, we summarize the current progress in genetic code engineering and discuss the challenges, current understanding, and future perspectives regarding genetic code modification.

  14. Efforts and Challenges in Engineering the Genetic Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Lin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This year marks the 48th anniversary of Francis Crick’s seminal work on the origin of the genetic code, in which he first proposed the “frozen accident” hypothesis to describe evolutionary selection against changes to the genetic code that cause devastating global proteome modification. However, numerous efforts have demonstrated the viability of both natural and artificial genetic code variations. Recent advances in genetic engineering allow the creation of synthetic organisms that incorporate noncanonical, or even unnatural, amino acids into the proteome. Currently, successful genetic code engineering is mainly achieved by creating orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA/synthetase pairs to repurpose stop and rare codons or to induce quadruplet codons. In this review, we summarize the current progress in genetic code engineering and discuss the challenges, current understanding, and future perspectives regarding genetic code modification.

  15. The delicate balance in genetically engineering live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, James E; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-07-31

    Contemporary vaccine development relies less on empirical methods of vaccine construction, and now employs a powerful array of precise engineering strategies to construct immunogenic live vaccines. In this review, we will survey various engineering techniques used to create attenuated vaccines, with an emphasis on recent advances and insights. We will further explore the adaptation of attenuated strains to create multivalent vaccine platforms for immunization against multiple unrelated pathogens. These carrier vaccines are engineered to deliver sufficient levels of protective antigens to appropriate lymphoid inductive sites to elicit both carrier-specific and foreign antigen-specific immunity. Although many of these technologies were originally developed for use in Salmonella vaccines, application of the essential logic of these approaches will be extended to development of other enteric vaccines where possible. A central theme driving our discussion will stress that the ultimate success of an engineered vaccine rests on achieving the proper balance between attenuation and immunogenicity. Achieving this balance will avoid over-activation of inflammatory responses, which results in unacceptable reactogenicity, but will retain sufficient metabolic fitness to enable the live vaccine to reach deep tissue inductive sites and trigger protective immunity. The breadth of examples presented herein will clearly demonstrate that genetic engineering offers the potential for rapidly propelling vaccine development forward into novel applications and therapies which will significantly expand the role of vaccines in public health.

  16. Genetic code expansion for multiprotein complex engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Christine; Sauter, Paul F; Wawryszyn, Mirella; Girona, Gemma Estrada; Gupta, Kapil; Landry, Jonathan J M; Fritz, Markus Hsi-Yang; Radic, Ksenija; Hoffmann, Jan-Erik; Chen, Zhuo A; Zou, Juan; Tan, Piau Siong; Galik, Bence; Junttila, Sini; Stolt-Bergner, Peggy; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Gyenesei, Attila; Schultz, Carsten; Biskup, Moritz Bosse; Besir, Hueseyin; Benes, Vladimir; Rappsilber, Juri; Jechlinger, Martin; Korbel, Jan O; Berger, Imre; Braese, Stefan; Lemke, Edward A

    2016-12-01

    We present a baculovirus-based protein engineering method that enables site-specific introduction of unique functionalities in a eukaryotic protein complex recombinantly produced in insect cells. We demonstrate the versatility of this efficient and robust protein production platform, 'MultiBacTAG', (i) for the fluorescent labeling of target proteins and biologics using click chemistries, (ii) for glycoengineering of antibodies, and (iii) for structure-function studies of novel eukaryotic complexes using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer as well as site-specific crosslinking strategies.

  17. Genetic Engineering In BioButanol Production And Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Rao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growing need to address current energy and environmental problems has sparked an interest in developing improved biological methods to produce liquid fuels from renewable sources. Higher-chain alcohols possess chemical properties that are more similar to gasoline. Ethanol and butanol are two products which are used as biofuel. Butanol production was more concerned than ethanol because of its high octane number. Unfortunately, these alcohols are not produced efficiently in natural microorganisms, and thus economical production in industrial volumes remains a challenge. The synthetic biology, however, offers additional tools to engineer synthetic pathways in user-friendly hosts to help increase titers and productivity of bio-butanol. Knock out and over-expression of genes is the major approaches towards genetic manipulation and metabolic engineering of microbes. Yet there are TargeTron Technology, Antisense RNA and CRISPR technology has a vital role in genome manipulation of C.acetobutylicum. This review concentrates on the recent developments for efficient production of butanol and butanol tolerance by various genetically engineered microbes.

  18. Molecular Biological Methods in Environmental Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guocai; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria, acting as catalysts, perform the function of degrading pollutants. Molecular biological techniques play an important role in research on the community analysis, the composition and the functions of complex microbial communities. The development of secondary high-throughput pyrosequencing techiniques enhances the understanding of the composition of the microbial community. The literatures of 2015 indicated that 16S rDNA gene as genetic tag is still the important method for bacteria identification and classification. 454 high throughput sequencing and Illumina MiSeq sequencing have been the primary and widely recognized methods to analyze the microbial. This review will provide environmental engineers and microbiologists an overview of important advancements in molecular techniques and highlight the application of these methods in diverse environments.

  19. Scheduling in a Meta Search Engine by Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The meta search engines provide service to the users bydispensing the users' requests to the existing search engines. The existing search engines sele cted by meta search engine determine the searching quality. Because the performa nce of the existing search engines and the users' requests are changed dynamical ly, it is not favorable for the fixed search engines to optimize the holistic pe rformance of the meta search engine. This paper applies the genetic algorithm (G A) to realize the scheduling strategy of agent manager in our meta search engine , GSE(general search engine), which can simulate the evolution process of living things more lively and more efficiently. By using GA, the combination of search engines can be optimized and hence the holistic performance of GSE can be impro ved dramatically.

  20. Genetically modified cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheyn, Dima; Mizrahi, Olga; Benjamin, Shimon; Gazit, Zulma; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan

    2010-06-15

    Regenerative medicine appears to take as its patron, the Titan Prometheus, whose liver was able to regenerate daily, as the field attempts to restore lost, damaged, or aging cells and tissues. The tremendous technological progress achieved during the last decade in gene transfer methods and imaging techniques, as well as recent increases in our knowledge of cell biology, have opened new horizons in the field of regenerative medicine. Genetically engineered cells are a tool for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, albeit a tool whose development is fraught with difficulties. Gene-and-cell therapy offers solutions to severe problems faced by modern medicine, but several impediments obstruct the path of such treatments as they move from the laboratory toward the clinical setting. In this review we provide an overview of recent advances in the gene-and-cell therapy approach and discuss the main hurdles and bottlenecks of this approach on its path to clinical trials and prospective clinical practice.

  1. NUTRITIONAL ENHANCEMENT OF ALFALFA THROUGH GENETIC ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Faragó

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a pasture legume crop of primary importance to animal production throughout the world. The nutritional quality of alfalfa, as of other leguminous forage crops, is mainly determined by their content in selected essential amino acids (EAAs, such as methionine (Met and cysteine (Cys. In alfalfa, however, these S-containing amino acids constitute only about 1% or less of crude proteins (Frame et al., 1998. This is significantly less than the 3.5% Met+Cys content in the recommended FAO reference protein (FAO, 1973. Recent advances in genetic engineering allow to use the transgenic approach to increase the content of specific essential amino acids in target plant species. A number of different molecular approaches have been developed to address this issue, such as over-expression of a heterologous or homologous Met-rich protein, expression of a synthetic protein, modification of protein sequence, and metabolic engineering of the free amino acid pool and protein sink. To study the possibility of transgenic enhancement of nutritional quality of alfalfa, we used the approach of expression of a heterologous protein rich in Met+Cys in cells of alfalfa. The T-DNA introduced into the genome of alfalfa, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation, contained the selectable merker gene nptII for kanamycin (Kn resistance, and a cDNA of Ov gene from Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix coding for a high Met+Cys containing ovalbumine (Mucha et al., 1991, both under constitutive promoters. After cocultivation of petiole segment- and leaf blade-explants of two highly embryogenic alfalfa genotypes Rg9/I-14-22 and Rg11/I-10-68 (Faragó et al., 1997 with cells of A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 carrying the nptII and Ov genes, and selection of transgenic cells on Kn containing selective media, more than one hundred putatively transgenic regenerants were obtained through somatic embryogenesis. Biological (Kn rooting assay

  2. Legal and regulatory aspects of genetically engineered animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D D

    1986-01-01

    The commercialization of genetically engineered food animals will pose a number of legal and regulatory questions. These may be grouped into questions of process and questions of products. The process of animal genetic engineering with artificially constructed vectors will probably be regulated in much the same manner as other veterinary procedures. There may be some discussion, however, as to whether animal drug or animal biologic regulations are more applicable. The products of animal genetic engineering, i.e., transgenic food animals and food products made from them, also raise important questions about product safety and identity. These include whether and how genetically engineered food animals will be subject to federal inspection for wholesomeness, whether artificial vectors, foreign genes, or gene products will adulterate recipient animal tissues, and how food products made from such animals will be labeled. Prior federal experience with the inspection of interspecific hybrids of cattle and buffalo provides a useful basis for further policy developments in the inspection and labeling of genetically engineered food animals. In particular, the inspection of cattle/buffalo hybrids has established a phenotypic (based on appearance) criterion for deciding how novel food animals should be inspected. As the genetic engineering of food animals on a production basis draws nearer, it may be necessary to supplement the phenotypic criterion with genetic (based on pedigree) criteria to assure that the essential characteristics of animals slaughtered under current food statutes are maintained.

  3. Genetic engineering of Ganoderma lucidum for the efficient production of ganoderic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun-Wei; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that produces ganoderic acids with numerous interesting bioactivities. Genetic engineering is an efficient approach to improve ganoderic acid biosynthesis. However, reliable genetic transformation methods and appropriate genetic manipulation strategies remain underdeveloped and thus should be enhanced. We previously established a homologous genetic transformation method for G. lucidum; we also applied the established method to perform the deregulated overexpression of a homologous 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase gene in G. lucidum. Engineered strains accumulated more ganoderic acids than wild-type strains. In this report, the genetic transformation systems of G. lucidum are described; current trends are also presented to improve ganoderic acid production through the genetic manipulation of G. lucidum.

  4. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  5. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  6. "Genetic Engineering" Gains Momentum (Science/Society Case Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.; Moore, Elizabeth A., Eds.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the benefits and hazards of genetic engineering, or "recombinant-DNA" research. Recent federal safety rules issued by NIH which ease the strict prohibitions on recombinant-DNA research are explained. (CS)

  7. International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) Competition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sparrow, RW

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available iGEM, the International Genetically Engineered Machine competition, is an initiative from MIT and has become the premiere undergraduate synthetic biology competition. The competing teams consist of students who work on a synthetic biology project...

  8. Genetic engineering of stem cells for enhanced therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Adam; Andrzejewska, Anna; Janowski, Miroslaw; Walczak, Piotr; Lukomska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for overcoming the limitations of current treatment methods. The modification of stem cell properties may be necessary to fully exploit their potential. Genetic engineering, with an abundance of methodology to induce gene expression in a precise and well-controllable manner, is particularly attractive for this purpose. There are virus-based and non-viral methods of genetic manipulation. Genome-integrating viral vectors are usually characterized by highly efficient and long-term transgene expression, at a cost of safety. Non-integrating viruses are also highly efficient in transduction, and, while safer, offer only a limited duration of transgene expression. There is a great diversity of transfectable forms of nucleic acids; however, for efficient shuttling across cell membranes, additional manipulation is required. Both physical and chemical methods have been employed for this purpose. Stem cell engineering for clinical applications is still in its infancy and requires further research. There are two main strategies for inducing transgene expression in therapeutic cells: transient and permanent expression. In many cases, including stem cell trafficking and using cell therapy for the treatment of rapid-onset disease with a short healing process, transient transgene expression may be a sufficient and optimal approach. For that purpose, mRNA-based methods seem ideally suited, as they are characterized by a rapid, highly efficient transfection, with outstanding safety. Permanent transgene expression is primarily based on the application of viral vectors, and, due to safety concerns, these methods are more challenging. There is active, ongoing research toward the development of non-viral methods that would induce permanent expression, such as transposons and mammalian artificial chromosomes.

  9. Virus resistant plums through genetic engineering - from lab to market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic engineering (GE) has the potential to revolutionize the genetic improvement of fruit trees and other specialty crops, to provide greater flexibility and speed in responding to changes in climate, production systems and market demands, and to maintain the competitiveness of American agricultu...

  10. Genetic engineering and chemical conjugation of potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karin L; Uhde-Holzem, Kerstin; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the genetic engineering and chemical modification of potato virus X (PVX) for the presentation of various peptides, proteins, and fluorescent dyes, or other chemical modifiers. Three different ways of genetic engineering are described and by these means, peptides are successfully expressed not only when the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A sequence or a flexible glycine-serine linker is included, but also when the peptide is fused directly to the PVX coat protein. When larger proteins or unfavorable peptide sequences are presented, a partial fusion via the FMDV 2A sequence is preferable. When these PVX chimeras retain the ability to assemble into viral particles and are thus able to infect plants systemically, they can be utilized to inoculate susceptible plants for isolation of sufficient amounts of virus particles for subsequent chemical modification. Chemical modification is required for the display of nonbiological ligands such as fluorophores, polymers, and small drug compounds. We present three methods of chemical bioconjugation. For direct conjugation of small chemical modifiers to solvent exposed lysines, N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry can be applied. Bio-orthogonal reactions such as copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition or hydrazone ligation are alternatives to achieve more efficient conjugation (e.g., when working with high molecular weight or insoluble ligands). Furthermore, hydrazone ligation offers an attractive route for the introduction of pH-cleavable cargos (e.g., therapeutic molecules).

  11. Genetic Engineering and Manufacturing of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The marketing approval of genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs as the first-line therapy for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA-SCID is a tribute to the substantial progress that has been made regarding HSC engineering in the past decade. Reproducible manufacturing of high-quality, clinical-grade, genetically engineered HSCs is the foundation for broadening the application of this technology. Herein, the current state-of-the-art manufacturing platforms to genetically engineer HSCs as well as the challenges pertaining to production standardization and product characterization are addressed in the context of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs and other monogenic disorders.

  12. Teacher-to-Teacher: An Annotated Bibliography on DNA and Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R., Comp.

    1984-01-01

    Presented is an annotated bibliography of 24 books on DNA and genetic engineering. Areas considered in these books include: basic biological concepts to help understand advances in genetic engineering; applications of genetic engineering; social, legal, and moral issues of genetic engineering; and historical aspects leading to advances in…

  13. Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

  14. Surveys suck: Consumer preferences when purchasing genetically engineered foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to gauge consumers' acceptance of genetically engineered or modified (GM) foods. Surveys, asking people about attitudes and intentions, are easy-to-collect proxies of consumer behavior. However, participants tend to respond as citizens of society, not discrete individuals, thereby inaccurately portraying their potential behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior improved the accuracy of self-reported information, but its limited capacity to account for intention variance has been attributed to the hypothetical scenarios to which survey participants must respond. Valuation methods, asking how much consumers may be willing to pay or accept for GM foods, have revealed that consumers are usually willing to accept them at some price, or in some cases willing to pay a premium. Ultimately, it's consumers' actual--not intended--behavior that is of most interest to policy makers and business decision-makers. Real choice experiments offer the best avenue for revealing consumers' food choices in normal life.

  15. Engineering Change Management Method Framework in Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekolschik, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Engineering changes make an impact on different process chains in and outside the company, and lead to most error costs and time shifts. In fact, 30 to 50 per cent of development costs result from technical changes. Controlling engineering change processes can help us to avoid errors and risks, and contribute to cost optimization and a shorter time to market. This paper presents a method framework for controlling engineering changes at mechanical engineering companies. The developed classification of engineering changes and accordingly process requirements build the basis for the method framework. The developed method framework comprises two main areas: special data objects managed in different engineering IT tools and process framework. Objects from both areas are building blocks that can be selected to the overall business process based on the engineering process type and change classification. The process framework contains steps for the creation of change objects (both for overall change and for parts), change implementation, and release. Companies can select singleprocess building blocks from the framework, depending on the product development process and change impact. The developed change framework has been implemented at a division (10,000 employees) of a big German mechanical engineering company.

  16. Genetically Engineered Materials for Biofuels Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Agrivida, Inc., is an agricultural biotechnology company developing industrial crop feedstocks for the fuel and chemical industries. Agrivida's crops have improved processing traits that enable efficient, low cost conversion of the crops' cellulosic components into fermentable sugars. Currently, pretreatment and enzymatic conversion of the major cell wall components, cellulose and hemicellulose, into fermentable sugars is the most expensive processing step that prevents widespread adoption of biomass in biofuels processes. To lower production costs we are consolidating pretreatment and enzyme production within the crop. In this strategy, transgenic plants express engineered cell wall degrading enzymes in an inactive form, which can be reactivated after harvest. We have engineered protein elements that disrupt enzyme activity during normal plant growth. Upon exposure to specific processing conditions, the engineered enzymes are converted into their active forms. This mechanism significantly lowers pretreatment costs and enzyme loadings (>75% reduction) below those currently available to the industry.

  17. Chapter VIII. Contributions of propagation techniques and genetic modification to breeding - genetic engineering for disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic engineering offers an opportunity to develop flower bulb crops with resistance to fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens. Several of the flower bulb crops, Lilium spp., Gladiolus, Zantedeschia, Muscari, Hyacinthus, Narcissus, Ornithogalum, Iris, and Alstroemeria, have been transformed with t...

  18. Entomic Resistance Genes for Genetic Engineering in Agricultural Furtherance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering for insect pest’s management in crop plants offers the potential of a user-friendly, environmentfriendly and consumer-friendly method of crop protection to meet the demands of sustainable agriculture. Food and energy insecurities are currently two foremost problems being faced worldwide. Losses due to pests and diseases have been estimated to be around 37% of the agricultural production worldwide, with 13% due to insects. Engineering insect resistance in transgenic plants has been achieved through the use of insect control protein genes of Bacillus thuringiensis. Till now, researchers have focused on the introduction of genes for expression of modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins. Successful results on the control of Bt-susceptible pests have been achieved in the laboratory and finally in the field and now commercialized Bt transgenic crops are used worldwide. Other alternative methods exploit plant-derived insect control genes with promising results. Today insect-resistance transgenes, whether of plant, bacterial or other origin, can be introduced in to plants to increase the level of insect resistance so as to contribute to sustainable agricultural practices.

  19. Engineered Plant Minichromosome and Its Application in Genomics and Genetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wei-chang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Engineered minichromosomes have been constructed as novel artificial chromosome platforms for future genetic engineering in maize.We demonstrated that minichromosomes could be created by telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation of both normal A chromosomes and the supernumerary B chromosomes of maize,the minichromosomes were stable during both mitosis and meiosis,transgenes were expressed from minichromosomes,and we also demonstrated the proof of concept that minichromosomes could accept new genetic elements by a site-specific recombination system.

  20. Insights on bovine genetic engineering and cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana F. Bressan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic technology has become an essential tool for the development of animal biotechnologies, and animal cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT enabled the generation of genetically modified animals utilizing previously modified and selected cell lineages as nuclei donors, assuring therefore the generation of homogeneous herds expressing the desired modification. The present study aimed to discuss the use of SCNT as an important methodology for the production of transgenic herds, and also some recent insights on genetic modification of nuclei donors and possible effects of gene induction of pluripotency on SCNT.

  1. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants.

  2. Genetic engineering of sulfur-degrading Sulfolobus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, N.W.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research is to first establish a plasmid-mediated genetic transformation system for the sulfur degrading Sulfolobus, and then to clone and overexpress the genes encoding the organic-sulfur-degrading enzymes from Sulfolobus- as well as from other microorganisms, to develop a Sulfolobus-based microbial process for the removal of both organic and inorganic sulfur from coal.

  3. Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri......This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods....... The described work is part of a project that aims at establishing a coherent framework for future development of integrated design tools....

  4. Genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells using TALE nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockemeyer, Dirk; Wang, Haoyi; Kiani, Samira; Lai, Christine S; Gao, Qing; Cassady, John P; Cost, Gregory J; Zhang, Lei; Santiago, Yolanda; Miller, Jeffrey C; Zeitler, Bryan; Cherone, Jennifer M; Meng, Xiangdong; Hinkley, Sarah J; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2011-07-07

    Targeted genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for exploiting their full potential. Such genetic manipulations can be achieved using site-specific nucleases. Here we engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) for five distinct genomic loci. At all loci tested we obtained human embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clones carrying transgenic cassettes solely at the TALEN-specified location. Our data suggest that TALENs employing the specific architectures described here mediate site-specific genome modification in human pluripotent cells with similar efficiency and precision as do zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs).

  5. Enhanced Genetic Tools for Engineering Multigene Traits into Green Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Rasala, Beth A; Syh-Shiuan Chao; Matthew Pier; Daniel J Barrera; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes withi...

  6. Biosynthesis and Genetic Engineering of Polyketides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiang-Cheng; WANG Qiao-Mei; SHEN Yue-Mao; DU Liang-Cheng; HUFFMAN Justin; GERBER Ryan; LOU Li-Li; XIE Yun-Xuan; LIN Ting; JORGENSON Joel; MARESCH Andrew; VOGELER Chad

    2008-01-01

    Polyketides are one of the largest groups of natural products produced by bacteria, fungi, and plants. Many of these metabolites have highly complex chemical structures and very important biological activities, including antibiotic, anticancer, immunosuppressant, and anti-cholesterol activities. In the past two decades, extensive investigations have been carried out to understand the molecular mechanisms for polyketide biosynthesis. These efforts have led to the development of various rational approaches toward engineered biosynthesis of new polyketides. More recently, the research efforts have shifted to the elucidation of the three-dimentional structure of the complex enzyme machineries for polyketide biosynthesis and to the exploitation of new sources for polyketide production, such as filamentous fungi and marine microorganisms. This review summarizes our general understanding of the biosynthetic mechanisms and the progress in engineered biosynthesis of polyketides.

  7. The experimental study of genetic engineering human neural stem cells mediated by lentivirus to express multigene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Pei-qiang; TANG Xun; LIN Yue-qiu; Oudega Martin; SUN Guang-yun; XU Lin; YANG Yun-kang; ZHOU Tian-hua

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To explore the feasibility to construct genetic engineering human neural stem cells (hNSCs)mediated by lentivirus to express multigene in order to provide a graft source for further studies of spinal cord injury (SCI).Methods: Human neural stem cells from the brain cortex of human abortus were isolated and cultured, then gene was modified by lentivirus to express both green fluorescence protein (GFP) and rat neurotrophin-3(NT-3); the transgenic expression was detected by the methods of fluorescence microscope, dorsal root ganglion of fetal rats and slot blot.Results: Genetic engineering hNSCs were successfully constructed. All of the genetic engineering hNSCs which expressed bright green fluorescence were observed under the fluorescence microscope. The conditioned medium of transgenic hNSCs could induce neurite flourishing outgrowth from dorsal root ganglion (DRG). The genetic engineering hNSCs expressed high level NT-3 which could be detected by using slot blot.Conclusions: Genetic engineering hNSCs mediated by lentivirus can be constructed to express multigene successfully.

  8. 基因工程食品%Genetic engineering food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪秋安

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 概述 近年来,生物技术在食品行业的应用迅速发展,食品生物技术包括基因工程(genetic engineering)、蛋白质工程(protein enginering)、酶工程(enzyme engineering)、发酵技术(fermentation technology)、组织与细胞培养(tissue and cell culture)、反义RNA(antisense RNA)技术等.

  9. Successes and failures in modular genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittleson, Joshua T; Wu, Gabriel C; Anderson, J Christopher

    2012-08-01

    Synthetic biology relies on engineering concepts such as abstraction, standardization, and decoupling to develop systems that address environmental, clinical, and industrial needs. Recent advances in applying modular design to system development have enabled creation of increasingly complex systems. However, several challenges to module and system development remain, including syntactic errors, semantic errors, parameter mismatches, contextual sensitivity, noise and evolution, and load and stress. To combat these challenges, researchers should develop a framework for describing and reasoning about biological information, design systems with modularity in mind, and investigate how to predictively describe the diverse sources and consequences of metabolic load and stress.

  10. Genetically engineered mouse models and human osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Alvin JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common form of bone cancer. Pivotal insight into the genes involved in human osteosarcoma has been provided by the study of rare familial cancer predisposition syndromes. Three kindreds stand out as predisposing to the development of osteosarcoma: Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial retinoblastoma and RecQ helicase disorders, which include Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome in particular. These disorders have highlighted the important roles of P53 and RB respectively, in the development of osteosarcoma. The association of OS with RECQL4 mutations is apparent but the relevance of this to OS is uncertain as mutations in RECQL4 are not found in sporadic OS. Application of the knowledge or mutations of P53 and RB in familial and sporadic OS has enabled the development of tractable, highly penetrant murine models of OS. These models share many of the cardinal features associated with human osteosarcoma including, importantly, a high incidence of spontaneous metastasis. The recent development of these models has been a significant advance for efforts to improve our understanding of the genetics of human OS and, more critically, to provide a high-throughput genetically modifiable platform for preclinical evaluation of new therapeutics.

  11. Qualitative research methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Anya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the investigation of Software Engineering coexist two different research methods: 1 the quantitative that try to measure and analyze the casual relationship between the variables in a frame with free values, and 2 the qualitative that examine the creation process of meanings from which is generated new theorems or improve. Apply this methods separately in the research in software engineer makes evident that obtain results are incomplete and so is difficult to choose definitively wit which of them embark in a specific research. To approach this problem, in this article are described the quantitative methods as research methods to this engineer, and described its benefits and difficulties.

  12. American chestnut: A test case for genetic engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leila. Pinchot

    2014-01-01

    The thought of genetically engineered (GE) trees might conjure images of mutant trees with unnatural and invasive tendencies, but there is much more to the story. GE trees are a new reality that, like it or not, will probably be part of the future of forestry. The basic inclination of most Forest Guild stewards is to reject GE trees as violating our principle to...

  13. Somatic structural rearrangements in genetically engineered mouse mammary tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varela, I.; Klijn, C.N.; Stephens, P.J.; Mudie, L.J.; Stebbings, L.; Galappaththige, D.; Van der Gulden, H.; Schut, E.; Klarenbeek, S.; Campbell, P.J.; Wessels, L.F.A.; Stratton, M.R.; Jonkers, J.; Futreal, P.A.; Adams, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Here we present the first paired-end sequencing of tumors from genetically engineered mouse models of cancer to determine how faithfully these models recapitulate the landscape of somatic rearrangements found in human tumors. These were models of Trp53-mutated breast cancer, Brca1- and B

  14. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not develo

  15. A Simple Interactive Introduction to Teaching Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In the UK, at key stage 4, students aged 14-15 studying GCSE Core Science or Unit 1 of the GCSE Biology course are required to be able to describe the process of genetic engineering to produce bacteria that can produce insulin. The simple interactive introduction described in this article allows students to consider the problem, devise a model and…

  16. Genetic Engineering--A Lesson on Bioethics for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kerri; Weber, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    A unit designed to cover the topic of genetic engineering and its ethical considerations is presented. Students are expected to learn the material while using a debate format. A list of objectives for the unit, the debate format, and the results from an opinion questionnaire are described. (KR)

  17. University Students' Knowledge and Attitude about Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Senol; Samanci, Nilay Keskin; Bozkurt, Orçun

    2007-01-01

    Genetic engineering and biotechnology made possible of gene transfer without discriminating microorganism, plant, animal or human. However, although these scientific techniques have benefits, they cause arguments because of their ethical and social impacts. The arguments about ethical ad social impacts of biotechnology made clear that not only…

  18. Increased production of nutriments by genetically engineered crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevenier, R.E.; Meer, van der I.M.; Bino, R.J.; Koops, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Plants are the basis of human nutrition and have been selected and improved to assure this purpose. Nowadays, new technologies such as genetic engineering and genomics approaches allow further improvement of plants. We describe here three examples for which these techniques have been employed. We in

  19. De-Problematizing 'GMOs': Suggestions for Communicating about Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Grunewald, Wim; De Jaeger, Geert

    2017-03-01

    The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not

  1. Effects of genetic engineering on the pharmacokinetics of antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colcher, D.; Goel, A.; Pavlinkova, G.; Beresford, G.; Booth, B.; Batra, S.K. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha NE (United States). Dept. of Pathology and Microbiology and Molecular Biology

    1999-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) may be considered 'magic bullets' due to their ability to recognize and eradicate malignant cells. MAbs, however, have practical limitations for their rapid application in the clinics. The structure of the antibody molecules can be engineered to modify functional domains such as antigen-binding sites and/or effectors functions. Advanced in genetic engineering have provided rapid progress the development of new immunoglobulin constructs of MAbs with defined research and therapeutic application. Recombinant antibody constructs are being engineered, such as human mouse chimeric, domain-dispositioned, domain-deleted, humanized and single-chain Fv fragments. Genetically-engineered antibodies differ in size and rate of catabolism. Pharmacokinetics studies show that the intact IgG (150 kD), enzymatically derived fragments Fab' (50 kD) and single chain Fv (28 kD) have different clearance rates. These antibody forms clear 50% from the blood pool in 2.1 days, 30 minutes and 10 minutes, respectively. Genetically-engineered antibodies make a new class of immunotherapeutic tracers for cancer treatment.

  2. Genetic engineering, a hope for sustainable biofuel production: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Paudel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of recently developed genetic engineering tools in combination with organisms that have the potential to produce precursors for the production of biodiesel, promises a sustainable and environment friendly energy source. Enhanced lipid production in wild type and/or genetically engineered organisms can offer sufficient raw material for industrial transesterification of plant-based triglycerides. Bio-diesel, produced with the help of genetically modified organisms, might be one of the best alternatives to fossil fuels and to mitigate various environmental hazards. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10644 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 311-323

  3. A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  4. [Transformation of genetically engineered oxytocinoyllysine into oxytocin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal'tsev, K V; Shvets, S V; Luk'ianova, N A; Grigor'ev, A V; Miroshnikov, A I

    1996-04-01

    Various methods for obtaining oxytocin from its recombinant precursor oxytocinoyllysine were studied. For splitting off the C-terminal lysine residue in oxytocinoyllysine, the carboxypeptidase B and an analogous carboxypeptidase from king crab hepatopancreas were used. Ammonolysis of oxytocinic acid methyl ester proved to be the most efficient method for the last stage of the oxytocin preparation. Reversed-phase HPLC was used for the product analysis at each stage of the recombinant oxytocinoyllysine conversion into oxytocin.

  5. Genetic engineering of sulfur-degrading Sulfolobus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, N.W.Y. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Lab. of Renewable Resources Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that some microorganisms can play a significant role in removing the sulfur compound from coal. Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and related species are such microorganisms. The objective of this project is to develop a genetic transformation system for Sulfolobus species so that they could become the ideal host to overproduce homologous and heterologous enzymes that are most effective for the removal of sulfur from coal, particularly organic sulfur. Last quarter, we have identified three chemicals that can inhibit the growth of S. Acidocaldarius. These chemicals can be part of the selection system for the development of a transformation system for S. acidocaldarius. Due to the fact that Sulfolobus shibatae B12 becomes increasingly more attractive as a host for housing genes encoding desulfurization enzymes, in this period we also studied the affect of these three chemicals to growth of S. shibatae B12. We found that S. shibatae B12 is also sensitive to these chemicals. This quarter we succeeded in the isolation and purification of the double-stranded DNA virus from S. shibatae B12. Furthermore, the individual EcoRI and BamH1 fragments of the virus have also been cloned into pUC19 plasmid. These plasmids will be used for the construction of the final E. coli-Sulfolobus shuttle vector. 5 Flurouracil (5FU) is one of the chemicals that inhibit growth of Sulfolobus. Resistance strain of S. acidocaldarius to 5FU has also been isolated. DNA from the 5FU resistance strain has also been isolated. 2 figs.

  6. Engineering Values Into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Pamela L; Cho, Mildred K

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have been used to "edit" genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing the Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a "gene drive" that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA techniques. The scientific and bioethics communities have built substantial literatures about the ethical and policy implications of genetic engineering, especially in the age of bioterrorism. However, recent CRISPr/Cas experiments have triggered a rehashing of previous policy discussions, suggesting that the scientific community requires guidance on how to think about social responsibility. We propose a framework to enable analysis of social responsibility, using two examples of genetic engineering experiments.

  7. Metabolic Engineering: Techniques for analysis of targets for genetic manipulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    enzymes. Despite the prospect of obtaining major improvement through metabolic engineering, this approach is, however, not expected to completely replace the classical approach to strain improvement-random mutagenesis followed by screening. Identification of the optimal genetic changes for improvement......Metabolic engineering has been defined as the purposeful modification of intermediary metabolism using recombinant DNA techniques. With this definition metabolic engineering includes: (1) inserting new pathways in microorganisms with the aim of producing novel metabolites, e.g., production...... of polyketides by Streptomyces; (2) production of heterologous peptides, e.g., production of human insulin, erythropoitin, and tPA; and (3) improvement of both new and existing processes, e.g., production of antibiotics and industrial enzymes. Metabolic engineering is a multidisciplinary approach, which involves...

  8. Numerical methods and modelling for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides a step-by-step approach to numerical methods in engineering modelling. The authors provide a consistent treatment of the topic, from the ground up, to reinforce for students that numerical methods are a set of mathematical modelling tools which allow engineers to represent real-world systems and compute features of these systems with a predictable error rate. Each method presented addresses a specific type of problem, namely root-finding, optimization, integral, derivative, initial value problem, or boundary value problem, and each one encompasses a set of algorithms to solve the problem given some information and to a known error bound. The authors demonstrate that after developing a proper model and understanding of the engineering situation they are working on, engineers can break down a model into a set of specific mathematical problems, and then implement the appropriate numerical methods to solve these problems. Uses a “building-block” approach, starting with simpler mathemati...

  9. Advanced finite element method in structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Yu-Qiu; Long, Zhi-Fei

    2009-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the research work on the Finite Element Method completed over the past 25 years. Original theoretical achievements and their applications in the fields of structural engineering and computational mechanics are discussed.

  10. Engineered enzymatically active bacteriophages and methods of uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James J [Newton, MA; Kobayashi, Hideki [Yokohama, JP; Kearn, Mads [Ottawa, CA; Araki, Michihiro [Minatoku, JP; Friedland, Ari [Boston, MA; Lu, Timothy Kuan-Ta [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-22

    The present invention provides engineered bacteriophages that express at least one biofilm degrading enzyme on their surface and uses thereof for degrading bacterial biofilms. The invention also provides genetically engineered bacteriophages expressing the biofilm degrading enzymes and proteins necessary for the phage to replicate in different naturally occurring biofilm producing bacteria. The phages of the invention allow a method of biofilm degradation by the use of one or only a few administration of the phage because the system using these phages is self perpetuating, and capable of degrading biofilm even when the concentration of bacteria within the biofilm is low.

  11. Engineering genetic circuit interactions within and between synthetic minimal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamala, Katarzyna P.; Martin-Alarcon, Daniel A.; Guthrie-Honea, Katriona R.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2017-05-01

    Genetic circuits and reaction cascades are of great importance for synthetic biology, biochemistry and bioengineering. An open question is how to maximize the modularity of their design to enable the integration of different reaction networks and to optimize their scalability and flexibility. One option is encapsulation within liposomes, which enables chemical reactions to proceed in well-isolated environments. Here we adapt liposome encapsulation to enable the modular, controlled compartmentalization of genetic circuits and cascades. We demonstrate that it is possible to engineer genetic circuit-containing synthetic minimal cells (synells) to contain multiple-part genetic cascades, and that these cascades can be controlled by external signals as well as inter-liposomal communication without crosstalk. We also show that liposomes that contain different cascades can be fused in a controlled way so that the products of incompatible reactions can be brought together. Synells thus enable a more modular creation of synthetic biology cascades, an essential step towards their ultimate programmability.

  12. 76 FR 8707 - Syngenta Seeds, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically Engineered To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ..., ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are...

  13. Genetic Engineering of Algae for Enhanced Biofuel Production ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovits, Randor; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Darzins, Al; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    There are currently intensive global research efforts aimed at increasing and modifying the accumulation of lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other energy storage compounds in photosynthetic organisms, yeast, and bacteria through genetic engineering. Many improvements have been realized, including increased lipid and carbohydrate production, improved H2 yields, and the diversion of central metabolic intermediates into fungible biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms are attracting considerable interest within these efforts due to their relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, diverse metabolic capabilities, superior growth rates, and ability to store or secrete energy-rich hydrocarbons. Relative to cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae possess several unique metabolic attributes of relevance to biofuel production, including the accumulation of significant quantities of triacylglycerol; the synthesis of storage starch (amylopectin and amylose), which is similar to that found in higher plants; and the ability to efficiently couple photosynthetic electron transport to H2 production. Although the application of genetic engineering to improve energy production phenotypes in eukaryotic microalgae is in its infancy, significant advances in the development of genetic manipulation tools have recently been achieved with microalgal model systems and are being used to manipulate central carbon metabolism in these organisms. It is likely that many of these advances can be extended to industrially relevant organisms. This review is focused on potential avenues of genetic engineering that may be undertaken in order to improve microalgae as a biofuel platform for the production of biohydrogen, starch-derived alcohols, diesel fuel surrogates, and/or alkanes. PMID:20139239

  14. Genetic engineering of algae for enhanced biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovits, Randor; Jinkerson, Robert E; Darzins, Al; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2010-04-01

    There are currently intensive global research efforts aimed at increasing and modifying the accumulation of lipids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other energy storage compounds in photosynthetic organisms, yeast, and bacteria through genetic engineering. Many improvements have been realized, including increased lipid and carbohydrate production, improved H(2) yields, and the diversion of central metabolic intermediates into fungible biofuels. Photosynthetic microorganisms are attracting considerable interest within these efforts due to their relatively high photosynthetic conversion efficiencies, diverse metabolic capabilities, superior growth rates, and ability to store or secrete energy-rich hydrocarbons. Relative to cyanobacteria, eukaryotic microalgae possess several unique metabolic attributes of relevance to biofuel production, including the accumulation of significant quantities of triacylglycerol; the synthesis of storage starch (amylopectin and amylose), which is similar to that found in higher plants; and the ability to efficiently couple photosynthetic electron transport to H(2) production. Although the application of genetic engineering to improve energy production phenotypes in eukaryotic microalgae is in its infancy, significant advances in the development of genetic manipulation tools have recently been achieved with microalgal model systems and are being used to manipulate central carbon metabolism in these organisms. It is likely that many of these advances can be extended to industrially relevant organisms. This review is focused on potential avenues of genetic engineering that may be undertaken in order to improve microalgae as a biofuel platform for the production of biohydrogen, starch-derived alcohols, diesel fuel surrogates, and/or alkanes.

  15. Pressured Grouting Method (PGM) in Pile Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴序; 于志强; 王旭

    2002-01-01

    Application of pressured grouting method (PGM) in pile engineering can tackle problems encountered during construction of bored piles. Bearing capacity of piles can be increased through compaction of subsoils around piles. This paper reports research efforts of this technique by the pile research team in Southwest Jiaotong University in last decade with respect to the construction process, test findings, and primary research conclusions. The social-economical benefits of this method and application market in pile engineering are also analyzed.

  16. More Genetic Engineering With Cloned Hemoglobin Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Cells modified to enhance growth and production of proteins. Method for enhancing both growth of micro-organisms in vitro and production of various proteins or metalbolites in these micro-organisms provides for incorporation of selected chromosomal or extrachormosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences into micro-organisms from other cells or from artificial sources. Incorporated DNA includes parts encoding desired product(s) or characteristic(s) of cells and parts that control expression of productor characteristic-encoding parts in response to variations in environment. Extended method enables increased research into growth of organisms in oxygen-poor environments. Industrial applications found in enhancement of processing steps requiring oxygen in fermentation, enzymatic degradation, treatment of wastes containing toxic chemicals, brewing, and some oxidative chemical reactions.

  17. Introduction to the application of genetic algorithms in engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shaw

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms constitute a new research area in the field of artificial intelligence. This work is aimed at their application in specific areas of engineering where good results have already been achieved. The purpose of this work is to provide a basic introduction for students as well as experienced engineers who wish to upgrade their knowledge. A distinctive feature of artificial intelligence is that instead of mathematical models, either direct human experience or certain functions of the human brain for the modelling of physical phenomena are used.

  18. Insect chromosomes preparing methods for genetic researches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... Key words: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), chromosome staining, g- banding, c – banding, ... accomplished by studying various aspects of the genetics ... is a private method in molecular cytogenetics, due to the.

  19. Vocabulary of genetic engineering. Terminology Bulletin No. 200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvin, E.; Pham, G.

    1990-01-01

    For some years, research, teaching and health care have been seriously affected by the lack of official terminology in the health sciences field. This vocabulary presents terminology in the field of genetic engineering, defined as those procedures arising from molecular biology which are used to manipulate DNA, the main carrier of genetic information. The vocabulary is arranged in strict alphabetical order of English terms, with cross-references to the recommended English term. These terms are accompanied by a French equivalent, followed by a context or a definition.

  20. Enhanced energy transport in genetically engineered excitonic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heechul; Heldman, Nimrod; Rebentrost, Patrick; Abbondanza, Luigi; Iagatti, Alessandro; Alessi, Andrea; Patrizi, Barbara; Salvalaggio, Mario; Bussotti, Laura; Mohseni, Masoud; Caruso, Filippo; Johnsen, Hannah C.; Fusco, Roberto; Foggi, Paolo; Scudo, Petra F.; Lloyd, Seth; Belcher, Angela M.

    2016-02-01

    One of the challenges for achieving efficient exciton transport in solar energy conversion systems is precise structural control of the light-harvesting building blocks. Here, we create a tunable material consisting of a connected chromophore network on an ordered biological virus template. Using genetic engineering, we establish a link between the inter-chromophoric distances and emerging transport properties. The combination of spectroscopy measurements and dynamic modelling enables us to elucidate quantum coherent and classical incoherent energy transport at room temperature. Through genetic modifications, we obtain a significant enhancement of exciton diffusion length of about 68% in an intermediate quantum-classical regime.

  1. Genetic engineering possibilities for CELSS: A bibliography and summary of techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    A bibliography of the most useful techniques employed in genetic engineering of higher plants, bacteria associated with plants, and plant cell cultures is provided. A resume of state-of-the-art genetic engineering of plants and bacteria is presented. The potential application of plant bacterial genetic engineering to CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) program and future research needs are discussed.

  2. Industrial deployment of system engineering methods

    CERN Document Server

    Romanovsky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A formal method is not the main engine of a development process, its contribution is to improve system dependability by motivating formalisation where useful. This book summarizes the results of the DEPLOY research project on engineering methods for dependable systems through the industrial deployment of formal methods in software development. The applications considered were in automotive, aerospace, railway, and enterprise information systems, and microprocessor design.  The project introduced a formal method, Event-B, into several industrial organisations and built on the lessons learned to

  3. Genetic engineering of plant food with reduced allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Stephan; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Food allergies are a major health concern in industrialized countries. Since a specific immunotherapy for food allergies is not available in clinical routine praxis till now, reduction of allergens in foods, either by food processing or genetic engineering are strategies to minimize the risk of adverse reactions for food allergic patients. This review summarizes biotechnological approaches, especially the RNA interference (RNAi) technology, for the reduction of selected allergens in plant foods. So far, only a limited number of reports showing proof-of-concept of this methodology are available. Using RNAi an impressive reduction of allergen accumulation was obtained which was stable in the next generations of plants. Since threshold doses for most food allergens are not known, the beneficial effect has to be evaluated by oral challenge tests in the future. The article critically addresses the potential and limitations of genetic engineering, as well as of alternative strategies to generate "low allergic" foods.

  4. Targeted drug delivery using genetically engineered diatom biosilica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delalat, Bahman; Sheppard, Vonda C; Rasi Ghaemi, Soraya; Rao, Shasha; Prestidge, Clive A; McPhee, Gordon; Rogers, Mary-Louise; Donoghue, Jacqueline F; Pillay, Vinochani; Johns, Terrance G; Kröger, Nils; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2015-11-10

    The ability to selectively kill cancerous cell populations while leaving healthy cells unaffected is a key goal in anticancer therapeutics. The use of nanoporous silica-based materials as drug-delivery vehicles has recently proven successful, yet production of these materials requires costly and toxic chemicals. Here we use diatom microalgae-derived nanoporous biosilica to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to cancer cells. The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana is genetically engineered to display an IgG-binding domain of protein G on the biosilica surface, enabling attachment of cell-targeting antibodies. Neuroblastoma and B-lymphoma cells are selectively targeted and killed by biosilica displaying specific antibodies sorbed with drug-loaded nanoparticles. Treatment with the same biosilica leads to tumour growth regression in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model of neuroblastoma. These data indicate that genetically engineered biosilica frustules may be used as versatile 'backpacks' for the targeted delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs to tumour sites.

  5. Using ethnographic methods in software engineering research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Helen, C.; Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the role of ethnography in Software Engineering research. It describes the use of ethnographic methods as a means to provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding everyday software development practice. The knowledge gained...... can be used to improve processes, methods and tools as well as develop observed industrial practices. The tutorial begins with a brief historical account of ethnography in the fields of Software Engineering, CSCW, Information Systems and other related areas. This sets the stage for a more in......-depth discussion of methods for data collection and analysis used in ethnographic studies. It then describes how these methods can be and have been used by software engineering researchers to understand developers' work practices, to inform the development of processes, methods and tools and to evaluate...

  6. Using ethnographic methods in software engineering research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Helen, C.; Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the role of ethnography in Software Engineering research. It describes the use of ethnographic methods as a means to provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding everyday software development practice. The knowledge gained......-depth discussion of methods for data collection and analysis used in ethnographic studies. It then describes how these methods can be and have been used by software engineering researchers to understand developers' work practices, to inform the development of processes, methods and tools and to evaluate...... can be used to improve processes, methods and tools as well as develop observed industrial practices. The tutorial begins with a brief historical account of ethnography in the fields of Software Engineering, CSCW, Information Systems and other related areas. This sets the stage for a more in...

  7. Pertussis toxins, other antigens become likely targets for genetic engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwick, C.

    1990-11-14

    Genetically engineered pertussis vaccines have yet to be fully tested clinically. But early human, animal, and in vitro studies indicate effectiveness in reducing toxic effects due to Bordetella pertussis. The licensed pertussis vaccines consists of inactivated whole cells of the organism. Although highly effective, they have been associated with neurologic complications. While the evidence continues to mount that these complications are extremely rare, if they occur at all, it has affected the public's acceptance of pertussis immunization.

  8. Genetically engineered rice. The source of β-carotene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is a precursor of vitamin A. It is converted to vitamin A in the humans intestine by the β-carotene-15,15’-monooxygenase. Vitamin A is essential to support vision, as an antioxidant it protects the body from free radicals, it helps to integrate the immune system, as well as takes part in cellular differentiation and proliferation. Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem especially among developing countries. Nyctalopia, commonly known as „Night Blindness” is one of the major symptoms of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD. Plants such as apricots, broccoli, carrots, and sweet potatoes are rich in β-carotene. Some of the plants are characterized by a higher content of provitamin-A. Among vegetables rich sources of β-carotene are: carrots, pumpkin, spinach, lettuce, green peas, tomatoes, watercress, broccoli and parsley leaves. Amongst fruits the highest content of β-carotene is in apricot, cherry, sweet cherry, plum, orange and mango. The aim of the present study was to analyze available literature data of increasing the content of β-carotene in genetically engineered rice. The genetically modified cultivar contains additional genes: PSY and CRTI thanks to which rice seed endosperm contains β-carotene. Genetically engineered rice with β-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A, it contains approximately 30 μg β-carotene per 1 g. Fortunately some of the advantages of Genetically Modified Food give an opportunity to reduce VAD worldwide, by introducing the rice which has been genetically engineered to be rich in β-carotene. The popularity of this plant as an element of nutrition is simultaneously a source of vitamin A.

  9. Unraveling the neurobiology of nicotine dependence using genetically engineered mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Astrid K; Markou, Athina

    2013-08-01

    This review article provides an overview of recent studies of nicotine dependence and withdrawal that used genetically engineered mice. Major progress has been made in recent years with mutant mice that have knockout and gain-of-function of specific neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes. Nicotine exerts its actions by binding to neuronal nAChRs that consist of five subunits. The different nAChR subunits that combine to compose a receptor determine the distinct pharmacological and kinetic properties of the specific nAChR. Recent findings in genetically engineered mice have indicated that while α4-containing and β2-containing nAChRs are involved in the acquisition of nicotine self-administration and initial stages of nicotine dependence, α7 homomeric nAChRs appear to be involved in the later stages of nicotine dependence. In the medial habenula, α5-containing, α3-containing, and β4-containing nAChRs were shown to be crucially important in the regulation of the aversive aspects of nicotine. Studies of the involvement of α6 nAChR subunits in nicotine dependence have only recently emerged. The use of genetically engineered mice continues to vastly improve our understanding of the neurobiology of nicotine dependence and withdrawal.

  10. Application of Formal Methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to examine: (1 why are necessary the formal methods for software systems today, (2 high integrity systems through the methodology C-by-C –Correctness-by-Construction–, and (3 an affordable methodology to apply formal methods in software engineering. The research process included reviews of the literature through Internet, in publications and presentations in events. Among the Research results found that: (1 there is increasing the dependence that the nations have, the companies and people of software systems, (2 there is growing demand for software Engineering to increase social trust in the software systems, (3 exist methodologies, as C-by-C, that can provide that level of trust, (4 Formal Methods constitute a principle of computer science that can be applied software engineering to perform reliable process in software development, (5 software users have the responsibility to demand reliable software products, and (6 software engineers have the responsibility to develop reliable software products. Furthermore, it is concluded that: (1 it takes more research to identify and analyze other methodologies and tools that provide process to apply the Formal Software Engineering methods, (2 Formal Methods provide an unprecedented ability to increase the trust in the exactitude of the software products and (3 by development of new methodologies and tools is being achieved costs are not more a disadvantage for application of formal methods.

  11. Versatile RNA-sensing transcriptional regulators for engineering genetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucks, Julius B; Qi, Lei; Mutalik, Vivek K; Wang, Denise; Arkin, Adam P

    2011-05-24

    The widespread natural ability of RNA to sense small molecules and regulate genes has become an important tool for synthetic biology in applications as diverse as environmental sensing and metabolic engineering. Previous work in RNA synthetic biology has engineered RNA mechanisms that independently regulate multiple targets and integrate regulatory signals. However, intracellular regulatory networks built with these systems have required proteins to propagate regulatory signals. In this work, we remove this requirement and expand the RNA synthetic biology toolkit by engineering three unique features of the plasmid pT181 antisense-RNA-mediated transcription attenuation mechanism. First, because the antisense RNA mechanism relies on RNA-RNA interactions, we show how the specificity of the natural system can be engineered to create variants that independently regulate multiple targets in the same cell. Second, because the pT181 mechanism controls transcription, we show how independently acting variants can be configured in tandem to integrate regulatory signals and perform genetic logic. Finally, because both the input and output of the attenuator is RNA, we show how these variants can be configured to directly propagate RNA regulatory signals by constructing an RNA-meditated transcriptional cascade. The combination of these three features within a single RNA-based regulatory mechanism has the potential to simplify the design and construction of genetic networks by directly propagating signals as RNA molecules.

  12. The optimal homotopy asymptotic method engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Marinca, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasizes in detail the applicability of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method to various engineering problems. It is a continuation of the book “Nonlinear Dynamical Systems in Engineering: Some Approximate Approaches”, published at Springer in 2011, and it contains a great amount of practical models from various fields of engineering such as classical and fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, nonlinear oscillations, electrical machines, and so on. The main structure of the book consists of 5 chapters. The first chapter is introductory while the second chapter is devoted to a short history of the development of homotopy methods, including the basic ideas of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method. The last three chapters, from Chapter 3 to Chapter 5, are introducing three distinct alternatives of the Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method with illustrative applications to nonlinear dynamical systems. The third chapter deals with the first alternative of our approach with two iterations. Five application...

  13. Hybrid intelligent optimization methods for engineering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanoglu, Yasin Volkan

    The purpose of optimization is to obtain the best solution under certain conditions. There are numerous optimization methods because different problems need different solution methodologies; therefore, it is difficult to construct patterns. Also mathematical modeling of a natural phenomenon is almost based on differentials. Differential equations are constructed with relative increments among the factors related to yield. Therefore, the gradients of these increments are essential to search the yield space. However, the landscape of yield is not a simple one and mostly multi-modal. Another issue is differentiability. Engineering design problems are usually nonlinear and they sometimes exhibit discontinuous derivatives for the objective and constraint functions. Due to these difficulties, non-gradient-based algorithms have become more popular in recent decades. Genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms are popular, non-gradient based algorithms. Both are population-based search algorithms and have multiple points for initiation. A significant difference from a gradient-based method is the nature of the search methodologies. For example, randomness is essential for the search in GA or PSO. Hence, they are also called stochastic optimization methods. These algorithms are simple, robust, and have high fidelity. However, they suffer from similar defects, such as, premature convergence, less accuracy, or large computational time. The premature convergence is sometimes inevitable due to the lack of diversity. As the generations of particles or individuals in the population evolve, they may lose their diversity and become similar to each other. To overcome this issue, we studied the diversity concept in GA and PSO algorithms. Diversity is essential for a healthy search, and mutations are the basic operators to provide the necessary variety within a population. After having a close scrutiny of the diversity concept based on qualification and

  14. A Candida albicans CRISPR system permits genetic engineering of essential genes and gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Valmik K; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Fink, Gerald R

    Candida albicans is a pathogenic yeast that causes mucosal and systematic infections with high mortality. The absence of facile molecular genetics has been a major impediment to analysis of pathogenesis. The lack of meiosis coupled with the absence of plasmids makes genetic engineering cumbersome, especially for essential functions and gene families. We describe a C. albicans CRISPR system that overcomes many of the obstacles to genetic engineering in this organism. The high frequency with which CRISPR-induced mutations can be directed to target genes enables easy isolation of homozygous gene knockouts, even without selection. Moreover, the system permits the creation of strains with mutations in multiple genes, gene families, and genes that encode essential functions. This CRISPR system is also effective in a fresh clinical isolate of undetermined ploidy. Our method transforms the ability to manipulate the genome of Candida and provides a new window into the biology of this pathogen.

  15. Boundary element methods for electrical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    POLJAK, D

    2005-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the Boundary Element Method (BEM) has become a well-established technique that is widely used for solving various problems in electrical engineering and electromagnetics. Although there are many excellent research papers published in the relevant literature that describe various BEM applications in electrical engineering and electromagnetics, there has been a lack of suitable textbooks and monographs on the subject. This book presents BEM in a simple fashion in order to help the beginner to understand the very basic principles of the method. It initially derives B

  16. Risk calculation method for complex engineering system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping WANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rapid and simple risk calculation method for large and complex engineering systems, the simulated maximum entropy method (SMEM, which is based on integration of the advantages of the Monte Carlo and maximum entropy methods, thus avoiding the shortcoming of the slow convergence rate of the Monte Carlo method in risk calculation. Application of SMEM in the calculation of reservoir flood discharge risk shows that this method can make full use of the known information under the same conditions and obtain the corresponding probability distribution and the risk value. It not only greatly improves the speed, compared with the Monte Carlo method, but also provides a new approach for the risk calculation in large and complex engineering systems.

  17. Reproductive cloning, genetic engineering and the autonomy of the child: the moral agent and the open future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameli, M

    2007-02-01

    Some authors have argued that the human use of reproductive cloning and genetic engineering should be prohibited because these biotechnologies would undermine the autonomy of the resulting child. In this paper, two versions of this view are discussed. According to the first version, the autonomy of cloned and genetically engineered people would be undermined because knowledge of the method by which these people have been conceived would make them unable to assume full responsibility for their actions. According to the second version, these biotechnologies would undermine autonomy by violating these people's right to an open future. There is no evidence to show that people conceived through cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general be unable to assume responsibility for their actions; there is also no evidence for the claim that cloning and genetic engineering would inevitably or even in general rob the child of the possibility to choose from a sufficiently large array of life plans.

  18. Physical methods for genetic plant transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Gómez-Lim, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

    2012-09-01

    Production of transgenic plants is a routine process for many crop species. Transgenes are introduced into plants to confer novel traits such as improved nutritional qualities, tolerance to pollutants, resistance to pathogens and for studies of plant metabolism. Nowadays, it is possible to insert genes from plants evolutionary distant from the host plant, as well as from fungi, viruses, bacteria and even animals. Genetic transformation requires penetration of the transgene through the plant cell wall, facilitated by biological or physical methods. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art of the physical methods used for genetic plant transformation and to describe the basic physics behind them.

  19. Transgenic dairy cattle: genetic engineering on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, R J; Kerr, D E; Bondioli, K R

    1997-09-01

    Amid the explosion of fundamental knowledge generated from transgenic animal models, a small group of scientists has been producing transgenic livestock with goals of improving animal production efficiency and generating new products. The ability to modify mammary-specific genes provides an opportunity to pursue several distinctly different avenues of research. The objective of the emerging gene "pharming" industry is to produce pharmaceuticals for treating human diseases. It is argued that mammary glands are an ideal site for producing complex bioactive proteins that can be cost effectively harvested and purified. Consequently, during the past decade, approximately a dozen companies have been created to capture the US market for pharmaceuticals produced from transgenic bioreactors estimated at $3 billion annually. Several products produced in this way are now in human clinical trials. Another research direction, which has been widely discussed but has received less attention in the laboratory, is genetic engineering of the bovine mammary gland to alter the composition of milk destined for human consumption. Proposals include increasing or altering endogenous proteins, decreasing fat, and altering milk composition to resemble that of human milk. Initial studies using transgenic mice to investigate the feasibility of enhancing manufacturing properties of milk have been encouraging. The potential profitability of gene "pharming" seems clear, as do the benefits of transgenic cows producing milk that has been optimized for food products. To take full advantage of enhanced milk, it may be desirable to restructure the method by which dairy producers are compensated. However, the cost of producing functional transgenic cattle will remain a severe limitation to realizing the potential of transgenic cattle until inefficiencies of transgenic technology are overcome. These inefficiencies include low rates of gene integration, poor embryo survival, and unpredictable transgene

  20. Genetic engineering of fibrous proteins: spider dragline silk and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong Po Foo, Cheryl; Kaplan, David L

    2002-10-18

    Various strategies have been employed to genetically engineer fibrous proteins. Two examples, the subject of this review, include spider dragline silk from Nephila clavipes and collagen. These proteins are highlighted because of their unique mechanical and biological properties related to controlled release, biomaterials and tissue engineering. Cloning and expression of native genes and synthetic artificial variants of the consensus sequence repeats from the native genes has been accomplished. Expression of recombinant silk and collagen proteins has been reported in a variety of host systems, including bacteria, yeast, insect cells, plants and mammalian cells. Future utility for these proteins for biomedical materials is expected to increase as needs expand for designer materials with tailored mechanical properties and biological interactions to elicit specific responses in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Strategies to genetically engineer T cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Timothy T; Nagato, Kaoru; Nishimura, Michael I

    2016-06-01

    Immunotherapy is one of the most promising and innovative approaches to treat cancer, viral infections, and other immune-modulated diseases. Adoptive immunotherapy using gene-modified T cells is an exciting and rapidly evolving field. Exploiting knowledge of basic T cell biology and immune cell receptor function has fostered innovative approaches to modify immune cell function. Highly translatable clinical technologies have been developed to redirect T cell specificity by introducing designed receptors. The ability to engineer T cells to manifest desired phenotypes and functions is now a thrilling reality. In this review, we focus on outlining different varieties of genetically engineered T cells, their respective advantages and disadvantages as tools for immunotherapy, and their promise and drawbacks in the clinic.

  2. Cancer Regression in Patients After Transfer of Genetically Engineered Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Richard A.; Dudley, Mark E.; Wunderlich, John R.; Hughes, Marybeth S.; Yang, James C.; Sherry, Richard M.; Royal, Richard E.; Topalian, Suzanne L.; Kammula, Udai S.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Zheng, Zhili; Nahvi, Azam; de Vries, Christiaan R.; Rogers-Freezer, Linda J.; Mavroukakis, Sharon A.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2006-10-01

    Through the adoptive transfer of lymphocytes after host immunodepletion, it is possible to mediate objective cancer regression in human patients with metastatic melanoma. However, the generation of tumor-specific T cells in this mode of immunotherapy is often limiting. Here we report the ability to specifically confer tumor recognition by autologous lymphocytes from peripheral blood by using a retrovirus that encodes a T cell receptor. Adoptive transfer of these transduced cells in 15 patients resulted in durable engraftment at levels exceeding 10% of peripheral blood lymphocytes for at least 2 months after the infusion. We observed high sustained levels of circulating, engineered cells at 1 year after infusion in two patients who both demonstrated objective regression of metastatic melanoma lesions. This study suggests the therapeutic potential of genetically engineered cells for the biologic therapy of cancer.

  3. Advances in Research on Genetically Engineered Plants for Metal Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-Qing Zhang; Chun-Fang Tang; Shi-Zhi Wen; Yun-Guo Liu; Ke-Lin Li

    2006-01-01

    The engineering application of natural hyperaccumulators in removing or inactivating metal pollutants from soil and surface water in field trials mostly presents the insurmountable shortcoming of low efficiency owing to their little biomass and slow growth. Based on further understanding of the molecular mechanism of metal uptake, translocation, and also the separation, identification, and cloning of some related functional genes, this article highlights and summarizes in detail the advances in research on transgenic techniques, such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and particle bombardment, in breeding of plants for metal resistance and accumulation, and points out that deepening the development of transgenic plants is one of the efficient approaches to improving phytoremediation efficiency of metal-contaminated environments. From the viewpoint of sustainable development, governments should strengthen support to the development of genetic engineering for metal resistance and accumulation in plants.

  4. Hairy Root and Its Application in Plant Genetic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes Conn. causes hairy root disease in plants. Hairy root-infected A. rhizogenes is characterized by a high growth rate and genetic stability. Hairy root cultures have been proven to be an efficient means of producing secondary metabolites that are normally biosynthesized in roots of differentiated plants.Furthermore, a transgenic root system offers tremendous potential for introducing additional genes along with the Ri plasmid, especially with modified genes, into medicinal plant cells with A. rhizogenes vector systems.The cultures have turned out to be a valuable tool with which to study the biochemical properties and the gene expression profile of metabolic pathways. Moreover, the cultures can be used to elucidate the intermediates and key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The present article discusses various applications of hairy root cultures in plant genetic engineering and potential problems associated with them.

  5. Engineering Genetically-Encoded Mineralization and Magnetism via Directed Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueliang; Lopez, Paola A; Giessen, Tobias W; Giles, Michael; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A

    2016-11-29

    Genetically encoding the synthesis of functional nanomaterials such as magnetic nanoparticles enables sensitive and non-invasive biological sensing and control. Via directed evolution of the natural iron-sequestering ferritin protein, we discovered key mutations that lead to significantly enhanced cellular magnetism, resulting in increased physical attraction of ferritin-expressing cells to magnets and increased contrast for cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The magnetic mutants further demonstrate increased iron biomineralization measured by a novel fluorescent genetic sensor for intracellular free iron. In addition, we engineered Escherichia coli cells with multiple genomic knockouts to increase cellular accumulation of various metals. Lastly to explore further protein candidates for biomagnetism, we characterized members of the DUF892 family using the iron sensor and magnetic columns, confirming their intracellular iron sequestration that results in increased cellular magnetization.

  6. Biodegradation of azo dyes by genetically engineered azoreductase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; YAN Bin; ZHOU Ji-ti; BAO Yong-ming; LU Hong; YUAN Xiao-dong

    2005-01-01

    A azoreductase gene with 537 bp was obtained by PGR amplification from Rhodobacter sphaeroides AS1.1737. The enzyme,with a molecular weight of 18.7 kD, was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli and its biodegradation characteristics for azo dyes were investigated. Furthermore, the reaction kinetics and mechanism of azo dyes catalyzed by the genetically engineered azoreductase were studied in detail. The presence of a hydrazo-intermediate was identified, which provided a convincing evidence for the assumption that azo dyes were degraded via an incomplete reduction stage.

  7. Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Maceri, Franco

    2012-01-01

    „Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering” collects leading papers dealing with actual Civil Engineering problems. The approach is in the line of the Italian-French school and therefore deeply couples mechanics and mathematics creating new predictive theories, enhancing clarity in understanding, and improving effectiveness in applications. The authors of the contributions collected here belong to the Lagrange Laboratory, an European Research Network active since many years. This book will be of a major interest for the reader aware of modern Civil Engineering.

  8. Integral Methods in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2011-01-01

    An enormous array of problems encountered by scientists and engineers are based on the design of mathematical models using many different types of ordinary differential, partial differential, integral, and integro-differential equations. Accordingly, the solutions of these equations are of great interest to practitioners and to science in general. Presenting a wealth of cutting-edge research by a diverse group of experts in the field, Integral Methods in Science and Engineering: Computational and Analytic Aspects gives a vivid picture of both the development of theoretical integral techniques

  9. Traceability Method for Software Engineering Documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adila Azram

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Traceability has been widely discussed in research area. It has been one of interest topic to be research in software engineering. Traceability in software documentation is one of the interesting topics to be research further. It is important in software documentation to trace out the flow or process in all the documents whether they depends with one another or not. In this paper, we present a traceability method for software engineering documentation. The objective of this research is to facilitate in tracing of the software documentation.

  10. 76 FR 5780 - Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Determination of Regulated Status of Alfalfa Genetically... regulated status of alfalfa genetically engineered for tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate based on APHIS... decision and determination on the petition regarding the regulated status of alfalfa genetically engineered...

  11. Statistical methods for analysing complex genetic traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Galta, Rachid

    2006-01-01

    Complex traits are caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors, and are therefore difficult to study compared with simple Mendelian diseases. The modes of inheritance of Mendelian diseases are often known. Methods to dissect such diseases are well described in literature. For complex geneti

  12. Engineering design of systems models and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Buede, Dennis M

    2009-01-01

    The ideal introduction to the engineering design of systems-now in a new edition. The Engineering Design of Systems, Second Edition compiles a wealth of information from diverse sources to provide a unique, one-stop reference to current methods for systems engineering. It takes a model-based approach to key systems engineering design activities and introduces methods and models used in the real world. Features new to this edition include: * The addition of Systems Modeling Language (SysML) to several of the chapters, as well as the introduction of new terminology * Additional material on partitioning functions and components * More descriptive material on usage scenarios based on literature from use case development * Updated homework assignments * The software product CORE (from Vitech Corporation) is used to generate the traditional SE figures and the software product MagicDraw UML with SysML plugins (from No Magic, Inc.) is used for the SysML figures This book is designed to be an introductory reference ...

  13. Genetic algorithms as global random search methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Charles C.; Dhawan, Atam P.

    1995-01-01

    Genetic algorithm behavior is described in terms of the construction and evolution of the sampling distributions over the space of candidate solutions. This novel perspective is motivated by analysis indicating that the schema theory is inadequate for completely and properly explaining genetic algorithm behavior. Based on the proposed theory, it is argued that the similarities of candidate solutions should be exploited directly, rather than encoding candidate solutions and then exploiting their similarities. Proportional selection is characterized as a global search operator, and recombination is characterized as the search process that exploits similarities. Sequential algorithms and many deletion methods are also analyzed. It is shown that by properly constraining the search breadth of recombination operators, convergence of genetic algorithms to a global optimum can be ensured.

  14. Rhizobia species: A Boon for "Plant Genetic Engineering".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Urmi; Sinha, Sarika

    2011-10-01

    Since past three decades new discoveries in plant genetic engineering have shown remarkable potentials for crop improvement. Agrobacterium Ti plasmid based DNA transfer is no longer the only efficient way of introducing agronomically important genes into plants. Recent studies have explored a novel plant genetic engineering tool, Rhizobia sp., as an alternative to Agrobacterium, thereby expanding the choice of bacterial species in agricultural plant biotechnology. Rhizobia sp. serve as an open license source with no major restrictions in plant biotechnology and help broaden the spectrum for plant biotechnologists with respect to the use of gene transfer vehicles in plants. New efficient transgenic plants can be produced by transferring genes of interest using binary vector carrying Rhizobia sp. Studies focusing on the interactions of Rhizobia sp. with their hosts, for stable and transient transformation and expression of genes, could help in the development of an adequate gene transfer vehicle. Along with being biologically beneficial, it may also bring a new means for fast economic development of transgenic plants, thus giving rise to a new era in plant biotechnology, viz. "Rhizobia mediated transformation technology."

  15. Study on biofortification of rice by targeted genetic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumon M. Hossain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient malnutrition is a major health problem in Bangladesh and also in many other developing countries, where a diversified diet is not affordable for the majority. In the present world- one, out of seven people suffers from hunger. Yet, there is a stealthier form of hunger than lack of food: micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger. While often providing enough calories, monotonous diets (of rural poor frequently fail to deliver sufficient quantities of essential minerals and vitamins. Due to micronutrient deficiencies different characteristic features have been observed to the victims. Various estimates indicate that over two-thirds of the world population, for the most part women and children specially, pre-school children are deficient in at least one micronutrient. This can have devastating consequences for the life, health and well being of the individuals concerned (like premature death, blindness, weakened immune systems etc. Genetic engineering approach is the upcoming strategy to solve this problem. Genetically engineered biofortified staple crops specially, rice that are high in essential micronutrients (Fe, Zn, vitamin A and adapted to local growing environments have the potential to significantly reduce the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies specially to the rural poor.

  16. Prediction of jet engine parameters for control design using genetic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Arellano, G; Cant, R; Nolle, L

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of a jet engine behavior is widely used in many different aspects of the engine development and maintenance. Achieving high quality jet engine control systems requires the iterative use of these simulations to virtually test the performance of the engine avoiding any possible damage on the real engine. Jet engine simulations involve the use of mathematical models which are complex and may not always be available. This paper introduces an approach based on Genetic Programming (G...

  17. Mathematical methods for physicists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Royal Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This practical, highly readable text provides physics and engineering students with the essential mathematical tools for thorough comprehension of their disciplines. Featuring all the necessary topics in applied mathematics in the form of programmed instruction, the text can be understood by advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students without any assistance from the instructor. Topics include elementary vector calculus, matrix algebra, and linear vector operations; the many and varied methods of solving linear boundary value problems, including the more common special functions o

  18. Biosynthetic Studies and Genetic Engineering of Pactamycin Analogs with Improved Selectivity toward Malarial Parasites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Wanli; Roongsawang, Niran; Mahmud, Taifo

    2011-01-01

    .... However, through extensive biosynthetic studies and genetic engineering, we were able to produce analogs of pactamycin that show potent antimalarial activity, but lack significant antibacterial...

  19. Application of genetically engineered microbial whole-cell biosensors for combined chemosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Yuan, Sheng; Zhong, Wen-Hui; Siddikee, Md Ashaduzzaman; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-02-01

    The progress of genetically engineered microbial whole-cell biosensors for chemosensing and monitoring has been developed in the last 20 years. Those biosensors respond to target chemicals and produce output signals, which offer a simple and alternative way of assessment approaches. As actual pollution caused by human activities usually contains a combination of different chemical substances, how to employ those biosensors to accurately detect real contaminant samples and evaluate biological effects of the combined chemicals has become a realistic object of environmental researches. In this review, we outlined different types of the recent method of genetically engineered microbial whole-cell biosensors for combined chemical evaluation, epitomized their detection performance, threshold, specificity, and application progress that have been achieved up to now. We also discussed the applicability and limitations of this biosensor technology and analyzed the optimum conditions for their environmental assessment in a combined way.

  20. Fundamental numerical methods for electrical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosloniec, Stanislaw [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Radioelectronics

    2008-07-01

    The book presents fundamental numerical methods which are most frequently applied in the electrical (electronic) engineering. A scope of this book is rather wide and includes solving the sets of linear and nonlinear equations, interpolation and approximation of the functions of one variable, integration and differentation of the functions of one and two variables, integration of the ordinary differential equations, and integration the partial differential equations of two variables. All methods discussed are illustrated with real-world examples of applications. It is shown how real engineering questions can be transformed into the corresponding mathematical problems and next effectively solved by using appropriate numerical methods. Usually, for teaching reasons, mathematical problems are solved step by step, and illustrated by numerous intermediate results. Thus, it is not only explained how the problem can be solved, but the details of the solution are also demonstrated. In Chapter 7 for instance three electrical rectifying devices and a transmission-line non- homogeneous impedance transformer are analyzed in this manner. Similarly, in Chapter 8 different aspects of Laplace boundary value problem formulated for various kinds of single and coupled TEM transmission lines are presented. In other words, six standard TEM transmission lines are investigated by means of the finite difference method. It is shown how a partial differential equation of the second order can be approximated by the corresponding difference equation defined on interior and boundary nodes of the introduced grid. At the next stage, the set of linear equations, formulated in this way, is recurrently solved by using the effective SOR technique. Additionally, ideas of '' fictitious nodes '' and the '' even and odd mode excitations '' methods are explained and illustrated. All methods and computational results, presented in the book, are of significant

  1. The Genetic Algorithm: A Robust Method for Stress Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P.; Srivastava, D. C.; Gupta, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    The knowledge of stress states in Earth`s crust is a fundamental objective in many tectonic, seismological and engineering geological studies. Geologists and geophysicists routinely practice methods for determination of the stress tensor from inversion of observations on the stress indicators, such as faults, earthquakes and calcite twin lamellae. While the stress inversion is essentially a nonlinear problem, it is commonly solved by linearization, under some assumptions, in most existing methods. These algorithms not only oversimplify the problem but are also vulnerable to entrapment of the solution in a local optimum. We propose a nonlinear heuristic technique, the genetic algorithm method, that searches the global optimum without making any linearizing assumption or simplification. The method mimics the natural evolutionary process of selection, crossover, mutation, and minimises the composite misfit function for searching the global optimum, the fittest stress tensor. The validity of the method is successfully tested on synthetic fault-slip observations in different tectonic settings and also in situations where the observations contain noisy data. These results are compared with those obtained from the other common methods. The genetic algorithm method is superior to other common methods, in particular, in the oblique tectonic settings where none of the principal stresses is directed vertically.

  2. Combination therapy with leflunomide and genetic engineering biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Vladimirovna Chichasova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the use of a combination of genetic engineering biological agents (GEBAs and leflunomide in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. In accordance with the international guidelines, the majority of GEBAs should be given in a combination with methotrexate (MTX, which increases the efficacy of a number of GEBAs (tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, rituximab and affects tolerability (remikeid, humira. However, MTX cannot be always used in real practice. The data given in the paper on the efficiency and safety of the coadministration of leflunomide and a GEBA in patients with active RA, which are based on the results of randomized studies and national registers, including the Russian one, point to the compatibility of the results of treatment with this and GEBA-MTX combinations.

  3. Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitsky, Ivan; Banghart, Matthew R.; Mourot, Alexandre; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Gaub, Benjamin; Kramer, Richard H.; Trauner, Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with photoswitchable tethered agonists and antagonists. Using structure-based design, we produced heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. The generation of these engineered receptors should facilitate investigation of the physiological and pathological functions of neuronal nAChRs and open a general pathway to photosensitizing pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

  4. Genetic engineering of platelets to neutralize circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahe; Sharkey, Charles C; Wun, Brittany; Liesveld, Jane L; King, Michael R

    2016-04-28

    Mounting experimental evidence demonstrates that platelets support cancer metastasis. Within the circulatory system, platelets guard circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from immune elimination and promote their arrest at the endothelium, supporting CTC extravasation into secondary sites. Neutralization of CTCs in blood circulation can potentially attenuate metastases to distant organs. Therefore, extensive studies have explored the blockade of platelet-CTC interactions as an anti-metastatic strategy. Such an intervention approach, however, may cause bleeding disorders since the platelet-CTC interactions inherently rely on the blood coagulation cascade including platelet activation. On the other hand, platelets have been genetically engineered to correct inherited bleeding disorders in both animal models and human clinical trials. In this study, inspired by the physical association between platelets and CTCs, platelets were genetically modified to express surface-bound tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a cytokine known to induce apoptosis specifically in tumor cells. The TRAIL-expressing platelets were demonstrated to kill cancer cells in vitro and significantly reduce metastases in a mouse model of prostate cancer metastasis. Our results suggest that using platelets to produce and deliver cancer-specific therapeutics can provide a Trojan-horse strategy of neutralizing CTCs to attenuate metastasis.

  5. Genetic engineering and therapy for inherited and acquired cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Sharlene; Davis, Jennifer; Westfall, Margaret; Metzger, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    The cardiac myofilaments consist of a highly ordered assembly of proteins that collectively generate force in a calcium-dependent manner. Defects in myofilament function and its regulation have been implicated in various forms of acquired and inherited human heart disease. For example, during cardiac ischemia, cardiac myocyte contractile performance is dramatically downregulated due in part to a reduced sensitivity of the myofilaments to calcium under acidic pH conditions. Over the last several years, the thin filament regulatory protein, troponin I, has been identified as an important mediator of this response. Mutations in troponin I and other sarcomere genes are also linked to several distinct inherited cardiomyopathic phenotypes, including hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive cardiomyopathies. With the cardiac sarcomere emerging as a central player for such a diverse array of human heart diseases, genetic-based strategies that target the myofilament will likely have broad therapeutic potential. The development of safe vector systems for efficient gene delivery will be a critical hurdle to overcome before these types of therapies can be successfully applied. Nonetheless, studies focusing on the principles of acute genetic engineering of the sarcomere hold value as they lay the essential foundation on which to build potential gene-based therapies for heart disease.

  6. Current status of genetic engineering in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L): an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Vajhala S K; Reddy, Tummala Papi; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2014-06-01

    Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches.

  7. Gene therapy in dentistry: tool of genetic engineering. Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Khushboo; Singh, Saurabh; Garg, Kavita Nitish

    2015-03-01

    Advances in biotechnology have brought gene therapy to the forefront of medical research. The concept of transferring genes to tissues for clinical applications has been discussed nearly half a century, but the ability to manipulate genetic material via recombinant DNA technology has brought this goal to reality. The feasibility of gene transfer was first demonstrated using tumour viruses. This led to development of viral and nonviral methods for the genetic modification of somatic cells. Applications of gene therapy to dental and oral problems illustrate the potential impact of this technology on dentistry. Preclinical trial results regarding the same have been very promising. In this review we will discuss methods, vectors involved, clinical implication in dentistry and scientific issues associated with gene therapy.

  8. Open field release of genetically engineered sterile male Aedes aegypti in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Lacroix

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease. In the absence of specific drugs or vaccines, control focuses on suppressing the principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, yet current methods have not proven adequate to control the disease. New methods are therefore urgently needed, for example genetics-based sterile-male-release methods. However, this requires that lab-reared, modified mosquitoes be able to survive and disperse adequately in the field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult male mosquitoes were released into an uninhabited forested area of Pahang, Malaysia. Their survival and dispersal was assessed by use of a network of traps. Two strains were used, an engineered 'genetically sterile' (OX513A and a wild-type laboratory strain, to give both absolute and relative data about the performance of the modified mosquitoes. The two strains had similar maximum dispersal distances (220 m, but mean distance travelled of the OX513A strain was lower (52 vs. 100 m. Life expectancy was similar (2.0 vs. 2.2 days. Recapture rates were high for both strains, possibly because of the uninhabited nature of the site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: After extensive contained studies and regulatory scrutiny, a field release of engineered mosquitoes was safely and successfully conducted in Malaysia. The engineered strain showed similar field longevity to an unmodified counterpart, though in this setting dispersal was reduced relative to the unmodified strain. These data are encouraging for the future testing and implementation of genetic control strategies and will help guide future field use of this and other engineered strains.

  9. Numerical methods for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Antia, H M

    2012-01-01

    This book presents an exhaustive and in-depth exposition of the various numerical methods used in scientific and engineering computations. It emphasises the practical aspects of numerical computation and discusses various techniques in sufficient detail to enable their implementation in solving a wide range of problems. The main addition in the third edition is a new Chapter on Statistical Inferences. There is also some addition and editing in the next chapter on Approximations. With this addition 12 new programs have also been added.

  10. Innovative Methods for Engine Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-30

    C. Amzallag, J.P. Gerey, J.L. Robert and J. Bahuaudt, "Standardization of the rainflow counting method for fatigue analysis", Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 16...Millwater, R.C. McClung, M.P. Enright , "A new tool for design and certification of aircraft turbine rotors," Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines...Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 3443-3455. [4] J. Dundurs: J. Appl. Mech., 1969, Vol. 36, pp. 650-652. [5] K.S. Chan and M. P. Enright : Metall. Mater. Transactions

  11. Increased production of nutriments by genetically engineered crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévenier, Robert; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Bino, Raoul; Koops, Andries J

    2002-06-01

    Plants are the basis of human nutrition and have been selected and improved to assure this purpose. Nowadays, new technologies such as genetic engineering and genomics approaches allow further improvement of plants. We describe here three examples for which these techniques have been employed. We introduced the first enzyme involved in fructan synthesis, the sucrose sucrose fructosyltransferase (isolated from Jerusalem artichoke), into sugar beet. The transgenic sugar beet showed a dramatic change in the nature of the accumulated sugar, 90% of the sucrose being converted into fructan. The use of transgenic sugar beet for the production and isolation of fructans will result in a more efficient plant production system of fructans and should promote their use in human food. The second example shows how the over-expression of the key enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis could increase anti-oxidant levels in tomato. Introduction of a highly expressed chalcone isomerase led to a seventyfold increase of the amount of quercetin glucoside, which is a strong anti-oxidant in tomato. We were also able to modify the essential amino acid content of potato in order to increase its nutritional value. The introduction of a feedback insensitive bacterial gene involved in biosynthesis of aspartate family amino acids led to a sixfold increase of the lysine content. Because the use of a bacterial gene could appear to be controversial, we also introduced a mutated form of the plant key enzyme of lysine biosynthesis (dihydrodipicolinate synthase) in potato. This modification led to a 15 times increase of the lysine content of potato. This increase of the essential amino acid lysine influences the nutritional value of potato, which normally has low levels of several essential amino acids. These three examples show how the metabolism of primary constituents of the plant cell such as sugar or amino acids, but also of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, can be modified by genetic

  12. A CRISPR-Cas9 System for Genetic Engineering of Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nødvig, Christina S; Nielsen, Jakob B; Kogle, Martin E; Mortensen, Uffe H

    2015-01-01

    The number of fully sequenced fungal genomes is rapidly increasing. Since genetic tools are poorly developed for most filamentous fungi, it is currently difficult to employ genetic engineering for understanding the biology of these fungi and to fully exploit them industrially. For that reason there is a demand for developing versatile methods that can be used to genetically manipulate non-model filamentous fungi. To facilitate this, we have developed a CRISPR-Cas9 based system adapted for use in filamentous fungi. The system is simple and versatile, as RNA guided mutagenesis can be achieved by transforming a target fungus with a single plasmid. The system currently contains four CRISPR-Cas9 vectors, which are equipped with commonly used fungal markers allowing for selection in a broad range of fungi. Moreover, we have developed a script that allows identification of protospacers that target gene homologs in multiple species to facilitate introduction of common mutations in different filamentous fungi. With these tools we have performed RNA-guided mutagenesis in six species of which one has not previously been genetically engineered. Moreover, for a wild-type Aspergillus aculeatus strain, we have used our CRISPR Cas9 system to generate a strain that contains an AACU_pyrG marker and demonstrated that the resulting strain can be used for iterative gene targeting.

  13. Genetic Engineering: A Matter that Requires Further Refinement in Spanish Secondary School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gracia, M. V.; Gil-Quylez, M. J.; Osada, J.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic engineering is now an integral part of many high school textbooks but little work has been done to assess whether it is being properly addressed. A checklist with 19 items was used to analyze how genetic engineering is presented in biology textbooks commonly used in Spanish high schools, including the content, its relationship with…

  14. 78 FR 13302 - Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to... movement, or release into the environment) of organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant pests. Such...

  15. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, E. [Emory Univ. School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lamb, N.E.; Sherman, S.L. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Certain genetic disorders are rare in the general population, but more common in individuals with specific trisomies. Examples of this include leukemia and duodenal atresia in trisomy 21. This paper presents a linkage analysis method for using trisomic individuals to map genes for such traits. It is based on a very general gene-specific dosage model that posits that the trait is caused by specific effects of different alleles at one or a few loci and that duplicate copies of {open_quotes}susceptibility{close_quotes} alleles inherited from the nondisjoining parent give increased likelihood of having the trait. Our mapping method is similar to identity-by-descent-based mapping methods using affected relative pairs and also to methods for mapping recessive traits using inbred individuals by looking for markers with greater than expected homozygosity by descent. In the trisomy case, one would take trisomic individuals and look for markers with greater than expected homozygosity in the chromosomes inherited from the nondisjoining parent. We present statistical methods for performing such a linkage analysis, including a test for linkage to a marker, a method for estimating the distance from the marker to the trait gene, a confidence interval for that distance, and methods for computing power and sample sizes. We also resolve some practical issues involved in implementing the methods, including how to use partially informative markers and how to test candidate genes. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, E.; Lamb, N.E.; Sherman, S.L. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Certain genetic disorders (e.g. congenital cataracts, duodenal atresia) are rare in the general population, but more common in people with Down`s syndrome. We present a method for using individuals with trisomy 21 to map genes for such traits. Our methods are analogous to methods for mapping autosomal dominant traits using affected relative pairs by looking for markers with greater than expected identity-by-descent. In the trisomy case, one would take trisomic individuals and look for markers with greater than expected reduction to homozygosity in the chromosomes inherited form the non-disjoining parent. We present statistical methods for performing such a linkage analysis, including a test for linkage to a marker, a method for estimating the distance from the marker to the gene, a confidence interval for that distance, and methods for computing power and sample sizes. The methods are described in the context of gene-dosage model for the etiology of the disorder, but can be extended to other models. We also resolve some practical issues involved in implementing the methods, including how to use partially informative markers, how to test candidate genes, and how to handle the effect of reduced recombination associated with maternal meiosis I non-disjunction.

  17. Reverse engineering gene networks: Integrating genetic perturbations with dynamical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegnér, Jesper; Yeung, M. K. Stephen; Hasty, Jeff; Collins, James J.

    2003-01-01

    While the fundamental building blocks of biology are being tabulated by the various genome projects, microarray technology is setting the stage for the task of deducing the connectivity of large-scale gene networks. We show how the perturbation of carefully chosen genes in a microarray experiment can be used in conjunction with a reverse engineering algorithm to reveal the architecture of an underlying gene regulatory network. Our iterative scheme identifies the network topology by analyzing the steady-state changes in gene expression resulting from the systematic perturbation of a particular node in the network. We highlight the validity of our reverse engineering approach through the successful deduction of the topology of a linear in numero gene network and a recently reported model for the segmentation polarity network in Drosophila melanogaster. Our method may prove useful in identifying and validating specific drug targets and in deconvolving the effects of chemical compounds. PMID:12730377

  18. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION METHOD USED IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCURTU Iacob Liviu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimization study in mechanical engineering. First part of the research describe the structural optimization method used, followed by the presentation of several optimization studies conducted in recent years. The second part of the paper presents the CAD modelling of an agricultural plough component. The beam of the plough is analysed using finite element method. The plough component is meshed in solid elements, and the load case which mimics the working conditions of agricultural equipment of this are created. The model is prepared to find the optimal structural design, after the FEA study of the model is done. The mass reduction of part is the criterion applied for this optimization study. The end of this research presents the final results and the model optimized shape.

  19. Biosensing Vibrio cholerae with Genetically Engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowko, Maciej B; Wang, Huijuan; Jayaraman, Premkumar; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2016-11-18

    Cholera is a potentially mortal, infectious disease caused by Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Current treatment methods of cholera still have limitations. Beneficial microbes that could sense and kill the V. cholerae could offer potential alternative to preventing and treating cholera. However, such V. cholerae targeting microbe is still not available. This microbe requires a sensing system to be able to detect the presence of V. cholera bacterium. To this end, we designed and created a synthetic genetic sensing system using nonpathogenic Escherichia coli as the host. To achieve the system, we have moved proteins used by V. cholerae for quorum sensing into E. coli. These sensor proteins have been further layered with a genetic inverter based on CRISPRi technology. Our design process was aided by computer models simulating in vivo behavior of the system. Our sensor shows high sensitivity to presence of V. cholerae supernatant with tight control of expression of output GFP protein.

  20. Genetic engineering of human embryonic stem cells with lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chen; Tang, Dong-Qi; Xie, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Li; Xu, Ke-Feng; Thompson, Winston E; Chou, Wayne; Gibbons, Gary H; Chang, Lung-Ji; Yang, Li-Jun; Chen, Yuqing E

    2005-08-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells present a valuable source of cells with a vast therapeutic potential. However, the low efficiency of directed differentiation of hES cells remains a major obstacle in their uses for regenerative medicine. While differentiation may be controlled by the genetic manipulation, effective and efficient gene transfer into hES cells has been an elusive goal. Here, we show stable and efficient genetic manipulations of hES cells using lentiviral vectors. This method resulted in the establishment of stable gene expression without loss of pluripotency in hES cells. In addition, lentiviral vectors were effective in conveying the expression of an U6 promoter-driven small interfering RNA (siRNA), which was effective in silencing its specific target. Taken together, our results suggest that lentiviral gene delivery holds great promise for hES cell research and application.

  1. DIFFERENT ELEMENT METHODS IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH). Vol. ... Civil Engineering Department, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. ... are discussed in an overall and general manner so that engineers and scientists who are increas-.

  2. A FIELD STUDY WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ALFALFA INOCULATED WITH RECOMBINANT SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI: EFFECTS ON THE SOIL ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural use of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms has become increasingly common. Because genetically engineered plants and microorganisms can produce compounds foreign to their environment, there is concern that they may become established outside of thei...

  3. A FIELD STUDY WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ALFALFA INOCULATED WITH RECOMBINANT SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI: EFFECTS ON THE SOIL ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural use of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms has become increasingly common. Because genetically engineered plants and microorganisms can produce compounds foreign to their environment, there is concern that they may become established outside of thei...

  4. Degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene using genetically engineered dioxygenase producing Pseudomonas putida in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardani Gashtasb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation use to promote degradation and/or removal of contaminants into nonhazardous or less-hazardous substances from the environment using microbial metabolic ability. Pseudomonas spp. is one of saprotrophic soil bacterium and can be used for biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs but this activity in most species is weak. Phenanthrene and pyrene could associate with a risk of human cancer development in exposed individuals. The aim of the present study was application of genetically engineered P. putida that produce dioxygenase for degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene in spiked soil using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. The nahH gene that encoded catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O was cloned into pUC18 and pUC18-nahH recombinant vector was generated and transformed into wild P. putida, successfully. The genetically modified and wild types of P. putida were inoculated in soil and pilot plan was prepared. Finally, degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene by this bacterium in spiked soil were evaluated using HPLC measurement technique. The results were showed elimination of these PAH compounds in spiked soil by engineered P. putida comparing to dishes containing natural soil with normal microbial flora and inoculated autoclaved soil by wild type of P. putida were statistically significant (p0.05 but it was few impact on this process (more than 2%. Additional and verification tests including catalase, oxidase and PCR on isolated bacteria from spiked soil were indicated that engineered P. putida was alive and functional as well as it can affect on phenanthrene and pyrene degradation via nahH gene producing. These findings indicated that genetically engineered P. putida generated in this work via producing C23O enzyme can useful and practical for biodegradation of phenanthrene and pyrene as well as petroleum compounds in polluted environments.

  5. Methods and experimental techniques in computer engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Schiaffonati, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Computing and science reveal a synergic relationship. On the one hand, it is widely evident that computing plays an important role in the scientific endeavor. On the other hand, the role of scientific method in computing is getting increasingly important, especially in providing ways to experimentally evaluate the properties of complex computing systems. This book critically presents these issues from a unitary conceptual and methodological perspective by addressing specific case studies at the intersection between computing and science. The book originates from, and collects the experience of, a course for PhD students in Information Engineering held at the Politecnico di Milano. Following the structure of the course, the book features contributions from some researchers who are working at the intersection between computing and science.

  6. Mathematical methods in engineering and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, Gary N

    2016-01-01

    This text is intended for the undergraduate course in math methods, with an audience of physics and engineering majors. As a required course in most departments, the text relies heavily on explained examples, real-world applications and student engagement. Supporting the use of active learning, a strong focus is placed upon physical motivation combined with a versatile coverage of topics that can be used as a reference after students complete the course. Each chapter begins with an overview that includes a list of prerequisite knowledge, a list of skills that will be covered in the chapter, and an outline of the sections. Next comes the motivating exercise, which steps the students through a real-world physical problem that requires the techniques taught in each chapter.

  7. Current perspectives on genetically modified crops and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Madhu; Kumar, Pradeep; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important. In addition, several countries have established threshold levels for GM content which trigger legally binding labeling schemes. The labeling of GM crops is mandatory in many countries (such as China, EU, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Chile, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), whereas in Canada, Hong Kong, USA, South Africa, and Argentina voluntary labeling schemes operate. The rapid adoption of GM crops has increased controversies, and mitigating these issues pertaining to the implementation of effective regulatory measures for the detection of GM crops is essential. DNA-based detection methods have been successfully employed, while the whole genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides an advanced means for detecting genetically modified organisms and foods/feeds in GM crops. This review article describes the current status of GM crop commercialization and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of common and advanced detection systems for GMs in foods and animal feeds.

  8. Generic methods for aero-engine exhaust emission prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakariyants, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the thesis, generic methods have been developed for aero-engine combustor performance, combustion chemistry, as well as airplane aerodynamics, airplane and engine performance. These methods specifically aim to support diverse emission prediction studies coupled with airplane and engine simulation

  9. Genetically engineered microorganisms for the detection of explosives' residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eShemer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture and use of explosives throughout the past century has resulted in the extensive pollution of soils and groundwater, and the widespread interment of landmines imposes a major humanitarian risk and prevents civil development of large areas. As most current landmine detection technologies require actual presence at the surveyed areas, thus posing a significant risk to personnel, diverse research efforts are aimed at the development of remote detection solutions. One possible means proposed to fulfill this objective is the use of microbial bioreporters: genetically engineered microorganisms tailored to generate an optical signal in the presence of explosives’ vapors. The use of such sensor bacteria will allow to pinpoint the locations of explosive devices in a minefield. While no study has yet resulted in a commercially operational system, significant progress has been made in the design and construction of explosives-sensing bacterial strains. In this article we review the attempts to construct microbial bioreporters for the detection of explosives, and analyze the steps that need to be undertaken for this strategy to be applicable for landmine detection.

  10. Genetically engineered microorganisms for the detection of explosives’ residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, Benjamin; Palevsky, Noa; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Belkin, Shimshon

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture and use of explosives throughout the past century has resulted in the extensive pollution of soils and groundwater, and the widespread interment of landmines imposes a major humanitarian risk and prevents civil development of large areas. As most current landmine detection technologies require actual presence at the surveyed areas, thus posing a significant risk to personnel, diverse research efforts are aimed at the development of remote detection solutions. One possible means proposed to fulfill this objective is the use of microbial bioreporters: genetically engineered microorganisms “tailored” to generate an optical signal in the presence of explosives’ vapors. The use of such sensor bacteria will allow to pinpoint the locations of explosive devices in a minefield. While no study has yet resulted in a commercially operational system, significant progress has been made in the design and construction of explosives-sensing bacterial strains. In this article we review the attempts to construct microbial bioreporters for the detection of explosives, and analyze the steps that need to be undertaken for this strategy to be applicable for landmine detection. PMID:26579085

  11. Genetic engineering in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): history, status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citadin, Cristiane T; Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2011-01-01

    In the last three decades, a number of attempts have been made to develop reproducible protocols for generating transgenic cowpea that permit the expression of genes of agronomic importance. Pioneer works focused on the development of such systems vis-à-vis an in vitro culture system that would guarantee de novo regeneration of transgenic cowpea arising from cells amenable to one form of gene delivery system or another, but any such system has eluded researchers over the years. Despite this apparent failure, significant progress has been made in generating transgenic cowpea, bringing researchers much nearer to their goal than thirty years ago. Now, various researchers have successfully established transgenic procedures for cowpea with evidence of inherent transgenes of interest, effected by progenies in a Mendelian fashion. New opportunities have thus emerged to optimize existing protocols and devise new strategies to ensure the development of transgenic cowpea with desirable agronomic traits. This review chronicles the important milestones in the last thirty years that have marked the evolution of genetic engineering of cowpea. It also highlights the progress made and describes new strategies that have arisen, culminating in the current status of transgenic technologies for cowpea.

  12. Genetically engineering cyanobacteria to convert CO₂, water, and light into the long-chain hydrocarbon farnesene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfmann, Charles; Gu, Liping; Gibbons, William; Zhou, Ruanbao

    2014-12-01

    Genetically engineered cyanobacteria offer a shortcut to convert CO2 and H2O directly into biofuels and high value chemicals for societal benefits. Farnesene, a long-chained hydrocarbon (C15H24), has many applications in lubricants, cosmetics, fragrances, and biofuels. However, a method for the sustainable, photosynthetic production of farnesene has been lacking. Here, we report the photosynthetic production of farnesene by the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 using only CO2, mineralized water, and light. A codon-optimized farnesene synthase gene was chemically synthesized and then expressed in the cyanobacterium, enabling it to synthesize farnesene through its endogenous non-mevalonate (MEP) pathway. Farnesene excreted from the engineered cyanobacterium volatilized into the flask head space and was recovered by adsorption in a resin column. The maximum photosynthetic productivity of farnesene was 69.1 ± 1.8 μg·L(-1)·O.D.(-1)·d(-1). Compared to the wild type, the farnesene-producing cyanobacterium also exhibited a 60 % higher PSII activity under high light, suggesting increased farnesene productivity in such conditions. We envision genetically engineered cyanobacteria as a bio-solar factory for photosynthetic production of a wide range of biofuels and commodity chemicals.

  13. Biomimetic self-templating optical structures fabricated by genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Geun; Song, Hyerin; Kim, Chuntae; Moon, Jong-Sik; Kim, Kyujung; Lee, Seung-Wuk; Oh, Jin-Woo

    2016-11-15

    Here, we describe a highly sensitive and selective surface plasmon resonance sensor system by utilizing self-assembly of genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage. About 2700 copies of genetically expressed peptide copies give superior selectivity and sensitivity to M13 phage-based SPR sensor. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the M13 phage-based SPR sensor was enhanced due to the aligning of receptor matrix in specific direction. Incorporation of specific binding peptide (His Pro Gln: HPQ) gives M13 bacteriophage high selectivity for the streptavidin. Our M13 phage-based SPR sensor takes advantage of simplicity of self-assembly compared with relatively complex photolithography techniques or chemical conjugations. Additionally, designed structure which is composed of functionalized M13 bacteriophage can simultaneously improve the sensitivity and selectivity of SPR sensor evidently. By taking advantages of the genetic engineering and self-assembly, we propose the simple method for fabricating novel M13 phage-based SPR sensor system which has a high sensitivity and high selectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and Human Circulating Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and Human Circulating Tumor Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jeffrey Engelman MD PhD CONTRACTING...SUBTITLE Developiing Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Small Cell Lung 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Carcinoma Using Genetically Engineered Mouse Models and 5b...biomarkers. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), Genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM), BH3 mimetic, TORC inhibitor, Apoptosis

  15. Methods for Engineering Sulfate Reducing Bacteria of the Genus Desulfovibrio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Swapnil R; Keller, Kimberly L.; Wall, Judy D.

    2011-03-15

    Sulfate reducing bacteria are physiologically important given their nearly ubiquitous presence and have important applications in the areas of bioremediation and bioenergy. This chapter provides details on the steps used for homologous-recombination mediated chromosomal manipulation of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, a well-studied sulfate reducer. More specifically, we focus on the implementation of a 'parts' based approach for suicide vector assembly, important aspects of anaerobic culturing, choices for antibiotic selection, electroporation-based DNA transformation, as well as tools for screening and verifying genetically modified constructs. These methods, which in principle may be extended to other sulfate-reducing bacteria, are applicable for functional genomics investigations, as well as metabolic engineering manipulations.

  16. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  17. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  18. Effect of a genetically engineered bacteriophage on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Justine Monnerat; Buttaro, Bettina; Zhang, Hongming; Liss, Nadia; Sassone, Luciana; Stevens, Roy

    2016-11-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is associated with failed endodontic cases and nosocomial infections. E. faecalis can form biofilms, penetrate dentinal tubules and survive in root canals with scarce nutritional supplies. These properties can make E. faecalis resistant to conventional endodontic disinfection therapy. Furthermore, treatment may be complicated by the fact that many E. faecalis strains are resistant to antibiotics. A potential alternative to antibiotic therapy is phage therapy. ϕEf11 is a temperate phage that infects strains of E. faecalis. It was previously sequenced and genetically engineered to modify its properties in order to render it useful as a therapeutic agent in phage therapy. In the current study, we have further genetically modified the phage to create phage ϕEf11/ϕFL1C(Δ36)(PnisA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bacteriophage ϕEf11/ϕFL1C(Δ36)(PnisA), to disrupt biofilms of two Enterococcus faecalis strains: JH2-2 (vancomycin-sensitive) and V583 (vancomycin-resistant). 24h static biofilms of E. faecalis strains JH2-2(pMSP3535 nisR/K) and V583 (pMSP3535nisR/K), formed on cover slips, were inoculated with bacteriophage ϕEf11/ϕFL1C(Δ36)(PnisA). After 24 and 48h incubation, the bacterial biomass was imaged by confocal microscopy and viable cells were quantified by colony forming unit measurement. The results showed a 10-100-fold decrease in viable cells (CFU/biofilm) after phage treatment, which was consistent with comparisons of treated and untreated biofilm images visualized as max projections of the Z-series. The biomass of both vancomycin-sensitive and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis biofilms is markedly reduced following infection by bacteriophage ϕEf11/ϕFL1C(Δ36)(PnisA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A New Method for Medical Image Clustering Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Shahrzad Khashandarag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is applied in medical images when the brightness of the images becomes weaker so that making different in recognizing the tissues borders. Thus, the exact segmentation of medical images is an essential process in recognizing and curing an illness. Thus, it is obvious that the purpose of clustering in medical images is the recognition of damaged areas in tissues. Different techniques have been introduced for clustering in different fields such as engineering, medicine, data mining and so on. However, there is no standard technique of clustering to present ideal results for all of the imaging applications. In this paper, a new method combining genetic algorithm and k-means algorithm is presented for clustering medical images. In this combined technique, variable string length genetic algorithm (VGA is used for the determination of the optimal cluster centers. The proposed algorithm has been compared with the k-means clustering algorithm. The advantage of the proposed method is the accuracy in selecting the optimal cluster centers compared with the above mentioned technique.

  20. Diagnostic Methods for an Aircraft Engine Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ε. L. Ntantis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main gas path components, namely compressor and turbine, are inherently reliable but the operation of the aero engines under hostile environments, results into engine breakdowns and performance deterioration. Performance deterioration increases the operating cost, due to the reduction in thrust output and higher fuel consumption, and also increases the engine maintenance cost. In times when economic considerations dominate airline operators’ strategies, carrying out unnecessary rectification, can be very costly and time consuming. In an attempt to minimize such unexpected circumstances, having detailed knowledge prior to any inspection will allow the gas turbine user to take some of the maintenance action when it is necessary. Advanced engine-fault diagnostics tools offer the possibility of identifying degradation at the module level, determining the trends of these degradations during the usage of the engine, and planning the maintenance action ahead.

  1. Eulerian method for ice crystal icing in turbofan engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The newer generations of high-bypass-ratio engines are susceptible to the ingestion of small ice crystals which may cause engine power loss or damage. The research presented in this thesis focusses on the development of a computational method for in-engine ice crystal accretion. The work has been ca

  2. Methods in industrial biotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with the definition that biotechnology is really no more than a name given to a set of techniques and processes, the authors apply some set of fuzzy techniques to chemical industry problems such as finding the proper proportion of raw mix to control pollution, to study flow rates, to find out the better quality of products. We use fuzzy control theory, fuzzy neural networks, fuzzy relational equations, genetic algorithms to these problems for solutions. When the solution to the problem can have certain concepts or attributes as indeterminate, the only model that can tackle such a situation is the neutrosophic model. The authors have also used these models in this book to study the use of biotechnology in chemical industries. This book has six chapters. First chapter gives a brief description of biotechnology. Second chapter deals will proper proportion of mix of raw materials in cement industries to minimize pollution using fuzzy control theory. Chapter three gives the method of determination of te...

  3. Molecular profiling techniques as tools to detect potential unintended effects in genetically engineered maize

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the early stages of production and commercialization of foods derived from genetically engineered (GE) plants, international consensus was reached on the principles of food safety evaluation. The concept of substantial equivalence became...

  4. Gene flow in genetically engineered perennial grasses: Lessons for modification of dedicated bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential ecological consequences of the commercialization of genetically engineered (GD) crops have been the subject of intense debate, particularly when the GE crops are perennial and capable of outcrossing to wild relatives. The essential ecological impact issues for engi...

  5. IMPROVING PLANT GENETIC ENGINEERING BY MANIPULATING THE HOST. (R829479C001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a major technique for the genetic engineering of plants. However, there are many economically important crop and tree species that remain highly recalcitrant to Agrobacterium infection. Although attempts have been made to ...

  6. Genetic engineering of human ES and iPS cells using TALE nucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Hockemeyer, Dirk; Wang, Haoyi; Kiani, Samira; Lai, Christine S.; Gao, Qing; Cassady, John P.; Cost, Gregory J.; Zhang, Lei; Santiago, Yolanda; Miller, Jeffrey C; Zeitler, Bryan; Cherone, Jennifer M.; Meng, Xiangdong; Hinkley, Sarah J; Rebar, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted genetic engineering of human pluripotent cells is a prerequisite for exploiting their full potential. Such genetic manipulations can be achieved using site-specific nucleases. Here we engineered transcription activator–like effector nucleases (TALENs) for five distinct genomic loci. At all loci tested we obtained human embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) clones carrying transgenic cassettes solely at the TALEN-specified location. Our data suggest that T...

  7. Graph Drawing with Algorithm Engineering Methods (Dagstuhl Seminar 11191)

    OpenAIRE

    Demetrescu, Camil; Kaufmann, Michael; Kobourov, Stephen; Mutzel, Petra

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 11191 ``Graph Drawing with Algorithm Engineering Methods''. We summarize the talks, open problems, and working group discussions.

  8. Use of a risk communication model to evaluate dietetics professionals' viewpoints on genetically engineered foods and crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kathy S; Struble, Marie Boyle; McCullum-Gomez, Christine; Wilkins, Jennifer L

    2006-05-01

    The complex issues surrounding the application of genetic engineering to food and agriculture have generated a contentious debate among diverse interest groups. One pervasive dimension in the resultant discourse is the varying perceptions of the risks and benefits of genetically engineered foods and crops. In the risk communication model, technical information is evaluated within the context of an individual's values and perceptions. The purpose of this study was to explore how dietetics professionals respond to a complex set of interrelated issues associated with genetically engineered foods and crops and to identify what varying viewpoints may exist. Participants were asked to sort a total of 48 statements distributed across eight issue areas according to level of agreement and disagreement. Using Q methodology, a total of 256 sortings were analyzed using the centroid method and varimax rotation in factor analysis. Three distinct viewpoints emerged: Precautionary (R(2)=43%), Discerning Supporter (R(2)=11%), and Promoting (R(2)=5%). Across all viewpoints, respondents agreed that dietetics professionals should employ critical thinking skills to communicate the social, economic, environmental, ethical, and technical aspects of genetically engineered foods and crops. The findings have implications for how dietetics professionals can foster an open interchange of information among diverse groups.

  9. DATA SYNTHESIS AND METHOD EVALUATION FOR BRAIN IMAGING GENETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Jinhua; Kim, Sungeun; Yan, Jingwen; Moore, Jason; Saykin, Andrew; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging genetics is an emergent research field where the association between genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and neuroimaging quantitative traits (QTs) is evaluated. Sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) is a bi-multivariate analysis method that has the potential to reveal complex multi-SNP-multi-QT associations. We present initial efforts on evaluating a few SCCA methods for brain imaging genetics. This includes a data synthesis method to create...

  10. Genome-scale genetic engineering in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jaehwan; Cho, Namjin; Jung, Daehee; Bang, Duhee

    2013-11-01

    Genome engineering has been developed to create useful strains for biological studies and industrial uses. However, a continuous challenge remained in the field: technical limitations in high-throughput screening and precise manipulation of strains. Today, technical improvements have made genome engineering more rapid and efficient. This review introduces recent advances in genome engineering technologies applied to Escherichia coli as well as multiplex automated genome engineering (MAGE), a recent technique proposed as a powerful toolkit due to its straightforward process, rapid experimental procedures, and highly efficient properties.

  11. Teaching Applied Genetics and Molecular Biology to Agriculture Engineers. Application of the European Credit Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J.; Egea-Cortines, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been teaching applied molecular genetics to engineers and adapted the teaching methodology to the European Credit Transfer System. We teach core principles of genetics that are universal and form the conceptual basis of most molecular technologies. The course then teaches widely used techniques and finally shows how different techniques…

  12. Ray Wu, Cornell's acclaimed pioneer of genetic engineering and developer of insect-resistant rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ ITHACA, N.Y. - Ray J. Wu, Comell University professor of molecular biology and genetics, who was widely recognized as one of the fathers of genetic engineering and who developed and sought to feed the world with a higher yielding rice that resists insects and drought, died of cardiac arrest in Ithaca, Feb. 10.

  13. The Significance of Content Knowledge for Informal Reasoning regarding Socioscientific Issues: Applying Genetics Knowledge to Genetic Engineering Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2005-01-01

    This study focused on informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues. It sought to explore how content knowledge influenced the negotiation and resolution of contentious and complex scenarios based on genetic engineering. Two hundred and sixty-nine students drawn from undergraduate natural science and nonnatural science courses completed a…

  14. Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Society. Monograph Series: III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.

    New techniques have expanded the field of biotechnology and awarded scientists an unprecedented degree of control over the genetic constitutions of living things. The knowledge of DNA science is the basis for this burgeoning industry which may be a major force in human existence. Just as it is possible to move genetic material from one organism to…

  15. Harnessing biodiesel-producing microbes: from genetic engineering of lipase to metabolic engineering of fatty acid biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinyong; Yan, Yunjun; Madzak, Catherine; Han, Bingnan

    2017-02-01

    Microbial production routes, notably whole-cell lipase-mediated biotransformation and fatty-acids-derived biosynthesis, offer new opportunities for synthesizing biodiesel. They compare favorably to immobilized lipase and chemically catalyzed processes. Genetically modified whole-cell lipase-mediated in vitro route, together with in vivo and ex vivo microbial biosynthesis routes, constitutes emerging and rapidly developing research areas for effective production of biodiesel. This review presents recent advances in customizing microorganisms for producing biodiesel, via genetic engineering of lipases and metabolic engineering (including system regulation) of fatty-acids-derived pathways. Microbial hosts used include Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris and Aspergillus oryzae. These microbial cells can be genetically modified to produce lipases under different forms: intracellularly expressed, secreted or surface-displayed. They can be metabolically redesigned and systematically regulated to obtain balanced biodiesel-producing cells, as highlighted in this study. Such genetically or metabolically modified microbial cells can support not only in vitro biotransformation of various common oil feedstocks to biodiesel, but also de novo biosynthesis of biodiesel from glucose, glycerol or even cellulosic biomass. We believe that the genetically tractable oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica could be developed to an effective biodiesel-producing microbial cell factory. For this purpose, we propose several engineered pathways, based on lipase and wax ester synthase, in this promising oleaginous host.

  16. Using genetically engineered animal models in the postgenomic era to understand gene function in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Harris, R Adron; Noronha, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, researchers have made substantial progress in identifying genetic variations that underlie the complex phenotype of alcoholism. Not much is known, however, about how this genetic variation translates into altered biological function. Genetic animal models recapitulating specific characteristics of the human condition have helped elucidate gene function and the genetic basis of disease. In particular, major advances have come from the ability to manipulate genes through a variety of genetic technologies that provide an unprecedented capacity to determine gene function in the living organism and in alcohol-related behaviors. Even newer genetic-engineering technologies have given researchers the ability to control when and where a specific gene or mutation is activated or deleted, allowing investigators to narrow the role of the gene's function to circumscribed neural pathways and across development. These technologies are important for all areas of neuroscience, and several public and private initiatives are making a new generation of genetic-engineering tools available to the scientific community at large. Finally, high-throughput "next-generation sequencing" technologies are set to rapidly increase knowledge of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, which, combined with genetically engineered mouse mutants, will enhance insight into biological function. All of these resources will provide deeper insight into the genetic basis of alcoholism.

  17. Genetic Networks of Complex Disorders: from a Novel Search Engine for PubMed Article Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Yoon; Wall, Dennis Paul

    2013-01-01

    Finding genetic risk factors of complex disorders may involve reviewing hundreds of genes or thousands of research articles iteratively, but few tools have been available to facilitate this procedure. In this work, we built a novel publication search engine that can identify target-disorder specific, genetics-oriented research articles and extract the genes with significant results. Preliminary test results showed that the output of this engine has better coverage in terms of genes or publications, than other existing applications. We consider it as an essential tool for understanding genetic networks of complex disorders.

  18. A Guideline of Using Case Method in Software Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Dzulaiha Aryanee Putri; Razali, Rozilawati; Shukur, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Software Engineering (SE) education has been reported to fall short in producing high quality software engineers. In seeking alternative solutions, Case Method (CM) is regarded as having potential to solve the issue. CM is a teaching and learning (T&L) method that has been found to be effective in Social Science education. In principle,…

  19. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  20. METHOD OF HYDROGEN FEEDING FOR AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abramchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On basis of analysis of various methods of hydrogen feeding for automotive engine supply methods of multipoint hydrogen distribution with microprocessor-based control are proposed.

  1. Tools for genetic engineering of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saraya, Ruchi; Gidijala, Loknath; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J; Mapelli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Hansenula polymorpha is a methylotrophic yeast species that has favorable properties for heterologous protein production and metabolic engineering. It provides an attractive expression platform with the capability to secrete high levels of commercially important proteins. Over the past few years

  2. Evaluation of terrestrial microcosms for detection, fate, and survival analysis of genetically engineered microorganisms and their recombinant genetic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Seidler, R.J.

    1989-02-01

    The research included in this document represents the current scientific information available regarding the applicability of terrestrial microcosms and related methodologies for evaluating detection methods and the fate and survival of microorganisms in the environment. The three terrestrial microcosms described in this document were used to evaluate the survival and fate of recombinant bacteria in soils and in association with plant surfaces and insects and their transport through soil with percolating water and root systems, and to test new methods and procedures to improve detection and enumeration of bacteria in soil. Simple (potting soil composed of peat mix and perlite, lacking environmental control and monitoring) and complex microcosms (agricultural soil with partial control and monitoring of environmental conditions) were demonstrated to be useful tools for preliminary assessments of microbial viability in terrestrial ecosystems. These studies evaluated the survival patterns of Enterobacter cloacae (pBR322) in soil and on plant surfaces and the ingestion of this same microorganism by cutworms and survival in the foregut and frass. The Versacore microcosm design was used to monitor the fate and competitiveness of genetically engineered bacteria in soil. Both selective media and gene probes were used successfully to follow the fate of two recombinant Pseudomonas sp. introduced into Versacore microcosms. Intact soil-core microcosms were employed to evaluate the fate and transport of genetically altered Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in soil and the plant rhizosphere. The usefulness of these various microcosms as a tool for risk assessment is underscored by the ease in obtaining soil from a proposed field release site to evaluate subsequent GEM fate and survival.

  3. Genetically engineered plants with increased vegetative oil content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Christoph

    2017-05-23

    The invention relates to genetically modified agricultural plants with increased oil content in vegetative tissues, as well as to expression systems, plant cells, seeds and vegetative tissues related thereto.

  4. Engineering education at a new public university in Brazil: first students' contact with engineering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Jesus Franklin A.; Leite, Patrícia; Mantovani, Gerson L.; Lanfredi, Alexandre J. C.; Martins-Filho, Luiz S.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the experience of an introductory discipline to the engineering curricula at the Brazilian Federal University of ABC (UFABC). The university offers a common basic curriculum that must be accomplished by every student and can be followed by professionalising courses. The discipline 'Introduction to Engineering' presents the basis of the engineering career, methods and thinking together with professional commitments and regulations. The objective is to help students to consciously choose their careers, minimising the precocity problem in deciding a professional future. The discipline methodology includes activities proposed by the TryEngineering website and from Brazilian engineering councils. Lectures with invited professors introduce UFABC engineering specialities: Aerospace, Bioengineering, Energy, Environmental & Urban, Information, Instrumentation & Automation & Robotics, Management, Materials. This paper reports the proposed activities, results obtained by the students, a methodology critical analysis and the impacts on the following steps of students embracing an engineering career.

  5. Plant Resistance to Virus Diseases through Genetic Engineering: Can a Similar Approach Control Plant-parasitic Nematodes?

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann-Philipp, Ulrich; Beachy, Roger N.

    1993-01-01

    Genetically engineered resistance against plant virus diseases has been achieved by transforming plants with gene constructs that encode viral sequences. Several successful field trials of virus-resistant transgenic plants have been carried out. Specific features of virus infection make it possible to interfere with different steps of the infection and disease cycle by accumulating products of chimeric genes introduced into transgenic plants. In this paper we describe the most common methods ...

  6. DECOMPOSTION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED TOBACCO UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: PERSISTENCE OF THE PROTEINASE INHIBITOR I PRODUCT AND EFFECTS OF SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND PROTOZOA, NEMATODE AND MICROARTHR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. To evaluate the potential effects of genetically engineered (transgenic) plants on soil ecosystems, litterbags containing leaves of non-engineered (parental) and transgenic tobacco plants were buried in field plots. The transgenic tobacco plants were genetically engineered to ...

  7. Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),

  8. Genetics of Schizophrenia: Overview of Methods, Findings and Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram; Frederiksen, Julie E Nordgaard; Jansson, Lennart Bertil

    2017-01-01

    -specialists in genetics (e.g., many clinicians and researchers) to get a proper understanding and appreciation of the genetic findings and their limitations. This study aims at facilitating such an understanding by providing a brief overview of some of the central methods and findings in schizophrenia genetics, from its...... historical origins to its current status, and also by addressing some limitations and challenges that confront this field of research. In short, the genetic architecture of schizophrenia has proven to be highly complex, heterogeneous and polygenic. The disease risk is constituted by numerous common genetic......Genetics constitute a crucial risk factor to schizophrenia. In the last decade, molecular genetic research has produced novel findings, infusing optimism about discovering the biological roots of schizophrenia. However, the complexity of the object of inquiry makes it almost impossible for non...

  9. The use of genetically-engineered animals in science: perspectives of Canadian Animal Care Committee members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Dale, Julie; Griffin, Gilly

    2013-05-01

    The genetic engineering of animals for their use in science challenges the implementation of refinement and reduction in several areas, including the invasiveness of the procedures involved, unanticipated welfare concerns, and the numbers of animals required. Additionally, the creation of genetically-engineered animals raises problems with the Canadian system of reporting animal numbers per Category of Invasiveness, as well as raising issues of whether ethical limits can, or should, be placed on genetic engineering. A workshop was held with the aim of bringing together Canadian animal care committee members to discuss these issues, to reflect on progress that has been made in addressing them, and to propose ways of overcoming any challenges. Although previous literature has made recommendations with regard to refinement and reduction when creating new genetically-engineered animals, the perception of the workshop participants was that some key opportunities are being missed. The participants identified the main roadblocks to the implementation of refinement and reduction alternatives as confidentiality, cost and competition. If the scientific community is to make progress concerning the implementation of refinement and reduction, particularly in the creation and use of genetically-engineered animals, addressing these roadblocks needs to be a priority.

  10. Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ye Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, such as modulation of environmental factors (temperature, light, chemical composition of culture medium and culture methods, to influence the content of PUFAs in diatoms. Genetic engineering, a newly emerging field, also plays an important role in controlling the synthesis of fatty acids in marine microalgae. Several key points in the biosynthetic pathway of PUFAs in diatoms as well as recent progresses are also a critical part and are summarized here.

  11. Overview of Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Breast Cancer Used in Translational Biology and Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenow, Kirsty R; Smalley, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous condition with no single standard of treatment and no definitive method for determining whether a tumor will respond to therapy. The development of murine models that faithfully mimic specific human breast cancer subtypes is critical for the development of patient-specific treatments. While the artificial nature of traditional in vivo xenograft models used to characterize novel anticancer treatments has limited clinical predictive value, the development of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) makes it possible to study the therapeutic responses in an intact microenvironment. GEMMs have proven to be an experimentally tractable platform for evaluating the efficacy of novel therapeutic combinations and for defining the mechanisms of acquired resistance. Described in this overview are several of the more popular breast cancer GEMMs, including details on their value in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of this disorder.

  12. Biochemical and genetic engineering strategies to enhance hydrogen production in photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangan, Kajan; Pyne, Michael E; Perry Chou, C

    2011-09-01

    As an energy carrier, hydrogen gas is a promising substitute to carbonaceous fuels owing to its superb conversion efficiency, non-polluting nature, and high energy content. At present, hydrogen is predominately synthesized via chemical reformation of fossil fuels. While various biological methods have been extensively explored, none of them is justified as economically feasible. A sustainable platform for biological production of hydrogen will certainly impact the biofuel market. Among a selection of biological systems, algae and cyanobacteria have garnered major interests as potential cell factories for hydrogen production. In conjunction with photosynthesis, these organisms utilize inexpensive inorganic substrates and solar energy for simultaneous biosynthesis and hydrogen evolution. However, the hydrogen yield associated with these organisms remains far too low to compete with the existing chemical systems. This article reviews recent advances of biochemical, bioprocess, and genetic engineering strategies in circumventing technological limitations to hopefully improve the applicative potential of these photosynthetic hydrogen production systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biochemical and genetic engineering of diatoms for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Ye; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng

    2014-01-07

    The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, such as modulation of environmental factors (temperature, light, chemical composition of culture medium) and culture methods, to influence the content of PUFAs in diatoms. Genetic engineering, a newly emerging field, also plays an important role in controlling the synthesis of fatty acids in marine microalgae. Several key points in the biosynthetic pathway of PUFAs in diatoms as well as recent progresses are also a critical part and are summarized here.

  14. Study on Fault Diagnostics of a Turboprop Engine Using Inverse Performance Model and Artificial Intelligent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Changduk; Lim, Semyeong

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the health monitoring system of major gas path components of gas turbine uses mostly the model based method like the Gas Path Analysis (GPA). This method is to find quantity changes of component performance characteristic parameters such as isentropic efficiency and mass flow parameter by comparing between measured engine performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, rotational speeds, fuel consumption, etc. and clean engine performance parameters without any engine faults which are calculated by the base engine performance model. Currently, the expert engine diagnostic systems using the artificial intelligent methods such as Neural Networks (NNs), Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been studied to improve the model based method. Among them the NNs are mostly used to the engine fault diagnostic system due to its good learning performance, but it has a drawback due to low accuracy and long learning time to build learning data base if there are large amount of learning data. In addition, it has a very complex structure for finding effectively single type faults or multiple type faults of gas path components. This work builds inversely a base performance model of a turboprop engine to be used for a high altitude operation UAV using measured performance data, and proposes a fault diagnostic system using the base engine performance model and the artificial intelligent methods such as Fuzzy logic and Neural Network. The proposed diagnostic system isolates firstly the faulted components using Fuzzy Logic, then quantifies faults of the identified components using the NN leaned by fault learning data base, which are obtained from the developed base performance model. In leaning the NN, the Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP) method is used. Finally, it is verified through several test examples that the component faults implanted arbitrarily in the engine are well isolated and quantified by the proposed diagnostic system.

  15. Methods for genetic transformation in Dendrobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Chandler, Stephen F; Zeng, Songjun

    2016-03-01

    The genetic transformation of Dendrobium orchids will allow for the introduction of novel colours, altered architecture and valuable traits such as abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. The orchid genus Dendrobium contains species that have both ornamental value and medicinal importance. There is thus interest in producing cultivars that have increased resistance to pests, novel horticultural characteristics such as novel flower colours, improved productivity, longer flower spikes, or longer post-harvest shelf-life. Tissue culture is used to establish clonal plants while in vitro flowering allows for the production of flowers or floral parts within a sterile environment, expanding the selection of explants that can be used for tissue culture or genetic transformation. The latter is potentially the most effective, rapid and practical way to introduce new agronomic traits into Dendrobium. Most (69.4 %) Dendrobium genetic transformation studies have used particle bombardment (biolistics) while 64 % have employed some form of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A singe study has explored ovary injection, but no studies exist on floral dip transformation. While most of these studies have involved the use of selector or reporter genes, there are now a handful of studies that have introduced genes for horticulturally important traits.

  16. The Method Framework for Engineering System Architectures (MFESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    provides the world’s largest free open - source website documenting over 1,100 reusable method components. 3 SEI Webinar Series - MFESA Donald Firesmith...hope!): • Informational website with softcopies of the method components • Free , open - source tool set (Eclipse ?) 18 SEI Webinar Series - MFESA Donald...2009 Carnegie Mellon University The Method Framework for Engineering System Architectures (MFESA) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon

  17. An Ethical Study on the Uses of Enhancement Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Koji

    A variety of biomedical technologies are being developed that can be used for purposes other than treating diseases. Such “enhancement technologies” can be used to improve our own and future generation's life-chances. While these technologies can help people in many ways, their use raises important ethical issues. Some arguments for anti-enhancement as well as pro-enhancement seem to rest, however, on shaky foundation. Both company engineers and the general public had better learn more from technological, economical and philosophical histories. For such subjects may provide engineers with less opportunities of technological misuses and more powers of self-esteem in addition to self-control.

  18. Mathematical methods in physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    2011-01-01

    Intended for college-level physics, engineering, or mathematics students, this volume offers an algebraically based approach to various topics in applied math. It is accessible to undergraduates with a good course in calculus which includes infinite series and uniform convergence. Exercises follow each chapter to test the student's grasp of the material; however, the author has also included exercises that extend the results to new situations and lay the groundwork for new concepts to be introduced later. A list of references for further reading will be found at the end of each chapter. For t

  19. Epistemology, software engineering and formal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    1994-01-01

    One of the most basic questions anyone can ask is, 'How do I know that what I think I know is true?' The study of this question is called epistemology. Traditionally, epistemology has been considered to be of legitimate interest only to philosophers, theologians, and three year old children who respond to every statement by asking, 'Why?' Software engineers need to be interested in the subject, however, because a lack of sufficient understanding of epistemology contributes to many of the current problems in the field.

  20. Genetically engineered virus-resistant plants in developing countries: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D V R; Sudarshana, M R; Fuchs, M; Rao, N C; Thottappilly, G

    2009-01-01

    Plant viruses cause severe crop losses worldwide. Conventional control strategies, such as cultural methods and biocide applications against arthropod, nematode, and plasmodiophorid vectors, have limited success at mitigating the impact of plant viruses. Planting resistant cultivars is the most effective and economical way to control plant virus diseases. Natural sources of resistance have been exploited extensively to develop virus-resistant plants by conventional breeding. Non-conventional methods have also been used successfully to confer virus resistance by transferring primarily virus-derived genes, including viral coat protein, replicase, movement protein, defective interfering RNA, non-coding RNA sequences, and protease, into susceptible plants. Non-viral genes (R genes, microRNAs, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, dsRNAse, RNA modifying enzymes, and scFvs) have also been used successfully to engineer resistance to viruses in plants. Very few genetically engineered (GE) virus resistant (VR) crops have been released for cultivation and none is available yet in developing countries. However, a number of economically important GEVR crops, transformed with viral genes are of great interest in developing countries. The major issues confronting the production and deregulation of GEVR crops in developing countries are primarily socio-economic and related to intellectual property rights, biosafety regulatory frameworks, expenditure to generate GE crops and opposition by non-governmental activists. Suggestions for satisfactory resolution of these factors, presumably leading to field tests and deregulation of GEVR crops in developing countries, are given.

  1. Integral methods in science and engineering theoretical and practical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, C; Rollins, D

    2006-01-01

    Presents a series of analytic and numerical methods of solution constructed for important problems arising in science and engineering, based on the powerful operation of integration. This volume is meant for researchers and practitioners in applied mathematics, physics, and mechanical and electrical engineering, as well as graduate students.

  2. Method Evaluating the Durability of Aircraft Piston Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca PIANCASTELLI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant issue in aircraft engines is quantifying residual life to overhaul. The algorithm described in this paper calculates with a good level of reliability the residual life of a petrol piston engine. The method was tested on small, latest-generation, naturally-aspirated aircraft and racing piston engines, and has been effective in several experiments. This method is implemented directly on the electronic control system of the engine with very few lines of C-code. The method can also be used in many industrial engines. This innovative method assumes that only two main factors (power level and wear affect engine durability or time between overhauls. These two factors are considered as separate and combined with worst case criteria. The wear is assumed to follow a logarithmic law and a formula similar to the Miner’s law for material fatigue is used, making it possible to calculate the power-level curve with knowledge of only two points. The wear-curve is also related to elapsed engine cycles. The algorithm is very simple and can be implemented with just a few lines of software code accessing data collected from existing sensors. The system is currently used to evaluate actual residual life of racing engines.

  3. Genomic landscapes of endogenous retroviruses unveil intricate genetics of conventional and genetically-engineered laboratory mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Hoon; Lim, Debora; Chiu, Sophia; Greenhalgh, David; Cho, Kiho

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory strains of mice, both conventional and genetically engineered, have been introduced as critical components of a broad range of studies investigating normal and disease biology. Currently, the genetic identity of laboratory mice is primarily confirmed by surveying polymorphisms in selected sets of "conventional" genes and/or microsatellites in the absence of a single completely sequenced mouse genome. First, we examined variations in the genomic landscapes of transposable repetitive elements, named the TREome, in conventional and genetically engineered mouse strains using murine leukemia virus-type endogenous retroviruses (MLV-ERVs) as a probe. A survey of the genomes from 56 conventional strains revealed strain-specific TREome landscapes, and certain families (e.g., C57BL) of strains were discernible with defined patterns. Interestingly, the TREome landscapes of C3H/HeJ (toll-like receptor-4 [TLR4] mutant) inbred mice were different from its control C3H/HeOuJ (TLR4 wild-type) strain. In addition, a CD14 knock-out strain had a distinct TREome landscape compared to its control/backcross C57BL/6J strain. Second, an examination of superantigen (SAg, a "TREome gene") coding sequences of mouse mammary tumor virus-type ERVs in the genomes of the 46 conventional strains revealed a high diversity, suggesting a potential role of SAgs in strain-specific immune phenotypes. The findings from this study indicate that unexplored and intricate genomic variations exist in laboratory mouse strains, both conventional and genetically engineered. The TREome-based high-resolution genetics surveillance system for laboratory mice would contribute to efficient study design with quality control and accurate data interpretation. This genetics system can be easily adapted to other species ranging from plants to humans.

  4. On recent advances in human engineering Provocative trends in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Advances in embryology, genetics, and regenerative medicine regularly attract attention from scientists, scholars, journalists, and policymakers, yet implications of these advances may be broader than commonly supposed. Laboratories culturing human embryos, editing human genes, and creating human-animal chimeras have been working along lines that are now becoming intertwined. Embryogenic methods are weaving traditional in vivo and in vitro distinctions into a new "in vivitro" (in life in glass) fabric. These and other methods known to be in use or thought to be in development promise soon to bring society to startling choices and discomfiting predicaments, all in a global effort to supply reliably rejuvenating stem cells, to grow immunologically non-provocative replacement organs, and to prevent, treat, cure, or even someday eradicate diseases having genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. With humanity's human-engineering era now begun, procedural prohibitions, funding restrictions, institutional controls, and transparency rules are proving ineffective, and business incentives are migrating into the most basic life-sciences inquiries, wherein lie huge biomedical potentials and bioethical risks. Rights, health, and heritage are coming into play with bioethical presumptions and formal protections urgently needing reassessment.

  5. Genetically Engineered Corn Rootworm Resistance: Potential for Reduction of Human Health Effects From Pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective and Methods Insecticide use, grower preferences regarding genetically engineered (GE) corn resistant to corn rootworm (CRW), and the health effects of using various CRW insecticides (organophosphates, pyrethroids, fipronil and carbamates) are reviewed for current and future farm practices. Results Pest damage to corn has been reduced only one-third by insecticide applications. Health costs from insecticide use appear significant, but costs attributable to CRW control are not quantifiable from available data. Methods reducing health-related costs of insecticide-based CRW control should be evaluated. As a first step, organophosphate insecticide use has been reduced as they have high acute toxicity and risk of long-term neurological consequences. A second step is to use agents which more specifically target the CRW. Conclusion Whereas current insecticides may be poisonous to many species of insects, birds, mammals and humans, a protein derived from Bacillus thurigiensis and produced in plants via genetic modification can target the specific insect of CRW (Coleoptra), sparing other insect and non-insect species from injury.

  6. Genetic correction using engineered nucleases for gene therapy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei Lisa; Nakano, Takao; Hotta, Akitsu

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations in humans are associated with congenital disorders and phenotypic traits. Gene therapy holds the promise to cure such genetic disorders, although it has suffered from several technical limitations for decades. Recent progress in gene editing technology using tailor-made nucleases, such as meganucleases (MNs), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) and, more recently, CRISPR/Cas9, has significantly broadened our ability to precisely modify target sites in the human genome. In this review, we summarize recent progress in gene correction approaches of the human genome, with a particular emphasis on the clinical applications of gene therapy.

  7. Simple statistical methods for software engineering data and patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pandian, C Ravindranath

    2015-01-01

    Although there are countless books on statistics, few are dedicated to the application of statistical methods to software engineering. Simple Statistical Methods for Software Engineering: Data and Patterns fills that void. Instead of delving into overly complex statistics, the book details simpler solutions that are just as effective and connect with the intuition of problem solvers.Sharing valuable insights into software engineering problems and solutions, the book not only explains the required statistical methods, but also provides many examples, review questions, and case studies that prov

  8. A Survey of Various Object Oriented Requirement Engineering Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandi Mahajan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current years many industries have been moving to the use of object-oriented methods for the development of large scale information systems The requirement of Object Oriented approach in the development of software systems is increasing day by day. This paper is basically a survey paper on various Object-oriented requirement engineering methods. This paper contains a summary of the available Object-oriented requirement engineering methods with their relative advantages and disadvantages. On next, several features have been proposed. These features are the characteristics of a good model of Object-oriented requirement engineering.

  9. Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...

  10. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors in floricultural plants: recent advances via transgenic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Since the first successful genetic engineering of flower color in petunia, several new techniques have been developed and applied to modify flower color not only in model plants but also in floricultural plants. A typical example is the commercial violet-flowered carnation "Moondust series" developed by Suntry Ltd. and Florigene Ltd. More recently, blue-flowered roses have been successfully produced and are expected to be commercially available in the near future. In recent years, successful modification of flower color by sophisticated regulation of flower-pigment metabolic pathways has become possible. In this chapter, we review recent advances in flower color modification by genetic engineering, especially focusing on the methodology. We have included our own recent results on successful production of flower-color-modified transgenic plants in a model plant, tobacco and an ornamental plant, gentian. Based on these results, genetic engineering of flower color for improvement of floricultural plants is discussed.

  11. Micropropagation, genetic engineering, and molecular biology of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. B. Klopfenstein; Y. W. Chun; M. -S. Kim; M. A. Ahuja; M. C. Dillon; R. C. Carman; L. G. Eskew

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-four Populus biotechnology chapters, written by 85 authors, are comprised in 5 sections: 1) in vitro culture (micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, protoplasts, somaclonal variation, and germplasm preservation); 2) transformation and foreign gene expression; 3) molecular biology (molecular/genetic characterization); 4) biotic and abiotic resistance (disease,...

  12. Genetic engineering of Pichia stipitis for fermentation of xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Jeffries; N. Q. Shi; J. Y. Cho; P. Lu; K. Dahn; J. Hendrick; H. K. Sreenath

    1998-01-01

    A useful genetic system has been developed for the transformation of Pichia stipitis. This includes two selectable markers (URA3 and LEU2), integrating and autonomous replication vectors, a pop-out cassette that enables multiple targeted disruptions, and a genomic X-library for rapid cloning. Using this system we have cloned two genes for alcohol dehydrogenase (PsADH1...

  13. Potato leafroll virus : molecular analysis and genetically engineered resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilk, van der F.

    1995-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) was elucidated and its genetic organization deduced (Chapter 2). Six open reading frames (ORFs) were shown to be present on the genome. Both the PLRV coat protein gene and the RNA- dependent RNA polymerase gene were

  14. Genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization combined with Powell method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, David; Pinho, Diana; Pereira, Ana I.; Lima, Rui

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the population algorithms are becoming increasingly robust and easy to use, based on Darwin's Theory of Evolution, perform a search for the best solution around a population that will progress according to several generations. This paper present variants of hybrid genetic algorithm - Genetic Algorithm and a bio-inspired hybrid algorithm - Particle Swarm Optimization, both combined with the local method - Powell Method. The developed methods were tested with twelve test functions from unconstrained optimization context.

  15. Stirling engine control mechanism and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineen, John J.

    1983-01-01

    A reciprocating-to-rotating motion conversion and power control device for a Stirling engine includes a hub mounted on an offset portion of the output shaft for rotation relative to the shaft and for sliding motion therealong which causes the hub to tilt relative to the axis of rotation of the shaft. This changes the angle of inclination of the hub relative to the shaft axis and changes the axial stroke of a set of arms connected to the hub and nutating therewith. A hydraulic actuating mechanism is connected to the hub for moving its axial position along the shaft. A balancing wheel is linked to the hub and changes its angle of inclination as the angle of inclination of the hub changes to maintain the mechanism in perfect balance throughout its range of motion.

  16. Visualizations for genetic assignment analyses using the saddlepoint approximation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, L F; Fewster, R M

    2017-09-01

    We propose a method for visualizing genetic assignment data by characterizing the distribution of genetic profiles for each candidate source population. This method enhances the assignment method of Rannala and Mountain (1997) by calculating appropriate graph positions for individuals for which some genetic data are missing. An individual with missing data is positioned in the distributions of genetic profiles for a population according to its estimated quantile based on its available data. The quantiles of the genetic profile distribution for each population are calculated by approximating the cumulative distribution function (CDF) using the saddlepoint method, and then inverting the CDF to get the quantile function. The saddlepoint method also provides a way to visualize assignment results calculated using the leave-one-out procedure. This new method offers an advance upon assignment software such as geneclass2, which provides no visualization method, and is biologically more interpretable than the bar charts provided by the software structure. We show results from simulated data and apply the methods to microsatellite genotype data from ship rats (Rattus rattus) captured on the Great Barrier Island archipelago, New Zealand. The visualization method makes it straightforward to detect features of population structure and to judge the discriminative power of the genetic data for assigning individuals to source populations. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  17. Non-Genetic Engineering Approaches for Isolating and Generating Novel Yeasts for Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, P. J.; Bellon, J. R.; Schmidt, S. A.; Varela, C.; Pretorius, I. S.

    Generating novel yeast strains for industrial applications should be quite straightforward; after all, research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of Baker's Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has paved the way for many advances in the modern biological sciences. We probably know more about this humble eukaryote than any other, and it is the most tractable of organisms for manipulation using modern genetic engineering approaches. In many countries, however, there are restrictions on the use of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), particularly in foods and beverages, and the level of consumer acceptance of GMOs is, at best, variable. Thus, many researchers working with industrial yeasts use genetic engineering techniques primarily as research tools, and strain development continues to rely on non-GM technologies. This chapter explores the non-GM tools and strategies available to such researchers.

  18. Engineering and Functional Analysis of Mitotic Kinases Through Chemical Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew J K; Jallepalli, Prasad V

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, multiple protein kinases transform the cytoskeleton and chromosomes into new and highly dynamic structures that mediate the faithful transmission of genetic information and cell division. However, the large number and strong conservation of mammalian kinases in general pose significant obstacles to interrogating them with small molecules, due to the difficulty in identifying and validating those which are truly selective. To overcome this problem, a steric complementation strategy has been developed, in which a bulky "gatekeeper" residue within the active site of the kinase of interest is replaced with a smaller amino acid, such as glycine or alanine. The enlarged catalytic pocket can then be targeted in an allele-specific manner with bulky purine analogs. This strategy provides a general framework for dissecting kinase function with high selectivity, rapid kinetics, and reversibility. In this chapter we discuss the principles and techniques needed to implement this chemical genetic approach in mammalian cells.

  19. Workshop on molecular methods for genetic diagnosis. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinchik, E.M.

    1997-07-01

    The Sarah Lawrence College Human Genetics Program received Department of Energy funding to offer a continuing medical education workshop for genetic counselors in the New York metropolitan area. According to statistics from the National Society of Genetic Counselors, there are approximately 160 genetic counselors working in the tri-state area (New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut), and many of them had been working in the field for more than 10 years. Thus, there was a real need to offer these counselors an in-depth opportunity to learn the specifics of the major advances in molecular genetics, and, in particular, the new approaches to diagnostic testing for genetic disease. As a result of the DOE Award DE-FG02-95ER62048 ($20,583), in July 1995 we offered the {open_quotes}Workshop on Molecular Methods for Genetic Diagnosis{close_quotes} for 24 genetic counselors in the New York metropolitan area. The workshop included an initial review session on the basics of molecular biology, lectures and discussions on past and current topics in molecular genetics and diagnostic procedures, and, importantly, daily laboratory exercises. Each counselor gained not only background, but also firsthand experience, in the major techniques of biochemical and molecular methods for diagnosing genetic diseases as well as in mathematical and computational techniques involved in human genetics analyses. Our goal in offering this workshop was not to make genetic counselors experts in these laboratory diagnostic techniques, but to acquaint them, by hands-on experience, about some of the techniques currently in use. We also wanted to provide them a technical foundation upon which they can understand and appreciate new technical developments arising in the near future.

  20. Release of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 from alginate microcapsule encapsulating genetically engineered cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Yeon Seong Kim,1,* Young-Il Jeong,2,* Shu-Guang Jin,2 Jian Pei,2 Min Wen,2 In-Young Kim,1 Kyung-Sub Moon,1 Tae-Young Jung,1 Hyang-Hwa Ryu2, Shin Jung1–3 1Department of Neurosurgery, 2Brain Tumor Research Laboratory, 3Chonnam National University Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital and Medical School, Jeollanam-do, Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: In this study, 293T cells were genetically engineered to secrete tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2 and encapsulated into alginate microcapsules to continuously release TIMP2 protein. Methods: The anti-invasive potential of the microcapsules was studied in vitro using brain tumor cells. The TIMP2 gene was transfected to 293T cells, and genetically engineered 293TIMP2 cells were encapsulated into alginate microcapsules. Release of TIMP2 protein was detected with Western blot analysis and the anti-invasive potential against U87MG cells was tested using gelatin zymography and a Matrigel assay. Results: Cell viability within the alginate microcapsules was maintained at a cell density of 5 × 106. Because polycationic polymers are helpful for maintaining the mechanical strength of microcapsules with good cell viability, the alginate microcapsules were reinforced with chitosan (0.1% w/v. Expression of TIMP2 protein in cell lysates and secretion of TIMP2 into the conditioned medium was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Alginate microcapsules encapsulating 293TIMP2 cells released TIMP2 protein into the medium efficiently, where the TIMP2 protein participated in degradation of the matrix metalloproteinase-2 enzyme and inhibited invasion of U87MG cells. Conclusion: Alginate microcapsules encapsulating 293TIMP2 cells are promising candidates for anti-invasive treatment of glioma. Keywords: 293T cells, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, alginate microcapsule, therapeutic protein

  1. Evaluation of Information Requirements of Reliability Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Vinicius Kaster; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize the information needed to perform methods for robustness and reliability, and verify their applicability to early design stages. Several methods were evaluated on their support to synthesis in engineering design. Of those methods, FMEA, FTA and HAZOP were selected...... on their insight on design risks and wide spread application. A pilot case study has been performed with a washing machine in using these methods to assess design risks, following a reverse engineering approach. The study has shown the methods can be initiated at early design stages, but cannot be concluded...

  2. Synthetic alienation of microbial organisms by using genetic code engineering: Why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubyshkin, Vladimir; Budisa, Nediljko

    2017-08-01

    The main goal of synthetic biology (SB) is the creation of biodiversity applicable for biotechnological needs, while xenobiology (XB) aims to expand the framework of natural chemistries with the non-natural building blocks in living cells to accomplish artificial biodiversity. Protein and proteome engineering, which overcome limitation of the canonical amino acid repertoire of 20 (+2) prescribed by the genetic code by using non-canonic amino acids (ncAAs), is one of the main focuses of XB research. Ideally, estranging the genetic code from its current form via systematic introduction of ncAAs should enable the development of bio-containment mechanisms in synthetic cells potentially endowing them with a "genetic firewall" i.e. orthogonality which prevents genetic information transfer to natural systems. Despite rapid progress over the past two decades, it is not yet possible to completely alienate an organism that would use and maintain different genetic code associations permanently. In order to engineer robust bio-contained life forms, the chemical logic behind the amino acid repertoire establishment should be considered. Starting from recent proposal of Hartman and Smith about the genetic code establishment in the RNA world, here the authors mapped possible biotechnological invasion points for engineering of bio-contained synthetic cells equipped with non-canonical functionalities. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A prototype stable RNA identification cassette for monitoring plasmids of genetically engineered microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenstierna, K. O.; Lee, Y. H.; Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype stable RNA identification cassette for monitoring genetically engineered plasmids carried by strains of Escherichia coli has been developed. The cassette consists of a Vibrio proteolyticus 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene surrounded by promoters and terminators from the rrnB operon of Escherischia coli. The identifier RNA is expressed and successfully processed so that approximately 30% of the 5S rRNA isolated from either whole cells or 70S ribosomes is of the V. proteolyticus type. Cells carrying the identifier are readily detectable by hybridization. Accurate measurements show that the identification cassette has little effect on fitness compared to a strain containing an analogous plasmid carrying wild type E. coli 5S rRNA, and the V. proteolyticus 5S rRNA gene is not inactivated after prolonged growth. These results demonstrate the feasibility of developing small standardized identification cassettes that can utilize already existing highly sensitive rRNA detection methods. Cassettes of this type could in principle be incorporated into either the engineered regions of recombinant plasmids or their hosts.

  4. Rifampicin-resistance, rpoB polymorphism and RNA polymerase genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifano, Pietro; Palumbo, Carla; Pasanisi, Daniela; Talà, Adelfia

    2015-05-20

    Following its introduction in 1967, rifampicin has become a mainstay of therapy in the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy and many other widespread diseases. Its potent antibacterial activity is due to specific inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase. However, resistance to rifampicin was reported shortly after its introduction in the medical practice. Studies in the model organism Escherichia coli helped to define the molecular mechanism of rifampicin-resistance demonstrating that resistance is mostly due to chromosomal mutations in rpoB gene encoding the RNA polymerase β chain. These studies also revealed the amazing potential of the molecular genetics to elucidate the structure-function relationships in bacterial RNA polymerase. The scope of this paper is to illustrate how rifampicin-resistance has been recently exploited to better understand the regulatory mechanisms that control bacterial cell physiology and virulence, and how this information has been used to maneuver, on a global scale, gene expression in bacteria of industrial interest. In particular, we reviewed recent literature regarding: (i) the effects of rpoB mutations conferring rifampicin-resistance on transcription dynamics, bacterial fitness, physiology, metabolism and virulence; (ii) the occurrence in nature of "mutant-type" or duplicated rifampicin-resistant RNA polymerases; and (iii) the RNA polymerase genetic engineering method for strain improvement and drug discovery.

  5. Application of micro-genetic algorithm for calibration of kinetic parameters in HCCI engine combustion model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haozhong HUANG; Wanhua SU

    2008-01-01

    The micro-genetic algorithm (μGA) as a highly effective optimization method, is applied to calibrate to a newly developed reduced chemical kinetic model (40 species and 62 reactions) for the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of n-heptane to improve its autoignition predictions for different engine operating conditions. The seven kinetic parameters of the calibrated model are determined using a combination of the Micro-Genetic Algorithm and the SENKIN program of CHEMKIN chemical kinetics software package. Simulation results show that the autoignition predictions of the calibrated model agree better with those of the detailed chemical kinetic model (544 species and 2 446 reactions) than the original model over the range of equivalence ratios from 0.1-1.3 and temperature from 300-3 000 K. The results of this study have demonstrated that the μGA is an effective tool to facilitate the calibration of a large number of kinetic parameters in a reduced kinetic model.

  6. Advanced mathematical methods in science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hayek, SI

    2010-01-01

    Ordinary Differential EquationsDEFINITIONS LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIRST ORDER LINEAR INDEPENDENCE AND THE WRONSKIAN LINEAR HOMOGENEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF ORDER N WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS EULER'S EQUATION PARTICULAR SOLUTIONS BY METHOD OF UNDETERMINED COEFFICIENTS PARTICULAR SOLUTIONS BY THE METHOD OF VARIATIONS OF PARAMETERS ABEL'S FORMULA FOR THE WRONSKIAN INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMSSeries Solutions of Ordinary Differential EquationsINTRODUCTION POWER SERIES SOLUTIONS CLASSIFICATION

  7. Recent advances in the molecular genetics of resin biosynthesis and genetic engineering strategies to improve defenses in conifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGWei

    2003-01-01

    Since the first terpenoid synthase cDNA was obtained by the reverse genetic approach from grand fir, great pro-gress in the molecular genetics of terpenoid formation has been made with angiosperms and genes encoding a monoterpene synthase, a sesquiterpene synthase, and a diterpene synthase. Tree killing bark beetles and their vectored fungal pathogens are the most destructive agents of conifer forests worldwide. Conifers defend against attack by the constitutive and inducible production of oleoresin that accumulates at the wound site to kill invaders and both flush and seal the injury. Although toxic to the bark beetle and fungal pathogen, oleoresin also plays a central role in the chemical ecology of these boring insects. Re-cent advances in the molecular genetics of terpenoid biosynthesis provide evidence for the evolutionary origins of oleoresin and permit consideration of genetic engineering strategies to improve conifer defenses as a component of modern forest bio-technology. This review described enzymes of resin biosynthesis, structural feathers of genes genomic intron and exon or-ganization, pathway organization and evolution, resin production and accumulation, interactions between conifer and bark beetle, and engineering strategies to improve conifer defenses.

  8. Methods for Analyzing Multivariate Phenotypes in Genetic Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate phenotypes are frequently encountered in genetic association studies. The purpose of analyzing multivariate phenotypes usually includes discovery of novel genetic variants of pleiotropy effects, that is, affecting multiple phenotypes, and the ultimate goal of uncovering the underlying genetic mechanism. In recent years, there have been new method development and application of existing statistical methods to such phenotypes. In this paper, we provide a review of the available methods for analyzing association between a single marker and a multivariate phenotype consisting of the same type of components (e.g., all continuous or all categorical or different types of components (e.g., some are continuous and others are categorical. We also reviewed causal inference methods designed to test whether the detected association with the multivariate phenotype is truly pleiotropy or the genetic marker exerts its effects on some phenotypes through affecting the others.

  9. Multicomponent and multiscale systems theory, methods, and applications in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    This book examines the latest research results from combined multi-component and multi-scale explorations. It provides theory, considers underlying numerical methods, and presents brilliant computational experimentation. Engineering computations featured in this monograph further offer particular interest to many researchers, engineers, and computational scientists working in frontier modeling and applications of multicomponent and multiscale problems. Professor Geiser gives specific attention to the aspects of decomposing and splitting delicate structures and controlling decomposition and the rationale behind many important applications of multi-component and multi-scale analysis. Multicomponent and Multiscale Systems: Theory, Methods, and Applications in Engineering also considers the question of why iterative methods can be powerful and more appropriate for well-balanced multiscale and multicomponent coupled nonlinear problems. The book is ideal for engineers and scientists working in theoretical and a...

  10. Multi-objective optimal design of magnetorheological engine mount based on an improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Duan, Xuwei; Deng, Zhaoxue; Li, Yinong

    2014-03-01

    A novel flow-mode magneto-rheological (MR) engine mount integrated a diaphragm de-coupler and the spoiler plate is designed and developed to isolate engine and the transmission from the chassis in a wide frequency range and overcome the stiffness in high frequency. A lumped parameter model of the MR engine mount in single degree of freedom system is further developed based on bond graph method to predict the performance of the MR engine mount accurately. The optimization mathematical model is established to minimize the total of force transmissibility over several frequency ranges addressed. In this mathematical model, the lumped parameters are considered as design variables. The maximum of force transmissibility and the corresponding frequency in low frequency range as well as individual lumped parameter are limited as constraints. The multiple interval sensitivity analysis method is developed to select the optimized variables and improve the efficiency of optimization process. An improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to solve the multi-objective optimization problem. The synthesized distance between the individual in Pareto set and the individual in possible set in engineering is defined and calculated. A set of real design parameters is thus obtained by the internal relationship between the optimal lumped parameters and practical design parameters for the MR engine mount. The program flowchart for the improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is given. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization approach in minimizing the total of force transmissibility over several frequency ranges addressed.

  11. On Natural Genetic Engineering: Structural Dynamism in Random Boolean Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, Larry

    2012-01-01

    This short paper presents an abstract, tunable model of genomic structural change within the cell lifecycle and explores its use with simulated evolution. A well-known Boolean model of genetic regulatory networks is extended to include changes in node connectivity based upon the current cell state, e.g., via transposable elements. The underlying behaviour of the resulting dynamical networks is investigated before their evolvability is explored using a version of the NK model of fitness landscapes. Structural dynamism is found to be selected for in non-stationary environments and subsequently shown capable of providing a mechanism for evolutionary innovation when such reorganizations are inherited.

  12. Recent developments on genetic engineering of microalgae for biofuels and bio-based chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, I-Son; Tan, Shi-I; Kao, Pei-Hsun; Chang, Yu-Kaung; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-08-08

    Microalgae serve as a promising source for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Microalgae can help mitigate greenhouse effect. They are superior to terrestrial plants as feedstock in many aspects and their biomass is naturally rich in lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, pigments and other valuable compounds. However, there are still some obstacles in developing microalgae-based biofuels and chemicals in industry Due to the relatively slow growth rate and high cultivation cost of microalgae, Therefore, screening of to screen efficient and robust microalgal strains as well as genetic modifications of the available strains for further improvement are of urgent demand in the development of microalgae-based biorefinery. In genetic engineering of microalgae, transformation and selection methods are the key steps to accomplish the target gene modification. For a powerful genetic screening, the resistance gene used should be efficient. However, determination of the preferable type and dosage of antibiotics used for transformant selection is usually time-consuming and microalgal-strain-dependent. Therefore, more powerful and efficient techniques should be developed to meet this need. In this review, the conventional and emerging genome-editing tools (e.g., CRISPR-Cas9, TALEN and ZFN) used in editing the genomes of nuclear, mitochondria and chloroplast of microalgae are thoroughly surveyed. In the current scenario, insufficient genomic data will challenge the applications of such genome editing tools in microalgae. Although all the techniques mentioned above demonstrate their abilities to perform gene editing and desired phenotype screening, there still need to overcome higher production cost and lower biomass productivity, to achieve efficient production of the desired products in microalgal biorefineries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipidomic analysis of Arabidopsis seed genetically engineered to contain DHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Rong eZhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic engineering of omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA in oilseeds has been one of the key metabolic engineering targets in recent years. By expressing a transgenic pathway for enhancing the synthesis of the ω3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from endogenous -linolenic acid (ALA, we obtained the production of fish oil-like proportions of DHA in Arabidopsis seed oil. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was used to characterize the triacylglycerol (TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG and phospholipid (PL lipid classes in the transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis seeds at both developing and mature stages. The analysis identified the appearance of several abundant DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, DAG and TAG molecular species in mature seeds. The relative abundances of PL, DAG and TAG species showed a preferred combination of LC-PUFA with ALA in the transgenic seeds, where LC-PUFA were esterified in positions usually occupied by 20:1ω9. Trace amounts of di-DHA PC and tri-DHA TAG were identified, and confirmed by high resolution MS/MS. Studying the lipidome in transgenic seeds provides insights into where DHA accumulated and composed with other fatty acids of neutral and phospholipids from the developing and mature seeds.

  14. Genetic engineering in film: the case of chimeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep-E. BAÑOS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of molecular genetics in the second half of XXth century has allowed considering situations, which were in the bioscience fiction field until then. Among them, the possibility of making chimeras using the combination of genetic material is now a real option. Movies have repeatedly shown this possibility by means of literary works o directly by screen plays. This article analyzes some films that may help to understand social beliefs on chimeras in the last century. We have considered Island of lost souls (1932, The island of doctor Moreau (1977, The fly (1958, 1986, Mimic (1997 and Splice (2009. The main conclusions of this analysis are the presence of a negative view to the possibility of making chimeras following the point of view that was used in Frankenstein. The movies also lack of a consideration of the potential benefits of using chimeras. Ethical misgivings and the vision of playing God scientists avoid a impartial view of a situation, which is already among us.

  15. The hermeneutic challenge of genetic engineering: Habermas and the transhumanists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that developments in transhumanist technologies may have upon human cultures (and thus upon the lifeworld), and to do so by exploring a potential debate between Habermas and the transhumanists. Transhumanists, such as Nick Bostrom, typically see the potential in genetic and other technologies for positively expanding and transcending human nature. In contrast, Habermas is a representative of those who are fearful of this technology, suggesting that it will compound the deleterious effects of the colonisation of the lifeworld, further constraining human autonomy and undermining the meaningfulness of the lifeworld by expanding the technological control and manipulation of humanity. It will be argued that these opposed positions are grounded in fundamentally different understandings of the consequences of scientific and technological advance. On one level, the transhumanists remain confident that the lifeworld has within it the resources necessary to find meaning and purpose in a society deeply infused by genetic technology. Habermas disagrees. On another level, the difference is articulated by Horkheimer and Adorno in Dialectic of Enlightenment, primarily by challenging what may be understood as a Baconian faith in science as a project for the domination of nature (where nature is an infinitely malleable material, to be dominated and shaped, without adverse consequences, purely for the purposes of human survival). While the transhumanists broadly embrace this faith, Habermas returns to something akin to Horkheimer and Adorno's pessimistic scepticism.

  16. Seismic methods in engineering geology. Seismicheskie metody v inzhenernoi geologii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryainov, N.N.; Lyakhovitskii, F.M.

    1979-01-01

    A presentation is made of the physical principles and methods of seismic investigations in engineering geology as well as methods of interpreting the material obtained. An examination in detail is made of the connection between the seismic properties of rock from the upper part of a layer and their composition and state. A description is made of the distinctive features of using seismic methods in engineering geology, the basic methodological approaches that are used for conducting ground-level and well seismic as well as geoacoustical measurements. The section on interpretation devotes considerable attention to new methods that have not been sufficiently covered in the literature. Examples are given for the use of seismic methods for solving various engineering-geology problems in the study of loose and hard rock under thaw and frozen conditions. 99 references, 44 figures, 7 tables.

  17. Projecting potential adoption of genetically engineered freeze-tolerant Eucalyptus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Ernest Dixon IV; Robert C. Abt; Navinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Development of commercial Eucalyptus plantations has been limited in the United States because of the species’ sensitivity to freezing temperatures. Recently developed genetically engineered clones of a Eucalyptus hybrid, which confer freeze tolerance, could expand the range of commercial plantations. This study explores how...

  18. Rapid engineering of versatile molecular logic gates using heterologous genetic transcriptional modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baojun; Buck, Martin

    2014-10-11

    We designed and constructed versatile modular genetic logic gates in bacterial cells. These function as digital logic 1-input Buffer gate, 2-input and 3-input AND gates with one inverted input and integrate multiple chemical input signals in customised logic manners. Such rapidly engineered devices serve to achieve increased sensing signal selectivity.

  19. 77 FR 41350 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered To Produce...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... article under our regulations governing the introduction of certain genetically engineered organisms. Our....aphis.usda.gov/biotechnology/not_reg.html and are posted with the previous notice and the comments we..., Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 147, Riverdale, MD 20737-1236; (301) 851-3954...

  20. 76 FR 78232 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered To Have a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... the introduction of certain genetically engineered organisms. Our determination is based on our.../biotechnology/not_reg.html and are posted with the previous notice and the comments we received on the... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Evan Chestnut, Policy Analyst, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River...

  1. Genetic engineering of plant volatile terpenoids: effects on a herbivore, a predator and a parasitoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, M.; Houshyani, B.; Overeem, A.J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Weldegergis, B.T.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most insect-resistant transgenic crops employ toxins to control pests. A novel approach is to enhance the effectiveness of natural enemies by genetic engineering of the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Before the commercialisation of such transgenic plants can be pursue

  2. History and future of genetically engineered food animal regulation: an open request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kevin D

    2016-06-01

    Modern biotechnology resulted from of a series of incremental improvements in the understanding of DNA and the enzymes that nature evolved to manipulate it. As the potential impact of genetic engineering became apparent, scientists began the process of trying to identify the potential unintended consequences. Restrictions to recombinant DNA experimentation were at first self-imposed. Collaborative efforts between scientists and lawyers formalized an initial set of guidelines. These guidelines have been used to promulgate regulations around world. However, the initial guidelines were only intended as a starting point and were motivated by a specific set of concerns. As new data became available, the guidelines and regulations should have been adapted to the new knowledge. Instead, other social drivers drove the development of regulations. For most species and most applications, the framework that was established has slowly allowed some products to reach the market. However, genetically engineered livestock that are intended for food have been left in a regulatory state of limbo. To date, no genetically engineered food animal is available in the marketplace. A short history and a U.S.-based genetic engineer's perspective are presented. In addition, a request to regulatory agencies is presented for consideration as regulation continues to evolve. Regulators appear to have shown preference for the slow, random progression of evolution over the efficiency of intentional design.

  3. 'HoneySweet' plum - a valuable genetically engineered fruit-tree cultivar and germplasm resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ is a plum variety developed through genetic engineering to be highly resistant to plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, that threatens stone-fruit industries world-wide and most specifically, in Europe. Field testing for over 15 years in Europe has demonstrated ...

  4. Development of enzymes and enzyme systems by genetic engineering to convert biomass to sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    TITLE Development of Enzymes and Enzyme Systems by Genetic Engineering to Convert Biomass to Sugars ABSTRACT Plant cellulosic material is one of the most viable renewable resources for the world’s fuel and chemical feedstock needs. Currently ethanol derived from corn starch is the most common li...

  5. Enhancing the Internationalisation of Distance Education in the Biological Sciences: The DUNE Project and Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Distance Educational Network of Europe (DUNE) project that aims at enhancing the development of distance education in an international context. Highlights issues relating to the delivery of distance-learning courses in a transnational forum. Describes the genetic engineering course that aims at explaining the core techniques of…

  6. Between creation, evolution and genetic engineering: biology in need of a new bioethics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Technological interventions into biological processes through genetic engineering in the twenty-fi rst century could speed up evolution at the velocity of light years in comparison with the millions of years it took for Homo sapiens to reach this stage of evolution until this new millennium. Will th

  7. Genetically engineered alfalfa and feral alfalfa plants: What should growers know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L) is the world’s most important forage crop. The western United States is the most important production area for both alfalfa forage and alfalfa seed. Alfalfa was the first major perennial genetically-engineered (GE)crop and a GE trait for resistance to glypho...

  8. Conversion of Glycerol to 3-Hydroxypropanoic Acid by Genetically Engineered Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalantari, Aida; Chen, Tao; Ji, Boyang

    2017-01-01

    of glycerol into 3-HP. Our recombinant B. subtilis strains overexpress the two-step heterologous pathway containing glycerol dehydratase and aldehyde dehydrogenase from K. pneumoniae. Genetic engineering, driven by in silico optimization, and optimization of cultivation conditions resulted in a 3-HP titer...

  9. A field release of genetically engineered gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (LdNPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Michael L. McManus; John P. Burand

    1999-01-01

    The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) nuclear polyhedrosis virus was genetically engineered for nonpersistence by removal of the gene coding for polyhedrin production and stabilized using a coocclusion process. A β-galactosidase marker gene was inserted into the genetically engineered virus (LdGEV) so that infected larvae could be tested for...

  10. [Progress of research on genetic engineering antibody and its application in prevention and control of parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Yu, Chuan-xin

    2013-08-01

    Antibody has extensive application prospects in the biomedical field. The inherent disadvantages of traditional polyclonal antibody and monoclonal antibody limit their application values. The humanized and fragmented antibody remodeling has given a rise to a series of genetic engineered antibody variant. This paper reviews the progress of research on genetic engineering antibody and its application in prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

  11. Engineering computation of structures the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Maria Augusta; Roseiro, Luis; Cirne, José; Leal, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    This book presents theories and the main useful techniques of the Finite Element Method (FEM), with an introduction to FEM and many case studies of its use in engineering practice. It supports engineers and students to solve primarily linear problems in mechanical engineering, with a main focus on static and dynamic structural problems. Readers of this text are encouraged to discover the proper relationship between theory and practice, within the finite element method: Practice without theory is blind, but theory without practice is sterile. Beginning with elasticity basic concepts and the classical theories of stressed materials, the work goes on to apply the relationship between forces, displacements, stresses and strains on the process of modeling, simulating and designing engineered technical systems. Chapters discuss the finite element equations for static, eigenvalue analysis, as well as transient analyses. Students and practitioners using commercial FEM software will find this book very helpful. It us...

  12. Pavideoge: A New Video Processing Method in Video Search Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Pu; Chen, Guang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problems of video processing in video search engine. Video has now become a very important kind of data in Internet; while searching for video is still a challenging task due to the inner properties of video: requiring enormous storage space, being independent, expressing information hiddenly. To handle the properties of video more effectively, in this paper, we propose a new video processing method in video search engine. In detail, the core of the new video processing method is creating pavideoge--a new data type, which contains the video advantages and webpage advantages. The pavideoge has four attributes: real link, videorank, text information and playnum. Each of them combines video's properties with webpage's. Video search engine based on the pavideoge can retrieve video more effectively. The experiment results show the encouraging performance of our approach. Based on the pavideoge, our video search engine can retrieve more precise videos in comparsion with previous related ...

  13. Optimization and control methods in industrial engineering and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in optimization and control methods with applications to industrial engineering and construction management. It consists of 15 chapters authored by recognized experts in a variety of fields including control and operation research, industrial engineering, and project management. Topics include numerical methods in unconstrained optimization, robust optimal control problems, set splitting problems, optimum confidence interval analysis, a monitoring networks optimization survey, distributed fault detection, nonferrous industrial optimization approaches, neural networks in traffic flows, economic scheduling of CCHP systems, a project scheduling optimization survey, lean and agile construction project management, practical construction projects in Hong Kong, dynamic project management, production control in PC4P, and target contracts optimization.   The book offers a valuable reference work for scientists, engineers, researchers and practitioners in industrial engineering and c...

  14. Genetically engineered biological agents in therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Aseeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototype for chronic autoimmune disease. Its prevalence is 20 to 70 cases per 100,000 women and varies by race and ethnicity. Despite considerable progress in traditional therapy, many problems associated with the management of these patients need to be immediately solved: thus, 50-80% are found to have activity signs and/or frequent exacerbations and about 30% of the patients have to stop work; Class IV lupus nephritis increases the risk of terminalrenal failure. In the past 20 years great progress has been made in studying the pathogenesis of SLE: biological targets to affect drugs have been sought and fundamentally new therapeutic goals defined. Belimumab is the first genetically biological agent specially designed to treat SLE, which is rightly regarded as one of the most important achievements of rheumatology in the past 50 years.

  15. Gene editing and genetic engineering approaches for advanced probiotics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ruby; Kumar, Vishal; Baweja, Mehak; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2017-01-10

    The applications of probiotics are significant and thus resulted in need of genome analysis of probiotic strains. Various omics methods and systems biology approaches enables us to understand and optimize the metabolic processes. These techniques have increased the researcher's attention towards gut microbiome and provided a new source for the revelation of uncharacterized biosynthetic pathways which enables novel metabolic engineering approaches. In recent years, the broad and quantitative analysis of modified strains relies on systems biology tools such as in silico design which are commonly used methods for improving strain performance. The genetic manipulation of probiotic microorganisms is crucial for defining their role in intestinal microbiota and exploring their beneficial properties. This review describes an overview of gene editing and system biology approaches, highlighting the advent of omics methods which allows the study of new routes for studying probiotic bacteria. We have also summarized gene editing tools like TALEN, ZFNs and CRISPR-Cas that edits or cleave the specific target DNA. Furthermore, in this review an overview of proposed design of advanced customized probiotic is also hypothesized to improvise the probiotics.

  16. Requirements Engineering Methods: A Classification Framework and Research Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Jureta, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Requirements Engineering Methods (REMs) support Requirements Engineering (RE) tasks, from elicitation, through modeling and analysis, to validation and evolution of requirements. Despite the growing interest to design, validate and teach REMs, it remains unclear what components REMs should have. A classification framework for REMs is proposed. It distinguishes REMs based on the domain-independent properties of their components. The classification framework is intended to facilitate (i) analys...

  17. The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguiev, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.

  18. The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Gueorguiev, V. G.

    2012-01-01

    The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.

  19. The effect of genetically engineered glucagon on glucose recovery after hypoglycaemia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, A; Jørgensen, S; Hilsted, J

    1992-01-01

    To compare the effect on glucose recovery after insulin-induced hypoglycaemia of intramuscular genetically engineered glucagon, intramuscular glucagon from pancreatic extraction and intravenous glucose, we examined 10 healthy subjects during blockage of glucose counterregulation with somatostatin...... appearance rate were far more protracted after i.m. glucagon than after i.v. glucose. These results suggest that genetically engineered glucagon and glucagon from pancreatic extraction have a similar effect on hepatic glucose production rate. Due to the protracted effect of intramuscular glucagon, a combined......, propranolol and phentolamine. Each subject was studied on three separate occasions. Thirty min after a bolus injection of 0.075 iu soluble insulin per kilogram body weight the subjects received one of the following treatments: 1 mg glucagon from pancreatic extraction intramuscularly; 1 mg genetically...

  20. Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells and its application in human disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Conrad P; Gomez, José A; Mirotsou, Maria; Dzau, Victor J

    2010-11-01

    The use of stem cells for tissue regeneration and repair is advancing both at the bench and bedside. Stem cells isolated from bone marrow are currently being tested for their therapeutic potential in a variety of clinical conditions including cardiovascular injury, kidney failure, cancer, and neurological and bone disorders. Despite the advantages, stem cell therapy is still limited by low survival, engraftment, and homing to damage area as well as inefficiencies in differentiating into fully functional tissues. Genetic engineering of mesenchymal stem cells is being explored as a means to circumvent some of these problems. This review presents the current understanding of the use of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells in human disease therapy with emphasis on genetic modifications aimed to improve survival, homing, angiogenesis, and heart function after myocardial infarction. Advancements in other disease areas are also discussed.

  1. Method for genetic identification of unknown organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Hindson, Benjamin J.; Carter, Chance J.; Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-08-23

    A method of rapid, genome and proteome based identification of unknown pathogenic or non-pathogenic organisms in a complex sample. The entire sample is analyzed by creating millions of emulsion encapsulated microdroplets, each containing a single pathogenic or non-pathogenic organism sized particle and appropriate reagents for amplification. Following amplification, the amplified product is analyzed.

  2. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  3. A Cell Lysis and Protein Purification - Single Molecule Assay Devices for Evaluation of Genetically Engineered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyama, Tetsuya; Tabata, Kazuhito; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokokawa, Ryuji

    We have developed two devices applicable to evaluate genetically engineered proteins in single molecule assay: on-chip cell lysis device, and protein purification - assay device. A motor protein, F1-ATPase expressed in E.coli, was focused in this report as a target protein. Cell lysis was simply performed by applying pulse voltage between Au electrodes patterned by photolithography, and its efficiency was determined by absorptiometry. The subsequent processes, purification and assay of extracted proteins, were demonstrated in order to detect F1-ATPase and to evaluate its activity. The specific bonding between his-tag in F1-ATPase and Ni-NTA coated on a glass surface was utilized for the purification process. After immobilization of F1-ATPase, avidin-coated microspheres and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) solution were infused sequentially to assay the protein. Microsphere rotation was realized by activity of F1-ATPase corresponding to ATP hydrolysis. Results show that the cell lysis device, at the optimum condition, extracts enough amount of protein for single molecule assay. Once cell lysate was injected to the purification - assay device, proteins were diffused in the lateral direction in a Y-shape microchannel. The gradient of protein concentratioin provides an optimal concentration for the assay i.e. the highest density of rotating beads. Density of rotating beads is also affected by the initial concentration of protein injected to the device. The optimum concentration was achieved by our cell lysis device not by the conventional method by ultrasonic wave. Rotation speed was analyzed for several microspheres assayed in the purification - assay device, and the results were compatible to that of conventional assay in which F1-ATPase was purified in bulk scale. In conclusion, we have demonstrated on-chip cell lysis and assay appropriate for the sequential analysis without any pretreatment. On-chip devices replacing conventional bioanalytical methods will be

  4. Method of detecting genetic translocations identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W. (Livermore, CA); Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Tkachuk, Douglas (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  5. Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2013-11-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  6. Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2013-11-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  7. SFC Optimization for Aero Engine Based on Hybrid GA-SQP Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Fan, Ding; Sreeram, Victor

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on on-line specific fuel consumption (SFC) optimization of aero engines. For solving this optimization problem, a nonlinear pneumatic and thermodynamics model of the aero engine is built and a hybrid optimization technique which is formed by combining the genetic algorithm (GA) and the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is presented. The ability of standard GA and standard SQP in solving this type of problem is investigated. It has been found that, although the SQP is fast, very little SFC reductions can be obtained. The GA is able to solve the problem well but a lot of computational time is needed. The presented hybrid GA-SQP gives a good SFC optimization effect and saves 76.6% computational time when compared to the standard GA. It has been shown that the hybrid GA-SQP is a more effective and higher real-time method for SFC on-line optimization of the aero engine.

  8. Validation of published Stirling engine design methods using engine characteristics from the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Four fully disclosed reference engines and five design methods are discussed. So far, the agreement between theory and experiment is about as good for the simpler calculation methods as it is for the more complicated methods, that is, within 20%. For the simpler methods, a one number adjustable constant can be used to reduce the error in predicting power output and efficiency over the entire operating map to less than 10%.

  9. Engineering models and methods for industrial cell control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Hans Jørgen Birk; Alting, Leo

    1997-01-01

    control and monitor-ing systems for production cells. The project participants are The Danish Academy of Technical Sciences, the Institute of Manufacturing Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark and ODENSE STEEL SHIPYARD Ltd.The manufacturing environment and the current practice......This paper is concerned with the engineering, i.e. the designing and making, of industrial cell control systems. The focus is on automated robot welding cells in the shipbuilding industry. The industrial research project defines models and methods for design and implemen-tation of computer based....... Further, an engineering methodology is defined. The three elements enablers, architecture and methodology constitutes the Cell Control Engineering concept which has been defined and evaluated through the implementation of two cell control systems for robot welding cells in production at ODENSE STEEL...

  10. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-12-01

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake’s parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data.

  11. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-12-04

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake's parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data.

  12. Genetic engineering in agriculture and corporate engineering in public debate: risk, public relations, and public debate over genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajeev; Torres, Robert J; Rosset, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Corporations have long influenced environmental and occupational health in agriculture, doing a great deal of damage, making substantial profits, and shaping public debate to make it appear that environmental misfortunes are accidents of an otherwise well-functioning system, rather than systemic. The debate over the genetically modified (GM) crops is an example. The largest producer of commercial GM seeds, Monsanto, exemplifies the industry's strategies: the invocation of poor people as beneficiaries, characterization of opposition as technophobic or anti-progress, and portrayal of their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of or despite the evidence. This strategy is endemic to contemporary market capitalism, with its incentives to companies to externalize health and environmental costs to increase profits.

  13. Genetically engineered multivalent single chain antibody constructs for cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surinder Batra, Ph D

    2006-02-27

    its tumor: normal tissue ratio for improved therapeutic index, we engineered a variety antibody constructs. These constructs were evaluated using novel approaches like special radionuclides, pretargeting and optimization. Due to the smaller size, the engineered antibody molecules should penetrate better throughout a tumor mass, with less dose heterogeneity, than is the case with intact IgG. Multivalent scFvs with an appropriate radionuclide, therefore, hold promising prospects for cancer therapy and clinical imaging in MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals. In addition, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) responses in patients against antibody-based therapy are usually directed against the immunoglobulin constant regions; however, anti-idiotypic responses can also be detected. The HAMA responses reduce the efficacy of treatment by removing the circulating antibody molecules, fragments, and possibly scFvs by altering the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibody. HAMA responses against divalent IgG, divalent Ig fragments, and possibly multimeric scFvs could cause immune complex formation with hypersensitivity or allergic reactions that could be harmful to patients. The use of small molecules, such as scFvs (monomeric as well as multimeric), with their shorter biological half-lives and the lack of the constant regions and humanized variable (binding regions) performed in our studies should reduce the development of HAMA. The generation of humanized and fully human scFvs should further reduce the development of HAMA. Specific accomplishments on the project are the production of large amounts of recombinant antibodies as they are required in large amounts for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A variety of single-chain Fv (scFv) constructs were engineered for the desired pharmacokinetic properties. Tetrameric and dimeric scFvs showed a two-fold advantage: (1) there was a considerable gain in avidity as compared to smaller fragments, and (2) the biological half-life was more

  14. Visualizing the enteric nervous system using genetically engineered double reporter mice: Comparison with immunofluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanfen; Dong, Hui; Eckmann, Lars; Hanson, Elaine M.; Ihn, Katherine C.; Mittal, Ravinder K.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The enteric nervous system (ENS) plays a crucial role in the control of gastrointestinal motility, secretion and absorption functions. Immunohistochemistry has been widely used to visualize neurons of the ENS for more than two decades. Genetically engineered mice that report specific proteins can also be used to visualize neurons of the ENS. The goal of our study was to develop a mouse that expresses fluorescent neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the two proteins expressed in 95% of the ENS neurons. We compared ENS neurons visualized in the reporter mouse with the wild type mouse stained using classical immunostaining techniques. Methods Mice hemizygous for ChAT-ChR2-YFP BAC transgene with expression of the mhChR2:YFP fusion protein directed by ChAT promoter/enhancer regions on the BAC transgene were purchased commercially. The Cre/LoxP technique of somatic recombination was used to construct mice with nNOS positive neurons. The two mice were crossbred and tissues were harvested and examined using fluorescent microscopy. Immunostaining was performed in the wild type mice, using antibodies to nNOS, ChAT, Hu and PGP 9.5. Results Greater than 95% of the ENS neurons were positive for either nNOS or ChAT or both. The nNOS and ChAT neurons and their processes in the ENS were well visualized in all the regions of the GI tract, i.e., esophagus, small intestine and colon. The number of nNOS and ChAT neurons was approximately same in the reporter mouse and immunostaining method in the wild type mouse. The nNOS fluorescence in the reporter mouse was seen in both cytoplasm as well as nucleus but in the immunostained specimens it was seen only in the cytoplasm. Conclusion We propose that the genetically engineered double reporter mouse for ChAT and nNOS proteins is a powerful tool to study of the effects of various diseases on the ENS without the need for immunostaining. PMID:28158225

  15. Advanced FDTD methods parallelization, acceleration, and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has revolutionized antenna design and electromagnetics engineering. Here's a cutting-edge book that focuses on the performance optimization and engineering applications of FDTD simulation systems. Covering the latest developments in this area, this unique resource offer you expert advice on the FDTD method, hardware platforms, and network systems. Moreover the book offers guidance in distinguishing between the many different electromagnetics software packages on the market today. You also find a complete chapter dedicated to large multi-scale pro

  16. From Precaution to Peril: Public Relations Across Forty Years of Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Andrew J

    2016-12-01

    The Asilomar conference on genetic engineering in 1975 has long been pointed to by scientists as a model for internal regulation and public engagement. In 2015, the organizers of the International Summit on Human Gene Editing in Washington, DC looked to Asilomar as they sought to address the implications of the new CRISPR gene editing technique. Like at Asilomar, the conveners chose to limit the discussion to a narrow set of potential CRISPR applications, involving inheritable human genome editing. The adoption by scientists in 2015 of an Asilomar-like script for discussing genetic engineering offers historians the opportunity to analyze the adjustments that have been made since 1975, and to identify the blind spots that remain in public engagement. Scientists did take important lessons from the fallout of their limited engagement with public concerns at Asilomar. Nonetheless, the scientific community has continued to overlook some of the longstanding public concerns about genetic engineering, in particular the broad and often covert genetic modification of food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk communication strategies for genetically engineered food products

    OpenAIRE

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Inhalt: Introduction: -Some Introductory Examples -Consumer-relevant Utility Dimensions -Communication Flow between the Relevant Actors -Risk Communication Dimensions -Complete Model -Aims of the Study Method: -Participants -Procedure -Content Analysis Results: -Sample Category 1: Food safety -Sample Category 2: Product Quality -Sample Category 3: Freedom of Choice -Sample Category 4: Decision Power over Foodstuffs -Strategy 1: Scientific Information Approach -Strategy 2: Balanced Information...

  18. Method of stereo matching based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chaohui; An, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoyang

    2003-09-01

    A new stereo matching scheme based on image edge and genetic algorithm (GA) is presented to improve the conventional stereo matching method in this paper. In order to extract robust edge feature for stereo matching, infinite symmetric exponential filter (ISEF) is firstly applied to remove the noise of image, and nonlinear Laplace operator together with local variance of intensity are then used to detect edges. Apart from the detected edge, the polarity of edge pixels is also obtained. As an efficient search method, genetic algorithm is applied to find the best matching pair. For this purpose, some new ideas are developed for applying genetic algorithm to stereo matching. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are effective and can obtain good results.

  19. Ethical Analysis of Genetic Engineering%基因工程的伦理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周青龙

    2013-01-01

    Since 1977, American scientists in the world since the first time genetically engineered to produce human growth hormone, genetic engineering continues to bear the fruit of fruitful gratifying. Now, genetic engineering has been widely applied in all aspects of society. However, the science and technology is a double-edged sword. With the rapid development of genetic engineering technology, it is also produced many negative effects, so that people have to produce all kinds of worries and anxieties. Genetic engineering without restriction left unchecked, will occur contrary to the laws of nature and ethical issues, it will bring disaster to human society, resulting in consequences? Genetic engineering services for the peace and progress of mankind, must step up to the norms, moral constraints, thereby establishing public international law, so that the great discovery and shocking change comes to the change of the legal system.%  自1977年美国科学家在世界上首次用基因工程生产人类生长激素以来,基因工程不断结出令人欣喜的丰硕之果。现如今,基因工程已广泛应用在社会的各个方面。然而,科学技术是把双刃剑。随着基因工程这一技术的迅猛发展,其也产生了许多负面影响,使人们不得不产生各种担心和忧虑。基因工程如不加限制地任其发展,会不会发生违背自然规律和伦理道德的问题,会不会给人类社会带来灾难,造成恶果?基因工程要为人类和平与进步服务,就必须加紧以规范,进行道德约束,进而建立国际公法,以便让伟大的发现、震撼的变革,走向更改化、法制化。

  20. [Plant genetic engineering in Monsanto company: from the first laboratory experiments to worldwide practical use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konov, A L; Velchev, M; Parcel, D

    2005-01-01

    The history of modern biotechnology of agricultural plants is briefly considered in the article. Methods of genetic transformation and regeneration of transgenic plants as well as the mechanisms of resistance of genetically modified plants to herbicides and pests are discussed. By the example of genetically modified varieties and hybrids there are shown the ways of solving the problem of weeds and pests. The questions of biosafety legislation in different countries are considered.

  1. Requirements Engineering Methods: A Classification Framework and Research Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Jureta, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Requirements Engineering Methods (REMs) support Requirements Engineering (RE) tasks, from elicitation, through modeling and analysis, to validation and evolution of requirements. Despite the growing interest to design, validate and teach REMs, it remains unclear what components REMs should have. A classification framework for REMs is proposed. It distinguishes REMs based on the domain-independent properties of their components. The classification framework is intended to facilitate (i) analysis, teaching and extension of existing REMs, (ii) engineering and validation of new REMs, and (iii) identifying research challenges in REM design. The framework should help clarify further the relations between REM and other concepts of interest in and to RE, including Requirements Problem and Solution, Requirements Modeling Language, and Formal Method.

  2. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, J J

    2013-01-01

    Modern design methods of Automotive Cam Design require the computation of a range of parameters. This book provides a logical sequence of steps for the derivation of the relevant equations from first principles, for the more widely used cam mechanisms. Although originally derived for use in high performance engines, this work is equally applicable to the design of mass produced automotive and other internal combustion engines.   Introduction to Analytical Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Cam Mechanisms provides the equations necessary for the design of cam lift curves with an associated smooth acceleration curve. The equations are derived for the kinematics and kinetics of all the mechanisms considered, together with those for cam curvature and oil entrainment velocity. This permits the cam shape, all loads, and contact stresses to be evaluated, and the relevant tribology to be assessed. The effects of asymmetry on the manufacture of cams for finger follower and offset translating curved followers is ...

  3. Role of stem cells in large animal genetic engineering in the TALENs-CRISPR era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and gene targeting technologies in mice has revolutionised the field of genetics. The relative ease with which genes can be knocked out, and exogenous sequences introduced, has allowed the mouse to become the prime model for deciphering the genetic code. Not surprisingly, the lack of authentic ESCs has hampered the livestock genetics field and has forced animal scientists into adapting alternative technologies for genetic engineering. The recent discovery of the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by upregulation of a handful of reprogramming genes has offered renewed enthusiasm to animal geneticists. However, much like ESCs, establishing authentic iPSCs from the domestic animals is still beset with problems, including (but not limited to) the persistent expression of reprogramming genes and the lack of proven potential for differentiation into target cell types both in vitro and in vivo. Site-specific nucleases comprised of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regulated interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) emerged as powerful genetic tools for precisely editing the genome, usurping the need for ESC-based genetic modifications even in the mouse. In this article, in the aftermath of these powerful genome editing technologies, the role of pluripotent stem cells in livestock genetics is discussed.

  4. [Current methods in genetic analysis : an approach for genetics-based preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hans-Georg; Rost, Imma

    2015-02-01

    Modern genetic analysis methods such as DNA arrays (gene chips) or high-throughput DNA sequencing of the next generation (Next Generation Sequencing, NGS) have once again accelerated the pace of innovation that has been powered by genome research over the past 10 years of the "post-genomic era". The present paper introduces array and NGS methods as two important innovation driving methods and provides examples for their application in large-scale scientific projects. However, a broad application of these very powerful technologies for genetic screening for the purpose of disease prevention is currently not yet in sight. The complexity of the interaction of genes, gene products and the environment has so far exceeded all expectations, suggesting that reliable statements about the medical relevance of common genetic variants can presently only be made in a few areas such as pharmacogenetics and oncology. We also discuss ethical issues raised by genetic population screening. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief outline of the development of methods in molecular genetics to the now dominant modern technologies and present their applications in research, in the diagnosis of rare diseases, and in terms of screening approaches.

  5. Modular projects and 'mean questions': best practices for advising an International Genetically Engineered Machines team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Jennifer; Meyer, Anne S

    2016-07-01

    In the yearly Internationally Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) competition, teams of Bachelor's and Master's students design and build an engineered biological system using DNA technologies. Advising an iGEM team poses unique challenges due to the inherent difficulties of mounting and completing a new biological project from scratch over the course of a single academic year; the challenges in obtaining financial and structural resources for a project that will likely not be fully realized; and conflicts between educational and competition-based goals. This article shares tips and best practices for iGEM team advisors, from two team advisors with very different experiences with the iGEM competition.

  6. Natural plant genetic engineer Agrobacterium rhizogenes: role of T-DNA in plant secondary metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sheela

    2012-03-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a natural plant genetic engineer. It is a gram-negative soil bacterium that induces hairy root formation. Success has been obtained in exploring the molecular mechanisms of transferred DNA (T-DNA) transfer, interaction with host plant proteins, plant defense signaling and integration to plant genome for successful plant genetic transformation. T-DNA and corresponding expression of rol genes alter morphology and plant host secondary metabolism. During transformation, there is a differential loss of a few T-DNA genes. Loss of a few ORFs drastically affect the growth and morphological patterns of hairy roots, expression pattern of biosynthetic pathway genes and accumulation of specific secondary metabolites.

  7. Biopreparedness in the Age of Genetically Engineered Pathogens and Open Access Science: An Urgent Need for a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, C Raina

    2015-09-01

    Our systems, thinking, training, legislation, and policies are lagging far behind momentous changes in science, and leaving us vulnerable in biosecurity. Synthetic viruses and genetic engineering of pathogens are a reality, with a rapid acceleration of dual-use science. The public availability of methods for dual-use genetic engineering, coupled with the insider threat, poses an unprecedented risk for biosecurity. Case studies including the 1984 Rajneesh salmonella bioterrorism attack and the controversy over engineered transmissible H5N1 influenza are analyzed. Simple probability analysis shows that the risks of dual-use research are likely to outweigh potential benefits, yet this type of analysis has not been done to date. Many bioterrorism agents may also occur naturally. Distinguishing natural from unnatural epidemics is far more difficult than other types of terrorism. Public health systems do not have mechanisms for routinely considering bioterrorism, and an organizational culture that is reluctant to consider it. A collaborative model for flagging aberrant outbreak patterns and referral from the health to security sectors is proposed. Vulnerabilities in current approaches to biosecurity need to be reviewed and strengthened collaboratively by all stakeholders. New systems, legislation, collaborative operational models, and ways of thinking are required to effectively address the threat to global biosecurity.

  8. A Droplet Microfluidic Platform for Automating Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gach, Philip C; Shih, Steve C C; Sustarich, Jess; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J; Adams, Paul D; Singh, Anup K

    2016-05-20

    We present a water-in-oil droplet microfluidic platform for transformation, culture and expression of recombinant proteins in multiple host organisms including bacteria, yeast and fungi. The platform consists of a hybrid digital microfluidic/channel-based droplet chip with integrated temperature control to allow complete automation and integration of plasmid addition, heat-shock transformation, addition of selection medium, culture, and protein expression. The microfluidic format permitted significant reduction in consumption (100-fold) of expensive reagents such as DNA and enzymes compared to the benchtop method. The chip contains a channel to continuously replenish oil to the culture chamber to provide a fresh supply of oxygen to the cells for long-term (∼5 days) cell culture. The flow channel also replenished oil lost to evaporation and increased the number of droplets that could be processed and cultured. The platform was validated by transforming several plasmids into Escherichia coli including plasmids containing genes for fluorescent proteins GFP, BFP and RFP; plasmids with selectable markers for ampicillin or kanamycin resistance; and a Golden Gate DNA assembly reaction. We also demonstrate the applicability of this platform for transformation in widely used eukaryotic organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Duration and temperatures of the microfluidic heat-shock procedures were optimized to yield transformation efficiencies comparable to those obtained by benchtop methods with a throughput up to 6 droplets/min. The proposed platform offers potential for automation of molecular biology experiments significantly reducing cost, time and variability while improving throughput.

  9. Ethanol from lignocellulose - Fermentation inhibitors, detoxification and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Simona

    2000-07-01

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulose by first hydrolysing the material to sugars, and then fermenting the hydrolysate with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis using dilute sulphuric acid has advantages over other methods, however, compounds which inhibit fermentation are generated during this kind of hydrolysis. The inhibitory effect of aliphatic acids, furans, and phenolic compounds was investigated. The generation of inhibitors during hydrolysis was studied using Norway spruce as raw material. It was concluded that the decrease in the fermentability coincided with increasing harshness of the hydrolysis conditions. The decrease in fermentability was not correlated solely to the content of aliphatic acids or furan derivatives. To increase the fermentability, detoxification is often employed. Twelve detoxification methods were compared with respect to the chemical composition of the hydrolysate and the fermentability after treatment. The most efficient detoxification methods were anion-exchange at pH 10.0, overliming and enzymatic detoxification with the phenol-oxidase laccase. Detailed analyses of ion exchange revealed that anion exchange and unspecific hydrophobic interactions greatly contributed to the detoxification effect, while cation exchange did not. The comparison of detoxification methods also showed that phenolic compounds are very important fermentation inhibitors, as their selective removal with laccase had a major positive effect on the fermentability. Selected compounds; aliphatic acids, furans and phenolic compounds, were characterised with respect to their inhibitory effect on ethanolic fermentation by S. cerevisiae. When aliphatic acids or furans were compared, the inhibitory effects were found to be in the same range, but the phenolic compounds displayed widely different inhibitory effects. The possibility of genetically engineering S. cerevisiae to achieve increased inhibitor resistance was explored by heterologous expression of

  10. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is consider

  11. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Stijn; Zoet, Martijn; Versendaal, Johan; Weerd, Inge van de

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we de

  12. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  13. Using genetic variability available in the breeder's pool to engineer fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzaez, Diego; Monforte, Antonio J; Granell, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We substantiate here the opinion that experts in biotechnology and natural biodiversity can work together on the production of successive waves of next-generation GM fruit crops to improve organoleptic and nutritional quality and therefore generate wider public acceptance. In this scenario genetic engineering becomes a faster and more precise way of transferring genes of interest to fruit crop plants from the same or sexually compatible species (intra- or cisgenesis) than more traditional methods, such as MASPB. The availability of complete genome sequences for an increasing number of crop plants, as well as the results from genomics studies, can assist in the identification of gene-to-trait association. The next wave of GM crops will be able to take full advantage of a Synthetic Biology-based strategy in the development of new fruit varieties by using DNA not necessarily present in the breeder's pool for a wide range of applications. There are still a number of challenges which require attention, such as identifying genes and allelic forms associated with traits of interest and improving the precision and stability of the transferred DNA. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  14. Genetic Transformation and Genomic Resources for Next-Generation Precise Genome Engineering in Vegetable Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Teodoro; D’Agostino, Nunzio; Tripodi, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    In the frame of modern agriculture facing the predicted increase of population and general environmental changes, the securement of high quality food remains a major challenge to deal with. Vegetable crops include a large number of species, characterized by multiple geographical origins, large genetic variability and diverse reproductive features. Due to their nutritional value, they have an important place in human diet. In recent years, many crop genomes have been sequenced permitting the identification of genes and superior alleles associated with desirable traits. Furthermore, innovative biotechnological approaches allow to take a step forward towards the development of new improved cultivars harboring precise genome modifications. Sequence-based knowledge coupled with advanced biotechnologies is supporting the widespread application of new plant breeding techniques to enhance the success in modification and transfer of useful alleles into target varieties. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 system, zinc-finger nucleases, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases represent the main methods available for plant genome engineering through targeted modifications. Such technologies, however, require efficient transformation protocols as well as extensive genomic resources and accurate knowledge before they can be efficiently exploited in practical breeding programs. In this review, we revise the state of the art in relation to availability of such scientific and technological resources in various groups of vegetables, describe genome editing results obtained so far and discuss the implications for future applications. PMID:28275380

  15. Reveal, A General Reverse Engineering Algorithm for Inference of Genetic Network Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shoudan; Fuhrman, Stefanie; Somogyi, Roland

    1998-01-01

    Given the immanent gene expression mapping covering whole genomes during development, health and disease, we seek computational methods to maximize functional inference from such large data sets. Is it possible, in principle, to completely infer a complex regulatory network architecture from input/output patterns of its variables? We investigated this possibility using binary models of genetic networks. Trajectories, or state transition tables of Boolean nets, resemble time series of gene expression. By systematically analyzing the mutual information between input states and output states, one is able to infer the sets of input elements controlling each element or gene in the network. This process is unequivocal and exact for complete state transition tables. We implemented this REVerse Engineering ALgorithm (REVEAL) in a C program, and found the problem to be tractable within the conditions tested so far. For n = 50 (elements) and k = 3 (inputs per element), the analysis of incomplete state transition tables (100 state transition pairs out of a possible 10(exp 15)) reliably produced the original rule and wiring sets. While this study is limited to synchronous Boolean networks, the algorithm is generalizable to include multi-state models, essentially allowing direct application to realistic biological data sets. The ability to adequately solve the inverse problem may enable in-depth analysis of complex dynamic systems in biology and other fields.

  16. Genetically engineered trees for plantation forests: key considerations for environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman, Hely; Raybould, Alan; Borem, Aluizio; Fox, Thomas; Handley, Levis; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lu, Meng-Zu; Macdonald, Philip; Oguchi, Taichi; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Pearson, Les; Peter, Gary; Quemada, Hector; Séguin, Armand; Tattersall, Kylie; Ulian, Eugênio; Walter, Christian; McLean, Morven

    2013-09-01

    Forests are vital to the world's ecological, social, cultural and economic well-being yet sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is increasingly challenged by pressures such as growing demand for wood and other forest products, land conversion and degradation, and climate change. Intensively managed, highly productive forestry incorporating the most advanced methods for tree breeding, including the application of genetic engineering (GE), has tremendous potential for producing more wood on less land. However, the deployment of GE trees in plantation forests is a controversial topic and concerns have been particularly expressed about potential harms to the environment. This paper, prepared by an international group of experts in silviculture, forest tree breeding, forest biotechnology and environmental risk assessment (ERA) that met in April 2012, examines how the ERA paradigm used for GE crop plants may be applied to GE trees for use in plantation forests. It emphasizes the importance of differentiating between ERA for confined field trials of GE trees, and ERA for unconfined or commercial-scale releases. In the case of the latter, particular attention is paid to characteristics of forest trees that distinguish them from shorter-lived plant species, the temporal and spatial scale of forests, and the biodiversity of the plantation forest as a receiving environment.

  17. The Discussions around Precision Genetic Engineering: Role of and Impact on Disabled People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic researchers are advancing in their abilities to extract precise genetic information from biological and human entities bringing genetic research steps closer to accurately modifying genes of biological entities, including that of humans. In this analytical essay, we focus on the discussions about precision genetic intervention that have taken place since March 2015 as they pertain to disabled people. We focus on two areas; one being the role of disabled people in the recent gene editing discussions and the second being the utility of existing legal instruments. Within our first focus we address the following questions: (a What is the visibility of disabled people in the gene-editing discussions that have taken place since March 2015? (b What has been the impact of those discussions on disabled people? (c Were social problems which disabled people face taken into account in those discussions; (d How does the reality of engagement with disabled people in these discussions fit with science, technology and innovation governance discourses that ask for more stakeholder, bottom up and anticipatory involvement? Within our second focus we address the following questions: (a What is the utility of the United Nations Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD; and (b What is the utility of existing legal instruments covering genetic interventions: for preventing negative social consequences of genetic engineering developments for disabled people. We argue that (a the genetic engineering debates since March 2015 have portrayed disabled people dominantly through a medical lens; (b that the governance of science, technology and innovation of genetic engineering including anticipatory governance and responsible innovation discourses has not yet engaged with the social impact of gene editing on disabled people; (c that few scholars that focus on the social situation of disabled people are visible in the governance discussions of gene

  18. Engineering the Genetic Code in Cells and Animals: Biological Considerations and Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    2017-10-06

    Expansion of the genetic code allows unnatural amino acids (Uaas) to be site-specifically incorporated into proteins in live biological systems, thus enabling novel properties selectively introduced into target proteins in vivo for basic biological studies and for engineering of novel biological functions. Orthogonal components including tRNA and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) are expressed in live cells to decode a unique codon (often the amber stop codon UAG) as the desired Uaa. Initially developed in E. coli, this methodology has now been expanded in multiple eukaryotic cells and animals. In this Account, we focus on addressing various biological challenges for rewriting the genetic code, describing impacts of code expansion on cell physiology and discussing implications for fundamental studies of code evolution. Specifically, a general method using the type-3 polymerase III promoter was developed to efficiently express prokaryotic tRNAs as orthogonal tRNAs and a transfer strategy was devised to generate Uaa-specific aaRS for use in eukaryotic cells and animals. The aaRSs have been found to be highly amenable for engineering substrate specificity toward Uaas that are structurally far deviating from the native amino acid, dramatically increasing the stereochemical diversity of Uaas accessible. Preparation of the Uaa in ester or dipeptide format markedly increases the bioavailability of Uaas to cells and animals. Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), an mRNA surveillance mechanism of eukaryotic cells, degrades mRNA containing a premature stop codon. Inhibition of NMD increases Uaa incorporation efficiency in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans. In bacteria, release factor one (RF1) competes with the orthogonal tRNA for the amber stop codon to terminate protein translation, leading to low Uaa incorporation efficiency. Contradictory to the paradigm that RF1 is essential, it is discovered that RF1 is actually nonessential in E. coli. Knockout of RF1 dramatically

  19. Genetic engineering of flavonoid pigments to modify flower color in floricultural plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Recent advances in genetic transformation techniques enable the production of desirable and novel flower colors in some important floricultural plants. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors is now a practical technology as typified by commercialization of a transgenic blue rose and blue carnation. Many researchers exploit knowledge of flavonoid biosynthesis effectively to obtain unique flower colors. So far, the main pigments targeted for flower color modification are anthocyanins that contribute to a variety of colors such as red, pink and blue, but recent studies have also utilized colorless or faint-colored compounds. For example, chalcones and aurones have been successfully engineered to produce yellow flowers, and flavones and flavonols used to change flower color hues. In this review, we summarize examples of successful flower color modification in floricultural plants focusing on recent advances in techniques.

  20. Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Tuning PID Controller Applied on Speed Control System for Marine Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeim Farouk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The degree of speed control of ship machinery effects on the economics and optimization of the machinery configuration and operation. All marine vessel ranging need some sort of speed control system to control and govern the speed of the marine diesel engines. The main focus of this study is to apply and comparative between two specific soft-computing techniques. Fuzzy logic controller and genetic algorithm to design and tuning of PID controller for applied on speed control system of marine diesel engine to get an output with better dynamic and static performance. Simulation results show that the response of system when using genetic algorithm is better and faster than when using fuzzy tuning PID controller.

  1. Nuclear and plastid genetic engineering of plants: comparison of opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Benjamin; Zaltsman, Adi; Lacroix, Benoît; Kozlovsky, Stanislav V; Krichevsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering is one of the key technologies for crop improvement as well as an emerging approach for producing recombinant proteins in plants. Both plant nuclear and plastid genomes can be genetically modified, yet fundamental functional differences between the eukaryotic genome of the plant cell nucleus and the prokaryotic-like genome of the plastid will have an impact on key characteristics of the resulting transgenic organism. So, which genome, nuclear or plastid, to transform for the desired transgenic phenotype? In this review we compare the advantages and drawbacks of engineering plant nuclear and plastid genomes to generate transgenic plants with the traits of interest, and evaluate the pros and cons of their use for different biotechnology and basic research applications, ranging from generation of commercial crops with valuable new phenotypes to 'bioreactor' plants for large-scale production of recombinant proteins to research model plants expressing various reporter proteins.

  2. To fabricate artificial nerves with tissue engineering methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程飚; 陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    To fabricate artificial nerves with tissue engineering methods in vitro. Methods: Schwann cells (SCs) were cultured and seeded on polyglactin 910 fibers wrapped by biomembrane coated with rat tail glue and laminin for 2 weeks. The absorbability on the scaffolds, growth and migration of SCs were assessed with a light microscope, a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. Results: SCs could migrate and proliferate on polyglactin 910 fibers. They were well distributed between scaffolds and absorbed on surface of scaffolds and formed a bungner band, on which SCs produced more matrices. SCs seeded on the biomembrane could also grow well. Axon regeneration in the distal nerve stump was observed at 8 weeks. Conclusions: Adult SCs can be expanded on coated fibers and biomembrane. Three-dimensional scaffold of SCs has the basic characteristics of artificial nerves. These findings offer a novel method to fabricate artificial nerves with tissue engineering methods for repairing defected long nerves.

  3. The importance of training in formal methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Polansky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of formal methods provides systematic techniques and rigorous to software develop and, due the crescent complexity and quality requirements of current products, is necessary introduce them in curriculum of software engineer. In this article is analyzed the importance of train in formal methods and described specific techniques to achieved it efficiently. This techniques are the result of an experimental process in the class room of more than fifteen years in undergraduate and graduate programs, the same as company training. Also are presented a proposal a curriculum to systematic introduction of this paradigm and description of a program in training methods that has been success to industry. Results shows that students gain confidence in formal methods just when found out of the benefits of this in the context of software engineer.

  4. Genetic And Metabolic Engineering Of Microorganisms For The Development Of New Flavor Compounds From Terpenic Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Bution; Murillo L.; Molina; Gustavo; Abrahao; Meissa R. E.; Pastore; Glaucia M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout human history, natural products have been the basis for the discovery and development of therapeutics, cosmetic and food compounds used in industry. Many compounds found in natural organisms are rather difficult to chemically synthesize and to extract in large amounts, and in this respect, genetic and metabolic engineering are playing an increasingly important role in the production of these compounds, such as new terpenes and terpenoids, which may potentially be used to create aro...

  5. Recent advances in plant biotechnology and genetic engineering for production of secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheludko, Y V

    2010-01-01

    For a long time people are using plants not only as crop cultures but also for obtaining of various chemicals. Currently plants remain one of the most important and essential sources of biologically active compounds in spite of progress in chemical or microbial synthesis. In our review we compare potentials and perspectives of modern genetic engineering approaches for pharmaceutical biotechnology and give examples of actual biotechnological systems used for production of several promising natural compounds: artemisinin, paclitaxel and scopolamine.

  6. Overview of KRAS-Driven Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Clare; Downward, Julian

    2015-01-01

    KRAS, the most frequently mutated oncogene in non-small cell lung cancer, has been utilized extensively to model human lung adenocarcinomas. The results from such studies have enhanced considerably an understanding of the relationship between KRAS and the development of lung cancer. Detailed in this overview are the features of various KRAS-driven genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of non-small cell lung cancer, their utilization, and the potential of these models for the study of lung cancer biology.

  7. [Genetic engineering technologies of stimulating angiogenesis as an innovation trend in angiology and vascular surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilenko, A V; Voronov, D A

    2015-01-01

    Presented herein is a review of the principles, fundamental concepts, and possibilities of genetic engineering technologies of stimulating angiogenesis for treatment of patients with lower limb chronic ischaemia. This is followed by a detailed discussion of the structure and results of Russian and foreign studies on this direction, also considering the causes of differences of their results. Outlined is a circle of clinical situations in relation to which these technologies may be regarded as most promising.

  8. Growth of genetically engineered Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, K H; Schell, M A; Hartel, P G

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the addition of a recombinant plasmid containing the pglA gene encoding an alpha-1,4-endopolygalacturonase from Pseudomonas solanacearum on the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in soil and rhizosphere was determined. Despite a high level of polygalacturonase production by genetically engineered P. putida and P. aeruginosa, the results suggest that polygalacturonase production had little effect on the growth of these strains in soil or rhizosphere.

  9. [Genetic engineering and assisted reproduction techniques in man: a framework for sociologic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Morales, M R

    1999-01-01

    The possibilities opened up by genetic engineering and assisted reproduction techniques require reflection by sociologists and extensive public debate. In view of their potential as factors of social change, evaluation and control are warranted. They can be viable only if transparent and through public co-responsibility, for which an exchange of views is needed between all those who play a part in the development of said techniques. This dialogue must be wholly interdisciplinary and democratic.

  10. An effective hybrid cuckoo search and genetic algorithm for constrained engineering design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagaraj, G.; Ponnambalam, S. G.; Jawahar, N.; Mukund Nilakantan, J.

    2014-10-01

    This article presents an effective hybrid cuckoo search and genetic algorithm (HCSGA) for solving engineering design optimization problems involving problem-specific constraints and mixed variables such as integer, discrete and continuous variables. The proposed algorithm, HCSGA, is first applied to 13 standard benchmark constrained optimization functions and subsequently used to solve three well-known design problems reported in the literature. The numerical results obtained by HCSGA show competitive performance with respect to recent algorithms for constrained design optimization problems.

  11. In-depth metabolic phenotyping of genetically engineered mouse models in obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui-Young; Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2014-10-01

    The world-wide prevalence of obesity and diabetes has increased sharply during the last two decades. Accordingly, the metabolic phenotyping of genetically engineered mouse models is critical for evaluating the functional roles of target genes in obesity and diabetes, and for developing new therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the practical meaning of metabolic phenotyping, the strategy of choosing appropriate tests, and considerations when designing and performing metabolic phenotyping in mice.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Genetically Engineered Antibody Forms Using Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven M. Larson, M.D. Nai-Kong Cheung, M.D., Ph.D.

    2004-08-31

    In the last grant period we have focused on multi-step targeting methodologies (MST), as a method for delivery of high dose to the tumor, with low dose to the bone marrow. We have explored uptake in colorectal, pancreatic and prostate cancer, using an special preparation, developed in collaboration with NeoRex A high tumor/bone marrow ratio is clearly achieved with MST, but with a cost, namely the higher dose to normal kidney. For this reason, we have in particular, (a) looked dosimetry for both tumor and normal organ, and especially renal dosimetry, which appears to be the target organ, for Y-90. (b) In parallel with this we have explored the dosimetry of very high dose rate radionuclides, including Holmium-166. (c) In addition, with NaiKong Cheung, we have developed a new MST construct based on the anti-GD2 targeting 5F11; (d) we have successfully completed development of s-factor tables for mice. In summary, renal dosimetry is dominated by about 4-5% of the injected dose being held long-term in the renal cortex, probably in the proximal tubule, due to the universal uptake of small proteins. This appears to be a function of a biotynlated protein binding of the strept-avidin construct, to HSP70. This cortical uptake has caused us to reconsider renal dosimetry as a whole, with the smaller mass of the cortex, rather than the whole kidney, as the target organ. These insights into dosimetry will be of great importance as MST, becomes more common in clinical practice.

  13. A Review of Deterministic Optimization Methods in Engineering and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hua Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing reliance on modeling optimization problems in practical applications, a number of theoretical and algorithmic contributions of optimization have been proposed. The approaches developed for treating optimization problems can be classified into deterministic and heuristic. This paper aims to introduce recent advances in deterministic methods for solving signomial programming problems and mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems. A number of important applications in engineering and management are also reviewed to reveal the usefulness of the optimization methods.

  14. On the Estimate Method of Construction Engineering Cost Based on the RS-GA-NNA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zheng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the low intelligent level and the low accuracy of valuation of civil architecture projects, we put forward in the study a constructional engineering assessment method based on Artificial Intelligence which taking advantage of data-calculation from rough set theory, genetic algorithm and neural network algorithm. First, the rough set theory is used to reduce the discrete attributes to optimize the input variables of BP neural network. And then use the global search feature of genetic algorithm to optimize the initial weight and the threshold value of BP neural network. The new algorithm covers both the global random search capability of genetic algorithm and the learning ability and robustness of neural network, thus the computational speed and accuracy have been more significantly improved than the traditional methods. To empirically analyze a case selected from a city in Hunan Province, the results show that the new algorithm model can rely on the engineering features, assess the construction costs scientifically and objectively and have high practical value.

  15. Telos, conservation of welfare, and ethical issues in genetic engineering of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Bernard E

    2015-01-01

    The most long-lived metaphysics or view of reality in the history of Western thought is Aristotle's teleology, which reigned for almost 2,000 years. Biology was expressed in terms of function or telos, and accorded perfectly with common sense. The rise of mechanistic, Newtonian science vanquished teleological explanations. Understanding and accommodating animal telos was essential to success in animal husbandry, which involved respect for telos, and was presuppositional to our "ancient contract" with domestic animals. Telos was further abandoned with the rise of industrial agriculture, which utilized "technological fixes" to force animal into environments they were unsuited for, while continuing to be productive. Loss of husbandry and respect for telos created major issues for farm animal welfare, and forced the creation of a new ethic demanding respect for telos. As genetic engineering developed, the notion arose of modifying animals to fit their environment in order to avoid animal suffering, rather than fitting them into congenial environments. Most people do not favor changing the animals, rather than changing the conditions under which they are reared. Aesthetic appreciation of husbandry and virtue ethics militate in favor of restoring husbandry, rather than radically changing animal teloi. One, however, does not morally wrong teloi by changing them-one can only wrong individuals. In biomedical research, we do indeed inflict major pain, suffering and disease on animals. And genetic engineering seems to augment our ability to create animals to model diseases, particularly more than 3,000 known human genetic diseases. The disease, known as Lesch-Nyhan's syndrome or HPRT deficiency, which causes self-mutilation and mental retardation, provides us with a real possibility for genetically creating "animal models" of this disease, animals doomed to a life of great and unalleviable suffering. This of course creates a major moral dilemma. Perhaps one can use the very

  16. Preparation and properties of microencapsulated genetically engineered bacteria cells for oral therapy of uremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong; YU Yaoting; CAI Baoli; WANG Manyan

    2004-01-01

    Microencapsulated genetically engineered bacteria cells are a novel approach of oral therapy for uremia.Klebsiella aerogenes urease genes (UreaDABCEFG) are transformed into E. coli DH5α cells through plasmid pKAU17. The transformant can use urea or ammonia as its sole nitrogen source through strain training. The urease genetically engineered bacteria cells are entrapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microcapsules, which can be used to remove urea from uremia patients. The mechanical strength of PVA microcapsules is significantly higher than that of APA microcapsules. This suggests that the problem of friability of APA can be solved in this way. The optimal conditions for the preparation of PVA microencapsulated genetically engineered bacterial cells are: polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, 2450±50)used as the carrier at a concentration 6%, the pH value of boric acid as crosslinking reagent 6.5, crosslinking time 24 h,entrapment ratio of bacteria 8%, air flow rate of the encapsulate device 3 L/min and liquid flow rate at 1 mL/10 min.The average diameter of microcapsules prepared under these optimal conditions is 20-40 mesh. Experiments in vitro showed that one hundred milligrams of wet bacterial cells in PVA microcapsules could remove 18.4 mg of urea in 4 h.

  17. Genetic engineering of mice to test the oxidative damage theory of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, George M

    2005-12-01

    The laboratory mouse Mus musculus domesticus provides the best current mammalian models for the genetic analysis of aging. We give a brief overview of the use of transgenic manipulations to test the oxidative damage theory of aging. These manipulations are of two types: The first approach engineers mice that exhibit increased sensitivities to oxidative damage and thus produces mice that are likely to be short-lived. The second approach engineers mice to be more resistant to such injuries, and thus may produce mice that exhibit enhanced longevities, something that is much harder to engineer. The latter result is thus more meaningful, with the caveat that it may result from some special vulnerability of a particular lab strain or lab strains in general. The first approach, most elegantly carried out by Arlan Richardson's laboratory, provides evidence against the oxidative damage theory. My colleagues and I have been engaged in the second approach and have accumulated evidence supporting the theory. These conventional transgenic experiments, however, should be supplemented by alternative genetic approaches. One that is surprisingly neglected takes advantage of the pleuripotency of embryonic stem cells and the power of somatic cell genetics. A cautionary note is that interventions that minimize oxidative stress may be complicated by unwanted compromises of physiologically adaptive actions such as superoxide signaling and the possible protective effects of certain oxidatively modified proteins.

  18. Methods for Analyzing Multivariate Phenotypes in Genetic Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiong; Wang, Yuanjia

    2012-05-01

    This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Multivariate phenotypes are frequently encountered in genetic association studies. The purpose of analyzing multivariate phenotypes usually includes discovery of novel genetic variants of pleiotropy effects, that is, affecting multiple phenotypes, and the ultimate goal of uncovering the underlying genetic mechanism. In recent years, there have been new method development and application of existing statistical methods to such phenotypes. In this paper, we provide a review of the available methods for analyzing association between a single marker and a multivariate phenotype consisting of the same type of components (e.g., all continuous or all categorical) or different types of components (e.g., some are continuous and others are categorical). We also reviewed causal inference methods designed to test whether the detected association with the multivariate phenotype is truly pleiotropy or the genetic marker exerts its effects on some phenotypes through affecting the others.

  19. Problem-Solving Methods in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Paul; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham

    Problem-solving methods (PSM) are abstract structures that describe specific reasoning processes employed to solve a set of similar problems. We envisage that off-the-shelf PSMs can assist in the development of agent-oriented solutions, not only as reusable and extensible components that software engineers employ for designing agent architecture solutions, but just as importantly as a set of runtime capabilities that agents themselves dynamically employ in order to solve problems. This chapter describes PSMs for agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) that address interaction-dependent problem-solving such as negotiation or cooperation. An extension to an AOSE methodology MOBMAS is proposed whereby PSMs are integrated in the software development phases of MAS Organization Design, Internal Design, and Interaction Design. In this way, knowledge engineering drives the development of agent-oriented systems.

  20. INTERACTIVE METHODS AND INFORMATIVE-COMMUNICATIVE TECHNOLOGIES AS THE PROCEDURE AND MEANS OF MODERN ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Borisovich Gundyrev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the structural and genetic analysis of the engineering education has been performed. It is shown that interactive methods are part of the educational activity procedure, while informative-communicative technologies are its means. Increasing of information flow accompanied by simultaneous reduction of a technology lifetime as compared to a specialist lifetime makes it important to investigate questions of increasing educational activity and making it more intensive. The problem of continuous education becomes of high importance, which requires changes in the educational process. It is shown that one of ways to solve this problem is switching to interactive methods of executing studies as well as applying informative-communicative technologies. Using the activity-related approach we have performed analysis of engineering education. Six key elements have been identified in its structure. They include the routine and the means of activity. Five stages have also been identified in the genesis of engineering education. It was shown that moving fom one stage to the next one happens when one or several structural elements experience qualitative changes. Examples of applying interactive methods and informative-communicative technologies in the high engineering education are provided.

  1. Multiplexed genome engineering and genotyping methods applications for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Harris H; Church, George M

    2011-01-01

    Engineering at the scale of whole genomes requires fundamentally new molecular biology tools. Recent advances in recombineering using synthetic oligonucleotides enable the rapid generation of mutants at high efficiency and specificity and can be implemented at the genome scale. With these techniques, libraries of mutants can be generated, from which individuals with functionally useful phenotypes can be isolated. Furthermore, populations of cells can be evolved in situ by directed evolution using complex pools of oligonucleotides. Here, we discuss ways to utilize these multiplexed genome engineering methods, with special emphasis on experimental design and implementation.

  2. Mixed exhaust flow supersonic jet engine and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klees, G.W.

    1993-06-08

    A method of operating a supersonic jet engine installation is described comprising (a) providing an engine having a variable area air inlet means and an outlet to discharge engine exhaust; (b) providing a secondary air passageway means; (c) receiving ambient air in the air inlet means and providing the ambient air as primary air to the engine inlet and secondary air to the secondary air passageway means; (d) providing a mixing section having an inlet portion and an exit portion, utilizing the mixing section in directing the exhaust from the engine to primary convergent/divergent exit passageway segments, where the exhaust is discharged at supersonic velocity as primary flow components, and directing secondary air flow from the secondary air passageway means to secondary exit passageway segments which are interspersed with the primary segments and from which the secondary air is discharged at subsonic velocity as secondary flow components; and (e) providing an exhaust section to receive the primary and secondary flow components in a mixing region and causing the primary and secondary flow components to mix to create a supersonic mixed flow, the exhaust section having a variable area final nozzle through which the mixed flow is discharged.

  3. A dynamic fuzzy clustering method based on genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yan; ZHOU Chunguang; LIANG Yanchun; GUO Dongwei

    2003-01-01

    A dynamic fuzzy clustering method is presented based on the genetic algorithm. By calculating the fuzzy dissimilarity between samples the essential associations among samples are modeled factually. The fuzzy dissimilarity between two samples is mapped into their Euclidean distance, that is, the high dimensional samples are mapped into the two-dimensional plane. The mapping is optimized globally by the genetic algorithm, which adjusts the coordinates of each sample, and thus the Euclidean distance, to approximate to the fuzzy dissimilarity between samples gradually. A key advantage of the proposed method is that the clustering is independent of the space distribution of input samples, which improves the flexibility and visualization. This method possesses characteristics of a faster convergence rate and more exact clustering than some typical clustering algorithms. Simulated experiments show the feasibility and availability of the proposed method.

  4. Modeling and Multi-Objective Optimization of Engine Performance and Hydrocarbon Emissions via the Use of a Computer Aided Engineering Code and the NSGA-II Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Fiifi Turkson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is feared that the increasing population of vehicles in the world and the depletion of fossil-based fuel reserves could render transportation and other activities that rely on fossil fuels unsustainable in the long term. Concerns over environmental pollution issues, the high cost of fossil-based fuels and the increasing demand for fossil fuels has led to the search for environmentally friendly, cheaper and efficient fuels. In the search for these alternatives, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG has been identified as one of the viable alternatives that could be used in place of gasoline in spark-ignition engines. The objective of the study was to present the modeling and multi-objective optimization of brake mean effective pressure and hydrocarbon emissions for a spark-ignition engine retrofitted to run on LPG. The use of a one-dimensional (1D GT-Power™ model, together with Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH neural networks, has been presented. The multi-objective optimization was implemented in MATLAB® using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. The modeling process generally achieved low mean squared errors (0.0000032 in the case of the hydrocarbon emissions model for the models developed and was attributed to the collection of a larger training sample data using the 1D engine model. The multi-objective optimization and subsequent decisions for optimal performance have also been presented.

  5. New Iris Localization Method Based on Chaos Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Dongli; Muhammad Khurram Khan; Zhang Jiashu

    2005-01-01

    This paper present a new method based on Chaos Genetic Algorithm (CGA) to localize the human iris in a given image. First, the iris image is preprocessed to estimate the range of the iris localization, and then CGA is used to extract the boundary of the iris. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms is efficient and robust, and can achieve sub pixel precision. Because Genetic Algorithms (GAs) can search in a large space, the algorithm does not need accurate estimation of iris center for subsequent localization, and hence can lower the requirement for original iris image processing. On this point, the present localization algirithm is superior to Daugmans algorithm.

  6. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  7. The use of Statistical Methods in Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Saleem

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Statistics is an important tool to handle the vast data of present era as statistics can interpret all the information in such a beauty that so many conclusions can be extracted from it. The aim of this study is to see the use of statistical methods in Mechanical Engineering (ME therefore; we selected research papers published in 2010 from the well reputed journals in ME under Taylor and Francis Company LTD. More than 350 research papers were downloaded from well reputed ME journals such as Inverse Problem in Science and Engineering (IPSE, Machining Science and Technology (MST, Materials and Manufacturing Processes (MMP, Particulate Science and Technology (PST and Research in Nondestructive Evaluation (RNE. We recorded the statistical techniques/methods used in each research paper. In this study, we presented frequency distribution of descriptive statistics and advance level statistical methods used in five of the ME journals in 2010.

  8. Introduction of the Formal Methods in Software Engineering Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Toledo B.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Formal methods were developed to provide systematic and rigorous techniques for software development, and as initiative will be introduced in training in Software Engineering (SE. This article discusses the importance of including these scientific principles and describes several specific techniques in order to improve the processes of the IS. It also provides an analysis of the principles that should be taken into account in a curriculum to systematically introduce in university education and business. Several methods have been tried in recent years to achieve this goal in undergraduate and graduate universities programs, as well as IT professionals. Experience shows that participants gain confidence in formal methods only when they learn their clear benefits in the context of software engineering.

  9. Methods of Genome Engineering: a New Era of Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugunova, A A; Dontsova, O A; Sergiev, P V

    2016-07-01

    Genome sequencing now progressing much faster than our understanding of the majority of gene functions. Studies of physiological functions of various genes would not be possible without the ability to manipulate the genome. Methods of genome engineering can now be used to inactivate a gene to study consequences, introduce heterologous genes into the genome for scientific and biotechnology applications, create genes coding for fusion proteins to study gene expression, protein localization, and molecular interactions, and to develop animal models of human diseases to find appropriate treatment. Finally, genome engineering might present the possibility to cure hereditary diseases. In this review, we discuss and compare the most important methods for gene inactivation and editing, as well as methods for incorporation of heterologous genes into the genome.

  10. Methods in Molecular Biology Mouse Genetics: Methods and Protocols | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouse Genetics: Methods and Protocols provides selected mouse genetic techniques and their application in modeling varieties of human diseases. The chapters are mainly focused on the generation of different transgenic mice to accomplish the manipulation of genes of interest, tracing cell lineages, and modeling human diseases.

  11. A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

  12. A CAL Program to Teach the Basic Principles of Genetic Engineering--A Change from the Traditional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, D. G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An interactive computer-assisted learning program written for the BBC microcomputer to teach the basic principles of genetic engineering is described. Discussed are the hardware requirements software, use of the program, and assessment. (Author/CW)

  13. Automotive Software Engineering. Fundamentals, processes, methods, tools; Automotive Software Engineering. Grundlagen, Prozesse, Methoden und Werkzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeuffele, J.; Zurawka, T.

    2003-07-01

    The book presents fundamentals and practical examples of processes, methods and tools to ensure safe operation of electronic systems and software in motor vehicles. The focus is on the electronic systems of the powertrain, suspension and ar body. Contents: The overall system of car, driver and environment; Fundamentals; Processes for development of electronic systems and software; Methods and tools for the development, production and servicing of electronic systems. The book addresses staff members of motor car producers and suppliers of electronic systems and software, as well as students of computer science, electrical and mechanical engineering specifying in car engineering, control engineering, mechatronics and software engineering. [German] Dieses Buch enthaelt Grundlagen und praktische Beispiele zu Prozessen, Methoden und Werkzeugen, die zur sicheren Beherrschbarkeit von elektronischen Systemen und Software im Fahrzeug beitragen. Dabei stehen die elektronischen Systeme des Antriebsstrangs, des Fahrwerks und der Karosserie im Vordergrund. Zum Inhalt gehoeren die folgenden Rubriken: Gesamtsystem Fahrzeug-Fahrer-Umwelt - Grundlagen - Prozesse zur Entwicklung von elektronischen Systemen und Software - Methoden und Werkzeuge fuer die Entwicklung, die Produktion un den Service elektronischer Systeme. Das Buch richtet sich an alle Mitarbeiter von Fahrzeugherstellern und Zulieferern, die sich mit elektornischen Systemen und Software im Fahrzeug beschaeftigen. Studierende der Informatik, der Elektrotechnik oder des Maschinenbaus mit den Schwerpunkten Fahrzeugtechnik, Steuerungs- und Regelungstechnik, Mechatronik oder Software-Technik. (orig.)

  14. Research Survey of Genetic Engineering Drugs%基因工程药物研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊清; 徐进; 李建正

    2011-01-01

    对新发展起来的产业基因工程药物的研究作了简要的概述,通过对其发展历史及当前的几种药物的叙述,预测其发展前景。%The new genetically engineered drug industry research was summarized briefly. The prospect of genetically engineered drug industry research was predicted by describing its developing history and several current drugs.

  15. Testing Current and Developing Novel Therapies for NF1-Mutant Sarcomas in a Genetically Engineered Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    1   AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0067 TITLE: Testing Current and Developing Novel Therapies for NF1 -Mutant Sarcomas in a Genetically Engineered...Mar 2014 - 14 Mar 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Testing Current and Developing Novel Therapies for NF1 - Mutant Sarcomas in a Genetically Engineered...Patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 ( NF1 ) are at increased risk for developing malignant tumors of the connective tissue called soft-tissue sarcomas

  16. Advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Theodore H. H.

    1991-01-01

    The following tasks on the study of advanced stress analysis methods applicable to turbine engine structures are described: (1) constructions of special elements which contain traction-free circular boundaries; (2) formulation of new version of mixed variational principles and new version of hybrid stress elements; (3) establishment of methods for suppression of kinematic deformation modes; (4) construction of semiLoof plate and shell elements by assumed stress hybrid method; and (5) elastic-plastic analysis by viscoplasticity theory using the mechanical subelement model.

  17. Applications of the discrete element method in mechanical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleissner, Florian, E-mail: fleissner@itm.uni-stuttgart.de; Gaugele, Timo, E-mail: gaugele@itm.uni-stuttgart.de; Eberhard, Peter [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Engineering and Computational Mechanics (Germany)], E-mail: eberhard@itm.uni-stuttgart.de

    2007-08-15

    Compared to other fields of engineering, in mechanical engineering, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) is not yet a well known method. Nevertheless, there is a variety of simulation problems where the method has obvious advantages due to its meshless nature. For problems where several free bodies can collide and break after having been largely deformed, the DEM is the method of choice. Neighborhood search and collision detection between bodies as well as the separation of large solids into smaller particles are naturally incorporated in the method. The main DEM algorithm consists of a relatively simple loop that basically contains the three substeps contact detection, force computation and integration. However, there exists a large variety of different algorithms to choose the substeps to compose the optimal method for a given problem. In this contribution, we describe the dynamics of particle systems together with appropriate numerical integration schemes and give an overview over different types of particle interactions that can be composed to adapt the method to fit to a given simulation problem. Surface triangulations are used to model complicated, non-convex bodies in contact with particle systems. The capabilities of the method are finally demonstrated by means of application examples.

  18. Development of radioactivity labelling method of new antibody by using the antibody engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Osamu; Saito, Yoshiro; Hachisuka, Akiko; Tanaka, Toichi; Sawada, Junichi [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Under aiming to develop a preparation method of labelling antibody with low immune abiogenesis, the titled research attempted to establish a method of preparing a fusion protein of metal chelate protein (or polypeptide) and antibody molecule in genetic engineering method to label it with a radioactive metal. In this fiscal year, on a fusion protein of scFv antibody molecule and a metal chelate peptide (histidine hexamer), scFv-His and a fusion protein of scFv antibody molecule and a metal chelate protein (metathioneine-{beta}-domain), scFv-MT{beta}, investigations on culture condition of coliform for protein expression and on refinery method of the fusion protein were conducted. In addition, combination activity of antigen of the obtained fusion protein was measured. As a result, a preparation method of the fusion protein with combination activity of antigen could be established. (G.K.)

  19. Estimation method of margin gasdynamic stability of the gas turbine engine while in service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.Ф. Кінащук

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  Considered is the method of an estimation gasdynamic stability margin of the compressor gas turbine engine under operating conditions. The given way can be used at diagnosing gas turbine engine and gas turbine engine installations.

  20. The finite element method and applications in engineering using ANSYS

    CERN Document Server

    Madenci, Erdogan

    2015-01-01

    This textbook offers theoretical and practical knowledge of the finite element method. The book equips readers with the skills required to analyze engineering problems using ANSYS®, a commercially available FEA program. Revised and updated, this new edition presents the most current ANSYS® commands and ANSYS® screen shots, as well as modeling steps for each example problem. This self-contained, introductory text minimizes the need for additional reference material by covering both the fundamental topics in finite element methods and advanced topics concerning modeling and analysis. It focuses on the use of ANSYS® through both the Graphics User Interface (GUI) and the ANSYS® Parametric Design Language (APDL). Extensive examples from a range of engineering disciplines are presented in a straightforward, step-by-step fashion. Key topics include: • An introduction to FEM • Fundamentals and analysis capabilities of ANSYS® • Fundamentals of discretization and approximation functions • Modeling techniq...

  1. Sustaining Engineering Informatics: Toward Methods and Metrics for Digital Curation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Lubell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the long-term usability of engineering informatics (EI artifacts is a challenge, particularly for products with longer lifecycles than the computing hardware and software used for their design and manufacture. Addressing this challenge requires characterizing the nature of EI, defining metrics for EI sustainability, and developing methods for long-term EI curation. In this paper we highlight various issues related to long-term archival of EI and describe the work towards methods and metrics for sustaining EI. We propose an approach to enhance the Open Archival Information System (OAIS functional model to incorporate EI sustainability criteria, Digital Object Prototypes (DOPs, and end user access requirements. We discuss the end user’s requirements from the point of view of reference, reuse and rationale – the “3Rs” – to better understand the level of granularity and abstractions required in the definition of engineering digital objects. Finally we present a proposed case study and experiment.

  2. Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, Adam J; Forrest, M Laird; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The integration of gene therapy into tissue engineering to control differentiation and direct tissue formation is not a new concept; however, successful delivery of nucleic acids into primary cells, progenitor cells, and stem cells has proven exceptionally challenging. Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that "fits-all" cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of physical non-viral methods (i.e., microinjection, ballistic gene delivery, electroporation, sonoporation, laser irradiation, magnetofection, and electric field-induced molecular vibration), with particular attention given to electroporation because of its versatility, with further special emphasis on Nucleofection™. In addition, attributes of cellular character that can be used to improve differentiation strategies are examined for tissue engineering applications. Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications.

  3. Method of designing developable surface based on engineering requirement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ji-xin; LIU Zhe; LIU Jian

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the principle of envelope of a one-parameter plane family to design developable surfaces. Three methods of designing developable surfaces are presented. They are designing a developable surface based on one curve on it and its normal line, designing a developable surface based on two curves on it and designing a developable surface based on one curve and one surface. They meet the requirements of engineering fields.

  4. The methods of formaldehyde emission testing of engine: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Geng, Peng; Cao, Erming; Wei, Lijiang

    2015-12-01

    A number of measurements have been provided to detect formaldehyde in the atmosphere, but there are no clear unified standards in engine exhaust. Nowadays, formaldehyde, an unregulated emission from methanol engine, has been attracting increasing attention by researchers. This paper presents the detection techniques for formaldehyde emitted from the engines applied in recent market, introducing the approaches in terms of unregulated emission tests of formaldehyde, which involved gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, chromatography-mass spectrometry, chromatography-spectrum, Fourier infrared spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. The author also introduces the comparison regarding to the advantages of the existing detection techniques based on the principle, to compare with engine exhaust sampling method, the treatment in advance of detection, obtaining approaches accessing to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chromatograms or spectra. The accuratest result obtained was chromatography though it cannot be used continuously. It also can be utilized to develop high requirements of emissions and other regulations. Fourier infrared spectroscopy has the advantage of continuous detection for a variety of unregulated emissions and can be applied to the bench in variable condition. However, its accuracy is not as good as chromatography. As the conclusion, a detection technique is chosen based on different requirements.

  5. An improved ARS2-derived nuclear reporter enhances the efficiency and ease of genetic engineering in Chlamydomonas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Elizabeth A; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; Hoang, Kevin T D

    2015-01-01

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used to pioneer genetic engineering techniques for high-value protein and biofuel production from algae. To date, most studies of transgenic Chlamydomonas have utilized the chloroplast genome due to its ease of engineering, with a sizeable suite...

  6. Ray Wu,Cornell’s acclaimed pioneer of genetic engineering and developer of insect-resistant rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    ITHACA, N.Y. -- Ray J. Wu, Cornell University professor of molecular biology and genetics, who was widely recog-nized as one of the fathers of genetic engineering and who developed and sought to feed the world with a higher yield-ing rice that resists insects and drought, died of cardiac arrest in Ithaca, Feb. 10.

  7. Effect of synthetic auxin herbicides on seed development and viability in genetically-engineered glyphosate-resistant alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feral populations of cultivated crops have the potential to function as bridges and reservoirs that contribute to the unwanted movement of novel genetically engineered (GE) traits. Recognizing that feral alfalfa has the potential to lower genetic purity in alfalfa seed production fields when it is g...

  8. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the development of new flavor compounds from terpenic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bution, Murillo L; Molina, Gustavo; Abrahão, Meissa R E; Pastore, Gláucia M

    2015-01-01

    Throughout human history, natural products have been the basis for the discovery and development of therapeutics, cosmetic and food compounds used in industry. Many compounds found in natural organisms are rather difficult to chemically synthesize and to extract in large amounts, and in this respect, genetic and metabolic engineering are playing an increasingly important role in the production of these compounds, such as new terpenes and terpenoids, which may potentially be used to create aromas in industry. Terpenes belong to the largest class of natural compounds, are produced by all living organisms and play a fundamental role in human nutrition, cosmetics and medicine. Recent advances in systems biology and synthetic biology are allowing us to perform metabolic engineering at the whole-cell level, thus enabling the optimal design of microorganisms for the efficient production of drugs, cosmetic and food additives. This review describes the recent advances made in the genetic and metabolic engineering of the terpenes pathway with a particular focus on systems biotechnology.

  9. Initialization Method for Grammar-Guided Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arnau, M.; Manrique, D.; Ríos, J.; Rodríguez-Patón, A.

    This paper proposes a new tree-generation algorithm for grammarguided genetic programming that includes a parameter to control the maximum size of the trees to be generated. An important feature of this algorithm is that the initial populations generated are adequately distributed in terms of tree size and distribution within the search space. Consequently, genetic programming systems starting from the initial populations generated by the proposed method have a higher convergence speed. Two different problems have been chosen to carry out the experiments: a laboratory test involving searching for arithmetical equalities and the real-world task of breast cancer prognosis. In both problems, comparisons have been made to another five important initialization methods.

  10. Physical methods for genetic transformation of fungi and yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ana Leonor; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Gómez-Lim, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

    2014-06-01

    The production of transgenic fungi is a routine process. Currently, it is possible to insert genes from other fungi, viruses, bacteria and even animals, albeit with low efficiency, into the genomes of a number of fungal species. Genetic transformation requires the penetration of the transgene through the fungal cell wall, a process that can be facilitated by biological or physical methods. Novel methodologies for the efficient introduction of specific genes and stronger promoters are needed to increase production levels. A possible solution to this problem is the recently discovered shock-wave-mediated transformation. The objective of this article is to review the state of the art of the physical methods used for genetic fungi transformation and to describe some of the basic physics and molecular biology behind them.

  11. Meganucleases Revolutionize the Production of Genetically Engineered Pigs for the Study of Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Bethany K; Prather, Randall S

    2016-04-01

    Animal models of human diseases are critically necessary for developing an in-depth knowledge of disease development and progression. In addition, animal models are vital to the development of potential treatments or even cures for human diseases. Pigs are exceptional models as their size, physiology, and genetics are closer to that of humans than rodents. In this review, we discuss the use of pigs in human translational research and the evolving technology that has increased the efficiency of genetically engineering pigs. With the emergence of the clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein 9 system technology, the cost and time it takes to genetically engineer pigs has markedly decreased. We will also discuss the use of another meganuclease, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases , to produce pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency by developing targeted modifications of the recombination activating gene 2 (RAG2).RAG2mutant pigs may become excellent animals to facilitate the development of xenotransplantation, regenerative medicine, and tumor biology. The use of pig biomedical models is vital for furthering the knowledge of, and for treating human, diseases.

  12. Genetic Engineering and Sustainable Crop Disease Management: Opportunities for Case-by-Case Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vincelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering (GE offers an expanding array of strategies for enhancing disease resistance of crop plants in sustainable ways, including the potential for reduced pesticide usage. Certain GE applications involve transgenesis, in some cases creating a metabolic pathway novel to the GE crop. In other cases, only cisgenessis is employed. In yet other cases, engineered genetic changes can be so minimal as to be indistinguishable from natural mutations. Thus, GE crops vary substantially and should be evaluated for risks, benefits, and social considerations on a case-by-case basis. Deployment of GE traits should be with an eye towards long-term sustainability; several options are discussed. Selected risks and concerns of GE are also considered, along with genome editing, a technology that greatly expands the capacity of molecular biologists to make more precise and targeted genetic edits. While GE is merely a suite of tools to supplement other breeding techniques, if wisely used, certain GE tools and applications can contribute to sustainability goals.

  13. Field application of a genetically engineered microorganism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation process monitoring and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayler, G.S.; Cox, C.D.; Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Werner, C.; Ahn, Y.; Matrubutham, U. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burlage, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1998-11-01

    On October 30, 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commenced the first test release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for use in bioremediation. The specific objectives of the investigation were multifaceted and include (1) testing the hypothesis that a GEM can be successfully introduced and maintained in a bioremediation process, (2) testing the concept of using, at the field scale, reporter organisms for direct bioremediation process monitoring and control, and (3) acquiring data that can be used in risk assessment decision making and protocol development for future field release applications of GEMs. The genetically engineered strain under investigation is Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (King et al., 1990). The original P. fluorescens parent strain was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated manufactured gas plant soil. Thus, this bacterium is able to biodegrade naphthalene (as well as other substituted naphthalenes and other PAHs) and is able to function as a living bioluminescent reporter for the presence of naphthalene contamination, its bioavailability, and the functional process of biodegradation. A unique component of this field investigation was the availability of an array of large subsurface soil lysimeters. This article describes the experience associated with the release of a genetically modified microorganism, the lysimeter facility and its associated instrumentation, as well as representative data collected during the first eighteen months of operation.

  14. Genetic engineering of crops: a ray of hope for enhanced food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Gill, Ritu; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Crop improvement has been a basic and essential chase since organized cultivation of crops began thousands of years ago. Abiotic stresses as a whole are regarded as the crucial factors restricting the plant species to reach their full genetic potential to deliver desired productivity. The changing global climatic conditions are making them worse and pointing toward food insecurity. Agriculture biotechnology or genetic engineering has allowed us to look into and understand the complex nature of abiotic stresses and measures to improve the crop productivity under adverse conditions. Various candidate genes have been identified and transformed in model plants as well as agriculturally important crop plants to develop abiotic stress-tolerant plants for crop improvement. The views presented here are an attempt toward realizing the potential of genetic engineering for improving crops to better tolerate abiotic stresses in the era of climate change, which is now essential for global food security. There is great urgency in speeding up crop improvement programs that can use modern biotechnological tools in addition to current breeding practices for providing enhanced food security.

  15. Genetically engineered K cells provide sufficient insulin to correct hyperglycemia in a nude murine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqun Zhang; Liqing Yao; Kuntang Shen; Meidong Xu; Pinghong Zhou; Weige Yang; Xinyuan Liu; Xinyu Qin

    2008-01-01

    A gene therapy-based treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus requires the development of a surrogate β cell that can synthesize and secrete functionally active insulin in response to physiologically relevant changes in ambient glucose levels. In this study, the murine enteroendocrine cell line STC-1 was genetically modified by stable transfection. Two clone cells were selected (STC-1-2 and STC-1-14) that secreted the highest levels of insulin among the 22 clones expressing insulin from 0 to 157.2 μIU/ml/106 cells/d. After glucose concentration in the culture medium was increased from 1 mM to 10 mM, secreted insulin rose from 40.3±0.8 to 56.3±3.2 μIU/ml (STC-1-2), and from 10.8±0.8 to 23.6±2.3 μIU/ml (STC-1-14). After STC-1-14 cells were implanted into diabetic nude mice, their blood glucose levels were reduced to normal. Body weight loss was also ameliorated. Our data suggested that genetically engineered K cells secrete active insulin in a glucose-regulated manner, and in vivo study showed that hyperglycemia could be reversed by implantation of the cells, suggesting that the use of genetically engineered K cells to express human insulin might provide a glucose-regulated approach to treat diabetic hyperglycemia.

  16. The use of genetic engineering techniques to improve the lipid composition in meat, milk and fish products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkiewicz, S; Świątkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Józefiak, D

    2015-04-01

    The health-promoting properties of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) for humans are well-known. Products of animal-origin enriched with n-3 LCPUFAs can be a good example of functional food, that is food that besides traditionally understood nutritional value may have a beneficial influence on the metabolism and health of consumers, thus reducing the risk of various lifestyle diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The traditional method of enriching meat, milk or eggs with n-3 LCPUFA is the manipulation of the composition of animal diets. Huge progress in the development of genetic engineering techniques, for example transgenesis, has enabled the generation of many kinds of genetically modified animals. In recent years, one of the aims of animal transgenesis has been the modification of the lipid composition of meat and milk in order to improve the dietetic value of animal-origin products. This article reviews and discusses the data in the literature concerning studies where techniques of genetic engineering were used to create animal-origin products modified to contain health-promoting lipids. These studies are still at the laboratory stage, but their results have demonstrated that the transgenesis of pigs, cows, goats and fishes can be used in the future as efficient methods of production of healthy animal-origin food of high dietetic value. However, due to high costs and a low level of public acceptance, the introduction of this technology to commercial animal production and markets seems to be a distant prospect.

  17. Changes in soil microbial community structure associated with two types of genetically engineered plants analyzing by PLFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Kai; LUO Hai-feng; QI Hong-yan; ZHANG Hong-xun

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of GEPs(genetically engineered plants), people are more and more concerned about the ecological risks brought by their release. Assessing the effect of GEPs on soil microbial ecology is indispensable to study their ecological risks. In our study, the phospholipids fatty acid(PLFA) method was used to analyze the microbial community of soil samples collected from fields with two types of GEPs-Bt transgenic corn and PVY(potato virus Y) cell protein gene transgenic potato. The principal components analysis(PCA) showed all controls were on the right of related GEPs samples along the PC1 (the first principal component) axis, which means a decrease of fungi in soils with genetically engineered crop since most of PLFAs that are strongly positively correlated with PC1 represent fungi. For samples collected from Bt transgenic cornfield, the ratios of gram-positive to gram-negative bacteria were less than those of controls. For samples of transgenic potato field, these ratios were lower than those of controls when soils were collected from deep layer(20-40 cm), but were higher when soils collected from surface layer(0-20 cm). For soils collected from 0-20 cm, the ratios of fungi to bacteria for all GEPs samples were at the same level. So were such rations for all controls. Changes of soil microbial community in two types of GEPs fields were detected in our study, but the causes and more information still needs further study.

  18. Optimization in engineering sciences approximate and metaheuristic methods

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanoiu, Dan; Popescu, Dumitru; Filip, Florin Gheorghe; El Kamel, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present the main metaheuristics and approximate and stochastic methods for optimization of complex systems in Engineering Sciences. It has been written within the framework of the European Union project ERRIC (Empowering Romanian Research on Intelligent Information Technologies), which is funded by the EU's FP7 Research Potential program and has been developed in co-operation between French and Romanian teaching researchers. Through the principles of various proposed algorithms (with additional references) this book allows the reader to explore various methods o

  19. Model based methods and tools for process systems engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    Process systems engineering (PSE) provides means to solve a wide range of problems in a systematic and efficient manner. This presentation will give a perspective on model based methods and tools needed to solve a wide range of problems in product-process synthesis-design. These methods and tools...... of the framework. The issue of commercial simulators or software providing the necessary features for product-process synthesis-design as opposed to their development by the academic PSE community will also be discussed. An example of a successful collaboration between academia-industry for the development...

  20. Remarks on Some Engineering Methods and Their Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odyniec, M.

    2011-06-16

    The author makes the point that engineering practice and the mathematical modelling applied to engineering problems are different and that mathematical solutions that exist for engineering problems are incomprehensible to engineers. Two practical examples are presented to illustrate the point: parameter fitting error estimates and oscillator design. Some insights are offered to help translate between the languages of mathematics and engineering.

  1. Patterning methods for polymers in cell and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Nam; Kang, Do-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Jiao, Alex; Kim, Deok-Ho; Suh, Kahp-Yang

    2012-06-01

    Polymers provide a versatile platform for mimicking various aspects of physiological extracellular matrix properties such as chemical composition, rigidity, and topography for use in cell and tissue engineering applications. In this review, we provide a brief overview of patterning methods of various polymers with a particular focus on biocompatibility and processability. The materials highlighted here are widely used polymers including thermally curable polydimethyl siloxane, ultraviolet-curable polyurethane acrylate and polyethylene glycol, thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and thermoplastic and conductive polymers. We also discuss how micro- and nanofabricated polymeric substrates of tunable elastic modulus can be used to engineer cell and tissue structure and function. Such synergistic effect of topography and rigidity of polymers may be able to contribute to constructing more physiologically relevant microenvironment.

  2. Determination of Selection Method in Genetic Algorithm for Land Suitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfianti Asti Dwi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algoirthm is one alternative solution in the field of modeling optimization, automatic programming and machine learning. The purpose of the study was to compare some type of selection methods in Genetic Algorithm for land suitability. Contribution of this research applies the best method to develop region based horticultural commodities. This testing is done by comparing the three methods on the method of selection, the Roulette Wheel, Tournament Selection and Stochastic Universal Sampling. Parameters of the locations used in the test scenarios include Temperature = 27°C, Rainfall = 1200 mm, hummidity = 30%, Cluster fruit = 4, Crossover Probabiitiy (Pc = 0.6, Mutation Probabilty (Pm = 0.2 and Epoch = 10. The second test epoch incluides location parameters consist of Temperature = 30°C, Rainfall = 2000 mm, Humidity = 35%, Cluster fruit = 5, Crossover Probability (Pc = 0.7, Mutation Probability (Pm = 0.3 and Epoch 10. The conclusion of this study shows that the Roulette Wheel is the best method because it produces more stable and fitness value than the other two methods.

  3. Improving itaconic acid production through genetic engineering of an industrial Aspergillus terreus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuenian; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Yueming; Li, Xia; Li, Jian-Jun

    2014-08-11

    Itaconic acid, which has been declared to be one of the most promising and flexible building blocks, is currently used as monomer or co-monomer in the polymer industry, and produced commercially by Aspergillus terreus. However, the production level of itaconic acid hasn't been improved in the past 40 years, and mutagenesis is still the main strategy to improve itaconate productivity. The genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial A. terreus strains to increase itaconic acid production. In this study, the genes closely related to itaconic acid production, including cadA, mfsA, mttA, ATEG_09969, gpdA, ATEG_01954, acoA, mt-pfkA and citA, were identified and overexpressed in an industrial A. terreus strain respectively. Overexpression of the genes cadA (cis-aconitate decarboxylase) and mfsA (Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter) enhanced the itaconate production level by 9.4% and 5.1% in shake flasks respectively. Overexpression of other genes showed varied effects on itaconate production. The titers of other organic acids were affected by the introduced genes to different extent. Itaconic acid production could be improved through genetic engineering of the industrially used A. terreus strain. We have identified some important genes such as cadA and mfsA, whose overexpression led to the increased itaconate productivity, and successfully developed a strategy to establish a highly efficient microbial cell factory for itaconate protuction. Our results will provide a guide for further enhancement of the itaconic acid production level through genetic engineering in future.

  4. Construction and Expression of β-galactosidase Genetically Engineered Lactococcus lactis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓英; 张朝武; 裴晓方; 刘祥; 余倩; 刘衡川

    2004-01-01

    Our objective is to solve the lactose malabsorption and intolerance of human beings by combining mlcro-ecology path with genetic engineering technique. Plasmid pMG36e was used to clone and express a β-galactosidase gene from L.delbrueckii bulgaricus strain 1. 1480 in the Lactococcus lactis subsp, cremoris MG1363 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403. The recombinant plasmid was preserved and proliferated in Escherichia coli ( E. coli) JM109, and transformed into MG1363 and 1L1403 by electroporation. The protein expression was studied. (1) The bifidobacterium culture medium (BBL) was suitable for the growth of the strain 1. 1480. (2) With 13 amino acids at the N-terminus from the vector, β-galactosidase fusion protein (which retained the enzyme activity) could be successfully expressed in E. coli JM109, MG1363 and IL1403, but the expression quantity was larger in the former than in the latter two. (3) The SD sequence designed could be successfully recognized by both the E. coli and the Lactococcus lactis, but the expression level of the non-fusion β-galac-tosidase protein was lower than that of the fusion protein in the same host. The β-galactosidase genetically engineered E.coli JM109 is a useful tool to produce this enzyme in vitro. The signal peptide of the usp45 protein from the Lactococcus lactis can be added before the promoter sequence to promote β-galactosidase secretion from Lactococcus lactis. The potential application of the β-galactosidase genetically engineered MG1363 and IL1403 to cure the lactose malabsorption and lactose intolerance in both health food and medicine is promising。

  5. Construction and characterization of VL-VH tail-parallel genetically engineered antibodies against staphylococcal enterotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianzhi; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Pengchong; Liu, Li; Deng, Hui; Huang, Jinhai

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus have increasingly given rise to human health and food safety. Genetically engineered small molecular antibody is a useful tool in immuno-detection and treatment for clinical illness caused by SEs. In this study, we constructed the V(L)-V(H) tail-parallel genetically engineered antibody against SEs by using the repertoire of rearranged germ-line immunoglobulin variable region genes. Total RNA were extracted from six hybridoma cell lines that stably express anti-SEs antibodies. The variable region genes of light chain (V(L)) and heavy chain (V(H)) were cloned by reverse transcription PCR, and their classical murine antibody structure and functional V(D)J gene rearrangement were analyzed. To construct the eukaryotic V(H)-V(L) tail-parallel co-expression vectors based on the "5'-V(H)-ivs-IRES-V(L)-3'" mode, the ivs-IRES fragment and V(L) genes were spliced by two-step overlap extension PCR, and then, the recombined gene fragment and V(H) genes were inserted into the pcDNA3.1(+) expression vector sequentially. And then the constructed eukaryotic expression clones termed as p2C2HILO and p5C12HILO were transfected into baby hamster kidney 21 cell line, respectively. Two clonal cell lines stably expressing V(L)-V(H) tail-parallel antibodies against SEs were obtained, and the antibodies that expressed intracytoplasma were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence assay, and flow cytometry. SEs can stimulate the expression of some chemokines and chemokine receptors in porcine IPEC-J2 cells; mRNA transcription level of four chemokines and chemokine receptors can be blocked by the recombinant SE antibody prepared in this study. Our results showed that it is possible to get functional V(L)-V(H) tail-parallel genetically engineered antibodies in same vector using eukaryotic expression system.

  6. Optimal in silico target gene deletion through nonlinear programming for genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chung-Chien; Song, Mingzhou

    2010-02-24

    Optimal selection of multiple regulatory genes, known as targets, for deletion to enhance or suppress the activities of downstream genes or metabolites is an important problem in genetic engineering. Such problems become more feasible to address in silico due to the availability of more realistic dynamical system models of gene regulatory and metabolic networks. The goal of the computational problem is to search for a subset of genes to knock out so that the activity of a downstream gene or a metabolite is optimized. Based on discrete dynamical system modeling of gene regulatory networks, an integer programming problem is formulated for the optimal in silico target gene deletion problem. In the first result, the integer programming problem is proved to be NP-hard and equivalent to a nonlinear programming problem. In the second result, a heuristic algorithm, called GKONP, is designed to approximate the optimal solution, involving an approach to prune insignificant terms in the objective function, and the parallel differential evolution algorithm. In the third result, the effectiveness of the GKONP algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to a discrete dynamical system model of the yeast pheromone pathways. The empirical accuracy and time efficiency are assessed in comparison to an optimal, but exhaustive search strategy. Although the in silico target gene deletion problem has enormous potential applications in genetic engineering, one must overcome the computational challenge due to its NP-hardness. The presented solution, which has been demonstrated to approximate the optimal solution in a practical amount of time, is among the few that address the computational challenge. In the experiment on the yeast pheromone pathways, the identified best subset of genes for deletion showed advantage over genes that were selected empirically. Once validated in vivo, the optimal target genes are expected to achieve higher genetic engineering effectiveness than a trial

  7. Optimal in silico target gene deletion through nonlinear programming for genetic engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chien Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal selection of multiple regulatory genes, known as targets, for deletion to enhance or suppress the activities of downstream genes or metabolites is an important problem in genetic engineering. Such problems become more feasible to address in silico due to the availability of more realistic dynamical system models of gene regulatory and metabolic networks. The goal of the computational problem is to search for a subset of genes to knock out so that the activity of a downstream gene or a metabolite is optimized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on discrete dynamical system modeling of gene regulatory networks, an integer programming problem is formulated for the optimal in silico target gene deletion problem. In the first result, the integer programming problem is proved to be NP-hard and equivalent to a nonlinear programming problem. In the second result, a heuristic algorithm, called GKONP, is designed to approximate the optimal solution, involving an approach to prune insignificant terms in the objective function, and the parallel differential evolution algorithm. In the third result, the effectiveness of the GKONP algorithm is demonstrated by applying it to a discrete dynamical system model of the yeast pheromone pathways. The empirical accuracy and time efficiency are assessed in comparison to an optimal, but exhaustive search strategy. SIGNIFICANCE: Although the in silico target gene deletion problem has enormous potential applications in genetic engineering, one must overcome the computational challenge due to its NP-hardness. The presented solution, which has been demonstrated to approximate the optimal solution in a practical amount of time, is among the few that address the computational challenge. In the experiment on the yeast pheromone pathways, the identified best subset of genes for deletion showed advantage over genes that were selected empirically. Once validated in vivo, the optimal target genes are

  8. Field cage studies and progressive evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Facchinelli

    Full Text Available A genetically-engineered strain of the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, designated OX3604C, was evaluated in large outdoor cage trials for its potential to improve dengue prevention efforts by inducing population suppression. OX3604C is engineered with a repressible genetic construct that causes a female-specific flightless phenotype. Wild-type females that mate with homozygous OX3604C males will not produce reproductive female offspring. Weekly introductions of OX3604C males eliminated all three targeted Ae. aegypti populations after 10-20 weeks in a previous laboratory cage experiment. As part of the phased, progressive evaluation of this technology, we carried out an assessment in large outdoor field enclosures in dengue endemic southern Mexico.OX3604C males were introduced weekly into field cages containing stable target populations, initially at 10:1 ratios. Statistically significant target population decreases were detected in 4 of 5 treatment cages after 17 weeks, but none of the treatment populations were eliminated. Mating competitiveness experiments, carried out to explore the discrepancy between lab and field cage results revealed a maximum mating disadvantage of up 59.1% for OX3604C males, which accounted for a significant part of the 97% fitness cost predicted by a mathematical model to be necessary to produce the field cage results.Our results indicate that OX3604C may not be effective in large-scale releases. A strain with the same transgene that is not encumbered by a large mating disadvantage, however, could have improved prospects for dengue prevention. Insights from large outdoor cage experiments may provide an important part of the progressive, stepwise evaluation of genetically-engineered mosquitoes.

  9. Optimization of a Reduced Chemical Kinetic Model for HCCI Engine Simulations by Micro-Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A reduced chemical kinetic model (44 species and 72 reactions) for the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of n-heptane was optimized to improve its autoignition predictions under different engine operating conditions. The seven kinetic parameters of the optimized model were determined by using the combination of a micro-genetic algorithm optimization methodology and the SENKIN program of CHEMKIN chemical kinetics software package. The optimization was performed within the range of equivalence ratios 0.2-1.2, initial temperature 310-375 K and initial pressure 0.1-0.3 MPa. The engine simulations show that the optimized model agrees better with the detailed chemical kinetic model (544 species and 2 446 reactions) than the original model does.

  10. Conflicts of interest among committee members in the National Academies’ genetically engineered crop study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) publishes numerous reports each year that are received with high esteem by the scientific community and public policy makers. The NASEM has internal standards for selecting committee members that author its reports, mostly from academia, and vetting conflicts of interest. This study examines whether there were any financial conflicts of interest (COIs) among the twenty invited committee members who wrote the 2016 report on genetically engineered (GE) crops. Our results showed that six panel members had one or more reportable financial COIs, none of which were disclosed in the report. We also report on institutional COIs held by the NASEM related to the report. The difference between our findings and the NASEM reporting standards are discussed. PMID:28245228

  11. Engineering antigen-specific T cells from genetically modified human hematopoietic stem cells in immunodeficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G Kitchen

    Full Text Available There is a desperate need for effective therapies to fight chronic viral infections. The immune response is normally fastidious at controlling the majority of viral infections and a therapeutic strategy aimed at reestablishing immune control represents a potentially powerful approach towards treating persistent viral infections. We examined the potential of genetically programming human hematopoietic stem cells to generate mature CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express a molecularly cloned, "transgenic" human anti-HIV T cell receptor (TCR. Anti-HIV TCR transduction of human hematopoietic stem cells directed the maturation of a large population of polyfunctional, HIV-specific CD8+ cells capable of recognizing and killing viral antigen-presenting cells. Thus, through this proof-of-concept we propose that genetic engineering of human hematopoietic stem cells will allow the tailoring of effector T cell responses to fight HIV infection or other diseases that are characterized by the loss of immune control.

  12. Genetic engineering of baker's and wine yeasts using formaldehyde hyperresistance-mediating plasmids

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    Schmidt M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeast multi-copy vectors carrying the formaldehyde-resistance marker gene SFA have proved to be a valuable tool for research on industrially used strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genetics of these strains is often poorly understood, and for various reasons it is not possible to simply subject these strains to protocols of genetic engineering that have been established for laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae. We tested our vectors and protocols using 10 randomly picked baker's and wine yeasts all of which could be transformed by a simple protocol with vectors conferring hyperresistance to formaldehyde. The application of formaldehyde as a selecting agent also offers the advantage of its biodegradation to CO2 during fermentation, i.e., the selecting agent will be consumed and therefore its removal during down-stream processing is not necessary. Thus, this vector provides an expression system which is simple to apply and inexpensive to use

  13. Phytosequestration: Carbon biosequestration by plants and the prospects of genetic engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, C.; Wullschleger, S.D.; Kalluri, U.C.; Tuskan, G.A.

    2010-07-15

    Photosynthetic assimilation of atmospheric carbon dioxide by land plants offers the underpinnings for terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration. A proportion of the C captured in plant biomass is partitioned to roots, where it enters the pools of soil organic C and soil inorganic C and can be sequestered for millennia. Bioenergy crops serve the dual role of providing biofuel that offsets fossil-fuel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sequestering C in the soil through extensive root systems. Carbon captured in plant biomass can also contribute to C sequestration through the deliberate addition of biochar to soil, wood burial, or the use of durable plant products. Increasing our understanding of plant, microbial, and soil biology, and harnessing the benefits of traditional genetics and genetic engineering, will help us fully realize the GHG mitigation potential of phytosequestration.

  14. Detection methods and performance criteria for genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheau, Yves; Diolez, Annick; Kobilinsky, André; Magin, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are necessary for many applications, from seed purity assessment to compliance of food labeling in several countries. Numerous analytical methods are currently used or under development to support these needs. The currently used methods are bioassays and protein- and DNA-based detection protocols. To avoid discrepancy of results between such largely different methods and, for instance, the potential resulting legal actions, compatibility of the methods is urgently needed. Performance criteria of methods allow evaluation against a common standard. The more-common performance criteria for detection methods are precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, which together specifically address other terms used to describe the performance of a method, such as applicability, selectivity, calibration, trueness, precision, recovery, operating range, limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and ruggedness. Performance criteria should provide objective tools to accept or reject specific methods, to validate them, to ensure compatibility between validated methods, and be used on a routine basis to reject data outside an acceptable range of variability. When selecting a method of detection, it is also important to consider its applicability, its field of applications, and its limitations, by including factors such as its ability to detect the target analyte in a given matrix, the duration of the analyses, its cost effectiveness, and the necessary sample sizes for testing. Thus, the current GMO detection methods should be evaluated against a common set of performance criteria.

  15. The genetics of murine Hox loci: TAMERE, STRING, and PANTHERE to engineer chromosome variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Patrick; Duboule, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Following their duplications at the base of the vertebrate clade, Hox gene clusters underwent remarkable sub- and neo-functionalization events. Many of these evolutionary innovations can be associated with changes in the transcriptional regulation of their genes, where an intricate relationship between the structure of the gene cluster and the architecture of the surrounding genomic landscape is at play. Here, we report on a portfolio of in vivo genome engineering strategies in mice, which have been used to probe and decipher the genetic and molecular underpinnings of the complex regulatory mechanisms implemented at these loci.

  16. Illuminating cancer systems with genetically engineered mouse models and coupled luciferase reporters in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Brandon; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2013-06-01

    Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) is a powerful noninvasive tool that has dramatically accelerated the in vivo interrogation of cancer systems and longitudinal analysis of mouse models of cancer over the past decade. Various luciferase enzymes have been genetically engineered into mouse models (GEMM) of cancer, which permit investigation of cellular and molecular events associated with oncogenic transcription, posttranslational processing, protein-protein interactions, transformation, and oncogene addiction in live cells and animals. Luciferase-coupled GEMMs ultimately serve as a noninvasive, repetitive, longitudinal, and physiologic means by which cancer systems and therapeutic responses can be investigated accurately within the autochthonous context of a living animal.

  17. Osmoregulation Mechanism of Drought Stress and Genetic Engineering Strategies for Improving Drought Resistance in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Jinyou; Chen Xiaoyang; Li Wei; Gao Qiong

    2004-01-01

    Drought, one of the main adverse environmental factors, obviously affected plant growth and development. Many adaptive strategies have been developed in plants for coping with drought or water stress, among which osmoregulation is one of the important factors of plant drought tolerance. Many substances play important roles in plant osmoregulation for drought resistance, including proline, glycine betaine, Lea proteins and soluble sugars such as levan, trehalose, sucrose, etc. The osmoregulation mechanism and the genetic engineering of plant drought-tolerance are reviewed in this paper.

  18. Crystals of Serum Albumin for Use in Genetic Engineering and Rational Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Serum albumin crystal forms have been produced which exhibit superior x-ray diffraction quality. The crystals are produced from both recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, canine, and baboon serum albumin and allow the performance of drug-binding studies as well as genetic engineering studies. The crystals are grown from solutions of polyethylene glycol or ammonium sulphate within prescribed limits during growth times from one to several weeks and include the following space groups: P2(sub 1), C2, P1.

  19. Illuminating p53 function in cancer with genetically engineered mouse models

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The key role of the p53 protein in tumor suppression is highlighted by its frequent mutation in human cancers and by the completely penetrant cancer predisposition of p53 null mice. Beyond providing definitive evidence for the critical function of p53 in tumor suppression, genetically engineered mouse models have offered numerous additional insights into p53 function. p53 knock-in mice expressing tumor-derived p53 mutants have revealed that these mutants display gain-of-function activities th...

  20. Can genetic engineering of lignin deposition be accomplished without an unacceptable yield penalty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Nicholas D; Chapple, Clint

    2013-04-01

    The secondary cell wall polymer lignin impedes the extraction of fermentable sugars from biomass, and has been one of the major impediments in the development of cost-effective biofuel technologies. Unfortunately, attempts to genetically engineer lignin biosynthesis frequently result in dwarfing or developmental abnormalities of unknown cause, thus limiting the benefits of increased fermentable sugar yield. In this brief review, we explore some of the possible mechanisms that could underlie this poorly understood phenomenon, with the expectation that an understanding of the cause of dwarfing in lignin biosynthetic mutants and transgenic plants could lead to new strategies for the development of improved bioenergy feedstocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis and design of a genetic circuit for dynamic metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesiadis, Nikolaos; Kobayashi, Hideki; Cluett, William R; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2013-08-16

    Recent advances in synthetic biology have equipped us with new tools for bioprocess optimization at the genetic level. Previously, we have presented an integrated in silico design for the dynamic control of gene expression based on a density-sensing unit and a genetic toggle switch. In the present paper, analysis of a serine-producing Escherichia coli mutant shows that an instantaneous ON-OFF switch leads to a maximum theoretical productivity improvement of 29.6% compared to the mutant. To further the design, global sensitivity analysis is applied here to a mathematical model of serine production in E. coli coupled with a genetic circuit. The model of the quorum sensing and the toggle switch involves 13 parameters of which 3 are identified as having a significant effect on serine concentration. Simulations conducted in this reduced parameter space further identified the optimal ranges for these 3 key parameters to achieve productivity values close to the maximum theoretical values. This analysis can now be used to guide the experimental implementation of a dynamic metabolic engineering strategy and reduce the time required to design the genetic circuit components.

  2. Genetic variation changes the interactions between the parasitic plant-ecosystem engineer Rhinanthus and its hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowntree, Jennifer K; Cameron, Duncan D; Preziosi, Richard F

    2011-05-12

    Within-species genetic variation is a potent factor influencing between-species interactions and community-level structure. Species of the hemi-parasitic plant genus Rhinanthus act as ecosystem engineers, significantly altering above- and below-ground community structure in grasslands. Here, we show the importance of genotypic variation within a single host species (barley-Hordeum vulgare), and population-level variation among two species of parasite (Rhinanthus minor and Rhinanthus angustifolius) on the outcome of parasite infection for both partners. We measured host fitness (number of seeds) and calculated parasite virulence as the difference in seed set between infected and uninfected hosts (the inverse of host tolerance). Virulence was determined by genetic variation within the host species and among the parasite species, but R. angustifolius was consistently more virulent than R. minor. The most tolerant host had the lowest inherent fitness and did not gain a fitness advantage over other infected hosts. We measured parasite size as a proxy for transmission ability (ability to infect further hosts) and host resistance. Parasite size depended on the specific combination of host genotype, parasite species and parasite population, and no species was consistently larger. We demonstrate that the outcome of infection by Rhinanthus depends not only on the host species, but also on the underlying genetics of both host and parasite. Thus, genetic variations within host and parasite are probably essential components of the ecosystem-altering effects of Rhinanthus.

  3. Design and testing of a synthetic biology framework for genetic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravasi Pablo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology approaches can make a significant contribution to the advance of metabolic engineering by reducing the development time of recombinant organisms. However, most of synthetic biology tools have been developed for Escherichia coli. Here we provide a platform for rapid engineering of C. glutamicum, a microorganism of great industrial interest. This bacteria, used for decades for the fermentative production of amino acids, has recently been developed as a host for the production of several economically important compounds including metabolites and recombinant proteins because of its higher capacity of secretion compared to traditional bacterial hosts like E. coli. Thus, the development of modern molecular platforms may significantly contribute to establish C. glutamicum as a robust and versatile microbial factory. Results A plasmid based platform named pTGR was created where all the genetic components are flanked by unique restriction sites to both facilitate the evaluation of regulatory sequences and the assembly of constructs for the expression of multiple genes. The approach was validated by using reporter genes to test promoters, ribosome binding sites, and for the assembly of dual gene operons and gene clusters containing two transcriptional units. Combinatorial assembly of promoter (tac, cspB and sod and RBS (lacZ, cspB and sod elements with different strengths conferred clear differential gene expression of two reporter genes, eGFP and mCherry, thus allowing transcriptional “fine-tuning”of multiple genes. In addition, the platform allowed the rapid assembly of operons and genes clusters for co-expression of heterologous genes, a feature that may assist metabolic pathway engineering. Conclusions We anticipate that the pTGR platform will contribute to explore the potential of novel parts to regulate gene expression, and to facilitate the assembly of genetic circuits for metabolic engineering of C

  4. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  5. Is genetic engineering ever going to take off in forage, turf and bioenergy crop breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zeng-Yu; Brummer, E Charles

    2012-11-01

    Genetic engineering offers the opportunity to generate unique genetic variation that is either absent in the sexually compatible gene pool or has very low heritability. The generation of transgenic plants, coupled with breeding, has led to the production of widely used transgenic cultivars in several major cash crops, such as maize, soybean, cotton and canola. The process for regulatory approval of genetically engineered crops is slow and subject to extensive political interference. The situation in forage grasses and legumes is more complicated. Most widely grown forage, turf and bioenergy species (e.g. tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, switchgrass, alfalfa, white clover) are highly self-incompatible and outcrossing. Compared with inbreeding species, they have a high potential to pass their genes to adjacent plants. A major biosafety concern in these species is pollen-mediated transgene flow. Because human consumption is indirect, risk assessment of transgenic forage, turf and bioenergy species has focused on their environmental or ecological impacts. Although significant progress has been made in genetic modification of these species, commercialization of transgenic cultivars is very limited because of the stringent and costly regulatory requirements. To date, the only transgenic forage crop deregulated in the US is 'Roundup Ready' (RR) alfalfa. The approval process for RR alfalfa was complicated, involving several rounds of regulation, deregulation and re-regulation. Nevertheless, commercialization of RR alfalfa is an important step forward in regulatory approval of a perennial outcrossing forage crop. As additional transgenic forage, turf and bioenergy crops are generated and tested, different strategies have been developed to meet regulatory requirements. Recent progress in risk assessment and deregulation of transgenic forage and turf species is summarized and discussed.

  6. A Generalized Genetic Random Field Method for the Genetic Association Analysis of Sequencing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; He, Zihuai; Zhang, Min; Zhan, Xiaowei; Wei, Changshuai; Elston, Robert C.; Lu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    With the advance of high-throughput sequencing technologies, it has become feasible to investigate the influence of the entire spectrum of sequencing variations on complex human diseases. Although association studies utilizing the new sequencing technologies hold great promise to unravel novel genetic variants, especially rare genetic variants that contribute to human diseases, the statistical analysis of high-dimensional sequencing data remains a challenge. Advanced analytical methods are in great need to facilitate high-dimensional sequencing data analyses. In this article, we propose a generalized genetic random field (GGRF) method for association analyses of sequencing data. Like other similarity-based methods (e.g., SIMreg and SKAT), the new method has the advantages of avoiding the need to specify thresholds for rare variants and allowing for testing multiple variants acting in different directions and magnitude of effects. The method is built on the generalized estimating equation framework and thus accommodates a variety of disease phenotypes (e.g., quantitative and binary phenotypes). Moreover, it has a nice asymptotic property, and can be applied to small-scale sequencing data without need for small-sample adjustment. Through simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed GGRF attains an improved or comparable power over a commonly used method, SKAT, under various disease scenarios, especially when rare variants play a significant role in disease etiology. We further illustrate GGRF with an application to a real dataset from the Dallas Heart Study. By using GGRF, we were able to detect the association of two candidate genes, ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4, with serum triglyceride. PMID:24482034

  7. Hybrid of Natural Element Method (NEM with Genetic Algorithm (GA to find critical slip surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shahrokhabadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in geotechnical engineering is the slope stability analysis for determination of the factor of safety and the probable slip surface. Finite Element Method (FEM is well suited for numerical study of advanced geotechnical problems. However, mesh requirements of FEM creates some difficulties for solution processing in certain problems. Recently, motivated by these limitations, several new Meshfree methods such as Natural Element Method (NEM have been used to analyze engineering problems. This paper presents advantages of using NEM in 2D slope stability analysis and Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization to determine the probable slip surface and the related factor of safety. The stress field is produced under plane strain condition using natural element formulation to simulate material behavior analysis utilized in conjunction with a conventional limit equilibrium method. In order to justify the preciseness and convergence of the proposed method, two kinds of examples, homogenous and non-homogenous, are conducted and results are compared with FEM and conventional limit equilibrium methods. The results show the robustness of the NEM in slope stability analysis.

  8. Rough sets selected methods and applications in management and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Georg; lzak, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Rough Set Theory, introduced by Pawlak in the early 1980s, has become an important part of soft computing within the last 25 years. However, much of the focus has been on the theoretical understanding of Rough Sets, with a survey of Rough Sets and their applications within business and industry much desired. Rough Sets: Selected Methods and Applications in Management and Engineering provides context to Rough Set theory, with each chapter exploring a real-world application of Rough Sets. Rough Sets is relevant to managers striving to improve their businesses, industry researchers looking to imp

  9. Jet Engine Nozzle Exit Configurations and Associated Systems and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengle, Vinod G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Nozzle exit configurations and associated systems and methods are disclosed. An aircraft system in accordance with one embodiment includes a jet engine exhaust nozzle having an internal flow surface and an exit aperture, with the exit aperture having a perimeter that includes multiple projections extending in an aft direction. Aft portions of individual neighboring projections are spaced apart from each other by a gap, and a geometric feature of the multiple can change in a monotonic manner along at least a portion of the perimeter.

  10. Engineering applications of a dynamical state feedback chaotification method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Savaş; Güzeliş, Cüneyt

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents two engineering applications of a chaotification method which can be applied to any inputstate linearizable (nonlinear) system including linear controllable ones as special cases. In the used chaotification method, a reference chaotic and linear system can be combined into a special form by a dynamical state feedback increasing the order of the open loop system to have the same chaotic dynamics with the reference chaotic system. Promising dc motor applications of the method are implemented by the proposed dynamical state feedback which is based on matching the closed loop dynamics to the well known Chua and also Lorenz chaotic systems. The first application, which is the chaotified dc motor used for mixing a corn syrup added acid-base mixture, is implemented via a personal computer and a microcontroller based circuit. As a second application, a chaotified dc motor with a taco-generator used in the feedback is realized by using fully analog circuit elements.

  11. Progress in genetic engineering of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Gaurav; Singh, Birendra K; Kim, Eun-Ki; Morya, Vivek K; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2015-02-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a major species of the family, Leguminosae, and economically important not only for vegetable oil but as a source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. It is widely grown in the semi-arid tropics and plays a role in the world agricultural economy. Peanut production and productivity is constrained by several biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (drought, salinity, water logging and temperature aberrations) stresses, as a result of which crop experiences serious economic losses. Genetic engineering techniques such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and DNA-bombardment-mediated transformation are used as powerful tools to complement conventional breeding and expedite peanut improvement by the introduction of agronomically useful traits in high-yield background. Resistance to several fungal, virus and insect pest have been achieved through variety of approaches ranging from gene coding for cell wall component, pathogenesis-related proteins, oxalate oxidase, bacterial chloroperoxidase, coat proteins, RNA interference, crystal proteins etc. To develop transgenic plants withstanding major abiotic stresses, genes coding transcription factors for drought and salinity, cytokinin biosynthesis, nucleic acid processing, ion antiporter and human antiapoptotic have been used. Moreover, peanut has also been used in vaccine production for the control of several animal diseases. In addition to above, this study also presents a comprehensive account on the influence of some important factors on peanut genetic engineering. Future research thrusts not only suggest the use of different approaches for higher expression of transgene(s) but also provide a way forward for the improvement of crops.

  12. Genetically engineered alginate lyase-PEG conjugates exhibit enhanced catalytic function and reduced immunoreactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Lamppa

    Full Text Available Alginate lyase enzymes represent prospective biotherapeutic agents for treating bacterial infections, particularly in the cystic fibrosis airway. To effectively deimmunize one therapeutic candidate while maintaining high level catalytic proficiency, a combined genetic engineering-PEGylation strategy was implemented. Rationally designed, site-specific PEGylation variants were constructed by orthogonal maleimide-thiol coupling chemistry. In contrast to random PEGylation of the enzyme by NHS-ester mediated chemistry, controlled mono-PEGylation of A1-III alginate lyase produced a conjugate that maintained wild type levels of activity towards a model substrate. Significantly, the PEGylated variant exhibited enhanced solution phase kinetics with bacterial alginate, the ultimate therapeutic target. The immunoreactivity of the PEGylated enzyme was compared to a wild type control using in vitro binding studies with both enzyme-specific antibodies, from immunized New Zealand white rabbits, and a single chain antibody library, derived from a human volunteer. In both cases, the PEGylated enzyme was found to be substantially less immunoreactive. Underscoring the enzyme's potential for practical utility, >90% of adherent, mucoid, Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were removed from abiotic surfaces following a one hour treatment with the PEGylated variant, whereas the wild type enzyme removed only 75% of biofilms in parallel studies. In aggregate, these results demonstrate that site-specific mono-PEGylation of genetically engineered A1-III alginate lyase yielded an enzyme with enhanced performance relative to therapeutically relevant metrics.

  13. Genetic engineering: a promising tool to engender physiological, biochemical and molecular stress resilience in green microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy eGuiheneuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As we march into the 21st century, the prevailing scenario of depleting energy resources, global warming and ever increasing issues of human health and food security will quadruple. In this context, genetic and metabolic engineering of green microalgae complete the quest towards a continuum of environmentally clean fuel and food production. Evolutionarily related, but unlike land plants, microalgae need nominal land or water, and are best described as unicellular autotrophs using light energy to fix atmospheric CO2 into algal biomass, mitigating fossil CO2 pollution in the process. Remarkably, a feature innate to most microalgae is synthesis and accumulation of lipids (60–65% of dry weight, carbohydrates and secondary metabolites like pigments and vitamins, especially when grown under abiotic stress conditions. Particularly fruitful, such an application of abiotic stress factors like nitrogen starvation , salinity, heat shock etc. can be used in a biorefinery concept for production of multiple valuable products. The focus of this mini-review underlies metabolic reorientation practices and tolerance mechanisms as applied to green microalgae under specific stress stimuli for a sustainable pollution-free future. Moreover, we entail current progress on genetic engineering as a promising tool to grasp adaptive processes for improving strains with potential biotechnological interests.

  14. Enhanced atrazine removal using membrane bioreactor bioaugmented with genetically engineered microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun LIU; Xia HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Bioaugmentation with genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for enhanced removal of recalcitrant pollutants was explored. An atrazine-degrading genetically engi-neered microorganism (GEM) with green fluorescent pro-tein was inoculated into an MBR and the effects of such a bioaugmentation strategy on atrazine removal were inves-tigated. The results show that atrazine removal was improved greatly in the bioaugmented MBR compared with a control system. After a start-up period of 6 days, average 94.7% of atrazine was removed in bioaugmented MBR when atrazine concentration of influent was 14.5 mg/L. The volu-metric removal rates increased linearly followed by atrazine loading increase and the maximum was 65.5 mg/(L·d). No negative effects were found on COD removal although carbon oxidation activity of bioaugmented sludge was lower than that of common sludge. After inoculation, adsorption to sludge flocs was favorable for GEM sur-vival. The GEM population size initially decreased shortly and then was kept constant at about 104-105 CFU/mL. Predation of micro-organisms played an important role in the decay of the GEM population. GEM leakage from MBR was less than 102 CFU/mL initially and was then undetectable. In contrast, in a conventionally activated sludge bioreactor (CAS), sludge bulking occurred possibly due to atrazine exposure, resulting in bioaugmentation failure and serious GEM leakage. So MBR was superior to CAS in atrazine bioaugmentation treatment using GEM.

  15. Recent advances to improve fermentative butanol production: genetic engineering and fermentation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Butanol has recently attracted attention as an alternative biofuel because of its various advantages over other biofuels. Many researchers have focused on butanol fermentation with renewable and sustainable resources, especially lignocellulosic materials, which has provided significant progress in butanol fermentation. However, there are still some drawbacks in butanol fermentation in terms of low butanol concentration and productivity, high cost of feedstock and product inhibition, which makes butanol fermentation less competitive than the production of other biofuels. These hurdles are being resolved in several ways. Genetic engineering is now available for improving butanol yield and butanol ratio through overexpression, knock out/down, and insertion of genes encoding key enzymes in the metabolic pathway of butanol fermentation. In addition, there are also many strategies to improve fermentation technology, such as multi-stage continuous fermentation, continuous fermentation integrated with immobilization and cell recycling, and the inclusion of additional organic acids or electron carriers to change metabolic flux. This review focuses on the most recent advances in butanol fermentation especially from the perspectives of genetic engineering and fermentation technology.

  16. Crop Resources Ethic in Plant Genetic Engineering and Fortune Transfer Between Generations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaowei; DING Guangzhou; LIANG Xueqing

    2006-01-01

    The relation between human and crop resources belongs to the ethic of resources exploitation. The purposes of discussing the ethic of crop resources are to protect the ecology and safety of crops, to gain sustainable development, furthermore, to choose and form the production structure that is favorable to saving crop resources and protecting the ecology of crops. Plant genetic engineering is the technology of molecule breeding of rearrangement of inheritance materials at the level of molecule directionally, of improving plant properties and of breeding high quality and yield varieties of crops. The prominent effects of the technology on the crop ecological system are human subjective factors increasing as well as violating the nature and intensifying the conflict between human being and nature.Therefore, in plant genetic engineering, crop resources exploitation should follow certain ethic principles. Under the theory of ethics of natural resources, by the means of biologioal statistics, the author systematically analyzed the possible model of crop resources transfer between generations as well as the transfer mode of magnitude of real materials and magnitude of value.

  17. Deconjugation of Bile Acids with Immobilized Genetically Engineered Lactobacillus plantarum 80(pCBH1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Jones

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bile acids are important to normal human physiology. However, bile acids can be toxic when produced in pathologically high concentrations in hepatobileary and other diseases. This study shows that immobilized genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum 80 (pCBH1 (LP80 (pCBH1 can efficiently hydrolyze bile acids and establishes a basis for their use. Results show that immobilized LP80 (pCBH1 is able to effectively break down the conjugated bile acids into glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA with bile salt hydrolase (BSH activities of 0.17 and 0.07 μmol DCA/mg CDW/h, respectively. The deconjugation product, deoxycholic acid (DCA, was diminished by LP80 (pCBH1 within 4 h of initial BSH activity. This in-vitro study suggests that immobilized genetically engineered bacterial cells have important potential for deconjugation of bile acids for lowering of high levels of bile acids for therapy.

  18. Designing RNA-based genetic control systems for efficient production from engineered metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jason T; Carothers, James M

    2015-02-20

    Engineered metabolic pathways can be augmented with dynamic regulatory controllers to increase production titers by minimizing toxicity and helping cells maintain homeostasis. We investigated the potential for dynamic RNA-based genetic control systems to increase production through simulation analysis of an engineered p-aminostyrene (p-AS) pathway in E. coli. To map the entire design space, we formulated 729 unique mechanistic models corresponding to all of the possible control topologies and mechanistic implementations in the system under study. Two thousand sampled simulations were performed for each of the 729 system designs to relate the potential effects of dynamic control to increases in p-AS production (total of 3 × 10(6) simulations). Our analysis indicates that dynamic control strategies employing aptazyme-regulated expression devices (aREDs) can yield >10-fold improvements over static control. We uncovered generalizable trends in successful control architectures and found that highly performing RNA-based control systems are experimentally tractable. Analyzing the metabolic control state space to predict optimal genetic control strategies promises to enhance the design of metabolic pathways.

  19. Stakeholder views on the creation and use of genetically-engineered animals in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormandy, Elisabeth H

    2016-05-01

    This interview-based study examined the diversity of views relating to the creation and use of genetically-engineered (GE) animals in biomedical science. Twenty Canadian participants (eight researchers, five research technicians and seven members of the public) took part in the interviews, in which four main themes were discussed: a) how participants felt about the genetic engineering of animals as a practice; b) governance of the creation and use of GE animals in research, and whether current guidelines are sufficient; c) the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) and how they are applied during the creation and use of GE animals in research; and d) whether public opinion should play a greater role in the creation and use of GE animals. Most of the participants felt that the creation and use of GE animals for biomedical research purposes (as opposed to food purposes) is acceptable, provided that tangible human health benefits are gained. However, obstacles to Three Rs implementation were identified, and the participants agreed that more effort should be placed on engaging the public on the use of GE animals in research.

  20. Genetic engineering of cell lines using lentiviral vectors to achieve antibody secretion following encapsulated implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilière, Aurélien; Bohrmann, Bernd; Kopetzki, Erhard; Schweitzer, Christoph; Jacobsen, Helmut; Moniatte, Marc; Aebischer, Patrick; Schneider, Bernard L

    2014-01-01

    The controlled delivery of antibodies by immunoisolated bioimplants containing genetically engineered cells is an attractive and safe approach for chronic treatments. To reach therapeutic antibody levels there is a need to generate renewable cell lines, which can long-term survive in macroencapsulation devices while maintaining high antibody specific productivity. Here we have developed a dual lentiviral vector strategy for the genetic engineering of cell lines compatible with macroencapsulation, using separate vectors encoding IgG light and heavy chains. We show that IgG expression level can be maximized as a function of vector dose and transgene ratio. This approach allows for the generation of stable populations of IgG-expressing C2C12 mouse myoblasts, and for the subsequent isolation of clones stably secreting high IgG levels. Moreover, we demonstrate that cell transduction using this lentiviral system leads to the production of a functional glycosylated antibody by myogenic cells. Subsequent implantation of antibody-secreting cells in a high-capacity macroencapsulation device enables continuous delivery of recombinant antibodies in the mouse subcutaneous tissue, leading to substantial levels of therapeutic IgG detectable in the plasma.

  1. Genetic Engineering: A Promising Tool to Engender Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Stress Resilience in Green Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihéneuf, Freddy; Khan, Asif; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2016-01-01

    As we march into the 21st century, the prevailing scenario of depleting energy resources, global warming and ever increasing issues of human health and food security will quadruple. In this context, genetic and metabolic engineering of green microalgae complete the quest toward a continuum of environmentally clean fuel and food production. Evolutionarily related, but unlike land plants, microalgae need nominal land or water, and are best described as unicellular autotrophs using light energy to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) into algal biomass, mitigating fossil CO2 pollution in the process. Remarkably, a feature innate to most microalgae is synthesis and accumulation of lipids (60-65% of dry weight), carbohydrates and secondary metabolites like pigments and vitamins, especially when grown under abiotic stress conditions. Particularly fruitful, such an application of abiotic stress factors such as nitrogen starvation, salinity, heat shock, etc., can be used in a biorefinery concept for production of multiple valuable products. The focus of this mini-review underlies metabolic reorientation practices and tolerance mechanisms as applied to green microalgae under specific stress stimuli for a sustainable pollution-free future. Moreover, we entail current progress on genetic engineering as a promising tool to grasp adaptive processes for improving strains with potential biotechnological interests.

  2. The morality of socioscientific issues: Construal and resolution of genetic engineering dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to negotiate and resolve socioscientific issues has been posited as integral components of scientific literacy. Although philosophers and science educators have argued that socioscientific issues inherently involve moral and ethical considerations, the ultimate arbiters of morality are individual decision-makers. This study explored the extent to which college students construe genetic engineering issues as moral problems. Twenty college students participated in interviews designed to elicit their ideas, reactions, and feelings regarding a series of gene therapy and cloning scenarios. Qualitative analyses revealed that moral considerations were significant influences on decision-making, indicating a tendency for students to construe genetic engineering issues as moral problems. Students engaged in moral reasoning based on utilitarian analyses of consequences as well as the application of principles. Issue construal was also influenced by affective features such as emotion and intuition. In addition to moral considerations, a series of other factors emerged as important dimensions of socioscientific decision-making. These factors included personal experiences, family biases, background knowledge, and the impact of popular culture. The implications for classroom science instruction and future research are discussed.

  3. Improvements of tolerance to stress conditions by genetic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ayşegül; Demirci, Selami; Aytekin, Ali Özhan; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2014-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, industrial yeast isolate, has been of great interest in recent years for fuel ethanol production. The ethanol yield and productivity depend on many inhibitory factors during the fermentation process such as temperature, ethanol, compounds released as the result of pretreatment procedures, and osmotic stress. An ideal strain should be able to grow under different stress conditions occurred at different fermentation steps. Development of tolerant yeast strains can be achieved by reprogramming pathways supporting the ethanol metabolism by regulating the energy balance and detoxicification processes. Complex gene interactions should be solved for an in-depth comprehension of the yeast stress tolerance mechanism. Genetic engineering as a powerful biotechnological tool is required to design new strategies for increasing the ethanol fermentation performance. Upregulation of stress tolerance genes by recombinant DNA technology can be a useful approach to overcome inhibitory situations. This review presents the application of several genetic engineering strategies to increase ethanol yield under different stress conditions including inhibitor tolerance, ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, and osmotolerance.

  4. Quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenna; Zhao, Hui; Lu, Xuefeng; Wang, Cong; Yang, Menglong; Bai, Fali

    2011-11-11

    Simple and rapid quantitative determination of fatty-acid-based biofuels is greatly important for the study of genetic engineering progress for biofuels production by microalgae. Ideal biofuels produced from biological systems should be chemically similar to petroleum, like fatty-acid-based molecules including free fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols and fatty alkanes. This study founded a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of seven free fatty acids, nine fatty acid methyl esters, five fatty acid ethyl esters, five fatty alcohols and three fatty alkanes produced by wild-type Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its genetically engineered strain. Data obtained from GC-MS analyses were quantified using internal standard peak area comparisons. The linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and precision (RSD) of the method were evaluated. The results demonstrated that fatty-acid-based biofuels can be directly determined by GC-MS without derivation. Therefore, rapid and reliable quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria can be achieved using the GC-MS method founded in this work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Molecular genetics methods in the study of hereditary essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindra, A; Horký, K

    1998-01-26

    The main task in hypertension research is to explain genetic causes of a raised blood pressure. It is anticipated that advances in this area will promote not only a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hypertension but will make a more aimed approach to early diagnosis, prevention and therapy of essential hypertension possible. The greatest problems in investigations of the heredity of hypertension are; a) in cardiovascular control mechanisms several genes participate; b) factors of the external environment which act on a long-term basis interfere with the relationship of the genotype and phenotype individually, within the family and regionally; c) the blood pressure is a continuous variable and the definition of the phenotype of hypertension is inaccurate; d) inadequate number of family members where hypertension segregates. New methods in molecular biology and statistical genetics made it possible to assess a number of highly polymorphous genetic signs in several candidate genes and the subsequent investigation of their possible role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The majority of hitherto accomplished studies was concentrated on genes coding different components of the renin-angiotensin system: renin, ACE, angiotensinogen and angiotensin II receptors. So far the most promising, though not consistent, results were obtained for angiotensinogen and the insulin receptor. Work focused on the relationship of the polymorphism of genes for ANF, growth hormone and kallikrein to essential hypertension is negative. The genetic heterogeneity of the human population, physiological differences in the genesis of high blood pressure in different ethnical groups and inaccurate measurements of specific phenotypes can contribute to different results of different studies.

  6. Study on Visualization Method Based on Cutting-edge of Science Trend in Genetic Engineering of Animal Celllulase%基于动物纤维素酶基因工程的科学前沿动态可视化方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁宁; 李雅; 黄亚娟; 陈玉林

    2013-01-01

    为了系统、全面、准确地反映国内动物基因工程研究演进及知识结构,以CNKI为平台,采用多元统计等 可视化方法,在分时段分析国内该领域前沿热点特征的同时,增加对该研究密切相关的非热点主题的观察.结果显示:相关研究主要集中于纤维素酶产生菌的分离鉴定,纤维素基因的克隆、表达;纤维素酶基因的筛选集中于天牛、白蚁等真核生物;纤维素酶基因的研究更多集中于实际研究方法学的改进,建立宏基因组文库对瘤胃中产纤维素酶的微生物进行研究.通过精确检索,多视角科学观察,为该领域科研人员提供了科学决策参考依据.%In order to show the progress of domestic animal genetic engineering and knowledge structure systematicly,comprehensively and accurately,the thesis increased the observation of the study that is closely related to non-hot topic on CNKI,using multivariate statistical and other visual methods.The thesis analyzed the field in the forefront of hot spot at the same time in different periods.The results showed that related research focused on the cellulase BACTERIUM,cellulose gene cloning,expression.Cellulase gene screening concentrated on beetles,termites and other eukaryotes.Cellulase genes more focused on the improvement of the actual research methodology.The established metagenomic library researched on the microorganisms which produced cellulase in the rumen.The results showed that accurate retrieval,scientific observation of the multi-angle,which provided a scientific decision-making reference basis for researchers in this field.

  7. A new method to estimate genetic gain in annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Breseghello

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The genetic gain obtained by breeding programs to improve quantitative traits may be estimated by using data from regional trials. A new statistical method for this estimate is proposed and includes four steps: a joint analysis of regional trial data using a generalized linear model to obtain adjusted genotype means and covariance matrix of these means for the whole studied period; b calculation of the arithmetic mean of the adjusted genotype means, exclusively for the group of genotypes evaluated each year; c direct year comparison of the arithmetic means calculated, and d estimation of mean genetic gain by regression. Using the generalized least squares method, a weighted estimate of mean genetic gain during the period is calculated. This method permits a better cancellation of genotype x year and genotype x trial/year interactions, thus resulting in more precise estimates. This method can be applied to unbalanced data, allowing the estimation of genetic gain in series of multilocational trials.Os ganhos genéticos obtidos pelo melhoramento de caracteres quantitativos podem ser estimados utilizando resultados de ensaios regionais de avaliação de linhagens e cultivares. Um novo método estatístico para esta estimativa é proposto, o qual consiste em quatro passos: a análise conjunta da série de dados dos ensaios regionais através de um modelo linear generalizado de forma a obter as médias ajustadas dos genótipos e a matriz de covariâncias destas médias; b para o grupo de genótipos avaliados em cada ano, cálculo da média aritmética das médias ajustadas obtidas na análise conjunta; c comparação direta dos anos, conforme as médias aritméticas obtidas, e d estimativa de um ganho genético médio, por regressão. Aplicando-se o método de quadrados mínimos generalizado, é calculada uma estimativa ponderada do ganho genético médio no período. Este método permite um melhor cancelamento das interações genótipo x ano e gen

  8. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  9. Chemical Genetics — A Versatile Method to Combine Science and Higher Level Teaching in Molecular Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Sandrock

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation is a key event in many cellular processes like cell cycle, transformation of environmental signals to transcriptional activation or polar growth. The chemical genetics approach can be used to analyse the effect of highly specific inhibition in vivo and is a promising method to screen for kinase targets. We have used this approach to study the role of the germinal centre kinase Don3 during the cell division in the phytopathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis. Due to the easy determination of the don3 phenotype we have chosen this approach for a genetic course for M.Sc. students and for IMPRS (International Max-Planck research school students. According to the principle of “problem-based learning” the aim of this two-week course is to transfer knowledge about the broad spectrum of kinases to the students and that the students acquire the ability to design their own analog-sensitive kinase of interest. In addition to these training goals, we benefit from these annual courses the synthesis of basic constructs for genetic modification of several kinases in our model system U. maydis.

  10. Biochemical, genetic, and metabolic engineering strategies to enhance coproduction of 1-propanol and ethanol in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Westbrook, Adam; Akawi, Lamees; Pyne, Michael E; Moo-Young, Murray; Chou, C Perry

    2014-11-01

    We recently reported the heterologous production of 1-propanol in Escherichia coli via extended dissimilation of succinate under anaerobic conditions through expression of the endogenous sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon. In the present work, we demonstrate high-level coproduction of 1-propanol and ethanol by developing novel engineered E. coli strains with effective cultivation strategies. Various biochemical, genetic, metabolic, and physiological factors affecting relative levels of acidogenesis and solventogenesis during anaerobic fermentation were investigated. In particular, CPC-PrOH3, a plasmid-free propanogenic E. coli strain derived by activating the Sbm operon on the genome, showed high levels of solventogenesis accounting for up to 85 % of dissimilated carbon. Anaerobic fed-batch cultivation of CPC-PrOH3 with glycerol as the major carbon source produced high titers of nearly 7 g/L 1-propanol and 31 g/L ethanol, implying its potential industrial applicability. The activated Sbm pathway served as an ancillary channel for consuming reducing equivalents upon anaerobic dissimilation of glycerol, resulting in an enhanced glycerol dissimilation and a major metabolic shift from acidogenesis to solventogenesis.

  11. Production of Engineered Fabrics Using Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Hybrid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ashis; Majumdar, Prabal Kumar; Banerjee, Debamalya

    2015-10-01

    The process of fabric engineering which is generally practised in most of the textile mills is very complicated, repetitive, tedious and time consuming. To eliminate this trial and error approach, a new approach of fabric engineering has been attempted in this work. Data sets of construction parameters [comprising of ends per inch, picks per inch, warp count and weft count] and three fabric properties (namely drape coefficient, air permeability and thermal resistance) of 25 handloom cotton fabrics have been used. The weights and biases of three artificial neural network (ANN) models developed for the prediction of drape coefficient, air permeability and thermal resistance were used to formulate the fitness or objective function and constraints of the optimization problem. The optimization problem was solved using genetic algorithm (GA). In both the fabrics which were attempted for engineering, the target and simulated fabric properties were very close. The GA was able to search the optimum set of fabric construction parameters with reasonably good accuracy except in case of EPI. However, the overall result is encouraging and can be improved further by using larger data sets of handloom fabrics by hybrid ANN-GA model.

  12. Enhancement of lipid production using biochemical, genetic and transcription factor engineering approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchesne, Noémie Manuelle Dorval; Parisien, Albert; Wang, Bei; Lan, Christopher Q

    2009-04-20

    This paper compares three possible strategies for enhanced lipid overproduction in microalgae: the biochemical engineering (BE) approaches, the genetic engineering (GE) approaches, and the transcription factor engineering (TFE) approaches. The BE strategy relies on creating a physiological stress such as nutrient-starvation or high salinity to channel metabolic fluxes to lipid accumulation. The GE strategy exploits our understanding to the lipid metabolic pathway, especially the rate-limiting enzymes, to create a channelling of metabolites to lipid biosynthesis by overexpressing one or more key enzymes in recombinant microalgal strains. The TFE strategy is an emerging technology aiming at enhancing the production of a particular metabolite by means of overexpressing TFs regulating the metabolic pathways involved in the accumulation of target metabolites. Currently, BE approaches are the most established in microalgal lipid production. The TFE is a very promising strategy because it may avoid the inhibitive effects of the BE approaches and the limitation of "secondary bottlenecks" as commonly observed in the GE approaches. However, it is still a novel concept to be investigated systematically.

  13. A Pseudomonas putida strain genetically engineered for 1,2,3-trichloropropane bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samin, Ghufrana; Pavlova, Martina; Arif, M Irfan; Postema, Christiaan P; Damborsky, Jiri; Janssen, Dick B

    2014-09-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a toxic compound that is recalcitrant to biodegradation in the environment. Attempts to isolate TCP-degrading organisms using enrichment cultivation have failed. A potential biodegradation pathway starts with hydrolytic dehalogenation to 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (DCP), followed by oxidative metabolism. To obtain a practically applicable TCP-degrading organism, we introduced an engineered haloalkane dehalogenase with improved TCP degradation activity into the DCP-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas putida MC4. For this purpose, the dehalogenase gene (dhaA31) was cloned behind the constitutive dhlA promoter and was introduced into the genome of strain MC4 using a transposon delivery system. The transposon-located antibiotic resistance marker was subsequently removed using a resolvase step. Growth of the resulting engineered bacterium, P. putida MC4-5222, on TCP was indeed observed, and all organic chlorine was released as chloride. A packed-bed reactor with immobilized cells of strain MC4-5222 degraded >95% of influent TCP (0.33 mM) under continuous-flow conditions, with stoichiometric release of inorganic chloride. The results demonstrate the successful use of a laboratory-evolved dehalogenase and genetic engineering to produce an effective, plasmid-free, and stable whole-cell biocatalyst for the aerobic bioremediation of a recalcitrant chlorinated hydrocarbon. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Testing the Role of p21-Activated Kinases in Schwannoma Formation Using a Novel Genetically Engineered Murine Model that Closely Phenocopies Human NF2 Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Kinases in Schwannoma Formation Using a Novel Genetically Engineered Murine Model that Closely Phenocopies Human NF2 Disease The views, opinions and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Testing the Role of p21-Activated Kinases in Schwannoma Formation Using a Novel Genetically Engineered Murine Model that Closely...1.20 calendar Testing the Role of p21 Activated Kinases in Schwannoma Formation Using a Novel Genetically Engineered Murine Model that Closely

  15. Genetic engineering represents a safe approach for innovations improving nutritional contents of major food crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Arber

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available About 70 years ago early microbial genetic research revealed that inherited phenotypic traits become determined by DNA filaments composed of 4 different nucleotides that are linearly arranged. In the meantime we know that genes, the determinants of specific life functions, are genomic segments of an average size of about 1000 nucleotides, i.e. a very small part of a genome. Fundamental insights into the structures and functions of selected genes can be reached by sorting out the relevant short DNA segment, splicing this fragment into a natural gene vector such as a viral genome or a fertility plasmid. This allows the researchers to transfer the genetic hybrid into an appropriate host cell in order to produce many copies that can then serve for functional and structural analysis. This research approach became efficient in the 1970s. On the request of involved researchers, safety guidelines became proposed 1975 at the Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA (Berg, Baltimore, Brenner, Roblin, & Singer, 1975, then generally introduced and still largely followed nowadays. Carefully carried out genetic engineering by horizontally transferring a selected and functionally well known DNA segment into the genome of another organism has in many published biosafety investigations never shown any unexpected harmful effect. We will present below selected examples of research contributions enabling innovations for the benefit of human life conditions.

  16. New tools for chloroplast genetic engineering allow the synthesis of human growth hormone in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannathong, Thanyanan; Waterhouse, Janet C; Young, Rosanna E B; Economou, Chloe K; Purton, Saul

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the exploitation of microalgae in industrial biotechnology. Potentially, these phototrophic eukaryotes could be used for the low-cost synthesis of valuable recombinant products such as bioactive metabolites and therapeutic proteins. The algal chloroplast in particular represents an attractive target for such genetic engineering, both because it houses major metabolic pathways and because foreign genes can be targeted to specific loci within the chloroplast genome, resulting in high-level, stable expression. However, routine methods for chloroplast genetic engineering are currently available only for one species-Chlamydomonas reinhardtii-and even here, there are limitations to the existing technology, including the need for an expensive biolistic device for DNA delivery, the lack of robust expression vectors, and the undesirable use of antibiotic resistance markers. Here, we describe a new strain and vectors for targeted insertion of transgenes into a neutral chloroplast locus that (i) allow scar-less fusion of a transgenic coding sequence to the promoter/5'UTR element of the highly expressed endogenous genes psaA or atpA, (ii) employ the endogenous gene psbH as an effective but benign selectable marker, and (iii) ensure the successful integration of the transgene construct in all transformant lines. Transformation is achieved by a simple and cheap method of agitation of a DNA/cell suspension with glass beads, with selection based on the phototrophic rescue of a cell wall-deficient ΔpsbH strain. We demonstrate the utility of these tools in the creation of a transgenic line that produces high levels of functional human growth hormone.

  17. Reverse Engineering Cellular Networks with Information Theoretic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio R. Banga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Building mathematical models of cellular networks lies at the core of systems biology. It involves, among other tasks, the reconstruction of the structure of interactions between molecular components, which is known as network inference or reverse engineering. Information theory can help in the goal of extracting as much information as possible from the available data. A large number of methods founded on these concepts have been proposed in the literature, not only in biology journals, but in a wide range of areas. Their critical comparison is difficult due to the different focuses and the adoption of different terminologies. Here we attempt to review some of the existing information theoretic methodologies for network inference, and clarify their differences. While some of these methods have achieved notable success, many challenges remain, among which we can mention dealing with incomplete measurements, noisy data, counterintuitive behaviour emerging from nonlinear relations or feedback loops, and computational burden of dealing with large data sets.

  18. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter [Energy & Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Harris, Joel [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2014-05-08

    The aim of this proposal is to develop, through novel high-temperature-tracing approaches, three technologies for characterizing fracture creation within Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The objective of a first task is to identify, develop and demonstrate adsorbing tracers for characterizing interwell reservoir-rock surface areas and fracture spacing. The objective of a second task is to develop and demonstrate a methodology for measuring fracture surface areas adjacent to single wells. The objective of a third task is to design, fabricate and test an instrument that makes use of tracers for measuring fluid flow between newly created fractures and wellbores. In one method of deployment, it will be used to identify qualitatively which fractures were activated during a hydraulic stimulation experiment. In a second method of deployment, it will serve to measure quantitatively the rate of fluid flowing from one or more activated fracture during a production test following a hydraulic stimulation.

  19. A Novel Approach to Managing Invasive Termite Species Using Genetically Engineered Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Journal of Parasitology 86 (6), pp. 1355–1359. Nickoloff, J. A. (1995) In: J.A. Nickoloff, Ed, Electroporation Protocols for Microorganisms, Methods in...Agricultural Center, Veterinary Science, 404 Life Sciences Building, Baton Rouge, LA Paratransgenesis is the genetic manipulation of a host’s symbiotic

  20. AGENT-BASED SIMULATION FOR KANSEI ENGINEERING: TESTING A FUZZY LINEAR QUANTIFICATION METHOD IN AN ARTIFICIAL WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that agent-based simulation can be used as a way for testing Kansei Engineering methods which deal with the human reaction from sensory to mental state, that is, sensitivity, sense,sensibility, feeling, esthetics, emotion affection and intuition. A new fuzzy linear quantification method is tested in an artificial world by agent-based modeling and simulations, and the performance of the fuzzy linear method is compared with that of a genetic algorithm. The simulations can expand people's imagination and enhance people's intuition that the new fuzzy linear quantification method is effective.