WorldWideScience

Sample records for genetic diseases inborn

  1. Modeling congenital disease and inborn errors of development in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Fly models that faithfully recapitulate various aspects of human disease and human health-related biology are being used for research into disease diagnosis and prevention. Established and new genetic strategies in Drosophila have yielded numerous substantial successes in modeling congenital disorders or inborn errors of human development, as well as neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Moreover, although our ability to generate sequence datasets continues to outpace our ability to analyze t...

  2. Modeling congenital disease and inborn errors of development in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fly models that faithfully recapitulate various aspects of human disease and human health-related biology are being used for research into disease diagnosis and prevention. Established and new genetic strategies in Drosophila have yielded numerous substantial successes in modeling congenital disorders or inborn errors of human development, as well as neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Moreover, although our ability to generate sequence datasets continues to outpace our ability to ...

  3. Report: Human biochemical genetics: an insight into inborn errors of metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chunli; SCOTT C. Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) include a broad spectrum of defects of various gene products that affect intermediary metabolism in the body. Studying the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of those inherited disorder, systematically summarizing the disease phenotype and natural history, providing diagnostic rationale and methodology and treatment strategy comprise the context of human biochemical genetics. This session focused on: (1) manifestations of representative metabolic disorders; (2) the emergent technology and application of newborn screening of metabolic disorders using tandem mass spectrometry; (3) principles of managing IEM; (4) the concept of carrier testing aiming prevention. Early detection of patients with IEM allows early intervention and more options for treatment.

  4. Modeling congenital disease and inborn errors of development in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Moulton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fly models that faithfully recapitulate various aspects of human disease and human health-related biology are being used for research into disease diagnosis and prevention. Established and new genetic strategies in Drosophila have yielded numerous substantial successes in modeling congenital disorders or inborn errors of human development, as well as neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Moreover, although our ability to generate sequence datasets continues to outpace our ability to analyze these datasets, the development of high-throughput analysis platforms in Drosophila has provided access through the bottleneck in the identification of disease gene candidates. In this Review, we describe both the traditional and newer methods that are facilitating the incorporation of Drosophila into the human disease discovery process, with a focus on the models that have enhanced our understanding of human developmental disorders and congenital disease. Enviable features of the Drosophila experimental system, which make it particularly useful in facilitating the much anticipated move from genotype to phenotype (understanding and predicting phenotypes directly from the primary DNA sequence, include its genetic tractability, the low cost for high-throughput discovery, and a genome and underlying biology that are highly evolutionarily conserved. In embracing the fly in the human disease-gene discovery process, we can expect to speed up and reduce the cost of this process, allowing experimental scales that are not feasible and/or would be too costly in higher eukaryotes.

  5. Modeling congenital disease and inborn errors of development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Matthew J; Letsou, Anthea

    2016-03-01

    Fly models that faithfully recapitulate various aspects of human disease and human health-related biology are being used for research into disease diagnosis and prevention. Established and new genetic strategies in Drosophila have yielded numerous substantial successes in modeling congenital disorders or inborn errors of human development, as well as neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Moreover, although our ability to generate sequence datasets continues to outpace our ability to analyze these datasets, the development of high-throughput analysis platforms in Drosophila has provided access through the bottleneck in the identification of disease gene candidates. In this Review, we describe both the traditional and newer methods that are facilitating the incorporation of Drosophila into the human disease discovery process, with a focus on the models that have enhanced our understanding of human developmental disorders and congenital disease. Enviable features of the Drosophila experimental system, which make it particularly useful in facilitating the much anticipated move from genotype to phenotype (understanding and predicting phenotypes directly from the primary DNA sequence), include its genetic tractability, the low cost for high-throughput discovery, and a genome and underlying biology that are highly evolutionarily conserved. In embracing the fly in the human disease-gene discovery process, we can expect to speed up and reduce the cost of this process, allowing experimental scales that are not feasible and/or would be too costly in higher eukaryotes.

  6. Analysis of inborn errors of metabolism:disease spectrum for expanded newborn screening in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Chih Hencher Lee; Wai-Kwan Siu; Sammy Pak-Lam Chen; Chun-Yiu Law; Morris Hok-Leung Tai; Sidney Tam; Albert Yan-Wo Chan; Chloe Miu Mak; Ching-Wan Lam; Yuet-Ping Yuen; Angel On-Kei Chan; Chi-Chung Shek; Tak-Shing Siu; Chi-Kong Lai; Chor-Kwan Ching

    2011-01-01

    Background Data of classical inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) of amino acids,organic acids and fatty acid oxidation are largely lacking in Hong Kong,where mass spectrometry-based expanded newborn screening for IEM has not been initiated. The current study aimed to evaluate the approximate incidence,spectrum and other characteristics of classical IEM in Hong Kong,which would be important in developing an expanded newborn screening program for the local area.Methods The laboratory records of plasma amino acids,plasma acylcarnitines and urine organic acids analyses from year 2005 to 2009 inclusive in three regional chemical pathology laboratories providing biochemical and genetic diagnostic services for IEM were retrospectively reviewed.Results Among the cohort,43 patients were diagnosed of IEM,including 30 cases (69%) of amino acidemias(predominantly citrin deficiency,hyperphenylalaninemia due to 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency and tyrosinemia type Ⅰ),5 cases (12%) of organic acidemias (predominantly holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency) and 8cases (19%) of fatty acid oxidation defects (predominantly carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency). The incidence of classical IEM in Hong Kong was roughly estimated to be at least 1 case per 4122 lives births,or 0.243 cases per 1000live births. This incidence is similar to those reported worldwide,including the mainland of China. The estimated incidence of hyperphenylalaninemia was 1 in 29 542 live births.Conclusions Our data indicate that it is indisputable for the introduction of expanded newborn screening program in Hong Kong. Since Hong Kong is a metropolitan city,a comprehensive expanded newborn screening program and referral system should be available to serve the neonates born in the area.

  7. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease associated with inborn errors of IL-17 immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Satoshi; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Kobayashi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections affecting the nails, skin and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida spp., mainly Candida albicans. CMC is an infectious phenotype in patients with inherited or acquired T-cell deficiency. Patients with autosomal-dominant (AD) hyper IgE syndrome (HIES), AD signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gain-of-function, autosomal-recessive (AR) deficiencies in interleukin (IL)-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1), IL-12p40, caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) or retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γT (RORγT) or AR autoimmune polyendocrinopathy–candidiasis–ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) develop CMC as a major infectious phenotype that is categorized as Syndromic CMC. In contrast, CMC disease (CMCD) is typically defined as CMC in patients in the absence of any other prominent clinical signs. This definition is not strict; thus, CMCD is currently used to refer to patients presenting with CMC as the main clinical phenotype. The etiology of CMCD is not related to genes that cause severe combined immunodeficiency or combined immunodeficiency, nor to genes responsible for Syndromic CMC. Four genetic etiologies, AR IL-17 receptor A, IL-17 receptor C and ACT1 deficiencies, and AD IL-17F deficiency, are reported to underlie CMCD. Each of these gene defects directly has an impact on IL-17 signaling, suggesting their nonredundant role in host mucosal immunity to Candida. Here, we review current knowledge focusing on IL-17 signaling and the genetic etiologies responsible for, and associated with, CMC. PMID:28090315

  8. Errores innatos del metabolismo de las purinas y otras enfermedades relacionadas Inborn purine metabolism errors and other related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiovanna Contreras Roura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los errores innatos en el metabolismo de las purinas son trastornos hereditarios complejos de gran impacto clínico, que presentan síntomas variables de acuerdo con el tipo de enfermedad. Pueden presentarse problemas renales de origen desconocido, retardo mental con manifestaciones neurológicas, retardo del crecimiento, infecciones recurrentes, automutilación, inmunodeficiencias, anemia hemolítica inexplicable, artritis gotosa, historia familiar, consanguinidad y reacciones adversas a fármacos que son análogos de las purinas. Las investigaciones de estas enfermedades comienzan generalmente con la cuantificación del ácido úrico en suero y en orina, por ser el producto final del metabolismo de las purinas en humanos. La dieta y el consumo de medicamentos, entre otras condiciones patológicas, fisiológicas y clínicas, también pueden modificar los niveles de este compuesto. Esta revisión pretende divulgar información de los errores innatos en el metabolismo de las purinas, y facilitar la interpretación de los niveles del ácido úrico y otros marcadores bioquímicos útiles en el diagnóstico de estas enfermedades. Se incluyen tablas que relacionan estas enfermedades con los niveles de excreción de ácido úrico y otros marcadores bioquímicos, las enzimas alteradas, los síntomas clínicos, el modo de herencia y, en algunos casos, el tratamiento propuesto. Este trabajo nos permite afirmar que las variaciones en los niveles del ácido úrico y la presencia de otros marcadores bioquímicos en orina, constituyen una herramienta importante en la pesquisa de algunos errores innatos en el metabolismo de las purinas, así como de otras condiciones patológicas relacionadas.Inborn purine metabolism errors are complex inherited disorders of great clinical impact that present with variable symptoms according to the type of disease. It might occur renal problems of unknown origin, metal retardation with neurological manifestations, retarded

  9. Long-term survival and late deaths after hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary immunodeficiency diseases and inborn errors of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Mary; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Orchard, Paul J; Cowan, Morton J; Davies, Stella M; Fasth, Anders; Hassebroek, Anna; Ayas, Mouhab; Bonfim, Carmem; O'Brien, Tracey A; Gross, Thomas G; Horwitz, Mitchell; Horwitz, Edwin; Kapoor, Neena; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Majhail, Navneet; Ringden, Olle; Szabolcs, Paul; Veys, Paul; Baker, K Scott

    2012-09-01

    It is uncertain whether late mortality rates after hematopoietic cell transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), non-SCID primary immunodeficiency diseases (non-SCID PIDD), and inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) return to rates observed in the general population, matched for age, sex, and nationality. We studied patients with SCID (n = 201), non-SCID PIDD (n = 405), and IEM (n = 348) who survived for at least 2 years after transplantation with normal T cell function (SCID) or >95% donor chimerism (non-SCID PIDD and IEM). Importantly, mortality rate was significantly higher in these patients compared with the general population for several years after transplantation. The rate decreased toward the normal rate in patients with SCID and non-SCID PIDD beyond 6 years after transplantation, but not in patients with IEM. Active chronic graft-versus-host disease at 2 years was associated with increased risk of late mortality for all diseases (hazard ratio [HR], 1.87; P = .05). In addition, late mortality was higher in patients with non-SCID PIDD who received T cell-depleted grafts (HR 4.16; P = .007) and in patients with IEM who received unrelated donor grafts (HR, 2.72; P = .03) or mismatched related donor grafts (HR, 3.76; P = .01). The finding of higher mortality rates in these long-term survivors for many years after transplantation confirms the need for long-term surveillance.

  10. ECHS1 mutations in Leigh disease: a new inborn error of metabolism affecting valine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Heidi; Buck, Nicole; Wanders, Ronald; Ruiter, Jos; Waterham, Hans; Koster, Janet; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Pitt, James

    2014-11-01

    Two siblings with fatal Leigh disease had increased excretion of S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine and several other metabolites that are features of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) deficiency, a rare defect in the valine catabolic pathway associated with Leigh-like disease. However, this diagnosis was excluded by HIBCH sequencing and normal enzyme activity. In contrast to HIBCH deficiency, the excretion of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-carnitine was normal in the children, suggesting deficiency of short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1 gene). This mitochondrial enzyme is active in several metabolic pathways involving fatty acids and amino acids, including valine, and is immediately upstream of HIBCH in the valine pathway. Both children were compound heterozygous for a c.473C > A (p.A158D) missense mutation and a c.414+3G>C splicing mutation in ECHS1. ECHS1 activity was markedly decreased in cultured fibroblasts from both siblings, ECHS1 protein was undetectable by immunoblot analysis and transfection of patient cells with wild-type ECHS1 rescued ECHS1 activity. The highly reactive metabolites methacrylyl-CoA and acryloyl-CoA accumulate in deficiencies of both ECHS1 and HIBCH and are probably responsible for the brain pathology in both disorders. Deficiency of ECHS1 or HIBCH should be considered in children with Leigh disease. Urine metabolite testing can detect and distinguish between these two disorders.

  11. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... 70%, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  12. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... 70%, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  13. Inborn errors of the Krebs cycle: a group of unusual mitochondrial diseases in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustin, P; Bourgeron, T; Parfait, B; Chretien, D; Munnich, A; Rötig, A

    1997-08-22

    Krebs cycle disorders constitute a group of rare human diseases which present an amazing complexity considering our current knowledge on the Krebs cycle function and biogenesis. Acting as a turntable of cell metabolism, it is ubiquitously distributed in the organism and its enzyme components encoded by supposedly typical house-keeping genes. However, the investigation of patients presenting specific defects of Krebs cycle enzymes, resulting from deleterious mutations of the considered genes, leads to reconsider this simple envision by revealing organ-specific impairments, mostly affecting neuromuscular system. This often leaves aside organs the metabolism of which strongly depends on mitochondrial energy metabolism as well, such as heart, kidney or liver. Additionally, in some patients, a complex pattern of tissue-specific enzyme defect was also observed. The lack of functional additional copies of Krebs cycle genes suggests that the complex expression pattern should be ascribed to tissue-specific regulations of transcriptional and/or translational activities, together with a variable cell adaptability to Krebs cycle functional defects.

  14. Cystinuria: an inborn cause of urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggermann Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cystinuria (OMIM 220100 is an inborn congenital disorder characterised by a defective cystine metabolism resulting in the formation of cystine stones. Among the heterogeneous group of kidney stone diseases, cystinuria is the only disorder which is exclusively caused by gene mutations. So far, two genes responsible for cystinuria have been identified: SLC3A1 (chromosome 2p21 encodes the heavy subunit rBAT of a renal b0,+ transporter while SLC7A9 (chromosome 19q12 encodes its interacting light subunit b0,+AT. Mutations in SLC3A1 are generally associated with an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance whereas SLC7A9 variants result in a broad clinical variability even within the same family. The detection rate for mutations in these genes is larger than 85%, but it is influenced by the ethnic origin of a patient and the pathophysiological significance of the mutations. In addition to isolated cystinuria, patients suffering from the hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome have been reported carrying deletions including at least the SLC3A1 and the PREPL genes in 2p21. By extensive molecular screening studies in large cohort of patients a broad spectrum of mutations could be identified, several of these variants were functionally analysed and thereby allowed insights in the pathology of the disease as well as in the renal trafficking of cystine and the dibasic amino acids. In our review we will summarize the current knowledge on the physiological and the genetic basis of cystinuria as an inborn cause of kidney stones, and the application of this knowledge in genetic testing strategies.

  15. An Attempt to Determine the Prevalence of Two Inborn Errors of Primary Bile Acid Synthesis : Results of a European survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zöhrer, Evelyn; Fischler, Björn; D'Antiga, Lorenzo; Debray, Dominique; Dezsofi, Antal; Haas, Dorothea; Hadzic, Nedim; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Lamireau, Thierry; Maggiore, Giuseppe; McKiernan, Pat J; Calvo, Pier Luigi; Verkade, Henkjan J; Hierro, Loreto; McLin, Valerie; Baumann, Ulrich; Gonzales, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inborn errors of primary bile acid (BA) synthesis are genetic cholestatic disorders leading to accumulation of atypical BA with deficiency of normal BA. Unless treated with primary BA, chronic liver disease usually progresses to cirrhosis and liver failure before adulthood. We sought to d

  16. Genetic Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mission to help prevent, manage and treat inherited genetic diseases. View our latest News Brief here . You can ... contributions to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of genetic diseases. Learn how advances at Mount Sinai have impacted ...

  17. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...

  18. Genetics of Parkinson's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Christine; Westenberger, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen years of genetic research in Parkinson's disease (PD) have led to the identification of several monogenic forms of the disorder and of numerous genetic risk factors increasing the risk to develop PD...

  19. Genetic diseases in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolettis, Peter N

    2003-02-01

    Genetic diseases that do not primarily affect the genitourinary tract may have urologic manifestations. These urologic manifestations range from benign and malignant renal disease to infertility. Thus, the practicing urologist may be involved in the care of these patients and should have knowledge of these diseases. Continued improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of these genetic diseases will likely result in improved survival and will increase the number of patients who may develop urologic manifestations of these diseases.

  20. Genetic and bibliographic information: ASAH1 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available matosis (MeSH); Lysosomal Storage Diseases (MeSH) Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Central Nervous System Diseases... (C10.228) > Brain Diseases (C10.228.140) > Brain Diseases, Metabolic (C10.228.140.163) > Brain Diseases..., Metabolic, Inborn (C10.228.140.163.100) > Lysosomal Storage Diseases, Nervous ...s (C10.228.140.163.100.435.825.250) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities (C16) > Genetic Diseases..., Inborn (C16.320) > Metabolism, Inborn Errors (C16.320.565) > Brain Diseases

  1. Parkinson's disease and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jacobo; Otero-Siliceo, Enrique

    2006-09-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) is a condition of unknown cause. Several factors are believed to contribute to its onset, and many studies have been conducted in search of the possible etiology of Parkinson disease. Genetic factors have become relevant when trying to explain the onset of Parkinson disease. The studies are divided into 2 categories: epidemiological and studies that analyze twins from families with members suffering from Parkinson disease, thus looking for the responsible genetic mutations. In this article we address this controversial topic, reviewing some of the most significant studies trying to provide evidence which relates genetics to Parkinson disease. We present current epidemiological studies and the most important genetic factors related to Parkinson disease, including the latest information currently available on each issue.

  2. Inborn errors of metabolism underlying primary immunodeficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaneh, Nima; Quartier, Pierre; Rostami, Parastoo; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; de Lonlay, Pascale

    2014-10-01

    A number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) have been shown to result in predominantly immunologic phenotypes, manifesting in part as inborn errors of immunity. These phenotypes are mostly caused by defects that affect the (i) quality or quantity of essential structural building blocks (e.g., nucleic acids, and amino acids), (ii) cellular energy economy (e.g., glucose metabolism), (iii) post-translational protein modification (e.g., glycosylation) or (iv) mitochondrial function. Presenting as multisystemic defects, they also affect innate or adaptive immunity, or both, and display various types of immune dysregulation. Specific and potentially curative therapies are available for some of these diseases, whereas targeted treatments capable of inducing clinical remission are available for others. We will herein review the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) due to underlying metabolic disorders.

  3. Inborn errors of cytoplasmic triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang Wei; Yang, Hao; Wang, Shu Pei; Soni, Krishnakant G; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Mitchell, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride (TG) synthesis, storage, and degradation together constitute cytoplasmic TG metabolism (CTGM). CTGM is mostly studied in adipocytes, where starting from glycerol-3-phosphate and fatty acyl (FA)-coenzyme A (CoA), TGs are synthesized then stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. TG hydrolysis proceeds sequentially, producing FAs and glycerol. Several reactions of CTGM can be catalyzed by more than one enzyme, creating great potential for complex tissue-specific physiology. In adipose tissue, CTGM provides FA as a systemic energy source during fasting and is related to obesity. Inborn errors and mouse models have demonstrated the importance of CTGM for non-adipose tissues, including skeletal muscle, myocardium and liver, because steatosis and dysfunction can occur. We discuss known inborn errors of CTGM, including deficiencies of: AGPAT2 (a form of generalized lipodystrophy), LPIN1 (childhood rhabdomyolysis), LPIN2 (an inflammatory condition, Majeed syndrome, described elsewhere in this issue), DGAT1 (protein loosing enteropathy), perilipin 1 (partial lipodystrophy), CGI-58 (gene ABHD5, neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) with ichthyosis and "Jordan's anomaly" of vacuolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, gene PNPLA2, NLSD with myopathy, cardiomyopathy and Jordan's anomaly), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, gene LIPE, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance). Two inborn errors of glycerol metabolism are known: glycerol kinase (GK, causing pseudohypertriglyceridemia) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1, childhood hepatic steatosis). Mouse models often resemble human phenotypes but may diverge markedly. Inborn errors have been described for less than one-third of CTGM enzymes, and new phenotypes may yet be identified.

  4. Genetics of complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Arno G

    2006-02-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Ollier disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Bone Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Ollier disease Educational Resources (5 links) Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology Disease InfoSearch: ...

  6. Inborn errors of creatine metabolism and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Mastrangelo, Mario; Battini, Roberta; Cioni, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Creatine metabolism disorders include guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency, arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency, and the creatine transporter (CT1-encoded by SLC6A8 gene) deficiency. Epilepsy is one of the main symptoms in GAMT and CT1 deficiency, whereas the occurrence of febrile convulsions in infancy is a relatively common presenting symptom in all the three above-mentioned diseases. GAMT deficiency results in a severe early onset epileptic encephalopathy with development arrest, neurologic deterioration, drug-resistant seizures, movement disorders, mental disability, and autistic-like behavior. In this disorder, epilepsy and associated abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) are more responsive to substitutive treatment with creatine monohydrate than to conventional antiepileptic drugs. AGAT deficiency is mainly characterized by mental retardation and severe language disorder without epilepsy. In CT1 deficiency epilepsy is generally less severe than in GAMT deficiency. All creatine disorders can be investigated through measurement of creatine metabolites in body fluids, brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), and molecular genetic techniques. Blood guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) assessment and brain H-MRS examination should be part of diagnostic workup for all patients presenting with epileptic encephalopathy of unknown origin. In girls with learning and/or intellectual disabilities with or without epilepsy, SLC6A8 gene assessment should be part of the diagnostic procedures. The aims of this review are the following: (1) to describe the electroclinical features of epilepsy occurring in inborn errors of creatine metabolism; and (2) to delineate the metabolic alterations associated with GAMT, AGAT, and CT1 deficiency and the role of a substitutive therapeutic approach on their clinical and electroencephalographic epileptic patterns. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Genetics of gallstone disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease is a complex disorder where both environmental and genetic factors contribute towards susceptibility to the disease. Epidemiological and family studies suggest a strong genetic component in the causation of this disease. Several genetically derived phenotypes in the population are responsible for variations in lipoprotein types, which in turn affect the amount of cholesterol available in the gall bladder. The genetic polymorphisms in various genes for apo E, apo B, apo A1, LDL receptor, cholesteryl ester transfer and LDL receptor-associated protein have been implicated in gallstone formation. However, presently available information on genetic differences is not able to account for a large number of gallstone patients. The molecular studies in the animal models have not only confirmed the present paradigm of gallstone formation but also helped in identification of novel genes in humans, which might play an important role in pathogenesis of the disease. Precise understanding of such genes and their molecular mechanisms may provide the basis of new targets for rational drug designs and dietary interventions.

  8. Inborn errors of metabolism: a clinical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Martins

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Inborn errors of metabolism cause hereditary metabolic diseases (HMD and classically they result from the lack of activity of one or more specific enzymes or defects in the transportation of proteins. OBJECTIVES: A clinical review of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM to give a practical approach to the physician with figures and tables to help in understanding the more common groups of these disorders. DATA SOURCE: A systematic review of the clinical and biochemical basis of IEM in the literature, especially considering the last ten years and a classic textbook (Scriver CR et al, 1995. SELECTION OF STUDIES: A selection of 108 references about IEM by experts in the subject was made. Clinical cases are presented with the peculiar symptoms of various diseases. DATA SYNTHESIS: IEM are frequently misdiagnosed because the general practitioner, or pediatrician in the neonatal or intensive care units, does not think about this diagnosis until the more common cause have been ruled out. This review includes inheritance patterns and clinical and laboratory findings of the more common IEM diseases within a clinical classification that give a general idea about these disorders. A summary of treatment types for metabolic inherited diseases is given. CONCLUSIONS: IEM are not rare diseases, unlike previous thinking about them, and IEM patients form part of the clientele in emergency rooms at general hospitals and in intensive care units. They are also to be found in neurological, pediatric, obstetrics, surgical and psychiatric clinics seeking diagnoses, prognoses and therapeutic or supportive treatment.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease Genetic Testing Registry: Polycystic kidney disease 2 Genetic Testing Registry: Polycystic kidney disease 3 Genetic Testing ...

  10. Genetics of celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricano-Ponce, Isis; Wijmenga, Cisca; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier

    2015-01-01

    New insights into the underlying molecular pathophysiology of celiac disease (CeD) over the last few years have been guided by major advances in the fields of genetics and genomics. The development and use of the Immunochip genotyping platform paved the way for the discovery of 39 non-HLA loci assoc

  11. Genetic diversity and disease susceptibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodmer, W F

    1997-01-01

    The range of genetic diversity within human populations is enormous. Genetic susceptibility to common chronic disease is a significant part of this genetic diversity, which also includes a variety of rare clear-cut inherited diseases. Modern DNA-based genomic analysis can now routinely lead to the identification of genes involved in disease susceptibility, provides the basis for genetic counselling in affected families, and more widely for a genetically targeted approach to disease prevention...

  12. Genetics of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, Nathan; Foroud, Tatiana

    2007-12-01

    During the past decade five genes have been identified that are important in autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson disease. The identification of these genes has increased our understanding of the likely pathogenic mechanisms resulting in disease. However, mutations in these genes likely contribute to disease in fewer than 5% of all cases of Parkinson disease. Thus, researchers have continued to search for genes that may influence disease susceptibility. Molecular diagnostic testing is currently available for four of the genes mutated in Parkinson disease. Evidence for reduced penetrance, possible effects of haploinsufficiency, and the identification of nondisease causing polymorphisms within several of these genes has made genetic counseling challenging. Current recommendations are to limit molecular testing only to those individuals who are symptomatic. Furthermore, because treatment is unaltered by the presence or absence of mutations in these genes, restraint is recommended when considering the value of screening for mutations in a clinical setting.

  13. Genetics of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and affects 2% of the population over the age of 60 years. Due to the increasing proportion of elderly individuals in developed countries, Parkinson's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders represent a growing burden on the health care system. In the majority of cases, the cause of the disease is still unknown, and its elucidation remains one of the major challenges of the neurosciences. Recent findings in rare genetic forms of Parkinson's disease have allowed the development of novel animal models, providing a basis for a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease, setting the stage for the development of novel treatment strategies. Several novel genes for monogenic forms of Parkinson's disease, such as PINK-1 for an autosomal-recessive early-onset variant, and LRRK2 for a relatively common late-onset autosomal-dominant form have recently been discovered, and several novel animal models have been generated on the basis of genes that had been found earlier. The combination of genetic, pathologic and molecular findings provide increasing evidence that the pathways identified through the cloning of different disease genes are interacting on different levels and share several major pathogenic mechanisms.

  14. Genetics of Proteasome Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin V. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The proteasome is a large, multiple subunit complex that is capable of degrading most intracellular proteins. Polymorphisms in proteasome subunits are associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and cancer. One polymorphism in the proteasome gene PSMA6 (−8C/G is associated with three different diseases: type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. One type of proteasome, the immunoproteasome, which contains inducible catalytic subunits, is adapted to generate peptides for antigen presentation. It has recently been shown that mutations and polymorphisms in the immunoproteasome catalytic subunit PSMB8 are associated with several inflammatory and autoinflammatory diseases including Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, CANDLE syndrome, and intestinal M. tuberculosis infection. This comprehensive review describes the disease-related polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with human diseases and the physiological modulation of proteasome function by these polymorphisms. Given the large number of subunits and the central importance of the proteasome in human physiology as well as the fast pace of detection of proteasome polymorphisms associated with human diseases, it is likely that other polymorphisms in proteasome genes associated with diseases will be detected in the near future. While disease-associated polymorphisms are now readily discovered, the challenge will be to use this genetic information for clinical benefit.

  15. Inborn errors of metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A few of them are: Fructose intolerance Galactosemia Maple sugar urine disease (MSUD) Phenylketonuria (PKU) Newborn screening ... Updated by: Chad Haldeman-Englert, MD, FACMG, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section on ...

  16. Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the genetic terms used on this page Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment Overview How can learning about my family's health history help me prevent disease? How can I learn about my family's health ...

  17. Genetics of Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, Nathan; Foroud, Tatiana

    2004-01-01

    Summary: Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have consistently demonstrated that in some families, disease is attributable to a mutation in a single gene. To date, genetic analyses have detected linkage to six chromosomal regions and have identified three causative genes: PARK1 (alpha-synuclein), PARK2 (parkin), and PARK7 (DJ-1). In addition, mutations in several other genes have been implicated in familial PD. Identification of the mutations in these genes has led to the recognition that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is an important pathway that may be disrupted in PD. Studies are ongoing to identify additional genes that may contribute to PD susceptibility, particularly in late-onset families without a clear pattern of disease inheritance. With the identification of mutations in particular genes and the likely role of additional genes that are important in PD risk-susceptibility, appropriate protocols must be developed so that accurate and informative genetic counseling can be offered to families in which one or more members has PD. Further diagnostic testing should be delayed until more is learned about the frequency, penetrance, and risk assessment of certain gene mutations. Important lessons can be learned from the implementation of counseling protocols for other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease and Alzheimer disease. PMID:15717024

  18. Genetics of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, Nathan; Foroud, Tatiana

    2004-04-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Recent studies have consistently demonstrated that in some families, disease is attributable to a mutation in a single gene. To date, genetic analyses have detected linkage to six chromosomal regions and have identified three causative genes: PARK1 (alpha-synuclein), PARK2 (parkin), and PARK7 (DJ-1). In addition, mutations in several other genes have been implicated in familial PD. Identification of the mutations in these genes has led to the recognition that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is an important pathway that may be disrupted in PD. Studies are ongoing to identify additional genes that may contribute to PD susceptibility, particularly in late-onset families without a clear pattern of disease inheritance. With the identification of mutations in particular genes and the likely role of additional genes that are important in PD risk-susceptibility, appropriate protocols must be developed so that accurate and informative genetic counseling can be offered to families in which one or more members has PD. Further diagnostic testing should be delayed until more is learned about the frequency, penetrance, and risk assessment of certain gene mutations. Important lessons can be learned from the implementation of counseling protocols for other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington disease and Alzheimer disease.

  19. Human genetics of infectious diseases: between proof of principle and paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaïs, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The observation that only a fraction of individuals infected by infectious agents develop clinical disease raises fundamental questions about the actual pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Epidemiological and experimental evidence is accumulating to suggest that human genetics plays a major role in this process. As we discuss here, human predisposition to infectious diseases seems to cover a continuous spectrum from monogenic to polygenic inheritance. Although many studies have provided proof of principle that infectious diseases may result from various types of inborn errors of immunity, the genetic determinism of most infectious diseases in most patients remains unclear. However, in the future, studies in human genetics are likely to establish a new paradigm for infectious diseases. PMID:19729848

  20. Congenital metabolic diseases: Diagnosis and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wapnir, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains eight parts, each consisting of several papers. The part titles are: The Heritage of Sir Archibald Garrod; New Approaches to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genetic Disease; Achievements, New Trends, and Policies in the Detection of Inborn Errors of Metabolism; Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism; Diseases of Energy Metabolism; Problems of Abnormal Storage Diseases; Inherited Diseases of Membrane Transport and Receptors; and Inborn Errors of Purine Metabolism and Urea Synthesis.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Alzheimer disease Alzheimer disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) Genetic Testing Registry: Classical maple syrup urine disease Genetic Testing Registry: Intermediate maple syrup urine disease Genetic Testing Registry: Maple syrup urine disease Other Diagnosis ...

  3. Genetic and bibliographic information: Rgs8 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available linked mental retardation; non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation Nervous System Diseases (C10) > Neurolo...6.643) > Mental Retardation, X-Linked (C10.597.606.643.455) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases... and Abnormalities (C16) > Genetic Diseases, Inborn (C16.320) > Genetic Diseases, X-...Linked (C16.320.322) > Mental Retardation, X-Linked (C16.320.322.500) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases... and Abnormalities (C16) > Genetic Diseases, Inborn (C16.320) > Heredodege

  4. Stem cells and genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we have discussed a role of stem cells in the treatment of genetic diseases including cochlear and retinal regeneration. The most perceptive use of stem cells at the genetic diseases is cellular repair of tissues affected by a genetic mutation when stem cells without such mutation are transplanted to restore normal tissue function.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Crohn disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Crohn disease Crohn disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Crohn disease is a complex, chronic disorder that primarily affects ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Aging National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Parkinson's Disease Research Web Educational Resources (9 links) Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Disease InfoSearch: Parkinson Disease MalaCards: lrrk2- ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: moyamoya disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as neurofibromatosis type 1 , sickle cell disease , or Graves disease . These individuals are said to have moyamoya syndrome. ... Achrol AS, Guzman R, Lee M, Steinberg GK. Pathophysiology and genetic factors in moyamoya disease. Neurosurg Focus. ...

  8. Genetic epidemiology of Scheuermann's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Frank; Engell, Vilhelm; Nielsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The genetic/environmental etiology of Scheuermann's disease is unclear. We estimated the heritability of the disease using an etiological model adjusted for sex and time of diagnosis, and examined whether the prevalence of Scheuermann's disease was constant over time.......The genetic/environmental etiology of Scheuermann's disease is unclear. We estimated the heritability of the disease using an etiological model adjusted for sex and time of diagnosis, and examined whether the prevalence of Scheuermann's disease was constant over time....

  9. Genetic Mapping in Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, David; Daly, Mark J; Lander, Eric S.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic mapping provides a powerful approach to identify genes and biological processes underlying any trait influenced by inheritance, including human diseases. We discuss the intellectual foundations of genetic mapping of Mendelian and complex traits in humans, examine lessons emerging from linkage analysis of Mendelian diseases and genome-wide association studies of common diseases, and discuss questions and challenges that lie ahead.

  10. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal BD as per the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) ... On the other hand, consanguinity and low birth weight were associated with ... Key words: Birth defects, inborn errors of metabolism, newborn, Saudi Arabia ...

  11. Cardiac manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangeliou, A.; Papadopoulou-Legbelou, K.; Daphnis, E.; Ganotakis, E.; Vavouranakis, I.; Michailidou, H.; Hitoglou-Makedou, A.; Nicolaidou, P.; Wevers, R.A.; Varlamis, G.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency and type of cardiac manifestations in a defined group of patients with inborn errors of metabolism. This paper also explores the key role of cardiac manifestations in the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism in daily practice. METHODS: O

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Canavan disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Page National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Leukodystrophy Information Page Educational Resources (7 links) Center for Jewish Genetic Diseases, Mount Sinai School of Medicine Disease InfoSearch: ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Gaucher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Gaucher disease Gaucher disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... cerebroside lipidosis syndrome Gaucher splenomegaly Gaucher syndrome Gaucher's ... deficiency glucocerebrosidosis glucosyl cerebroside lipidosis ...

  14. Genetic testing in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Anne-Karin; MacRae, Calum A

    2014-05-01

    The review is designed to outline the major developments in genetic testing in the cardiovascular arena in the past year or so. This is an exciting time in genetic testing as whole exome and whole genome approaches finally reach the clinic. These new approaches offer insight into disease causation in families in which this might previously have been inaccessible, and also bring a wide range of interpretative challenges. Among the most significant recent findings has been the extent of physiologic rare coding variation in the human genome. New disease genes have been identified through whole exome studies in neonatal arrhythmia, congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease that were simply inaccessible with other techniques. This has not only shed light on the challenges of genetic testing at this scale, but has also sharply defined the limits of prior gene-panel focused testing. As novel therapies targeting specific genetic subsets of disease become available, genetic testing will become a part of routine clinical care. The pace of change in sequencing technologies has begun to transform clinical medicine, and cardiovascular disease is no exception. The complexity of such studies emphasizes the importance of real-time communication between the genetics laboratory and genetically informed clinicians. New efforts in data and knowledge management will be central to the continued advancement of genetic testing.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Graves disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Most of the genetic variations that have been discovered are thought to have a small impact on ... Treatment Options MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: TSI National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Thyroid Function Tests ...

  16. Genetic Aspects of Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jennifer; Goldman, Jill; Marder, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alzheimer disease (AD) is a genetically complex disorder. Mutations in 3 genes, presenilin 1, amyloid precursor protein, and presenilin 2, lead to early-onset familial AD in rare families with onset of disease occurring prior to age 65. Specific polymorphisms in apolipoprotein E are associated with the more common, late-onset AD occurring after age 65. In this review, we discuss current advances in AD genetics, the implications of the known AD genes, presenilin 1, presenilin 2, amyloid precursor protein, and apolipoprotein E, and other possible genes on the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and genetic counseling of patients and families with early- and late-onset AD. Review Summary In addition to the mutations in 4 known genes associated with AD, mutations in other genes may be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Most recently, 2 different research groups have reported genetic association between 2 genes, sortilin-related receptor and GAB2, and AD. These associations have not changed the diagnostic and medical management of AD. Conclusions New research in the genetics of AD have implicated novel genes as having a role in the disease, but these findings have not been replicated nor have specific disease causing mutations been identified. To date, clinical genetic testing is limited to familial early-onset disease for symptomatic individuals and asymptomatic relatives and, although not recommended, amyloid precursor protein apolipoprotein E testing as an adjunct to diagnosis of symptomatic individuals. PMID:19276785

  17. Report: Genetics of complex diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOTULSKY Arno G.

    2006-01-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  18. Quantitative genetics of disease traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, N R; Visscher, P M

    2015-04-01

    John James authored two key papers on the theory of risk to relatives for binary disease traits and the relationship between parameters on the observed binary scale and an unobserved scale of liability (James Annals of Human Genetics, 1971; 35: 47; Reich, James and Morris Annals of Human Genetics, 1972; 36: 163). These two papers are John James' most cited papers (198 and 328 citations, November 2014). They have been influential in human genetics and have recently gained renewed popularity because of their relevance to the estimation of quantitative genetics parameters for disease traits using SNP data. In this review, we summarize the two early papers and put them into context. We show recent extensions of the theory for ascertained case-control data and review recent applications in human genetics.

  19. Genetic and bibliographic information: EYA1 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Renal Syndrome (MeSH) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities (C16) > Congenital Abn... Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities (C16) > Congenit...90) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities (C16) > Genetic Diseases, Inborn (C16.32

  20. [Genetics of congenital heart diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Damien

    2017-06-01

    Developmental genetics of congenital heart diseases has evolved from analysis of serial slices in embryos towards molecular genetics of cardiac morphogenesis with a dynamic view of cardiac development. Genetics of congenital heart diseases has also changed from formal genetic analysis of familial recurrences or population-based analysis to screening for mutations in candidates genes identified in animal models. Close cooperation between molecular embryologists, pathologists involved in heart development and pediatric cardiologists is crucial for further increase of knowledge in the field of cardiac morphogenesis and genetics of cardiac defects. The genetic model for congenital heart disease has to be revised to favor a polygenic origin rather than a monogenic one. The main mechanism is altered genic dosage that can account for heart diseases in chromosomal anomalies as well as in point mutations in syndromic and isolated congenital heart diseases. The use of big data grouping information from cardiac development, interactions between genes and proteins, epigenetic factors such as chromatin remodeling or DNA methylation is the current source for improving our knowledge in the field and to give clues for future therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Inborn errors of ketogenesis and ketone body utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Jörn Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Ketone bodies acetoacetate and 3-hydroxy-n-butyric acid are metabolites derived from fatty acids and ketogenic amino acids such as leucine. They are mainly produced in the liver via reactions catalyzed by the ketogenic enzymes mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coenzyme A synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coenzyme A lyase. After prolonged starvation, ketone bodies can provide up to two-thirds of the brain's energy requirements. The rate-limiting enzyme of ketone body utilization (ketolysis) is succinyl-coenzyme A:3-oxoacid coenzyme A transferase. The subsequent step of ketolysis is catalyzed by 2-methylactoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, which is also involved in isoleucine catabolism. Inborn errors of metabolism affecting those four enzymes are presented and discussed in the context of differential diagnoses. While disorders of ketogenesis can present with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, inborn errors of ketolysis are characterized by metabolic decompensations with ketoacidosis. If those diseases are considered early and appropriate treatment is initiated without delay, patients with inborn errors of ketone body metabolism often have a good clinical outcome.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile Paget disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information & Resources MedlinePlus (1 link) Health Topic: Bone Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Juvenile ... on PubMed Daroszewska A, Ralston SH. Mechanisms of disease: genetics of Paget's disease of bone and related disorders. ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Alexander disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up study of 22 Chinese children with Alexander disease and analysis of parental origin of de novo GFAP mutations. J Hum Genet. 2013 Apr;58(4):183-8. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2012.152. Epub 2013 Jan 31. Citation on ... GS. Alexander disease: ventricular garlands and abnormalities of the medulla and ...

  4. Screening for Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Elshaari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are a heterogeneous group of monogenic diseases that affect the metabolic pathways. The detection of IEM relies on a high index of clinical suspicion and co-ordinated access to specialized laboratory services. Biochemical analysis forms the basis of the final confirmed diagnosis in several of these disorders. The investigations fall into four main categories1.General metabolic screening tests2.Specific metabolite assays3.Enzyme studies4.DNA analysis The first approach to the diagnosis is by a multi-component analysis of body fluids in clinically selected patients, referred to as metabolic screening tests. These include simple chemical tests in the urine, blood glucose, acid-base profile, lactate, ammonia and liver function tests. The results of these tests can help to suggest known groups of metabolic disorders so that specific metabolites such as amino acids, organic acids, etc. can be estimated. However, not all IEM needs the approach of general screening. Lysosomal, peroxisomal, thyroid and adrenal disorders are suspected mainly on clinical grounds and pertinent diagnostic tests can be performed. The final diagnosis relies on the demonstration of the specific enzyme defect, which can be further confirmed by DNA studies.

  5. [The genetics of Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Mathias; Aasly, Jan

    2004-04-01

    Parkinson's disease, PD, is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. A genetic component in Parkinson's disease was long thought to be unlikely, but recent genetic studies have identified several genes associated with the disease. A review of the literature and personal experiences from genetic studies in central Norway are presented. Nine loci on the human genome have been linked to Parkinson's disease. Mutations in the alfa-synuclein, parkin, DJ-1, and arguably UCH-L1 genes are identified for familial PD. Recently a locus on chromosome 1 was linked to common late-onset PD in the Icelandic population. Iceland's population is primarily of Norse descent. This locus may be of significant importance to Norwegian PD patients. The genes and loci identified have improved our understanding of the pathogenesis in PD significantly. This knowledge may help to create new treatment strategies for PD.

  6. Optimal screening for genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nævdal, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Screening for genetic diseases is performed in many regions and/or ethnic groups where there is a high prevalence of possibly malign genes. The propagation of such genes can be considered a dynamic externality. Given that many of these diseases are untreatable and give rise to truly tragic outcomes, they are a source of societal concern, and the screening process should perhaps be regulated. This paper incorporates a standard model of genetic propagation into an economic model of dynamic management to derive cost benefit rules for optimal screening. The highly non-linear nature of genetic dynamics gives rise to perhaps surprising results that include discontinuous controls and threshold effects. One insight is that any screening program that is in place for any amount of time should screen all individuals in a target population. The incorporation of genetic models may prove to be useful to several emerging fields in economics such as genoeconomics, neuroeconomics and paleoeconomics.

  7. The Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases: A Brief History and Selected Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases. PMID:23724903

  8. The genetic theory of infectious diseases: a brief history and selected illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases.

  9. Periodontal disease: a genetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Taba Jr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease that causes tooth loss. The complex pathogenesis of periodontitis implies the involvement of a susceptible host and a bacterial challenge. Many studies have provided a valuable contribution to understanding the genetic basis of periodontal disease, but the specific candidate genes of susceptibility are still unknown. In fact, genome-wide studies and screening of single-nucleotide polymorphisms have yielded new genetic information without a definitive solution for the management of periodontal disease. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the most relevant literature, presenting the main concepts and insights of the strategies that have been emerging to better diagnose and treat periodontal disease based on biomarker analysis and host modulation.

  10. Genetics of valvular heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHaye, Stephanie; Lincoln, Joy; Garg, Vidu

    2014-01-01

    Valvular heart disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and often the result of congenital malformations. However, the prevalence is increasing in adults not only because of the growing aging population, but also because of improvements in the medical and surgical care of children with congenital heart valve defects. The success of the Human Genome Project and major advances in genetic technologies, in combination with our increased understanding of heart valve development, has led to the discovery of numerous genetic contributors to heart valve disease. These have been uncovered using a variety of approaches including the examination of familial valve disease and genome-wide association studies to investigate sporadic cases. This review will discuss these findings and their implications in the treatment of valvular heart disease.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in Kawasaki disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho-chang KUO; Wei-chiao CHANG

    2011-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis,and the cause of KD is not well understood.It is likely due to multiple interactions between genes and environmental factors.The development of genetic association and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has opened an avenue to better understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying KD.A novel ITPKC signaling pathway was recently found to be responsible for the susceptibility to KD.Furthermore,the GWAS demonstrated the functionally related susceptibility loci for KD in the Caucasian population.In the last decade,the identification of several genomic regions linked to the pathogenesis of KD has made a major breakthrough in understanding the genetics of KD.This review will focus on genetic polymorphisms associated with KD and describe some of the possible clinical implications and molecular mechanisms that can be used to explain how genetic variants regulate the pathogenesis in KD.

  12. Genetic counseling in mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Jodie M; Pappa, Belen

    2013-04-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are a genetically and clinically diverse group of disorders that arise as a result of dysfunction of the mitochondria. Mitochondrial disorders can be caused by alterations in nuclear DNA and/or mitochondrial DNA. Although some mitochondrial syndromes have been described clearly in the literature many others present as challenging clinical cases with multisystemic involvement at variable ages of onset. Given the clinical variability and genetic heterogeneity of these conditions, patients and their families often experience a lengthy and complicated diagnostic process. The diagnostic journey may be characterized by heightened levels of uncertainty due to the delayed diagnosis and the absence of a clear prognosis, among other factors. Uncertainty surrounding issues of family planning and genetic testing may also affect the patient. The role of the genetic counselor is particularly important to help explain these complexities and support the patient and family's ability to achieve effective coping strategies in dealing with increased levels of uncertainty.

  13. Genetic predisposition to Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Jónrit; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Grandjean, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the genetic variants of CYP2D6 and HFE are more frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared with controls in a population where the prevalence of these variants and PD are increased. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 79 PD patients and 154...

  14. Genetic predisposition to Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Jónrit; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Grandjean, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the genetic variants of CYP2D6 and HFE are more frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared with controls in a population where the prevalence of these variants and PD are increased. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 79 PD patients and 154...

  15. beta-Ureidopropionase deficiency: an inborn error of pyrimidine degradation associated with neurological abnormalities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilenburg, A.B.P. van; Meinsma, R.; Beke, E.; Assmann, B.; Ribes, A.; Lorente, I.; Busch, R.; Mayatepek, E.; Abeling, N.G.G.M.; Cruchten, A.C. van; Stroomer, A.E.; Lenthe, H. van; Zoetekouw, L.; Kulik, W.; Hoffmann, G.F.; Voit, T.; Wevers, R.A.; Rutsch, F.; Gennip, A.H. van

    2004-01-01

    beta-Ureidopropionase deficiency is an inborn error of the pyrimidine degradation pathway, affecting the cleavage of N-carbamyl-beta-alanine and N-carbamyl-beta-aminoisobutyric acid. In this study, we report the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying a beta-ureidopropionase deficiency in four p

  16. Genetic modifiers of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Lee, Jong-Min

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that directly affects more than 1 in 10,000 persons in Western societies but, as a family disorder with a long, costly, debilitating course, it has an indirect impact on a far greater proportion of the population. Although some palliative treatments are used, no effective treatment exists for preventing clinical onset of the disorder or for delaying its inevitable progression toward premature death, approximately 15 years after diagnosis. Huntington's disease involves a movement disorder characterized by chorea, as well as a variety of psychiatric disturbances and intellectual decline, with a gradual loss of independence. A dire need exists for effective HD therapies to alleviate the suffering and costs to the individual, family, and health care system. In past decades, genetics, the study of DNA sequence variation and its consequences, provided the tools to map the HD gene to chromosome 4 and ultimately to identify its mutation as an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the coding sequence of a large protein, dubbed huntingtin. Now, advances in genetic technology offer an unbiased route to the identification of genetic factors that are disease-modifying agents in human patients. Such genetic modifiers are expected to highlight processes capable of altering the course of HD and therefore to provide new, human-validated targets for traditional drug development, with the goal of developing rational treatments to delay or prevent onset of HD clinical signs.

  17. Genetics of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Dermot P B; Kugathasan, Subra; Cho, Judy H

    2015-10-01

    In this review, we provide an update on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition, we summarize progress in defining the functional consequences of associated alleles for coding and noncoding genetic variation. In the small minority of loci where major association signals correspond to nonsynonymous variation, we summarize studies defining their functional effects and implications for therapeutic targeting. Importantly, the large majority of GWAS-associated loci involve noncoding variation, many of which modulate levels of gene expression. Recent expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have established that the expression of most human genes is regulated by noncoding genetic variations. Significant advances in defining the epigenetic landscape have demonstrated that IBD GWAS signals are highly enriched within cell-specific active enhancer marks. Studies in European ancestry populations have dominated the landscape of IBD genetics studies, but increasingly, studies in Asian and African-American populations are being reported. Common variation accounts for only a modest fraction of the predicted heritability and the role of rare genetic variation of higher effects (ie, odds ratios markedly deviating from 1) is increasingly being identified through sequencing efforts. These sequencing studies have been particularly productive in more severe very early onset cases. A major challenge in IBD genetics will be harnessing the vast array of genetic discovery for clinical utility through emerging precision medical initiatives. In this article, we discuss the rapidly evolving area of direct-to-consumer genetic testing and the current utility of clinical exome sequencing, especially in very early onset, severe IBD cases. We summarize recent progress in the pharmacogenetics of IBD with respect to partitioning patient responses to anti-TNF and thiopurine therapies. Highly collaborative studies across research centers and

  18. Nonmotor symptoms in genetic Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten, Meike; Kertelge, Lena; Brüggemann, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD.......To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD....

  19. Systems genetics : From GWAS to disease pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijde, Marijke R.; Ng, Aylwin; Fu, Jingyuan

    2014-01-01

    Most common diseases are complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. In the past decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of genetic variants underlying susceptibility to complex diseases. However, the results fro

  20. Genetic and bibliographic information: ACSL4 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ic Diseases, X-Linked (C16.320.322) > Mental Retardation, X-Linked (C16.320.322.500) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal...natal Diseases and Abnormalities (C16) > Genetic Diseases, Inborn (C16.320) > Genet...ion (C10.597.606.643) > Mental Retardation, X-Linked (C10.597.606.643.455) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neo

  1. Genetic and bibliographic information: CERKL [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CERKL ceramide kinase-like human retinitis pigmentosa (MeSH) Eye Diseases (C11) > Eye Diseases..., Hereditary (C11.270) > Retinitis Pigmentosa (C11.270.684) Eye Diseases (C11) > Retinal Diseases... (C11.768) > Retinal Degeneration (C11.768.585) > Retinitis Pigmentosa (C11.768.585.731) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Disease...s and Abnormalities (C16) > Genetic Diseases, Inborn (C16.320) > Eye Diseases

  2. Research Challenges in Central Nervous System Manifestations of Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, P.I.; Pariser, A.R.; Groft, S. C.; Ishihara, R.W.; McNeil, D.E.; Tagle, D.; Griebel, D.J.; Kaler, S.G.; Mink, J.W.; Shapiro, E.G.; Bjoraker, K.J.; Krivitzky, L.; Provenzale, J.M.; Gropman, A.; Orchard, P.; Raymond, G.; Cohen, B.H.; Steiner, R.D.; Goldkind, S. F.; Nelson, R. M.; Kakkis, E.; Patterson, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Research Challenges in CNS Manifestations of Inborn Errors of Metabolism workshop was designed to address challenges in translating potential therapies for these rare disorders, and to highlight novel therapeutic strategies and innovative approaches to CNS delivery, assessment of effects and directions for the future in the treatment of these diseases. Therapies for the brain in inborn errors represent some of the greatest challenges to translational research due to the special properties of the brain, and of inborn errors themselves. This review covers the proceedings of this workshop as submitted by participants. Scientific, ethical and regulatory issues are discussed, along with ways to measure outcomes and the conduct of clinical trials. Participants included regulatory and funding agencies, clinicians, scientists, industry and advocacy groups. PMID:21176882

  3. Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McPherson, Ruth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors contribute importantly to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), and in the past decade, there has been major progress in this area. The tools applied include genome-wide association studies encompassing >200,000 individuals complemented by bioinformatic approaches, including...... factors and identify those individuals who will benefit most from statin therapy. Such information also has important applications in clinical medicine and drug discovery by using a Mendelian randomization approach to interrogate the causal nature of many factors found to associate with CAD risk...... have led to a broader understanding of the genetic architecture of CAD and demonstrate that it largely derives from the cumulative effect of multiple common risk alleles individually of small effect size rather than rare variants with large effects on CAD risk. Despite this success, there has been...

  4. Pediatric genetic diseases causing glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichhpujani, Parul; Singh, Rohan B.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucomatous optic neuropathy may be considered as an endpoint of multiple systemic factors. Genetic conditions commonly causing glaucoma in children and adolescents include Axenfeld-Reiger syndrome, aniridia, Marfan syndrome, Weill-Marchessani syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, nevus of Ota, congenital rubella and neurofibromatosis type 1. In the recent years, with the advancements in genetic research our understanding of the fundamental causes of glaucoma associated with inherited disorders has improved. In addition to intraocular pressure reduction, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with the multiple systemic associations with glaucoma, to re-evaluate treatment frequently, and to target the underlying disease process, if present. PMID:27625878

  5. RARE DISEASES AND GENETIC DISCRIMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Yaneva – Deliverska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rare diseases are characterised by their low prevalence (less than 1/2,000 and their heterogeneity. They affect both children and adults anywhere in the world. From the medical perspective, rare diseases are characterised by the large number and broad diversity of disorders and symptoms that vary not only from disease to disease, but also within the same disease.Main characteristics of rare diseases include:· Rare diseases are often chronic, progressive, degenerative, and often life-threatening· Rare diseases are disabling: the quality of life of patients is often compromised by the lack or loss of autonomy· High level of pain and suffering for the patient and his/ her family · No existing effective cure· There are between 6000 and 8000 rare diseases· 75% of rare diseases affect children· 30% of rare disease patients die before the age of 5· 80% of rare diseases have identified genetic origins. Other rare diseases are the result of infections (bacterial or viral, allergies and environmental causes, or are degenerative and proliferative.Beyond the diversity of the diseases, rare disease patients and their families are confronted with the same wide range of difficulties arising directly from the rarity of these pathologies. The period between the emergence of the first symptoms and the appropriate diagnosis involves unacceptable and highly risky delays, as well as wrong diagnosis leading to inaccurate treatments. Living with a rare disease has implications in all areas of life, whether school, choice of future work, leisure time with friends, or affective life. It may lead to stigmatisation, isolation, exclusion from social community, discrimination for insurance subscription (health insurance, travel insurance, mortgage, and often reduced professional opportunities.Innovative treatments are often unevenly available in the EU because of delays in price determination and/or reimbursement decision, lack of experience of the treating

  6. Coeliac disease and autoimmune disease-genetic overlap and screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundin, Knut E. A.; Wijmenga, Cisca

    Coeliac disease is a treatable, gluten-induced disease that often occurs concurrently with other autoimmune diseases. In genetic studies since 2007, a partial genetic overlap between these diseases has been revealed and further insights into the pathophysiology of coeliac disease and autoimmunity

  7. Los errores congénitos del metabolismo como enfermedades raras con un planteamiento global específico Inborn errors of metabolism as rare diseases with a specific global situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sanjurjo

    2008-01-01

    result in the alteration of a protein. Depending on this protein’s function - whether as an enzyme, a hormone, a receiver-transporter of a cellular membrane or forming part of a cellular organelle (lysosome, peroxysome - different groups of diseases emerge, which cause the most outstanding characteristic of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM: their clinical heterogeneity. The majority of these diseases are autosomal recessive, with a limited number of asymptomatic carriers, but there are also those ruled by an autonomous, dominant character inheritance or linked to the X chromosome. Taken individually, CMDs are highly infrequent, but taken as a whole CMDs (of which over 500 have been described to date can affect 1/500 of the newborn. A common characteristic of many CMDs is the possibility of dietary treatment and treatment with enzymatic replacement. For essentially didactic purposes the following groups should be considered: CMDs of the intermediary metabolism (whose types are intoxication and energy deficit, CMDs of cellular organelles, complex CMDs due to cycle alterations and others. A summary is presented of the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of one disease of each type of those previously described: hyperphenylalaninemias, deficiencies of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorilation (OXPHOS and lysosomal storage diseases.

  8. The inborn errors of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianey-Liaud, C; Divry, P; Gregersen, N; Mathieu, M

    1987-01-01

    To date, seven inborn errors of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation have been identified. A total of about 100 patients in the world have been reported. Clinically the beta-oxidation defects are more often characterized by episodic hypoglycaemia leading to a coma mimicking Reye's syndrome. The hypoglycaemia is non-ketotic since the synthesis of ketone bodies is deficient. Periods of decompensation occur when carbohydrate supply is poor, e.g. prolonged fasting, vomiting, or increased caloric requirements, as and when lipid stores are used. Defects in beta-oxidation have also been reported to be one cause of sudden infant death syndrome. The diagnosis of these inborn errors is by biochemical investigation since where symptoms suggest such a defect, the precise aetiology cannot be assessed. The biochemical diagnosis is based firstly on identification of abnormal plasma and of urinary metabolites during acute attacks. Derivatives of the omega-oxidation and omega-1-oxidation of medium chain fatty acids have been identified, as well as acylglycine and acylcarnitine conjugates. These metabolites are nearly always absent when patients are in good clinical condition. Secondly, the diagnosis must be based on the identification of the enzymatic defects: this involves global assays which allow a localization of the 'level' of the defect (i.e. the oxidation of long, medium or short chain fatty acids) and specific measurement of enzyme activities (acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and electron carriers: ETF and ETF-DH). The diagnosis of these disorders is of prime importance because of the severity of the clinical symptoms. These can be prevented, in some cases, by an appropriate diet (a high carbohydrate, low fat diet, sometimes supplemented with L-carnitine). In other cases, genetic counselling can be offered.

  9. Inborn Errors of Fructose Metabolism. What Can We Learn from Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Christel

    2017-04-03

    Fructose is one of the main sweetening agents in the human diet and its ingestion is increasing globally. Dietary sugar has particular effects on those whose capacity to metabolize fructose is limited. If intolerance to carbohydrates is a frequent finding in children, inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are rare conditions. Three inborn errors are known in the pathway of fructose metabolism; (1) essential or benign fructosuria due to fructokinase deficiency; (2) hereditary fructose intolerance; and (3) fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. In this review the focus is set on the description of the clinical symptoms and biochemical anomalies in the three inborn errors of metabolism. The potential toxic effects of fructose in healthy humans also are discussed. Studies conducted in patients with inborn errors of fructose metabolism helped to understand fructose metabolism and its potential toxicity in healthy human. Influence of fructose on the glycolytic pathway and on purine catabolism is the cause of hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis and hyperuricemia. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provided new understandings into pathogenesis for these frequent diseases.

  10. Distilling pathophysiology from complex disease genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clark, Andrew G; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2013-09-26

    Technologies for genome-wide sequence interrogation have dramatically improved our ability to identify loci associated with complex human disease. However, a chasm remains between correlations and causality that stems, in part, from a limiting theoretical framework derived from Mendelian genetics and an incomplete understanding of disease physiology. Here we propose a set of criteria, akin to Koch's postulates for infectious disease, for assigning causality between genetic variants and human disease phenotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetics of Behçet's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer İrfan Kaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet's disease (BD is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized mainly by recurrent oral and genital ulcers and eye involvement. Although the pathogenesis remains poorly understood, a variety of studies have demonstrated that genetic predisposition is a major factor in disease susceptibility. Peculiar geographical distribution of BD along the ancient Silk Road has been regarded as evidence supporting genetic influence. The observed aggregation of BD in families of patients with BD is also supportive for a genetic component in its etiology. HLA-B51 (B510101 subtype is the most strongly associated genetic marker for BD in countries on the Silk Road. In recent years, several genome-wide association studies and genetic polymorphism studies have also found new genetic associations with BD, which may have a supplementary role in disease susceptibility and/or severity. The author reviewed the HLA and non-HLA genetic association studies.

  12. The genetic background of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Rotter, J I

    2000-01-01

    Available evidence indicates that genetic factors are essential in providing the susceptibility to the majority of the various forms of inflammatory bowel disease occurring in man. It is also clear that the genetic susceptibility to these diseases is complex, and that more than one gene may predispose (the concept of multilocus/oligogenic inheritance), and likely in different etiologic combinations (the concept of genetic heterogeneity). Paradigms are now available that should lead to the identification of a number of these predisposing genes. These paradigms include the candidate gene approach, systematic genome wide scans, and mouse human synteny. While genome wide scans are currently limited to multiplex family linkage studies, both candidate genes and mouse human synteny can be approached in either linkage or association paradigms. Eventually whole genome association studies will be available as well. Identification of inflammatory bowel disease predisposing genes should lead to their incorporation in studies of natural history, investigation of environmental risk factors, and especially utilization of genetic markers in clinical trials. This will allow us to identify the best therapy available for the individual patient based on their unique genetic constitution. With advances in molecular technology, the search for genes influencing traits and diseases with a complex genetic background, such as the inflammatory bowel diseases, has become a realistic task. Although exogenous or infectious agents may contribute to the pathogenesis or may trigger the onset of disease, and the immune system almost certainly mediates the tissue damage, it is clear from available data that genetic factors determine the susceptibility of a given individual to inflammatory bowel disease (reviewed below). Thus, genetic studies are essential for the delineation of the basic etiologies of the various forms of inflammatory bowel disease and thus can aid in the development of radically

  13. Genetic variants in periodontal health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L. [Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Dentistry; Kobayashi, Junya [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Genome Repair Dynamics

    2010-07-01

    Periodontitis is a complex, multifactorial disease and its susceptibility is genetically determined. The present book systematically reviews the evidence of the association between the genetic variants and periodontitis progression and/or treatment outcomes. Genetic syndromes known to be associated with periodontal disease, the candidate gene polymorphisms investigated in relation to periodontitis, the heritability of chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as common guidelines for association studies are described. This growing understanding of the role of genetic variation in inflammation and periodontal chronic disease presents opportunities to identify healthy persons who are at increased risk of disease and to potentially modify the trajectory of disease to prolong healthy aging. The book represents a new concept in periodontology with its pronounced focus on understanding through knowledge rather than presenting the presently valid answers. Connections between genetics and periodontology are systematically reviewed and covered in detail. (orig.)

  14. Genetics of autoimmune diseases: insights from population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paula S; Shedlock, Andrew M; Langefeld, Carl D

    2015-11-01

    Human genetic diversity is the result of population genetic forces. This genetic variation influences disease risk and contributes to health disparities. Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are a family of complex heterogeneous disorders with similar underlying mechanisms characterized by immune responses against self. Collectively, ADs are common, exhibit gender and ethnic disparities, and increasing incidence. As natural selection is an important influence on human genetic variation, and immune function genes are enriched for signals of positive selection, it is thought that the prevalence of AD risk alleles seen in different population is partially the result of differing selective pressures (for example, due to pathogens). With the advent of high-throughput technologies, new analytical methodologies and large-scale projects, evidence for the role of natural selection in contributing to the heritable component of ADs keeps growing. This review summarizes the genetic regions associated with susceptibility to different ADs and concomitant evidence for selection, including known agents of selection exerting selective pressure in these regions. Examples of specific adaptive variants with phenotypic effects are included as an evidence of natural selection increasing AD susceptibility. Many of the complexities of gene effects in different ADs can be explained by population genetics phenomena. Integrating AD susceptibility studies with population genetics to investigate how natural selection has contributed to genetic variation that influences disease risk will help to identify functional variants and elucidate biological mechanisms. As such, the study of population genetics in human population holds untapped potential for elucidating the genetic causes of human disease and more rapidly focusing to personalized medicine.

  15. Coeliac disease and autoimmune disease-genetic overlap and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Knut E A; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2015-09-01

    Coeliac disease is a treatable, gluten-induced disease that often occurs concurrently with other autoimmune diseases. In genetic studies since 2007, a partial genetic overlap between these diseases has been revealed and further insights into the pathophysiology of coeliac disease and autoimmunity have been gained. However, genetic screening is not sensitive and specific enough to accurately predict disease development. The current method to diagnose individuals with coeliac disease is serological testing for the presence of autoantibodies whilst the patient is on a regular, gluten-containing diet, followed by gastroduodenoscopy with duodenal biopsy. Serological test results can also predict the probability of coeliac disease development, even if asymptomatic. In patients with autoimmune diseases known to occur alongside coeliac disease (particularly type 1 diabetes mellitus or thyroid disorders), disease screening-and subsequent treatment if coeliac disease is detected-could have beneficial effects on progression or potential complications of both diseases, owing to the effectiveness of gluten-free dietary interventions in coeliac disease. However, whether diagnosis of coeliac disease and subsequent dietary treatment can prevent autoimmune diseases is debated. In this Review, the genetic and immunological features of coeliac disease, overlap with other autoimmune diseases and implications for current screening strategies will be discussed.

  16. Inborn errors of metabolism in children referred with Reye's Syndrome: a changing pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, P.C.; Valle, D.; Brusilow, S.W.

    1988-12-02

    Genetic disorders were identified infrequently among children presenting Reye's syndrome in the past. During a two-year period, the authors evaluated four consecutive patients referred for intensive care of Reye's syndrome. A standard investigation for inborn errors of metabolism revealed that two patients had enzymatic defects of fatty acid oxidation, and the other two had partial deficiencies of ornithine transcarbamoylase. None had experienced a previous episode of Reye's syndrome, and three of the four had been entirely healthy in the past. Their experience suggests that as the incidence of Reye's syndrome has decreased, patients with its clinical features are not more likely to have manageable inborn errors of metabolism (eg, disorders of ureagenesis, ketogenesis, and branched-chain amino acids).

  17. Applying genetics in inflammatory disease drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkersen, Lasse; Biswas, Shameek; Frederiksen, Klaus Stensgaard

    2015-01-01

    Recent groundbreaking work in genetics has identified thousands of small-effect genetic variants throughout the genome that are associated with almost all major diseases. These genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are often proposed as a source of future medical breakthroughs. However......, with several notable exceptions, the journey from a small-effect genetic variant to a functional drug has proven arduous, and few examples of actual contributions to drug discovery exist. Here, we discuss novel approaches of overcoming this hurdle by using instead public genetics resources as a pragmatic guide...... alongside existing drug discovery methods. Our aim is to evaluate human genetic confidence as a rationale for drug target selection....

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Kawasaki disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Kawasaki disease Kawasaki disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Kawasaki disease is a sudden and time-limited (acute) ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Hartnup disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Hartnup disease Hartnup disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Hartnup disease is a condition caused by the body's ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Krabbe disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources (3 links) MalaCards: krabbe disease Orphanet: Krabbe disease Tulane University Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases Hunter's Hope Foundation National Organization for Rare Disorders ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions celiac disease celiac disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Celiac disease is a condition in which the immune system ...

  2. Coeliac disease : investigation of the genetic factors underlying coeliac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, M.J. (Martine Juliana) van

    2003-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a common food intolerance with a complex genetic aetiology. It is caused by ingestion of gluten peptides from wheat and related proteins from barley and rye in genetically susceptible individuals. The disease affects the small intestine and leads to abnormalities ranging from the

  3. Coeliac disease : investigation of the genetic factors underlying coeliac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, M.J. (Martine Juliana) van

    2004-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a common food intolerance with a complex genetic aetiology. It is caused by ingestion of gluten peptides from wheat and related proteins from barley and rye in genetically susceptible individuals. The disease affects the small intestine and leads to abnormalities ranging from the

  4. [The genetics of collagen diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J; Maroteaux, P; Frezal, J

    1986-01-01

    Heritable disorders of collagen include Ehler-Danlos syndromes (11 types are actually known), Larsen syndrome and osteogenesis imperfecta. Their clinical, genetic and biochemical features are reviewed. Marfan syndrome is closely related to heritable disorders of collagen.

  5. Genetic variants associated with Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sonia Michail,1 Gilberto Bultron,1 R William DePaolo2 1The University of Southern California, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Crohn's disease is an immune-related disorder characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which can occur in any area throughout the digestive tract. This life-long disease commonly presents with abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss. While the exact etiology of this disease is largely unknown, it is thought to arise from an interaction between microbial, immunological, and environmental factors in a genetically susceptible host, whereby the immune system attacks the intestine as it cross reacts against gut microbial antigens. The study of genetic variants associated with Crohn's disease has shed light on our understanding of disease pathophysiology. A large number of genetic variants identified in Crohn's disease are related to genes targeting microbial recognition and bacterial wall sensing, the most common being NOD2/CARD15 gene. This review will discuss the recent advance in our knowledge of genetic variants of this disease and how they influence the disease course and prognosis. Keywords: Crohn's disease, genetics, autophagy

  6. Genetically Modified Pig Models for Human Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nana Fan; Liangxue Lai

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified animal models are important for understanding the pathogenesis of human disease and developing therapeutic strategies.Although genetically modified mice have been widely used to model human diseases,some of these mouse models do not replicate important disease symptoms or pathology.Pigs are more similar to humans than mice in anatomy,physiology,and genome.Thus,pigs are considered to be better animal models to mimic some human diseases.This review describes genetically modified pigs that have been used to model various diseases including neurological,cardiovascular,and diabetic disorders.We also discuss the development in gene modification technology that can facilitate the generation of transgenic pig models for human diseases.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Garbern JY. Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease: pathogenic mechanisms and insights into the roles of proteolipid protein 1 in ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Fabry disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AJ, Germain DP, Goldman M, Grabowski G, Packman S, Wilcox WR. Fabry disease, an under-recognized multisystemic disorder: ... Sims K, Brodie SE, Pastores GM, Strotmann JM, Wilcox WR. Fabry disease: guidelines for the evaluation and ...

  9. Genetics of Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Michael R; Lewthwaite, Alistair J; Nicholl, David J

    2007-06-01

    The past 10 years has seen a shift in our etiological concepts of Parkinson's disease, moving from a nearly exclusively environmentally mediated disease towards a complex disorder with important genetic contributors. The identification of responsible mutations in certain genes, particularly alpha-synuclein, Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1 and LRRK2, has increased our understanding of the clinical and pathological changes underlying Parkinson's disease, with implications for patient diagnosis, management and future research. This review will outline the specific genetic advances, discuss their implications for clinical practice and hint at future directions for research into this common and disabling disease.

  10. Genetic and bibliographic information: KRT5 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KRT5 keratin 5 human epidermolysis bullosa simplex (MeSH) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases...genital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities (C16) > Genetic Diseases..., Inborn (C16.320) > Skin Diseases, Genetic (C16.320.850) > Epidermolysis Bullosa (C16.320.850.275) > Ep...idermolysis Bullosa Simplex (C16.320.850.275.180) Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases (C17) > Skin Diseases ....493) > Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex (C17.800.804.493.180) Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases (C17) > Skin Diseases

  11. Body composition in young adults with inborn errors of protein metabolism--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, G; Strauss, B J G; Francis, D E M; Upton, H; Boneh, A

    2005-01-01

    The natural history of inborn errors of protein metabolism and the long-term effects of prescribed semisynthetic therapeutic diets are largely unknown. We assessed body composition, measuring body-fat mass and distribution, fat-free mass, total body protein, total body potassium, bone density and skeletal muscle mass, in young adults (age > 18 years; 6 female, 5 male) with inborn errors of protein metabolism maintained on long-term low-protein diets, compared with controls. Female patients were significantly shorter (159.4 cm vs 169.2 cm, p = 0.013) and had higher BMI (25.3 vs 22.0 kg/m2, p metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in this population.

  12. Inborn anemias in mice: (Annual report, 1980-1981)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, S.E.

    1981-07-02

    The basic purpose of this study is the delineation and exploitation of inborn anemias of the laboratory mouse, carried out by utilization of genetically homogeneous stocks segregating only for anemia-producing genes; by physiological and histological descriptions of each condition at all stages in the life history; by determination of tissue sites of primary gene action through tissue culture studies, tissue transplantation and parabiosis experiments; by analysis of reactions of normal and anemic mice to a variety of stressful stimuli, including x-irradiation, hypoxia, and toxic chemicals, and by biochemical comparisons between tissues, especially erythrocytes and hemopoietic cells of normal vs each type of anemic mouse. At present 16 single-locus anemias are known in the mouse, plus one with multifactorial inheritance (the autoimmune hemolytic anemia of NZB inbred mice). Of these, six are maintained only by the Jackson Laboratory, and two others have but one additional source. Effects of anemia-producing mutant alleles of these loci (an; f; ja; ha; Hba/sup th/; mk; nb; Sl and Sl/sup d/; sla; sph; and W, W/sup v/, W/sup J/ and 10 other putative W-alleles) are currently under investigation at the Jackson Laboratory. 15 refs.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Wilson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body. Mutations in the ATP7B gene prevent the transport protein from functioning properly. With a shortage of functional ... GeneReview: Wilson Disease MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Wilson's disease National Human Genome Research Institute General Information from MedlinePlus (5 ...

  14. Parkinson's disease: piecing together a genetic jigsaw.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.J. Dekker (Marieke); V. Bonifati (Vincenzo); C.M. van Duijn (Cock)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe role of genetics in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease has been subject to debate for decades. In recent years, the discovery of five genes and several more loci has provided important insight into its molecular aetiology. Some Parkinson's disease genes possibly cause

  15. A genetic perspective on coeliac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trynka, Gosia; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Heel, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Coeliac disease is an inflammatory disorder of the small intestine with an autoimmune component and strong heritability. Genetic studies have confirmed strong association to HLA and identified 39 nonHLA risk genes, mostly immune-related. Over 50% of the disease-associated single nucleotide

  16. Introduction to Protein Structure through Genetic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tanya L.; Linton, Brian R.

    2008-01-01

    An illuminating way to learn about protein function is to explore high-resolution protein structures. Analysis of the proteins involved in genetic diseases has been used to introduce students to protein structure and the role that individual mutations can play in the onset of disease. Known mutations can be correlated to changes in protein…

  17. Introduction to Protein Structure through Genetic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tanya L.; Linton, Brian R.

    2008-01-01

    An illuminating way to learn about protein function is to explore high-resolution protein structures. Analysis of the proteins involved in genetic diseases has been used to introduce students to protein structure and the role that individual mutations can play in the onset of disease. Known mutations can be correlated to changes in protein…

  18. Parkinson's disease: piecing together a genetic jigsaw.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.J. Dekker (Marieke); V. Bonifati (Vincenzo); C.M. van Duijn (Cock)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe role of genetics in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease has been subject to debate for decades. In recent years, the discovery of five genes and several more loci has provided important insight into its molecular aetiology. Some Parkinson's disease genes possibly cause Parkinson'

  19. Genetic Testing in Huntington’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1997-01-01

    The historical and clinical profiles of Huntington’s disease (HD) presenting in 44 juveniles who were tested for CAG repeat expansions in the gene for HD were defined in a study reported by the US Huntington Disease Genetic Testing Group from the Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN.

  20. Review article : inflammatory bowel disease and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weersma, R. K.; Van Dullemen, H. M.; Van der Steege, G.; Nolte, I. M.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Dijkstra, G.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprising ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) is multigenic disorder. Tremendous progress has been achieved in unravelling the genetic background of IBD. It has led to the discovery of mutations in NOD2 associated with ileal CD and numerous

  1. Inborn Errors of Intermediary Metabolism in Critically Ill Mexican Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra-González Isabel MSc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inborn errors of intermediary metabolism (IEiM are complex diseases with high clinical heterogeneity, and some patients who have severe enzyme deficiencies or are subjected to stress (catabolism/infections actually decompensate in the neonatal period. In this study, we performed metabolic tests on 2025 newborns in Mexico admitted to 35 neonatal intensive care units or emergency wards (NICUs/EWs over a 6-year period, in whom a metabolic disorder was clinically suspected. Of these 2025 newborns with sickness, 11 had IEiM, revealing a prevalence of 1:184. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of the newborns with confirmed IEiM are shown. Of these 11 patients, 4 had isolated methylmalonic acidemia, 3 had maple syrup urine disease, 2 had urea cycle disorders, 1 had 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acidemia, and 1 had isovaleric acidemia. During the first week of life (average 3 days, all of these newborns presented with impaired alertness, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and vomiting along with metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia. Of the 11 newborns with IEiM, 7 died, leading to a mortality rate of 64%. In conclusion, the differential diagnosis of newborns admitted to the NICU/EW must include IEiM, requiring systematic screening of this population.

  2. Nutrition and genetic susceptibility to common diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G

    1992-06-01

    Genetic factors play a role in chronic disease and conditions such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, and obesity. Individual responses to nutritional factors involved in such conditions vary depending upon a person's genetic make-up. The role of individual genes is best understood for the hyperlipidemias that predispose to coronary heart disease. Until more and better information on gene-nutritional interactions is available, general population-wide recommendations regarding a prudent diet appear reasonable. At the same time, high risk screening for certain conditions such as the hyperlipidemias is appropriate.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Caffey disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not experience its signs or symptoms; this phenomenon is called incomplete penetrance. In some cases, an ... O, Phadke SR. COL1A1 mutation in an Indian child with Caffey disease. Indian J Pediatr. 2011 Jul; ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Schindler disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spectrum disorders are characterized by impaired communication and socialization skills. Related Information What does it mean if ... deficiency Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) ISMRD: The ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Tangier disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characterized by significantly reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein ( HDL ) in the blood. HDL transports cholesterol and ... This Condition A-alphalipoprotein Neuropathy alpha High Density Lipoprotein Deficiency Disease Analphalipoproteinemia Cholesterol thesaurismosis Familial High Density ...

  6. Huntington’s Disease Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Richard H Myers

    2004-01-01

    Summary:Huntington’s disease (HD) is a dominantly transmitted neurodegenerative disorder with wide variation in onset age but with an average age at onset of 40 years. Children of HD gene carriers have a 50% chance of inheriting the disease. The characteristic symptoms of HD are involuntary choreiform movements, cognitive impairment, mood disorders, and behavioral changes which are chronic and progressive over the course of the illness. HD is a “trinucleotide repeat” disorder, which is caused...

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease: Genetic and epidemiologic considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judy H Cho

    2008-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have firmly established that many genomic loci contribute to inflammatory bowel disease, especially in Crohn's disease. These studies have newly-established the importance of the interleukin 23 and autophagy pathways in disease pathogenesis. Future challenges include: (1) the establishment of precisely causal alleles, (2) definition of altered functional outcomes of associated and causal alleles and (3) integration of genetic findings with environmental factors.

  8. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  9. Incidence of Inborn Errors of Metabolism by Expanded Newborn Screening in a Mexican Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Cantú-Reyna MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Newborn screening for the detection of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM, endocrinopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and other disorders is a public health initiative aimed at identifying specific diseases in a timely manner. Mexico initiated newborn screening in 1973, but the national incidence of this group of diseases is unknown or uncertain due to the lack of large sample sizes of expanded newborn screening (ENS programs and lack of related publications. The incidence of a specific group of IEM, endocrinopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and other disorders in newborns was obtained from a Mexican hospital. These newborns were part of a comprehensive ENS program at Ginequito (a private hospital in Mexico, from January 2012 to August 2014. The retrospective study included the examination of 10 000 newborns’ results obtained from the ENS program (comprising the possible detection of more than 50 screened disorders. The findings were the following: 34 newborns were confirmed with an IEM, endocrinopathies, hemoglobinopathies, or other disorders and 68 were identified as carriers. Consequently, the estimated global incidence for those disorders was 3.4 in 1000 newborns; and the carrier prevalence was 6.8 in 1000. Moreover, a 0.04% false-positive rate was unveiled as soon as diagnostic testing revealed negative results. The most frequent diagnosis was glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; and in the case of carriers, it was hemoglobinopathies. The benefit of the ENS is clear as it offers prompt treatment on the basis of an early diagnosis including proper genetic counseling. Furthermore, these results provide a good estimation of the frequencies of different forms of newborn IEM, endocrinopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and other disorders at Ginequito.

  10. Incidence of Inborn Errors of Metabolism by Expanded Newborn Screening in a Mexican Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Cantú-Reyna MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Newborn screening for the detection of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM, endocrinopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and other disorders is a public health initiative aimed at identifying specific diseases in a timely manner. Mexico initiated newborn screening in 1973, but the national incidence of this group of diseases is unknown or uncertain due to the lack of large sample sizes of expanded newborn screening (ENS programs and lack of related publications. The incidence of a specific group of IEM, endocrinopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and other disorders in newborns was obtained from a Mexican hospital. These newborns were part of a comprehensive ENS program at Ginequito (a private hospital in Mexico, from January 2012 to August 2014. The retrospective study included the examination of 10 000 newborns’ results obtained from the ENS program (comprising the possible detection of more than 50 screened disorders. The findings were the following: 34 newborns were confirmed with an IEM, endocrinopathies, hemoglobinopathies, or other disorders and 68 were identified as carriers. Consequently, the estimated global incidence for those disorders was 3.4 in 1000 newborns; and the carrier prevalence was 6.8 in 1000. Moreover, a 0.04% false-positive rate was unveiled as soon as diagnostic testing revealed negative results. The most frequent diagnosis was glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; and in the case of carriers, it was hemoglobinopathies. The benefit of the ENS is clear as it offers prompt treatment on the basis of an early diagnosis including proper genetic counseling. Furthermore, these results provide a good estimation of the frequencies of different forms of newborn IEM, endocrinopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and other disorders at Ginequito.

  11. Genetics of Parkinson disease and essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wider, Christian; Ross, Owen A; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2010-08-01

    Elucidating the genetic background of Parkinson disease and essential tremor is crucial to understand the pathogenesis and improve diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. A number of approaches have been applied including familial and association studies, and studies of gene expression profiles to identify genes involved in susceptibility to Parkinson disease. These studies have nominated a number of candidate Parkinson disease genes and novel loci including Omi/HtrA2, GIGYF2, FGF20, PDXK, EIF4G1 and PARK16. A recent notable finding has been the confirmation for the role of heterozygous mutations in glucocerebrosidase (GBA) as risk factors for Parkinson disease. Finally, association studies have nominated genetic variation in the leucine-rich repeat and Ig containing 1 gene (LINGO1) as a risk for both Parkinson disease and essential tremor, providing the first genetic evidence of a link between the two conditions. Although undoubtedly genes remain to be identified, considerable progress has been achieved in the understanding of the genetic basis of Parkinson disease. This same effort is now required for essential tremor. The use of next-generation high-throughput sequencing and genotyping technologies will help pave the way for future insight leading to advances in diagnosis, prevention and cure.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: prion disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein called prion protein (PrP). Although the precise function of this protein is unknown, researchers have proposed roles in several ... promote its transformation into PrP Sc . The abnormal protein builds up in the brain, forming ... have no family history of the disease and no identified mutation in ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: multiminicore disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Page Ferreiro A, Estournet B, Chateau D, Romero NB, Laroche C, Odent S, Toutain A, Cabello A, Fontan D, dos Santos HG, Haenggeli CA, Bertini E, Urtizberea JA, Guicheney P, Fardeau M. Multi-minicore disease--searching for ... Straub V, Villanova M, Leroy JP, Romero NB, Martin JJ, Muntoni F, Voit T, Estournet ...

  14. [Complex diseases: the importance of genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libioulle, C; Bours, V

    2012-01-01

    Complex diseases usually harbour hereditary factors linked with multiple susceptibility genes. The additive effects of genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the pathology. The impact of heredity has been demonstrated through family studies, but also, and mostly, through the study of adopted people and twins. Recently, genome wide association studies (GWAS) allowed the identification of many susceptibility genes for most complex diseases. However, a large part of the heritability is still missing, probably because of insufficient exploration of rare genetic variants and/or epigenetic factors. The ultimate goal of these genetic studies is the definition of an individual risk leading to specific preventive measures (model "predict and prevent"), but this purpose remains very remote for the majority of complex diseases.

  15. In vivo enzyme activity in inborn errors of metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.N.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Halliday, D. (Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (England))

    1990-08-01

    Low-dose continuous infusions of (2H5)phenylalanine, (1-13C)propionate, and (1-13C)leucine were used to quantitate phenylalanine hydroxylation in phenylketonuria (PKU, four subjects), propionate oxidation in methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA, four subjects), and propionic acidaemia (PA, four subjects) and leucine oxidation in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, four subjects). In vivo enzyme activity in PKU, MMA, and PA subjects was similar to or in excess of that in adult controls (range of phenylalanine hydroxylation in PKU, 3.7 to 6.5 mumol/kg/h, control 3.2 to 7.9, n = 7; propionate oxidation in MMA, 15.2 to 64.8 mumol/kg/h, and in PA, 11.1 to 36.0, control 5.1 to 19.0, n = 5). By contrast, in vivo leucine oxidation was undetectable in three of the four MSUD subjects (less than 0.5 mumol/kg/h) and negligible in the remaining subject (2 mumol/kg/h, control 10.4 to 15.7, n = 6). These results suggest that significant substrate removal can be achieved in some inborn metabolic errors either through stimulation of residual enzyme activity in defective enzyme systems or by activation of alternate metabolic pathways. Both possibilities almost certainly depend on gross elevation of substrate concentrations. By contrast, only minimal in vivo oxidation of leucine appears possible in MSUD.

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, T.; Thomsen, S.F.; Vestbo, J.

    2008-01-01

    smokers develop COPD. This indicates a genetic contribution to the individual disease susceptibility. Although many genes have been examined, the puzzle of COPD genetics seems still largely unsolved. It is therefore important to measure phenotypes and to perform genome-wide scans of COPD patients in order......Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow limitation and is associated with an inflammatory response of the lungs primarily caused by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is by far the most important environmental risk factor for COPD, but less than half of all heavy...

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, T.; Thomsen, S.F.; Vestbo, J.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow limitation and is associated with an inflammatory response of the lungs primarily caused by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is by far the most important environmental risk factor for COPD, but less than half of all heavy...... smokers develop COPD. This indicates a genetic contribution to the individual disease susceptibility. Although many genes have been examined, the puzzle of COPD genetics seems still largely unsolved. It is therefore important to measure phenotypes and to perform genome-wide scans of COPD patients in order...

  18. Genetic research in coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G

    1984-01-01

    Coronary heart disease research along genetic lines is difficult. Studies in molecular genetics of apolipoprotein and receptor variability appear most promising in the near future. However, unexpected discoveries and methodology may turn up that may completely change the field. Exclusive concentration on lipid research therefore should be avoided. It is likely that most advances will come from carefully designed studies that ask specific questions. Such research design is appropriate not only for laboratory studies but also for clinical and epidemiological investigations. The collaboration of clinicians, biochemists, geneticists, epidemiologists, and statisticians is likely to lead to better understanding of coronary heart disease.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... links) Genetic Testing Registry: Glycogen storage disease 0, muscle Genetic Testing Registry: Hypoglycemia with deficiency of glycogen synthetase in ... Sheet (PDF) Disease InfoSearch: Glycogen storage disease 0, ... Manual Consumer Version: Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Orphanet: Glycogen ...

  20. Novel genetic markers in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Genetic factors play a significant role in determining inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility. Epidemiologic data support genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of IBD, which include familial aggregation, twin studies, racial and ethnic differences in disease prevalence. Linkage studies have identified several susceptibility genes contained in different genomic regions named IBD1 to IBD9. Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD2) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most extensively studied genetic regions (IBD1 and IBD3 respectively) in IBD. Mutations of the NOD2 gene are associated with Crohn's disease (CD) and several HLA genes are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) and CD. Toll like receptors (TLRs) have an important role in the innate immune response against infections by mediating recognition of pathogen-associated microbial patterns. Studying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in molecules involved in bacterial recognition seems to be essential to define genetic backgrounds at risk of IBD. Recently, numerous new genes have been identified to be involved in the genetic susceptibility to IBD: NOD1/Caspase-activation recruitment domains 4 (CARD4), Chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), IL-11, and IL-18 among others. The characterization of these novel genes potentially will lead to the identification of therapeutic agents and clinical assessment of phenotype and prognosis in patients with IBD.

  1. The modular nature of genetic diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, M.O.; Brunner, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence from many sources suggests that similar phenotypes are begotten by functionally related genes. This is most obvious in the case of genetically heterogeneous diseases such as Fanconi anemia, Bardet-Biedl or Usher syndrome, where the various genes work together in a single biological module.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Paget disease of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clin Pathol. 2010 Mar;63(3):199-203. doi: 10.1136/jcp.2009.064428. Epub 2009 Oct 26. Review. Citation on PubMed Ralston SH, Albagha OM. Genetics of Paget's disease of bone. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2014 Sep;12(3):263-71. doi: 10.1007/s11914-014-0219-y. Review. Citation ...

  3. Genetic risk factors for autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feltkamp, T.E.W.; Aarden, L.A.; Lucas, C.J.; Verweij, C.L.; Vries, R.R.P. de

    1999-01-01

    In most autoimmune diseases multigenic factors play a significant role in pathogenesis. Progress in identifying these genetic factors, many of which are located outside the major histocompatibility complex, was the subject of a recent meeting. Chemicals/CAS: Interleukin-10, 130068-27-8; Transforming

  4. Genetic and bibliographic information: SLC6A8 [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (C10.597.606.643.455) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities (C16) > Genetic Diseases..., Inborn (C16.320) > Genetic Diseases, X-Linked (C16.320.322) > Mental Retardation, X-Linked (C16.320.322....500) Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities (C16) > Genetic Diseases...uman Mental Retardation, X-Linked (MeSH); X-linked mental retardation; non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation Nervous System Disea...ses (C10) > Neurologic Manifestations (C10.597) > Neurobehavioral Manifestations (C

  5. Inborn errors of metabolism in Latin America: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliani, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    Latin America includes more than 40 countries and possessions, and its population of 570 million has an important representation of the three main human races. The area is experiencing an economic improvement, progressively bringing the inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) to a higher level among health priorities. Challenges to the progress of the IEM field include the huge disparities, the high prevalence of malnutrition and infections, the co-existence of very different models of public health services, the unstable socio-economic and political conditions, and the difficulties in integrating the countries. However, a rapidly changing social and economic environment is presenting many opportunities to the IEM field, like the improvements in infrastructure, the concentration of the population in urban areas, the continuous growth of neonatal screening, the use of filter paper samples, the availability of internet communication, and the interest in IEM by the new population medical genetics discipline. Analyzing this picture, several proposals are presented, such as the development of activities of provision of health services, education and research as an integrated package, the increase in training of human resources, the expansion of access to diagnostic tests, and the use the neonatal screening framework to expand the provision of services. In a continent with few IEM centers, there is a major need for such groups to work in collaboration, complementing each other's capabilities, providing training of human resources, and developing joint projects. The integration of these groups into a large transnational network of reference centers would be a major task for the coming years.

  6. Infant with cardiomyopathy: When to suspect inborn errors of metabolism?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie; L; Byers; Can; Ficicioglu

    2014-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism are identified in 5%-26% of infants and children with cardiomyopathy. Although fatty acid oxidation disorders, lysosomal and glycogen storage disorders and organic acidurias are well-known to be associated with cardiomyopathies, emerging reports suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction and congenital disorders of glycosylation may also account for a proportion of cardiomyopathies. This review article clarifies when primary care physicians and cardiologists should suspect inborn errors of metabolism in a patient with cardiomyopathy, and refer the patient to a metabolic specialist for a further metabolic work up, with specific discussions of “red flags” which should prompt additional evaluation.

  7. Genetic diseases with rheumatic manifestations in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahalad, S; Colbert, R A

    1998-09-01

    Many nonrheumatic diseases of childhood present with musculoskeletal abnormalities. A significant proportion of these disorders have a genetic basis, many involving defects in structural proteins of the connective tissue. Chief among these are collagen mutations resulting in spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, as well as fibrillin defects associated with Marfan's syndrome. A variety of other chromosomal anomalies are associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities, and may result from as yet unidentified connective tissue defects. In addition, metabolic diseases may result in findings of hyper- or hypomobility, or carpal tunnel syndrome. Helpful clinical clues to identify nonrheumatologic musculoskeletal disease, as well as recent advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of several of these disorders, are reviewed here.

  8. Advances in the genetics of eye diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie; Freund, Paul R; MacDonald, Ian

    2013-12-01

    An update on heritable eye disease will allow informed patient counseling and improved patient care. New loci and genes have been associated with identifiable heritable ocular traits. Molecular genetic analysis is available for many of these genes either as part of research or for clinical testing. The advent of gene array technologies has enabled screening of samples for known mutations in genes linked to various disorders. Exomic sequencing has proven to be particularly successful in research protocols in identifying the genetic causation of rare genetic traits by pooling patient resources and discovering new genes. Further, genetic analysis has led improvement in patient care and counselling, as exemplified by the continued advances in our treatment of retinoblastoma. Patients and families are commonly eager to participate in either research or clinical testing to improve their understanding of the cause and heritability of an ocular condition. Many patients hope that testing will then lead to appropriate treatments or cures. The success of gene therapy in the RPE65 form of Leber congenital amaurosis has provided a brilliant example of this hope; that a similar trial may become available to other patients and families burdened by genetic disease.

  9. Complement genetics, deficiencies, and disease associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayilyan, Karine R

    2012-07-01

    The complement system is a key component of innate immunity. More than 45 genes encoding the proteins of complement components or their isotypes and subunits, receptors, and regulators have been discovered. These genes are distributed throughout different chromosomes, with 19 genes comprising three significant complement gene clusters in the human genome. Genetic deficiency of any early component of the classical pathway (C1q, C1r/s, C2, C4, and C3) is associated with autoimmune diseases due to the failure of clearance of immune complexes (IC) and apoptotic materials, and the impairment of normal humoral response. Deficiencies of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and the early components of the alternative (factor D, properdin) and terminal pathways (from C3 onward components: C5, C6, C7, C8, C9) increase susceptibility to infections and their recurrence. While the association of MBL deficiency with a number of autoimmune and infectious disorders has been well established, the effects of the deficiency of other lectin pathway components (ficolins, MASPs) have been less extensively investigated due to our incomplete knowledge of the genetic background of such deficiencies and the functional activity of those components. For complement regulators and receptors, the consequences of their genetic deficiency vary depending on their specific involvement in the regulatory or signalling steps within the complement cascade and beyond. This article reviews current knowledge and concepts about the genetic load of complement component deficiencies and their association with diseases. An integrative presentation of genetic data with the latest updates provides a background to further investigations of the disease association investigations of the complement system from the perspective of systems biology and systems genetics.

  10. A genetic future for coronary heart disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kate; Martin, Paul

    2008-04-01

    This paper is concerned with changing conceptions of genetic disease. It is based on an analysis of biomedical literature and focuses on the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) in four published commentary papers. The aim of this analysis is to explore the ways in which CHD is constructed as genetic and the place of genetic discourses in the wider set of ideas that circulate about the disease. This analysis is then used to consider some of the claims of the geneticisation thesis (Lippman 1991, 1992). The analysis suggests that a genetic vision for understanding and managing CHD has emerged, which has many of the hallmarks of the geneticisation imagined by Lippman. However, a number of alternative and competing models of CHD are also supported within the biomedical discourse. These are related to the different disciplines with a stake in the field of CHD, and their struggles for authority. In conclusion, it is suggested that the geneticisation thesis, as a universal claim, is at odds with the diffuse and distributed nature of biomedical knowledge and practice. Rather than analysing geneticisation in a literal way, it may be more fruitful to see the thesis, itself, as a form of boundary work (Gieryn 1983).

  11. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wolfsdorf JI, Watson MS; American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Diagnosis and management of glycogen storage disease type ... practice guideline of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Genet Med. 2014 Nov;16(11):e1. Citation ...

  12. New Genetic Insights from Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry F. Davies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs (Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are complex genetic diseases which most likely have more than 20 genes contributing to the clinical phenotypes. To date, the genes known to be contributing fall into two categories: immune regulatory genes (including HLA, CTLA4, PTPN22, CD40, CD25, and FCRL3 and thyroid-specific genes (TG and TSHR. However, none of these genes contribute more than a 4-fold increase in risk of developing one of these diseases, and none of the polymorphisms discovered is essential for disease development. Hence, it appears that a variety of different gene interactions can combine to cause the same clinical disease pattern, but the contributing genes may differ from patient to patient and from population to population. Furthermore, this possible mechanism leaves open the powerful influence of the environment and epigenetic modifications of gene expression. For the clinician, this means that genetic profiling of such patients is unlikely to be fruitful in the near future.

  13. [Molecular genetic investigations in muscular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgunder, J M

    2003-08-01

    The last couple of years have witnessed a rapid development in discoveries of the genetic background in myopathies. It is therefore timely to review the impact they have on clinical work. The recognition of a myopathy remains a clinical activity, and biopsy retains a major role. Molecular genetic investigation can be contemplated early in cases with certain typical clinical presentation. In others, the correct indication to such an investigation can only be made based on findings at biopsy. The information of precise mutation can be used for genetic counselling of the family. Knowledge of genes, whose mutations are sufficient to cause certain myopathies, have provided a great amount of knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms involved. Some are arguably rare diseases, however, this knowledge also helps understand more frequent myopathies, as it has been the case in neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Inborn errors of metabolism revealed by organic acid profile analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and types of inborn errors of amino ... of a metabolic disorder were studied, their ages ranged from 3 days to 12 years. ... cases (54 %), glutaric aciduria type I 3cases (13 %), phenylketonuria 2 cases (9 ...

  15. Prospective audit of perinatal mortality among inborn babies in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-05

    May 5, 2010 ... inborn babies in a tertiary health center in Lagos,. Nigeria. EN Ekure .... The inclusion criteria for this study were birth weight of at least 500 g and/or a .... Table 4: Wigglesworth classification of perinatal deaths. Birth weight (g).

  16. Genetics in Ophthalmology III – Posterior Segment Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Aslı Utine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diseases are congenital or acquired hereditary diseases that result from structural/functional disorders of the human genome. Today, the genetic factors that play a role in many diseases are being highlighted with the rapid progress in the field of genetics science. It becomes increasingly important that physicians from all disciplines have knowledge about the basic principles of genetics, patterns of inheritance, etc., so that they can follow the new developments. In genetic eye diseases, ophthalmologists should know the basic clinical and recently rapidly developing genetic characteristics of these diseases in order to properly approach the diagnosis and treatment and to provide genetic counseling. In this paper, posterior segment eye diseases of genetic origin are reviewed, and retinoblastoma, mitochondrial diseases, retinal dysplasia, retinitis pigmentosa, choroideremia, gyrate atrophy, Alström disease, ocular albinism, optic nerve hypoplasia, anophthalmia/microphthalmia and Leber’s congenital amaurosis are covered. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 386-92

  17. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  18. Genetic and environmental influences in Dupuytren's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren; Krogsgaard, D G; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard;

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relative contribution of genes and environment in the aetiology of Dupuytren's disease by studying Danish twins born between 1870 and 2000. Twins with a diagnosis (n = 365) and the subgroup who also had an operation (n = 259) after 1977 were identified through linkage...... is involved. The number of concordant male twin pairs with Dupuytren's disease was 17 and 7 (monozygotic and dizygotic pairs, respectively), compared with 60 and 174 discordant monozygotic and dizygotic pairs, yielding probandwise concordance rates of 0.37 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26 to 0.50) and 0.......07 (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.14), respectively. The heritability of Dupuytren's disease was approximately 80%. We conclude that genetic factors play a major role in the development of Dupuytren's disease....

  19. Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease: Vertebrate Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjong; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex genetic disorder that is associated with environmental risk factors and aging. Vertebrate genetic models, especially mice, have aided the study of autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive PD. Mice are capable of showing a broad range of phenotypes and, coupled with their conserved genetic and anatomical structures, provide unparalleled molecular and pathological tools to model human disease. These models used in combination with aging and PD-associated toxins have expanded our understanding of PD pathogenesis. Attempts to refine PD animal models using conditional approaches have yielded in vivo nigrostriatal degeneration that is instructive in ordering pathogenic signaling and in developing therapeutic strategies to cure or halt the disease. Here, we provide an overview of the generation and characterization of transgenic and knockout mice used to study PD followed by a review of the molecular insights that have been gleaned from current PD mouse models. Finally, potential approaches to refine and improve current models are discussed. PMID:22960626

  20. [Childhood genetic renal diseases in southern Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Daniel; Shalev, Hanna

    2010-03-01

    Genetic kidney diseases (GKDs) are an important and well-known entity in pediatric nephrology. Advances in genetic and molecular approaches in the last 15 years have enabled elucidation of the underlying molecular defects in many of these disorders. Herein, the authors summarize the progress that has been made over this period in disclosing the molecular basis of several novel GKDs which were characterized in this area and include Bartter syndrome type IV, type II Bartter syndrome and transient neonatal hyperkalemia, cystinuria and mental retardation, familial hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile nephronophthisis and familial hemolytic uremic syndrome with factor H deficiency. Retrospective analysis of the authors' data reveals that GKDs are over-represented among the pediatric population in southern Israel. GKD are seen 4 times more often than end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and comprise 38% of all cases of ESRD in our area. This high rate of GKD is mainly due to the high frequency of consanguineous marriages that prevails in this area. Understanding of the genetic and molecular background of these diseases is a result of a fruitful collaboration between the pediatric nephrologists and scientists, and has a direct implication on the diagnosis and treatment of the affected families.

  1. Unifying diseases from a genetic point of view: the example of the genetic theory of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrason, Marie

    2013-08-01

    In the contemporary biomedical literature, every disease is considered genetic. This extension of the concept of genetic disease is usually interpreted either in a trivial or genocentrist sense, but it is never taken seriously as the expression of a genetic theory of disease. However, a group of French researchers defend the idea of a genetic theory of infectious diseases. By identifying four common genetic mechanisms (Mendelian predisposition to multiple infections, Mendelian predisposition to one infection, and major gene and polygenic predispositions), they attempt to unify infectious diseases from a genetic point of view. In this article, I analyze this explicit example of a genetic theory, which relies on mechanisms and is applied only to a specific category of diseases, what we call "a regional genetic theory." I have three aims: to prove that a genetic theory of disease can be devoid of genocentrism, to consider the possibility of a genetic theory applied to every disease, and to introduce two hypotheses about the form that such a genetic theory could take by distinguishing between a genetic theory of diseases and a genetic theory of Disease. Finally, I suggest that network medicine could be an interesting framework for a genetic theory of Disease.

  2. Reflections on the Field of Human Genetics: A Call for Increased Disease Genetics Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrodi, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Development of human genetics theoretical models and the integration of those models with experiment and statistical evaluation are critical for scientific progress. This perspective argues that increased effort in disease genetics theory, complementing experimental, and statistical efforts, will escalate the unraveling of molecular etiologies of complex diseases. In particular, the development of new, realistic disease genetics models will help elucidate complex disease pathogenesis, and the predicted patterns in genetic data made by these models will enable the concurrent, more comprehensive statistical testing of multiple aspects of disease genetics predictions, thereby better identifying disease loci. By theoretical human genetics, I intend to encompass all investigations devoted to modeling the heritable architecture underlying disease traits and studies of the resulting principles and dynamics of such models. Hence, the scope of theoretical disease genetics work includes construction and analysis of models describing how disease-predisposing alleles (1) arise, (2) are transmitted across families and populations, and (3) interact with other risk and protective alleles across both the genome and environmental factors to produce disease states. Theoretical work improves insight into viable genetic models of diseases consistent with empirical results from linkage, transmission, and association studies as well as population genetics. Furthermore, understanding the patterns of genetic data expected under realistic disease models will enable more powerful approaches to discover disease-predisposing alleles and additional heritable factors important in common diseases. In spite of the pivotal role of disease genetics theory, such investigation is not particularly vibrant.

  3. Genetic Testing for Huntington's Disease in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M S; Nagai, Y; Popiel, H A; Fujikake, N; Okamoto, Y; Ahmed, M U; Islam, M A; Islam, M T; Ahmed, S; Rahman, K M; Uddin, M J; Dey, S K; Ahmed, Q; Hossain, M A; Jahan, N; Toda, T

    2010-10-01

    The study was conducted to find out Huntington's disease (HD) by genetic analysis from those presenting with parkinsonism in the Neurology department of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital. A sample of about 5ml blood was collected by veni puncture in EDTA tube with informed consent from 9 patients & 7 healthy individuals after approval of the institutional ethics committee for genetic study. The neurological disorder along with a complete history and physical findings were recorded in a prescribed questionnaire by the neurologists of Mymensingh Medical College & Hospital. Extraction of genomic DNA from the venous blood using FlexiGene DNA kit (Qiagen, Japan) was performed in Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The extracted DNA was stored and accumulated and then these DNA were sent to Division of Clinical Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan for PCR and further analysis. PCR amplification of the CAG repeat in the 1T15 gene was performed with primers HD1 and HD3. HD PCR products revealed the DNA product of about 110bp (no. of CAG repeats=21) to 150bp (no. of CAG repeats=34) in both healthy individual and suspected PD patient DNA.

  4. Large genetic animal models of Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A Jennifer; Howland, David S

    2013-01-01

    The dominant nature of the Huntington's disease gene mutation has allowed genetic models to be developed in multiple species, with the mutation causing an abnormal neurological phenotype in all animals in which it is expressed. Many different rodent models have been generated. The most widely used of these, the transgenic R6/2 mouse, carries the mutation in a fragment of the human huntingtin gene and has a rapidly progressive and fatal neurological phenotype with many relevant pathological changes. Nevertheless, their rapid decline has been frequently questioned in the context of a disease that takes years to manifest in humans, and strenuous efforts have been made to make rodent models that are genetically more 'relevant' to the human condition, including full length huntingtin gene transgenic and knock-in mice. While there is no doubt that we have learned, and continue to learn much from rodent models, their usefulness is limited by two species constraints. First, the brains of rodents differ significantly from humans in both their small size and their neuroanatomical organization. Second, rodents have much shorter lifespans than humans. Here, we review new approaches taken to these challenges in the development of models of Huntington's disease in large brained, long-lived animals. We discuss the need for such models, and how they might be used to fill specific niches in preclinical Huntington's disease research, particularly in testing gene-based therapeutics. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animals in which the prodromal period of disease extends over a long time span. We suggest that there is considerable 'value added' for large animal models in preclinical Huntington's disease research.

  5. Genetics in Ophthalmology II–Anterior Segment Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Aslı Utine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diseases are congenital or acquired hereditary diseases that result from structural/functional disorders of the human genome. Today, the genetic factors that play a role in many diseases are being highlighted with the rapid progress in the field of genetics science. It becomes increasingly important that physicians from all disciplines have knowledge about the basic principles of genetics, patterns of inheritance, etc., so that they can follow the new developments. In genetic eye diseases, ophthalmologists should know the basic clinical and recently rapidly developing genetic characteristics of these diseases in order to properly approach the diagnosis and treatment and to provide genetic counseling. In this paper, anterior segment eye diseases of genetic origin are reviewed, and aniridia, anterior segment dysgenesis, glaucoma, corneal dystrophies, cataract, ectopia lentis, myopia, and other refractive errors are covered. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 378-85

  6. Clinical implications of shared genetics and pathogenesis in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhernakova, Alexandra; Withoff, Sebo; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2013-11-01

    Many endocrine diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, Graves disease, Addison disease and Hashimoto disease, originate as an autoimmune reaction that affects disease-specific target organs. These autoimmune diseases are characterized by the development of specific autoantibodies and by the presence of autoreactive T cells. They are caused by a complex genetic predisposition that is attributable to multiple genetic variants, each with a moderate-to-low effect size. Most of the genetic variants associated with a particular autoimmune endocrine disease are shared between other systemic and organ-specific autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, coeliac disease, systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis. Here, we review the shared and specific genetic background of autoimmune diseases, summarize their treatment options and discuss how identifying the genetic and environmental factors that predispose patients to an autoimmune disease can help in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients, as well as the design of new treatments.

  7. Genetics of Crohn disease, an archetypal inflammatory barrier disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Albrecht, Mario; Hampe, Jochen; Krawczak, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Chronic inflammatory disorders such as Crohn disease, atopic eczema, asthma and psoriasis are triggered by hitherto unknown environmental factors that function on the background of some polygenic susceptibility. Recent technological advances have allowed us to unravel the genetic aetiology of these and other complex diseases. Using Crohn disease as an example, we show how the discovery of susceptibility genes furthers our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and how it will, ultimately, give rise to new therapeutic developments. The long-term goal of such endeavours is to develop targeted prophylactic strategies. These will probably target the molecular interaction on the mucosal surface between the products of the genome and the microbial metagenome of a patient.

  8. Database tools in genetic diseases research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Anna Monica; Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Zanin, Valentina; Girardelli, Martina; Vuch, Josef; Crovella, Sergio

    2013-02-01

    The knowledge of the human genome is in continuous progression: a large number of databases have been developed to make meaningful connections among worldwide scientific discoveries. This paper reviews bioinformatics resources and database tools specialized in disseminating information regarding genetic disorders. The databases described are useful for managing sample sequences, gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. In relation to data sets available from genome-wide association studies, we describe databases that could be the starting point for developing studies in the field of complex diseases, particularly those in which the causal genes are difficult to identify.

  9. Periodontal disease associated to systemic genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualart Grollmus, Zacy Carola; Morales Chávez, Mariana Carolina; Silvestre Donat, Francisco Javier

    2007-05-01

    A number of systemic disorders increase patient susceptibility to periodontal disease, which moreover evolves more rapidly and more aggressively. The underlying factors are mainly related to alterations in immune, endocrine and connective tissue status. These alterations are associated with different pathologies and syndromes that generate periodontal disease either as a primary manifestation or by aggravating a pre-existing condition attributable to local factors. This is where the role of bacterial plaque is subject to debate. In the presence of qualitative or quantitative cellular immune alterations, periodontal disease may manifest early on a severe localized or generalized basis--in some cases related to the presence of plaque and/or specific bacteria (severe congenital neutropenia or infantile genetic agranulocytosis, Chediak-Higiashi syndrome, Down syndrome and Papillon-Lefévre syndrome). In the presence of humoral immune alterations, periodontal damage may result indirectly as a consequence of alterations in other systems. In connective tissue disorders, bacterial plaque and alterations of the periodontal tissues increase patient susceptibility to gingival inflammation and alveolar resorption (Marfan syndrome and Ehler-Danlos syndrome). The management of periodontal disease focuses on the control of infection and bacterial plaque by means of mechanical and chemical methods. Periodontal surgery and even extraction of the most seriously affected teeth have also been suggested. There are variable degrees of consensus regarding the background systemic disorder, as in the case of Chediak-Higiashi syndrome, where antibiotic treatment proves ineffective; in severe congenital neutropenia or infantile genetic agranulocytosis, where antibiotic prophylaxis is suggested; and in Papillon-Lefévre syndrome, where an established treatment protocol is available.

  10. Shared genetic origins of allergy and autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waage, J. E.; Kreiner-Møller, E.; Standl, M.

    2015-01-01

    Parallel increases in allergy and autoimmune disease prevalence in recent time suggest shared, but yet unknown, etiologies. Here, we investigated shared genetic loci and molecular pathways to identify possible shared disease mechanisms between allergy and autoimmune diseases....

  11. Automated Screening for Three Inborn Metabolic Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inborn metabolic disorders (IMDs form a large group of rare, but often serious, metabolic disorders. Aims: Our objective was to construct a decision tree, based on classification algorithm for the data on three metabolic disorders, enabling us to take decisions on the screening and clinical diagnosis of a patient. Settings and Design: A non-incremental concept learning classification algorithm was applied to a set of patient data and the procedure followed to obtain a decision on a patient’s disorder. Materials and Methods: Initially a training set containing 13 cases was investigated for three inborn errors of metabolism. Results: A total of thirty test cases were investigated for the three inborn errors of metabolism. The program identified 10 cases with galactosemia, another 10 cases with fructosemia and the remaining 10 with propionic acidemia. The program successfully identified all the 30 cases. Conclusions: This kind of decision support systems can help the healthcare delivery personnel immensely for early screening of IMDs.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a site of injury or disease to fight microbial invaders and facilitate tissue repair. When this has ... What are the different ways in which a genetic condition can be inherited? More about Inheriting Genetic ...

  13. Rare inborn errors of metabolism with movement disorders : a case study to evaluate the impact upon quality of life and adaptive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Hendriekje; Kuiper, Anouk; Peall, Kathryn J.; Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Bosch, Annet M.; Post, Bart; Sival, Deborah A.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; de Koning, Tom J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) form an important cause of movement disorders in children. The impact of metabolic diseases and concordant movement disorders upon children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its physical and psychosocial domains of functioning has never been

  14. Genetic Diseases and Genetic Determinism Models in French Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, Jeremy; Bruguiere, Catherine; Clement, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of genetic diseases in French secondary school biology textbooks is analysed to determine the major conceptions taught in the field of human genetics. References to genetic diseases, and the processes by which they are explained (monogeny, polygeny, chromosomal anomaly and environmental influence) are studied in recent French…

  15. Genetic Diseases and Genetic Determinism Models in French Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castera, Jeremy; Bruguiere, Catherine; Clement, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of genetic diseases in French secondary school biology textbooks is analysed to determine the major conceptions taught in the field of human genetics. References to genetic diseases, and the processes by which they are explained (monogeny, polygeny, chromosomal anomaly and environmental influence) are studied in recent French…

  16. Genetics Home Reference: chylomicron retention disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a rare condition with approximately 40 cases described worldwide. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic conditions more common ...

  17. Landscape genetics and the spatial distribution of chronic wasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A; Samuel, Michael D; Scribner, Kim T; Weckworth, Byron V; Langenberg, Julia A; Filcek, Kristine B

    2008-02-23

    Predicting the spread of wildlife disease is critical for identifying populations at risk, targeting surveillance and designing proactive management programmes. We used a landscape genetics approach to identify landscape features that influenced gene flow and the distribution of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in Wisconsin white-tailed deer. CWD prevalence was negatively correlated with genetic differentiation of study area deer from deer in the area of disease origin (core-area). Genetic differentiation was greatest, and CWD prevalence lowest, in areas separated from the core-area by the Wisconsin River, indicating that this river reduced deer gene flow and probably disease spread. Features of the landscape that influence host dispersal and spatial patterns of disease can be identified based on host spatial genetic structure. Landscape genetics may be used to predict high-risk populations based on their genetic connection to infected populations and to target disease surveillance, control and preventative activities.

  18. Landscape genetics and the spatial distribution of chronic wasting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Samuel, M.D.; Scribner, K.T.; Weckworth, B.V.; Langenberg, J.A.; Filcek, K.B.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting the spread of wildlife disease is critical for identifying populations at risk, targeting surveillance and designing proactive management programmes. We used a landscape genetics approach to identify landscape features that influenced gene flow and the distribution of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in Wisconsin white-tailed deer. CWD prevalence was negatively correlated with genetic differentiation of study area deer from deer in the area of disease origin (core-area). Genetic differentiation was greatest, and CWD prevalence lowest, in areas separated from the core-area by the Wisconsin River, indicating that this river reduced deer gene flow and probably disease spread. Features of the landscape that influence host dispersal and spatial patterns of disease can be identified based on host spatial genetic structure. Landscape genetics may be used to predict high-risk populations based on their genetic connection to infected populations and to target disease surveillance, control and preventative activities. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  19. Genetics and cardiovascular disease: the impact of molecular diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengoechea, Jaime; McKelvey, Kent D

    2013-04-01

    Information technology is exponentially reducing the cost of genetic testing while multiple clinical applications emerge. Genetic diagnosis increasingly impacts prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease. In cardiovascular medicine, the establishment of a specific genetic diagnosis may affect management of cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, connective tissue and metabolic disease. Econometric studies have determined that genetic testing is cost-effective in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and disease-specific interventions are now available for specific conditions. Identification of a specific genetic disorder now allows for more precise medicine in the affected individual and more accurate preventive care for asymptomatic family members.

  20. An insight into the biochemistry of inborn errors of metabolism for a clinical neurologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Rita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological dysfunction is an important manifestation of inherited metabolic disorders. Although these are more common in childhood, adult onset forms with a different clinical presentation are often encountered. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions have substantially improved the outcome in many of these conditions. This makes it essential that the practicing physician be familiar with the clinical presentation and diagnosis of these disorders. For the evaluation of a patient with a possible inborn error of metabolism, simple screening tests may aid in the diagnosis and provide direction for more comprehensive laboratory analysis. In this review, we present a practical approach to diagnosis of neurometabolic disorders. Establishing a specific diagnosis in these disorders will enable the clinician in offering a definitive long-term treatment, prognosis and genetic counselling.

  1. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  2. Living donor liver transplantation for inborn errors of metabolism - An underutilized resource in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thomas A; Enns, Gregory M; Esquivel, Carlos O

    2016-09-01

    Inborn metabolic diseases of the liver can be life-threatening disorders that cause debilitating and permanent neurological damage. Symptoms may manifest as early as the neonatal period. Liver transplant replaces the enzymatically deficient liver, allowing for metabolism of toxic metabolites. LDLT for metabolic disorders is rarely performed in the United States as compared to countries such as Japan, where they report >2000 cases performed within the past two decades. Patient and graft survival is comparable to that of the United States, where most of the studies are based on deceased donors. No living donor complications were observed, suggesting that LDLT is as safe and effective as deceased donor transplants performed in the USA. Increased utilization of living donors in the USA will allow for early transplantation to prevent permanent neurological damage in those with severe disease. Pediatric transplant centers should consider utilizing living donors when feasible for children with metabolic disorders of the liver.

  3. Genetic and Epigenetic Determinants in Autoinflammatory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Errico, Damiana; Vento-Tormo, Roser; Ballestar, Esteban

    2017-01-01

    The concept of autoinflammation has evolved over the past 20 years, beginning with the discovery that mutations in the Mediterranean Fever (MEFV) gene were causative of Familial Mediterranean Fever. Currently, autoinflammatory diseases comprise a wide range of disorders with the common features of recurrent fever attacks, prevalence of hyperreactive innate immune cells, and signs of inflammation that can be systemic or organ specific in the absence of pathogenic infection of autoimmunity. Innate immune cells from the myeloid compartment are the main effectors of uncontrolled inflammation that is caused in great extent by the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18. Defects in several signaling pathways that control innate immune defense, particularly the hyperreactivity of one or more inflammasomes, are at the core of pathologic autoinflammatory phenotypes. Although many of the autoinflammatory syndromes are known to be monogenic, some of them are genetically complex and are impacted by environmental factors. Recently, epigenetic dysregulation has surfaced as an additional contributor to pathogenesis. In the present review, we discuss data that are currently available to describe the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in autoinflammatory diseases.

  4. Pervasive Sharing of Genetic Effects in Autoimmune Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cotsapas, Chris; Voight, Benjamin F.; Rossin, Elizabeth; Lage, Kasper; Neale, Benjamin M.; Wallace, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Behrens, Timothy; Cho, Judy; De Jager, Philip L.; Elder, James T.; Graham, Robert R.; Gregersen, Peter; Klareskog, Lars; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; van Heel, David A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Worthington, Jane; Todd, John A.; Hafler, David A.; Rich, Stephen S.; Daly, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified numerous, replicable, genetic associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of common autoimmune and inflammatory (immune-mediated) diseases, some of which are shared between two diseases. Along with epidemiological

  5. Achieving the "triple aim" for inborn errors of metabolism: a review of challenges to outcomes research and presentation of a new practice-based evidence framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Beth K; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Kronick, Jonathan B; Wilson, Kumanan; Coyle, Doug; Feigenbaum, Annette; Geraghty, Michael T; Karaceper, Maria D; Little, Julian; Mhanni, Aizeddin; Mitchell, John J; Siriwardena, Komudi; Wilson, Brenda J; Syrowatka, Ania

    2013-06-01

    Across all areas of health care, decision makers are in pursuit of what Berwick and colleagues have called the "triple aim": improving patient experiences with care, improving health outcomes, and managing health system impacts. This is challenging in a rare disease context, as exemplified by inborn errors of metabolism. There is a need for evaluative outcomes research to support effective and appropriate care for inborn errors of metabolism. We suggest that such research should consider interventions at both the level of the health system (e.g., early detection through newborn screening, programs to provide access to treatments) and the level of individual patient care (e.g., orphan drugs, medical foods). We have developed a practice-based evidence framework to guide outcomes research for inborn errors of metabolism. Focusing on outcomes across the triple aim, this framework integrates three priority themes: tailoring care in the context of clinical heterogeneity; a shift from "urgent care" to "opportunity for improvement"; and the need to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of emerging and established therapies. Guided by the framework, a new Canadian research network has been established to generate knowledge that will inform the design and delivery of health services for patients with inborn errors of metabolism and other rare diseases.

  6. Pathogenesis of coronary artery disease: focus on genetic risk factors and identification of genetic variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayols-Baixeras S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sergi Sayols-Baixeras, Carla Lluís-Ganella, Gavin Lucas, Roberto ElosuaCardiovascular Epidemiology and Genetics Research Group, Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mèdiques, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and its prevalence is expected to increase in the coming years. CAD events are caused by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, the effects of which are mainly mediated through cardiovascular risk factors. The techniques used to study the genetic basis of these diseases have evolved from linkage studies to candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies. Linkage studies have been able to identify genetic variants associated with monogenic diseases, whereas genome-wide association studies have been more successful in determining genetic variants associated with complex diseases. Currently, genome-wide association studies have identified approximately 40 loci that explain 6% of the heritability of CAD. The application of this knowledge to clinical practice is challenging, but can be achieved using various strategies, such as genetic variants to identify new therapeutic targets, personal genetic information to improve disease risk prediction, and pharmacogenomics. The main aim of this narrative review is to provide a general overview of our current understanding of the genetics of coronary artery disease and its potential clinical utility.Keywords: coronary artery disease, pathogenesis, genetic risk factors, genetic variants

  7. Genetic Alterations in Intervertebral Disc Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay L. Martirosyan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD is considered a multifactorial disease. The last two decades of research strongly demonstrate that genetic factors contribute about 75% of the IVDD etiology. Recent total genome sequencing studies have shed light on the various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with IVDD.Aim: This review explores and presents updated information about the diversity of genetic factors in the inflammatory, degradative, homeostatic, and structural systems involved in the IVDD.Results: SNPs in the genes coding for structural proteins linked with IVDD or disc bulging include the Sp1 polymorphism of COL1A1, Trp3 polymorphism of COL9A3, several polymorphisms of COL11A1 and COL11A2, and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of ACAN. The rs4148941 SNP of CHST3 coding for an aggrecan sulfation enzyme is also associated with IVDD. The FokI, TaqI, and ApaI SNPs of the vitamin D receptor gene that is involved in chondrocyte functioning are also associated with IVDD. SNPs relevant to cytokine imbalance in IVDD include 889C/T of IL1a and 15T/A, as well as other SNPs (rs1800795, rs1800796, and rs1800797, of IL6, with effects limited to certain genders and populations. SNPs in collagenase genes include -1605G/D (guanine insertion/deletion of MMP1, -1306C/T of MMP2, -1562C/T and a 5-adenosine (5A variant (in the promotor region of MMP3, -1562C/T of MMP9, and -378T/C of MMP-14. SNPs in aggrecanase genes include 1877T/U of ADAMTS-4 and rs162509 of ADAMTS-5. Among the apoptosis-mediating genes, 1595T/C of the caspase 9 gene, 1525A/G and 1595T/C of the TRAIL gene, and 626C/G of the death receptor 4 gene (DR4 are SNPs associated with IVDD. Among the growth factors involved in disc homeostasis, the rs4871857 SNP of GDF5 was associated with IVDD. VEGF SNPs -2578C/A and -634G/C could foster neovascularization observed in IVDD.Conclusion: Improved understanding of the numerous genetic variants behind various

  8. Ophthalmologic findings in patients with inborn errors of metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara Márquez Yamel Carolina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In patient with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM, the presence of characteristic findings in ophthalmic assessment are important for the diagnosis. The presence of cataracts, cherry-red spot, corneal opacities, corneal crystals, lens dislocation, gyrate atrophy, etc., are some of the ocular abnormalities present in certain IEM. The role of the ophthalmologist in the evaluation of patients with IEM is essential. We describe the most frequent ocular findings in patients with different IEM, which are a diagnostic aid for ophthalmologists and pediatricians.

  9. The Evolution of Genetics: Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John

    2016-06-15

    Genetic discoveries underlie the majority of the current thinking in neurodegenerative disease. This work has been driven by the significant gains made in identifying causal mutations; however, the translation of genetic causes of disease into pathobiological understanding remains a challenge. The application of a second generation of genetics methods allows the dissection of moderate and mild genetic risk factors for disease. This requires new thinking in two key areas: what constitutes proof of pathogenicity, and how do we translate these findings to biological understanding. Here we describe the progress and ongoing evolution in genetics. We describe a view that rejects the tradition that genetic proof has to be absolute before functional characterization and centers on a multi-dimensional approach integrating genetics, reference data, and functional work. We also argue that these challenges cannot be efficiently met by traditional hypothesis-driven methods but that high content system-wide efforts are required. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Genetic and pharmacogenetic determinants of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Jeffrey Johan Willem

    2013-01-01

    This thesis, titled ‘Genetic and pharmacogenetic determinants of cardiovascular disease’ is divided in three sections. In section one the genetic determinants of coronary restenosis are explored. In the first genome-wide association study on this condition, in the GENetic DEterminants of Restenosis

  11. Perceived genetic knowledge, attitudes towards genetic testing, and the relationship between these among patients with a chronic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Rijken, M.; Baanders, A.N.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Genetics increasingly permeate everyday medicine. When patients want to make informed decisions about genetic testing, they require genetic knowledge. This study examined the genetic knowledge and attitudes of patients with chronic diseases, and the relationship between both. In addition,

  12. Perceived genetic knowledge, attitudes toward genetic testing, and the relationship between these among patients with a chronic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Rijken, M.; Baanders, A.N.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetics increasingly permeate everyday medicine. When patients want to make informed decisions about genetic testing, they require genetic knowledge. This study examined the genetic knowledge and attitudes of patients with chronic diseases, and the relationship between both. In addition,

  13. Perceived genetic knowledge, attitudes towards genetic testing, and the relationship between these among patients with a chronic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Rijken, M.; Baanders, A.N.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Genetics increasingly permeate everyday medicine. When patients want to make informed decisions about genetic testing, they require genetic knowledge. This study examined the genetic knowledge and attitudes of patients with chronic diseases, and the relationship between both. In addition,

  14. Perceived genetic knowledge, attitudes toward genetic testing, and the relationship between these among patients with a chronic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, M.; Rijken, M.; Baanders, A.N.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genetics increasingly permeate everyday medicine. When patients want to make informed decisions about genetic testing, they require genetic knowledge. This study examined the genetic knowledge and attitudes of patients with chronic diseases, and the relationship between both. In addition,

  15. Genetics of inflammatory bowel diseases--past, present, and future.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    In this review, the evidence to support the multifactorial and polygenic nature of the disease is briefly described. The past of genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by unfulfilled promises and is now closed with a new vision and a new promise coming from a genetic

  16. Dopaminergic Neuronal Imaging in Genetic Parkinson's Disease: Insights into Pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. McNeill (Alisdair); R-M. Wu (Ruey-Meei); K.-Y. Tzen (Kai-Yuan); P.C. Aguiar (Patricia); J.M. Arbelo (Jose); P. Barone (Paolo); K.P. Bhatia (Kailash); O.G. Barsottini (Orlando); V. Bonifati (Vincenzo); S. Bostantjopoulou (Sevasti); R.A. Bressan (Rodrigo); G. Cossu (Giovanni); P. Cortelli (Pietro); A.C. Felicio (Andre); H.B. Ferraz (Henrique); J. Herrera (Joanna); H. Houlden (Henry); M. Hoexter (Marcelo); C. Isla (Concepcion); A.J. Lees (Andrew); O. Lorenzo-Betancor (Oswaldo); N.E. Mencacci (Niccolo); P. Pastor (Pau); S. Pappata (Sabina); M.T. Pellecchia (Maria Teresa); L. Silveria-Moriyama (Laura); A. Varrone (Andrea); T. Foltynie (Thomas); A.H.V. Schapira (Anthony)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjectives:To compare the dopaminergic neuronal imaging features of different subtypes of genetic Parkinson's Disease.Methods:A retrospective study of genetic Parkinson's diseases cases in which DaTSCAN (123I-FP-CIT) had been performed. Specific non-displaceable binding was calculated fo

  17. Dopaminergic Neuronal Imaging in Genetic Parkinson's Disease: Insights into Pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. McNeill (Alisdair); R-M. Wu (Ruey-Meei); K.-Y. Tzen (Kai-Yuan); P.C. Aguiar (Patricia); J.M. Arbelo (Jose); P. Barone (Paolo); K.P. Bhatia (Kailash); O.G. Barsottini (Orlando); V. Bonifati (Vincenzo); S. Bostantjopoulou (Sevasti); R.A. Bressan (Rodrigo); G. Cossu (Giovanni); P. Cortelli (Pietro); A.C. Felicio (Andre); H.B. Ferraz (Henrique); J. Herrera (Joanna); H. Houlden (Henry); M. Hoexter (Marcelo); C. Isla (Concepcion); A.J. Lees (Andrew); O. Lorenzo-Betancor (Oswaldo); N.E. Mencacci (Niccolo); P. Pastor (Pau); S. Pappata (Sabina); M.T. Pellecchia (Maria Teresa); L. Silveria-Moriyama (Laura); A. Varrone (Andrea); T. Foltynie (Thomas); A.H.V. Schapira (Anthony)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjectives:To compare the dopaminergic neuronal imaging features of different subtypes of genetic Parkinson's Disease.Methods:A retrospective study of genetic Parkinson's diseases cases in which DaTSCAN (123I-FP-CIT) had been performed. Specific non-displaceable binding was calculated

  18. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease : a genetic-epidemiologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe work presented in this thesis has been motivated by the Jack of knowledge of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. It has been long recognised that genetic factors are implicated, in particular in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.4 But to what extent are genetic factors involved? Are

  19. Dopaminergic Neuronal Imaging in Genetic Parkinson's Disease: Insights into Pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. McNeill (Alisdair); R-M. Wu (Ruey-Meei); K.-Y. Tzen (Kai-Yuan); P.C. Aguiar (Patricia); J.M. Arbelo (Jose); P. Barone (Paolo); K.P. Bhatia (Kailash); O.G. Barsottini (Orlando); V. Bonifati (Vincenzo); S. Bostantjopoulou (Sevasti); R.A. Bressan (Rodrigo); G. Cossu (Giovanni); P. Cortelli (Pietro); A.C. Felicio (Andre); H.B. Ferraz (Henrique); J. Herrera (Joanna); H. Houlden (Henry); M. Hoexter (Marcelo); C. Isla (Concepcion); A.J. Lees (Andrew); O. Lorenzo-Betancor (Oswaldo); N.E. Mencacci (Niccolo); P. Pastor (Pau); S. Pappata (Sabina); M.T. Pellecchia (Maria Teresa); L. Silveria-Moriyama (Laura); A. Varrone (Andrea); T. Foltynie (Thomas); A.H.V. Schapira (Anthony)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjectives:To compare the dopaminergic neuronal imaging features of different subtypes of genetic Parkinson's Disease.Methods:A retrospective study of genetic Parkinson's diseases cases in which DaTSCAN (123I-FP-CIT) had been performed. Specific non-displaceable binding was calculated fo

  20. Genetic testing and counselling in inherited eye disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Jensen, Hanne; Timshel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Advances in genetics have made genetic testing in patients with inherited eye disease increasingly accessible, and the initiation of clinical intervention trials makes it increasingly clinically relevant. Based on a multidisciplinary collaboration between ophthalmologists and clinical geneticists......, the extensive register of families with monogenic inherited eye diseases at the National Eye Clinic of the Kennedy Center in Denmark provides a valuable asset waiting to be exploited in the global effort to reduce blindness caused by genetic defects....

  1. Genetic diagnosis of Huntington's disease: cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Ting-ting; Wu Wei; Wan Qi; Cui Yu-gui; Liu Jia-yin

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the efficiency of the PCR combined DNA sequencing to ascertain CAG repeat size of Huntington's disease(HD)gene as for gene diagnosis of HD.Method:Three patients with HD were diagnosed genetically with the technology of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by assessing the CAG repeat size of HD gene.DNA sequencing then was used as verification test for HD gene.Results:Nine members of three nuclear families were included in this study,three patients were HD proband.In those families,CAG repeats of all spouse of propositus were in normal range.CAG repeats of all propositus and their descendants with the normal allele were in normal range,while CAG copy number of the other mobigenous allele was obviously abnormal.Conclusion:PCR combined DNA sequencing can be used to effectively ascertain CAG repeat of HD gene.CAG-repeat expansion mutations were accounted for 99% of HD cases,so HD can be accurately diagnosed by this method.

  2. Tay-Sach disease with "cherry-red spot"--first reported case in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L Y; Balasubramaniam, S; Sunder, R; Jamalia, R; Karunakar, T V N; Alagaratnam, J

    2011-12-01

    We present a rare case of Tay-Sachs disease with retinal 'cherry-red spots' in a 19-month-old Malay child. Molecular genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis. The case highlights that 'cherry-red spot' is a useful clinical clue in Tay-Sachs disease and several other lysosomal storage disorders. It serves as an ideal illustration of the eye as a window to inborn error of metabolism.

  3. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: frequency of genetic subtypes and guidelines for genetic testing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Sinead M

    2012-07-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases with approximately 45 different causative genes described. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of different genes in a large cohort of patients with CMT and devise guidelines for genetic testing in practice.

  4. Genetic variants in diseases of the extrapyramidal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczkowska, Anna; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lianeri, Margarita; Dorszewska, Jolanta

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge on the genetics of movement disorders has advanced significantly in recent years. It is now recognized that disorders of the basal ganglia have genetic basis and it is suggested that molecular genetic data will provide clues to the pathophysiology of normal and abnormal motor control. Progress in molecular genetic studies, leading to the detection of genetic mutations and loci, has contributed to the understanding of mechanisms of neurodegeneration and has helped clarify the pathogenesis of some neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular studies have also found application in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, increasing the range of genetic counseling and enabling a more accurate diagno-sis. It seems that understanding pathogenic processes and the significant role of genetics has led to many experiments that may in the future will result in more effective treatment of such diseases as Parkinson's or Huntington's. Currently used molecular diagnostics based on DNA analysis can identify 9 neurodegenerative diseases, including spinal cerebellar ataxia inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, dentate-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy, Friedreich's disease, ataxia with ocu-lomotorapraxia, Huntington's disease, dystonia type 1, Wilson's disease, and some cases of Parkinson's disease.

  5. Genetics of Common Endocrine Disease: The Present and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mark O

    2016-03-01

    In honor of the 75th issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, the author was invited to present his perspectives on genetics in human endocrinology. This paper reviews what the field has achieved in the genetics of common endocrine disease, and offers predictions on where the field will move in the future and its impact on endocrine clinical practice. The October 2015 data release of the National Human Genome Research Institute-European Bioinformatics Institute (NHGRI-EBI) Catalog of Published Genome-wide Association Studies was queried regarding endocrinologic diseases and traits. PubMed searches were focused on genetic prediction of disease, genetic findings and drug targets, functional interrogation of genetic loci, use of genetics to subtype disease, missing heritability, systems genomics, and higher order chromatin structures as regulators of gene function. Nearly a quarter of genome wide association study findings concern endocrinologic diseases and traits. While these findings have not yet dramatically altered clinical care, genetics will have a major impact by providing the drug targets of tomorrow, facilitated by experimental and bioinformatic advances that will shorten the time from gene discovery to drug development. Use of genetic findings to subtype common endocrine disease will allow more precise prevention and treatment efforts. Future advances will allow us to move away from the common view of DNA as a string of letters, allowing exploration of higher order structure that likely explains much "missing heritability." The future will see a greater role of genetics at the bedside, with genetic epidemiologic discoveries leading not only to new treatments of endocrine disease, but also helping us prescribe the right drug to the right patients by allowing subclassification of common heterogeneous endocrine conditions. Future technological breakthroughs will reveal the heritable mysteries hidden in chromatin structure, leading to a

  6. Reverse genetics of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverse genetics allows the generation of recombinant viruses or vectors used in functional studies, vaccine development, and gene therapy. This technique allows genetic manipulation and cloning of viral genomes, mutation through site-directed mutagenesis, and gene insertion or deletion, among othe...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: microvillus inclusion disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Microvillus inclusion disease Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse: Diarrhea Educational Resources (9 links) American Society for Parenteral and ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Tay-Sachs disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Tay-Sachs disease Tay-Sachs disease Printable PDF Open All Close All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Tay-Sachs disease is a rare inherited disorder that ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: critical congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions critical congenital heart disease critical congenital heart disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a term that refers to a ...

  10. Genetics in Common Liver Diseases: From Pathophysiology to Precise Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Frank

    In the past 2 decades, advances in genetics have improved our understanding of liver disease and physiology. Firstly, developments in genomic technologies drove the identification of genes responsible for monogenic (Mendelian) liver diseases. Over the last decade, genome-wide association studies allowed for the dissection of the genetic susceptibility to complex liver diseases such as fatty liver disease and drug-induced liver injury, in which environmental co-factors play critical roles. The findings have allowed the identification and elaboration of pathophysiological processes, have indicated the need for reclassification of liver diseases and risk factors and have already pointed to new disease treatments. This is illustrated by the interaction of alcohol, overnutrition and the PNPLA3 gene, which represents an 'infernal triangle' for the liver. In the future, genetics will allow further stratification of liver diseases and contribute to personalized (precision) medicine, offering novel opportunities for translational research and clinical care of our patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GI Motility MalaCards: mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy disease Neuromuscular Disease Center, Washington University Orphanet: Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy Patient Support and Advocacy ...

  12. Genetic factors associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are complex polygenic disorders, characterized by several genes together with environmental factors contributing to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent advances in research on genetic susceptibility have allowed the identification of diverse genes at different levels: (1) Innate immunity; (2) Antigen presentation molecules; (3) Epithelial integrity; (4) Drug transporter; (5) Cell adhesion. The application of genetic testing into clinical practice is close and all genetic markers may have several clinical implications: prediction of disease phenotype, molecular classification, prevention of complications, and prognosis.

  13. Network medicine approaches to the genetics of complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Edwin K; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2012-08-01

    Complex diseases are caused by perturbations of biological networks. Genetic analysis approaches focused on individual genetic determinants are unlikely to characterize the network architecture of complex diseases comprehensively. Network medicine, which applies systems biology and network science to complex molecular networks underlying human disease, focuses on identifying the interacting genes and proteins which lead to disease pathogenesis. The long biological path between a genetic risk variant and development of a complex disease involves a range of biochemical intermediates, including coding and non-coding RNA, proteins, and metabolites. Transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other -omics technologies have the potential to provide insights into complex disease pathogenesis, especially if they are applied within a network biology framework. Most previous efforts to relate genetics to -omics data have focused on a single -omics platform; the next generation of complex disease genetics studies will require integration of multiple types of -omics data sets in a network context. Network medicine may also provide insight into complex disease heterogeneity, serve as the basis for new disease classifications that reflect underlying disease pathogenesis, and guide rational therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  14. Genetic counseling and testing for Huntington's disease: A historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Martha A

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript describes the ways in which genetic counseling has evolved since John Pearson and Sheldon Reed first promoted "a genetic education" in the 1950s as a voluntary, non-directive clinical tool for permitting individual decision making. It reviews how the emergence of Huntington's disease (HD) registries and patient support organizations, genetic testing, and the discovery of a disease-causing CAG repeat expansion changed the contours of genetic counseling for families with HD. It also reviews the guidelines, outcomes, ethical and laboratory challenges, and uptake of predictive, prenatal, and preimplantation testing, and it casts a vision for how clinicians can better make use of genetic counseling to reach a broader pool of families that may be affected by HD and to ensure that genetic counseling is associated with the best levels of care. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Animal models for human genetic diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharif Sons

    organisms are extensively used in applied research in agriculture, industry, and also in medicine, where they are ... in genetic disorder that is critical for embryonic .... by practical limitations and ethical concerns. ..... American journal of medical.

  16. Pervasive Sharing of Genetic Effects in Autoimmune Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotsapas, Chris; Voight, Benjamin F.; Rossin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified numerous, replicable, genetic associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of common autoimmune and inflammatory (immune-mediated) diseases, some of which are shared between two diseases. Along with epidemiological...... and clinical evidence, this suggests that some genetic risk factors may be shared across diseases-as is the case with alleles in the Major Histocompatibility Locus. In this work we evaluate the extent of this sharing for 107 immune disease-risk SNPs in seven diseases: celiac disease, Crohn's disease, multiple......-mediated disease risk SNPs are associated to multiple-but not all-immune-mediated diseases (SNP-wise P-CPMA...

  17. Role of Genetic Testing in Inherited Cardiovascular Disease: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Allison L; Harris, Stephanie; Lakdawala, Neal K; Michels, Michelle; Olivotto, Iacopo; Day, Sharlene M; Abrams, Dominic J; Charron, Philippe; Caleshu, Colleen; Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie; Rakowski, Harry; Judge, Daniel P; Ho, Carolyn Y

    2017-08-09

    Genetic testing is a valuable tool for managing inherited cardiovascular disease in patients and families, including hypertrophic, dilated, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies and inherited arrhythmias. By identifying the molecular etiology of disease, genetic testing can improve diagnostic accuracy and refine family management. However, unique features associated with genetic testing affect the interpretation and application of results and differentiate it from traditional laboratory-based diagnostics. Clinicians and patients must have accurate and realistic expectations about the yield of genetic testing and its role in management. Familiarity with the rationale, implications, benefits, and limitations of genetic testing is essential to achieve the best possible outcomes. Successfully incorporating genetic testing into clinical practice requires (1) recognizing when inherited cardiovascular disease may be present, (2) identifying appropriate individuals in the family for testing, (3) selecting the appropriate genetic test, (4) understanding the complexities of result interpretation, and (5) effectively communicating the results and implications to the patient and family. Obtaining a detailed family history is critical to identify families who will benefit from genetic testing, determine the best strategy, and interpret results. Instead of focusing on an individual patient, genetic testing requires consideration of the family as a unit. Consolidation of care in centers with a high level of expertise is recommended. Clinicians without expertise in genetic testing will benefit from establishing referral or consultative networks with experienced clinicans in specialized multidisciplinary clinics. Genetic testing provides a foundation for transitioning to more precise and individualized management. By distinguishing phenotypic subgroups, identifying disease mechanisms, and focusing family care, gene-based diagnosis can improve management. Successful integration of

  18. An Economic Evaluation of Neonatal Screening for Inborn Errors of Metabolism Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittiphong Thiboonboon

    Full Text Available Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are a rare group of genetic diseases which can lead to several serious long-term complications in newborns. In order to address these issues as early as possible, a process called tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS can be used as it allows for rapid and simultaneous detection of the diseases. This analysis was performed to determine whether newborn screening by MS/MS is cost-effective in Thailand.A cost-utility analysis comprising a decision-tree and Markov model was used to estimate the cost in Thai baht (THB and health outcomes in life-years (LYs and quality-adjusted life year (QALYs presented as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER. The results were also adjusted to international dollars (I$ using purchasing power parities (PPP (1 I$ = 17.79 THB for the year 2013. The comparisons were between 1 an expanded neonatal screening programme using MS/MS screening for six prioritised diseases: phenylketonuria (PKU; isovaleric acidemia (IVA; methylmalonic acidemia (MMA; propionic acidemia (PA; maple syrup urine disease (MSUD; and multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD; and 2 the current practice that is existing PKU screening. A comparison of the outcome and cost of treatment before and after clinical presentations were also analysed to illustrate the potential benefit of early treatment for affected children. A budget impact analysis was conducted to illustrate the cost of implementing the programme for 10 years.The ICER of neonatal screening using MS/MS amounted to 1,043,331 THB per QALY gained (58,647 I$ per QALY gained. The potential benefits of early detection compared with late detection yielded significant results for PKU, IVA, MSUD, and MCD patients. The budget impact analysis indicated that the implementation cost of the programme was expected at approximately 2,700 million THB (152 million I$ over 10 years.At the current ceiling threshold, neonatal screening using MS/MS in the Thai context is not cost

  19. Systems Genetics as a Tool to Identify Master Genetic Regulators in Complex Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Moral, Aida; Pesce, Francesco; Behmoaras, Jacques; Petretto, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Systems genetics stems from systems biology and similarly employs integrative modeling approaches to describe the perturbations and phenotypic effects observed in a complex system. However, in the case of systems genetics the main source of perturbation is naturally occurring genetic variation, which can be analyzed at the systems-level to explain the observed variation in phenotypic traits. In contrast with conventional single-variant association approaches, the success of systems genetics has been in the identification of gene networks and molecular pathways that underlie complex disease. In addition, systems genetics has proven useful in the discovery of master trans-acting genetic regulators of functional networks and pathways, which in many cases revealed unexpected gene targets for disease. Here we detail the central components of a fully integrated systems genetics approach to complex disease, starting from assessment of genetic and gene expression variation, linking DNA sequence variation to mRNA (expression QTL mapping), gene regulatory network analysis and mapping the genetic control of regulatory networks. By summarizing a few illustrative (and successful) examples, we highlight how different data-modeling strategies can be effectively integrated in a systems genetics study.

  20. Dopaminergic neuronal imaging in genetic Parkinson's disease: insights into pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisdair McNeill

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the dopaminergic neuronal imaging features of different subtypes of genetic Parkinson's Disease. METHODS: A retrospective study of genetic Parkinson's diseases cases in which DaTSCAN (123I-FP-CIT had been performed. Specific non-displaceable binding was calculated for bilateral caudate and putamen for each case. The right:left asymmetry index and striatal asymmetry index was calculated. RESULTS: Scans were available from 37 cases of monogenetic Parkinson's disease (7 glucocerebrosidase (GBA mutations, 8 alpha-synuclein, 3 LRRK2, 7 PINK1, 12 Parkin. The asymmetry of radioligand uptake for Parkinson's disease with GBA or LRRK2 mutations was greater than that for Parkinson's disease with alpha synuclein, PINK1 or Parkin mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The asymmetry of radioligand uptake in Parkinsons disease associated with GBA or LRRK2 mutations suggests that interactions with additional genetic or environmental factors may be associated with dopaminergic neuronal loss.

  1. Genetics and behavioral medicine: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogler, G.P.; McClearn, G.E.; Snieder, H.; Boomsma, D.I.; Palmer, R.; Knijff, P. de; Slagboom, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles addressing the intersection of interests in behavioral genetics and behavioral medicine. In this article, we use risk factors for cardiovascular disease as a prototypical trait for which behavioral genetic approaches provide powerful tools for underst

  2. Genetics and behavioral medicine: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogler, G.P.; McClearn, G.E.; Snieder, H.; Boomsma, D.I.; Palmer, R.; Knijff, P. de; Slagboom, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles addressing the intersection of interests in behavioral genetics and behavioral medicine. In this article, we use risk factors for cardiovascular disease as a prototypical trait for which behavioral genetic approaches provide powerful tools for

  3. Of mice and men: molecular genetics of congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Troels Askhøj; Troelsen, Karin de Linde Lind; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2014-04-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects nearly 1 % of the population. It is a complex disease, which may be caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studies in human genetics have led to the identification of more than 50 human genes, involved in isolated CHD or genetic syndromes, where CHD is part of the phenotype. Furthermore, mapping of genomic copy number variants and exome sequencing of CHD patients have led to the identification of a large number of candidate disease genes. Experiments in animal models, particularly in mice, have been used to verify human disease genes and to gain further insight into the molecular pathology behind CHD. The picture emerging from these studies suggest that genetic lesions associated with CHD affect a broad range of cellular signaling components, from ligands and receptors, across down-stream effector molecules to transcription factors and co-factors, including chromatin modifiers.

  4. Genetic influences on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted.......Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted....

  5. Genetic influences on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Thomsen, Simon F; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted.......Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted....

  6. Views of Discrimination among Individuals Confronting Genetic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Klitzman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Though the US passed the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act, many questions remain of how individuals confronting genetic disease view and experience possible discrimination. We interviewed, for 2 hours each, 64 individuals who had, or were at risk for, Huntington’s Disease, breast cancer, or Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Discrimination can be implicit, indirect and subtle, rather than explicit, direct and overt; and be hard to prove. Patients may be treated “differently” and unfair...

  7. Currently Clinical Views on Genetics of Wilson′s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Chen; Bo Shen; Jia-Jia Xiao; Rong Wu; Sarah Jane Duff Canning; Xiao-Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to review the research on clinical genetics of Wilson′s disease (WD). Data Sources: We searched documents from PubMed and Wanfang databases both in English and Chinese up to 2014 using the keywords WD in combination with genetic, ATP7B gene, gene mutation, genotype, phenotype. Study Selection: Publications about the ATP7B gene and protein function associated with clinical features were selected. Results: Wilson′s disease, also named hepat...

  8. Advances in the genetically-complex autoinflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombrello, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Monogenic diseases usually demonstrate Mendelian inheritance and are caused by highly penetrant genetic variants of a single gene. In contrast, genetically-complex diseases arise from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors. The concept of autoinflammation originally emerged from the identification of individual, activating lesions of the innate immune system as the molecular basis of the hereditary periodic fever syndromes. In addition to these rare, monogenic forms of autoinflammation, genetically-complex autoinflammatory diseases like the periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO), Behçet’s disease, and systemic arthritis also fulfill the definition of autoinflammatory diseases - namely the development of apparently unprovoked episodes of inflammation without identifiable exogenous triggers and in the absence of autoimmunity. Interestingly, investigations of these genetically-complex autoinflammatory diseases have implicated both innate and adaptive immune abnormalities, blurring the line between autoinflammation and autoimmunity. This reinforces the paradigm of concerted innate and adaptive immune dysfunction leading to genetically-complex autoinflammatory phenotypes. PMID:26077134

  9. [The application of genetic risk score in genetic studies of complex human diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Niu; Weili, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Complex diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, essential hypertension, asthma, obesity and cancer have spread across the globe and become the predominant cause of death. There are growing concerns over the role of genetic susceptibility in pathogenesis of complex diseases. However, the related susceptibility genes and sequence variations are still unknown. To elucidate the genetic basis of complex diseases, researchers have identified a large number of genetic variants associated with complex diseases through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies recently. The identification of these causal and/or associated variants promotes the development of approaches for complex diseases prediction and prevention. Genetic risk score (GRS), an emerging method for exploring correlation between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and clinical phenotypes of complex diseases, integrates weak effects of multiple SNPs and dramatically enhances predictability of complex diseases by gene polymorphisms. This method has been applied successfully in genetic studies of many complex diseases. Here we focus on the introduction of the computational methods and evaluation criteria of GRS, enumerate a series of achievements through GRS application, discuss some limitations during application, and finally prospect the future of GRS.

  10. Optimal Trend Tests for Genetic Association Studies of Heterogeneous Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-06-09

    The Cochran-Armitage trend test is a standard procedure in genetic association studies. It is a directed test with high power to detect genetic effects that follow the gene-dosage model. In this paper, the author proposes optimal trend tests for genetic association studies of heterogeneous diseases. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the power gain of the optimal trend tests over the conventional Cochran-Armitage trend test is striking when the genetic effects are heterogeneous. The easy-to-use R 3.1.2 software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) code is provided. The optimal trend tests are recommended for routine use.

  11. Genetics of Congenital Heart Disease: Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Iolanda; Togănel, Rodica; Benedek, Theodora

    2016-11-02

    Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital anomaly, representing an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Congenital heart disease represents a group of heart anomalies that include septal defects, valve defects, and outflow tract anomalies. The exact genetic, epigenetic, or environmental basis of congenital heart disease remains poorly understood, although the exact mechanism is likely multifactorial. However, the development of new technologies including copy number variants, single-nucleotide polymorphism, next-generation sequencing are accelerating the detection of genetic causes of heart anomalies. Recent studies suggest a role of small non-coding RNAs, micro RNA, in congenital heart disease. The recently described epigenetic factors have also been found to contribute to cardiac morphogenesis. In this review, we present past and recent genetic discoveries in congenital heart disease.

  12. Pervasive sharing of genetic effects in autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cotsapas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified numerous, replicable, genetic associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and risk of common autoimmune and inflammatory (immune-mediated diseases, some of which are shared between two diseases. Along with epidemiological and clinical evidence, this suggests that some genetic risk factors may be shared across diseases-as is the case with alleles in the Major Histocompatibility Locus. In this work we evaluate the extent of this sharing for 107 immune disease-risk SNPs in seven diseases: celiac disease, Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and type 1 diabetes. We have developed a novel statistic for Cross Phenotype Meta-Analysis (CPMA which detects association of a SNP to multiple, but not necessarily all, phenotypes. With it, we find evidence that 47/107 (44% immune-mediated disease risk SNPs are associated to multiple-but not all-immune-mediated diseases (SNP-wise P(CPMA<0.01. We also show that distinct groups of interacting proteins are encoded near SNPs which predispose to the same subsets of diseases; we propose these as the mechanistic basis of shared disease risk. We are thus able to leverage genetic data across diseases to construct biological hypotheses about the underlying mechanism of pathogenesis.

  13. An atlas of genetic correlations across human diseases and traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Finucane, Hilary K; Anttila, Verneri;

    2015-01-01

    Identifying genetic correlations between complex traits and diseases can provide useful etiological insights and help prioritize likely causal relationships. The major challenges preventing estimation of genetic correlation from genome-wide association study (GWAS) data with current methods...... are the lack of availability of individual-level genotype data and widespread sample overlap among meta-analyses. We circumvent these difficulties by introducing a technique-cross-trait LD Score regression-for estimating genetic correlation that requires only GWAS summary statistics and is not biased by sample...... overlap. We use this method to estimate 276 genetic correlations among 24 traits. The results include genetic correlations between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, anorexia and obesity, and educational attainment and several diseases. These results highlight the power of genome-wide analyses...

  14. Maternal-Zygotic Epistasis and the Evolution of Genetic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas K. Priest

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many birth defects and genetic diseases are expressed in individuals that do not carry the disease causing alleles. Genetic diseases observed in offspring can be caused by gene expression in mothers and by interactions between gene expression in mothers and offspring. It is not clear whether the underlying pattern of gene expression (maternal versus offspring affects the incidence of genetic disease. Here we develop a 2-locus population genetic model with epistatic interactions between a maternal gene and a zygotic gene to address this question. We show that maternal effect genes that affect disease susceptibility in offspring persist longer and at higher frequencies in a population than offspring genes with the same effects. We find that specific forms of maternal-zygotic epistasis can maintain disease causing alleles at high frequencies over a range of plausible values. Our findings suggest that the strength and form of epistasis and the underlying pattern of gene expression may greatly influence the prevalence of human genetic diseases.

  15. Genetics of liver disease: From pathophysiology to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Tom H; Lammert, Frank; Thompson, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    Paralleling the first 30 years of the Journal of Hepatology we have witnessed huge advances in our understanding of liver disease and physiology. Genetic advances have played no small part in that. Initial studies in the 1970s and 1980s identified the strong major histocompatibility complex associations in autoimmune liver diseases. During the 1990 s, developments in genomic technologies drove the identification of genes responsible for Mendelian liver diseases. Over the last decade, genome-wide association studies have allowed for the dissection of the genetic susceptibility to complex liver disorders, in which also environmental co-factors play important roles. Findings have allowed the identification and elaboration of pathophysiological processes, have indicated the need for reclassification of liver diseases and have already pointed to new disease treatments. In the immediate future genetics will allow further stratification of liver diseases and contribute to personalized medicine. Challenges exist with regard to clinical implementation of rapidly developing technologies and interpretation of the wealth of accumulating genetic data. The historical perspective of genetics in liver diseases illustrates the opportunities for future research and clinical care of our patients.

  16. Genetic Characterization of Insect Vectors of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    populations, and is highest of all in the a subspecies. Some variation, -I- 3 especially for HLis found in Asian and New World populations. Tables 4-7...East Africa. Evoluion 33, 287-295.. Tabaohnibk, W.J. & Powell, J.R. (1978). Genetic structure of the East African domestic populations of Aedes a

  17. Genetics of intracranial aneurysms and related diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hof, F.N.G.

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IA) are dilatations of the vessel walls of cerebral arteries. Some can rupture and result in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a severe subtype of stroke. This thesis is set out to elucidate the pathophysiology of IA from a genetic perspective. The main conclusions are: 1.

  18. New IBD genetics: common pathways with other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, C W; Barrett, J C; Parkes, M; Satsangi, J

    2011-12-01

    Complex disease genetics has been revolutionised in recent years by the advent of genome-wide association (GWA) studies. The chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have seen notable successes culminating in the discovery of 99 published susceptibility loci/genes (71 Crohn's disease; 47 ulcerative colitis) to date. Approximately one-third of loci described confer susceptibility to both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Amongst these are multiple genes involved in IL23/Th17 signalling (IL23R, IL12B, JAK2, TYK2 and STAT3), IL10, IL1R2, REL, CARD9, NKX2.3, ICOSLG, PRDM1, SMAD3 and ORMDL3. The evolving genetic architecture of IBD has furthered our understanding of disease pathogenesis. For Crohn's disease, defective processing of intracellular bacteria has become a central theme, following gene discoveries in autophagy and innate immunity (associations with NOD2, IRGM, ATG16L1 are specific to Crohn's disease). Genetic evidence has also demonstrated the importance of barrier function to the development of ulcerative colitis (HNF4A, LAMB1, CDH1 and GNA12). However, when the data are analysed in more detail, deeper themes emerge including the shared susceptibility seen with other diseases. Many immune-mediated diseases overlap in this respect, paralleling the reported epidemiological evidence. However, in several cases the reported shared susceptibility appears at odds with the clinical picture. Examples include both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this review we will detail the presently available data on the genetic overlap between IBD and other diseases. The discussion will be informed by the epidemiological data in the published literature and the implications for pathogenesis and therapy will be outlined. This arena will move forwards very quickly in the next few years. Ultimately, we anticipate that these genetic insights will transform the landscape of common complex diseases such as IBD.

  19. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  20. Genetic Testing for Complex Diseases: a Simulation Study Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Vinh, Nguyen Xuan

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized nowadays that complex diseases are caused by, amongst the others, multiple genetic factors. The recent advent of genome-wide association study (GWA) has triggered a wave of research aimed at discovering genetic factors underlying common complex diseases. While the number of reported susceptible genetic variants is increasing steadily, the application of such findings into diseases prognosis for the general population is still unclear, and there are doubts about whether the size of the contribution by such factors is significant. In this respect, some recent simulation-based studies have shed more light to the prospect of genetic tests. In this report, we discuss several aspects of simulation-based studies: their parameters, their assumptions, and the information they provide.

  1. Genetics of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jharna Puppala; Siva Prasad Siddapuram; Jyothy Akka; Anjana Munshi

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the world today.Its incidence in adults and children is rising rapidly due to the ongoing epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes.Hence,it has become a global public health issue.Environmental factors have been found to play a major role in the etiology of NAFLD,especially for genetically susceptible populations.Among these,one of the most important factors is junk food,especially the typical "Western-style" diet rich in simple carbohydrates,saturated fat,and highly processed food materials.Genetic predisposition to NAFLD does occur; however,a precise definition of genetic factors responsible for NAFLD is still lacking.Specific variants of different genes have been shown to present a risk for NAFLD.Genetic studies might be helpful in the management of the disease by developing novel treatment strategies based on individual's genotype.

  2. Investigation of the Genetics of Hematologic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes; Erythrocyte Disorder; Leukocyte Disorder; Hemostasis; Blood Coagulation Disorder; Sickle Cell Disease; Dyskeratosis Congenita; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Congenital Thrombocytopenia; Severe Congenital Neutropenia; Fanconi Anemia

  3. Establishment of an Australian National Genetic Heart Disease Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; McGaughran, Julie; Vohra, Jitendra; Weintraub, Robert G; Davis, Andrew; Atherton, John; Semsarian, Christopher

    2008-12-01

    A National Genetic Heart Disease Registry has recently been established, with the aim to enroll every family in Australia with a genetically determined cardiomyopathy or primary arrhythmic disorder. The Registry seeks to further our understanding of the impact and burden of disease in this population; increase awareness and provide education to health professionals and families; and establish a large cardiac genetic cohort as a resource for approved research studies. The Registry is currently recruiting families with inherited cardiomyopathies (e.g. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) and primary arrhythmogenic disorders (e.g. long QT syndrome), with scope to expand this in the future. Affected individuals, as well as their first-degree (at-risk) family members are eligible to enroll. Participants are currently being recruited from cardiac genetics clinics in approved recruitment sites and hope to expand to other Australian centres including general cardiology practice in the future. A significant focus of the Registry is to improve understanding and create awareness of inherited heart diseases, which includes ensuring families are aware of genetic testing options and current clinical screening recommendations for at-risk family members. A Registry Advisory Committee has been established under the NHMRC Guidelines, and includes a representative from each major recruitment centre. This committee approves all decisions relating to the Registry including approval of research studies. A National Genetic Heart Disease Registry will provide a valuable resource to further our knowledge of the clinical and genetic aspects of these diseases. Since most of the current data about the prevalence, natural history and outcomes of genetic heart diseases has emanated from the United States and Europe, characterising these Australian populations will be of significant benefit, allowing for more informed and specific health care planning and resource provision.

  4. Diagnostics and genetics in coeliac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, V.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311395724

    2009-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is an auto-immune disease triggered by ingestion of gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye and barley. In susceptible individuals the ingestion of gluten triggers an auto-immune reaction, giving chronic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa, and generally resulting in

  5. Diagnostics and genetics in coeliac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is an auto-immune disease triggered by ingestion of gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye and barley. In susceptible individuals the ingestion of gluten triggers an auto-immune reaction, giving chronic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa, and generally resulting in villo

  6. Genetics Home Reference: CLN6 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CLN6 disease is an inherited disorder that primarily affects the nervous system. The signs and symptoms of this condition typically begin between early and late childhood, but sometimes they can appear in adulthood. Most children with CLN6 disease initially experience the ...

  7. Mitochondrial proteome evolution and genetic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynen, M.A.; Hollander, M. de; Szklarczyk, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria are an essential organelle, not only to the human cell, but to all eukaryotic life. This essentiality is reflected in the large number of mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial proteins that lead to disease. Aside from their relevance to disease, mitochondria are, given their endosym

  8. Genetic studies of Crohn's disease: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jimmy Z; Anderson, Carl A

    2014-06-01

    The exact aetiology of Crohn's disease is unknown, though it is clear from early epidemiological studies that a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors contributes to an individual's disease susceptibility. Here, we review the history of gene-mapping studies of Crohn's disease, from the linkage-based studies that first implicated the NOD2 locus, through to modern-day genome-wide association studies that have discovered over 140 loci associated with Crohn's disease and yielded novel insights into the biological pathways underlying pathogenesis. We describe on-going and future gene-mapping studies that utilise next generation sequencing technology to pinpoint causal variants and identify rare genetic variation underlying Crohn's disease risk. We comment on the utility of genetic markers for predicting an individual's disease risk and discuss their potential for identifying novel drug targets and influencing disease management. Finally, we describe how these studies have shaped and continue to shape our understanding of the genetic architecture of Crohn's disease.

  9. Host genetics and population structure effects on parasitic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Criscione, Charles D; VandeBerg, John L; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Williams, Kimberly D; Subedi, Janardan; Kent, Jack W; Williams, Jeff; Kumar, Satish; Blangero, John

    2012-03-19

    Host genetic factors exert significant influences on differential susceptibility to many infectious diseases. In addition, population structure of both host and parasite may influence disease distribution patterns. In this study, we assess the effects of population structure on infectious disease in two populations in which host genetic factors influencing susceptibility to parasitic disease have been extensively studied. The first population is the Jirel population of eastern Nepal that has been the subject of research on the determinants of differential susceptibility to soil-transmitted helminth infections. The second group is a Brazilian population residing in an area endemic for Trypanosoma cruzi infection that has been assessed for genetic influences on differential disease progression in Chagas disease. For measures of Ascaris worm burden, within-population host genetic effects are generally more important than host population structure factors in determining patterns of infectious disease. No significant influences of population structure on measures associated with progression of cardiac disease in individuals who were seropositive for T. cruzi infection were found.

  10. Studying the genetics of Hirschsprung's disease : unraveling an oligogenic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks, AS; Oostra, BA; Hofstra, RMW

    2005-01-01

    Hirschsprung's disease is characterized by the absence of ganglion cells in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses of the gastrointestinal tract. Genetic dissection was successful as nine genes and four loci for Hirschsprung's disease susceptibility were identified. Different approaches were used to

  11. A genetic-epidemiologic study of Alzheimer’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Arias-Vásquez (Alejandro)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAlzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia and thus is a major public-health problem. Age and genetic predisposition to the disease are the most important risk factors. In 2001 more than 24 million people in the western world had dementia. This number is expected to

  12. Disease-Concordant Twins Empower Genetic Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qihua; Li, Weilong; Vandin, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies with moderate sample sizes are underpowered, especially when testing SNP alleles with low allele counts, a situation that may lead to high frequency of false-positive results and lack of replication in independent studies. Related individuals, such as twin pairs concordant for a disease, should confer increased power in genetic association analysis because of their genetic relatedness. We conducted a computer simulation study to explore the power advantage of the disease-concordant twin design, which uses singletons from disease-concordant twin pairs as cases and ordinary healthy samples as controls. We examined the power gain of the twin-based design for various scenarios (i.e., cases from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs concordant for a disease) and compared the power with the ordinary case-control design with cases collected from the unrelated patient population. Simulation was done by assigning various allele frequencies and allelic relative risks for different mode of genetic inheritance. In general, for achieving a power estimate of 80%, the sample sizes needed for dizygotic and monozygotic twin cases were one half and one fourth of the sample size of an ordinary case-control design, with variations depending on genetic mode. Importantly, the enriched power for dizygotic twins also applies to disease-concordant sibling pairs, which largely extends the application of the concordant twin design. Overall, our simulation revealed a high value of disease-concordant twins in genetic association studies and encourages the use of genetically related individuals for highly efficiently identifying both common and rare genetic variants underlying human complex diseases without increasing laboratory cost. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  13. Genetic Testing for Respiratory Disease: Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Paré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human genome project promised a revolution in health care – the development of ‘personalized medicine’, where knowledge of an individual’s genetic code enables the prediction of risk for specific diseases and the potential to alter that risk based on preventive measures and lifestyle modification. The present brief review provides a report card on the progress toward that goal with respect to respiratory disease. Should generalized population screening for genetic risk factors for respiratory disease be instituted? Or not?

  14. Genetic basis of common diseases: the general theory of Mendelian recessive genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Michael; Spanaki, Cleanthe; Lebedev, Sergey; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Common diseases tend to appear sporadically, i.e., they appear in an individual who has no first or second degree relatives with the disease. Yet diseases are often associated with a slight but definite increase in risk to the children of an affected individual. This weak pattern of inheritability cannot be explained by conventional interpretations of Mendelian genetics, and it is therefore commonly held that there is "incomplete penetrance" of a gene, or that there are polygenic, or multifactorial modes of inheritance. However, such arguments are heuristic and lack predictive power. Here, we explore the possibility that "incomplete penetrance" means the existence of a second, disease-related, gene. By examining in detail a specific common condition, Parkinson's disease (PD), we show that the sporadic form of the disease can be fully explained by a compact fully penetrant genotype involving an interaction between two, and only two, genes. In this model, therefore PD is fundamentally genetic. Our digenic model is complementary to Mendelian recessive genetics, but taken together with the latter forms a complete description for recessive genetics on one chromosome. It explains the slight increase in risk to the children if one parent has sporadic PD, and makes strict predictions where both parents coincidentally have sporadic PD. These predictions were verified in two large and carefully selected kindred, where the data also argue against other genetic models, including oligogenic and polygenic schemes. Since the inheritance patterns of sporadic PD are reminiscent of what is seen in many common diseases, it is plausible that similar genetic forms could apply to other diseases. Seen in this light, diseases wash in and out of every family, so that in a sense, over time every human family is equally at risk for most diseases.

  15. Crohn’s Disease Localization Displays Different Predisposing Genetic Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossa, Fabrizio; Valvano, Maria Rosa; Corritore, Giuseppe; Latiano, Tiziana; Martino, Giuseppina; D’Incà, Renata; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Pastore, Maria; D’Altilia, Mario; Scimeca, Daniela; Biscaglia, Giuseppe; Andriulli, Angelo; Latiano, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background Crohn’s disease (CD) is a pathologic condition with different clinical expressions that may reflect an interplay between genetics and environmental factors. Recently, it has been highlighted that three genetic markers, NOD2, MHC and MST1, were associated to distinct CD sites, supporting the concept that genetic variations may contribute to localize CD. Genetic markers, previously shown to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), were tested in CD patients with the aim to better dissect the genetic relationship between ileal, ileocolonic and colonic CD and ascertain whether a different genetic background would support the three disease sites as independent entities. Methods A panel of 29 SNPs of 19 IBD loci were analyzed by TaqMan SNP allelic discrimination method both evaluating their distinct contribute and analyzing all markers jointly. Results Seven hundred and eight CD patients and 537 healthy controls were included in the study. Of the overall population of patients, 237 patients had an ileal involvement (L1), 171 a colonic localization (L2), and the 300 remaining an ileocolon location (L3). We confirmed the association for 23 of 29 variations (P < 0.05). Compared to healthy controls, 16 variations emerged as associated to an ileum disease, 7 with a colonic disease and 14 with an ileocolonic site (P < 0.05). Comparing ileum to colonic CD, 5 SNPs (17%) were differentially associated (P < 0.05). A genetic model score that aggregated the risks of 23 SNPs and their odds ratios (ORs), yielded an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.70 for the overall CD patients. By analyzing each CD location, the AUC remained at the same level for the ileal and ileocolonic sites (0.73 and 0.72, respectively), but dropped to a 0,66 value in patients with colon localization. Conclusions Our findings reaffirm the existence of at least three different subgroups of CD patients, with a genetic signature distinctive for the three main CD sites. PMID:28052082

  16. Currently Clinical Views on Genetics of Wilson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chen; Bo Shen; Jia-Jia Xiao; Rong Wu; Sarah Jane Duff Canning; Xiao-Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The objective of this study was to review the research on clinical genetics of Wilson's disease (WD).Data Sources:We searched documents from PubMed and Wanfang databases both in English and Chinese up to 2014 using the keywords WD in combination with genetic,ATP7B gene,gene mutation,genotype,phenotype.Study Selection:Publications about the ATP7B gene and protein function associated with clinical features were selected.Results:Wilson's disease,also named hepatolenticular degeneration,is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by abnormal copper metabolism caused by mutations to the copper-transporting gene A TP7B.Decreased biliary copper excretion and reduced incorporation of copper into apoceruloplasmin caused by defunctionalization of ATP7B protein lead to accumulation of copper in many tissues and organs,including liver,brain,and cornea,finally resulting in liver disease and extrapyramidal symptoms.It is the most common genetic neurological disorder in the onset of adolescents,second to muscular dystrophy in China.Early diagnosis and medical therapy are of great significance for improving the prognosis of WD patients.However,diagnosis of this disease is usually difficult because of its complicated phenotypes.In the last 10 years,an increasing number of clinical studies have used molecular genetics techniques.Improved diagnosis and prediction of the progression of this disease at the molecular level will aid in the development of more individualized and effective interventions,which is a key to transition from molecular genetic research to the clinical study.Conclusions:Clinical genetics studies are necessary to understand the mechanism underlying WD at the molecular level from the genotype to the phenotype.Clinical genetics research benefits newly emerging medical treatments including stem cell transplantation and gene therapy for WD patients.

  17. Prospect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Genetic Repair to Cure Genetic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In genetic diseases, where the cells are already damaged, the damaged cells can be replaced by new normal cells, which can be differentiated from iPSC. To avoid immune rejection, iPSC from the patient’s own cell can be developed. However, iPSC from the patients’s cell harbors the same genetic aberration. Therefore, before differentiating the iPSCs into required cells, genetic repair should be done. This review discusses the various technologies to repair the genetic aberration in patient-derived iPSC, or to prevent the genetic aberration to cause further damage in the iPSC-derived cells, such as Zn finger and TALE nuclease genetic editing, RNA interference technology, exon skipping, and gene transfer method. In addition, the challenges in using the iPSC and the strategies to manage the hurdles are addressed.

  18. [PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS IN CHILDREN, OPERATED ON FOR INBORN HEART FAILURES IN THE ARTIFICIAL BLOOD CIRCULATION ENVIRONMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkivska, L V; Nastenko, E A; Golovenko, O S; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2015-11-01

    The risk factors of pulmonary complications occurrence were analyzed in children, operated on for inborn heart failures in atrificial blood circulation environment. Pulmonary complications rate and the risk factors of their occurrence were analyzed.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of beta-globin; this abnormality is called beta thalassemia . In people with sickle cell disease , at least ... globin. If mutations that produce hemoglobin S and beta thalassemia occur together, individuals have hemoglobin S- beta thalassemia (HbSBetaThal) ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Unverricht-Lundborg disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saukko P, Lahtinen U, Lehesjoki AE. Loss of lysosomal association of cystatin B proteins representing progressive myoclonus ... A, Biraben A, Buresi C, Malafosse A. FOunder effect in patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease on reunion ...

  1. Neonatal Screening for Inborn Errors of Metabolism in Shanghai%上海地区遗传代谢病的新生儿筛查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾学范; 叶军; 韩连书

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) has a diverse spectrum and different incidence in different countries, the early diagnosis at presymptomatic stage is imperative to benefic patient from sequelae. Phenylke-tonuria (PKU) / hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) is the most common metabolism disorder in Shanghai as well as in other regions. The study is to further clarify the incidence of inborn errors of metabolism among newborn in Shanghai. Methods The dried blood spot specimens were collected from near 90 local maternity and children's hospitals or general hospitals in Shanghai. PKU/HPA screening was carried out by fluorometric method. Neonatal screening using tandem mass spectrometry was performed in one of the study centers, Xinhua neonatal screening center. Results A total of 815 160 cases were screened from 2001 - 2007 in Shanghai, the incidence of PKU/HPA was 1 : 12 351. The tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency was 12.9% among hyperphenylalaninemia patients. According to the 116 000 neonatal samples data detected by tandem mass spectrometry, 20 cases were confirmed diagnosis, including 6 kinds diseases, it was PKU/HPA, maple syrup urine disease, methylmalonicacidemia, propionic acidemia, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase defection, and short chain aeyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Conclusions The pilot study shown that inborn errors of metabolism neonatal screen-ing using tandem mass was 1 : 5 800 in Shanghai, PKU/HPA was the most common disease. It is expected that the expansion of newborn screening using tandem mass spectrometry could be further considered and further improving inborn errors of metabolism preventive services in Shanghai.

  2. Genetic variants associated with Crohn's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Michail S; Bultron G; DePaolo RW

    2013-01-01

    Sonia Michail,1 Gilberto Bultron,1 R William DePaolo2 1The University of Southern California, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Crohn's disease is an immune-related disorder characterized by inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which can occur in any area throughout the digestive tract. This life-long disease commonly presen...

  3. Stem Cell Transplant for Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    Adrenoleukodystrophy; Metachromatic Leukodystrophy; Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy; Gaucher's Disease; Fucosidosis; Wolman Disease; Niemann-Pick Disease; Batten Disease; GM1 Gangliosidosis; Tay Sachs Disease; Sandhoff Disease

  4. Clinical and genetic features of Huntington disease in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathipala, Dulika S; Jayasekara, Rohan W; Dissanayake, Vajira H W

    2013-12-05

    Huntington disease was one of the first neurological hereditary diseases for which genetic testing was made possible as early as 1993. The study describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with Huntington disease in Sri Lanka. Data of 35 consecutive patients tested from 2007 to 2012 at the Human Genetics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo was analyzed retrospectively. Clinical data and genetic diagnostic results were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Thirty patients had fully penetrant (FP) CAG repeat mutations and 5 had reduced penetrant (RP) CAG repeat mutations. In the FP group mean ages of onset and diagnosis were 37.5 and 40.4 years, while in the RP group it was 63.0 and 64.8 years respectively. The age of diagnosis ranged from 15 to 72 years, with 2 patients with Juvenile onset (60 years) Huntington disease. The symptoms at diagnosis were predominantly motor (32/35 -91%). Three patients had psychiatric and behavioral disorders. The age difference between onset and genetic diagnosis showed significant delay in females compared to males (p Huntington disease in the Sri Lankan study population were similar to that previously reported in literature.

  5. Genetics of Parkinson disease: paradigm shifts and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Matthew James

    2006-04-01

    Parkinson disease is a complex, multifactorial neurodegenerative disease. Although a heritable basis was originally thought unlikely, recent studies have implicated several genes in its pathogenesis, and molecular findings now allow accurate diagnosis and challenge past criteria for defining Parkinson disease. Most importantly, genetic insights provide the rationale for new strategies for prevention or therapy, and have led to animal models of disease in which these strategies can be tested. Neuroprotective therapies can now be designed to slow or halt disease progression in affected subjects and asymptomatic carriers.

  6. Genetic Factors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Contribution to Disease Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Perricone, Carlo; Borgiani, Paola; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Rufini, Sara; Cipriano, Enrica; Alessandri, Cristiano; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Sili Scavalli, Antonio; Novelli, Giuseppe; Valesini, Guido; Conti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Genetic factors exert an important role in determining Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility, interplaying with environmental factors. Several genetic studies in various SLE populations have identified numerous susceptibility loci. From a clinical point of view, SLE is characterized by a great heterogeneity in terms of clinical and laboratory manifestations. As widely demonstrated, specific laboratory features are associated with clinical disease subset, with different severity degree. Similarly, in the last years, an association between specific phenotypes and genetic variants has been identified, allowing the possibility to elucidate different mechanisms and pathways accountable for disease manifestations. However, except for Lupus Nephritis (LN), no studies have been designed to identify the genetic variants associated with the development of different phenotypes. In this review, we will report data currently known about this specific association. PMID:26798662

  7. Curing genetic disease with gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David A

    2014-01-01

    Development of viral vectors that allow high efficiency gene transfer into mammalian cells in the early 1980s foresaw the treatment of severe monogenic diseases in humans. The application of gene transfer using viral vectors has been successful in diseases of the blood and immune systems, albeit with several curative studies also showing serious adverse events (SAEs). In children with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), chronic granulomatous disease, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, these SAEs were caused by inappropriate activation of oncogenes. Subsequent studies have defined the vector sequences responsible for these transforming events. Members of the Transatlantic Gene Therapy Consortium [TAGTC] have collaboratively developed new vectors that have proven safer in preclinical studies and used these vectors in new clinical trials in SCID-X1. These trials have shown evidence of early efficacy and preliminary integration analysis data from the SCID-X1 trial suggest an improved safety profile.

  8. Current evidence and insights about genetics in thoracic aorta disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisleri, Gianluigi; Bagozzi, Lorenzo; Muneretto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve.

  9. Genetic architecture of quantitative traits and complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wenqing; O'Connor, Timothy D; Akey, Joshua M

    2013-12-01

    More than 150 years after Mendel discovered the laws of heredity, the genetic architecture of phenotypic variation remains elusive. Here, we discuss recent progress in deciphering how genotypes map onto phenotypes, sources of genetic complexity, and how model organisms are illuminating general principles about the relationship between genetic and phenotypic variation. Moreover, we highlight insights gleaned from large-scale sequencing studies in humans, and how this knowledge informs outstanding questions about the genetic architecture of quantitative traits and complex diseases. Finally, we articulate how the confluence of technologies enabling whole-genome sequencing, comprehensive phenotyping, and high-throughput functional assays of polymorphisms will facilitate a more principled and mechanistic understanding of the genetic architecture of phenotypic variation.

  10. Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Bisleri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve.

  11. GENE MUTATIONS, GENETIC DISEASE AND PHARMACOGENETIC GENES DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell mutation is able to create genetic variance in a cell population and can induce cancer and tumor when gene mutations took place at repressor gene in controlling cell cycles such as p53 gene. Whereas germline cell mutation can cause genetic disease such as sickle cell anemia, breast cancer, thalassemia, parkinson’s as well as defect of biochemical pathway that influence drug-receptor interaction, which has negative effect and lead to hospitalized of patient. Most of reports mentio...

  12. Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also s...

  13. Cultural aspects in the management of inborn errors of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockler, Sylvia; Moeslinger, Dorothea; Herle, Marion; Wimmer, Banu; Ipsiroglu, Osman S

    2012-11-01

    European Health Care Systems have not yet accommodated both previous and current migration waves. Children from immigrant families, especially children with chronic conditions, are particularly affected from the shortcomings in medical care. One condition, phenylketonuria (PKU), is an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) which results in intellectual disability unless treated with a lifelong phenylalanine (Phe) restricted diet. In our PKU clinic, patients from families who previously had emmigrated from the geographic area of Turkey to Austria, exhibited worse blood Phe control and cognitive development than comparable patients from native Austrian families. Using structured and semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and illness narratives, we identified language, psychosocial, economic, educational and cultural barriers as factors influencing adherence to treatment. Our findings led us to conclude that access to interpreter services, exploration of the socio-cultural background and of family ecology, as well as bi-directional communication and medical decision making according to the "best interest of the child" principle, may improve outcomes in patients requiring complex treatment and care.

  14. [The genetic determinism of polygenic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jean-François

    2005-05-01

    Progress in molecular biology has opened the way to identifying genes involved in predisposition to multigene diseases. The two methods currently used for this purpose--analysis of candidate genes and systematic genomic screening--have given interesting but only very partial results. The problem is complicated by the large number of genes involved, their low penetrance, and linkage disequilibrium.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Niemann-Pick disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing this fat to accumulate in cells. This fat buildup causes cells to malfunction and eventually die. Over time, cell loss impairs function of tissues and organs including the brain, lungs, spleen, and liver in people with Niemann-Pick disease types A and B. Mutations in either the NPC1 ...

  16. Fabry disease in genetic counseling practice: recommendations of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robin L; Hart, Kimberly A; O'Rourke, Erin; Barranger, John A; Johnson, Jack; MacDermot, Kay D; Pastores, Gregory M; Steiner, Robert D; Thadhani, Ravi

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this document is to provide health care professionals with recommendations for genetic counseling and testing of individuals with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of Fabry disease, with a family history of Fabry disease, and those identified as female carriers of Fabry disease. These recommendations are the opinions of a multicenter working group of genetic counselors, medical geneticists, and other health professionals with expertise in Fabry disease counseling, as well as an individual with Fabry disease who is a founder of a Fabry disease patient advocacy group in the United States. The recommendations are U.S. Preventive Task Force Class III, and they are based on clinical experience, a review of pertinent English-language articles, and reports of expert committees. This document reviews the genetics of Fabry disease, the indications for genetic testing and interpretation of results, psychosocial considerations, and references for professional and patient resources. These recommendations should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of management, nor does use of such recommendations guarantee a particular outcome. The professional judgment of a healthcare provider, familiar with the facts and circumstances of a specific case, will always supersede these recommendations.

  17. The Counselor and Genetic Disease: Huntington's Disease as a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Nancy S.

    This speech offers a brief description of Huntington's Disease (HD): its causes, symptoms, and incidence. It then concentrates on the psychological problems of persons one of whose parents had the disease, and the role of the counselor in helping these humans cope with their fears about contacting it themselves. A relatively detailed case study is…

  18. Insights into metabolic disease from studying genetics in isolated populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeggini, Eleftheria; Gloyn, Anna L; Hansen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    for diabetes and metabolic disease, drawing on specific examples from populations in Greece and Greenland. This review summarises a presentation given at the 'Exciting news in genetics of diabetes' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD, with topics presented by Eleftheria Zeggini and Torben Hansen...... variation on disease risk. Current efforts are now focused on extending this to genetic variants in the rare and low-frequency spectrum by capitalising on next-generation sequencing technologies. This review discusses the important contributions that studies in isolated populations are making to this effort...

  19. Genetic stabilization of transthyretin, cerebrovascular disease, and life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornstrup, Louise S; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-01-01

    Transthyretin can cause amyloidosis attributable to destabilization of transthyretin tetramers in plasma. We tested the hypothesis that genetic stabilization of transthyretin associates with reduced risk of vascular disease and increased life expectancy. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We included 68 602...... participants from 2 prospective studies of the general population. We genotyped for 2 stabilizing genetic variants in the transthyretin gene (TTR), R104H and T119M, and determined the association of genotypes with plasma levels of transthyretin, measures of thyroid function, risk of vascular disease, and life...

  20. Genetic testing in congenital heart disease:A clinical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marie A Chaix; Gregor Andelfinger; Paul Khairy

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease(CHD) is the most common type of birth defect. Traditionally, a polygenic model defined by the interaction of multiple genes and environmental factors was hypothesized to account for different forms of CHD. It is now understood that the contribution of genetics to CHD extends beyond a single unified paradigm. For example, monogenic models and chromosomal abnormalities have been associated with various syndromic and non-syndromic forms of CHD. In such instances, genetic investigation and testing may potentially play an important role in clinical care. A family tree with a detailed phenotypic description serves as the initial screening tool to identify potentially inherited defects and to guide further genetic investigation. The selection of a genetic test is contingent upon the particular diagnostic hypothesis generated by clinical examination. Genetic investigation in CHD may carry the potential to improve prognosis by yielding valuable information with regards to personalized medical care, confidence in the clinical diagnosis, and/or targeted patient followup. Moreover, genetic assessment may serve as a tool to predict recurrence risk, define the pattern of inheritance within a family, and evaluate the need for further family screening. In some circumstances, prenatal or preimplantation genetic screening could identify fetuses or embryos at high risk for CHD. Although genetics may appear to constitute a highly specialized sector of cardiology, basic knowledge regarding inheritance patterns, recurrence risks, and available screening and diagnostic tools, including their strengths and limitations, could assist the treating physician in providing sound counsel.

  1. Disease-aging network reveals significant roles of aging genes in connecting genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiguang; Zhang, Shihua; Wang, Yong; Chen, Luonan; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2009-09-01

    One of the challenging problems in biology and medicine is exploring the underlying mechanisms of genetic diseases. Recent studies suggest that the relationship between genetic diseases and the aging process is important in understanding the molecular mechanisms of complex diseases. Although some intricate associations have been investigated for a long time, the studies are still in their early stages. In this paper, we construct a human disease-aging network to study the relationship among aging genes and genetic disease genes. Specifically, we integrate human protein-protein interactions (PPIs), disease-gene associations, aging-gene associations, and physiological system-based genetic disease classification information in a single graph-theoretic framework and find that (1) human disease genes are much closer to aging genes than expected by chance; and (2) diseases can be categorized into two types according to their relationships with aging. Type I diseases have their genes significantly close to aging genes, while type II diseases do not. Furthermore, we examine the topological characters of the disease-aging network from a systems perspective. Theoretical results reveal that the genes of type I diseases are in a central position of a PPI network while type II are not; (3) more importantly, we define an asymmetric closeness based on the PPI network to describe relationships between diseases, and find that aging genes make a significant contribution to associations among diseases, especially among type I diseases. In conclusion, the network-based study provides not only evidence for the intricate relationship between the aging process and genetic diseases, but also biological implications for prying into the nature of human diseases.

  2. Genetics of Parkinson disease and other movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kishore R; Lohmann, Katja; Klein, Christine

    2012-08-01

    We will review the recent advances in the genetics of Parkinson disease and other movement disorders such as dystonia, essential tremor and restless legs syndrome (RLS). Mutations in VPS35 were identified as a novel cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson disease using exome sequencing. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was also used to identify PRRT2 mutations as a cause of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (DYT10). Using a different technique, that is linkage analysis, mutations in EIF4G1 were implicated as a cause of Parkinson disease and mutations in SLC20A2 as a cause of familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification. Furthermore, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and meta-analyses have confirmed known risk genes and identified new risk loci in Parkinson disease, RLS and essential tremor. New models to study genetic forms of Parkinson disease, such as stem cell-derived neurons, have helped to elucidate disease-relevant molecular pathways, such as the molecular link between Gaucher disease and Parkinson disease. New genes have been implicated in Parkinson disease and other movement disorders through the use of NGS. The identification of risk variants has been facilitated by GWAS and meta-analyses. Furthermore, new models are being developed to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  3. Genetics of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuming Dai; Szymon Wiernek; James P Evans; Marschall S Runge

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease(CAD) comprises a broad spectrum of clinical entities that include asymptomatic subclinical atherosclerosis and its clinical complications, such as angina pectoris, myocardial infarction(MI) and sudden cardiac death. CAD continues to be the leading cause of death in industrialized society. The long-recognized familial clustering of CAD suggests that genetics plays a central role in its development, with the heritability of CAD and MI estimated at approximately 50% to 60%. Understanding the genetic architecture of CAD and MI has proven to be difficult and costly due to the heterogeneity of clinical CAD and the underlying multi-decade complex pathophysiological processes that involve both genetic and environmental interactions. This review describes the clinical heterogeneity of CAD and MI to clarify the disease spectrum in genetic studies, provides a brief overview of the historical understanding and estimation of the heritability of CAD and MI, recounts major gene discoveries of potential causal mutations in familial CAD and MI, summarizes CAD and MIassociated genetic variants identified using candidate gene approaches and genome-wide association studies(GWAS), and summarizes the current status of the construction and validations of genetic risk scores for lifetime risk prediction and guidance for preventive strategies. Potential protective genetic factors against the development of CAD and MI are also discussed. Finally, GWAS have identified multiple genetic factors associated with an increased risk of in-stent restenosis following stent placement for obstructive CAD. This review will also address genetic factors associated with in-stent restenosis, which may ultimately guide clinical decision-making regarding revascularization strategies for patients with CAD and MI.

  4. The genetic predisposition and the interplay of host genetics and gut microbiome in Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianzhong, Hu

    2014-12-01

    Extensive genetic studies have identified more than 140 loci predisposing to Crohn disease (CD). Several major CD susceptibility genes have been shown to impair biological function with regard to immune response to recognizing and clearance of bacterial infection. Recent human microbiome studies suggest that the gut microbiome composition is differentiated in carriers of many risk variants of major CD susceptibility genes. This interplay between host genetics and its associated gut microbiome may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of CD. The ongoing microbiome research is aimed to investigate the detailed host genetics-microbiome interacting mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variants associated with neurodegenerative Alzheimer disease in natural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Claudia; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Ardiles, Álvaro O; Ewer, John; Palacios, Adrián G

    2016-02-26

    The use of transgenic models for the study of neurodegenerative diseases has made valuable contributions to the field. However, some important limitations, including protein overexpression and general systemic compensation for the missing genes, has caused researchers to seek natural models that show the main biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases during aging. Here we review some of these models-most of them rodents, focusing especially on the genetic variations in biomarkers for Alzheimer diseases, in order to explain their relationships with variants associated with the occurrence of the disease in humans.

  6. Genetic counseling issues in predictive genetic testing for familial adult-onset neurologic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, C M; Markey, K R

    2001-09-01

    Genetic counseling is important in any genetic testing situation in order to address the various issues related to obtaining a genetic diagnosis. Presymptomatic testing for adult-onset neurodegenerative disease, in particular, presents a complex counseling scenario. It is imperative to discuss the potential impact of test results on patients' family dynamics, insurability and employability, family planning, and future health in addition to ascertaining a complete understanding of recurrence, inheritance, and testing parameters. The Huntington disease presymptomatic testing protocol is well-defined and has been used for more than 10 years. These guidelines, which protect both patient and provider, can now be applied to other diseases as further presymptomatic testing capabilities are realized.

  7. Amyloid heart disease: genetics translated into disease-modifying therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Brett W; Tang, W H Wilson

    2017-06-01

    Given increased awareness and improved non-invasive diagnostic tools, cardiac amyloidosis has become an increasingly recognised aetiology of increased ventricular wall thickness and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Once considered a rare disease with no treatment options, translational research has harnessed novel pathways and led the way to promising treatment options. Gene variants that contribute to amyloid heart disease provide unique opportunities to explore potential disease-modifying therapeutic strategies. Amyloidosis has become the model disease through which gene therapy using small interfering RNAs and antisense oligonucleotides has evolved. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Disease-Concordant Twins Empower Genetic Association Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Li, Weilong; Vandin, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies with moderate sample sizes are underpowered, especially when testing SNP alleles with low allele counts, a situation that may lead to high frequency of false-positive results and lack of replication in independent studies. Related individuals, such as twin pairs...... concordant for a disease, should confer increased power in genetic association analysis because of their genetic relatedness. We conducted a computer simulation study to explore the power advantage of the disease-concordant twin design, which uses singletons from disease-concordant twin pairs as cases...... and ordinary healthy samples as controls. We examined the power gain of the twin-based design for various scenarios (i.e., cases from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs concordant for a disease) and compared the power with the ordinary case-control design with cases collected from the unrelated patient...

  9. Mixing omics: combining genetics and metabolomics to study rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menni, Cristina; Zierer, Jonas; Valdes, Ana M; Spector, Tim D

    2017-03-01

    Metabolomics is an exciting field in systems biology that provides a direct readout of the biochemical activities taking place within an individual at a particular point in time. Metabolite levels are influenced by many factors, including disease status, environment, medications, diet and, importantly, genetics. Thanks to their dynamic nature, metabolites are useful for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as for predicting and monitoring the efficacy of treatments. At the same time, the strong links between an individual's metabolic and genetic profiles enable the investigation of pathways that underlie changes in metabolite levels. Thus, for the field of metabolomics to yield its full potential, researchers need to take into account the genetic factors underlying the production of metabolites, and the potential role of these metabolites in disease processes. In this Review, the methodological aspects related to metabolomic profiling and any potential links between metabolomics and the genetics of some of the most common rheumatic diseases are described. Links between metabolomics, genetics and emerging fields such as the gut microbiome and proteomics are also discussed.

  10. Using genetic diagnostics in hemophilia and von Willebrand disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swystun, Laura L; James, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Most bleeding disorders encountered in clinical practice will be diagnosed, at least initially, by phenotypic assays. However, since the characterization of the genes that encode coagulation factors in the 1980s, significant progress has been made in translating this knowledge for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. For hemophilia A and B, molecular genetic testing to determine carrier status, prenatal diagnosis, and likelihood of inhibitor development or anaphylaxis to infused coagulation factor concentrates is an established component of comprehensive clinical management. In contrast, although significant recent advances in our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of von Willebrand disease (VWD) have allowed for the development of rational approaches to genetic diagnostics, questions remain about this complex genetic disorder and how to incorporate emerging knowledge into diagnostic strategies. This article will review the state-of-the-art for molecular diagnostics for both hemophilia and VWD.

  11. Human Genetic Variation and Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ju Chung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with multifactorial etiology. In the past decade, the genetic causes of monogenic forms of familial PD have been defined. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of the majority of sporadic PD cases that occur in outbred populations have yet to be clarified. The recent development of resources such as the International HapMap Project and technological advances in high-throughput genotyping have provided new basis for genetic association studies of common complex diseases, including PD. A new generation of genome-wide association studies will soon offer a potentially powerful approach for mapping causal genes and will likely change treatment and alter our perception of the genetic determinants of PD. However, the execution and analysis of such studies will require great care.

  12. Neonatal screening for inborn errors of metabolism: cost, yield and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, R J; Green, A; McCabe, C J; Booth, A; Cooper, N J; Leonard, J V; Nicholl, J; Nicholson, P; Tunaley, J R; Virdi, N K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To systematically review the literature on inborn errors of metabolism, neonatal screening technology and screening programmes in order to analyse the costs and benefits of introducing screening based on tandem mass-spectrometry (tandem MS) for a wide range of disorders of amino acid and organic acid metabolism in the UK. To evaluate screening for cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and other disorders which are tested on an individual basis. HOW THE RESEARCH WAS CONDUCTED. Systematic searches were carried out of the literature on inborn errors of metabolism, neonatal screening programmes, tandem MS-based neonatal screening technology, economic evaluations of neonatal screening programmes and psychological aspects of neonatal screening. Background material on the biology of inherited metabolic disease, the basic philosophy, and the history and current status of the UK screening programme was also collected. Relevant papers in the grey literature and recent publications were identified by hand-searching. Each paper was graded. For each disease an aggregate grade for the state of knowledge in six key areas was awarded. Additional data were prospectively collected on activity and costs in UK neonatal screening laboratories, and expert clinical opinion on current treatment modalities and outcomes. These data were used to construct a decision-analysis model of neonatal screening technologies, comparing tandem MS with the existing phenylketonuria screening methods. This model determined the cost per additional case identified and, for each disease, the additional treatment costs per case, and the cost per life-year saved. All costs and benefits were discounted at 6% per annum. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed showing the effect of varying the discount rate, the incidence rate of each disorder, the number of neonates screened and the cost of tandem MS, on the cost per life-year gained. RESEARCH FINDINGS. The UK screening programmes for

  13. Genetics of Parkinson’s Disease - A Clinical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Myung Cheon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Discovering genes following Medelian inheritance, such as autosomal dominant-synuclein and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene, or autosomal recessive Parkin, P-TEN-induced putative kinase 1 gene and Daisuke-Junko 1 gene, has provided great insights into the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Genes found to be associated with PD through investigating genetic polymorphisms or via the whole genome association studies suggest that such genes could also contribute to an increased risk of PD in the general population. Some environmental factors have been found to be associated with genetic factors in at-risk patients, further implicating the role of gene-environment interactions in sporadic PD. There may be confusion for clinicians facing rapid progresses of genetic understanding in PD. After a brief review of PD genetics, we will discuss the insight of new genetic discoveries to clinicians, the implications of ethnic differences in PD genetics and the role of genetic testing for general clinicians managing PD patients.

  14. Large animal models of rare genetic disorders: sheep as phenotypically relevant models of human genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnapureddy, Ashish R; Stayner, Cherie; McEwan, John; Baddeley, Olivia; Forman, John; Eccles, Michael R

    2015-09-02

    Animals that accurately model human disease are invaluable in medical research, allowing a critical understanding of disease mechanisms, and the opportunity to evaluate the effect of therapeutic compounds in pre-clinical studies. Many types of animal models are used world-wide, with the most common being small laboratory animals, such as mice. However, rodents often do not faithfully replicate human disease, despite their predominant use in research. This discordancy is due in part to physiological differences, such as body size and longevity. In contrast, large animal models, including sheep, provide an alternative to mice for biomedical research due to their greater physiological parallels with humans. Completion of the full genome sequences of many species, and the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, means it is now feasible to screen large populations of domesticated animals for genetic variants that resemble human genetic diseases, and generate models that more accurately model rare human pathologies. In this review, we discuss the notion of using sheep as large animal models, and their advantages in modelling human genetic disease. We exemplify several existing naturally occurring ovine variants in genes that are orthologous to human disease genes, such as the Cln6 sheep model for Batten disease. These, and other sheep models, have contributed significantly to our understanding of the relevant human disease process, in addition to providing opportunities to trial new therapies in animals with similar body and organ size to humans. Therefore sheep are a significant species with respect to the modelling of rare genetic human disease, which we summarize in this review.

  15. Genetic variation in Toll-like receptors and disease susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, Mihai G.; Wijmenga, Cisca; O'Neill, Luke A. J.

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key initiators of the innate immune response and promote adaptive immunity. Much has been learned about the role of TLRs in human immunity from studies linking TLR genetic variation with disease. First, monogenic disorders associated with complete deficiency in certain

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Ménière disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pract Neurol. 2009 Jun;9(3):157-62. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2009.176602. Citation on PubMed Morrison AW, Bailey ME, Morrison GA. Familial Ménière's disease: clinical and genetic aspects. J Laryngol Otol. 2009 Jan;123(1):29-37. doi: 10.1017/S0022215108002788. Epub 2008 Jul 11. Citation ...

  17. Partial status epilepticus - rapid genetic diagnosis of Alpers' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCoy, Bláthnaid

    2011-11-01

    We describe four children with a devastating encephalopathy characterised by refractory focal seizures and variable liver dysfunction. We describe their electroencephalographic, radiologic, genetic and pathologic findings. The correct diagnosis was established by rapid gene sequencing. POLG1 based Alpers\\' disease should be considered in any child presenting with partial status epilepticus.

  18. Unraveling the genetics of chronic kidney disease using animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, Ron; DiPetrillo, K.

    2004-01-01

    Identifying genes underlying common forms of kidney disease in humans has proven difficult, expensive, and time consuming. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for several complex traits are concordant among mice, rats, and humans, suggesting that genetic findings from these animal models are relevant to

  19. Teaching Mitochondrial Genetics & Disease: A GENA Project Curriculum Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Ryan A.; Sharer, J. Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a novel, inquiry-based learning plan developed as part of the GENA educational outreach project. Focusing on mitochondrial genetics and disease, this interactive approach utilizes pedigree analysis and laboratory techniques to address non-Mendelian inheritance. The plan can be modified to fit a variety of educational goals…

  20. Teaching Mitochondrial Genetics & Disease: A GENA Project Curriculum Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Ryan A.; Sharer, J. Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a novel, inquiry-based learning plan developed as part of the GENA educational outreach project. Focusing on mitochondrial genetics and disease, this interactive approach utilizes pedigree analysis and laboratory techniques to address non-Mendelian inheritance. The plan can be modified to fit a variety of educational goals…

  1. Point mutations as a source of de novo genetic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligt, J. de; Veltman, J.A.; Vissers, L.E.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Family-based next generation sequencing (NGS) has recently pointed to an important role for de novo germline point mutations in both rare and common genetic disorders associated with reduced fitness. In this review we highlight the impact of the mutational target size on the frequency of diseases ca

  2. Clinical, biochemical and genetic heterogeneity in lysosomal storage diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractThe history of lysosomal storage diseases dates back to the end of the last century when the first clinical reports appeared of patients suffering from these genetic, metabolic disorders (Tay, 1881; Gaucher, 1882; Sachs, 1887; Fabry, 1898). About seventy years wouid pass before the term

  3. Exploring Genetic Factors Involved in Huntington Disease Age of Onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valcárcel-Ocete, Leire; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Iriondo, Mikel;

    2015-01-01

    Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is mainly determined by the length of the CAG repeat expansion (CAGexp) in exon 1 of the HTT gene. Additional genetic variation has been suggested to contribute to AO, although the mechanism by which it could affect AO is presently unknown. The aim of ...

  4. Genetic variability for tuber yield, quality, and virus disease complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variability for tuber yield, quality, and virus disease complex traits in Uganda ... Silk and Sowola which showed high flowering ability failed to fertilise and set ... Up to five genes may be involved in â-carotene synthesis and probably in ...

  5. Is there a Common Genetic Basis for Autoimmune Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Manuel Anaya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs represent a diverse collection of diseases in terms of their demographic profile and primary clinical manifestations. The commonality between them however, is the damage to tissues and organs that arises from the response to self-antigens. The presence of shared pathophysiological mechanisms within ADs has stimulated searches for common genetic roots to these diseases. Two approaches have been undertaken to sustain the “common genetic origin” theory of ADs. Firstly, a clinical genetic analysis showed that autoimmunity aggregates within families of probands diagnosed with primary Sjögren's (pSS syndrome or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D. A literature review supported the establishment of a familiar cluster of ADs depending upon the proband's disease phenotype. Secondly, in a same and well-defined population, a large genetic association study indicated that a number of polymorphic genes (i.e. HLA-DRB1, TNF and PTPN22 influence the susceptibility for acquiring different ADs. Likewise, association and linkage studies in different populations have revealed that several susceptibility loci overlap in ADs, and clinical studies have shown that frequent clustering of several ADs occurs. Thus, the genetic factors for ADs consist of two types: those which are common to many ADs (acting in epistatic pleitropy and those that are specific to a given disorder. Their identification and functional characterization will allow us to predict their effect as well as to indicate potential new therapeutic interventions. Both autoimmunity family history and the co-occurrence of ADs in affected probands should be considered when performing genetic association and linkage studies.

  6. CD209 genetic polymorphism and tuberculosis disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik O Vannberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. DC-SIGN, encoded by CD209, is a receptor capable of binding and internalizing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Previous studies have reported that the CD209 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-336A/G exerts an effect on CD209 expression and is associated with human susceptibility to dengue, HIV-1 and tuberculosis in humans. The present study investigates the role of the CD209 -336A/G variant in susceptibility to tuberculosis in a large sample of individuals from sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 2,176 individuals enrolled in tuberculosis case-control studies from four sub-Saharan Africa countries were genotyped for the CD209 -336A/G SNP (rs4804803. Significant overall protection against pulmonary tuberculosis was observed with the -336G allele when the study groups were combined (n = 914 controls vs. 1262 cases, Mantel-Haenszel 2 x 2 chi(2 = 7.47, P = 0.006, odds ratio = 0.86, 95%CI 0.77-0.96. In addition, the patients with -336GG were associated with a decreased risk of cavitory tuberculosis, a severe form of tuberculosis disease (n = 557, Pearson's 2x2 chi(2 = 17.34, P = 0.00003, odds ratio = 0.42, 95%CI 0.27-0.65. This direction of association is opposite to a previously observed result in a smaller study of susceptibility to tuberculosis in a South African Coloured population, but entirely in keeping with the previously observed protective effect of the -336G allele. CONCLUSION: This study finds that the CD209 -336G variant allele is associated with significant protection against tuberculosis in individuals from sub-Saharan Africa and, furthermore, cases with -336GG were significantly less likely to develop tuberculosis-induced lung cavitation. Previous in vitro work demonstrated that the promoter variant -336G allele causes down-regulation of CD209 mRNA expression. Our present work suggests that decreased

  7. Minireview on Glutamine Synthetase Deficiency, an Ultra-Rare Inborn Error of Amino Acid Biosynthesis

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    Marta Spodenkiewicz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine synthetase (GS is a cytosolic enzyme that produces glutamine, the most abundant free amino acid in the human body. Glutamine is a major substrate for various metabolic pathways, and is thus an important factor for the functioning of many organs; therefore, deficiency of glutamine due to a defect in GS is incompatible with normal life. Mutations in the human GLUL gene (encoding for GS can cause an ultra-rare recessive inborn error of metabolism—congenital glutamine synthetase deficiency. This disease was reported until now in only three unrelated patients, all of whom suffered from neonatal onset severe epileptic encephalopathy. The hallmark of GS deficiency in these patients was decreased levels of glutamine in body fluids, associated with chronic hyperammonemia. This review aims at recapitulating the clinical history of the three known patients with congenital GS deficiency and summarizes the findings from studies done along with the work-up of these patients. It is the aim of this paper to convince the reader that (i this disorder is possibly underdiagnosed, since decreased concentrations of metabolites do not receive the attention they deserve; and (ii early detection of GS deficiency may help to improve the outcome of patients who could be treated early with metabolites that are lacking in this condition.

  8. Minireview on Glutamine Synthetase Deficiency, an Ultra-Rare Inborn Error of Amino Acid Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodenkiewicz, Marta; Diez-Fernandez, Carmen; Rüfenacht, Véronique; Gemperle-Britschgi, Corinne; Häberle, Johannes

    2016-10-19

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a cytosolic enzyme that produces glutamine, the most abundant free amino acid in the human body. Glutamine is a major substrate for various metabolic pathways, and is thus an important factor for the functioning of many organs; therefore, deficiency of glutamine due to a defect in GS is incompatible with normal life. Mutations in the human GLUL gene (encoding for GS) can cause an ultra-rare recessive inborn error of metabolism-congenital glutamine synthetase deficiency. This disease was reported until now in only three unrelated patients, all of whom suffered from neonatal onset severe epileptic encephalopathy. The hallmark of GS deficiency in these patients was decreased levels of glutamine in body fluids, associated with chronic hyperammonemia. This review aims at recapitulating the clinical history of the three known patients with congenital GS deficiency and summarizes the findings from studies done along with the work-up of these patients. It is the aim of this paper to convince the reader that (i) this disorder is possibly underdiagnosed, since decreased concentrations of metabolites do not receive the attention they deserve; and (ii) early detection of GS deficiency may help to improve the outcome of patients who could be treated early with metabolites that are lacking in this condition.

  9. Genotator: A disease-agnostic tool for genetic annotation of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Jae-Yoon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease-specific genetic information has been increasing at rapid rates as a consequence of recent improvements and massive cost reductions in sequencing technologies. Numerous systems designed to capture and organize this mounting sea of genetic data have emerged, but these resources differ dramatically in their disease coverage and genetic depth. With few exceptions, researchers must manually search a variety of sites to assemble a complete set of genetic evidence for a particular disease of interest, a process that is both time-consuming and error-prone. Methods We designed a real-time aggregation tool that provides both comprehensive coverage and reliable gene-to-disease rankings for any disease. Our tool, called Genotator, automatically integrates data from 11 externally accessible clinical genetics resources and uses these data in a straightforward formula to rank genes in order of disease relevance. We tested the accuracy of coverage of Genotator in three separate diseases for which there exist specialty curated databases, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Parkinson's Disease, and Alzheimer Disease. Genotator is freely available at http://genotator.hms.harvard.edu. Results Genotator demonstrated that most of the 11 selected databases contain unique information about the genetic composition of disease, with 2514 genes found in only one of the 11 databases. These findings confirm that the integration of these databases provides a more complete picture than would be possible from any one database alone. Genotator successfully identified at least 75% of the top ranked genes for all three of our use cases, including a 90% concordance with the top 40 ranked candidates for Alzheimer Disease. Conclusions As a meta-query engine, Genotator provides high coverage of both historical genetic research as well as recent advances in the genetic understanding of specific diseases. As such, Genotator provides a real-time aggregation of ranked

  10. Genetic Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Luis Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV disease is the most common cause of premature mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. It is the result of an accelerated atherosclerotic process. Both RA and atherosclerosis are complex polygenic diseases. Besides traditional CV risk factors and chronic inflammation, a number of studies have confirmed the role of genetic factors in the development of the atherogenesis observed in RA. In this regard, besides a strong association between the HLA-DRB1*04 shared epitope alleles and both endothelial dysfunction, an early step in the atherosclerotic process, and clinically evident CV disease, other polymorphisms belonging to genes implicated in inflammatory and metabolic pathways, located inside and outside the HLA region, such as the 308 variant (G>A, rs1800629 of the TNFA locus, the rs1801131 polymorphism (A>C; position + 1298 of the MTHFR locus, or a deletion of 32 base pairs on the CCR5 gene, seem to be associated with the risk of CV disease in patients with RA. Despite considerable effort to decipher the genetic basis of CV disease in RA, further studies are required to better establish the genetic influence in the increased risk of CV events observed in patients with RA.

  11. Defects in trafficking bridge Parkinson's disease pathology and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeliovich, Asa; Gitler, Aaron D

    2016-11-10

    Parkinson's disease is a debilitating, age-associated movement disorder. A central aspect of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is the progressive demise of midbrain dopamine neurons and their axonal projections, but the underlying causes of this loss are unclear. Advances in genetics and experimental model systems have illuminated an important role for defects in intracellular transport pathways to lysosomes. The accumulation of altered proteins and damaged mitochondria, particularly at axon terminals, ultimately might overwhelm the capacity of intracellular disposal mechanisms. Cell-extrinsic mechanisms, including inflammation and prion-like spreading, are proposed to have both protective and deleterious functions in Parkinson's disease.

  12. Primary osteoarthritis of the hip: a genetic disease caused by European genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoaglund, Franklin T

    2013-03-06

    Primary osteoarthritis of the hip is a separate phenotype that occurs at a rate of 3% to 6% in the populations of the world with European ancestry. In all non-European populations, there is a consistent rarity of primary osteoarthritis that suggests a different etiology for these few patients. Family, sibling, and twin studies prove primary osteoarthritis to be a genetic disease with a 50% heritability caused by European genetic variants. The genetic basis is reinforced by the lower rate of primary osteoarthritis in American minorities consistent with their degree of European gene admixture. Whether the mechanism of degeneration of primary osteoarthritis may be secondary through a morphologic deformity, such as femoroacetabular impingement, remains unknown. The virtual absence of the disease in non-Europeans indicates that the European gene component is necessary for the expression of this separate phenotype of osteoarthritis.

  13. Genetic Mouse Models of Huntington's Disease: Focus on Electrophysiological Mechanisms

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    Carlos Cepeda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the HD (Huntington's disease gene in 1993 led to the creation of genetic mouse models of the disease and opened the doors for mechanistic studies. In particular, the early changes and progression of the disease could be followed and examined systematically. The present review focuses on the contribution of these genetic mouse models to the understanding of functional changes in neurons as the HD phenotype progresses, and concentrates on two brain areas: the striatum, the site of most conspicuous pathology in HD, and the cortex, a site that is becoming increasingly important in understanding the widespread behavioural abnormalities. Mounting evidence points to synaptic abnormalities in communication between the cortex and striatum and cell-cell interactions as major determinants of HD symptoms, even in the absence of severe neuronal degeneration and death.

  14. Inborn anemias in mice. Comprehensive progress report to accompany twenty-first renewal proposal, 1 May 1973--30 April 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, E.S.; Bernstein, S.E.

    1976-05-01

    Progress is reported on the delineation of inborn anemias of the laboratory mouse, carried out by preparation of genetically homogeneous stocks segregating only for anemia-producing genes; by descriptions of each condition at all stages in the life history; by determination of tissue-sites of primary gene action through transplantation and parabiosis experiments; by analysis of reactions of normal and anemic mice to a variety of stressful stimuli, including x-irradiation and hypoxia; and by histological and biochemical study of normal vs. abnormal blood-forming tissue. At present 12 single-gene induced anemias are known in the mouse, plus one with multifactorial inheritance.

  15. THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS OF GENETIC RISK VARIANTS FOR CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

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    Rajiv Kumar Srivastava

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This review covers therapeutic implication of genetic risk variant responsible for coronary artery disease by utilising the highdensity single-nucleotide microarrays to screen the entire human genome. The sequence of the human genome provides the blueprint for life. Approximately, 99.5% of the human genome Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA sequence is identical among humans with 0.5% of the genome sequence (15 million bps accounting for all individual differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS The new technology of the computerised chip array of millions of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs as Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA markers makes it possible to study and detect genetic predisposition to common polygenic disorders such as Coronary Artery Disease (CAD. The sample sizes required for these studies are massive and large; worldwide consortiums such as Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-Analysis (CARDIoGRAM study have been formed to accommodate this requirement. After the identification of 9p21 progress to detect genetic predisposition has been remarkable. RESULTS There are currently a total of 50 genetic risk variants predisposing to CAD of genome-wide significance with confirmation in independent populations. Rare variants (Minor Allele Frequency, MAF <5% will require direct sequencing to detect genetic predisposition. CONCLUSION We can develop new biomarkers for detecting early CAD as well as unique targets for novel therapy. The challenge for the future will be to identify the molecular mechanisms mediating the risk of those genetic risk variants that act through nonconventional risk factors. The ultimate objective for the future is the sequencing and functional analysis of the causative polymorphisms for its therapeutic implications.

  16. Genetic determinants of obesity and related vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Yaroslav; Sankowski, Roman; Back, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors of vascular diseases, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. In the past decade, progress has been made in the understanding of genetic determinants of obesity and obesity-associated diseases. Genome-wide association studies identified a number of genetic variants associated with obesity. In addition to common variants, FTO and MC4R, new loci, such as TMEM18, KCTD15, GNPDA2, SH2B1, MTCH2, and NEGR1 have been detected. In the past years, abdominal obesity has been shown to be a more important vascular risk factor than the body mass index. In the context of vascular risk assessment, identification of genetic polymorphisms associated with accumulation of visceral fat is of special importance. Some polymorphisms associated with abdominal obesity, such as variants of gene encoding microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, have been already discovered. In this chapter, we provide a review of genetic determinants of obesity and discuss their role in obesity-related vascular diseases.

  17. Etiology of valvular heart disease-genetic and developmental origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Joy; Garg, Vidu

    2014-01-01

    Valvular heart disease occurs as either a congenital or acquired condition and advances in medical care have resulted in valve disease becoming increasingly prevalent. Unfortunately, treatments remain inadequate because of our limited understanding of the genetic and molecular etiology of diseases affecting the heart valves. Therefore, surgical repair or replacement remains the most effective option, which comes with additional complications and no guarantee of life-long success. Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in our understanding of cardiac valve development and, not surprisingly, mutations in these developmental genes have been identified in humans with congenital valve malformations. Concurrently, there has been a greater realization that acquired valve disease is not simply a degenerative process. Molecular investigation of acquired valve disease has identified that numerous signaling pathways critical for normal valve development are re-expressed in diseased valves. This review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the development of the heart valves, as well as the implications of these findings on the genetics of congenital and acquired valvular heart disease.

  18. Genetics in Parkinson disease: Mendelian versus non-Mendelian inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Dena G; Reed, Xylena; Singleton, Andrew B

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is a common, progressive neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 3% of those older than 75 years of age. Clinically, Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with resting tremor, postural instability, rigidity, bradykinesia, and a good response to levodopa therapy. Over the last 15 years, numerous studies have confirmed that genetic factors contribute to the complex pathogenesis of PD. Highly penetrant mutations producing rare, monogenic forms of the disease have been discovered in singular genes such as SNCA, Parkin, DJ-1, PINK 1, LRRK2, and VPS35. Unique variants with incomplete penetrance in LRRK2 and GBA have been shown to be strong risk factors for PD in certain populations. Additionally, over 20 common variants with small effect sizes are now recognized to modulate the risk for PD. Investigating Mendelian forms of PD has provided precious insight into the pathophysiology that underlies the more common idiopathic form of disease; however, no treatment methodologies have developed. Furthermore, for identified common risk alleles, the functional basis underlying risk principally remains unknown. The challenge over the next decade will be to strengthen the findings delivered through genetic discovery by assessing the direct, biological consequences of risk variants in tandem with additional high-content, integrated datasets. This review discusses monogenic risk factors and mechanisms of Mendelian inheritance of Parkinson disease. Highly penetrant mutations in SNCA, Parkin, DJ-1, PINK 1, LRRK2 and VPS35 produce rare, monogenic forms of the disease, while unique variants within LRRK2 and GBA show incomplete penetrance and are strong risk factors for PD. Additionally, over 20 common variants with small effect sizes modulate disease risk. The challenge over the next decade is to strengthen genetic findings by assessing direct, biological consequences of risk variants in tandem with high-content, integrated datasets. This article is part of a special

  19. Systematic analysis, comparison, and integration of disease based human genetic association data and mouse genetic phenotypic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang S Alex

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic contributions to human common disorders and mouse genetic models of disease are complex and often overlapping. In common human diseases, unlike classical Mendelian disorders, genetic factors generally have small effect sizes, are multifactorial, and are highly pleiotropic. Likewise, mouse genetic models of disease often have pleiotropic and overlapping phenotypes. Moreover, phenotypic descriptions in the literature in both human and mouse are often poorly characterized and difficult to compare directly. Methods In this report, human genetic association results from the literature are summarized with regard to replication, disease phenotype, and gene specific results; and organized in the context of a systematic disease ontology. Similarly summarized mouse genetic disease models are organized within the Mammalian Phenotype ontology. Human and mouse disease and phenotype based gene sets are identified. These disease gene sets are then compared individually and in large groups through dendrogram analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. Results Human disease and mouse phenotype gene sets are shown to group into disease and phenotypically relevant groups at both a coarse and fine level based on gene sharing. Conclusion This analysis provides a systematic and global perspective on the genetics of common human disease as compared to itself and in the context of mouse genetic models of disease.

  20. Genetic Testing for Huntington's Disease: How Is the Decision Taken?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegary, Holly

    2006-01-01

    Research on genetic decision-making normally constructs the decision as an opportunity for choice. However, minimal research investigates how these decisions are taken and whether those who live with genetic risk perceive the test as an opportunity for choice. Employing semistructured interviews with at-risk persons, this study explored decisions about genetic testing for Huntington's disease (HD)--a fatal genetic disorder. A primary aim was to understand how test decisions were perceived. Qualitative data analysis revealed four decision pathways: (1) no decision to be made, (2) constrained decisions, (3) reevaluating the decision, and (4) indicators of HD. Contrary to the rational, "information-processor" approach to decision making, some test decisions were immediate and automatic. These stories challenged the conventional construction of a genetic-test decision as an opportunity for choice. Participant narratives suggested that this construction may be inadequate, at least for some people who live with genetic risk. Test decisions were sometimes constrained by perceived responsibility to other family members, notably offspring. For others at risk, the test decision was a dynamic process of critical thought and evaluation. Finally, behaviors that could be symptoms of HD were the catalyst for testing.

  1. A genetic study of Wilson's disease in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Alison J; Durkie, Miranda; Hague, Stephen; McLay, Kirsten; Emmerson, Jennifer; Lo, Christine; Klaffke, Stefanie; Joyce, Christopher J; Dhawan, Anil; Hadzic, Nedim; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Kirk, Richard; Elizabeth Allen, K; Nicholl, David; Wong, Siew; Griffiths, William; Smithson, Sarah; Giffin, Nicola; Taha, Ali; Connolly, Sally; Gillett, Godfrey T; Tanner, Stuart; Bonham, Jim; Sharrack, Basil; Palotie, Aarno; Rattray, Magnus; Dalton, Ann; Bandmann, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have failed to identify mutations in the Wilson's disease gene ATP7B in a significant number of clinically diagnosed cases. This has led to concerns about genetic heterogeneity for this condition but also suggested the presence of unusual mutational mechanisms. We now present our findings in 181 patients from the United Kingdom with clinically and biochemically confirmed Wilson's disease. A total of 116 different ATP7B mutations were detected, 32 of which are novel. The overall mutation detection frequency was 98%. The likelihood of mutations in genes other than ATP7B causing a Wilson's disease phenotype is therefore very low. We report the first cases with Wilson's disease due to segmental uniparental isodisomy as well as three patients with three ATP7B mutations and three families with Wilson's disease in two consecutive generations. We determined the genetic prevalence of Wilson's disease in the United Kingdom by sequencing the entire coding region and adjacent splice sites of ATP7B in 1000 control subjects. The frequency of all single nucleotide variants with in silico evidence of pathogenicity (Class 1 variant) was 0.056 or 0.040 if only those single nucleotide variants that had previously been reported as mutations in patients with Wilson's disease were included in the analysis (Class 2 variant). The frequency of heterozygote, putative or definite disease-associated ATP7B mutations was therefore considerably higher than the previously reported occurrence of 1:90 (or 0.011) for heterozygote ATP7B mutation carriers in the general population (P Wilson's disease of 1:30 000 (P = 0.00093). Our study provides strong evidence for monogenic inheritance of Wilson's disease. It also has major implications for ATP7B analysis in clinical practice, namely the need to consider unusual genetic mechanisms such as uniparental disomy or the possible presence of three ATP7B mutations. The marked discrepancy between the genetic prevalence and the number of

  2. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics for zoonotic infectious diseases: deciphering variables influencing disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Sarah S T; Gonzalez, Andrew; Millien, Virginie

    2016-05-01

    Zoonotic disease transmission systems involve sets of species interacting with each other and their environment. This complexity impedes development of disease monitoring and control programs that require reliable identification of spatial and biotic variables and mechanisms facilitating disease emergence. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a framework that simultaneously examines all species involved in disease emergence by integrating concepts and methods from population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics (MTILG) can reveal how interspecific interactions and landscape variables influence disease emergence patterns. We test the potential of our MTILG-based framework by modelling the emergence of a disease system across multiple species dispersal, interspecific interaction, and landscape scenarios. Our simulations showed that both interspecific-dependent dispersal patterns and landscape characteristics significantly influenced disease spread. Using our framework, we were able to detect statistically similar inter-population genetic differences and highly correlated spatial genetic patterns that imply species-dependent dispersal. Additionally, species that were assigned coupled-dispersal patterns were affected to the same degree by similar landscape variables. This study underlines the importance of an integrated approach to investigating emergence of disease systems. MTILG is a robust approach for such studies and can identify potential avenues for targeted disease management strategies.

  3. Shared genetics in coeliac disease and other immune-mediated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Achury, J; Coutinho de Almeida, R; Wijmenga, C

    2011-06-01

    Identifying disease-associated variants can improve the predictive models of disease risk and provide mechanistic insights into disease development. Coeliac disease (CD) is the only autoimmune trait with a known environmental trigger, which makes it an excellent model for studying the complexity of genetic and environmental factors in the development of autoimmunity. In this review, we will focus on the genetic loci that have recently been associated with CD and that contain genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Some of these loci are shared with other immune-mediated diseases, suggesting an overlap of the genetic mechanisms involved in the development of such diseases. Some therapies, e.g. tumour necrosis factor inhibitors or a gluten-free diet, are already proving effective for more than one autoimmune disease. Follow-up of individuals with a high genetic risk of CD and other autoimmune diseases could help to elucidate the role of environmental factors (such as infectious agents or alterations in the microbiome) and prevent disease development. © 2011 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  4. Human copy number variation and complex genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girirajan, Santhosh; Campbell, Catarina D; Eichler, Evan E

    2011-01-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) play an important role in human disease and population diversity. Advancements in technology have allowed for the analysis of CNVs in thousands of individuals with disease in addition to thousands of controls. These studies have identified rare CNVs associated with neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism, schizophrenia, and intellectual disability. In addition, copy number polymorphisms (CNPs) are present at higher frequencies in the population, show high diversity in copy number, sequence, and structure, and have been associated with multiple phenotypes, primarily related to immune or environmental response. However, the landscape of copy number variation still remains largely unexplored, especially for smaller CNVs and those embedded within complex regions of the human genome. An integrated approach including characterization of single nucleotide variants and CNVs in a large number of individuals with disease and normal genomes holds the promise of thoroughly elucidating the genetic basis of human disease and diversity.

  5. Genetic remodeling of protein glycosylation in vivo induces autoimmune disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Daniel; Sellakumar, Gayathri; Green, Ryan S.; Sutton-Smith, Mark; McQuistan, Tammie; Marek, Kurt W.; Morris, Howard R.; Dell, Anne; Marth, Jamey D.

    2001-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are among the most prevalent of afflictions, yet the genetic factors responsible are largely undefined. Protein glycosylation in the Golgi apparatus produces structural variation at the cell surface and contributes to immune self-recognition. Altered protein glycosylation and antibodies that recognize endogenous glycans have been associated with various autoimmune syndromes, with the possibility that such abnormalities may reflect genetic defects in glycan formation. We show that mutation of a single gene, encoding α-mannosidase II, which regulates the hybrid to complex branching pattern of extracellular asparagine (N)-linked oligosaccharide chains (N-glycans), results in a systemic autoimmune disease similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus. α-Mannosidase II-deficient autoimmune disease is due to an incomplete overlap of two conjoined pathways in complex-type N-glycan production. Lymphocyte development, abundance, and activation parameters are normal; however, serum immunoglobulins are increased and kidney function progressively falters as a disorder consistent with lupus nephritis develops. Autoantibody reactivity and circulating immune complexes are induced, and anti-nuclear antibodies exhibit reactivity toward histone, Sm antigen, and DNA. These findings reveal a genetic cause of autoimmune disease provoked by a defect in the pathway of protein N-glycosylation. PMID:11158608

  6. The genetic population structure of northern Sweden and its implications for mapping genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Egerbladh, Inez; Beckman, Lars; Holmberg, Dan; Escher, Stefan A

    2007-11-01

    The northern Swedish population has a history of admixture of three ethnic groups and a dramatic population growth from a relatively small founder population. This has resulted in founder effects that together with unique resources for genealogical analyses provide excellent conditions for genetic mapping of monogenic diseases. Several recent examples of successful mapping of genetic factors underlying susceptibility to complex diseases have suggested that the population of northern Sweden may also be an important tool for efficient mapping of more complex phenotypes. A potential factor contributing to these effects may be population sub-isolates within the large river valleys, constituting a central geographic characteristic of this region. We here provide evidence that marriage patterns as well as the distribution of gene frequencies in a set of marker loci are compatible with this notion. The possible implications of this population structure on linkage- and association based strategies for identifying genes contributing risk to complex diseases are discussed.

  7. Rare inborn errors associated with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qiang; Peng, Liang; Huang, Weijun

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major global health issue. The role of rare genetic variants in CHB has not been elucidated. We aimed to identify rare allelic variants predisposing to CHB. We performed exome sequencing in 50 CHB patients who had no identifiable risk factors for CHB and 40 controls...... who were healthy and hepatitis B surface antibody-positive, but had never received hepatitis B vaccination. We selected six rare variant alleles and followed up their association with disease status by Sanger sequencing in a case-control study comprising 1,728 CHB patients and 1,636 healthy controls....... The latter had either not been immunized with hepatitis B vaccine or had uncertain vaccination status. Our results showed that transmembrane protein 2 p.Ser1254Asn, interferon alpha 2 p.Ala120Thr, its regulator NLR family member X1 p.Arg707Cys, and complement component 2 p.Glu318Asp were associated with CHB...

  8. Systems genetics of complex diseases using RNA-sequencing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Kogelman, Lisette; Suravajhala, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have enabled the generation of huge quantities of biological data, and nowadays extensive datasets at different ‘omics levels have been generated. Systems genetics is a powerful approach that allows to integrate different ‘omics level and understand...... non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). The integration of transcriptomics data with genomic data in a systems genetics context represents a valuable possibility to go deep into the causal and regulatory mechanisms that generate complex traits and diseases. However RNA-Seq data have to be treated carefully...... principally on merits and demerits of tools for post mapping quality control, normalization, differential expression analysis, gene network analysis, and integration of different omics data in order to generate a comprehensive guideline to systems genetics analysis using RNA-Seq data....

  9. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HCT) for Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    Hurler's Syndrome; Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome; Sly Syndrome; Alpha Mannosidosis; Fucosidosis; Aspartylglucosaminuria; Sphingolipidoses; Krabbe Disease; Wolman's Disease; Niemann-Pick Disease Type B; Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C

  10. Disclosing genetic risk for coronary heart disease: effects on perceived personal control and genetic counseling satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C L; Jouni, H; Kruisselbrink, T M; Austin, E E; Christensen, K D; Green, R C; Kullo, I J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether disclosure of coronary heart disease (CHD) genetic risk influences perceived personal control (PPC) and genetic counseling satisfaction (GCS). Participants (n = 207, age: 45-65 years) were randomized to receive estimated 10-year risk of CHD based on a conventional risk score (CRS) with or without a genetic risk score (GRS). Risk estimates were disclosed by a genetic counselor who also reviewed how GRS altered risk in those randomized to CRS+GRS. Each participant subsequently met with a physician and then completed surveys to assess PPC and GCS. Participants who received CRS+GRS had higher PPC than those who received CRS alone although the absolute difference was small (25.2 ± 2.7 vs 24.1 ± 3.8, p = 0.04). A greater proportion of CRS+GRS participants had higher GCS scores (17.3 ± 5.3 vs 15.9 ± 6.3, p = 0.06). In the CRS+GRS group, PPC and GCS scores were not correlated with GRS. Within both groups, PPC and GCS scores were similar in patients with or without family history (p = NS). In conclusion, patients who received their genetic risk of CHD had higher PPC and tended to have higher GCS. Our findings suggest that disclosure of genetic risk of CHD together with conventional risk estimates is appreciated by patients. Whether this results in improved outcomes needs additional investigation.

  11. Shared genetics in coeliac disease and other immune-mediated diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez-Achury, J.; Coutinho de Almeida, R.; Wijmenga, C.

    Gutierrez-Achury J, Coutinho de Almeida R, Wijmenga C (University Medical Centre Groningen and University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; University of Brasilia School of Health Sciences, Brasilia, DF, Brazil). Shared genetics in coeliac disease and other immune-mediated diseases

  12. Uric acid, an important screening tool to detect inborn errors of metabolism: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinge, Eresha; Kularatnam, Grace Angeline Malarnangai; Dilanthi, Hewa Warawitage; Vidanapathirana, Dinesha Maduri; Jayasena, Kandana Liyanage Subhashinie Priyadarshika Kapilani Menike; Chandrasiri, Nambage Dona Priyani Dhammika; Indika, Neluwa Liyanage Ruwan; Ratnayake, Pyara Dilani; Gunasekara, Vindya Nandani; Fairbanks, Lynette Dianne; Stiburkova, Blanka

    2017-09-06

    Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism in humans. Altered serum and urine uric acid level (both above and below the reference ranges) is an indispensable marker in detecting rare inborn errors of metabolism. We describe different case scenarios of 4 Sri Lankan patients related to abnormal uric acid levels in blood and urine. CASE 1: A one-and-half-year-old boy was investigated for haematuria and a calculus in the bladder. Xanthine crystals were seen in microscopic examination of urine sediment. Low uric acid concentrations in serum and low urinary fractional excretion of uric acid associated with high urinary excretion of xanthine and hypoxanthine were compatible with xanthine oxidase deficiency. CASE 2: An 8-month-old boy presented with intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, screaming episodes, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism and severe neuro developmental delay. Low uric acid level in serum, low fractional excretion of uric acid and radiological findings were consistent with possible molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of xanthine, hypoxanthine and sulfocysteine levels in urine. CASE 3: A 3-year-10-month-old boy presented with global developmental delay, failure to thrive, dystonia and self-destructive behaviour. High uric acid levels in serum, increased fractional excretion of uric acid and absent hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme level confirmed the diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. CASE 4: A 9-year-old boy was investigated for lower abdominal pain, gross haematuria and right renal calculus. Low uric acid level in serum and increased fractional excretion of uric acid pointed towards hereditary renal hypouricaemia which was confirmed by genetic studies. Abnormal uric acid level in blood and urine is a valuable tool in screening for clinical conditions related to derangement of the nucleic acid metabolic pathway.

  13. Genetic biomarkers for brain hemisphere differentiation in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Mou'ath; Mendes, Alexandre; Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2007-11-01

    This work presents a study on the genetic profile of the left and right hemispheres of the brain of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal is to characterize, in a genetic basis, PD as a disease that affects these two brain regions in different ways. Using the same whole-genome microarray expression data introduced by Brown et al. (2002) [1], we could find significant differences in the expression of some key genes, well-known to be involved in the mechanisms of dopamine production control and PD. The problem of selecting such genes was modeled as the MIN (α,β)—FEATURE SET problem [2]; a similar approach to that employed previously to find biomarkers for different types of cancer using gene expression microarray data [3]. The Feature Selection method produced a series of genetic signatures for PD, with distinct expression profiles in the Parkinson's model and control mice experiments. In addition, a close examination of the genes composing those signatures shows that many of them belong to genetic pathways or have ontology annotations considered to be involved in the onset and development of PD. Such elements could provide new clues on which mechanisms are implicated in hemisphere differentiation in PD.

  14. A new conceptual framework for investigating complex genetic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shobbir

    2015-01-01

    Some common diseases are known to have an inherited component, however, their population- and familial-incidence patterns do not conform to any known monogenic Mendelian pattern of inheritance and instead they are currently much better explained if an underlying polygenic architecture is posited. Studies that have attempted to identify the causative genetic factors have been designed on this polygenic framework, but so far the yield has been largely unsatisfactory. Based on accumulating recent observations concerning the roles of somatic mosaicism in disease, in this article a second framework which posits a single gene-two hit model which can be modulated by a mutator/anti-mutator genetic background is suggested. I discuss whether such a model can be considered a viable alternative based on current knowledge, its advantages over the current polygenic framework, and describe practical routes via which the new framework can be investigated. PMID:26583033

  15. Splicing modulation therapy in the treatment of genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arechavala-Gomeza V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Arechavala-Gomeza,1 Bernard Khoo,2 Annemieke Aartsma-Rus3 1Neuromuscular Disorders Group, BioCruces Health Research Institute, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain; 2Endocrinology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK; 3Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: Antisense-mediated splicing modulation is a tool that can be exploited in several ways to provide a potential therapy for rare genetic diseases. This approach is currently being tested in clinical trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy. The present review outlines the versatility of the approach to correct cryptic splicing, modulate alternative splicing, restore the open reading frame, and induce protein knockdown, providing examples of each. Finally, we outline a possible path forward toward the clinical application of this approach for a wide variety of inherited rare diseases. Keywords: splicing, therapy, antisense oligonucleotides, cryptic splicing, alternative splicing

  16. Phenome-driven disease genetics prediction toward drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Li, Li; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Xu, Rong

    2015-06-15

    Discerning genetic contributions to diseases not only enhances our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also leads to translational opportunities for drug discovery. Recent computational approaches incorporate disease phenotypic similarities to improve the prediction power of disease gene discovery. However, most current studies used only one data source of human disease phenotype. We present an innovative and generic strategy for combining multiple different data sources of human disease phenotype and predicting disease-associated genes from integrated phenotypic and genomic data. To demonstrate our approach, we explored a new phenotype database from biomedical ontologies and constructed Disease Manifestation Network (DMN). We combined DMN with mimMiner, which was a widely used phenotype database in disease gene prediction studies. Our approach achieved significantly improved performance over a baseline method, which used only one phenotype data source. In the leave-one-out cross-validation and de novo gene prediction analysis, our approach achieved the area under the curves of 90.7% and 90.3%, which are significantly higher than 84.2% (P disease as an example and ranked the candidate drugs based on the rank of drug targets. Our gene prediction approach prioritized druggable genes that are likely to be associated with Crohn's disease pathogenesis, and our rank of candidate drugs successfully prioritized the Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs for Crohn's disease. We also found literature evidence to support a number of drugs among the top 200 candidates. In summary, we demonstrated that a novel strategy combining unique disease phenotype data with system approaches can lead to rapid drug discovery. nlp. edu/public/data/DMN © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. UCB Transplant of Inherited Metabolic Diseases With Administration of Intrathecal UCB Derived Oligodendrocyte-Like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    Adrenoleukodystrophy; Batten Disease; Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Leukodystrophy, Globoid Cell; Leukodystrophy, Metachromatic; Neimann Pick Disease; Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease; Sandhoff Disease; Tay-Sachs Disease; Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn; Alpha-Mannosidosis; Sanfilippo Mucopolysaccharidoses

  18. Pauci- and Multibacillary Leprosy: Two Distinct, Genetically Neglected Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschignard, Jean; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Thuc, Nguyen Van; Orlova, Marianna; Cobat, Aurélie; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Ba, Nguyen Ngoc; Thai, Vu Hong; Abel, Laurent; Schurr, Erwin; Alcaïs, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    After sustained exposure to Mycobacterium leprae, only a subset of exposed individuals develops clinical leprosy. Moreover, leprosy patients show a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that extend from the paucibacillary (PB) to the multibacillary (MB) form of the disease. This “polarization” of leprosy has long been a major focus of investigation for immunologists because of the different immune response in these two forms. But while leprosy per se has been shown to be under tight human genetic control, few epidemiological or genetic studies have focused on leprosy subtypes. Using PubMed, we collected available data in English on the epidemiology of leprosy polarization and the possible role of human genetics in its pathophysiology until September 2015. At the genetic level, we assembled a list of 28 genes from the literature that are associated with leprosy subtypes or implicated in the polarization process. Our bibliographical search revealed that improved study designs are needed to identify genes associated with leprosy polarization. Future investigations should not be restricted to a subanalysis of leprosy per se studies but should instead contrast MB to PB individuals. We show the latter approach to be the most powerful design for the identification of genetic polarization determinants. Finally, we bring to light the important resource represented by the nine-banded armadillo model, a unique animal model for leprosy. PMID:27219008

  19. Molecular basis of telomere dysfunction in human genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarek, Grzegorz; Marzec, Paulina; Margalef, Pol; Boulton, Simon J

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in genes encoding proteins required for telomere structure, replication, repair and length maintenance are associated with several debilitating human genetic disorders. These complex telomere biology disorders (TBDs) give rise to critically short telomeres that affect the homeostasis of multiple organs. Furthermore, genome instability is often a hallmark of telomere syndromes, which are associated with increased cancer risk. Here, we summarize the molecular causes and cellular consequences of disease-causing mutations associated with telomere dysfunction.

  20. G protein-coupled receptor mutations and human genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Miles D; Hendy, Geoffrey N; Percy, Maire E; Bichet, Daniel G; Cole, David E C

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in G protein-coupled receptor genes (GPCRs) disrupt GPCR function in a wide variety of human genetic diseases. In vitro strategies and animal models have been used to identify the molecular pathologies underlying naturally occurring GPCR mutations. Inactive, overactive, or constitutively active receptors have been identified that result in pathology. These receptor variants may alter ligand binding, G protein coupling, receptor desensitization and receptor recycling. Receptor systems discussed include rhodopsin, thyrotropin, parathyroid hormone, melanocortin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRHR), adrenocorticotropic hormone, vasopressin, endothelin-β, purinergic, and the G protein associated with asthma (GPRA or neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1)). The role of activating and inactivating calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) mutations is discussed in detail with respect to familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) and autosomal dominant hypocalemia (ADH). The CASR mutations have been associated with epilepsy. Diseases caused by the genetic disruption of GPCR functions are discussed in the context of their potential to be selectively targeted by drugs that rescue altered receptors. Examples of drugs developed as a result of targeting GPCRs mutated in disease include: calcimimetics and calcilytics, therapeutics targeting melanocortin receptors in obesity, interventions that alter GNRHR loss from the cell surface in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and novel drugs that might rescue the P2RY12 receptor congenital bleeding phenotype. De-orphanization projects have identified novel disease-associated receptors, such as NPSR1 and GPR35. The identification of variants in these receptors provides genetic reagents useful in drug screens. Discussion of the variety of GPCRs that are disrupted in monogenic Mendelian disorders provides the basis for examining the significance of common

  1. Abundant genetic overlap between blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases indicates shared molecular genetic mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole A Andreassen

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases, but the nature of these associations is not well understood. We used genome-wide association studies (GWAS to investigate shared single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases. We analyzed data from GWAS (n~200,000 individuals, applying new False Discovery Rate (FDR methods, to investigate genetic overlap between blood lipid levels [triglycerides (TG, low density lipoproteins (LDL, high density lipoproteins (HDL] and a selection of archetypal immune-mediated diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, psoriasis and sarcoidosis. We found significant polygenic pleiotropy between the blood lipids and all the investigated immune-mediated diseases. We discovered several shared risk loci between the immune-mediated diseases and TG (n = 88, LDL (n = 87 and HDL (n = 52. Three-way analyses differentiated the pattern of pleiotropy among the immune-mediated diseases. The new pleiotropic loci increased the number of functional gene network nodes representing blood lipid loci by 40%. Pathway analyses implicated several novel shared mechanisms for immune pathogenesis and lipid biology, including glycosphingolipid synthesis (e.g. FUT2 and intestinal host-microbe interactions (e.g. ATG16L1. We demonstrate a shared genetic basis for blood lipids and immune-mediated diseases independent of environmental factors. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into dyslipidemia and immune-mediated diseases and may have implications for therapeutic trials involving lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory agents.

  2. Translating genetic findings into therapy in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Sagrario M; Jimenez-Escrig, Adriano

    2007-11-01

    In the last decade, current opinion for Parkinson disease (PD) etiology has swung from the hypothesis of a toxic/environmental disorder to understanding it as a highly heritable condition. Recent research conducted in families affected from PD has disclosed 6 genes that codify for proteins in pathways of neurodegeneration in PD. This review focuses in new drugs aimed to prevent the apparition and progression of the disease developed after the knowledge obtained from the genetic studies of PD, covering most recent and important patents.

  3. Understanding Celiac Disease From Genetics to the Future Diagnostic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Salazar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the permanent inflammation of the small bowel, triggered by the ingestion of gluten. It is associated with a number of symptoms, the most common being gastrointestinal. The prevalence of this illness worldwide is 1%. One of the main problems of CD is its difficulty to be diagnosed due to the various presentations of the disease. Besides, in many cases, CD is asymptomatic. Celiac disease is a multifactorial disease, HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 haplotypes are predisposition factors. Nowadays, molecular markers are being studied as diagnostic tools. In this review, we explore CD from its basic concept, manifestations, types, current and future methods of diagnosis, and associated disorders. Before addressing the therapeutic approaches, we also provide a brief overview of CD genetics and treatment.

  4. Disease-threat model explains acceptance of genetically modified products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokop Pavol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection favoured survival of individuals who were able to avoid disease. The behavioural immune system is activated especially when our sensory system comes into contact with disease-connoting cues and/or when these cues resemble disease threat. We investigated whether or not perception of modern risky technologies, risky behaviour, expected reproductive goals and food neophobia are associated with the behavioural immune system related to specific attitudes toward genetically modified (GM products. We found that respondents who felt themselves more vulnerable to infectious diseases had significantly more negative attitudes toward GM products. Females had less positive attitudes toward GM products, but engaging in risky behaviours, the expected reproductive goals of females and food neophobia did not predict attitudes toward GM products. Our results suggest that evolved psychological mechanisms primarily designed to protect us against pathogen threat are activated by modern technologies possessing potential health risks.

  5. HDL and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: genetic insights into complex biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Robert S; Brewer, H Bryan; Barter, Philip J; Björkegren, Johan L M; Chapman, M John; Gaudet, Daniel; Kim, Daniel Seung; Niesor, Eric; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Sacks, Frank M; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Hegele, Robert A

    2017-08-10

    Plasma levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) predict the risk of cardiovascular disease at the epidemiological level, but a direct causal role for HDL in cardiovascular disease remains controversial. Studies in animal models and humans with rare monogenic disorders link only particular HDL-associated mechanisms with causality, including those mechanisms related to particle functionality rather than cholesterol content. Mendelian randomization studies indicate that most genetic variants that affect a range of pathways that increase plasma HDL-C levels are not usually associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, with some exceptions, such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein variants. Furthermore, only a fraction of HDL-C variation has been explained by known loci from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), suggesting the existence of additional pathways and targets. Systems genetics can enhance our understanding of the spectrum of HDL pathways, particularly those pathways that involve new and non-obvious GWAS loci. Bioinformatic approaches can also define new molecular interactions inferred from both large-scale genotypic data and RNA sequencing data to reveal biologically meaningful gene modules and networks governing HDL metabolism with direct relevance to disease end points. Targeting these newly recognized causal networks might inform the development of novel therapeutic strategies to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Genetic epidemiology of coronary artery disease: an Asian Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shanker Jayashree; Maitra Arindam; Kakkar V. Vijay

    2015-09-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent findings on the role of genetic factors in the aetiopathology of CAD have implicated novel genes and variants in addition to those involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. However, our present knowledge is limited due to lack of clarity on their exact identity and the quantum of impact on disease susceptibility, and incident risk. It is a matter of great interest to understand the role of genetic factors in ethnic populations that have a strong underlying predisposition to CAD such as the South Asian populations, particularly among Asian Indians living in India and abroad. Although, a number of isolated studies do implicate certain gene polymorphisms towards enhanced disease susceptibility, the available data remains scanty and inconclusive as they have not been validated in large, prospective cohorts. The present review aims to consolidate the available literature on the genetics of CAD in Asian Indians and seeks to provide insights on the concerns that need to be addressed in future studies to generate information having clinical value.

  7. Advances in the genetics of Parkinson's disease1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serena ROSNER; Nir GILADI; Avi ORR-URTREGER

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting a significant proportion of the ageing population. The etiology is unknown and it is likely due to a multifactorial interaction of genes and the environment on the background of ageing. Findings in the last decade suggest that the contribution of genetics to familial forms of PD is much greater than previously appreciated. Twelve loci are now associated with highly penetrant autosomal dominant or recessive PD, and causative mutations have been identified in eight genes with mutation carriers often characterized by a phenotype indistinguishable from idiopathic disease. To date, PD pharmacotherapy is symptomatic only and does not slow disease progression. Understanding how genetic mutations cause familial PD is likely to clarify molecular mechanisms underlying PD in general and will provide a guide for the development of novel therapies, both preventative and palliative, appli-cable to all forms of parkinsonism. This review outlines the advances in the study of the genetic background of PD and their possible clinical implications.

  8. [Huntington disease: presymptomatic testing, prenatal diagnosis, preimplantation genetic diagnosis experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, A; Viville, S

    2007-10-01

    Presymptomatic testing for Huntington disease has been available for 15 years. The possibility of determining the genetic status of an at-risk person for the disorder which runs in his or her family raises questions because of the absence of preventive treatments. In addition, being carrier does not allow to determine when the disease starts and how it will evolve, impairing the possibilities of planning the future. A pluridisciplinary approach to predictive testing with care before, during and after the test taking into account the medical, social and psychological aspects of the disease is good practice. At the present time, only a minority of at-risk individuals request presymptomatic testing and almost 50% do not pursue until the results. The consequences of the test may be harmful, more frequently after an unfavorable than after a favorable result. Motivations and the outcome in terms of request for prenatal testing after a carrier result are known today and the number or prenatal testing remains very limited. Preimplantation genetic testing is an alternative for couples who knows or do not their own genetic status. We report our experience in two French centres: Paris for presymptomatic and prenatal testing and Strasbourg for preimplantation diagnosis.

  9. Ethical considerations of genetic presymptomatic testing for Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Pekar, Alicia; Sikula, Andrew; Lurie, Sue

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this literature review was to determine if there is adequate ethical justification for presymptomatic genetic testing on potential Huntington's disease patients. Huntington's disease is a neurological genetic disorder characterized by midlife onset which consists of cognitive, physical, and emotional deterioration. Although genetic testing has traditionally been guided by the principle of autonomy, severe psychological consequences such as depression, anxiety, survival guilt, and suicide have complicated the ethical issue of providing a presymptomatic yet definitive diagnosis for an incurable disease. An analysis of available articles yielded inconclusive findings, namely due to insufficient evidence, self-selection bias of test participants, or lack of a longitudinal design. Additional results indicated psychological distress is not solely associated with test result, but rather with individual characteristics including, but not limited to, psychological history, test motivation, level of preparation, social support, and age. In the interest of upholding the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, it is recommended that medical professionals follow strict protocol, provide extensive counseling, and employ vigilance when assessing at-risk individuals for HD presymptomatic test eligibility to ensure psychological well-being.

  10. Effective diagnosis of genetic disease by computational phenotype analysis of the disease-associated genome

    OpenAIRE

    Zemojtel, T.; Koehler, S; Mackenroth, L; Jaeger, M.; Hecht, J.; Krawitz, P.; Graul-Neumann, L; Doelken, S.; Ehmke, N.; Spielmann, M.; Oien, N.C.; Schweiger, M R; Krueger, U; Frommer, G.; Fischer, B.

    2014-01-01

    Less than half of patients with suspected genetic disease receive a molecular diagnosis. We have therefore integrated next-generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics, and clinical data into an effective diagnostic workflow. We used variants in the 2741 established Mendelian disease genes [the disease-associated genome (DAG)] to develop a targeted enrichment DAG panel (7.1 Mb), which achieves a coverage of 20-fold or better for 98% of bases. Furthermore, we established a computational method ...

  11. Genetic counseling in the adult with congenital heart disease: what is the role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchill, Luke; Greenway, Steven; Silversides, Candice K; Mital, Seema

    2011-08-01

    New discoveries using high-resolution methods for detecting genetic aberrations indicate that the genetic contribution to congenital heart disease has been significantly underestimated in the past. DNA diagnostics have become more accessible and genetic test results are increasingly being used to guide clinical management. Adult congenital heart disease specialists seeking to counsel adults with congenital heart disease about the genetic aspects of their condition face the challenge of keeping abreast of new genetic techniques and discoveries. The emphasis of this review is on the genetic basis of structural cardiovascular defects. A framework for identifying adult congenital heart disease patients most likely to benefit from genetic testing is suggested, along with a summary of current techniques for genetic testing. The clinical and ethical challenges associated with genetic counseling are highlighted. Finally, emerging technologies and future directions in genetics and adult congenital heart disease are discussed.

  12. Ethical aspects of research into Alzheimer disease. A European Delphi Study focused on genetic and non-genetic research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorm, A. van der; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Kehoe, P.G.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Leeuwen, E. van; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although genetic research into Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing, the ethical aspects of this kind of research and the differences between ethical issues related to genetic and non-genetic research into AD have not yet received much attention. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify and compare

  13. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  14. Haploidentical bone marrow transplantation in leukemia and genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolina, M; Maximova, N; Rabusin, M; Vujic, D; Bunjevacki, G; Vidali, C; Beorchia, A

    2000-11-01

    From 1986 to June 2000, sixty children suffering from acute and chronic leukemia (n = 42, 33 of which in resistant relapse), genetic diseases (n = 11), aplastic anemia (n = 2, one of which with platelet refractoriness and bleeding), myelodysplasia (n = 5) received an haploidentical bone marrow, mismatched for 2-3 HLA loci. The donor's marrow was treated in vitro with vincristine and methylprednisolone to obtain a functional T depletion (MLC and CTL inhibition, functional blockade of Th1 and Th2). The prevalence of infectious complications and GVHD was similar to that recorded in matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplants. In situations of high risk of rejection (chronic leukemia, genetic diseases) we infused immediately one half of the harvest and then frozen aliquots from the second week. Of the 25 ALL and 8 AML in resistant relapse, 3 survived, disease-free at 14, 8 and 1 years respectively. Of the 3 ALL, transplanted during remission, 1 is surviving at 18 months. Of the 6 CML, 1 had fractionated bone marrow and is surviving at 3 years, and 5 had standard single dose infusion and died of progression of their disease after rejection of the graft (4) or blast crisis after complete engraftment (1). The 2 patients with aplastic anemia, those with myelodysplasia, and 6 of the 10 with genetic disorders died of transplant-related complications or disease progression. 4 patients with osteopetrosis (n = 2), MLD (n = 1), Wiskott Aldrich dis. (n = 1) survive at 8, 2, 5 and 1.5 years respectively. In patients transplanted with fractionated marrow GVHD > 2nd grade occurred in 15%. Only one patient rejected the graft. Compared with MUD transplantation, mismatched BMT whenever performed in patients in good conditions provides similar outcome and widens the donor availability.

  15. Genetic studies in chronic kidney disease: interpretation and clinical applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witasp, Anna; Nordfors, Louise; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Luttropp, Karin; Lindholm, Bengt; Schalling, Martin; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The tools of modern molecular biology are evolving rapidly, resulting in vastly more efficient approaches to illuminating human genetic variations and their effects on common multifactorial disorders such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indeed, candidate gene association studies and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have generated novel genetic variants in previously unrecognized biological pathways, highlighting disease mechanisms with a potential role in CKD etiology, morbidity and mortality. Nephrologists now need to find ways to make use of these advancements and meet the increasingly stringent requirements for valid study design, data handling and interpretation of genetic studies. Adding to our prior article in this journal, which introduced the basics of genotype-phenotype association studies in CKD, this second article focuses on how to ascertain robust and reproducible findings by applying adequate methodological and statistical approaches to genotype-phenotype studies in CKD populations. Moreover, this review will briefly discuss genotype-based risk prediction, pharmacotherapy, drug target identification and individualized treatment solutions, specifically highlighting potentially important findings in CKD patients. This increased knowledge will hopefully facilitate the exciting transition from conventional clinical medicine to gene-based medicine. However, before this can be accomplished, unsolved issues regarding the complex human genetic architecture as well technical and clinically oriented obstacles will have to be overcome. Additionally, new policies and standardized risk evaluations for genetic testing in the clinical setting will have to be established to guarantee that CKD patients are provided with high-quality genotype-guided counseling that will help to improve their poor outcomes.

  16. Perceptions and understanding of genetics and genetic eye disease and attitudes to genetic testing and gene therapy in a primary eye care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganne, Pratyusha; Garrioch, Robert; Votruba, Marcela

    2015-03-01

    Genetic eye pathology represents a significant percentage of the causes of blindness in industrialized countries. This study explores the level of understanding and perceptions of genetics and inherited eye diseases and the attitudes to genetic testing and gene therapy. The study was conducted in two parts. Participant groups included were: undergraduate students of optometry, primary eye care professionals and members of the general public. A preliminary study aimed to understand perceptions and to explore the level of knowledge about genetics in general, eye genetics and gene therapy. A second survey was designed to explore attitudes to genetic testing and gene therapy. The majority of participants (82%) perceived genetics as an important science. However, none of them showed a high level of understanding of genetics and inherited eye diseases. Undergraduate students and primary eye care professionals were better informed about inherited eye diseases than the general public (p = 0.001). The majority (80%) across all three groups had a positive attitude to genetic testing and gene therapy. There was a lack of knowledge about the genetic services available among all groups of participants. This calls for serious thinking about the level of dissemination of information about genetics and inherited eye diseases. It shows a broadly supportive attitude to genomic medicine among the public. Improving public awareness and education in inherited eye diseases can improve the utility of genetic testing and therapy.

  17. Von Hippel-Lindau Disease: Genetics and Role of Genetic Counseling in a Multiple Neoplasia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sarah M; Rhodes, Lindsay; Blanco, Ignacio; Chung, Wendy K; Eng, Charis; Maher, Eamonn R; Richard, Stéphane; Giles, Rachel H

    2016-06-20

    Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is one of the most common inherited neoplasia syndromes and is characterized by highly vascular tumors of the eyes, brain, and spine, as well as benign and malignant tumors and/or cysts of the kidneys, adrenal medullae and sympathetic paraganglia, endolymphatic sac, epididymis, and broad ligament. Since the discovery of the VHL gene in 1993, more than 900 families with VHL have been identified and examined. Genetic testing for VHL is widely available and will detect a disease-causing mutation in rate 95% to 100% of individuals who have a clinical diagnosis of VHL, making it the standard of care for diagnosis of VHL. Furthermore, genetic testing for VHL is indicated in some individuals with seemingly sporadic VHL-related tumor types, as ≤ 10% of pheochromocytoma or early-onset renal cell carcinoma and ≤ 40% of CNS hemangioblastoma harbor germline VHL mutations without a family history or additional features of VHL disease. The majority of VHL mutations are private, but there are also well-characterized founder mutations. VHL is a complex, multiorgan disease that spans the breadth of oncology subspecialties, and, as such, providers in these subspecialties should be aware of when to consider a diagnosis of VHL, when to refer a patient to a genetics specialist for consideration of gene testing, and, perhaps most importantly, how to communicate this sensitive information in an age-appropriate manner to at-risk families. This review will provide state-of-the-art information regarding the genetics of VHL and will serve as a key reference for nongenetics professionals who encounter patients with VHL.

  18. Genetic mouse models of brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras

    2014-05-01

    Progression of brain ageing is influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Analysis of genetically modified animals with uniform genetic backgrounds in a standardised, controlled environment enables the dissection of critical determinants of brain ageing on a molecular level. Human and animal studies suggest that increased load of damaged macromolecules, efficacy of DNA maintenance, mitochondrial activity, and cellular stress defences are critical determinants of brain ageing. Surprisingly, mouse lines with genetic impairment of anti-oxidative capacity generally did not show enhanced cognitive ageing but rather an increased sensitivity to oxidative challenge. Mouse lines with impaired mitochondrial activity had critically short life spans or severe and rapidly progressing neurodegeneration. Strains with impaired clearance in damaged macromolecules or defects in the regulation of cellular stress defences showed alterations in the onset and progression of cognitive decline. Importantly, reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling generally increased life span but impaired cognitive functions revealing a complex interaction between ageing of the brain and of the body. Brain ageing is accompanied by an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Transgenic mouse models expressing high levels of mutant human amyloid precursor protein showed a number of symptoms and pathophysiological processes typical for early phase of Alzheimer's disease. Generally, therapeutic strategies effective against Alzheimer's disease in humans were also active in the Tg2576, APP23, APP/PS1 and 5xFAD lines, but a large number of false positive findings were also reported. The 3xtg AD model likely has the highest face and construct validity but further studies are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic variants associated with celiac disease and the risk for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Henning; Willenborg, Christina; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Ferrario, Paola G; König, Inke R; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J; Lieb, Wolfgang; Schunkert, Heribert

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with celiac disease are at increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). Genetic-epidemiological analyses identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with celiac disease. If there is a causal relation between celiac disease and CAD, one might expect that risk alleles primarily associated with celiac disease also increase the risk of CAD. In this study we identified from literature 41 SNPs that have been previously described to be genome-wide associated with celiac disease (p DIsease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAM) dataset, a meta-analysis comprising genome-wide SNP association data from 22,233 CAD cases and 64,762 controls. 24 out of 41 (58.5 %) risk alleles for celiac disease displayed a positive association with CAD (CAD-OR range 1.001-1.081). The remaining risk alleles for celiac disease (n = 16) revealed CAD-ORs of ≤1.0 (range 0.951-1.0). The proportion of CAD associated alleles was greater but did not differ significantly from the proportion of 50 % expected by chance (p = 0.069). One SNP (rs653178 at the SH2B3/ATXN2 locus) displayed study-wise statistically significant association with CAD with directionality consistent effects on celiac disease and CAD. However, the effect of this locus is most likely driven by pleiotropic effects on multiple other diseases. In conclusion, this genetically based approach provided no convincing evidence that SNPs associated with celiac disease contribute to the risk of CAD. Hence, common non-genetic factors may play a more important role explaining the coincidence of these two complex disease conditions.

  20. Clinical, genetic, and brain sonographic features related to Parkinson's disease in Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Tobias; Rolfs, Arndt; Meyer, Bianca; Grossmann, Annette; Berg, Daniela; Kropp, Peter; Benecke, Reiner; Walter, Uwe

    2013-10-01

    Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene cause Gaucher disease. Moreover, heterozygous glucocerebrosidase gene mutations represent the most common genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) known so far. Substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity, a sonographic feature thought to reflect iron accumulation, has been described in both PD and Gaucher disease patients. Here we studied how clinical, genetic, and brain sonographic findings relate to the occurrence of PD in Gaucher disease. Sixteen Gaucher disease patients, 12 PD patients, and 32 control subjects were enrolled. The glucocerebrosidase genotypes were identified by DNA sequencing. All subjects underwent transcranial ultrasound, and eight Gaucher disease patients additionally MRI for comparison with SN ultrasound findings. SN hyperechogenicity and reduced echogenicity of brainstem raphe were more frequent in Gaucher disease patients (62, 37 %) than in controls (12, 12 %; p Gaucher disease patients was unrelated to type or severity of glucocerebrosidase gene mutation, but correlated with iron-sensitive MRI-T2 hypointensity of SN pars compacta, and with age at start of enzyme replacement therapy. While none of the five Gaucher disease patients with signs of PD (definite PD, n = 4; early PD, n = 1) had severe glucocerebrosidase gene mutations known to cause neuronopathic Gaucher disease, all carried a N370S allele, previously reported to predict non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease. Hyposmia, higher non-motor symptoms score (constipation, depression, executive dysfunction), and SN hyperechogenicity were characteristic features of Gaucher disease-related PD. We conclude that the combined clinical, genetic, and transcranial sonographic assessment may improve the PD risk evaluation in Gaucher disease.

  1. Genetic mapping of complex discrete human diseases by discriminant analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to propose and evaluate a novel multivariate approach for genetic mapping of complex categorical diseases. This approach results from an application of standard stepwise discriminant analysis to detect linkage based on the differential marker identity-by-descent (IBD) distributions among the different groups of sib pairs. Two major advantages of this method are that it allows for simultaneously testing all markers, together with other genetic and environmental factors in a single multivariate setting and it avoids explicitly modeling the complex relationship between the affection status of sib pairs and the underlying genetic determinants. The efficiency and properties of the method are demonstrated via simulations. The proposed multivariate approach has successfully located the true position(s) under various genetic scenarios. The more important finding is that using highly densely spaced markers (1~2 cM) leads to only a marginal loss of statistical efficiency of the proposed methods in terms of gene localization and statistical power. These results have well established its utility and advantages as a fine-mapping tool. A unique property of the proposed method is the ability to map multiple linked trait loci to their precise positions due to its sequential nature, as demonstrated via simulations.

  2. Clinical and genetic data of Huntington disease in Moroccan patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhouche, Ahmed; Regragui, Wafaa; Lamghari, Hind; Khaldi, Khadija; Birouk, Nazha; Lytim, Safaa; Bellamine, Soufiane; Kriouile, Yamna; Bouslam, Naima; Haddou, El Hachmia Ait Ben; Faris, Mustapha Alaoui; Benomar, Ali; Yahyaoui, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) occurs worldwide with prevalence varying from 0.1 to 10/100,000 depending of the ethnic origin. Since no data is available in the Maghreb population, the aim of this study is to describe clinical and genetic characteristics of Huntington patients of Moroccan origin. Clinical and genetics data of 21 consecutive patients recruited from 2009 to 2014 from the outpatient clinic of six medical centers were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Twenty one patients from 17 families were diagnosed positive for the IT15 gene CAG expansion. Clinical symptoms were predominantly motor (19/21). Twelve patients had psychiatric and behavioral disorders, and 11 patients had cognitive disorders essentially of memory impairment. Analysis of genetic results showed that 5 patients had reduced penetrant (RP) alleles and 16 had fully penetrant (FP) alleles. The mean CAG repeat length in patients with RP alleles was 38.4 ± 0.54, and 45.37 ± 8.30 in FP alleles. The age of onset and the size of the CAG repeat length showed significant inverse correlation (p <0.001, r = -0.754). Clinical and genetic data of Moroccan patients are similar to those of Caucasian populations previously reported in the literature.

  3. Genetic heterogeneity in Alzheimer disease and implications for treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringman, John M; Goate, Alison; Masters, Colin L; Cairns, Nigel J; Danek, Adrian; Graff-Radford, Neill; Ghetti, Bernardino; Morris, John C

    2014-11-01

    Since the original publication describing the illness in 1907, the genetic understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has advanced such that it is now clear that it is a genetically heterogeneous condition, the subtypes of which may not uniformly respond to a given intervention. It is therefore critical to characterize the clinical and preclinical stages of AD subtypes, including the rare autosomal dominant forms caused by known mutations in the PSEN1, APP, and PSEN2 genes that are being studied in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network study and its associated secondary prevention trial. Similar efforts are occurring in an extended Colombian family with a PSEN1 mutation, in APOE ε4 homozygotes, and in Down syndrome. Despite commonalities in the mechanisms producing the AD phenotype, there are also differences that reflect specific genetic origins. Treatment modalities should be chosen and trials designed with these differences in mind. Ideally, the varying pathological cascades involved in the different subtypes of AD should be defined so that both areas of overlap and of distinct differences can be taken into account. At the very least, clinical trials should determine the influence of known genetic factors in post hoc analyses.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of genetic studies in inherited heart diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sabater-Molina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to evidence the cost of genetic testing and know their profitability in order to establish criteria for priorizing access to genetic testing for these diseases. We determinated the cost per positive genotyping in 234 index cases with diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC, long-QT syndrome (LQTS, or Brugada syndrome (BS. The genetic tests of the most prevalent genes and the estimation of the costs of periodical screening in wildtype relatives (WT were calculated. A total of 738 individuals (517 HCM, 76 ARVC, 71 LQTS and 74 BS from 234 probands were genotyped. The savings made by not having to perform the clinical testing of WT relatives exceeded the cost of genotyping for HCM families € +220,710, ARVC families € +9405 and LQTS families € +8362. The balance in BS was negative (€ –25,112. Our data suggests that individuals with conclusive clinical diagnostic of HCM should have a priority to access genetic testing. A positive overall benefit was also demonstrated in ARVC and LQTS.

  5. Shared genetic contribution to ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib‐Samii, Poneh; Harold, Denise; Dichgans, Martin; Williams, Julie; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Markus, Hugh S.; Fornage, Myriam; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Pankaj; Bis, Joshua C; Psaty, Bruce M; Seshadri, Sudha; Nalls, Mike A; Devan, William J; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; Malik, Rainer; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J; Ikram, M Arfan; Clarke, Robert; Rosand, Jonathan; Meschia, James F; Sudlow, Cathie; Rothwell, Peter M; Levi, Christopher; Bevan, Steve; Kilarski, Laura L; Walters, Matthew; Thijs, Vincent; Slowik, Agnieszka; Lindgren, Arne; de Bakker, Paul I W; Lambert, Jean‐Charles; Ibrahim‐Verbaas, Carla A; Harold, Denise; Naj, Adam C; Sims, Rebecca; Bellenguez, Céline; Jun, Gyungah; DeStefano, Anita L; Bis, Joshua C; Beecham, Gary W; Grenier‐Boley, Benjamin; Russo, Giancarlo; Thornton‐Wells, Tricia A; Jones, Nicola; Smith, Albert V; Chouraki, Vincent; Thomas, Charlene; Ikram, M Arfan; Zelenika, Diana; Vardarajan, Badri N; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Lin, Chiao‐Feng; Gerrish, Amy; Schmidt, Helena; Kunkle, Brian; Dunstan, Melanie L; Ruiz, Agustin; Bihoreau, Marie‐Thçrèse; Choi, Seung‐Hoan; Reitz, Christiane; Pasquier, Florence; Hollingworth, Paul; Ramirez, Alfredo; Hanon, Olivier; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Campion, Dominique; Crane, Paul K; Baldwin, Clinton; Becker, Tim; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cruchaga, Carlos; Craig, David; Amin, Najaf; Berr, Claudine; Lopez, Oscar L; De Jager, Philip L; Deramecourt, Vincent; Johnston, Janet A; Evans, Denis; Lovestone, Simon; Letenneur, Luc; Morón, Francisco J; Rubinsztein, David C; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sleegers, Kristel; Goate, Alison M; Fiçvet, Nathalie; Huentelman, Matthew J; Gill, Michael; Brown, Kristelle; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Keller, Lina; Barberger‐Gateau, Pascale; McGuinness, Bernadette; Larson, Eric B; Green, Robert; Myers, Amanda J; Dufouil, Carole; Todd, Stephen; Wallon, David; Love, Seth; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Gallacher, John; St George‐Hyslop, Peter; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleo, Alberto; Bayer, Anthony; Tsuang, Debby W; Yu, Lei; Tsolaki, Magda; Bossù, Paola; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Proitsi, Petroula; Collinge, John; Sorbi, Sandro; Sanchez‐Garcia, Florentino; Fox, Nick C; Hardy, John; Deniz Naranjo, Maria Candida; Bosco, Paolo; Clarke, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Galimberti, Daniela; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Matthews, Fiona; Moebus, Susanne; Mecocci, Patrizia; Del Zompo, Maria; Maier, Wolfgang; Hampel, Harald; Pilotto, Alberto; Bullido, Maria; Panza, Francesco; Caffarra, Paolo; Nacmias, Benedetta; Gilbert, John R; Mayhaus, Manuel; Lannfelt, Lars; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pichler, Sabrina; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Ingelsson, Martin; Beekly, Duane; Alvarez, Victoria; Zou, Fanggeng; Valladares, Otto; Younkin, Steven G; Coto, Eliecer; Hamilton‐Nelson, Kara L; Gu, Wei; Razquin, Cristina; Pastor, Pau; Mateo, Ignacio; Owen, Michael J; Faber, Kelley M; Jonsson, Palmi V; Combarros, Onofre; O'Donovan, Michael C; Cantwell, Laura B; Soininen, Hilkka; Blacker, Deborah; Mead, Simon; Mosley, Thomas H; Bennett, David A; Harris, Tamara B; Fratiglioni, Laura; Holmes, Clive; de Bruijn, Renee F A G; Passmore, Peter; Montine, Thomas J; Bettens, Karolien; Rotter, Jerome I; Brice, Alexis; Morgan, Kevin; Foroud, Tatiana M; Kukull, Walter A; Hannequin, Didier; Powell, John F; Nalls, Michael A; Ritchie, Karen; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Kauwe, John S K; Boerwinkle, Eric; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Boada, Mercè; Hiltunen, Mikko; Martin, Eden R; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rujescu, Dan; Wang, Li‐San; Dartigues, Jean‐François; Mayeux, Richard; Tzourio, Christophe; Hofman, Albert; Nöthen, Markus M; Graff, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M; Jones, Lesley; Haines, Jonathan L; Holmans, Peter A; Lathrop, Mark; Pericak‐Vance, Margaret A; Launer, Lenore J; Farrer, Lindsay A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Moskvina, Valentina; Seshadri, Sudha; Williams, Julie; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Amouyel, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objective Increasing evidence suggests epidemiological and pathological links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and ischemic stroke (IS). We investigated the evidence that shared genetic factors underpin the two diseases. Methods Using genome‐wide association study (GWAS) data from METASTROKE + (15,916 IS cases and 68,826 controls) and the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP; 17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls), we evaluated known associations with AD and IS. On the subset of data for which we could obtain compatible genotype‐level data (4,610 IS cases, 1,281 AD cases, and 14,320 controls), we estimated the genome‐wide genetic correlation (rG) between AD and IS, and the three subtypes (cardioembolic, small vessel, and large vessel), using genome‐wide single‐nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We then performed a meta‐analysis and pathway analysis in the combined AD and small vessel stroke data sets to identify the SNPs and molecular pathways through which disease risk may be conferred. Results We found evidence of a shared genetic contribution between AD and small vessel stroke (rG [standard error] = 0.37 [0.17]; p = 0.011). Conversely, there was no evidence to support shared genetic factors in AD and IS overall or with the other stroke subtypes. Of the known GWAS associations with IS or AD, none reached significance for association with the other trait (or stroke subtypes). A meta‐analysis of AD IGAP and METASTROKE + small vessel stroke GWAS data highlighted a region (ATP5H/KCTD2/ICT1) associated with both diseases (p = 1.8 × 10−8). A pathway analysis identified four associated pathways involving cholesterol transport and immune response. Interpretation Our findings indicate shared genetic susceptibility to AD and small vessel stroke and highlight potential causal pathways and loci. Ann Neurol 2016;79:739–747 PMID:26913989

  6. Mitochondrial genetics and obesity: evolutionary adaptation and contemporary disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J; Ballinger, Scott W

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is a leading risk factor for a variety of metabolic diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Although in its simplest terms, obesity may be thought of as a consequence of excessive caloric intake and sedentary lifestyle, it is also evident that individual propensity for weight gain can vary. The etiology of individual susceptibility to obesity seems to be complex-involving a combination of environmental-genetic interactions. Herein, we suggest that the mitochondrion plays a major role in influencing individual susceptibility to this disease via mitochondrial-nuclear interaction processes and that environmentally influenced selection events for mitochondrial function that conveyed increased reproductive and survival success during the global establishment of human populations during prehistoric times can influence individual susceptibility to weight gain and obesity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. APOL1 kidney risk alleles: population genetics and disease associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limou, Sophie; Nelson, George W; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Winkler, Cheryl A

    2014-09-01

    APOL1 kidney disease is a unique case in the field of the genetics of common disease: 2 variants (termed G1 and G2) with high population frequency have been repeatedly associated with nondiabetic CKDs, with very strong effect size (odds ratios 3-29) in populations of sub-Saharan African descent. This review provides an update on the spectrum of APOL1 kidney disease and on the worldwide distribution of these kidney risk variants. We also summarize the proper way to run a recessive analysis on joint and independent effects of APOL1 G1 and G2 kidney risk variants. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Christiane

    2015-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia in western societies, is a pathologically and clinically heterogeneous disease with a strong genetic component. The recent advances in high-throughput genome technologies allowing for the rapid analysis of millions of polymorphisms in thousands of subjects has significantly advanced our understanding of the genomic underpinnings of AD susceptibility. During the last 5 years, genome-wide association and whole-exome- and whole-genome sequencing studies have mapped more than 20 disease-associated loci, providing insights into the molecular pathways involved in AD pathogenesis and hinting at potential novel therapeutic targets. This review article summarizes the challenges and opportunities of when using genomic information for the diagnosis and prognosis of AD.

  9. Inborn errors of metabolism in the biosynthesis and remodelling of phospholipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, S.B.; Espeel, M.; Almeida, L.; Reimer, A.; Bosboom, D.G.; Roels, F.; Brouwer, A.P.M. de; Wevers, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the proposal to define a separate subgroup of inborn errors of metabolism involved in the biosynthesis and remodelling of phospholipids, sphingolipids and long chain fatty acids in 2013, this group is rapidly expanding. This review focuses on the disorders involved in the biosynthesis of phosp

  10. Identification and characterization of an inborn error of metabolism caused by dihydrofolate reductase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banka, S.; Blom, H.J.; Walter, J.; Aziz, M.; Urquhart, J.; Clouthier, C.M.; Rice, G.I.; Brouwer, A.P.M. de; Hilton, E.; Vassallo, G.; Will, A.; Smith, D.E.; Smulders, Y.M.; Wevers, R.A.; Steinfeld, R.; Heales, S.; Crow, Y.J.; Pelletier, J.N.; Jones, S.; Newman, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a critical enzyme in folate metabolism and an important target of antineoplastic, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory drugs. We describe three individuals from two families with a recessive inborn error of metabolism, characterized by megaloblastic anemia and/or

  11. NMR spectroscopy of aminoacylase 1 deficiency, a novel inborn error of metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelke, U.F.H.; Sass, J.O.; Coster, R.N. van; Gerlo, E.; Olbrich, H.; Krywawych, S.; Calvin, J.; Hart, C.; Omran, H.; Wevers, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aminoacylase 1 deficiency is a novel inborn error of metabolism. The clinical significance of the deficiency is under discussion, as well as the possible consequences of the defect for brain metabolism and function. This study includes the five originally published cases as well as three novel ones.

  12. One Community’s Effort to Control Genetic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffenberger, Erik G.; Morton, D. Holmes

    2012-01-01

    In 1989, we established a small community health clinic to provide care for uninsured Amish and Mennonite children with genetic disorders. Over 20 years, we have used publicly available molecular data and sophisticated technologies to improve diagnostic efficiency, control laboratory costs, reduce hospitalizations, and prevent major neurological impairments within a rural underserved community. These actions allowed the clinic’s 2010 operating budget of $1.5 million to save local communities an estimated $20 to $25 million in aggregate medical costs. This exposes an unsettling fact: our failure to improve the lot of most people stricken with genetic disease is no longer a matter of scientific ignorance or prohibitive costs but of choices we make about how to implement existing knowledge and resources. PMID:22594747

  13. Analysis of genetics and risk factors of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panpalli Ates, M; Karaman, Y; Guntekin, S; Ergun, M A

    2016-06-14

    Alzheimer's Disease is the leading neurodegenerative cause of dementia. The pathogenesis is not clearly understood yet, is believed to be the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Consequently vascular risk factors and Apolipoprotein E genotyping are increasingly gaining importance. This study aimed at assessing the relationships between Alzheimer's Disease and Apolipoprotein E phenotype and vascular risk factors. Patients diagnosed with "possible Alzheimer's Disease" in the Gazi University, Department of Neurology, were included in the study and age-matched volunteer patients who attended the polyclinic were included as a control group. In this study, the risk factors including low education level, smoking, hyperlipidemia, higher serum total cholesterol levels, and hyperhomocysteinemia were found to be statistically significantly more common in the Alzheimer's Disease group in comparison to the Control Group, while all Apolipoprotein E ε4/ε4 genotypes were found in the Alzheimer's Disease group. The presence of the Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele is believed to increase vascular risk factors as well as to affect Alzheimer's Disease directly. The biological indicators which are used in identifying the patients' genes will be probably used in the treatment plan of the patients in the future.

  14. Impact of recent genetic findings in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christine; Lohmann-Hedrich, Katja

    2007-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized clinically by classical parkinsonism and pathologically by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and Lewy bodies. Although for most classical parkinsonism the etiology is unknown, a clear genetic component has been determined in a minority. Mutations in five causative genes combined [alpha-Synuclein (SNCA), Parkin, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), DJ-1, Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)] account for 2-3% of all cases with classical parkinsonism, often clinically indistinguishable from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The functional role of PINK1 and LRRK2 as kinases has been clearly established. Further, mutations in the ATP13A2 gene have been linked to Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (PARK9), a form of atypical parkinsonism. ATP13A2 encodes a lysosomal ATPase and shows elevated expression levels in the brains of sporadic patients, suggesting a potential role in the more common idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Finally, first promising pilot studies have been performed to identify differentially expressed genes and proteins as biomarkers for parkinsonism. The identification of single genes and their functional characterization has enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of parkinsonism, has led to improvement of diagnostic tools for genetic parkinsonism, and allows for the purposeful consideration of novel therapeutic targets.

  15. Genetic influences on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Thomsen, Simon F; Vestbo, Jørgen; van der Sluis, Sophie; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Silverman, Edwin K; Svartengren, Magnus; Backer, Vibeke

    2010-12-01

    Genes that contribute to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have been identified, but an attempt to accurately quantify the total genetic contribution to COPD has to our knowledge never been conducted. Hospital discharge diagnoses data on COPD were analysed in 22,422 Danish twin pairs, 20-71 years of age. The analyses were replicated in a population of 27,668 Swedish twin pairs, 45-108 years of age. A Cox-regression model was applied to the discordant time from the age at first hospital admission for COPD in the co-twin of an affected twin. Latent factor models were used to estimate genetic and environmental effects. The probandwise concordance rate for COPD was higher in monozygotic (MZ) than in dizygotic (DZ) twins, 0.19 vs. 0.07 (p = 0.08) in the Danish population, and 0.20 vs. 0.08 (p = 0.006) in the Swedish population. After adjusting for sex, smoking and age at first hospital admission the risk of developing COPD in the co-twin of an affected twin was higher in MZ than in DZ twins, with hazards ratio 4.3 (95% confidence interval 1.2-15.8, p = 0.03) in Danish twins and 3.4 (1.5-7.7, p = 0.004) in Swedish twins. According to the most parsimonious model, additive genetic factors explained 63% (46-77%) of the individual COPD-susceptibility in the Danish population and 61% (48-72%) in the Swedish population. The susceptibility to develop severe COPD, as defined by hospitalizations, is strongly influenced by genetic factors. Approximately 60% of the individual susceptibility can be explained by genetic factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetics of sputum gene expression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Weiliang; Cho, Michael H; Riley, John H; Anderson, Wayne H; Singh, Dave; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Litonjua, Augusto A; Lomas, David A; Crapo, James D; Beaty, Terri H; Celli, Bartolome R; Rennard, Stephen; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Fox, Steven M; Silverman, Edwin K; Hersh, Craig P

    2011-01-01

    Previous expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have performed genetic association studies for gene expression, but most of these studies examined lymphoblastoid cell lines from non-diseased individuals. We examined the genetics of gene expression in a relevant disease tissue from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to identify functional effects of known susceptibility genes and to find novel disease genes. By combining gene expression profiling on induced sputum samples from 131 COPD cases from the ECLIPSE Study with genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, we found 4315 significant cis-eQTL SNP-probe set associations (3309 unique SNPs). The 3309 SNPs were tested for association with COPD in a genomewide association study (GWAS) dataset, which included 2940 COPD cases and 1380 controls. Adjusting for 3309 tests (p<1.5e-5), the two SNPs which were significantly associated with COPD were located in two separate genes in a known COPD locus on chromosome 15: CHRNA5 and IREB2. Detailed analysis of chromosome 15 demonstrated additional eQTLs for IREB2 mapping to that gene. eQTL SNPs for CHRNA5 mapped to multiple linkage disequilibrium (LD) bins. The eQTLs for IREB2 and CHRNA5 were not in LD. Seventy-four additional eQTL SNPs were associated with COPD at p<0.01. These were genotyped in two COPD populations, finding replicated associations with a SNP in PSORS1C1, in the HLA-C region on chromosome 6. Integrative analysis of GWAS and gene expression data from relevant tissue from diseased subjects has located potential functional variants in two known COPD genes and has identified a novel COPD susceptibility locus.

  17. Genetics of sputum gene expression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiliang Qiu

    Full Text Available Previous expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL studies have performed genetic association studies for gene expression, but most of these studies examined lymphoblastoid cell lines from non-diseased individuals. We examined the genetics of gene expression in a relevant disease tissue from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients to identify functional effects of known susceptibility genes and to find novel disease genes. By combining gene expression profiling on induced sputum samples from 131 COPD cases from the ECLIPSE Study with genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data, we found 4315 significant cis-eQTL SNP-probe set associations (3309 unique SNPs. The 3309 SNPs were tested for association with COPD in a genomewide association study (GWAS dataset, which included 2940 COPD cases and 1380 controls. Adjusting for 3309 tests (p<1.5e-5, the two SNPs which were significantly associated with COPD were located in two separate genes in a known COPD locus on chromosome 15: CHRNA5 and IREB2. Detailed analysis of chromosome 15 demonstrated additional eQTLs for IREB2 mapping to that gene. eQTL SNPs for CHRNA5 mapped to multiple linkage disequilibrium (LD bins. The eQTLs for IREB2 and CHRNA5 were not in LD. Seventy-four additional eQTL SNPs were associated with COPD at p<0.01. These were genotyped in two COPD populations, finding replicated associations with a SNP in PSORS1C1, in the HLA-C region on chromosome 6. Integrative analysis of GWAS and gene expression data from relevant tissue from diseased subjects has located potential functional variants in two known COPD genes and has identified a novel COPD susceptibility locus.

  18. Human genetic variation and the gut microbiome in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew Brantley; Tolonen, Andrew C; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2017-08-21

    Taxonomic and functional changes to the composition of the gut microbiome have been implicated in multiple human diseases. Recent microbiome genome-wide association studies reveal that variants in many human genes involved in immunity and gut architecture are associated with an altered composition of the gut microbiome. Although many factors can affect the microbial organisms residing in the gut, a number of recent findings support the hypothesis that certain host genetic variants predispose an individual towards microbiome dysbiosis. This condition, in which the normal microbiome population structure is disturbed, is a key feature in disorders of metabolism and immunity.

  19. Recent genetic discoveries implicating ion channels in human cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Alfred L

    2014-04-01

    The term 'channelopathy' refers to human genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels or their interacting proteins. Recent advances in this field have been enabled by next-generation DNA sequencing strategies such as whole exome sequencing with several intriguing and unexpected discoveries. This review highlights important discoveries implicating ion channels or ion channel modulators in cardiovascular disorders including cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility, cardiac conduction phenotypes, pulmonary and systemic hypertension. These recent discoveries further emphasize the importance of ion channels in the pathophysiology of human disease and as important druggable targets.

  20. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-03

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  1. PNPO deficiency: an under diagnosed inborn error of pyridoxine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayat, Morad; Korman, Stanley H; Frankel, Pnina; Weintraub, Zalman; Hershckowitz, Sylvia; Sheffer, Vered Fleisher; Ben Elisha, Mordechai; Wevers, Ronald A; Falik-Zaccai, Tzipora C

    2008-08-01

    The rare autosomal recessive disorder pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency is a recently described cause of neonatal and infantile seizures. Clinical evaluation, and biochemical and genetic testing, were performed on a neonate with intractable seizures who did not respond to anticonvulsant drugs and pyridoxine. Sequencing of the PNPO gene revealed a novel homozygous c.284G>A transition in exon 3, resulting in arginine to histidine substitution and reduced activity of the PNPO mutant to 18% relative to the wild type. This finding enabled molecular prenatal diagnosis in a subsequent pregnancy, accurate genetic counseling in the large inbred family, and population screening.

  2. Glucocorticoid-related genetic susceptibility for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Poirier, Raphael; Wollmer, M Axel; Grimaldi, Luigi M E; Tsolaki, Magdalini; Streffer, Johannes R; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Because glucocorticoid excess increases neuronal vulnerability, genetic variations in the glucocorticoid system may be related to the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 glucocorticoid-related genes in a population of 814 AD patients and unrelated control subjects. Set-association analysis revealed that a rare haplotype in the 5' regulatory region of the gene encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1) was associated with a 6-fold increased risk for sporadic AD. Results of a reporter-gene assay indicated that the rare risk-associated haplotype altered HSD11B1 transcription. HSD11B1 controls tissue levels of biologically active glucocorticoids and thereby influences neuronal vulnerability. Our results indicate that a functional variation in the glucocorticoid system increases the risk for AD, which may have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

  3. [Pulmonary surfactant homeostasis associated genetic abnormalities and lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaojing; Sun, Xiuzhu; Du, Weihua; Hao, Haisheng; Zhao, Xueming; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Huabin; Liu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) is synthesized and secreted by alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells, which is a complex compound formed by proteins and lipids. Surfactant participates in a range of physiological processes such as reducing the surface tension, keeping the balance of alveolar fluid, maintaining normal alveolar morphology and conducting host defense. Genetic disorders of the surfactant homeostasis genes may result in lack of surfactant or cytotoxicity, and lead to multiple lung diseases in neonates, children and adults, including neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. This paper has provided a review for the functions and processes of pulmonary surfactant metabolism, as well as the connection between disorders of surfactant homeostasis genes and lung diseases.

  4. GENETICS AND NEUROPATHOLOGY OF HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Anton; Dragatsis, Ioannis; Dietrich, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder that prominently affects the basal ganglia, leading to affective, cognitive, behavioral and motor decline. The basis of HD is a CAG repeat expansion to >35 CAG in a gene that codes for a ubiquitous protein known as huntingtin, resulting in an expanded N-terminal polyglutamine tract. The size of the expansion is correlated with disease severity, with increasing CAG accelerating the age of onset. A variety of possibilities have been proposed as to the mechanism by which the mutation causes preferential injury to the basal ganglia. The present chapter provides a basic overview of the genetics and pathology of HD. PMID:21907094

  5. Genetic control of human brain transcript expression in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennifer A; Gibbs, J Raphael; Clarke, Jennifer; Ray, Monika; Zhang, Weixiong; Holmans, Peter; Rohrer, Kristen; Zhao, Alice; Marlowe, Lauren; Kaleem, Mona; McCorquodale, Donald S; Cuello, Cindy; Leung, Doris; Bryden, Leslie; Nath, Priti; Zismann, Victoria L; Joshipura, Keta; Huentelman, Matthew J; Hu-Lince, Diane; Coon, Keith D; Craig, David W; Pearson, John V; Heward, Christopher B; Reiman, Eric M; Stephan, Dietrich; Hardy, John; Myers, Amanda J

    2009-04-01

    We recently surveyed the relationship between the human brain transcriptome and genome in a series of neuropathologically normal postmortem samples. We have now analyzed additional samples with a confirmed pathologic diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD; final n = 188 controls, 176 cases). Nine percent of the cortical transcripts that we analyzed had expression profiles correlated with their genotypes in the combined cohort, and approximately 5% of transcripts had SNP-transcript relationships that could distinguish LOAD samples. Two of these transcripts have been previously implicated in LOAD candidate-gene SNP-expression screens. This study shows how the relationship between common inherited genetic variants and brain transcript expression can be used in the study of human brain disorders. We suggest that studying the transcriptome as a quantitative endo-phenotype has greater power for discovering risk SNPs influencing expression than the use of discrete diagnostic categories such as presence or absence of disease.

  6. Consumer preferences for the predictive genetic test for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Yi; Huston, Sally A; Perri, Matthew

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess consumer preferences for predictive genetic testing for Alzheimer disease in the United States. A rating conjoint analysis was conducted using an anonymous online survey distributed by Qualtrics to a general population panel in April 2011 in the United States. The study design included three attributes: Accuracy (40%, 80%, and 100%), Treatment Availability (Cure is available/Drug for symptom relief but no cure), and Anonymity (Anonymous/Not anonymous). A total of 12 scenarios were used to elicit people's preference, assessed by an 11-point scale. The respondents also indicated their highest willingness-to-pay (WTP) for each scenario through open-ended questions. A total of 295 responses were collected over 4 days. The most important attribute for the aggregate model was Accuracy, contributing 64.73% to the preference rating. Treatment Availability and Anonymity contributed 20.72% and 14.59%, respectively, to the preference rating. The median WTP for the highest-rating scenario (Accuracy 100%, a cure is available, test result is anonymous) was $100 (mean = $276). The median WTP for the lowest-rating scenario (40% accuracy, no cure but drugs for symptom relief, not anonymous) was zero (mean = $34). The results of this study highlight attributes people find important when making the hypothetical decision to obtain an AD genetic test. These results should be of interests to policy makers, genetic test developers and health care providers.

  7. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: genetic and rehabilitation aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana CEVEI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Charcot-Marie-Tooth hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy refers to a group of disorders characterized by a chronic motor and sensory polyneuropathy. Typical cases have distal muscle weakness and peroneal atrophy often associated with mild to moderate sensory loss, depressed tendon reflexes, and pes cavus. Hereditary neuropathies are categorized by mode of inheritance and chromosomal locus. The diagnosis is based on family history, characteristic findings on physical examination, EMG, nerve conduction velocity testing, and occasionally on nerve biopsy. The disorder shows allelic and non-allelic genetic heterogeneity, thus mutations of different genes leading to the same clinical features. Also, different mutations of the same gene may lead to different phenotypes. Molecular genetic testing is available in clinical laboratories for diagnosis of 7 subtypes of the disease. Genetic counseling and risk assessment depend on the inheritance. We present two cases with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 and type 2 respectively. There is no cure for the disorder, although physical therapy and moderate activity are often recommended to maintain muscle strength and endurance.

  8. Genetic markers of Restless Legs Syndrome in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan-Or, Ziv; Alcalay, Roy N; Bar-Shira, Anat; Leblond, Claire S; Postuma, Ronald B; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Waters, Cheryl; Johnson, Amelie; Levy, Oren; Mirelman, Anat; Gana-Weisz, Mali; Dupré, Nicolas; Montplaisir, Jacques; Giladi, Nir; Fahn, Stanley; Xiong, Lan; Dion, Patrick A; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Rouleau, Guy A

    2015-06-01

    Several studies proposed that Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and Parkinson disease (PD) may be clinically and/or etiologically related. To examine this hypothesis, we aimed to determine whether the known RLS genetic markers may be associated with PD risk, as well as with PD subtype. Two case-control cohorts from Tel-Aviv and New-York, including 1133 PD patients and 867 controls were genotyped for four RLS-related SNPs in the genes MEIS1, BTBD9, PTPRD and MAP2K5/SKOR1. The association between genotype, PD risk and phenotype was tested using multivariate regression models. None of the tested SNPs was significantly associated with PD risk, neither in any individual cohort nor in the combined analysis after correction for multiple comparisons. The MAP2K5/SKOR1 marker rs12593813 was associated with higher frequency of tremor in the Tel-Aviv cohort (61.0% vs. 46.5%, p = 0.001, dominant model). However, the risk allele for tremor in this gene has been associated with reduced RLS risk. Moreover, this association did not replicate in Tremor-dominant PD patients from New-York. RLS genetic risk markers are not associated with increased PD risk or subtype in the current study. Together with previous genetic, neuropathological and epidemiologic studies, our results further strengthen the notion that RLS and PD are likely to be distinct entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PNPO deficiency: an under diagnosed inborn error of pyridoxine metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khayat, M.; Korman, S.H.; Frankel, P.; Weintraub, Z.; Hershckowitz, S.; Sheffer, V.F.; Elisha, M. Ben; Wevers, R.A.; Falik-Zaccai, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    The rare autosomal recessive disorder pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency is a recently described cause of neonatal and infantile seizures. Clinical evaluation, and biochemical and genetic testing, were performed on a neonate with intractable seizures who did not respond to anticonvuls

  10. PNPO deficiency: an under diagnosed inborn error of pyridoxine metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khayat, M.; Korman, S.H.; Frankel, P.; Weintraub, Z.; Hershckowitz, S.; Sheffer, V.F.; Elisha, M. Ben; Wevers, R.A.; Falik-Zaccai, T.C.

    2008-01-01

    The rare autosomal recessive disorder pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency is a recently described cause of neonatal and infantile seizures. Clinical evaluation, and biochemical and genetic testing, were performed on a neonate with intractable seizures who did not respond to

  11. Cell biology and genetics of minimal change disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Moin A; Kobayashi, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) is an important cause of nephrotic syndrome and is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, resulting in edema and hypercholesterolemia. The podocyte plays a key role in filtration and its disruption results in a dramatic loss of function leading to proteinuria. Immunologic disturbance has been suggested in the pathogenesis of MCD. Because of its clinical features, such as recurrent relapse/remission course, steroid response in most patients, and rare familial cases, a genetic defect has been thought to be less likely in MCD. Recent progress in whole-exome sequencing reveals pathogenic mutations in familial cases in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) and sheds light on possible mechanisms and key molecules in podocytes in MCD. On the other hand, in the majority of cases, the existence of circulating permeability factors has been implicated along with T lymphocyte dysfunction. Observations of benefit with rituximab added B cell involvement to the disease. Animal models are unsatisfactory, and the humanized mouse may be a good model that well reflects MCD pathophysiology to investigate suggested "T cell dysfunction" directly related to podocytes in vivo. Several candidate circulating factors and their effects on podocytes have been proposed but are still not sufficient to explain whole mechanisms and clinical features in MCD. Another circulating factor disease is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and it is not clear if this is a distinct entity, or on the same spectrum, implicating the same circulating factor(s). These patients are mostly steroid resistant and often have a rapid relapse after transplantation. In clinical practice, predicting relapse or disease activity and response to steroids is important and is an area where novel biomarkers can be developed based on our growing knowledge of podocyte signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss recent findings in genetics and podocyte biology in MCD.

  12. Cell biology and genetics of minimal change disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Moin A.; Kobayashi, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) is an important cause of nephrotic syndrome and is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, resulting in edema and hypercholesterolemia. The podocyte plays a key role in filtration and its disruption results in a dramatic loss of function leading to proteinuria. Immunologic disturbance has been suggested in the pathogenesis of MCD. Because of its clinical features, such as recurrent relapse/remission course, steroid response in most patients, and rare familial cases, a genetic defect has been thought to be less likely in MCD. Recent progress in whole-exome sequencing reveals pathogenic mutations in familial cases in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) and sheds light on possible mechanisms and key molecules in podocytes in MCD. On the other hand, in the majority of cases, the existence of circulating permeability factors has been implicated along with T lymphocyte dysfunction. Observations of benefit with rituximab added B cell involvement to the disease. Animal models are unsatisfactory, and the humanized mouse may be a good model that well reflects MCD pathophysiology to investigate suggested “T cell dysfunction” directly related to podocytes in vivo. Several candidate circulating factors and their effects on podocytes have been proposed but are still not sufficient to explain whole mechanisms and clinical features in MCD. Another circulating factor disease is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and it is not clear if this is a distinct entity, or on the same spectrum, implicating the same circulating factor(s). These patients are mostly steroid resistant and often have a rapid relapse after transplantation. In clinical practice, predicting relapse or disease activity and response to steroids is important and is an area where novel biomarkers can be developed based on our growing knowledge of podocyte signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss recent findings in genetics and podocyte biology in

  13. Enfermedades de base genética Genetically based diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. González-Lamuño

    2008-01-01

    significant degree of disability they generate, the social impact of hereditary diseases is enormous, due to their potentially recurrent character in the same family and the high socio-health cost deriving from the enormous care burden they require. The diagnosis of hereditary diseases presents very significant differentiating characteristics since the result of a genetic diagnosis has effects not only on the patient but also on related individuals. Thus the unit of study in genetic diagnosis is the family and the whole process of diagnosis involves family research. It is also useful to bear in mind that the protocols of diagnosis are developed in parallel with the basic research and in general are hardly standardised. The results obtained in genetic studies and the type of information provided to the patient and his family must be qualified within the process of "genetic counselling".

  14. Current Views on Genetics and Epigenetics of Cholesterol Gallstone Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Di Ciaula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol gallstone disease, one of the commonest digestive diseases in western countries, is induced by an imbalance in cholesterol metabolism, which involves intestinal absorption, hepatic biosynthesis, and biliary output of cholesterol, and its conversion to bile acids. Several components of the metabolic syndrome (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia are also well-known risk factors for gallstones, suggesting the existence of interplay between common pathophysiological pathways influenced by insulin resistance, genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Cholesterol gallstones may be enhanced, at least in part, by the abnormal expression of a set of the genes that affect cholesterol homeostasis and lead to insulin resistance. Additionally, epigenetic mechanisms (mainly DNA methylation, histone acetylation/deacetylation, and noncoding microRNAs may modify gene expression in the absence of an altered DNA sequence, in response to different lithogenic environmental stimuli, such as diet, lifestyle, pollutants, also occurring in utero before birth. In this review, we will comment on various steps of the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones and interaction between environmental and genetic factors. The epigenomic approach may offer new options for therapy of gallstones and better possibilities for primary prevention in subjects at risk.

  15. Inflammation in Alzheimer's Disease and Molecular Genetics: Recent Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yan; Ng, Cheung Toa; Song, You-Qiang

    2015-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex age-related neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Since the first description of AD in 1907, many hypotheses have been established to explain its causes. The inflammation theory is one of them. Pathological and biochemical studies of brains from AD individuals have provided solid evidence of the activation of inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, people with long-term medication of anti-inflammatory drugs have shown a reduced risk to develop the disease. After three decades of genetic study in AD, dozens of loci harboring genetic variants influencing inflammatory pathways in AD patients has been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The most well-known GWAS risk factor that is responsible for immune response and inflammation in AD development should be APOE ε4 allele. However, a growing number of other GWAS risk AD candidate genes in inflammation have recently been discovered. In the present study, we try to review the inflammation in AD and immunity-associated GWAS risk genes like HLA-DRB5/DRB1, INPP5D, MEF2C, CR1, CLU and TREM2.

  16. Illness, disease and sin: the connection between genetics and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The New Testament, while rejecting any superficial connection between illness and sin, does not reject a possible connection between illness and a person's relationship with God. An example can be seen in the story of the young blind man who was healed (St. John 9:3). His blindness does not result from any fault he or his parents had committed but apparently from God's wish to reveal his own healing power. The inner blindness of the Pharisees is a different type of blindness far more difficult to heal. The blind young man was actually healed, not only in body but also in soul. Such miraculous healings are rare nowadays. However, if one takes a closer look at modern genetics and psycho-neuro-immunological findings, one may come to a better understanding of how miracle healings are linked to man's inner life and therefore also to his religiousness. Many diseases have genetic backgrounds. Defective genes, however, do not necessarily lead to subsequent illness. Genes have to be switched on or off. Only activated genes trigger pathological change. The human brain and all of man's thinking and feeling are intimately connected with such activations. We may thus conclude that both inner life and religious outlook on life are relevant to the origin and development of diseases.

  17. Views of discrimination among individuals confronting genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Though the US passed the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act, many questions remain of how individuals confronting genetic disease view and experience possible discrimination. We interviewed, for 2 hours each, 64 individuals who had, or were at risk for, Huntington's Disease, breast cancer, or Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Discrimination can be implicit, indirect and subtle, rather than explicit, direct and overt; and be hard to prove. Patients may be treated "differently" and unfairly, raising questions of how to define "discrimination", and "appropriate accommodation". Patients were often unclear and wary about legislation. Fears and experiences of discrimination can shape testing, treatment, and disclosure. Discrimination can be subjective, and take various forms. Searches for only objective evidence of it may be inherently difficult. Providers need to be aware of, and prepared to address, subtle and indirect discrimination; ambiguities, confusion and potential limitations concerning current legislation; and needs for education about these laws. Policies are needed to prevent discrimination in life, long-term care, and disability insurance, not covered by GINA.

  18. The significance of opthalmologic evaluation in the early diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism: the Cretan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionis Christos

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEM are far from the rare systemic diseases that mainly affect the neural tissue. There are very few written reports on ocular findings in subjects with IEM, thus it was interesting to study the frequency of ocular findings in the studied population and explore their contribution to the early diagnosis of IEM. Methods Our study involved the evaluation of IEM suspected cases, which had been identified in a rural population in Crete, Greece. Over a period of 3 years, 125 patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria of this study, were examined. Analytical physical examination, detailed laboratory investigation as well as a thorough ocular examination were made. Results A diagnosis of IEM was established in 23 of the 125 patients (18.4%. Ten (43.5% of the diagnosed IEM had ocular findings, while 8 of them (34.8% had findings which were specific for the diagnosed diseases. One patient diagnosed with glycogenosis type 1b presented a rare finding. Of the 102 non-diagnosed patients, 53 (51.96 % presented various ophthalmic findings, some of which could be related to a metabolic disease and therefore may be very helpful in the future. Conclusions The ocular investigation can be extremely useful for raising the suspicion and the establishment of an early diagnosis of IEM. It could also add new findings related to these diseases. The early management of the ocular symptoms can improve the quality of life to these patients.

  19. Alcoholism and liver disease in Mexico: genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Sonia; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy Alfonso; Moreno-Luna, Laura Eugenia; Panduro, Arturo

    2013-11-28

    Alcoholism and cirrhosis, which are two of the most serious health problems worldwide, have a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes. Both diseases are influenced by genetic susceptibility and cultural traits that differ globally but are specific for each population. In contrast to other regions around the world, Mexicans present the highest drinking score and a high mortality rate for alcoholic liver disease with an intermediate category level of per capita alcohol consumption. Mexico has a unique history of alcohol consumption that is linked to profound anthropological and social aspects. The Mexican population has an admixture genome inherited from different races, Caucasian, Amerindian and African, with a heterogeneous distribution within the country. Thus, genes related to alcohol addiction, such as dopamine receptor D2 in the brain, or liver alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase class I polypeptide B, cytochrome P450 2E1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 2, may vary from one individual to another. Furthermore, they may be inherited as risk or non-risk haplogroups that confer susceptibility or resistance either to alcohol addiction or abusive alcohol consumption and possibly liver disease. Thus, in this era of genomics, personalized medicine will benefit patients if it is directed according to individual or population-based data. Additional association studies will be required to establish novel strategies for the prevention, care and treatment of liver disease in Mexico and worldwide.

  20. Prevalence and management of Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrow TA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available T Andrew Burrow, Sonya Barnes, Gregory A GrabowskiThe Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Gaucher disease is a phenotypically heterogeneous autosomal recessively inherited lysosomal storage disease, resulting from deficient activity of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase, acid ß-glucosidase due to mutations in GBA1. Gaucher disease is the prototype for which disease-specific pharmacological therapy was successfully employed. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive review and critical examination of the prevalence, pathophysiology, natural history, and management of Gaucher disease.Keywords: lysosomal storage disease, pathophysiology, treatment, inborn errors of metabolism

  1. Molecular genetics and mechanisms of disease in distal hereditary motor neuropathies: insights directing future genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, A P; Blair, I P; Nicholson, G A

    2011-11-01

    The distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that primarily affect motor neurons, without significant sensory involvement. New dHMN genes continue to be identified. There are now 11 causative genes described for dHMN, and an additional five genetic loci with unidentified genes. This genetic heterogeneity has further delineated the classification of dHMN, which was previously classified according to mode of inheritance, age at onset, and additional complicating features. Some overlap between phenotypically distinct forms of dHMN is also apparent. The mutated genes identified to-date in dHMN include HSPB1, HSPB8, HSPB3, DCTN1, GARS, PLEKHG5, BSCL2, SETX, IGHMBP2, ATP7A and TRPV4. The pathogenesis of mutations remains to be fully elucidated, however common pathogenic mechanisms are emerging. These include disruption of axonal transport, RNA processing defects, protein aggregation and inclusion body formation, disrupted calcium channel activity, and loss of neuroprotective signalling. Some of these dHMN genes are also mutated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). This review examines the growing number of identified dHMN genes, discusses recent insights into the functions of these genes and possible pathogenic mechanisms, and looks at the increasing overlap between dHMN and the other neuropathies CMT2 and SMA.

  2. The National Institute on Aging Genetics of Alzheimer’s Disease Data Storage Site (NIAGADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Institute on Aging Genetics of Alzheimer's Disease Data Storage Site (NIAGADS) is a national genetics data repository facilitating access to genotypic...

  3. Genetic Architecture of MAPT Gene Region in Parkinson Disease Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Esterina; Di Battista, Maria Elena; Rubino, Alfonso; Purcaro, Carlo; Valente, Marcella; Fattapposta, Francesco; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Meco, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) region has been conceptualized as a model of the interaction between genetics and functional disease outcomes in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Indeed, haplotype-specific differences in expression and alternative splicing of MAPT transcripts affect cellular functions at different levels, increasing susceptibility to a range of neurodegenerative processes. In order to evaluate a possible link between MAPT variants, PD risk and PD motor phenotype, we analyzed the genetic architecture of MAPT in a cohort of PD patients. We observed a statistically significant association between the H1 haplotype and PD risk (79.5 vs 69.5%; χ(2) = 9.9; OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4; p = 0.002). The effect was more evident in non tremor dominant (TD) PD subjects (NTD-PD) (82 vs 69.5%; χ(2) = 13.6; OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.4-3; p = 0.0003), while no difference emerged between PD subgroup of tremor dominant patients (TD-PD) and control subjects. Examination of specific intra-H1 variations showed that the H1h subhaplotype was overrepresented in NTD-PD patients compared with controls (p = 0.007; OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3). Although we cannot exclude that MAPT variation may be associated with ethnicity, our results may support the hypothesis that MAPT H1 clade and a specific H1 subhaplotype influence the risk of PD and modulate the clinical expression of the disease, including motor phenotype.

  4. Identifying genetic risk variants for coronary heart disease in familial hypercholesterolemia: an extreme genetics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versmissen, Jorie; Oosterveer, Daniëlla M; Yazdanpanah, Mojgan; Dehghan, Abbas; Hólm, Hilma; Erdman, Jeanette; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Schunkert, Heribert; Huijgen, Roeland; Vongpromek, Ranitha; Uitterlinden, André G; Defesche, Joep C; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Mulder, Monique; Dadd, Tony; Karlsson, Hróbjartur D; Ordovas, Jose; Kindt, Iris; Jarman, Amelia; Hofman, Albert; van Vark-van der Zee, Leonie; Blommesteijn-Touw, Adriana C; Kwekkeboom, Jaap; Liem, Anho H; van der Ouderaa, Frans J; Calandra, Sebastiano; Bertolini, Stefano; Averna, Maurizio; Langslet, Gisle; Ose, Leiv; Ros, Emilio; Almagro, Fátima; de Leeuw, Peter W; Civeira, Fernando; Masana, Luis; Pintó, Xavier; Simoons, Maarten L; Schinkel, Arend FL; Green, Martin R; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Johnson, Keith J; Schaefer, Arne; Neil, Andrew; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; Humphries, Steve E; Kastelein, John JP; Sijbrands, Eric JG

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a disorder characterized by coronary heart disease (CHD) at young age. We aimed to apply an extreme sampling method to enhance the statistical power to identify novel genetic risk variants for CHD in individuals with FH. We selected cases and controls with an extreme contrast in CHD risk from 17 000 FH patients from the Netherlands, whose functional LDLR mutation was unequivocally established. The genome-wide association (GWA) study was performed on 249 very young FH cases with CHD and 217 old FH controls without CHD (above 65 years for males and 70 years of age for females) using the Illumina HumanHap550K chip. In the next stage, two independent samples (one from the Netherlands and one from Italy, Norway, Spain, and the United Kingdom) of FH patients were used as replication samples. In the initial GWA analysis, we identified 29 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with suggestive associations with premature CHD (P<1 × 10−4). We examined the association of these SNPs with CHD risk in the replication samples. After Bonferroni correction, none of the SNPs either replicated or reached genome-wide significance after combining the discovery and replication samples. Therefore, we conclude that the genetics of CHD risk in FH is complex and even applying an ‘extreme genetics' approach we did not identify new genetic risk variants. Most likely, this method is not as effective in leveraging effect size as anticipated, and may, therefore, not lead to significant gains in statistical power. PMID:24916650

  5. Identification of susceptibility genes and genetic modifiers of human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Kenneth; Kammerer, Stefan; Hoyal, Carolyn; Reneland, Rikard; Marnellos, George; Nelson, Matthew R.; Braun, Andreas

    2005-03-01

    The completion of the human genome sequence enables the discovery of genes involved in common human disorders. The successful identification of these genes is dependent on the availability of informative sample sets, validated marker panels, a high-throughput scoring technology, and a strategy for combining these resources. We have developed a universal platform technology based on mass spectrometry (MassARRAY) for analyzing nucleic acids with high precision and accuracy. To fuel this technology, we generated more than 100,000 validated assays for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering virtually all known and predicted human genes. We also established a large DNA sample bank comprised of more than 50,000 consented healthy and diseased individuals. This combination of reagents and technology allows the execution of large-scale genome-wide association studies. Taking advantage of MassARRAY"s capability for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids, allele frequencies are estimated in sample pools containing large numbers of individual DNAs. To compare pools as a first-pass "filtering" step is a tremendous advantage in throughput and cost over individual genotyping. We employed this approach in numerous genome-wide, hypothesis-free searches to identify genes associated with common complex diseases, such as breast cancer, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis, and genes involved in quantitative traits like high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-c) levels and central fat. Access to additional well-characterized patient samples through collaborations allows us to conduct replication studies that validate true disease genes. These discoveries will expand our understanding of genetic disease predisposition, and our ability for early diagnosis and determination of specific disease subtype or progression stage.

  6. Estimating the contribution of genetic variants to difference in incidence of disease between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Ioannidis, John P A; Flanders, W Dana; Yang, Quanhe; Truman, Benedict I; Khoury, Muin J

    2012-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic susceptibility variants to several complex human diseases. However, risk-genotype frequency at loci showing robust associations might differ substantially among different populations. In this paper, we present methods to assess the contribution of genetic variants to the difference in the incidence of disease between different population groups for different scenarios. We derive expressions for the contribution of a single genetic variant, multiple genetic variants, and the contribution of the joint effect of a genetic variant and an environmental factor to the difference in the incidence of disease. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence increases with increasing difference in risk-genotype frequency, but declines with increasing difference in incidence between the two populations. The contribution of genetic variants also increases with increasing relative risk and the contribution of joint effect of genetic and environmental factors increases with increasing relative risk of the gene-environmental interaction. The contribution of genetic variants to the difference in incidence between two populations can be expressed as a function of the population attributable risks of the genetic variants in the two populations. The contribution of a group of genetic variants to the disparity in incidence of disease could change considerably by adding one more genetic variant to the group. Any estimate of genetic contribution to the disparity in incidence of disease between two populations at this stage seems to be an elusive goal.

  7. Familial Alzheimer's disease: genetic analysis related to disease heterogeneity, Down syndrome and human brain evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro, M B; Rapoport, S I

    1989-01-01

    Etiologically heterogeneous subgroups of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) exist and need to be distinguished so as to better identify genetic causes of familial cases. Furthermore, the presence of AD neuropathology in Down syndrome (trisomy 21) subjects older than 35 years suggests that AD in some cases is caused by dysregulation of expression of genes on chromosome 21. Cerebral metabolic abnormalities in life, and the distribution of AD neuropathology in the post-mortem brain, indicate that AD involves the association neocortices and subcortical regions with which they evolved during evolution of the human brain. Accordingly, understanding the molecular basis of this evolution should elucidate the genetic basis of AD, whereas knowing the genetics of AD should be informative about the genomic changes which promoted brain evolution.

  8. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  9. Phase 3 Extension Study of Ataluren (PTC124) in Patients With Nonsense Mutation Dystrophinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne; Muscular Dystrophies; Muscular Disorders, Atrophic; Muscular Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Neuromuscular Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Genetic Diseases, X-Linked; Genetic Diseases, Inborn

  10. Phase 3 Study of Ataluren in Patients With Nonsense Mutation Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne; Muscular Dystrophies; Muscular Disorders, Atrophic; Muscular Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases; Neuromuscular Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Genetic Diseases, X-Linked; Genetic Diseases, Inborn

  11. Long-Term Outcomes of Ataluren in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-11

    Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne; Muscular Dystrophies; Muscular Disorders, Atrophic; Muscular Diseases; Musculoskeletal Disease; Neuromuscular Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Genetic Diseases, X-Linked; Genetic Diseases, Inborn

  12. Expanding research to provide an evidence base for nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism☆

    OpenAIRE

    Camp, Kathryn M; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Yao, Lynne; Groft, Stephen C.; Parisi, Melissa A.; Mulberg, Andrew; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Cederbaum, Stephen; Enns, Gregory M.; Ershow, Abby G.; Frazier, Dianne M.; Gohagan, John; Harding, Cary; Howell, R. Rodney; Regan, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A trans-National Institutes of Health initiative, Nutrition and Dietary Supplement Interventions for Inborn Errors of Metabolism (NDSI-IEM), was launched in 2010 to identify gaps in knowledge regarding the safety and utility of nutritional interventions for the management of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) that need to be filled with evidence-based research. IEM include inherited biochemical disorders in which specific enzyme defects interfere with the normal metabolism of exogenous (dietar...

  13. Redox signalling and mitochondrial stress responses; lessons from inborn errors of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rikke K J; Cornelius, Nanna; Gregersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in overall cell physiology and health by integrating cellular metabolism with cellular defense and repair mechanisms in response to physiological or environmental changes or stresses. In fact, dysregulation of mitochondrial stress responses and its consequences...... and directions that can be tested experimentally and used in the design of future new approaches for pre-symptomatic diagnosis and prognosis and perhaps more effective treatments of inborn errors of metabolism....

  14. Inborn and experience-dependent models of categorical brain organization. A position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The present review aims to summarize the debate in contemporary neuroscience between inborn and experience-dependent models of conceptual representations that goes back to the description of category-specific semantic disorders for biological and artifact categories. Experience-dependent models suggest that categorical disorders are the by-product of the differential weighting of different sources of knowledge in the representation of biological and artifact categories. These models maintain that semantic disorders are not really category-specific, because they do not respect the boundaries between different categories. They also argue that the brain structures which are disrupted in a given type of category-specific semantic disorder should correspond to the areas of convergence of the sensory-motor information which play a major role in the construction of that category. Furthermore, they provide a simple interpretation of gender-related categorical effects and are supported by studies assessing the importance of prior experience in the cortical representation of objects On the other hand, inborn models maintain that category-specific semantic disorders reflect the disruption of innate brain networks, which are shaped by natural selection to allow rapid identification of objects that are very relevant for survival. From the empirical point of view, these models are mainly supported by observations of blind subjects, which suggest that visual experience is not necessary for the emergence of category-specificity in the ventral stream of visual processing. The weight of the data supporting experience-dependent and inborn models is thoroughly discussed, stressing the fact observations made in blind subjects are still the subject of intense debate. It is concluded that at the present state of knowledge it is not possible to choose between experience-dependent and inborn models of conceptual representations.

  15. Complement regulators in human disease: lessons from modern genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Liszewski, M; Atkinson, J P

    2015-03-01

    First identified in human serum in the late 19th century as a 'complement' to antibodies in mediating bacterial lysis, the complement system emerged more than a billion years ago probably as the first humoral immune system. The contemporary complement system consists of nearly 60 proteins in three activation pathways (classical, alternative and lectin) and a terminal cytolytic pathway common to all. Modern molecular biology and genetics have not only led to further elucidation of the structure of complement system components, but have also revealed function-altering rare variants and common polymorphisms, particularly in regulators of the alternative pathway, that predispose to human disease by creating 'hyperinflammatory complement phenotypes'. To treat these 'complementopathies', a monoclonal antibody against the initiator of the membrane attack complex, C5, has received approval for use. Additional therapeutic reagents are on the horizon.

  16. Advances in Susceptibility Genetics of Intervertebral Degenerative Disc Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin'gang Zhang, Zhengming Sun, Jiangtao Liu, Xiong Guo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view that the etiology of lumbar disc herniation is primarily due to age, gender, occupation, smoking and exposure to vehicular vibration dominated much of the last century. Recent research indicates that heredity may be largely responsible for the degeneration as well as herniation of intervertebral discs. Since 1998, genetic influences have been confirmed by the identification of several genes forms associated with disc degeneration. These researches are paving the way for a better understanding of the biologic mechanisms. Now, many researchers unanimously agree that lumbar disc herniation appears to be similar to other complex diseases, whose etiology has both environmental and hereditary influence, each with a part of contribution and relative risk. Then addressing the etiological of lumbar disc herniation, it is important to integrate heredity with the environment factors. For the purpose of this review, we have limited our discussion to several susceptibility genes associated with disc degeneration.

  17. Genetic overlap between Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease at the MAPT locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikan, Rahul S.; Schork, Andrew J.; Wang, Yunpeng; Witoelar, Aree; Sharma, Manu; McEvoy, Linda K.; Holland, Dominic; Brewer, James B.; Chen, Chi-Hua; Thompson, Wesley K.; Harold, Denise; Williams, Julie; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Mayeux, Richard; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Heutink, Peter; Singleton, Andrew B.; Brice, Alexis; Wood, Nicolas W.; Hardy, John; Martinez, Maria; Choi, Seung Hoi; DeStefano, Anita; Ikram, M. Arfan; Bis, Joshua C.; Smith, Albert; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Launer, Lenore; van Duijn, Cornelia; Seshadri, Sudha; Ulstein, Ingun Dina; Aarsland, Dag; Fladby, Tormod; Djurovic, Srdjan; Hyman, Bradley T.; Snaedal, Jon; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Andreassen, Ole A.; Dale, Anders M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated genetic overlap between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Using summary statistics (p-values) from large recent genomewide association studies (GWAS) (total n = 89,904 individuals), we sought to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associating with both AD and PD. We found and replicated association of both AD and PD with the A allele of rs393152 within the extended MAPT region on chromosome 17 (meta analysis p-value across 5 independent AD cohorts = 1.65 × 10−7). In independent datasets, we found a dose-dependent effect of the A allele of rs393152 on intra-cerebral MAPT transcript levels and volume loss within the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Our findings identify the tau-associated MAPT locus as a site of genetic overlap between AD and PD and extending prior work, we show that the MAPT region increases risk of Alzheimer’s neurodegeneration. PMID:25687773

  18. Baboons as a model to study genetics and epigenetics of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Laura A; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Havill, Lorena M; Karere, Genesio M; Spradling, Kimberly D; Mahaney, Michael C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Nicolella, Daniel P; Shade, Robert E; Voruganti, Saroja; VandeBerg, John L

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for understanding susceptibility to common human diseases is determining genetic and environmental factors that influence mechanisms underlying variation in disease-related traits. The most common diseases afflicting the US population are complex diseases that develop as a result of defects in multiple genetically controlled systems in response to environmental challenges. Unraveling the etiology of these diseases is exceedingly difficult because of the many genetic and environmental factors involved. Studies of complex disease genetics in humans are challenging because it is not possible to control pedigree structure and often not practical to control environmental conditions over an extended period of time. Furthermore, access to tissues relevant to many diseases from healthy individuals is quite limited. The baboon is a well-established research model for the study of a wide array of common complex diseases, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and osteoporosis. It is possible to acquire tissues from healthy, genetically characterized baboons that have been exposed to defined environmental stimuli. In this review, we describe the genetic and physiologic similarity of baboons with humans, the ability and usefulness of controlling environment and breeding, and current genetic and genomic resources. We discuss studies on genetics of heart disease, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and intrauterine growth restriction using the baboon as a model for human disease. We also summarize new studies and resources under development, providing examples of potential translational studies for targeted interventions and therapies for human disease.

  19. Genetic and Pharmacologic Inactivation of ANGPTL3 and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Frederick E; Gusarova, Viktoria; Dunbar, Richard L; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Schurmann, Claudia; Gottesman, Omri; McCarthy, Shane; Van Hout, Cristopher V; Bruse, Shannon; Dansky, Hayes M; Leader, Joseph B; Murray, Michael F; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Kirchner, H Lester; Habegger, Lukas; Lopez, Alex; Penn, John; Zhao, An; Shao, Weiping; Stahl, Neil; Murphy, Andrew J; Hamon, Sara; Bouzelmat, Aurelie; Zhang, Rick; Shumel, Brad; Pordy, Robert; Gipe, Daniel; Herman, Gary A; Sheu, Wayne H H; Lee, I-Te; Liang, Kae-Woei; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Kraus, William E; Shah, Svati H; Damrauer, Scott; Small, Aeron; Rader, Daniel J; Wulff, Anders Berg; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; van den Hoek, Anita M; Princen, Hans M G; Ledbetter, David H; Carey, David J; Overton, John D; Reid, Jeffrey G; Sasiela, William J; Banerjee, Poulabi; Shuldiner, Alan R; Borecki, Ingrid B; Teslovich, Tanya M; Yancopoulos, George D; Mellis, Scott J; Gromada, Jesper; Baras, Aris

    2017-07-20

    Loss-of-function variants in the angiopoietin-like 3 gene (ANGPTL3) have been associated with decreased plasma levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. It is not known whether such variants or therapeutic antagonism of ANGPTL3 are associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We sequenced the exons of ANGPTL3 in 58,335 participants in the DiscovEHR human genetics study. We performed tests of association for loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL3 with lipid levels and with coronary artery disease in 13,102 case patients and 40,430 controls from the DiscovEHR study, with follow-up studies involving 23,317 case patients and 107,166 controls from four population studies. We also tested the effects of a human monoclonal antibody, evinacumab, against Angptl3 in dyslipidemic mice and against ANGPTL3 in healthy human volunteers with elevated levels of triglycerides or LDL cholesterol. In the DiscovEHR study, participants with heterozygous loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL3 had significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol than participants without these variants. Loss-of-function variants were found in 0.33% of case patients with coronary artery disease and in 0.45% of controls (adjusted odds ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.85; P=0.004). These results were confirmed in the follow-up studies. In dyslipidemic mice, inhibition of Angptl3 with evinacumab resulted in a greater decrease in atherosclerotic lesion area and necrotic content than a control antibody. In humans, evinacumab caused a dose-dependent placebo-adjusted reduction in fasting triglyceride levels of up to 76% and LDL cholesterol levels of up to 23%. Genetic and therapeutic antagonism of ANGPTL3 in humans and of Angptl3 in mice was associated with decreased levels of all three major lipid fractions and decreased odds of atherosclerotic cardiovascular

  20. A Neurological Enigma: The Inborn Numerical Competence of Humans and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Hans J.

    2012-03-01

    "Subitizing" means our ability to recognize and memorize object numbers precisely under conditions where counting is impossible. This is an inborn archaic process which was named after the Latin "subito" = suddenly, immediately, indicating that the objects in question are presented to test persons only for the fraction of a second in order to prevent counting. Sequential counting, however, is an outstanding cultural achievement of mankind and means to count "1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ..." without a limit. In contrast to inborn "subitizing", counting has to be trained, beginning in our early childhood with the help of our fingers. For humans we know since 140 years that we can "subitize" only up to 4 objects correctly and that mistakes occur from 5 objects on. Similar results have been obtained for a number of non-human vertebrates from salamanders to pigeons and dolphins. To our surprise, we have detected this inborn numerical competence for the first time in case of an invertebrate, the honeybee which recognizes and memorizes 3 to 4 objects under rigorous test conditions. This common ability of humans and honeybees to "subitize" up to 4 objects correctly and the miraculous but rare ability of persons with Savant syndrome to "subitize" more than hundred objects precisely raises a number of intriguing questions concerning the evolution and the significance of this biological enigma.

  1. Etiology and pathophysiology of frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease: lessons from genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wider, Christian; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2008-01-01

    Genetic studies have led to major discoveries in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Ubiquitin-positive familial frontotemporal dementia was recently found to be caused by mutations in the progranulin gene (PGRN), and the major constituent of the inclusions, TDP-43, was subsequently identified. The tau gene (MAPT) causes frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. In Parkinson disease, LRRK2 mutations have emerged as a major cause of both familial and sporadic forms, adding to the previously known genes SNCA,PRKN,DJ1 and PINK1. Several genes have been implicated in Alzheimer disease, including the APP gene and the PSEN genes. Recently, variants in the sortilin-related receptor 1 gene, SORL1, were associated with Alzheimer disease. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Genetic and Functional Profiling of Crohn's Disease: Autophagy Mechanism and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Anna Monica; Girardelli, Martina; Tommasini, Alberto; Martelossi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a complex disease in which genome, microbiome, and environment interact to produce the immunological background of the disease. Disease in childhood is more extensive and characterized by a rapid progression, leading to severe repercussions in the course of the disorder. Several genetic variations have been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease and most of these are also implicated in other autoimmune disorders. The gut has many tiers of defense against incursion by luminal microbes, including the epithelial barrier and the innate and adaptive immune responses. Moreover, recent evidence shows that bacterial and viral infections, as well as inflammasome genes and genes involved in the autophagy process, are implicated in Crohn's disease pathogenesis. The aim of this review is to establish how much the diagnostic system can improve, thus increasing the success of Crohn's disease diagnosis. The major expectation for the near future is to be able to anticipate the possible consequences of the disease already in childhood, thus preventing associated complications, and to choose the best treatment for each patient. PMID:23738324

  3. Genetic and functional profiling of Crohn's disease: autophagy mechanism and susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Bianco, Anna Monica; Girardelli, Martina; Tommasini, Alberto; Martelossi, Stefano; Monasta, Lorenzo; Crovella, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a complex disease in which genome, microbiome, and environment interact to produce the immunological background of the disease. Disease in childhood is more extensive and characterized by a rapid progression, leading to severe repercussions in the course of the disorder. Several genetic variations have been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease and most of these are also implicated in other autoimmune disorders. The gut has many tiers of defense against incursion by luminal microbes, including the epithelial barrier and the innate and adaptive immune responses. Moreover, recent evidence shows that bacterial and viral infections, as well as inflammasome genes and genes involved in the autophagy process, are implicated in Crohn's disease pathogenesis. The aim of this review is to establish how much the diagnostic system can improve, thus increasing the success of Crohn's disease diagnosis. The major expectation for the near future is to be able to anticipate the possible consequences of the disease already in childhood, thus preventing associated complications, and to choose the best treatment for each patient.

  4. Genetic and Functional Profiling of Crohn's Disease: Autophagy Mechanism and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Marcuzzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease is a complex disease in which genome, microbiome, and environment interact to produce the immunological background of the disease. Disease in childhood is more extensive and characterized by a rapid progression, leading to severe repercussions in the course of the disorder. Several genetic variations have been associated with an increased risk of developing the disease and most of these are also implicated in other autoimmune disorders. The gut has many tiers of defense against incursion by luminal microbes, including the epithelial barrier and the innate and adaptive immune responses. Moreover, recent evidence shows that bacterial and viral infections, as well as inflammasome genes and genes involved in the autophagy process, are implicated in Crohn's disease pathogenesis. The aim of this review is to establish how much the diagnostic system can improve, thus increasing the success of Crohn's disease diagnosis. The major expectation for the near future is to be able to anticipate the possible consequences of the disease already in childhood, thus preventing associated complications, and to choose the best treatment for each patient.

  5. Clinical characteristics of adult patients with inborn errors of metabolism in Spain: A review of 500 cases from university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pérez-López

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs have become an emerging and challenging group in the adult healthcare system whose needs should be known in order to implement appropriate policies and to adapt adult clinical departments. We aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of adult patients with IEMs who attend the most important Spanish hospitals caring for these conditions. A cohort study was conducted in 500 patients, categorized by metabolic subtype according to pathophysiological classification. The most prevalent group of IEMs was amino acid disorders, with 108 (21.6% patients diagnosed with phenylketonuria. Lysosomal storage disorders were the second group, in which 32 (6.4% and 25 (5% patients had Fabry disease and Gaucher disease respectively. The great clinical heterogeneity, the significant delay in diagnosis after symptom onset, the existence of some degree of physical dependence in a great number of patients, the need for a multidisciplinary and coordinated approach, and the lack of specific drug treatment are common features in this group of conditions.

  6. Global burden of genetic disease and the role of genetic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, I C; Puri, R D

    2015-10-01

    It is estimated that 5.3% of newborns will suffer from a genetic disorder, when followed up until the age of 25 years. In developing, as compared to western countries, hemoglobinopathies and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency have a higher incidence due to severe falciparum malaria in the distant past, and autosomal recessive disorders have a higher frequency due to greater proportion of consanguineous marriages. Chromosomal disorders have a combined frequency of 1 in 153 births, therefore screening for chromosomal disorders is essential, using biochemical markers, ultrasonography, and recently by non-invasive prenatal diagnosis based on cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma. Preconceptional counseling should be encouraged. For genetic disorders screening should be carried out, ideally after marriage, but before pregnancy. The disorders to be screened depend upon ethnicity. Metabolic disorders have a high incidence in developing countries due to greater rate of consanguineous marriages. Newborn screening is recommended to reduce the burden of these disorders, as many metabolic disorders can be treated. Hearing and critical congenital heart disease should both be screened in the newborn period.

  7. Periodontal disease in individuals with Down Syndrome: genetic focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lícia Bezerra Cavalcante

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental concepts of etiology, inheritance and clinical characteristics of Down syndrome are used in this review as a basis for submission of studies that focus on periodontal disease in individuals with Down syndrome, since almost 100% of them develop the disease in adult life. It is believed that in association with environmental and cultural factors related to hygiene and disabilities of coordination, the immunological characteristics that are found altered in individuals with Down syndrome, such as deficient neutrophil chemotaxis and reduced number of mature T lymphocytes, may contribute to the greater prevalence and severity of periodontal involvement in patients with Down syndrome. Moreover, the pattern of periodontal destruction observed in individuals with Down syndrome is consistent with aggressive periodontitis, with a predominance of periodontopathogens such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythensis during childhood and adolescence of Down’s syndrome patients. It is possible to note a relationship between the development of molecular techniques and the evolution of knowledge about Down syndrome, for example: identification of the trisomy syndrome by observing only part of chromosome 21 (distal long arm; identification of genes in this trisomic region and the pattern of superexpression (or not of these genes. Moreover, in this review future perspectives are presented with regard to better understanding Down syndrome in the genetic context, which will reflect in more individualized and effective clinical treatments that will provide these patients with a better quality of life.

  8. The impact of genomics on population genetics of parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupalo, Daniel N; Bradic, Martina; Carlton, Jane M

    2015-02-01

    Parasites, defined as eukaryotic microbes and parasitic worms that cause global diseases of human and veterinary importance, span many lineages in the eukaryotic Tree of Life. Historically challenging to study due to their complicated life-cycles and association with impoverished settings, their inherent complexities are now being elucidated by genome sequencing. Over the course of the last decade, projects in large sequencing centers, and increasingly frequently in individual research labs, have sequenced dozens of parasite reference genomes and field isolates from patient populations. This 'tsunami' of genomic data is answering questions about parasite genetic diversity, signatures of evolution orchestrated through anti-parasitic drug and host immune pressure, and the characteristics of populations. This brief review focuses on the state of the art of parasitic protist genomics, how the peculiar genomes of parasites are driving creative methods for their sequencing, and the impact that next-generation sequencing is having on our understanding of parasite population genomics and control of the diseases they cause.

  9. CTLA-4 as a genetic determinant in autoimmune Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, A S B; Mitchell, A L; Cordell, H J; Short, A; Skinningsrud, B; Ollier, W; Badenhoop, K; Meyer, G; Falorni, A; Kampe, O; Undlien, D; Pearce, S H S; Husebye, E S

    2015-09-01

    In common with several other autoimmune diseases, autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is thought to be caused by a combination of deleterious susceptibility polymorphisms in several genes, together with undefined environmental factors and stochastic events. To date, the strongest genomic association with AAD has been with alleles at the HLA locus, DR3-DQ2 and DR4. The contribution of other genetic variants has been inconsistent. We have studied the association of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CD28-CTLA-4-ICOS genomic locus, in a cohort comprising 691 AAD patients of Norwegian and UK origin with matched controls. We have also performed a meta-analysis including 1002 patients from European countries. The G-allele of SNP rs231775 in CTLA-4 is associated with AAD in Norwegian patients (odds ratio (OR)=1.35 (confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.66), P=0.004), but not in UK patients. The same allele is associated with AAD in the total European population (OR=1.37 (CI 1.13-1.66), P=0.002). A three-marker haplotype, comprising PROMOTER_1661, rs231726 and rs1896286 was found to be associated with AAD in the Norwegian cohort only (OR 2.43 (CI 1.68-3.51), P=0.00013). This study points to the CTLA-4 gene as a susceptibility locus for the development of AAD, and refines its mapping within the wider genomic locus.

  10. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for Huntington's disease with exclusion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermon, Karen; De Rijcke, Martine; Lissens, Willy; De Vos, Anick; Platteau, Peter; Bonduelle, Maryse; Devroey, Paul; Van Steirteghem, André; Liebaers, Inge

    2002-10-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant, late-onset disorder, for which the gene and the causative mutation have been known since 1993. Some at-risk patients choose for presymptomatic testing and can make reproductive choices accordingly. Others however, prefer not to know their carrier status, but may still wish to prevent the birth of a carrier child. For these patients, exclusion testing after prenatal sampling has been an option for many years. A disadvantage of this test is that unaffected pregnancies may be terminated if the parent at risk (50%) has not inherited the grandparental Huntington gene, leading to serious moral and ethical objections. As an alternative, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on embryos obtained in vitro may be proposed, after which only embryos free of risk are replaced. Embryos can then be selected, either by the amplification of the CAG repeat in the embryos without communicating results to the patients (ie non-disclosure testing), which brings its own practical and moral problems, or exclusion testing. We describe here the first PGD cycles for exclusion testing for Huntington's disease in five couples. Three couples have had at least one PGD cycle so far. One pregnancy ensued and a healthy female baby was delivered.

  11. Convergent genetic and expression data implicate immunity in Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lesley; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Wang, Li-San; Choi, Seung-Hoan; Harold, Denise; Vedernikov, Alexey; Escott-Price, Valentina; Stone, Timothy; Richards, Alexander; Bellenguez, Céline; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Naj, Adam C; Sims, Rebecca; Gerrish, Amy; Jun, Gyungah; DeStefano, Anita L; Bis, Joshua C; Beecham, Gary W; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Russo, Giancarlo; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Jones, Nicola; Smith, Albert V; Chouraki, Vincent; Thomas, Charlene; Ikram, M Arfan; Zelenika, Diana; Vardarajan, Badri N; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Schmidt, Helena; Kunkle, Brian; Dunstan, Melanie L; Ruiz, Agustin; Bihoreau, Marie-Thérèse; Reitz, Christiane; Pasquier, Florence; Hollingworth, Paul; Hanon, Olivier; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Campion, Dominique; Crane, Paul K; Becker, Tim; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cruchaga, Carlos; Craig, David; Amin, Najaf; Berr, Claudine; Lopez, Oscar L; De Jager, Philip L; Deramecourt, Vincent; Johnston, Janet A; Evans, Denis; Lovestone, Simon; Letteneur, Luc; Kornhuber, Johanes; Tárraga, Lluís; Rubinsztein, David C; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sleegers, Kristel; Goate, Alison M; Fiévet, Nathalie; Huentelman, Matthew J; Gill, Michael; Emilsson, Valur; Brown, Kristelle; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Keller, Lina; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; McGuinness, Bernadette; Larson, Eric B; Myers, Amanda J; Dufouil, Carole; Todd, Stephen; Wallon, David; Love, Seth; Kehoe, Pat; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Gallacher, John; George-Hyslop, Peter St; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleὀ, Alberti; Bayer, Anthony; Tsuang, Debby W; Yu, Lei; Tsolaki, Magda; Bossù, Paola; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Proitsi, Petra; Collinge, John; Sorbi, Sandro; Garcia, Florentino Sanchez; Fox, Nick; Hardy, John; Naranjo, Maria Candida Deniz; Razquin, Cristina; Bosco, Paola; Clarke, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Galimberti, Daniela; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Moebus, Susanne; Mecocci, Patrizia; del Zompo, Maria; Maier, Wolfgang; Hampel, Harald; Pilotto, Alberto; Bullido, Maria; Panza, Francesco; Caffarra, Paolo; Nacmias, Benedetta; Gilbert, John R; Mayhaus, Manuel; Jessen, Frank; Dichgans, Martin; Lannfelt, Lars; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pichler, Sabrina; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Ingelsson, Martin; Beekly, Duane; Alavarez, Victoria; Zou, Fanggeng; Valladares, Otto; Younkin, Steven G; Coto, Eliecer; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L; Mateo, Ignacio; Owen, Michael J; Faber, Kelley M; Jonsson, Palmi V; Combarros, Onofre; O'Donovan, Michael C; Cantwell, Laura B; Soininen, Hilkka; Blacker, Deborah; Mead, Simon; Mosley, Thomas H; Bennett, David A; Harris, Tamara B; Fratiglioni, Laura; Holmes, Clive; de Bruijn, Renee FAG; Passmore, Peter; Montine, Thomas J; Bettens, Karolien; Rotter, Jerome I; Brice, Alexis; Morgan, Kevin; Foroud, Tatiana M; Kukull, Walter A; Hannequin, Didier; Powell, John F; Nalls, Michael A; Ritchie, Karen; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Kauwe, John SK; Boerwinkle, Eric; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Boada, Mercè; Hiltunen, Mikko; Martin, Eden R; Pastor, Pau; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rujescu, Dan; Dartigues, Jean-François; Mayeux, Richard; Tzourio, Christophe; Hofman, Albert; Nöthen, Markus M; Graff, Caroline; Psaty, Bruce M; Haines, Jonathan L; Lathrop, Mark; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Launer, Lenore J; Farrer, Lindsay A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Van Broekhoven, Christine; Ramirez, Alfredo; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Seshadri, Sudha; Amouyel, Philippe; Holmans, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Background Late–onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is heritable with 20 genes showing genome wide association in the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP). To identify the biology underlying the disease we extended these genetic data in a pathway analysis. Methods The ALIGATOR and GSEA algorithms were used in the IGAP data to identify associated functional pathways and correlated gene expression networks in human brain. Results ALIGATOR identified an excess of curated biological pathways showing enrichment of association. Enriched areas of biology included the immune response (p = 3.27×10-12 after multiple testing correction for pathways), regulation of endocytosis (p = 1.31×10-11), cholesterol transport (p = 2.96 × 10-9) and proteasome-ubiquitin activity (p = 1.34×10-6). Correlated gene expression analysis identified four significant network modules, all related to the immune response (corrected p 0.002 – 0.05). Conclusions The immune response, regulation of endocytosis, cholesterol transport and protein ubiquitination represent prime targets for AD therapeutics. PMID:25533204

  12. Behcet's disease: demographic and genetic aspects (a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ismailovna Izmailova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature focused on Behcet's disease (BD is presented. BD is systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology affecting multiple organs. BD is endemic in the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean coast and the areas of Central and East Asia. We report the data on BD prevalence in different regions and the effect of population migration on BD incidence rate. Patients were found to be younger at the onset of the disease in Arab countries, Turkey, and Israel (19.9; 25.6; and 26 years, respectively than those in East Asia countries (31.7 years. We summarized the data attesting to the genetic susceptibility in BD patients: HLA B51-positive individuals, family aggregation observed when studying twins, etc. The clinical polymorphism in BD patients was shown to depend on their region of residence and ethnicity. The data of a series of large cohort studies are reported; the frequencies of the international criteria of BD in the US and Japanese patients are compared in these studies. The question regarding the need for cross-sectional population-based and case-control studies using the standard criteria and clear definition of ethnicity is brought up in some publications.

  13. Behcet's disease: demographic and genetic aspects (a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ismailovna Izmailova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature focused on Behcet's disease (BD is presented. BD is systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology affecting multiple organs. BD is endemic in the countries along the Eastern Mediterranean coast and the areas of Central and East Asia. We report the data on BD prevalence in different regions and the effect of population migration on BD incidence rate. Patients were found to be younger at the onset of the disease in Arab countries, Turkey, and Israel (19.9; 25.6; and 26 years, respectively than those in East Asia countries (31.7 years. We summarized the data attesting to the genetic susceptibility in BD patients: HLA B51-positive individuals, family aggregation observed when studying twins, etc. The clinical polymorphism in BD patients was shown to depend on their region of residence and ethnicity. The data of a series of large cohort studies are reported; the frequencies of the international criteria of BD in the US and Japanese patients are compared in these studies. The question regarding the need for cross-sectional population-based and case-control studies using the standard criteria and clear definition of ethnicity is brought up in some publications.

  14. Moyamoya disease and syndromes: from genetics to clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey S

    2015-02-01

    . Revascularization surgery can be indicated, with several techniques. Characteristics of genetic moyamoya syndromes are presented, with a focus on recently reported mutations in BRCC3/MTCP1 and GUCY1A3 genes. Identification of the genes involved in moyamoya disease and several monogenic moyamoya syndromes unraveled different pathways involved in the development of this angiopathy. Studying genes and pathways involved in monogenic moyamoya syndromes may help to give insights into pathophysiological models and discover potential candidates for medical treatment strategies. Keywords: moyamoya disease, moyamoya syndrome, stroke, surgical revascularization, genetics

  15. Ethical issues and policy analysis for genetic testing: Huntington's disease as a paradigm for diseases with a late onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilani, Anjali

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the main ethical issues that arise when testing for genetic diseases with a late adult onset, such as Huntington's disease, take place. It is imperative to study genetic testing for HD and similar diseases because of the potential to influence future medical advances and the growing number of individuals who are considered pre-symptomatic. The main ethical issues are consent and privacy, prenatal testing and its implications, in addition to insurance discrimination. These issues are viewed from the perspective of genetic counselors, patients, the families of patients, and insurance companies. Policies put forth by the United States National Society of Genetic Counselors ("NSGC"), the Task Force on Genetic Testing, and the President's Council for Bioethics are also analyzed. Finally, new recommendations are proposed in order to ameliorate the ethical dilemmas encountered in genetic testing. These recommendations are largely based on existing policies and therefore involve amending current policies rather than revamping them.

  16. Infertility etiologies are genetically and clinically linked with other diseases in single meta-diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel A; Hamatani, Toshio; Cano, Antonio

    2015-04-15

    The present review aims to ascertain whether different infertility etiologies share particular genes and/or molecular pathways with other pathologies and are associated with distinct and particular risks of later-life morbidity and mortality. In order to reach this aim, we use two different sources of information: (1) a public web server named DiseaseConnect ( http://disease-connect.org ) focused on the analysis of common genes and molecular mechanisms shared by diseases by integrating comprehensive omics and literature data; and (2) a literature search directed to find clinical comorbid relationships of infertility etiologies with only those diseases appearing after infertility is manifested. This literature search is performed because DiseaseConnect web server does not discriminate between pathologies emerging before, concomitantly or after infertility is manifested. Data show that different infertility etiologies not only share particular genes and/or molecular pathways with other pathologies but they have distinct clinical relationships with other diseases appearing after infertility is manifested. In particular, (1) testicular and high-grade prostate cancer in male infertility; (2) non-fatal stroke and endometrial cancer, and likely non-fatal coronary heart disease and ovarian cancer in polycystic ovary syndrome; (3) osteoporosis, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders and dementia in premature ovarian failure; (4) breast and ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations in diminished ovarian reserve; (5) clear cell and endometrioid histologic subtypes of invasive ovarian cancer, and likely low-grade serous invasive ovarian cancer, melanoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in endometriosis; and (6) endometrial and ovarian cancer in idiopathic infertility. The present data endorse the principle that the occurrence of a disease (in our case infertility) is non-random in the population and suggest that different infertility etiologies are genetically and clinically

  17. Genetic Engineering of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Its Application in Human Disease Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkinson, Conrad P; Gomez, José A.; Mirotsou, Maria; Dzau, Victor J.

    2010-01-01

    Hodgkinson and colleagues review the current status of knowledge with respect to the genetic modifications being explored as a means to improve mesenchymal stem cell therapy for human diseases, with a particular focus on cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Investigation of Genetic Variants Associated with Alzheimer Disease in Parkinson Disease Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Matthew J; Koeppel, Alexander F; Flanigan, Joseph L; Turner, Stephen D; Worrall, Bradford B

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies have implicated multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and associated genes with Alzheimer disease. The role of these SNPs in cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD) remains incompletely evaluated. The objective of this study was to test alleles associated with risk of Alzheimer disease for association with cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD). Two datasets with PD subjects accessed through the NIH database of Genotypes and Phenotypes contained both single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and mini-mental state exam (MMSE) scores. Genetic data underwent rigorous quality control and we selected SNPs for genes associated with AD other than APOE. We constructed logistic regression and ordinal regression models, adjusted for sex, age at MMSE, and duration of PD, to assess the association between selected SNPs and MMSE score. In one dataset, PICALM rs3851179 was associated with cognitive impairment (MMSE  70 years old (OR = 2.3; adjusted p-value = 0.017; n = 250) but not in PD subjects ≤ 70 years old. Our finding suggests that PICALM rs3851179 could contribute to cognitive impairment in older patients with PD. It is important that future studies consider the interaction of age and genetic risk factors in the development of cognitive impairment in PD.

  19. The Application of Bone Marrow Transplantation to the Treatment of Genetic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkman, Robertson

    1986-06-01

    Genetic diseases can be treated by transplantation of either normal allogeneic bone marrow or, potentially, autologous bone marrow into which the normal gene has been inserted in vitro (gene therapy). Histocompatible allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is used for the treatment of genetic diseases whose clinical expression is restricted to lymphoid or hematopoietic cells. The therapeutic role of bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of generalized genetic diseases, especially those affecting the central nervous system, is under investigation. The response of a generalized genetic disease to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may be predicted by experiments in vitro. Gene therapy can be used only when the gene responsible for the disease has been characterized. Success of gene therapy for a specific genetic disease may be predicted by its clinical response to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

  20. Genetic determinants and stroke in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniela O W; Ribeiro, Luiz C; Sudário, Lysla C; Teixeira, Maria T B; Martins, Marina L; Pittella, Anuska M O L; Junior, Irtis de O Fernandes

    To verify genetic determinants associated with stroke in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Prospective cohort with 110 children submitted to neonatal screening by the Neonatal Screening Program, between 1998 and 2007, with SCD diagnosis, followed at a regional reference public service for hemoglobinopathies. The analyzed variables were type of hemoglobinopathy, gender, coexistence with alpha thalassemia (α-thal), haplotypes of the beta globin chain cluster, and stroke. The final analysis was conducted with 66 children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), using the chi-squared test in the program SPSS(®) version 14.0. Among children with SCD, 60% had SCA. The prevalence of coexistence with α-thal was 30.3% and the Bantu haplotype (CAR) was identified in 89.2%. The incidence of stroke was significantly higher in those with SCA (27.3% vs. 2.3%; p=0.001) and males (24.1% vs. 9.6%; p=0.044). The presence of α-thal (p=0.196), the CAR haplotype (p=0.543), and socioeconomic factors were not statistically significant in association with the occurrence of stroke. There is a high incidence of stroke in male children and in children with SCA. Coexistence with α-thal and haplotypes of the beta globin chain cluster did not show any significant association with stroke. The heterogeneity between previously evaluated populations, the non-reproducibility between studies, and the need to identify factors associated with stroke in patients with SCA indicate the necessity of conducting further research to demonstrate the relevance of genetic factors in stroke related to SCD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Neurofibromatosis type 2 appears to be a genetically homogeneous disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narod, S.A.; Parry, D.M.; Parboosingh, J.; Lenoir, G.M.; Ruttledge, M.; Fischer, G.; Eldridge, R.; Martuza, R.L.; Frontali, M.; Haines, J.; Gusella, J.F.; Rouleau, G.A.

    1992-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by the development of vestibular schwannomas and other tumors of the nervous system, including cranial and spinal meningiomos, schwannomas, and ependymomas. The presence of bilateral vestibular schwannomas is sufficient for the diagnosis. Skin manifestations are less common than in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1; von Recklinghausen disease). The apparent clinical distinction between NF1 and NF2 has been confirmed at the level of the gene locus by linkage studies; the gene for NF1 maps to chromosome 17, where as the gene for NF2 has been assigned (in a single family) to chromosome 22. To increase the precision of the genetic mapping of NF2 and to determine whether additional susceptibility loci exist, the authors have performed linkage analysis on 12 families with NF2 by using four polymorphic markers from chromosome 22 and a marker at the NF1 locus on chromosome 17. The results confirm the assignment of the gene for NF2 to chromosome 22 and do not support the hypothesis of genetic heterogeneity. The authors believe that chromosome 22 markers can now be used for presymptomatic diagnosis in selected families. The NF2 gene is tightly linked to the D22S32 locus (maximum lod score 4.12; recombination fraction 0). A CA-repeat polymorphism at the CRYB2 locus was the most informative marker in the families (lod score 5.99), but because the observed recombination fraction between NF2 and CRYB2 was 10 cM, predictions using this marker will need to be interpreted with caution. 42 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Genetic determinants and stroke in children with sickle cell disease,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela O.W. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To verify genetic determinants associated with stroke in children with sickle cell disease (SCD. Methods: Prospective cohort with 110 children submitted to neonatal screening by the Neonatal Screening Program, between 1998 and 2007, with SCD diagnosis, followed at a regional reference public service for hemoglobinopathies. The analyzed variables were type of hemoglobinopathy, gender, coexistence with alpha thalassemia (α-thal, haplotypes of the beta globin chain cluster, and stroke. The final analysis was conducted with 66 children with sickle cell anemia (SCA, using the chi-squared test in the program SPSS® version 14.0. Results: Among children with SCD, 60% had SCA. The prevalence of coexistence with α-thal was 30.3% and the Bantu haplotype (CAR was identified in 89.2%. The incidence of stroke was significantly higher in those with SCA (27.3% vs. 2.3%; p = 0.001 and males (24.1% vs. 9.6%; p = 0.044. The presence of α-thal (p = 0.196, the CAR haplotype (p = 0.543, and socioeconomic factors were not statistically significant in association with the occurrence of stroke. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of stroke in male children and in children with SCA. Coexistence with α-thal and haplotypes of the beta globin chain cluster did not show any significant association with stroke. The heterogeneity between previously evaluated populations, the non-reproducibility between studies, and the need to identify factors associated with stroke in patients with SCA indicate the necessity of conducting further research to demonstrate the relevance of genetic factors in stroke related to SCD.

  3. Currently Clinical Views on Genetics of Wilson′s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Clinical genetics studies are necessary to understand the mechanism underlying WD at the molecular level from the genotype to the phenotype. Clinical genetics research benefits newly emerging medical treatments including stem cell transplantation and gene therapy for WD patients.

  4. Inborn errors of metabolism for the diagnostic radiologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriksz, Chris J. [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Clinical Inherited Metabolic Disorders, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Inherited metabolic disorders are becoming more important with the increasing availability of diagnostic methods and therapies for these conditions. The radiologist has become an important link in making the diagnosis or collaborating with the specialist centre to diagnose these disorders and monitor effects of therapy. The modes of presentation, disease-specific groups, classic radiological features and investigations are explored in this article to try and give the general radiologist some crucial background knowledge. The following presentations are covered: acute intoxication, hypoglycaemia, developmental delay and storage features. Specific groups of disorders covered are the abnormalities of intermediary metabolism, disorders of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis, mitochondrial disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, and, briefly, other groups such as peroxisomal disorders, disorders of glycosylation, and creatine synthesis disorders. New advances and the demands for monitoring are also briefly explored. (orig.)

  5. Genetic screens in Caenorhabditis elegans models for neurodegenerative diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarenga Fernandes Sin, Olga; Michels, Helen; Nollen, Ellen A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans comprises unique features that make it an attractive model organism in diverse fields of biology. Genetic screens are powerful to identify genes and C. elegans can be customized to forward or reverse genetic screens and to establish gene function. These genetic screens can be

  6. Genetic screens in Caenorhabditis elegans models for neurodegenerative diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarenga Fernandes Sin, Olga; Michels, Helen; Nollen, Ellen A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans comprises unique features that make it an attractive model organism in diverse fields of biology. Genetic screens are powerful to identify genes and C. elegans can be customized to forward or reverse genetic screens and to establish gene function. These genetic screens can be

  7. Predictive genetic testing for cardiovascular diseases: impact on carrier children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenkamp, Tineke M; Tibben, Aad; Mollema, Eline D; van Langen, Irene M; Wiegman, Albert; de Wert, Guido M; de Beaufort, Inez D; Wilde, Arthur A M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2008-12-15

    We studied the experiences of children identified by family screening who were found to be a mutation carrier for a genetic cardiovascular disease (Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM), Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH)). We addressed the (a) manner in which they perceive their carrier status, (b) impact on their daily lives, and (c) strategy used to cope with these consequences. Children (aged 8-18) who tested positive for LQTS (n=11), HCM (n=6) or FH (n=16), and their parents participated in semi-structured audiotaped interviews. Interview topics included illness perception, use of medication, lifestyle modifications, worries, and coping. Each interview was coded by two researchers. The qualitative analysis was guided by Leventhal's model of self-regulation. The children were overall quite articulate about the disease they were tested for, including its mode of inheritance. They expressed positive future health perceptions, but feelings of controllability varied. Adherence and side-effects were significant themes with regard to medication-use. Refraining from activities and maintaining a non-fat diet were themes concerning lifestyle modifications. Some children spontaneously reported worries about the possibility of dying and frustration about being different from peers. Children coped with these worries by expressing faith in the effectiveness of medication, trying to be similar to peers or, in contrast, emphasizing their "being different." Children generally appeared effective in the way they coped with their carrier status and its implications. Nevertheless, dealing with the daily implications of their condition remains difficult in some situations, warranting continued availability of psychosocial support.

  8. The Impact of Evolutionary Driving Forces on Human Complex Diseases: A Population Genetics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr T. M. Saeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the molecular evolution of human genome has paved the way to understand genetic adaptation of humans to the environmental changes and corresponding complex diseases. In this review, we discussed the historical origin of genetic diversity among human populations, the evolutionary driving forces that can affect genetic diversity among populations, and the effects of human movement into new environments and gene flow on population genetic diversity. Furthermore, we presented the role of natural selection on genetic diversity and complex diseases. Then we reviewed the disadvantageous consequences of historical selection events in modern time and their relation to the development of complex diseases. In addition, we discussed the effect of consanguinity on the incidence of complex diseases in human populations. Finally, we presented the latest information about the role of ancient genes acquired from interbreeding with ancient hominids in the development of complex diseases.

  9. HPLC analysis for the clinical-biochemical diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism of purines and pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Amorini, Angela Maria; Di Pietro, Valentina; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The determination of purines and pyrimidines in biofluids is useful for the clinical-biochemical characterization of acute and chronic pathological states that induce transient or permanent alterations of metabolism. In particular, the diagnosis of several inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) is accomplished by the analysis of circulating and excreted purines and pyrimidines. It is certainly advantageous to simultaneously determine the full purine and pyrimidine profile, as well as to quantify other compounds of relevance (e.g., organic acids, amino acids, sugars) in various metabolic hereditary diseases, in order to screen for a large number of IEMs using a reliable and sensitive analytical method characterized by mild to moderate costs. Toward this end, we have developed an ion-pairing HPLC method with diode array detection for the synchronous separation of several purines and pyrimidines. This method also allows the quantification of additional compounds such as N-acetylated amino acids and dicarboxylic acids, the concentrations of which are profoundly altered in different IEMs. The application of the method in the analysis of biological samples from patients with suspected purine and pyrimidine disorders is presented to illustrate its applicability for the clinical-biochemical diagnosis of IEM.

  10. Inborn Errors of Metabolism in the United Arab Emirates: Disorders Detected by Newborn Screening (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jasmi, Fatma A; Al-Shamsi, Aisha; Hertecant, Jozef L; Al-Hamad, Sania M; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) detected by our national newborn screening between 2011 and 2014. One hundred fourteen patients (55 UAE citizens and 59 residents) were diagnosed during this period. The program was most comprehensive (tested 29 IEM) and universally applied in 2013, giving an incidence of 1 in 1,787 citizens. This relatively high prevalence resulted from the frequent consanguineous marriages (81.5%) among affected families. The following eight disorders accounted for 80% of the entities: biotinidase deficiency (14 of 55), phenylketonuria (11 of 55), 3-methylcrotonyl glycinuria (9 of 55), medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (4 of 55), argininosuccinic aciduria, glutaric aciduria type 1, glutaric aciduria type 2, and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency (2 of 55 each). Mutation analysis was performed in 48 (87%) of the 55 patients, and 33 distinct mutations were identified. Twenty-nine (88%) mutations were clinically significant and, thus, could be included in our premarital screening. Most mutations were homozygous, except for the biotinidase deficiency. The BTD mutations c.1207T>G (found in citizens) and c.424C>A (found in Somalians) were associated with undetectable biotinidase activity. Thus, the high prevalence of IEM in our region is amenable to newborn and premarital screening, which is expected to halt most of these diseases.

  11. [A rare inborn error of intracellular processing of cobalamine presenting with microcephalus and megaloblastic anemia: a report of 3 children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, P; Horneff, G; Hennermann, J B

    2007-01-01

    Defects of methionine synthase or methionine synthase reductase result in an impaired remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Patients present with megaloblastic anemia, failure to thrive and various neurological manifestations including mental retardation, cerebral atrophy, muscular hypotonia or hypertonia, ataxia, seizures, nystagmus and visual disturbances. We report on three children (two girls, one boy), aged 3.5-7.5 years, who presented with severe megaloblastic anemia, micro-cephalus and partly nystagmus (2/3) due to a rare inborn error of remethylation. Methionine synthase reductase deficiency, cblE type of homocystinuria (OMIM 236270), is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder described only in 14 patients worldwide. Metabolic hallmarks of the disease are hyperhomocysteinemia (median 98 micromol/l, normal range megaloblastic anemia. Measurements of homocysteine and methionine in plasma as well as methylmalonic acid in urine is required for confirming the diagnosis. Early treatment im-proves the outcome, although mental disability may not be prevented. Treatment has a positive impact on megaloblastic anemia but only slight effect on hyperhomocysteinemia. The long-term cardiovascular risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in cblE deficient patients is not known yet.

  12. Genetic risk factors for Parkinson’s disease in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Koliada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the genetic risk factors for Parkinson’s disease (PD such as polymorphisms in genes CYP1A1, GSTM1 and APOE. A total number of 516 people were examined. 300 persons were in the control group (mean age 67,0 ± 0,4 years; 200 males and 100 females and 216 persons were patients with PD (mean age 65,0 ± 0,7 years, 116 males and 100 females. Whole blood samples collected from each person were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. Amplification and restriction results were assessed by conducting vertical agarose gel electrophoresis. The study analyzed marker с.2452C>A in the CYP1A1 gene. In the control group, allele C frequency was 0.79, and allele A frequency – 0.21. Genotype frequencies were: CC – 0.61, AC – 0.36, AA – 0.03. In the group of patients alleles C and A frequencies were 0.64 and 0.36 correspondingly. Genotype frequencies were: CC – 0.35, AC – 0.58, AA – 0.07. There was a significant difference between both groups in allele A frequency. It is considered that 0/0 genotype for the GSTM1 gene is a risk factor for PD. In the controls, +/+ and 0/0 genotypes frequencies were 0.67 and 0.33 correspondingly. In the group of patients +/+ genotype frequency was 0.55 and 0/0 genotype frequency – 0.45. The difference was statistically significant. In the control group genotype frequencies for the АРОЕ gene were 0.715 (Е3/Е3, 0.077 (Е3/Е4, 0.009 (Е4/Е4, 0.167 (Е2/Е3, 0.031 (Е2/Е4 and 0.000 (Е2/Е2. In the group of patients with PD they were 0.634 (Е3/Е3, 0.148 (Е3/Е4, 0.032 (Е4/Е4, 0.157 (Е2/Е3, 0.023 (Е2/Е4 and 0.000 (Е2/Е2. Е3/Е4 genotype frequency was significantly higher in the group of patients with PD than in the control group. Pathogenic allele с.2452C>A of the CYP1A1 gene is associated with increased risk of PD (OR = 1.72. 0/0 genotype carriers have higher risk to develop PD (OR = 1.72. Allele έ4 of the АРОЕ gene may be associated with increased risk of PD. Risk of the disease is

  13. Joint modeling of genetically correlated diseases and functional annotations increases accuracy of polygenic risk prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of disease risk based on genetic factors is an important goal in human genetics research and precision medicine. Advanced prediction models will lead to more effective disease prevention and treatment strategies. Despite the identification of thousands of disease-associated genetic variants through genome-wide association studies (GWAS in the past decade, accuracy of genetic risk prediction remains moderate for most diseases, which is largely due to the challenges in both identifying all the functionally relevant variants and accurately estimating their effect sizes. In this work, we introduce PleioPred, a principled framework that leverages pleiotropy and functional annotations in genetic risk prediction for complex diseases. PleioPred uses GWAS summary statistics as its input, and jointly models multiple genetically correlated diseases and a variety of external information including linkage disequilibrium and diverse functional annotations to increase the accuracy of risk prediction. Through comprehensive simulations and real data analyses on Crohn's disease, celiac disease and type-II diabetes, we demonstrate that our approach can substantially increase the accuracy of polygenic risk prediction and risk population stratification, i.e. PleioPred can significantly better separate type-II diabetes patients with early and late onset ages, illustrating its potential clinical application. Furthermore, we show that the increment in prediction accuracy is significantly correlated with the genetic correlation between the predicted and jointly modeled diseases.

  14. Genetic counseling and testing for Alzheimer disease: joint practice guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jill S; Hahn, Susan E; Catania, Jennifer Williamson; LaRusse-Eckert, Susan; Butson, Melissa Barber; Rumbaugh, Malia; Strecker, Michelle N; Roberts, J Scott; Burke, Wylie; Mayeux, Richard; Bird, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most common cause of dementia. It occurs worldwide and affects all ethnic groups. The incidence of Alzheimer disease is increasing due, in part, to increased life expectancy and the aging baby boomer generation. The average lifetime risk of developing Alzheimer disease is 10-12%. This risk at least doubles with the presence of a first-degree relative with the disorder. Despite its limited utility, patients express concern over their risk and, in some instances, request testing. Furthermore, research has demonstrated that testing individuals for apolipoprotein E can be valuable and safe in certain contexts. However, because of the complicated genetic nature of the disorder, few clinicians are prepared to address the genetic risks of Alzheimer disease with their patients. Given the increased awareness in family history thanks to family history campaigns, the increasing incidence of Alzheimer disease, and the availability of direct to consumer testing, patient requests for information is increasing. This practice guideline provides clinicians with a framework for assessing their patients' genetic risk for Alzheimer disease, identifying which individuals may benefit from genetic testing, and providing the key elements of genetic counseling for AD.

  15. Genetic variants of CD209 associated with Kawasaki disease susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Chang Kuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD is a systemic vasculitis with unknown etiology mainly affecting children in Asian countries. Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209 in humans was showed to trigger an anti-inflammatory cascade and associated with KD susceptibility. This study was conducted to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms of CD209 and the risk KD. METHODS: A total of 948 subjects (381 KD and 567 controls were recruited. Nine tagging SNPs (rs8112310, rs4804800, rs11465421, rs1544766, rs4804801, rs2287886, rs735239, rs735240, rs4804804 were selected for TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Clinical phenotypes, coronary artery lesions (CAL and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG treatment outcomes were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between CD209 polymorphisms (rs4804800, rs2287886, rs735240 and the risk of KD. Haplotype analysis for CD209 polymorphisms showed that A/A/G haplotype (P = 0.0002, OR = 1.61 and G/A/G haplotype (P = 0.0365, OR = 1.52 had higher risk of KD as compared with G/G/A haplotype in rs2287886/rs735239/rs735240 pairwise allele analysis. There were no significant association in KD with regards to CAL formation and IVIG treatment responses. CONCLUSION: CD209 polymorphisms were responsible for the susceptibility of KD, but not CAL formation and IVIG treatment responsiveness.

  16. Timing of critical genetic changes in human breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Rachel E; Ellsworth, Darrell L; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hoffman, Laurel R; Love, Brad; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Shriver, Craig D

    2005-12-01

    Breast cancer development has been characterized as a nonobligatory sequence of histological changes from normal epithelium through invasive malignancy. Although genetic alterations are thought to accumulate stochastically during tumorigenesis, little is known about the timing of critical mutations. This study examined allelic imbalance (AI) in tissue samples representing a continuum of breast cancer development to examine the evolution of genomic instability. Laser-microdissected DNA samples were collected from histologically normal breast specimens (n = 25), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH, n = 16), ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS, n = 37), and stage I to III invasive carcinomas (n = 72). Fifty-two microsatellite markers representing 26 chromosomal regions commonly deleted in breast cancer were used to assess patterns of AI. AI frequencies were .0001). DCIS lesions contain levels of genomic instability that are characteristic of advanced invasive tumors, and this suggests that the biology of a developing carcinoma may already be predetermined by the in situ stage. Observations that levels of AI in ADH lesions are similar to those in disease-free tissues provide a genomic rationale for why prevention strategies at the ADH level are successful and why cases with ADH involving surgical margins do not require further resection.

  17. Premature birth and diseases in premature infants: common genetic background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Mikko

    2012-04-01

    It has been proposed that during human evolution, development of obligate bipedalism, narrow birth canal cross-sectional area and the large brain have forced an adjustment in duration of pregnancy (scaling of gestational age; Plunkett 2011). Children compared to other mammals are born with proportionally small brains (compared to adult brains), suggesting shortening of pregnancy duration during recent evolution. Prevalence of both obstructed delivery and premature birth is still exceptionally high. In near term infants, functional maturity and viability is high, and gene variants predisposing to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are rare. Advanced antenatal and neonatal treatment practices during the new era of medicine allowed survival of also very preterm infants (gestation premature birth. Specific genes associating with diseases in preterm infants may also contribute to the susceptibility to preterm birth. Understanding and applying the knowledge of genetic interactions in normal and abnormal perinatal-neonatal development requires large, well-structured population cohorts, studies involving the whole genome and international interdisciplinary collaboration.

  18. How will insights from genetics translate to clinical practice in inflammatory bowel disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E. A. M.; Weersma, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease, consisting of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gut, which arises through an excessive immune response to the normal gut flora in a genetically susceptible host. The disease affects predominantly young adults and due to its c

  19. Indirect genetic effects and the spread of infectious disease: are we capturing the full heritable variation underlying disease prevalence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Lipschutz-Powell

    Full Text Available Reducing disease prevalence through selection for host resistance offers a desirable alternative to chemical treatment. Selection for host resistance has proven difficult, however, due to low heritability estimates. These low estimates may be caused by a failure to capture all the relevant genetic variance in disease resistance, as genetic analysis currently is not taylored to estimate genetic variation in infectivity. Host infectivity is the propensity of transmitting infection upon contact with a susceptible individual, and can be regarded as an indirect effect to disease status. It may be caused by a combination of physiological and behavioural traits. Though genetic variation in infectivity is difficult to measure directly, Indirect Genetic Effect (IGE models, also referred to as associative effects or social interaction models, allow the estimation of this variance from more readily available binary disease data (infected/non-infected. We therefore generated binary disease data from simulated populations with known amounts of variation in susceptibility and infectivity to test the adequacy of traditional and IGE models. Our results show that a conventional model fails to capture the genetic variation in infectivity inherent in populations with simulated infectivity. An IGE model, on the other hand, does capture some of the variation in infectivity. Comparison with expected genetic variance suggests that there is scope for further methodological improvement, and that potential responses to selection may be greater than values presented here. Nonetheless, selection using an index of estimated direct and indirect breeding values was shown to have a greater genetic selection differential and reduced future disease risk than traditional selection for resistance only. These findings suggest that if genetic variation in infectivity substantially contributes to disease transmission, then breeding designs which explicitly incorporate IGEs might help

  20. Indirect Genetic Effects and the Spread of Infectious Disease: Are We Capturing the Full Heritable Variation Underlying Disease Prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, John A.; Bijma, Piter; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing disease prevalence through selection for host resistance offers a desirable alternative to chemical treatment. Selection for host resistance has proven difficult, however, due to low heritability estimates. These low estimates may be caused by a failure to capture all the relevant genetic variance in disease resistance, as genetic analysis currently is not taylored to estimate genetic variation in infectivity. Host infectivity is the propensity of transmitting infection upon contact with a susceptible individual, and can be regarded as an indirect effect to disease status. It may be caused by a combination of physiological and behavioural traits. Though genetic variation in infectivity is difficult to measure directly, Indirect Genetic Effect (IGE) models, also referred to as associative effects or social interaction models, allow the estimation of this variance from more readily available binary disease data (infected/non-infected). We therefore generated binary disease data from simulated populations with known amounts of variation in susceptibility and infectivity to test the adequacy of traditional and IGE models. Our results show that a conventional model fails to capture the genetic variation in infectivity inherent in populations with simulated infectivity. An IGE model, on the other hand, does capture some of the variation in infectivity. Comparison with expected genetic variance suggests that there is scope for further methodological improvement, and that potential responses to selection may be greater than values presented here. Nonetheless, selection using an index of estimated direct and indirect breeding values was shown to have a greater genetic selection differential and reduced future disease risk than traditional selection for resistance only. These findings suggest that if genetic variation in infectivity substantially contributes to disease transmission, then breeding designs which explicitly incorporate IGEs might help reduce disease

  1. Clinical implications of shared genetics and pathogenesis in autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhernakova, Alexandra; Withoff, Sebo; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2013-01-01

    Many endocrine diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, Graves disease, Addison disease and Hashimoto disease, originate as an autoimmune reaction that affects disease-specific target organs. These autoimmune diseases are characterized by the development of specific autoantibodies and by the

  2. Genetic epidemiology of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, G J

    2012-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The frequency of different CMT genotypes has been estimated in clinic populations, but prevalence data from the general population is lacking. Point mutations in the mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene has been identified exclusively in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2), and in a single family with intermediate CMT. MFN2 point mutations are probably the most common cause of CMT2. The CMT phenotype caused by mutation in the myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene varies considerably, from early onset and severe forms to late onset and milder forms. The mechanism is not well understood. The myelin protein zero (P(0) ) mediates adhesion in the spiral wraps of the Schwann cell's myelin sheath. X-linked Charcot-Marie Tooth disease (CMTX) is caused by mutations in the connexin32 (cx32) gene that encodes a polypeptide which is arranged in hexameric array and form gap junctions. Estimate prevalence of CMT. Estimate frequency of Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 (PMP22) duplication and point mutations, insertions and deletions in Cx32, Early growth response 2 (EGR2), MFN2, MPZ, PMP22 and Small integral membrane protein of lysosome/late endosome (SIMPLE) genes. Description of novel mutations in Cx32, MFN2 and MPZ. Description of de novo mutations in MFN2. Our population based genetic epidemiological survey included persons with CMT residing in eastern Akershus County, Norway. The participants were interviewed and examined by one geneticist/neurologist, and classified clinically, neurophysiologically and genetically. Two-hundred and thirty-two consecutive unselected and unrelated CMT families with available DNA from all regions in Norway were included in the MFN2 study. We screened for point mutations in the MFN2 gene. We describe four novel mutations, two in the connexin32 gene and two in the MPZ gene. A total of 245 affected from 116 CMT families from the general population of eastern

  3. A Novel Statistical Model to Estimate Host Genetic Effects Affecting Disease Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Garcia-Cortés, Luis Alberto; Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, John A.; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that genetic diversity can affect the spread of diseases, potentially affecting plant and livestock disease control as well as the emergence of human disease outbreaks. Nevertheless, even though computational tools can guide the control of infectious diseases, few epidemiological models can simultaneously accommodate the inherent individual heterogeneity in multiple infectious disease traits influencing disease transmission, such as the frequently modeled propensity to become infected and infectivity, which describes the host ability to transmit the infection to susceptible individuals. Furthermore, current quantitative genetic models fail to fully capture the heritable variation in host infectivity, mainly because they cannot accommodate the nonlinear infection dynamics underlying epidemiological data. We present in this article a novel statistical model and an inference method to estimate genetic parameters associated with both host susceptibility and infectivity. Our methodology combines quantitative genetic models of social interactions with stochastic processes to model the random, nonlinear, and dynamic nature of infections and uses adaptive Bayesian computational techniques to estimate the model parameters. Results using simulated epidemic data show that our model can accurately estimate heritabilities and genetic risks not only of susceptibility but also of infectivity, therefore exploring a trait whose heritable variation is currently ignored in disease genetics and can greatly influence the spread of infectious diseases. Our proposed methodology offers potential impacts in areas such as livestock disease control through selective breeding and also in predicting and controlling the emergence of disease outbreaks in human populations. PMID:26405030

  4. Association Between Genetic Traits for Immune-Mediated Diseases and Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Wang, Yunpeng; Schork, Andrew J; Thompson, Wesley K; Karch, Celeste M; Cruchaga, Carlos; McEvoy, Linda K; Witoelar, Aree; Chen, Chi-Hua; Holland, Dominic; Brewer, James B; Franke, Andre; Dillon, William P; Wilson, David M; Mukherjee, Pratik; Hess, Christopher P; Miller, Zachary; Bonham, Luke W; Shen, Jeffrey; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Hyman, Bradley T; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Karlsen, Tom H; Andreassen, Ole A; Dale, Anders M; Desikan, Rahul S

    2016-06-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, places a large burden on families and society. Although epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests a relationship between inflammation and AD, their relationship is not well understood and could have implications for treatment and prevention strategies. To determine whether a subset of genes involved with increased risk of inflammation are also associated with increased risk for AD. In a genetic epidemiology study conducted in July 2015, we systematically investigated genetic overlap between AD (International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project stage 1) and Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, and psoriasis using summary data from genome-wide association studies at multiple academic clinical research centers. P values and odds ratios from genome-wide association studies of more than 100 000 individuals were from previous comparisons of patients vs respective control cohorts. Diagnosis for each disorder was previously established for the parent study using consensus criteria. The primary outcome was the pleiotropic (conjunction) false discovery rate P value. Follow-up for candidate variants included neuritic plaque and neurofibrillary tangle pathology; longitudinal Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale scores as a measure of cognitive dysfunction (Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative); and gene expression in AD vs control brains (Gene Expression Omnibus data). Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (false discovery rate P diseases. Of these, rs2516049 (closest gene HLA-DRB5; conjunction false discovery rate P = .04 for AD and psoriasis, 5.37 × 10-5 for AD, and 6.03 × 10-15 for psoriasis) and rs12570088 (closest gene IPMK; conjunction false discovery rate P = .009 for AD and Crohn disease, P = 5.73 × 10-6 for AD, and 6.57 × 10-5 for Crohn disease) demonstrated the same direction of

  5. Disentangling genetic and environmental risk factors for individual diseases from multiplex comorbidity networks

    CERN Document Server

    Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Most disorders are caused by a combination of multiple genetic and/or environmental factors. If two diseases are caused by the same molecular mechanism, they tend to co-occur in patients. Here we provide a quantitative method to disentangle how much genetic or environmental risk factors contribute to the pathogenesis of 358 individual diseases, respectively. We pool data on genetic, pathway-based, and toxicogenomic disease-causing mechanisms with disease co-occurrence data obtained from almost two million patients. From this data we construct a multilayer network where nodes represent disorders that are connected by links that either represent phenotypic comorbidity of the patients or the involvement of a certain molecular mechanism. From the similarity of phenotypic and mechanism-based networks for each disorder we derive measure that allows us to quantify the relative importance of various molecular mechanisms for a given disease. We find that most diseases are dominated by genetic risk factors, while envir...

  6. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the Phypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined.

  7. Hepatic lipase, genetically elevated high-density lipoprotein, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine Holm; Kamstrup, Pia R; Andersen, Rolf V

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hepatic lipase influences metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), a risk factor for ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICD: ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease). OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in the hepatic lipase genetic variants V.......91 (95% CI 0.89-0.94), respectively; this calculation assumes that genetically elevated HDL levels confer decreased risk similar to common HDL elevations. In contrast, when all cases and controls were combined, the observed odds ratios for ICD for these three genetic variants vs. noncarriers were 1.19 (0.......76-1.88), 1.04 (0.96-1.13), and 1.08 (0.89-1.30), respectively. Hazard/odds ratios for ICD in carriers vs. noncarriers of the four remaining hepatic lipase genetic variants did not differ consistently from 1.0. CONCLUSION: Hepatic lipase genetic variants with elevated levels of HDL cholesterol did...

  8. Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia in Canines: A Model for Human Metabolic and Genetic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Specht

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A canine model of Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa is described. Affected dogs are homozygous for a previously described M121I mutation resulting in a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α. Metabolic, clinicopathologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations of GSDIa observed in this model are described and compared to those observed in humans. The canine model shows more complete recapitulation of the clinical manifestations seen in humans including “lactic acidosis”, larger size, and longer lifespan compared to other animal models. Use of this model in preclinical trials of gene therapy is described and briefly compared to the murine model. Although the canine model offers a number of advantages for evaluating potential therapies for GSDIa, there are also some significant challenges involved in its use. Despite these challenges, the canine model of GSDIa should continue to provide valuable information about the potential for generating curative therapies for GSDIa as well as other genetic hepatic diseases.

  9. Progress in unraveling the genetic etiology of Parkinson disease in a genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Aline; Theuns, Jessie; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) and Parkinson-plus syndromes are genetically heterogeneous neurological diseases. Initial studies into the genetic causes of PD relied on classical molecular genetic approaches in well-documented case families. More recently, these approaches have been combined with exome sequencing and together have identified 15 causal genes. Additionally, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered over 25 genetic risk factors. Elucidation of the genetic architecture of sporadic and familial parkinsonism, however, has lagged behind that of simple Mendelian conditions, suggesting the existence of features confounding genetic data interpretation. Here we discuss the successes and potential pitfalls of gene discovery in PD and related disorders in the post-genomic era. With an estimated 30% of trait variance currently unexplained, tackling current limitations will further expedite gene discovery and lead to increased application of these genetic insights in molecular diagnostics using gene panel and exome sequencing strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The metabolism of vitamin B6 in relation to genetic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albersen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, interest in vitamin B6 has increased, since its essential role in the brain has been recognized and specific inborn errors of metabolism resulting in functional vitamin B6 deficiency have been identified. Patients suffering from vitamin B6 deficiency present with epilepsy and, f

  11. Kaposi Sarcoma of Childhood: Inborn or Acquired Immunodeficiency to Oncogenic HHV-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carolyn C; Dickson, Mark A; Sadjadi, Mahan; Gessain, Antoine; Abel, Laurent; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an endothelial malignancy caused by human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection. The epidemic and iatrogenic forms of childhood KS result from a profound and acquired T cell deficiency. Recent studies have shown that classic KS of childhood can result from rare single-gene inborn errors of immunity, with mutations in WAS, IFNGR1, STIM1, and TNFRSF4. The pathogenesis of the endemic form of childhood KS has remained elusive. We review childhood KS pathogenesis and its relationship to inherited and acquired immunodeficiency to oncogenic HHV-8.

  12. Breastfeeding and genetic factors in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theresa A Mikhailov; Sylvia E Furner

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic, debilitating disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease has not been elucidated, but is thought to be multifactorial with both environmental and genetic influences. A large body of research has been conducted to elucidate the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. This article reviews this literature, emphasizing the studies of breastfeeding and the studies of genetic factors, particularly NOD2 polymorphisms.

  13. Molecular genetics (HLA) of Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, N; Inoko, H; Ohno, S

    1997-12-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) has been known to be strongly associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B51. This B51 association has been confirmed in many different ethnic groups between the Middle East and Japan, and it has been proposed that BD is prevalent in those ethnic groups along the old Silk Route. The hypothesis could be made that B51 molecules are primarily involved in BD development through specific antigen presentation. However, polymorphic analyses of the TNFB gene and Tau-a microsatellite between the HLA-B and TNF genes indicate that the pathogenic gene of BD is not the HLA-B51 gene itself but another gene located around the HLA-B gene. HLA-C genotyping by the PCR-SSP method also suggests that the BD pathogenic gene is not the HLA-C gene itself but other gene located near the HLA-B gene. Recently we sequenced a single contig of 236,822 bp from the MICA gene (58.2 kb centromeric of HLA-B) to 90.8 kb telomeric of HLA-C and identified 8 novel genes designated NOB1-8 (NOB: new organization associated with HLA-B). During the course of the genomic sequence analysis we clarified the genetic structure of the MICA (MHC class I chain-related gene A) gene and found a triplet repeat microsatellite polymorphism of (GCT/AGC)n in the transmebrane (TM) region. Furthermore, the microsatellite allele consisting of 6 repetitions of GCT/AGC (MICA A6 allele) was present at a significantly higher frequency in the BD patient group than in the control group and a significant fraction of B51-negative patients were positive for this MICA A6 allele. These results suggest the possibility of a primary association of BD with MICA rather than HLA-B.

  14. Inherited determinants of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes: a genetic association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke; Schumm, L Philip; Zeissig, Sebastian; Ahmad, Tariq; Andersen, Vibeke; Andrews, Jane M; Annese, Vito; Brand, Stephan; Brant, Steven R; Cho, Judy H; Daly, Mark J; Dubinsky, Marla; Duerr, Richard H; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Franke, Andre; Gearry, Richard B; Goyette, Philippe; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halfvarson, Jonas; Hov, Johannes R; Huang, Hailang; Kennedy, Nicholas A; Kupcinskas, Limas; Lawrance, Ian C; Lee, James C; Satsangi, Jack; Schreiber, Stephan; Théâtre, Emilie; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Weersma, Rinse K; Wilson, David C; Parkes, Miles; Vermeire, Severine; Rioux, John D; Mansfield, John; Silverberg, Mark S; Radford-Smith, Graham; McGovern, Dermot P B; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lees, Charlie W

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease; treatment strategies have historically been determined by this binary categorisation. Genetic studies have identified 163 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, mostly shared between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. We undertook the largest genotype association study, to date, in widely used clinical subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease with the goal of further understanding the biological relations between diseases. Methods This study included patients from 49 centres in 16 countries in Europe, North America, and Australasia. We applied the Montreal classification system of inflammatory bowel disease subphenotypes to 34 819 patients (19 713 with Crohn's disease, 14 683 with ulcerative colitis) genotyped on the Immunochip array. We tested for genotype–phenotype associations across 156 154 genetic variants. We generated genetic risk scores by combining information from all known inflammatory bowel disease associations to summarise the total load of genetic risk for a particular phenotype. We used these risk scores to test the hypothesis that colonic Crohn's disease, ileal Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis are all genetically distinct from each other, and to attempt to identify patients with a mismatch between clinical diagnosis and genetic risk profile. Findings After quality control, the primary analysis included 29 838 patients (16 902 with Crohn's disease, 12 597 with ulcerative colitis). Three loci (NOD2, MHC, and MST1 3p21) were associated with subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease, mainly disease location (essentially fixed over time; median follow-up of 10·5 years). Little or no genetic association with disease behaviour (which changed dramatically over time) remained after conditioning on disease location and age at onset. The genetic risk score representing all known risk alleles for

  15. Genetics of Pediatric-Onset Motor Neuron and Neuromuscular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy; Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease; Muscular Dystrophy; Spinal Muscular Atrophy With Respiratory Distress 1; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Motor Neuron Disease; Neuromuscular Disease; Peroneal Muscular Atrophy; Fragile X Syndrome

  16. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Storage Disease (UK) The Association for Glycogen Storage Disease (US) University of Kansas Medical Center Resource List GeneReviews (1 link) Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type III

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Storage Disease (UK) The Association for Glycogen Storage Disease (US) University of Kansas Medical Center Resource List GeneReviews (1 link) Glycogen Storage Disease Type III ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov ...

  18. [Genetic counseling for adults: the risk of late-onset inherited diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Alexandra; Feingold, Josué

    2011-04-01

    Genetic counselling for adults is not classical since it deals with prospective assessment of risk in developing disease. 1% of adults have a monogenic disease, or are carriers of a genotype predisposing to a disease. Situations that need genetic counselling are: confirmation of a diagnosis of an inherited disease already known in the family; discovery of a new genetic disease in an adult with no family history of the disease (reduced penetrance); and presymptomatic and prenatal diagnosis for late onset diseases. The prescription of presymptomatic testing is limited to the intervention of multidisciplinary teams, bringing together medical expertise and notified to needed. This is a special situation because it is not always followed by a preventive action or treatment.

  19. Borrelia burgdorferi genetic markers and disseminated disease in patients with early Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kathryn L; Glickstein, Lisa J; Damle, Nitin; Sikand, Vijay K; McHugh, Gail; Steere, Allen C

    2006-12-01

    Three genetic markers of Borrelia burgdorferi have been associated with disseminated disease: the OspC type, the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer type (RST), and vlsE. Here, we modified previous methods so as to identify the three markers by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism in parallel, analyzed B. burgdorferi isolates from erythema migrans (EM) skin lesions in 91 patients, and correlated the results with evidence of dissemination. OspC type A was found approximately twice as frequently in patients with disseminated disease, whereas type K was identified approximately twice as often in those without evidence of dissemination, but these trends were not statistically significant. The remaining seven types identified were found nearly equally in patients with or without evidence of dissemination. RST 1 strains were significantly associated with dissemination (P=0.03), whereas RST 2 and RST 3 strains tended to have an inverse association with this outcome. The vlsE gene was identified in all 91 cases, using primer sets specific for an N-terminal sequence of B. burgdorferi strain B31 (vlsEB31) or strain 297 (vlsE297), but neither marker was associated with dissemination. Specific combinations of the three genetic markers usually occurred together. OspC type A was always found with RST 1 and vlsEB31, type K was always identified with RST 2 and more often with vlsE297, and types E and I were almost always found with RST 3 and equally often with vlsEB31 and vlsE297. We conclude that B. burgdorferi strains vary in their capacity to disseminate, but almost all strains isolated from EM lesions sometimes caused disseminated disease.

  20. Role of genetics in the diagnosis and prognosis of Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsianos, Epameinondas V; Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Tsianos, Vasileios E

    2012-01-01

    Considering epidemiological, genetic and immunological data, we can conclude that the inflammatory bowel diseases are heterogeneous disorders of multifactorial etiology in which hereditability and environment interact to produce the disease. It is probable that patients have a genetic predisposition for the development of the disease coupled with disturbances in immunoregulation. Several genes have been so far related to the diagnosis of Crohn’s disease. Those genes are related to innate pattern recognition receptors, to epithelial barrier homeostasis and maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity, to autophagy and to lymphocyte differentiation. So far, the most strong and replicated associations with Crohn’s disease have been done with NOD2, IL23R and ATG16L1 genes. Many genes have so far been implicated in prognosis of Crohn’s disease and many attempts have been made to classify genetic profiles in Crohn’s disease. CARD15 seems not only a susceptibility gene, but also a disease-modifier gene for Crohn’s disease. Enriching our understanding on Crohn’s disease genetics is important but when combining genetic data with functional data the outcome could be of major importance to clinicians. PMID:22253516

  1. Role of genetics in the diagnosis and prognosis of Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Epameinondas V Tsianos; Konstantinos H Katsanos; Vasileios E Tsianos

    2012-01-01

    Considering epidemiological, genetic and immunological data, we can conclude that the inflammatory bowel diseases are heterogeneous disorders of multifactorial etiology in which hereditability and environment interact to produce the disease. It is probable that patients have a genetic predisposition for the development of the disease coupled with disturbances in immunoregulation. Several genes have been so far related to the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Those genes are related to innate pattern recognition receptors, to epithelial barrier homeostasis and maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity, to autophagy and to lymphocyte differentiation. So far, the most strong and replicated associations with Crohn's disease have been done with NOD2 , IL23R and ATG16L1 genes. Many genes have so far been implicated in prognosis of Crohn's disease and many attempts have been made to classify genetic profiles in Crohn's disease. CARD15 seems not only a susceptibility gene, but also a disease-modifier gene for Crohn's disease. Enriching our understanding on Crohn's disease genetics is important but when combining genetic data with functional data the outcome could be of major importance to clinicians.

  2. Role of genetics in the diagnosis and prognosis of Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Epameinondas V Tsianos; Konstantinos H Katsanos; Vasileios E Tsianos

    2011-01-01

    Considering the epidemiological, genetic and immunological data, we can conclude that the inflammatory bowel diseases are heterogeneous disorders of multifactorial etiology in which hereditability and environment interact to produce the disease. It is probable that patients have a genetic predisposition for the development of the disease coupled with disturbances in immunoregulation. Several genes have so far been related to the diagnosis of Crohn's disease. These genes are related to innate pattern recognition receptors, to epithelial barrier homeostasis and maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity, to autophagy and to lymphocyte differentiation. So far, the strongest and most replicated associations with Crohn's disease have been demonstrated with NOD2, IL23R and ATG16L1 genes. Many genes have so far been implicated in the prognosis of Crohn's disease and many attempts have been made for classification of genetic profiles in Crohn's disease. CARD15 seems to be not only a susceptibility gene, but also a disease-modifier gene for Crohn's disease. Enriching our understanding of Crohn's disease genetics is of value, but when combining genetic data with functional data the outcome could be of major importance to clinicians.

  3. The effect of genetic selection for Johne's disease resistance n dairy cattle: Results of a genetic-epidemiological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzen, van K.J.E.; Koets, A.P.; Nielen, M.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model genetic selection for Johne’s disease resistance and to study the effect of different selection strategies on the prevalence in the dairy cattle population. In the Netherlands, a certification-and-surveillance program is in use to reduce prevalence and presen

  4. Global distribution of consanguinity and their impact on complex diseases: Genetic disorders from an endogamous population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The present study revealed a higher incidence of certain diseases in consanguineous population with a high significant increase in the prevalence of common adult diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, blood disorders, mental disorders, heart diseases, asthma, gastro-intestinal disorders, hypertension, hearing deficit, G6PD and common eye diseases. This confirms the role of genetic factors across the full spectrum of disease and not only for Mendelian disorders.

  5. Identification of common genetic modifiers of neurodegenerative diseases from an integrative analysis of diverse genetic screens in model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An array of experimental models have been developed in the small model organisms C. elegans, S. cerevisiae and D. melanogaster for the study of various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and expanded polyglutamine diseases as exemplified by Huntington's disease (HD and related ataxias. Genetic approaches to determine the nature of regulators of the disease phenotypes have ranged from small scale to essentially whole genome screens. The published data covers distinct models in all three organisms and one important question is the extent to which shared genetic factors can be uncovered that affect several or all disease models. Surprisingly it has appeared that there may be relatively little overlap and that many of the regulators may be organism or disease-specific. There is, however, a need for a fully integrated analysis of the available genetic data based on careful comparison of orthologues across the species to determine the real extent of overlap. Results We carried out an integrated analysis using C. elegans as the baseline model organism since this is the most widely studied in this context. Combination of data from 28 published studies using small to large scale screens in all three small model organisms gave a total of 950 identifications of genetic regulators. Of these 624 were separate genes with orthologues in C. elegans. In addition, 34 of these genes, which all had human orthologues, were found to overlap across studies. Of the common genetic regulators some such as chaperones, ubiquitin-related enzymes (including the E3 ligase CHIP which directly links the two pathways and histone deacetylases were involved in expected pathways whereas others such as the peroxisomal acyl CoA-oxidase suggest novel targets for neurodegenerative disease therapy Conclusions We identified a significant number of overlapping regulators of neurodegenerative disease models. Since the diseases

  6. Mitochondria in Parkinson disease: back in fashion with a little help from genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muqit, Miratul M K; Gandhi, Sonia; Wood, Nicholas W

    2006-05-01

    Parkinson disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder with no known cure. Impairment in mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis. Recent genetic advances suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may be the primary defect. Drugs that target the mitochondria may therefore represent the best hope for disease-modifying therapies in Parkinson disease.

  7. [Characterization of patients with skeletal genetic diseases in a Colombian referral center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Harvy Mauricio; Buelvas, Lina Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Short height in Colombia has an estimated prevalence of 10%. The 2009 Nosology and Classification of Skeletal Genetic Diseases described 456 clinical conditions using biochemical, molecular and radiological criteria for diagnosis. To analyze demographic, epidemiological and clinical variables in a group of patients with skeletal genetic diseases referred to the Instituto de Ortopedia Infantil Roosevelt. Patients referred between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed filtering 167 diagnoses of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD 10), related to skeletal genetic diseases. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical variables were explored using descriptive statistics. An intervention score was generated contemplating different combinations of treatments. An inferential statistical analysis using Student's t test was performed on such variables. The most frequent reason for consultation was suspicion of a genetic skeletal disorder. The types of treatments considered included support, surgical, pharmacological and orthotics, and it was established that genetic skeletal disorders were associated with higher intervention scores while tall and short height showed a lower score. Most referred patients were classified with genetic bone diseases, short stature and other monogenic genetic diseases. Significant differences were found between the age at symptoms onset and the age of diagnosis. Diversity was found in the therapeutic approach among different groups of pathologies. Patients with tall and short height showed lower intervention scores, which may warn on the need to reassess the therapeutic requirements of these groups.

  8. Oral pathology in a group of Mexican patients with genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Pérez, Luis A; Arenas Sordo, María de la Luz; Hernández Zamora, Edgar; Aldape Barrios, Beatriz C

    2007-03-01

    Without considering infectious and traumatic diseases, the great majority of oral cavity diseases have a genetic base, in some cases identifiable, in others not. For the stomatologists it is of great importance to know the clinical characteristics and type of alteration that go with genetic etiology syndromes to be able to offer patients an adequate multidisciplinary treatment. Intentional search and description of oral pathology in patients with diverse genetic diseases. An observational and descriptive 4 month study of 62 patients from the Genetics Department of the National Institute of Rehabilitation, was done. Taken into consideration, aside from oral manifestations and genetic disease, were age, sex, consanguinity and inbreeding. The majority of patients who have genetic pathology do not have curative treatment, but they can receive other treatments to improve their quality of life, among these are dental treatments. The more common diseases we found were hereditary peripheral neuropathies, skeletal dysplasias, limb malformation and muscular dystrophies. Diverse features were described, registered and grouped according to their location. Presently it is important to look for the genetic etiology of all diseases to seek specific treatments and prevent them. This will change the practice of medicine and dentistry.

  9. Genetic testing and Alzheimer's disease: implications for psychiatric-mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Debra L

    2013-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of irreversible dementia, continues to grow in prevalence as well as public health impact. Extensive research into the genetic etiology of AD has yielded knowledge of some genetic factors that are causative and other genetic factors that increase risk for disease. Consequently, the possibility of genetic testing in individuals with or at risk for AD is a question that nurses may be asked. Psychiatric-mental health (PMH) professionals are in key positions to influence the care of individuals who are considering the effect of genetic information on their health care decisions. Whether by working within interdisciplinary genetic counseling teams to provide direct specialty services or by developing skills to identify and refer individuals at risk for or concerned about their risk for AD, PMH nurses can play an important role in the health care of individuals and families experiencing AD.

  10. The genetic architecture of the human immune system: a bioresource for autoimmunity and disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Mario; Quaye, Lydia; Mangino, Massimo; Beddall, Margaret H; Mahnke, Yolanda; Chattopadhyay, Pratip; Tosi, Isabella; Napolitano, Luca; Terranova Barberio, Manuela; Menni, Cristina; Villanova, Federica; Di Meglio, Paola; Spector, Tim D; Nestle, Frank O

    2015-04-09

    Despite recent discoveries of genetic variants associated with autoimmunity and infection, genetic control of the human immune system during homeostasis is poorly understood. We undertook a comprehensive immunophenotyping approach, analyzing 78,000 immune traits in 669 female twins. From the top 151 heritable traits (up to 96% heritable), we used replicated GWAS to obtain 297 SNP associations at 11 genetic loci, explaining up to 36% of the variation of 19 traits. We found multiple associations with canonical traits of all major immune cell subsets and uncovered insights into genetic control for regulatory T cells. This data set also revealed traits associated with loci known to confer autoimmune susceptibility, providing mechanistic hypotheses linking immune traits with the etiology of disease. Our data establish a bioresource that links genetic control elements associated with normal immune traits to common autoimmune and infectious diseases, providing a shortcut to identifying potential mechanisms of immune-related diseases.

  11. The spectrum of nephrocutaneous diseases and associations: Genetic causes of nephrocutaneous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Jay; Fenves, Andrew Z; Jackson, J Mark; Kimball, Alexa B; Menter, Alan

    2016-02-01

    There are a significant number of diseases and treatment considerations of considerable importance relating to the skin and renal systems. This emphasizes the need for dermatologists in practice or in clinical training to be aware of these associations. Part I of this 2-part continuing medical education article reviews the genetic syndromes with both renal and cutaneous involvement that are most important for the dermatologist to be able to identify, manage, and appropriately refer to nephrology colleagues. Part II reviews the inflammatory syndromes with relevant renal manifestations and therapeutic agents commonly used by dermatologists that have drug-induced effects on or require close consideration of renal function. In addition, we will likewise review therapeutic agents commonly used by nephrologists that have drug-induced effects on the skin that dermatologists are likely to encounter in clinical practice. In both parts of this continuing medical education article, we discuss diagnosis, management, and appropriate referral to our nephrology colleagues in the context of each nephrocutaneous association. There are a significant number of dermatoses associated with renal abnormalities and disease, emphasizing the need for dermatologists to be keenly aware of their presence in order to avoid overlooking important skin conditions with potentially devastating renal complications. This review discusses important nephrocutaneous disease associations with recommendations for the appropriate urgency of referral to nephrology colleagues for diagnosis, surveillance, and early management of potential renal sequelae.

  12. Tracing Behçet's disease origins along the Silk Road: an anthropological evolutionary genetics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazzini, Marco; Garagnani, Paolo; Sarno, Stefania; De Fanti, Sara; Lazzano, Teresa; Yang Yao, Daniele; Boattini, Alessio; Pazzola, Giulia; Maramotti, Sally; Boiardi, Luigi; Franceschi, Claudio; Salvarani, Carlo; Luiselli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a multifactorial vasculitis that shows its highest prevalence in geographical areas historically involved in the Silk Road, suggesting that it might have originated somewhere along these ancient trade routes. This study aims to provide a first clue towards genetic evidence for this hypothesis by testing it via an anthropological evolutionary genetics approach. Behçet's disease variation at ancestry informative mitochondrial DNA control region and haplogroup diagnostic sites was characterised in 185 disease subjects of Italian descent and set into the Eurasian mitochondrial landscape by comparison with nearly 9,000 sequences representative of diversity observable in Italy and along the main Silk Road routes. Dissection of the actual genetic ancestry of disease individuals by means of population structure, spatial autocorrelation and haplogroup analyses revealed their closer relationships with some Middle Eastern and Central Asian groups settled along the Silk Road than with healthy Italians. These findings support the hypothesis that the Behçet's disease genetic risk has migrated to western Eurasia in parallel with ancestry components typical of Silk Road-related groups. This provided new insights that are useful to improve the understanding of disease origins and diffusion, as well as to inform future association studies aimed at properly accounting for the actual genetic ancestry of the examined Behçet's disease samples in order to minimise the detection of spurious associations and to improve the identification of genetic variants with actual clinical relevance.

  13. Diet, Genetics, and Disease: A Focus on the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akl C. Fahed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East and North Africa (MENA region suffers a drastic change from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet. This has led to an unparalleled increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases. This review discusses the role of nutritional genomics, or the dietary signature, in these dietary and disease changes in the MENA. The diet-genetics-disease relation is discussed in detail. Selected disease categories in the MENA are discussed starting with a review of their epidemiology in the different MENA countries, followed by an examination of the known genetic factors that have been reported in the disease discussed, whether inside or outside the MENA. Several diet-genetics-disease relationships in the MENA may be contributing to the increased prevalence of civilization disorders of metabolism and micronutrient deficiencies. Future research in the field of nutritional genomics in the MENA is needed to better define these relationships.

  14. Constraints on Biological Mechanism from Disease Comorbidity Using Electronic Medical Records and Database of Genetic Variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Bagley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease co-occurrence that deviate from statistical independence may represent important constraints on biological mechanism, which sometimes can be explained by shared genetics. In this work we study the relationship between disease co-occurrence and commonly shared genetic architecture of disease. Records of pairs of diseases were combined from two different electronic medical systems (Columbia, Stanford, and compared to a large database of published disease-associated genetic variants (VARIMED; data on 35 disorders were available across all three sources, which include medical records for over 1.2 million patients and variants from over 17,000 publications. Based on the sources in which they appeared, disease pairs were categorized as having predominant clinical, genetic, or both kinds of manifestations. Confounding effects of age on disease incidence were controlled for by only comparing diseases when they fall in the same cluster of similarly shaped incidence patterns. We find that disease pairs that are overrepresented in both electronic medical record systems and in VARIMED come from two main disease classes, autoimmune and neuropsychiatric. We furthermore identify specific genes that are shared within these disease groups.

  15. Differences in Genetic Background Between Active Smokers, Passive Smokers, and Non-Smokers With Crohn's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Frans; Nolte, Ilja M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Dijkstra, Gerard; Weersma, Rinse K.

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking behavior and genetic variations are important factors for the development of Crohn's disease (CD), but studies investigating the interaction between smoking and genetic background are scarce. We studied allelic associations of 19 confirmed variants located in 14 CD-associated

  16. The New Human Genetics. How Gene Splicing Helps Researchers Fight Inherited Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Maya

    The science of genetics is perceived to offer hope that a large number of the 3,000 inherited diseases which afflict human beings may be prevented or controlled. This document addresses some of the advances that have been made in this field. It includes an introduction and sections on: "The Beginning of Human Genetics"; "Unlocking the Secrets of…

  17. The genetic background of inflammatory bowel disease : from correlation to causality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uniken Venema, Werna Tc; Voskuil, Michiel D; Dijkstra, Gerard; Weersma, Rinse K; Festen, Eleonora Am

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have greatly improved our insight into the genetic background of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). New high-throughput technologies and large-scale international collaborations have contributed to the identification of 200 independent genetic risk loci for IBD. However, in most of the

  18. Genetic relationships between internal diseases diagnosed at slaughter and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Honda, T; Oyama, K

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to estimate the genetic parameters of certain internal diseases (multifocal necrosis in the liver [MNL], bovine abdominal fat necrosis [BFN], and inflammation of the large intestine [ILI]) and to investigate relationships between the internal diseases and carcass traits (carcass weight [CW], rib eye area [REA], rib thickness [RT], subcutaneous fat thickness, and beef marbling score [BMS]). Records of the internal diseases and the carcass traits of 5,788 Japanese Black cattle were used for this study. The data for all the diseases were recorded as binary data as to whether the disease was observed (1) or not (0). Genetic parameters were estimated using linear and threshold animal models. The prevalence rates of MNL, BFN, and ILI were 16.1, 23.0, and 6.8%, respectively, and heritability estimates ± posterior SD were 0.18 ± 0.06, 0.28 ± 0.06, and 0.18 ± 0.06, respectively. The genetic correlations of MNL with BFN and ILI were -0.23 (P = 0.19) and -0.49 (P genetic correlations of MNL with the carcass traits were all weak and not significant. In contrast, the genetic correlations of BFN and ILI with CW, REA, and RT were all negative and significant (P genetic correlations for BFN and ILI with BMS were all positive at 0.21 P( = 0.16) and 0.39 (P genetically improved. Genetic relationships of BFN and ILI with meat quantity traits were favorable for beef cattle breeding, because lower disease liabilities were associated with improved CW, REA, and RT for BFN and ILI. However, rather strong and unfavorable genetic relationships were found between BFN or ILI and BMS, which is related to meat quality. This suggests that selection for animals with superior BMS would increasingly lead to animals with higher liability to the internal diseases.

  19. Common genetic loci influencing plasma homocysteine concentrations and their effect on risk of coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, van J.B.J.; Pare, G.; Schwartz, S.M.; Hazra, A.; Tanaka, T.; Vermeulen, S.H.; Cotlarciuc, I.; Yuan, X.; Malarstig, A.; Bandinelli, S.; Bis, J.C.; Morn, H.; Brown, M.J.; Chen, C.; Chen, Y.D.; Clarke, R.J.; Dehghan, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ferrucci, L.; Hamsten, A.; Hofman, A.; Hunten, D.J.; Goel, A.; Johnson, A.D.; Kathiresan, S.; Kampman, E.; Kiel, D.P.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Chambers, J.C.; Kraft, P.; Lindemans, J.; McKnight, B.; Nelson, C.P.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Psaty, B.M.; Ridken, P.M.; Rivadeneira, F.; Rose, L.M.; Seedoif, U.; Siscovick, D.S.; Schunkert, H.; Selhub, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Vollenweiden, P.; Waeben, G.; Waterworth, D.M.; Watkins, H.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Heijen, den M.; Jacques, P.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Koonet, J.S.; Rader, D.J.; Reilly, M.P.; Moose, V.; Chasman, D.I.; Samani, N.J.; Ahmadi, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The strong observational association between total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the null associations in the homocysteinelowering trials have prompted the need to identify genetic variants associated with homocysteine concentrations and

  20. HEREDITARY DISEASES AND SYNDROMES ACCOMPANIED BY FEBRILE CONVULSIONS: CLINICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. L. Dadali; A. A. Sharkov; I. V. Sharkova; I. V. Kanivets; F. A. Konovalov; I. A. Akimova

    2016-01-01

    The authors provide a review of the clinical and genetic characteristics of hereditary diseases and syndromes accompanied by febrile convulsions, which is illustrated by examples of their own observations...