WorldWideScience

Sample records for genetic activity graphical

  1. Quantitative genetic activity graphical profiles for use in chemical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, M.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Stack, H.F.; Garrett, N.E.; Jackson, M.A. [Environmental Health Research and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    A graphic approach, terms a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP), was developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for producing and evaluating genetic activity profile was developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Data on individual chemicals were compiles by IARC and by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data are available on 343 compounds selected from volumes 1-53 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar profiles of genetic activity. Through examination of the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluation of chemical analogs. GAPs provided useful data for development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity profiles of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Graphical models for genetic analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Sheehan, Nuala A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces graphical models as a natural environment in which to formulate and solve problems in genetics and related areas. Particular emphasis is given to the relationships among various local computation algorithms which have been developed within the hitherto mostly separate areas...... of graphical models and genetics. The potential of graphical models is explored and illustrated through a number of example applications where the genetic element is substantial or dominating....

  3. Graphical models for genetic analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Sheehan, Nuala A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces graphical models as a natural environment in which to formulate and solve problems in genetics and related areas. Particular emphasis is given to the relationships among various local computation algorithms which have been developed within the hitherto mostly separate areas...

  4. Mathematical Creative Activity and the Graphic Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Janina

    2011-01-01

    Teaching mathematics using graphic calculators has been an issue of didactic discussions for years. Finding ways in which graphic calculators can enrich the development process of creative activity in mathematically gifted students between the ages of 16-17 is the focus of this article. Research was conducted using graphic calculators with…

  5. Sparse time series chain graphical models for reconstructing genetic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abegaz, Fentaw; Wit, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    We propose a sparse high-dimensional time series chain graphical model for reconstructing genetic networks from gene expression data parametrized by a precision matrix and autoregressive coefficient matrix. We consider the time steps as blocks or chains. The proposed approach explores patterns of co

  6. Learning directed acyclic graphical structures with genetical genomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Cui, Yuehua

    2015-12-15

    Large amount of research efforts have been focused on estimating gene networks based on gene expression data to understand the functional basis of a living organism. Such networks are often obtained by considering pairwise correlations between genes, thus may not reflect the true connectivity between genes. By treating gene expressions as quantitative traits while considering genetic markers, genetical genomics analysis has shown its power in enhancing the understanding of gene regulations. Previous works have shown the improved performance on estimating the undirected network graphical structure by incorporating genetic markers as covariates. Knowing that gene expressions are often due to directed regulations, it is more meaningful to estimate the directed graphical network. In this article, we introduce a covariate-adjusted Gaussian graphical model to estimate the Markov equivalence class of the directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) in a genetical genomics analysis framework. We develop a two-stage estimation procedure to first estimate the regression coefficient matrix by [Formula: see text] penalization. The estimated coefficient matrix is then used to estimate the mean values in our multi-response Gaussian model to estimate the regulatory networks of gene expressions using PC-algorithm. The estimation consistency for high dimensional sparse DAGs is established. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate our theoretical results. The method is applied to a human Alzheimer's disease dataset in which differential DAGs are identified between cases and controls. R code for implementing the method can be downloaded at http://www.stt.msu.edu/∼cui. R code for implementing the method is freely available at http://www.stt.msu.edu/∼cui/software.html. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. GENETIC ALGORITHM ON GENERAL PURPOSE GRAPHICS PROCESSING UNIT: PARALLELISM REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Umbarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm (GA is effective and robust method for solving many optimization problems. However, it may take more runs (iterations and time to get optimal solution. The execution time to find the optimal solution also depends upon the niching-technique applied to evolving population. This paper provides the information about how various authors, researchers, scientists have implemented GA on GPGPU (General purpose Graphics Processing Units with and without parallelism. Many problems have been solved on GPGPU using GA. GA is easy to parallelize because of its SIMD nature and therefore can be implemented well on GPGPU. Thus, speedup can definitely be achieved if bottleneck in GAs are identified and implemented effectively on GPGPU. Paper gives review of various applications solved using GAs on GPGPU with the future scope in the area of optimization.

  8. Accelerating epistasis analysis in human genetics with consumer graphics hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancare Fabio

    2009-07-01

    performance while leaving the CPU available for other tasks. The GPU workstation containing three GPUs costs $2000 while obtaining similar performance on a Beowulf cluster requires 150 CPU cores which, including the added infrastructure and support cost of the cluster system, cost approximately $82,500. Conclusion Graphics hardware based computing provides a cost effective means to perform genetic analysis of epistasis using MDR on large datasets without the infrastructure of a computing cluster.

  9. Analysis of graphic representations of activity theory in international journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco André Mazzarotto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Activity theory is a relevant framework for the Design field, and their graphic representations are cognitive artifacts that aid the understanding, use and communication of this theory. However, there is a lack of consistency around the graphics and labels used in these representations. Based on this, the aim of this study was to identify, analyze and evaluate these differences and propose a representation that aims to be more suitable for the theory. For this, uses as method a literature review based on Engeström (2001 and its three generations of visual models, combined with graphical analysis of representations collected in a hundred papers from international journals.

  10. GPFrontend and GPGraphics: graphical analysis tools for genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebe, Steffen; Pasutto, Francesca; Krumbiegel, Mandy; Schanze, Denny; Ekici, Arif B; Reis, André

    2010-09-21

    Most software packages for whole genome association studies are non-graphical, purely text based programs originally designed to run with UNIX-like operating systems. Graphical output is often not intended or supposed to be performed with other command line tools, e.g. gnuplot. Using the Microsoft .NET 2.0 platform and Visual Studio 2005, we have created a graphical software package to analyze data from microarray whole genome association studies, both for a DNA-pooling based approach as well as regular single sample data. Part of this package was made to integrate with GenePool 0.8.2, a previously existing software suite for GNU/Linux systems, which we have modified to run in a Microsoft Windows environment. Further modifications cause it to generate some additional data. This enables GenePool to interact with the .NET parts created by us. The programs we developed are GPFrontend, a graphical user interface and frontend to use GenePool and create metadata files for it, and GPGraphics, a program to further analyze and graphically evaluate output of different WGA analysis programs, among them also GenePool. Our programs enable regular MS Windows users without much experience in bioinformatics to easily visualize whole genome data from a variety of sources.

  11. GPFrontend and GPGraphics: graphical analysis tools for genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanze Denny

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most software packages for whole genome association studies are non-graphical, purely text based programs originally designed to run with UNIX-like operating systems. Graphical output is often not intended or supposed to be performed with other command line tools, e.g. gnuplot. Results Using the Microsoft .NET 2.0 platform and Visual Studio 2005, we have created a graphical software package to analyze data from microarray whole genome association studies, both for a DNA-pooling based approach as well as regular single sample data. Part of this package was made to integrate with GenePool 0.8.2, a previously existing software suite for GNU/Linux systems, which we have modified to run in a Microsoft Windows environment. Further modifications cause it to generate some additional data. This enables GenePool to interact with the .NET parts created by us. The programs we developed are GPFrontend, a graphical user interface and frontend to use GenePool and create metadata files for it, and GPGraphics, a program to further analyze and graphically evaluate output of different WGA analysis programs, among them also GenePool. Conclusions Our programs enable regular MS Windows users without much experience in bioinformatics to easily visualize whole genome data from a variety of sources.

  12. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  13. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  14. 3D graphical visualization of the genetic architectures underlying complex traits in multiple environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Cheng-cheng; YE Xiu-zi; ZHANG Yin; YU Rong-dong; YANG Jian; ZHU Jun

    2007-01-01

    An approach for generating interactive 3D graphical visualization of the genetic architectures of complex traits in multiple environments is described. 3D graphical visualization is utilized for making improvements on traditional plots in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis. Interactive 3D graphical visualization for abstract expression of QTL, epistasis and their environmental interactions for experimental populations was developed in framework of user-friendly software QTLNetwork (http://ibi.zju.edu.cn/software/qtlnetwork). Novel definition of graphical meta system and computation of virtual coordinates are used to achieve explicit but meaningful visualization. Interactive 3D graphical visualization for QTL analysis provides geneticists and breeders a powerful and easy-to-use tool to analyze and publish their research results.

  15. Graphical approach to evaluate genetic estimates of calf survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesser, H N; Shanks, R D; Berger, P J; Healey, M H

    2009-05-01

    Genetic variation and resemblance among relatives are fundamentals of quantitative genetics. Our purpose was to identify bulls with a bimodal pattern of inheritance in the quest for new discoveries about the inheritance of calf survival. A bimodal pattern of inheritance for calf survival was identified in sons of Holstein bulls. A bimodal pattern of inheritance indicates 2 groups of sons resulting from an allele effect, a grandsire effect, or some other common factor. Different combinations (AA, Aa, aa) of 2 alleles at a locus cause varying phenotypes to be expressed. Bulls that are heterozygous for loci affecting reproductive performance may have a bimodal pattern of inheritance if the difference in effect of the 2 alleles is large. If the bimodal pattern is caused by an allele effect, then molecular markers can be identified for use in marker-assisted selection breeding programs. Data on predicted transmitting ability for perinatal survival for the first parity of 8,678 sons of 599 sires were collected from 1984 through 1997 from the National Association of Animal Breeders calving ease database, which included 7 Midwestern states. Sixteen bulls were identified with a potential bimodal pattern of inheritance because they had 2 distinct groups of sons. The 2 groups of sons were separated by calculating the coefficient of variation for each possible combination of sons; the combination that gave the smallest coefficient of variation difference between the 2 groups was considered the correct distribution of the sons into those groups. Bulls with a bimodal distribution were analyzed to determine the distribution of the grandsons among the maternal grandsires (MGS) of the 2 groups of the bimodal distribution. The bimodal distribution may be a result of heterozygous sires or MGS that are homozygous for low or high survival. If the bimodal distribution is caused by a MGS effect, then marker-assisted selection can still be used by evaluating the MGS instead of the sires.

  16. Brain Activities Associated with Graphic Emoticons: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activities that are associated with graphic emoticons by using functional MRI (fMRI). We use various types of faces from abstract to photorealistic in computer network applications. A graphics emoticon is an abstract face in communication over computer network. In this research, we created various graphic emoticons for the fMRI study and the graphic emoticons were classified according to friendliness and level of arousal. We investigated the brain activities of participants who were required to evaluate the emotional valence of the graphic emoticons (happy or sad). The experimental results showed that not only the right inferior frontal gyrus and the cingulate gyrus, but also the inferior and middle temporal gyrus and the fusiform gyrus, were found to be activated during the experiment. Forthermore, it is possible that the activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus and the cingulate gyrus is related to the type of abstract face. Since the inferior and middle temporal gyrus were activated, even though the graphic emoticons are static, we may perceive graphic emoticons as dynamic and living agents. Moreover, it is believed that text and graphics emoticons play an important role in enriching communication among users.

  17. A graphical simulator for active learning of MRI basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Hanson, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a MATLAB-based graphical user interface (GUI) for simulation of a simple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner that the student can operate and obtain results with. It is intended for the students in an introductory course in medical imaging and provides the students...

  18. PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF STUDENT’S PROJECT-ORIENTED ACTIVITIES DURING GRAPHICAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya P. Aleksandrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In range of the education development conception during coming years, discusses the use of a method of projects and the potential of modern computer technology in the geometric-graphic training of students in technical higher education. Made the analysis of current design activity. Represented examples of practicaloriented problems of geometric modeling and design tasks performed by students in engineering graphics learning. 

  19. Genetic Algorithm Supported by Graphical Processing Unit Improves the Exploration of Effective Connectivity in Functional Brain Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Wing Chi Chan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain regions of human subjects exhibit certain levels of associated activation upon specific environmental stimuli. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI detects regional signals, based on which we could infer the direct or indirect neuronal connectivity between the regions. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM is an appropriate mathematical approach for analyzing the effective connectivity using fMRI data. A maximum likelihood (ML discrepancy function is minimized against some constrained coefficients of a path model. The minimization is an iterative process. The computing time is very long as the number of iterations increases geometrically with the number of path coefficients. Using regular Quad-Core Central Processing Unit (CPU platform, duration up to three months is required for the iterations from 0 to 30 path coefficients. This study demonstrates the application of Graphical Processing Unit (GPU with the parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA that replaces the Powell minimization in the standard program code of the analysis software package. It was found in the same example that GA under GPU reduced the duration to 20 hours and provided more accurate solution when compared with standard program code under CPU.

  20. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  1. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  2. Beacon Editor: Capturing Signal Transduction Pathways Using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation Activity Flow Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmarakeby, Haitham; Arefiyan, Mostafa; Myers, Elijah; Li, Song; Grene, Ruth; Heath, Lenwood S

    2017-08-28

    The Beacon Editor is a cross-platform desktop application for the creation and modification of signal transduction pathways using the Systems Biology Graphical Notation Activity Flow (SBGN-AF) language. Prompted by biologists' requests for enhancements, the Beacon Editor includes numerous powerful features for the benefit of creation and presentation.

  3. Optimizing ion channel models using a parallel genetic algorithm on graphical processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shalom, Roy; Aviv, Amit; Razon, Benjamin; Korngreen, Alon

    2012-01-01

    We have recently shown that we can semi-automatically constrain models of voltage-gated ion channels by combining a stochastic search algorithm with ionic currents measured using multiple voltage-clamp protocols. Although numerically successful, this approach is highly demanding computationally, with optimization on a high performance Linux cluster typically lasting several days. To solve this computational bottleneck we converted our optimization algorithm for work on a graphical processing unit (GPU) using NVIDIA's CUDA. Parallelizing the process on a Fermi graphic computing engine from NVIDIA increased the speed ∼180 times over an application running on an 80 node Linux cluster, considerably reducing simulation times. This application allows users to optimize models for ion channel kinetics on a single, inexpensive, desktop "super computer," greatly reducing the time and cost of building models relevant to neuronal physiology. We also demonstrate that the point of algorithm parallelization is crucial to its performance. We substantially reduced computing time by solving the ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) so as to massively reduce memory transfers to and from the GPU. This approach may be applied to speed up other data intensive applications requiring iterative solutions of ODEs.

  4. Systems Biology Graphical Notation: Activity Flow language Level 1 Version 1.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Huaiyu; Schreiber, Falk; Moodie, Stuart; Czauderna, Tobias; Demir, Emek; Haw, Robin; Luna, Augustin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Sorokin, Anatoly; Villéger, Alice

    2015-09-04

    The Systems Biological Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an international community effort for standardized graphical representations of biological pathways and networks. The goal of SBGN is to provide unambiguous pathway and network maps for readers with different scientific backgrounds as well as to support efficient and accurate exchange of biological knowledge between different research communities, industry, and other players in systems biology. Three SBGN languages, Process Description (PD), Entity Relationship (ER) and Activity Flow (AF), allow for the representation of different aspects of biological and biochemical systems at different levels of detail. The SBGN Activity Flow language represents the influences of activities among various entities within a network. Unlike SBGN PD and ER that focus on the entities and their relationships with others, SBGN AF puts the emphasis on the functions (or activities) performed by the entities, and their effects to the functions of the same or other entities. The nodes (elements) describe the biological activities of the entities, such as protein kinase activity, binding activity or receptor activity, which can be easily mapped to Gene Ontology molecular function terms. The edges (connections) provide descriptions of relationships (or influences) between the activities, e.g., positive influence and negative influence. Among all three languages of SBGN, AF is the closest to signaling pathways in biological literature and textbooks, but its well-defined semantics offer a superior precision in expressing biological knowledge.

  5. Discovering epistasis in large scale genetic association studies by exploiting graphics cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary K; Guo, Yunfei

    2013-12-03

    Despite the enormous investments made in collecting DNA samples and generating germline variation data across thousands of individuals in modern genome-wide association studies (GWAS), progress has been frustratingly slow in explaining much of the heritability in common disease. Today's paradigm of testing independent hypotheses on each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker is unlikely to adequately reflect the complex biological processes in disease risk. Alternatively, modeling risk as an ensemble of SNPs that act in concert in a pathway, and/or interact non-additively on log risk for example, may be a more sensible way to approach gene mapping in modern studies. Implementing such analyzes genome-wide can quickly become intractable due to the fact that even modest size SNP panels on modern genotype arrays (500k markers) pose a combinatorial nightmare, require tens of billions of models to be tested for evidence of interaction. In this article, we provide an in-depth analysis of programs that have been developed to explicitly overcome these enormous computational barriers through the use of processors on graphics cards known as Graphics Processing Units (GPU). We include tutorials on GPU technology, which will convey why they are growing in appeal with today's numerical scientists. One obvious advantage is the impressive density of microprocessor cores that are available on only a single GPU. Whereas high end servers feature up to 24 Intel or AMD CPU cores, the latest GPU offerings from nVidia feature over 2600 cores. Each compute node may be outfitted with up to 4 GPU devices. Success on GPUs varies across problems. However, epistasis screens fare well due to the high degree of parallelism exposed in these problems. Papers that we review routinely report GPU speedups of over two orders of magnitude (>100x) over standard CPU implementations.

  6. Discovering epistasis in large scale genetic association studies by exploiting graphics cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the enormous investments made in collecting DNA samples and generating germline variation data across thousands of individuals in modern genome wide association studies (GWAS, progress has been frustratingly slow in explaining much of the heritability in common disease. Today’s paradigm of testing independent hypotheses on each SNP marker is unlikely to adequately reflect the complex biological processes in disease risk. Alternatively, modeling risk as an ensemble of SNPs that act in concert in a pathway, and/or interact non-additively on log risk for example, may be a more sensible way to approach gene mapping in modern studies. Implementing such analyses genome-wide can quickly become intractable due to the fact that even modest size SNP panels on modern genotype arrays (500k markers pose a combinatorial nightmare, require tens of billions of models to be tested for evidence of interaction. In this article, we provide an in-depth analysis of programs that have been developed to explicitly overcome these enormous computational barriers through the use of processors on graphics cards known as Graphics Processing Units (GPU. We include tutorials on GPU technology, which will convey why they are growing in appeal with today’s numerical scientists. One obvious advantage is the impressive density of microprocessor cores that are available on only a single GPU. Whereas high end servers feature up to 24 Intel or AMD CPU cores, the latest GPU offerings from nVidia feature over 2,600 cores. Each compute node may be outfitted with up to 4 GPU devices. Success on GPUs varies across problems. However epistasis screens fare well due to the high degree of parallelism exposed in these problems. Papers that we review routinely report GPU speedups of over two orders of magnitude (>100x over standard CPU implementations.

  7. R graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Murrell, Paul

    2005-01-01

    R is revolutionizing the world of statistical computing. Powerful, flexible, and best of all free, R is now the program of choice for tens of thousands of statisticians. Destined to become an instant classic, R Graphics presents the first complete, authoritative exposition on the R graphical system. Paul Murrell, widely known as the leading expert on R graphics, has developed an in-depth resource that takes nothing for granted and helps both neophyte and seasoned users master the intricacies of R graphics. After an introductory overview of R graphics facilities, the presentation first focuses

  8. T & I--Graphic Arts, Silk Screen Printing. Kit No. 60. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, George

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on silk screen printing are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (graphic arts). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  9. NATURAL graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The hardware and software developments in computer graphics are discussed. Major topics include: system capabilities, hardware design, system compatibility, and software interface with the data base management system.

  10. Graphic Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John

    2009-01-01

    Graphic storytelling is a medium that allows students to make and share stories, while developing their art communication skills. American comics today are more varied in genre, approach, and audience than ever before. When considering the impact of Japanese manga on the youth, graphic storytelling emerges as a powerful player in pop culture. In…

  11. Graphic Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John

    2009-01-01

    Graphic storytelling is a medium that allows students to make and share stories, while developing their art communication skills. American comics today are more varied in genre, approach, and audience than ever before. When considering the impact of Japanese manga on the youth, graphic storytelling emerges as a powerful player in pop culture. In…

  12. Graphic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Introduktion til 'graphic review' som en metode til at føre forståelse fra en undervisngsgang til den næste i læreruddannelse og grundskole.......Introduktion til 'graphic review' som en metode til at føre forståelse fra en undervisngsgang til den næste i læreruddannelse og grundskole....

  13. Graphics gems

    CERN Document Server

    Glassner, Andrew S

    1993-01-01

    ""The GRAPHICS GEMS Series"" was started in 1990 by Andrew Glassner. The vision and purpose of the Series was - and still is - to provide tips, techniques, and algorithms for graphics programmers. All of the gems are written by programmers who work in the field and are motivated by a common desire to share interesting ideas and tools with their colleagues. Each volume provides a new set of innovative solutions to a variety of programming problems.

  14. Chemical analyses, antibacterial activity and genetic diversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... Key words: Citrus, genetic diversity, ISSR markers, chemical analyses, antibacterial. ... ment of DNA based marker systems has advanced our ... Total acidity of the juices was determined by titration method as ... Greek compressed C. sinensis. 37 163 ..... flavonoids have a large spectrum of biological activity.

  15. Graphical processing unit implementation of an integrated shape-based active contour: Application to digital pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahirzeeshan Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commodity graphics hardware has become a cost-effective parallel platform to solve many general computational problems. In medical imaging and more so in digital pathology, segmentation of multiple structures on high-resolution images, is often a complex and computationally expensive task. Shape-based level set segmentation has recently emerged as a natural solution to segmenting overlapping and occluded objects. However the flexibility of the level set method has traditionally resulted in long computation times and therefore might have limited clinical utility. The processing times even for moderately sized images could run into several hours of computation time. Hence there is a clear need to accelerate these segmentations schemes. In this paper, we present a parallel implementation of a computationally heavy segmentation scheme on a graphical processing unit (GPU. The segmentation scheme incorporates level sets with shape priors to segment multiple overlapping nuclei from very large digital pathology images. We report a speedup of 19× compared to multithreaded C and MATLAB-based implementations of the same scheme, albeit with slight reduction in accuracy. Our GPU-based segmentation scheme was rigorously and quantitatively evaluated for the problem of nuclei segmentation and overlap resolution on digitized histopathology images corresponding to breast and prostate biopsy tissue specimens.

  16. Graphics gems

    CERN Document Server

    Heckbert, Paul S

    1994-01-01

    Graphics Gems IV contains practical techniques for 2D and 3D modeling, animation, rendering, and image processing. The book presents articles on polygons and polyhedral; a mix of formulas, optimized algorithms, and tutorial information on the geometry of 2D, 3D, and n-D space; transformations; and parametric curves and surfaces. The text also includes articles on ray tracing; shading 3D models; and frame buffer techniques. Articles on image processing; algorithms for graphical layout; basic interpolation methods; and subroutine libraries for vector and matrix algebra are also demonstrated. Com

  17. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.

  18. Graphic notation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Graphic notation is taught to music therapy students at Aalborg University in both simple and elaborate forms. This is a method of depicting music visually, and notations may serve as memory aids, as aids for analysis and reflection, and for communication purposes such as supervision or within...

  19. Resurfacing Graphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Patty K. Wongpakdee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available “Resurfacing Graphics” deals with the subject of unconventional design, with the purpose of engaging the viewer to experience the graphics beyond paper’s passive surface. Unconventional designs serve to reinvigorate people, whose senses are dulled by the typical, printed graphics, which bombard them each day. Today’s cutting-edge designers, illustrators and artists utilize graphics in a unique manner that allows for tactile interaction. Such works serve as valuable teaching models and encourage students to do the following: 1 investigate the trans-disciplines of art and technology; 2 appreciate that this approach can have a positive effect on the environment; 3 examine and research other approaches of design communications and 4 utilize new mediums to stretch the boundaries of artistic endeavor. This paper examines how visuals communicators are “Resurfacing Graphics” by using atypical surfaces and materials such as textile, wood, ceramics and even water. Such non-traditional transmissions of visual language serve to demonstrate student’s overreliance on paper as an outdated medium. With this exposure, students can become forward-thinking, eco-friendly, creative leaders by expanding their creative breadth and continuing the perpetual exploration for new ways to make their mark.

  20. Resurfacing Graphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Patty K. Wongpakdee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available “Resurfacing Graphics” deals with the subject of unconventional design, with the purpose of engaging the viewer to experience the graphics beyond paper’s passive surface. Unconventional designs serve to reinvigorate people, whose senses are dulled by the typical, printed graphics, which bombard them each day. Today’s cutting-edge designers, illustrators and artists utilize graphics in a unique manner that allows for tactile interaction. Such works serve as valuable teaching models and encourage students to do the following: 1 investigate the trans-disciplines of art and technology; 2 appreciate that this approach can have a positive effect on the environment; 3 examine and research other approaches of design communications and 4 utilize new mediums to stretch the boundaries of artistic endeavor. This paper examines how visuals communicators are “Resurfacing Graphics” by using atypical surfaces and materials such as textile, wood, ceramics and even water. Such non-traditional transmissions of visual language serve to demonstrate student’s overreliance on paper as an outdated medium. With this exposure, students can become forward-thinking, eco-friendly, creative leaders by expanding their creative breadth and continuing the perpetual exploration for new ways to make their mark. 

  1. Deducing corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 signaling networks from gene expression data by usage of genetic algorithms and graphical Gaussian models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trümbach, Dietrich; Graf, Cornelia; Pütz, Benno; Kühne, Claudia; Panhuysen, Marcus; Weber, Peter; Holsboer, Florian; Wurst, Wolfgang; Welzl, Gerhard; Deussing, Jan M

    2010-11-19

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a hallmark of complex and multifactorial psychiatric diseases such as anxiety and mood disorders. About 50-60% of patients with major depression show HPA axis dysfunction, i.e. hyperactivity and impaired negative feedback regulation. The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor type 1 (CRHR1) are key regulators of this neuroendocrine stress axis. Therefore, we analyzed CRH/CRHR1-dependent gene expression data obtained from the pituitary corticotrope cell line AtT-20, a well-established in vitro model for CRHR1-mediated signal transduction. To extract significantly regulated genes from a genome-wide microarray data set and to deduce underlying CRHR1-dependent signaling networks, we combined supervised and unsupervised algorithms. We present an efficient variable selection strategy by consecutively applying univariate as well as multivariate methods followed by graphical models. First, feature preselection was used to exclude genes not differentially regulated over time from the dataset. For multivariate variable selection a maximum likelihood (MLHD) discriminant function within GALGO, an R package based on a genetic algorithm (GA), was chosen. The topmost genes representing major nodes in the expression network were ranked to find highly separating candidate genes. By using groups of five genes (chromosome size) in the discriminant function and repeating the genetic algorithm separately four times we found eleven genes occurring at least in three of the top ranked result lists of the four repetitions. In addition, we compared the results of GA/MLHD with the alternative optimization algorithms greedy selection and simulated annealing as well as with the state-of-the-art method random forest. In every case we obtained a clear overlap of the selected genes independently confirming the results of MLHD in combination with a genetic algorithm. With two unsupervised algorithms

  2. Deducing corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 signaling networks from gene expression data by usage of genetic algorithms and graphical Gaussian models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holsboer Florian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a hallmark of complex and multifactorial psychiatric diseases such as anxiety and mood disorders. About 50-60% of patients with major depression show HPA axis dysfunction, i.e. hyperactivity and impaired negative feedback regulation. The neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH and its receptor type 1 (CRHR1 are key regulators of this neuroendocrine stress axis. Therefore, we analyzed CRH/CRHR1-dependent gene expression data obtained from the pituitary corticotrope cell line AtT-20, a well-established in vitro model for CRHR1-mediated signal transduction. To extract significantly regulated genes from a genome-wide microarray data set and to deduce underlying CRHR1-dependent signaling networks, we combined supervised and unsupervised algorithms. Results We present an efficient variable selection strategy by consecutively applying univariate as well as multivariate methods followed by graphical models. First, feature preselection was used to exclude genes not differentially regulated over time from the dataset. For multivariate variable selection a maximum likelihood (MLHD discriminant function within GALGO, an R package based on a genetic algorithm (GA, was chosen. The topmost genes representing major nodes in the expression network were ranked to find highly separating candidate genes. By using groups of five genes (chromosome size in the discriminant function and repeating the genetic algorithm separately four times we found eleven genes occurring at least in three of the top ranked result lists of the four repetitions. In addition, we compared the results of GA/MLHD with the alternative optimization algorithms greedy selection and simulated annealing as well as with the state-of-the-art method random forest. In every case we obtained a clear overlap of the selected genes independently confirming the results of MLHD in combination with a genetic

  3. Paraoxonase 1: genetics and activities during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchegiani, Francesca; Marra, Maurizio; Olivieri, Fabiola; Cardelli, Maurizio; James, Richard W; Boemi, Massimo; Franceschi, Claudio

    2008-02-01

    The increasing longevity of the population, one of the most important issues throughout the planet, is a very complex phenomenon (trait), likely resulting from a variety of environmental determinants interacting with and modulated by genetic mechanisms, mostly devoted to maintenance and repair. In fact, the genes involved in longevity impact upon basic processes such as inflammation, glucose and energy utilization, and oxidative stress. Based on the free radical theory of aging, in the past few years we have focused our attention on an enzyme that protects lipids from peroxidative damage-paraoxonase 1 (PON1). PON1 has been widely investigated, especially for its involvement in atherosclerosis and age-related diseases. In this review, we summarize data on the role played by PON1 on aging and its possible involvement in human longevity, focusing on the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and enzyme activity and its capability to counteract oxidative stress.

  4. Genetic control of active neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Reijmers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular tools to study the neurobiology of complex behaviors has been hampered by an inability to target the desired changes to relevant groups of neurons. Specific memories and specific sensory representations are sparsely encoded by a small fraction of neurons embedded in a sea of morphologically and functionally similar cells. In this review we discuss genetics techniques that are being developed to address this difficulty. In several studies the use of promoter elements that are responsive to neural activity have been used to drive long lasting genetic alterations into neural ensembles that are activated by natural environmental stimuli. This approach has been used to examine neural activity patterns during learning and retrieval of a memory, to examine the regulation of receptor trafficking following learning and to functionally manipulate a specific memory trace. We suggest that these techniques will provide a general approach to experimentally investigate the link between patterns of environmentally activated neural firing and cognitive processes such as perception and memory.

  5. A MATLAB-based graphical user interface for the identification of muscular activations from surface electromyography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengarelli, Alessandro; Cardarelli, Stefano; Verdini, Federica; Burattini, Laura; Fioretti, Sandro; Di Nardo, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    In this paper a graphical user interface (GUI) built in MATLAB® environment is presented. This interactive tool has been developed for the analysis of superficial electromyography (sEMG) signals and in particular for the assessment of the muscle activation time intervals. After the signal import, the tool performs a first analysis in a totally user independent way, providing a reliable computation of the muscular activation sequences. Furthermore, the user has the opportunity to modify each parameter of the on/off identification algorithm implemented in the presented tool. The presence of an user-friendly GUI allows the immediate evaluation of the effects that the modification of every single parameter has on the activation intervals recognition, through the real-time updating and visualization of the muscular activation/deactivation sequences. The possibility to accept the initial signal analysis or to modify the on/off identification with respect to each considered signal, with a real-time visual feedback, makes this GUI-based tool a valuable instrument in clinical, research applications and also in an educational perspective.

  6. Design Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A mathematician, David R. Hedgley, Jr. developed a computer program that considers whether a line in a graphic model of a three-dimensional object should or should not be visible. Known as the Hidden Line Computer Code, the program automatically removes superfluous lines and displays an object from a specific viewpoint, just as the human eye would see it. An example of how one company uses the program is the experience of Birdair which specializes in production of fabric skylights and stadium covers. The fabric called SHEERFILL is a Teflon coated fiberglass material developed in cooperation with DuPont Company. SHEERFILL glazed structures are either tension structures or air-supported tension structures. Both are formed by patterned fabric sheets supported by a steel or aluminum frame or cable network. Birdair uses the Hidden Line Computer Code, to illustrate a prospective structure to an architect or owner. The program generates a three- dimensional perspective with the hidden lines removed. This program is still used by Birdair and continues to be commercially available to the public.

  7. Inter-level Scaffolding and Sequences of Representational Activities in Teaching a Chemical System with Graphical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Black, John B.

    2016-10-01

    Chemistry knowledge can be represented at macro-, micro- and symbolic levels, and learning a chemistry topic requires students to engage in multiple representational activities. This study focused on scaffolding for inter-level connection-making in learning chemistry knowledge with graphical simulations. We also tested whether different sequences of representational activities produced different student learning outcomes in learning a chemistry topic. A sample of 129 seventh graders participated in this study. In a simulation-based environment, participants completed three representational activities to learn several ideal gas law concepts. We conducted a 2 × 3 factorial design experiment. We compared two scaffolding conditions: (1) the inter- level scaffolding condition in which participants received inter-level questions and experienced the dynamic link function in the simulation-based environment and (2) the intra- level scaffolding condition in which participants received intra-level questions and did not experience the dynamic link function. We also compared three different sequences of representational activities: macro-symbolic-micro, micro-symbolic-macro and symbolic-micro-macro. For the scaffolding variable, we found that the inter- level scaffolding condition produced significantly better performance in both knowledge comprehension and application, compared to the intra- level scaffolding condition. For the sequence variable, we found that the macro-symbolic-micro sequence produced significantly better knowledge comprehension performance than the other two sequences; however, it did not benefit knowledge application performance. There was a trend that the treatment group who experienced inter- level scaffolding and the micro-symbolic-macro sequence achieved the best knowledge application performance.

  8. [Novel mathematical approach to determination of antibiotics concentration by agar diffusion method. Analysis of graphical, table and mathematical options of relative biological activity estimation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esipov, S E

    1998-01-01

    Several varieties of relative biological activity estimation are comparatively analyzed and illustrated by an example of tylosin. For visual demonstration the estimates with the equation of a straight line are represented graphically. It is concluded that the design equations in the State Pharmacopeia XI (USSR) should be respectively replaced. The advantages of the variety for the biological activity estimation with the one-point intercept form of the equation of a straight line are illustrated by particular examples.

  9. Evaluation of the genetic activity of industrially produced carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwin, C J; LeBlanc, J V; Thomas, W C; Haworth, S R; Kirby, P E; Thilagar, A; Bowman, J T; Brusick, D J

    1981-06-01

    Commercially produced oil furnace carbon black (Chemical Abstract Service Registry No. 1333-86-4) has been evaluated by five different assay for genetic activity. These were the Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test, sister chromatid exchange test in CHO cells, mouse lymphoma test, cell transformation assay in C3H/10T1/2 cells, and assay for genetic effects in Drosophila melanogaster. Limited cellular toxicity was exhibited but no significant genetic activity was noted.

  10. Accounting for Students' Schemes in the Development of a Graphical Process for Solving Polynomial Inequalities in Instrumented Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ferdinand D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an instrumental account of precalculus students' graphical process for solving polynomial inequalities. It is carried out in terms of the students' instrumental schemes as mediated by handheld graphing calculators and in cooperation with their classmates in a classroom setting. The ethnographic narrative relays an instrumental…

  11. Graphical Abstract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Effects of Barium Atoms on Adsorption and Dissociation of Nitrogen Molecules on Ru(0001) Surface First principles calculation had been performed to present the effects of barium atom on dissociation of nitrogen molecule on Ru(0001) surface. The barrier energy of nitrogen molecular dissociation on Ru(0001) surface was reduced from 2.06 eV to 1,17 eV by effects of barium atom. Activities of Ru(0001) terrace surface were magnified about 9 orders at 500 K.

  12. Predicting mining activity with parallel genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaie, S.; Leigh, R.; Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.; Beyer, H.G.; O'Reilly, U.M.; Banzhaf, Arnold D.; Blum, W.; Bonabeau, C.; Cantu-Paz, E.W.; ,; ,

    2005-01-01

    We explore several different techniques in our quest to improve the overall model performance of a genetic algorithm calibrated probabilistic cellular automata. We use the Kappa statistic to measure correlation between ground truth data and data predicted by the model. Within the genetic algorithm, we introduce a new evaluation function sensitive to spatial correctness and we explore the idea of evolving different rule parameters for different subregions of the land. We reduce the time required to run a simulation from 6 hours to 10 minutes by parallelizing the code and employing a 10-node cluster. Our empirical results suggest that using the spatially sensitive evaluation function does indeed improve the performance of the model and our preliminary results also show that evolving different rule parameters for different regions tends to improve overall model performance. Copyright 2005 ACM.

  13. Graphic Turbulence Guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...

  14. Repellency Awareness Graphic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Companies can apply to use the voluntary new graphic on product labels of skin-applied insect repellents. This graphic is intended to help consumers easily identify the protection time for mosquitoes and ticks and select appropriately.

  15. Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...

  16. Graphical Models with R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsgaard, Søren; Edwards, David; Lauritzen, Steffen

    , the book provides examples of how more advanced aspects of graphical modeling can be represented and handled within R. Topics covered in the seven chapters include graphical models for contingency tables, Gaussian and mixed graphical models, Bayesian networks and modeling high dimensional data...

  17. Organolead compounds shown to be genetically active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlberg, J.; Ramel, C.; Wachtmeister, C.A.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether alkyllead compounds would cause a genetic effect similar to that caused by alkyl mercury compounds. Experiments were conducted on Allium cepa (onion) in order to determine the effect of lead compounds on the spindle fiber mechanism. Results indicate that disturbances of the spindle fiber mechanism occur even at very low concentrations. The lowest concentration at which such effects are observed seems to be between 10/sup -6/ and 10/sup -7/ M for the organic compounds. Although no effect can be observed on the spindle fibers at lower dosages, the mitotic index is changed even at a dose of 10/sup -7/ M with dimethyllead. A preliminary experiment was made on Drosophila with triethyllead in order to investigate whether the effects which were observed on mitoses in Allium would also be observed in a meiotic cell system in an animal.

  18. ABOUT THE ROMANIAN SOCIETY FOR ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMION Ionel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SORGING is a non-profit, non-governmental society, opened to all professionals interested in Engineering Graphics and Design. It aims to promote the research, development and innovation activities, together with the dissemination of best practices and assistance for educational purposes. In this paper the research and educational activities of the Romanian Society for Engineering Graphics will be briefly reviewed.

  19. The PC graphics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Julio

    2003-01-01

    Part I - Graphics Fundamentals PC GRAPHICS OVERVIEW History and Evolution Short History of PC Video PS/2 Video Systems SuperVGA Graphics Coprocessors and Accelerators Graphics Applications State-of-the-Art in PC Graphics 3D Application Programming Interfaces POLYGONAL MODELING Vector and Raster Data Coordinate Systems Modeling with Polygons IMAGE TRANSFORMATIONS Matrix-based Representations Matrix Arithmetic 3D Transformations PROGRAMMING MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS Numeric Data in Matrix Form Array Processing PROJECTIONS AND RENDERING Perspective The Rendering Pipeline LIGHTING AND SHADING Lightin

  20. Graphics gems II

    CERN Document Server

    Arvo, James

    1991-01-01

    Graphics Gems II is a collection of articles shared by a diverse group of people that reflect ideas and approaches in graphics programming which can benefit other computer graphics programmers.This volume presents techniques for doing well-known graphics operations faster or easier. The book contains chapters devoted to topics on two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry and algorithms, image processing, frame buffer techniques, and ray tracing techniques. The radiosity approach, matrix techniques, and numerical and programming techniques are likewise discussed.Graphics artists and comput

  1. Design Archeology: Graphic Reconstructions of Kreuzberg, Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Design Archeology combines communication design with archeological methods for evaluating material culture to produce new forms of graphic identity. It is a research methodology for examining cultural practices and activities of the moment in order to create a “snapshot” of a community’s identity from its material culture. Graphic Reconstructions of Kreuzberg Berlin is a graphic identity developed from ephemera (receipts, tickets, posters and flyers) collected from the streets of Kreuzberg, B...

  2. Mathematics and Computer Graphic Design Arts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚非

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between arts and mathematics is very close, computer graphic design is based on digital methodology. The paper reveals the mathematical backgrounds behind graphic design by the example of computer-aided cubic modeling and mathematical exchange methodology. Furthermore, one can get incredible artistic effects if computer graphic designers pay more attention to the probability and use probable numbers and fractal operation in their design activities.Finally, the author also discusses the bidirections between arts and mathematics.

  3. Design Archeology: Graphic Reconstructions of Kreuzberg, Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Design Archeology combines communication design with archeological methods for evaluating material culture to produce new forms of graphic identity. It is a research methodology for examining cultural practices and activities of the moment in order to create a “snapshot” of a community’s identity from its material culture. Graphic Reconstructions of Kreuzberg Berlin is a graphic identity developed from ephemera (receipts, tickets, posters and flyers) collected from the streets of Kreuzberg, B...

  4. A Survey on Graphical Programming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gurudatt Kulkarni; Sathyaraj. R

    2014-01-01

    Recently there has been an increasing interest in the use of graphics to help programming and understanding of computer systems. The Graphical Programming and Program Simulations are exciting areas of active computer science research that show the signs for improving the programming process. An array of different design methodologie s have arisen from research efforts and many graphical programming systems have been developed to address both general programming tasks and speci...

  5. Short communication: Genetic variation in estrus activity traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, P; Chagunda, M G G

    2009-01-01

    Genetic variation in estrus traits derived from hourly measurements by electronic activity tags was studied in an experimental herd of Holstein (n = 211), Jersey (n = 126), and Red Dane (n = 178) cows. Both virgin heifers (n = 132) and lactating cows in the first 4 parities (n = 895 cow parities......) were used, giving a total of 3,284 high-activity episodes indicating estrus. The first estrus after calving was predicted to occur on average, at 39, 44, and 45 d in milk for Red Danes, Holsteins, and Jerseys, respectively. Genetic variance was detected for the trait days to first high activity...

  6. An Inquiry Activity for Genetics Using Chromosome Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; Snodgrass, George

    1982-01-01

    Concepts to be developed, objectives, and student instructions are provided for an activity useful as an introduction to or review of Mendelian genetics and sex determination. Universal codes (read by optical scanners at supermarket checkout stands) from soup can labels are used as chromosome maps during the activity. (JN)

  7. Graphical Models with R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsgaard, Søren; Edwards, David; Lauritzen, Steffen

    Graphical models in their modern form have been around since the late 1970s and appear today in many areas of the sciences. Along with the ongoing developments of graphical models, a number of different graphical modeling software programs have been written over the years. In recent years many...... of these software developments have taken place within the R community, either in the form of new packages or by providing an R ingerface to existing software. This book attempts to give the reader a gentle introduction to graphical modeling using R and the main features of some of these packages. In addition......, the book provides examples of how more advanced aspects of graphical modeling can be represented and handled within R. Topics covered in the seven chapters include graphical models for contingency tables, Gaussian and mixed graphical models, Bayesian networks and modeling high dimensional data...

  8. Monitoring activity in neural circuits with genetically encoded indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Joseph Broussard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in genetically encoded indicators of neural activity (GINAs have greatly advanced the field of systems neuroscience. As they are encoded by DNA, GINAs can be targeted to genetically defined cellular populations. Combined with fluorescence microscopy, most notably multi-photon imaging, GINAs allow chronic simultaneous optical recordings from large populations of neurons or glial cells in awake, behaving mammals, particularly rodents. This large-scale recording of neural activity at multiple temporal and spatial scales has greatly advanced our understanding of the dynamics of neural circuitry underlying behavior—a critical first step toward understanding the complexities of brain function, such as sensorimotor integration and learning.Here, we summarize the recent development and applications of the major classes of GINAs. In particular, we take an in-depth look at the design of available GINA families with a particular focus on genetically encoded calcium indicators, sensors probing synaptic activity, and genetically encoded voltage indicators. Using the family of the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP as an example, we review established sensor optimization pipelines. We also discuss practical considerations for end users of GINAs about experimental methods including approaches for gene delivery, imaging system requirements, and data analysis techniques. With the growing toolbox of GINAs and with new microscopy techniques pushing beyond their current limits, the age of light can finally achieve the goal of broad and dense sampling of neuronal activity across time and brain structures to obtain a dynamic picture of brain function.

  9. Telomerase Activity and Genetic Alterations in Primary Breast Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Papadopoulou

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the structural and numerical chromosome abnormalities recorded in breast cancer could be the result of telomere dysfunction and that telomerase is activated de novo to provide a survival mechanism curtailing further chromosomal aberrations. However, recent in vivo and in vitro data show that the ectopic expression of telomerase promotes tumorigenesis via a telomere length-independent mechanism. In this study, the relation between telomerase expression and the extent of chromosomal aberrations was investigated in 62 primary breast carcinomas. Telomerase activity was measured using a polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay and 92% of the tumors were found to express telomerase with a relative activity ranging from 0 to 3839.6. Genetic alterations were determined by G-banding and comparative genomic hybridization analysis and 97% of the tumors exhibited chromosomal aberrations ranging from 0 to 44 (average: 10.98. In the overall series, the relationship between telomerase activity levels and genetic changes could be best described by a quadratic model, whereas in tumors with below-average genetic alteration numbers, a significant positive association was recorded between the two variables (coefficient=0.374, P= .017. The relationship between telomerase activity levels and the extent of genetic alteration may reflect the complex effect of telomerase activation upon tumor progression in breast carcinomas.

  10. The Systems Biology Graphical Notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Novère, Nicolas; Hucka, Michael; Mi, Huaiyu; Moodie, Stuart; Schreiber, Falk; Sorokin, Anatoly; Demir, Emek; Wegner, Katja; Aladjem, Mirit I; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Bergman, Frank T; Gauges, Ralph; Ghazal, Peter; Kawaji, Hideya; Li, Lu; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Villéger, Alice; Boyd, Sarah E; Calzone, Laurence; Courtot, Melanie; Dogrusoz, Ugur; Freeman, Tom C; Funahashi, Akira; Ghosh, Samik; Jouraku, Akiya; Kim, Sohyoung; Kolpakov, Fedor; Luna, Augustin; Sahle, Sven; Schmidt, Esther; Watterson, Steven; Wu, Guanming; Goryanin, Igor; Kell, Douglas B; Sander, Chris; Sauro, Herbert; Snoep, Jacky L; Kohn, Kurt; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2009-08-01

    Circuit diagrams and Unified Modeling Language diagrams are just two examples of standard visual languages that help accelerate work by promoting regularity, removing ambiguity and enabling software tool support for communication of complex information. Ironically, despite having one of the highest ratios of graphical to textual information, biology still lacks standard graphical notations. The recent deluge of biological knowledge makes addressing this deficit a pressing concern. Toward this goal, we present the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), a visual language developed by a community of biochemists, modelers and computer scientists. SBGN consists of three complementary languages: process diagram, entity relationship diagram and activity flow diagram. Together they enable scientists to represent networks of biochemical interactions in a standard, unambiguous way. We believe that SBGN will foster efficient and accurate representation, visualization, storage, exchange and reuse of information on all kinds of biological knowledge, from gene regulation, to metabolism, to cellular signaling.

  11. A genetic algorithm for structure-activity relationships: software implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Jantschi, Lorentz

    2009-01-01

    The design and the implementation of a genetic algorithm are described. The applicability domain is on structure-activity relationships expressed as multiple linear regressions and predictor variables are from families of structure-based molecular descriptors. An experiment to compare different selection and survival strategies was designed and realized. The genetic algorithm was run using the designed experiment on a set of 206 polychlorinated biphenyls searching on structure-activity relationships having known the measured octanol-water partition coefficients and a family of molecular descriptors. The experiment shows that different selection and survival strategies create different partitions on the entire population of all possible genotypes.

  12. Intelligent Computer Graphics 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Miaoulis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    In Computer Graphics, the use of intelligent techniques started more recently than in other research areas. However, during these last two decades, the use of intelligent Computer Graphics techniques is growing up year after year and more and more interesting techniques are presented in this area.   The purpose of this volume is to present current work of the Intelligent Computer Graphics community, a community growing up year after year. This volume is a kind of continuation of the previously published Springer volumes “Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Computer Graphics” (2008), “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2009” (2009), “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2010” (2010) and “Intelligent Computer Graphics 2011” (2011).   Usually, this kind of volume contains, every year, selected extended papers from the corresponding 3IA Conference of the year. However, the current volume is made from directly reviewed and selected papers, submitted for publication in the volume “Intelligent Computer Gr...

  13. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the deterministic graphical games of Washburn. A deterministic graphical game can be described as a simple stochastic game (a notion due to Anne Condon), except that we allow arbitrary real payoffs but disallow moves of chance. We study the complexity of solving deterministic graphical...... games and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm for computing an equilibrium of such a game. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....

  14. Introduction to Graphical Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Scutari, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is twofold. In the first part we will provide a brief overview of the mathematical and statistical foundations of graphical models, along with their fundamental properties, estimation and basic inference procedures. In particular we will develop Markov networks (also known as Markov random fields) and Bayesian networks, which comprise most past and current literature on graphical models. In the second part we will review some applications of graphical models in systems biology.

  15. The computer graphics metafile

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, LR; Shepherd, B; Arnold, D B

    1990-01-01

    The Computer Graphics Metafile deals with the Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) standard and covers topics ranging from the structure and contents of a metafile to CGM functionality, metafile elements, and real-world applications of CGM. Binary Encoding, Character Encoding, application profiles, and implementations are also discussed. This book is comprised of 18 chapters divided into five sections and begins with an overview of the CGM standard and how it can meet some of the requirements for storage of graphical data within a graphics system or application environment. The reader is then intr

  16. Graphical Models with R

    CERN Document Server

    Højsgaard, Søren; Lauritzen, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Graphical models in their modern form have been around since the late 1970s and appear today in many areas of the sciences. Along with the ongoing developments of graphical models, a number of different graphical modeling software programs have been written over the years. In recent years many of these software developments have taken place within the R community, either in the form of new packages or by providing an R interface to existing software. This book attempts to give the reader a gentle introduction to graphical modeling using R and the main features of some of these packages. In add

  17. The computer graphics interface

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrugge Chauveau, Karla; Niles Reed, Theodore; Shepherd, B

    2014-01-01

    The Computer Graphics Interface provides a concise discussion of computer graphics interface (CGI) standards. The title is comprised of seven chapters that cover the concepts of the CGI standard. Figures and examples are also included. The first chapter provides a general overview of CGI; this chapter covers graphics standards, functional specifications, and syntactic interfaces. Next, the book discusses the basic concepts of CGI, such as inquiry, profiles, and registration. The third chapter covers the CGI concepts and functions, while the fourth chapter deals with the concept of graphic obje

  18. The Use Condom campaign and its implications for graphic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Use Condom campaign and its implications for graphic communication in ... to assess the roles/activities of the media team in the media production process ... to producing effective graphic messages that facilitate the rapid adoption and ...

  19. Defining Dynamic Graphics by a Graphical Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛其昌; 戴汝为

    1991-01-01

    A graphical language which can be used for defining dynamic picture and applying control actions to it is defined with an expanded attributed grammar.Based on this a system is built for developing the presentation of application data of user interface.This system provides user interface designers with a friendly and high efficient programming environment.

  20. Graphical Modeling Language Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumnit, M.

    2003-01-01

    The group of the faculty EE-Math-CS of the University of Twente is developing a graphical modeling language for specifying concurrency in software design. This graphical modeling language has a mathematical background based on the theorie of CSP. This language contains the power to create trustworth

  1. Profiling bacterial kinase activity using a genetic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Helm, Eric; Bech, Rasmus; Lehning, Christina Eva

    Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification that regulates the activity of several key proteins in bacteria and eukaryotes. Accordingly, a variety of tools has been developed to measure kinase activity. To couple phosphorylation to an in vivo fluorescent readout we used the Bacillus...... subtilis kinase PtkA, transmembrane activator TkmA and the repressor FatR to construct a genetic circuit in E. coli. By tuning the repressor and kinase expression level at the same time, we were able to show a 4.2-fold increase in signal upon kinase induction. We furthermore validated that the previously...... reported FatR Y45E mutation1 attenuates operator repression. This genetic circuit provides a starting point for computational protein design and a metagenomic library-screening tool....

  2. High school chemistry students' learning of the elements, structure, and periodicity of the periodic table: Contributions of inquiry-based activities and exemplary graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Knight Phares, Jr.

    The main research question of this study was: How do selected high school chemistry students' understandings of the elements, structure, and periodicity of the Periodic Table change as they participate in a unit study consisting of inquiry-based activities emphasizing construction of innovative science graphics? The research question was answered using a multiple case study/mixed model design which employed elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies during data collection and analyses. The unit study was conducted over a six-week period with 11th -grade students enrolled in a chemistry class. A purposive sample of six students from the class was selected to participate in interviews and concept map coconstruction (Wandersee & Abrams, 1993) periodically across the study. The progress of the selected students of the case study was compared to the progress of the class as a whole. The students of the case study were also compared to a group of high school chemistry students at a comparative school. The results show that the students from both schools left traditional instruction on the periodic table (lecture and textbook activities) with a very limited understanding of the topic. It also revealed that the inquiry-based, visual approach of the unit study helped students make significant conceptual progress in their understanding of the periodic table. The pictorial periodic table (which features photographs of the elements), used in conjunction with the graphic technique of data mapping, enhanced students understanding of the patterns of the physical properties of the elements on the periodic table. The graphic technique of compound mapping helped students learn reactivity patterns between types and groups of elements on the periodic table. The recreation of the periodic table with element cards created from the pictorial periodic table helped students progress in their understanding of periodicity and its key concepts. The Periodic Table Literacy

  3. A Survey on Graphical Programming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudatt Kulkarni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an increasing interest in the use of graphics to help programming and understanding of computer systems. The Graphical Programming and Program Simulations are exciting areas of active computer science research that show the signs for improving the programming process. An array of different design methodologie s have arisen from research efforts and many graphical programming systems have been developed to address both general programming tasks and specific application areas such as physical simulation and user interface design. This paper presents a survey of t he field of graphical programming languages starting with a historical overview of some of pioneering efforts in the field. In addition this paper also presents different classifications of graphical programming languages.

  4. Perception in statistical graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderPlas, Susan Ruth

    There has been quite a bit of research on statistical graphics and visualization, generally focused on new types of graphics, new software to create graphics, interactivity, and usability studies. Our ability to interpret and use statistical graphics hinges on the interface between the graph itself and the brain that perceives and interprets it, and there is substantially less research on the interplay between graph, eye, brain, and mind than is sufficient to understand the nature of these relationships. The goal of the work presented here is to further explore the interplay between a static graph, the translation of that graph from paper to mental representation (the journey from eye to brain), and the mental processes that operate on that graph once it is transferred into memory (mind). Understanding the perception of statistical graphics should allow researchers to create more effective graphs which produce fewer distortions and viewer errors while reducing the cognitive load necessary to understand the information presented in the graph. Taken together, these experiments should lay a foundation for exploring the perception of statistical graphics. There has been considerable research into the accuracy of numerical judgments viewers make from graphs, and these studies are useful, but it is more effective to understand how errors in these judgments occur so that the root cause of the error can be addressed directly. Understanding how visual reasoning relates to the ability to make judgments from graphs allows us to tailor graphics to particular target audiences. In addition, understanding the hierarchy of salient features in statistical graphics allows us to clearly communicate the important message from data or statistical models by constructing graphics which are designed specifically for the perceptual system.

  5. Bayesian Graphical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2016-01-01

    Mathematically, a Bayesian graphical model is a compact representation of the joint probability distribution for a set of variables. The most frequently used type of Bayesian graphical models are Bayesian networks. The structural part of a Bayesian graphical model is a graph consisting of nodes...... is largely due to the availability of efficient inference algorithms for answering probabilistic queries about the states of the variables in the network. Furthermore, to support the construction of Bayesian network models, learning algorithms are also available. We give an overview of the Bayesian network...

  6. Genetic Networks Activated by Blast Injury to the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Major Finding: Collected retinas from 40 normal strains with 148 microarrays run. We have collected phenotypic data on corneal thickness, lOP and...pressure ( lOP ), central corneal thickness (CCT) and visual acuity. Task 2) Define the genetic networks activated by blast injury in the eye and in...retina. Accomplishments Under These Goals: Taskl: At the present time we have measured lOP and central corneal thickness on 27 strains of mice

  7. Indian Graphic Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Sarain

    1979-01-01

    Noting Indian tribes had invented ways to record facts and ideas, with graphic symbols that sometimes reached the complexity of hieroglyphs, this article illustrates and describes Indian symbols. (Author/RTS)

  8. Digital Raster Graphics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital raster graphic (DRG) is a scanned image of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic map. The scanned image includes all map collar information. The...

  9. Graphical Potential Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Luis E.

    2015-01-01

    Potential games, originally introduced in the early 1990's by Lloyd Shapley, the 2012 Nobel Laureate in Economics, and his colleague Dov Monderer, are a very important class of models in game theory. They have special properties such as the existence of Nash equilibria in pure strategies. This note introduces graphical versions of potential games. Special cases of graphical potential games have already found applicability in many areas of science and engineering beyond economics, including ar...

  10. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Santosh; Wendling, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  11. HEP graphics and visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Drevermann, Hans; CERN. Geneva

    1992-01-01

    The lectures will give an overview of the use of graphics in high-energy physics, i.e. for detector design, event representation and interactive analysis in 2D and 3D. An introduction to graphics packages (GKS, PHIGS, etc.) will be given, including discussion of the basic concepts of graphics programming. Emphasis is put on new ideas about graphical representation of events. Non-linear visualisation techniques, to improve the ease of understanding, will be described in detail. Physiological aspects, which play a role when using colours and when drawing mathematical objects like points and lines, are discussed. An analysis will be made of the power of graphics to represent very complex data in 2 and 3 dimensions, and the advantages of different representations will be compared.New techniques based on graphics are emerging today, such as multimedia or real-life pictures. Some are used in other domains of scientific research, as will be described and an overview of possible applications in our field will be give...

  12. Genetic expression of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebert, D W; Robinson, J R; Niwa, A; Kumaki, K; Poland, A P

    1975-04-01

    Monooxygenases require NADPH and molecular oxygen during the metabolism of numerous endogenous hydrophobic substrates and carcinogenic and toxic exogenous chemicals. The complexity of these membrane-bound multicomponent drug-metabolizing enzyme systems is reviewed. What "aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase activity" actually represents is reviewed and discussed. At least two forms of the hydroxylase activity exist and we suggest that they are associated with different molecular species of membrane-bound CO-binding hemoprotein (i.e., they are associated with different enzyme active-sties). At least two, and probably more than two, nonlinked loci are responsible for the genetic expression of new cytochrome P1450 formation and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction--and the stimulation of 10 other monooxygenase "activities"--in the mouse treated with certain aromatic hydrocarbons. The individual variability of hydroxylase activity in an inbred and in a random-bred strain of micr is illustrated. The basal hydroxylase activity appears to be inherited differently from the aromatic hydrocarbon-inducible hydroxylase activity. The potent inducer 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin can stimulate increases in these hepatic monooxygenase activities and p1450 formation in so-called "nonresponsive" mice, whereas inducers such as beta-naphthoflavone and 3-methylcholanthrene cannot. Thus, the genetically "nonresponsive" micr apparently possess the structural and regulatory genes necessary for expression of these inducible monooxygenase activities and associated new formation of cytochrome P1450. We suggest that a mutation has occurred in the "nonresponsive" inbred strains that results in production of an inducer-binding receptor having a diminished affinity for aromatic hydrocarbons.

  13. Quasi-Graphic Matroids (retracted)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Geelen (Jim); A.M.H. Gerards (Bert); G. Whittle (Geoff)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractFrame matroids and lifted-graphic matroids are two interesting generalizations of graphic matroids. Here, we introduce a new generalization, quasi-graphic matroids, that unifies these two existing classes. Unlike frame matroids and lifted-graphic matroids, it is easy to certify that a

  14. Publication-quality computer graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slabbekorn, M.H.; Johnston, R.B. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A user-friendly graphic software package is being used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to produce publication-quality computer graphics. Close interaction between the graphic designer and computer programmer have helped to create a highly flexible computer graphics system. The programmer-oriented environment of computer graphics has been modified to allow the graphic designer freedom to exercise his expertise with lines, form, typography, and color. The resultant product rivals or surpasses that work previously done by hand. This presentation of computer-generated graphs, charts, diagrams, and line drawings clearly demonstrates the latitude and versatility of the software when directed by a graphic designer.

  15. Mathematical structures for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Janke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive exploration of the mathematics behind the modeling and rendering of computer graphics scenes Mathematical Structures for Computer Graphics presents an accessible and intuitive approach to the mathematical ideas and techniques necessary for two- and three-dimensional computer graphics. Focusing on the significant mathematical results, the book establishes key algorithms used to build complex graphics scenes. Written for readers with various levels of mathematical background, the book develops a solid foundation for graphics techniques and fills in relevant grap

  16. Diverting activities at Sellafield. [Use of remote technology and computer graphics for mock-up of diversion of raffinate feed pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    Remote technology is being used to divert a raffinate feed pipe at the Sellafield fuel reprocessing plant in the UK. Extensive use is being made by the contractor of computer graphics and a full-scale mock-up. (author).

  17. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  18. Introduction to regression graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, R Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Covers the use of dynamic and interactive computer graphics in linear regression analysis, focusing on analytical graphics. Features new techniques like plot rotation. The authors have composed their own regression code, using Xlisp-Stat language called R-code, which is a nearly complete system for linear regression analysis and can be utilized as the main computer program in a linear regression course. The accompanying disks, for both Macintosh and Windows computers, contain the R-code and Xlisp-Stat. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is ava

  19. Mathematical Graphic Organizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    As part of a math-science partnership, a university mathematics educator and ten elementary school teachers developed a novel approach to mathematical problem solving derived from research on reading and writing pedagogy. Specifically, research indicates that students who use graphic organizers to arrange their ideas improve their comprehension…

  20. Comics & Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    Not so many years ago, comic books in school were considered the enemy. Students caught sneaking comics between the pages of bulky--and less engaging--textbooks were likely sent to the principal. Today, however, comics, including classics such as "Superman" but also their generally more complex, nuanced cousins, graphic novels, are not only…

  1. Graphics Conference Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    1. The 13th International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision'2005, University of West Bohemia, Campus-Bory Plzen (very close to Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic)Czech Republic, January 31 - February 4, 2005. http://wscg.zcu.cz, skala@kiv.zcu.cz

  2. Raster graphics display library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  3. Graphic Novels: A Roundup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Katherine L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews graphic novels for young adults, including five titles from "The Adventures of Tintin," a French series that often uses ethnic and racial stereotypes which reflect the time in which they were published, and "Wolverine," a Marvel comic character adventure. (Contains six references.) (LRW)

  4. Graphic Design for the Real World?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elisabeth Bichler, Katrine; Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    solely solving communicative problems for commissioning clients. It is argued that in this way visual communication can intervene into problems on a functional level, similarly to artifacts from design disciplines such as architecture and industrial or product design....... activism is limited to its predominant narrow role of persuading for “the good cause.” To illustrate the hypothesis that such a persuasive approach lacks activist potential and thus social impact, cases that represent traditional graphic-design activism are compared to alternative approaches......This article examines graphic design’s role within design activism. It outlines design activism in general and its relation to commercial design culture in a consumerist economy. Thereafter it discusses persuasive tendencies in graphic design and questions if its current contribution to design...

  5. Genetic abolishment of hepatocyte proliferation activates hepatic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Endo

    Full Text Available Quiescent hepatic stem cells (HSCs can be activated when hepatocyte proliferation is compromised. Chemical injury rodent models have been widely used to study the localization, biomarkers, and signaling pathways in HSCs, but these models usually exhibit severe promiscuous toxicity and fail to distinguish damaged and non-damaged cells. Our goal is to establish new animal models to overcome these limitations, thereby providing new insights into HSC biology and application. We generated mutant mice with constitutive or inducible deletion of Damaged DNA Binding protein 1 (DDB1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, in hepatocytes. We characterized the molecular mechanism underlying the compensatory activation and the properties of oval cells (OCs by methods of mouse genetics, immuno-staining, cell transplantation and gene expression profiling. We show that deletion of DDB1 abolishes self-renewal capacity of mouse hepatocytes in vivo, leading to compensatory activation and proliferation of DDB1-expressing OCs. Partially restoring proliferation of DDB1-deficient hepatocytes by ablation of p21, a substrate of DDB1 E3 ligase, alleviates OC proliferation. Purified OCs express both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte markers, form colonies in vitro, and differentiate to hepatocytes after transplantation. Importantly, the DDB1 mutant mice exhibit very minor liver damage, compared to a chemical injury model. Microarray analysis reveals several previously unrecognized markers, including Reelin, enriched in oval cells. Here we report a genetic model in which irreversible inhibition of hepatocyte duplication results in HSC-driven liver regeneration. The DDB1 mutant mice can be broadly applied to studies of HSC differentiation, HSC niche and HSCs as origin of liver cancer.

  6. Graphics gems V (Macintosh version)

    CERN Document Server

    Paeth, Alan W

    1995-01-01

    Graphics Gems V is the newest volume in The Graphics Gems Series. It is intended to provide the graphics community with a set of practical tools for implementing new ideas and techniques, and to offer working solutions to real programming problems. These tools are written by a wide variety of graphics programmers from industry, academia, and research. The books in the series have become essential, time-saving tools for many programmers.Latest collection of graphics tips in The Graphics Gems Series written by the leading programmers in the field.Contains over 50 new gems displaying some of t

  7. Tuning of active vibration controllers for ACTEX by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Moon K.; Denoyer, Keith K.

    1999-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the optimal tuning of digitally programmable analog controllers on the ACTEX-1 smart structures flight experiment. The programmable controllers for each channel include a third order Strain Rate Feedback (SRF) controller, a fifth order SRF controller, a second order Positive Position Feedback (PPF) controller, and a fourth order PPF controller. Optimal manual tuning of several control parameters can be a difficult task even though the closed-loop control characteristics of each controller are well known. Hence, the automatic tuning of individual control parameters using Genetic Algorithms is proposed in this paper. The optimal control parameters of each control law are obtained by imposing a constraint on the closed-loop frequency response functions using the ACTEX mathematical model. The tuned control parameters are then uploaded to the ACTEX electronic control electronics and experiments on the active vibration control are carried out in space. The experimental results on ACTEX will be presented.

  8. Exploring Genetic Drift and Natural Selection through a Simulation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Timothy J.; Rissing, Steven W.

    1998-01-01

    Reports on the development of a laboratory exercise that would allow students to explore the concept of genetic drift. Discusses the concept of genetic drift that is coincident with natural selection and that closely models the real world. (DDR)

  9. Optogenetic Monitoring of Synaptic Activity with Genetically Encoded Voltage Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryuichi; Jung, Arong; Yoon, Bong-June; Baker, Bradley J.

    2016-01-01

    The age of genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) has matured to the point that changes in membrane potential can now be observed optically in vivo. Improving the signal size and speed of these voltage sensors has been the primary driving forces during this maturation process. As a result, there is a wide range of probes using different voltage detecting mechanisms and fluorescent reporters. As the use of these probes transitions from optically reporting membrane potential in single, cultured cells to imaging populations of cells in slice and/or in vivo, a new challenge emerges—optically resolving the different types of neuronal activity. While improvements in speed and signal size are still needed, optimizing the voltage range and the subcellular expression (i.e., soma only) of the probe are becoming more important. In this review, we will examine the ability of recently developed probes to report synaptic activity in slice and in vivo. The voltage-sensing fluorescent protein (VSFP) family of voltage sensors, ArcLight, ASAP-1, and the rhodopsin family of probes are all good at reporting changes in membrane potential, but all have difficulty distinguishing subthreshold depolarizations from action potentials and detecting neuronal inhibition when imaging populations of cells. Finally, we will offer a few possible ways to improve the optical resolution of the various types of neuronal activities. PMID:27547183

  10. Hardware accelerated computer graphics algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, DT

    2008-01-01

    The advent of shaders in the latest generations of graphics hardware, which has made consumer level graphics hardware partially programmable, makes now an ideal time to investigate new graphical techniques and algorithms as well as attempting to improve upon existing ones. This work looks at areas of current interest within the graphics community such as Texture Filtering, Bump Mapping and Depth of Field simulation. These are all areas which have enjoyed much interest over the history of comp...

  11. Space Spurred Computer Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Dicomed Corporation was asked by NASA in the early 1970s to develop processing capabilities for recording images sent from Mars by Viking spacecraft. The company produced a film recorder which increased the intensity levels and the capability for color recording. This development led to a strong technology base resulting in sophisticated computer graphics equipment. Dicomed systems are used to record CAD (computer aided design) and CAM (computer aided manufacturing) equipment, to update maps and produce computer generated animation.

  12. Graphic engine resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautin, Mikhail; Dwarakinath, Ashok; Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    2008-01-01

    Modern consumer-grade 3D graphic cards boast a computation/memory resource that can easily rival or even exceed that of standard desktop PCs. Although these cards are mainly designed for 3D gaming applications, their enormous computational power has attracted developers to port an increasing number of scientific computation programs to these cards, including matrix computation, collision detection, cryptography, database sorting, etc. As more and more applications run on 3D graphic cards, there is a need to allocate the computation/memory resource on these cards among the sharing applications more fairly and efficiently. In this paper, we describe the design, implementation and evaluation of a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) scheduler based on Deficit Round Robin scheduling that successfully allocates to every process an equal share of the GPU time regardless of their demand. This scheduler, called GERM, estimates the execution time of each GPU command group based on dynamically collected statistics, and controls each process's GPU command production rate through its CPU scheduling priority. Measurements on the first GERM prototype show that this approach can keep the maximal GPU time consumption difference among concurrent GPU processes consistently below 5% for a variety of application mixes.

  13. Selecting Mangas and Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The decision to add graphic novels, and particularly the Japanese styled called manga, was one the author has debated for a long time. In this article, the author shares her experience when she purchased graphic novels and mangas to add to her library collection. She shares how graphic novels and mangas have revitalized the library.

  14. Selecting Mangas and Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylund, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The decision to add graphic novels, and particularly the Japanese styled called manga, was one the author has debated for a long time. In this article, the author shares her experience when she purchased graphic novels and mangas to add to her library collection. She shares how graphic novels and mangas have revitalized the library.

  15. The Case for Graphic Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Hoover

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Many libraries and librarians have embraced graphic novels. A number of books, articles, and presentations have focused on the history of the medium and offered advice on building and maintaining collections, but very little attention has been given the question of how integrate graphic novels into a library’s instructional efforts. This paper will explore the characteristics of graphic novels that make them a valuable resource for librarians who focus on research and information literacy instruction, identify skills and competencies that can be taught by the study of graphic novels, and will provide specific examples of how to incorporate graphic novels into instruction.

  16. Graphics Gems III IBM version

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, David

    1994-01-01

    This sequel to Graphics Gems (Academic Press, 1990), and Graphics Gems II (Academic Press, 1991) is a practical collection of computer graphics programming tools and techniques. Graphics Gems III contains a larger percentage of gems related to modeling and rendering, particularly lighting and shading. This new edition also covers image processing, numerical and programming techniques, modeling and transformations, 2D and 3D geometry and algorithms,ray tracing and radiosity, rendering, and more clever new tools and tricks for graphics programming. Volume III also includes a

  17. What is Graphic Justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Giddens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reproduces a poster presented at the Socio-Legal Studies ­Association annual conference, 5–7 April 2016 at Lancaster University, UK. The poster outlines the emerging study of the legal and jurisprudential dimensions of comics. Seeking to answer the question ‘what is graphic justice?’, the poster highlights the variety of potential topics, questions, concerns, issues, and intersections that the crossover between law and comics might encounter. A transcript of the poster’s text is provided for easier reuse, as well as a list of references and suggested readings.

  18. TASC Graphics Software Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    RD-I55 861 TSC GRPHICS SOFTWRE PCKRGE(U) NLYTIC SCIENCES i/I RD 𔄀-t CORP RERDING MA M R TANG DEC 82 TR-1946-6U~~cLss AFG L-TR-gi-1388 Fi9629-89-C...extensions were made to allow TGSP to use color graphics. 2.1 INTERACTIVE TGSP NCAR was designed to be a general plot package for use with many different...plotting devices. It is designed to accept high level commands and generate an intermediate set of commands called metacode and to then use device

  19. Phosphorylation networks regulating JNK activity in diverse genetic backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Chris; Linding, Rune; Llense, Flora;

    2008-01-01

    Cellular signaling networks have evolved to enable swift and accurate responses, even in the face of genetic or environmental perturbation. Thus, genetic screens may not identify all the genes that regulate different biological processes. Moreover, although classical screening approaches have suc...

  20. Intrusion Detection Architecture Utilizing Graphics Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Madoš

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the thriving technology and the great increase in the usage of computer networks, the risk of having these network to be under attacks have been increased. Number of techniques have been created and designed to help in detecting and/or preventing such attacks. One common technique is the use of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS. Today, number of open sources and commercial IDS are available to match enterprises requirements. However, the performance of these systems is still the main concern. This paper examines perceptions of intrusion detection architecture implementation, resulting from the use of graphics processor. It discusses recent research activities, developments and problems of operating systems security. Some exploratory evidence is presented that shows capabilities of using graphical processors and intrusion detection systems. The focus is on how knowledge experienced throughout the graphics processor inclusion has played out in the design of intrusion detection architecture that is seen as an opportunity to strengthen research expertise.

  1. Paneling "Matters" in Elementary Students' Graphic Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    During a 10-week classroom-based study, 20 fourth grade students participated in a number of interdependent activities that focused on developing their visual meaning-making skills and competencies. As well as reading, responding in writing to and discussing a selection of picturebooks, graphic novels, and magazines, the students created graphic…

  2. Can we be more Graphic about Graphic Design?

    OpenAIRE

    Vienne, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Can you objectify a subjective notion? This is the question graphic designers must face when they talk about their work. Even though graphic design artifacts are omnipresent in our culture, graphic design is still an exceptionally ill-defined profession. This is one of the reasons design criticism is still a rudimentary discipline. No one knows for sure what is this thing we sometimes call “graphic communication” for lack of a better word–a technique my Webster’s dictionary describes as “the ...

  3. Role of Graphics Tools in the Learning Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisney, Patrice; Brandt-Pomares, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the design activities of students in secondary school in France. Graphics tools are now part of the capacity of design professionals. It is therefore apt to reflect on their integration into the technological education. Has the use of intermediate graphical tools changed students' performance, and if so in what direction, in…

  4. Graphics and visualization principles & algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Theoharis, T; Platis, Nikolaos; Patrikalakis, Nicholas M

    2008-01-01

    Computer and engineering collections strong in applied graphics and analysis of visual data via computer will find Graphics & Visualization: Principles and Algorithms makes an excellent classroom text as well as supplemental reading. It integrates coverage of computer graphics and other visualization topics, from shadow geneeration and particle tracing to spatial subdivision and vector data visualization, and it provides a thorough review of literature from multiple experts, making for a comprehensive review essential to any advanced computer study.-California Bookw

  5. Mapping graphic design practice & pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Corazzo, James; Raven, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Workshop Description Mapping graphic design pedagogy will explore the complex, expanding and fragmenting fields of graphic design through the process of visual mapping. This experimental, collaborative workshop will enable participants to conceive and develop useful frameworks for navigating the expanding arena of graphic design that has grown from its roots in professional practice and now come to include areas of ethical, political, socio-economic, cultural and critical design. For a...

  6. Computer graphics in engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, David F

    2013-01-01

    Computer Graphics in Engineering Education discusses the use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) as an instructional material in engineering education. Each of the nine chapters of this book covers topics and cites examples that are relevant to the relationship of CAD-CAM with engineering education. The first chapter discusses the use of computer graphics in the U.S. Naval Academy, while Chapter 2 covers key issues in instructional computer graphics. This book then discusses low-cost computer graphics in engineering education. Chapter 4 discusses the uniform b

  7. Graphics shaders theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Graphics Shaders: Theory and Practice is intended for a second course in computer graphics at the undergraduate or graduate level, introducing shader programming in general, but focusing on the GLSL shading language. While teaching how to write programmable shaders, the authors also teach and reinforce the fundamentals of computer graphics. The second edition has been updated to incorporate changes in the OpenGL API (OpenGL 4.x and GLSL 4.x0) and also has a chapter on the new tessellation shaders, including many practical examples. The book starts with a quick review of the graphics pipeline,

  8. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  9. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    Starting from Zermelo’s classical formal treatment of chess, we trace through history the analysis of two-player win/lose/draw games with perfect information and potentially infinite play. Such chess-like games have appeared in many different research communities, and methods for solving them......, such as retrograde analysis, have been rediscovered independently. We then revisit Washburn’s deterministic graphical games (DGGs), a natural generalization of chess-like games to arbitrary zero-sum payoffs. We study the complexity of solving DGGs and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm...... for finding optimal strategies in such games. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....

  10. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    Starting from Zermelo’s classical formal treatment of chess, we trace through history the analysis of two-player win/lose/draw games with perfect information and potentially infinite play. Such chess-like games have appeared in many different research communities, and methods for solving them......, such as retrograde analysis, have been rediscovered independently. We then revisit Washburn’s deterministic graphical games (DGGs), a natural generalization of chess-like games to arbitrary zero-sum payoffs. We study the complexity of solving DGGs and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm...... for finding optimal strategies in such games. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....

  11. Synthesising Graphical Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kissinger, Aleks

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, diagrammatic languages have been shown to be a powerful and expressive tool for reasoning about physical, logical, and semantic processes represented as morphisms in a monoidal category. In particular, categorical quantum mechanics, or "Quantum Picturalism", aims to turn concrete features of quantum theory into abstract structural properties, expressed in the form of diagrammatic identities. One way we search for these properties is to start with a concrete model (e.g. a set of linear maps or finite relations) and start composing generators into diagrams and looking for graphical identities. Naively, we could automate this procedure by enumerating all diagrams up to a given size and check for equalities, but this is intractable in practice because it produces far too many equations. Luckily, many of these identities are not primitive, but rather derivable from simpler ones. In 2010, Johansson, Dixon, and Bundy developed a technique called conjecture synthesis for automatically generating conj...

  12. Kawasaki ZX6R graphic design

    OpenAIRE

    Fajt, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Design is a creative activity which is different from an artistic activity, because it is not based on individualistic position and does not emphasize personal expression. Beside aesthetics, design has also a great functional value. In a competitive market, companies are trying hard to present their costumer the most suitable design. An unique design can be achieved from a costumer's wish or request. For studying purposes I therefore designed and created an unique graphics on a motorcycle-...

  13. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  14. CARMA Correlator Graphical Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Shaya, B.; Pound, M. W.

    2011-07-01

    CARMA Correlator Graphical Setup (CGS) is a Java tool to help users of the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) plan observations. It allows users to visualize the correlator bands overlaid on frequency space and view spectral lines within each band. Bands can be click-dragged to anywhere in frequency and can have their properties (e.g., bandwidth, quantization level, rest frequency) changed interactively. Spectral lines can be filtered from the view by expected line strength to reduce visual clutter. Once the user is happy with the setup, a button click generates the Python commands needed to configure the correlator within the observing script. CGS can also read Python configurations from an observing script and reproduce the correlator setup that was used. Because the correlator hardware description is defined in an XML file, the tool can be rapidly reconfigured for changing hardware. This has been quite useful as CARMA has recently commissioned a new correlator. The tool was written in Java by high school summer interns working in UMD's Laboratory for Millimeter Astronomy and has become an essential planning tool for CARMA PIs.

  15. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  16. DMPD: Genetic regulation of macrophage priming/activation: the Lsh gene story. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1757110 Genetic regulation of macrophage priming/activation: the Lsh gene story. Bl... (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Genetic regulation of macrophage priming/activation: the Lsh gene story. Pubmed...ID 1757110 Title Genetic regulation of macrophage priming/activation: the Lsh gen

  17. How-to-Do-It: Hands-on Activities that Relate Mendelian Genetics to Cell Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Heather R.; Gibson, Linda S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is an activity designed to connect Mendelian laws with the physical processes of cell division. Included are materials production, procedures and worksheets for the meiosis-mitosis game and a genetics game. (CW)

  18. 78 FR 66698 - Pesticides; Repellency Awareness Graphic; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... presented the concept, draft guidance document, and draft graphic to OPP's federal advisory committee, the... protection activities for the prevention of vector- ] borne diseases such as West Nile virus and Lyme...

  19. IAU Graphics Extension - Gnu C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels

    1999-01-01

    This document contains a description of the library GrxIau (former UtilVesa and UTILLE). The library acts as shell to the graphics commands used at the exercises at the course 50240 Image Analysis with Microcomputers....

  20. CMS plotter graphics training manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawby, R.D.

    1981-03-01

    This manual includes explanations of several graphics programs that use a Conversation Monitor System (CMS) terminal and a table-top plotter to produce a copy on bond paper or transparency film. 13 figures.

  1. EPA Communications Stylebook: Graphics Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Includes standards and guidance for graphics typography, layout, composition, color scheme, appropriate use of charts and graphs, logos and related symbols, and consistency with the message of accompanied content.

  2. IAU Graphics Extension - Gnu C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, John Leif; Riis, Troels

    1999-01-01

    This document contains a description of the library GrxIau (former UtilVesa and UTILLE). The library acts as shell to the graphics commands used at the exercises at the course 50240 Image Analysis with Microcomputers....

  3. Digital Raster Graphics (DRG) Lambert

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Digital Raster Graphic-Lambert (DRG-Lam) is a raster image of a scanned USGS topographic map with the collar information clipped out, georeferenced to the...

  4. PLTP activity inversely correlates with CAAD: effects of PON1 enzyme activity and genetic variants on PLTP activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel Seung; Burt, Amber A; Ranchalis, Jane E; Vuletic, Simona; Vaisar, Tomas; Li, Wan-Fen; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Dong, Weijiang; Eintracht, Jason F; Motulsky, Arno G; Brunzell, John D; Albers, John J; Furlong, Clement E; Jarvik, Gail P

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have failed to demonstrate a causal cardioprotective effect of HDL cholesterol levels, shifting focus to the functional aspects of HDL. Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an HDL-associated protein involved in reverse cholesterol transport. This study sought to determine the genetic and nongenetic predictors of plasma PLTP activity (PLTPa), and separately, to determine whether PLTPa predicted carotid artery disease (CAAD). PLTPa was measured in 1,115 European ancestry participants from a case-control study of CAAD. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to elucidate the relationship between PLTPa and CAAD. Separately, a stepwise linear regression determined the nongenetic clinical and laboratory characteristics that best predicted PLTPa. A final stepwise regression considering both nongenetic and genetic variables identified the combination of covariates that explained maximal PLTPa variance. PLTPa was significantly associated with CAAD (7.90 × 10(-9)), with a 9% decrease in odds of CAAD per 1 unit increase in PLTPa (odds ratio = 0.91). Triglyceride levels (P = 0.0042), diabetes (P = 7.28 × 10(-5)), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity (P = 0.019), statin use (P = 0.026), PLTP SNP rs4810479 (P = 6.38 × 10(-7)), and PCIF1 SNP rs181914932 (P = 0.041) were all significantly associated with PLTPa. PLTPa is significantly inversely correlated with CAAD. Furthermore, we report a novel association between PLTPa and PON1 activity, a known predictor of CAAD.

  5. PLTP activity inversely correlates with CAAD: effects of PON1 enzyme activity and genetic variants on PLTP activity1[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel Seung; Burt, Amber A.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; Vuletic, Simona; Vaisar, Tomas; Li, Wan-Fen; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Dong, Weijiang; Eintracht, Jason F.; Motulsky, Arno G.; Brunzell, John D.; Albers, John J.; Furlong, Clement E.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have failed to demonstrate a causal cardioprotective effect of HDL cholesterol levels, shifting focus to the functional aspects of HDL. Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an HDL-associated protein involved in reverse cholesterol transport. This study sought to determine the genetic and nongenetic predictors of plasma PLTP activity (PLTPa), and separately, to determine whether PLTPa predicted carotid artery disease (CAAD). PLTPa was measured in 1,115 European ancestry participants from a case-control study of CAAD. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to elucidate the relationship between PLTPa and CAAD. Separately, a stepwise linear regression determined the nongenetic clinical and laboratory characteristics that best predicted PLTPa. A final stepwise regression considering both nongenetic and genetic variables identified the combination of covariates that explained maximal PLTPa variance. PLTPa was significantly associated with CAAD (7.90 × 10−9), with a 9% decrease in odds of CAAD per 1 unit increase in PLTPa (odds ratio = 0.91). Triglyceride levels (P = 0.0042), diabetes (P = 7.28 × 10−5), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity (P = 0.019), statin use (P = 0.026), PLTP SNP rs4810479 (P = 6.38 × 10−7), and PCIF1 SNP rs181914932 (P = 0.041) were all significantly associated with PLTPa. PLTPa is significantly inversely correlated with CAAD. Furthermore, we report a novel association between PLTPa and PON1 activity, a known predictor of CAAD. PMID:26009633

  6. Graphic design of pinhole cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. B.; Chu, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a graphic technique for the analysis and optimization of pinhole size and focal length. The technique is based on the use of the transfer function of optical elements described by Scott (1959) to construct the transfer function of a circular pinhole camera. This transfer function is the response of a component or system to a pattern of lines having a sinusoidally varying radiance at varying spatial frequencies. Some specific examples of graphic design are presented.

  7. Determination of Activation Functions in A Feedforward Neural Network by using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuz ÜSTÜN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activation functions of all layers of the multilayered feedforward neural network have been determined by using genetic algorithm. The main criteria that show the efficiency of the neural network is to approximate to the desired output with the same number nodes and connection weights. One of the important parameter to determine this performance is to choose a proper activation function. In the classical neural network designing, a network is designed by choosing one of the generally known activation function. In the presented study, a table has been generated for the activation functions. The ideal activation function for each node has been chosen from this table by using the genetic algorithm. Two dimensional regression problem clusters has been used to compare the performance of the classical static neural network and the genetic algorithm based neural network. Test results reveal that the proposed method has a high level approximation capacity.

  8. Statistical graphics: mapping the pathways of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, H; Velleman, P F

    2001-01-01

    This chapter traces the evolution of statistical graphics starting with its departure from the common noun structure of Cartesian determinism, through William Playfair's revolutionary grammatical shift to graphs as proper nouns, and alights on the modern conception of graph as an active participant in the scientific process of discovery. The ubiquitous availability of data, software, and cheap, high-powered, computing when coupled with the broad acceptance of the ideas in Tukey's 1977 treatise on exploratory data analysis has yielded a fundamental change in the way that the role of statistical graphics is thought of within science-as a dynamic partner and guide to the future rather than as a static monument to the discoveries of the past. We commemorate and illustrate this development while pointing readers to the new tools available and providing some indications of their potential.

  9. GRAPHIC AND MEANING IN LOGO DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADÎR Victor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To design a logo is a special work. It means creation, intelligence, use of colors, and of course, signs and symbols. It is about a visual personality and a signature of an entity. During the working process, a designer has to answer to a few questions, such as: What signs, symbols and colors have to be used? or What are the important things be design in a logo? What are the logos in the market about a same activity? To answer means to design it. The meaning comes mainly from graphics and that is why it is compulsory to pay attention to each detail. The paper talks about the connection between graphic and meaning which may create a corporate identity.

  10. Formal genetic maps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2014-12-24

    Dec 24, 2014 ... Abstract Formal genetic maps are databases, represented as text or graphic figures, that can be ..... cantly, to our current vague and scanty knowledge of many, ...... similar to reverse engineering techniques, might be worthy of.

  11. Acquisition of Genetic Aberrations by Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID during Inflammation-Associated Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Chiba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic abnormalities such as nucleotide alterations and chromosomal disorders that accumulate in various tumor-related genes have an important role in cancer development. The precise mechanism of the acquisition of genetic aberrations, however, remains unclear. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, a nucleotide editing enzyme, is essential for the diversification of antibody production. AID is expressed only in activated B lymphocytes under physiologic conditions and induces somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in immunoglobulin genes. Inflammation leads to aberrant AID expression in various gastrointestinal organs and increased AID expression contributes to cancer development by inducing genetic alterations in epithelial cells. Studies of how AID induces genetic disorders are expected to elucidate the mechanism of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis.

  12. Genetic Algorithm Calibration of Probabilistic Cellular Automata for Modeling Mining Permit Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.

    2003-01-01

    We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate a spatially and temporally resolved cellular automata to model mining activity on public land in Idaho and western Montana. The genetic algorithm searches through a space of transition rule parameters of a two dimensional cellular automata model to find rule parameters that fit observed mining activity data. Previous work by one of the authors in calibrating the cellular automaton took weeks - the genetic algorithm takes a day and produces rules leading to about the same (or better) fit to observed data. These preliminary results indicate that genetic algorithms are a viable tool in calibrating cellular automata for this application. Experience gained during the calibration of this cellular automata suggests that mineral resource information is a critical factor in the quality of the results. With automated calibration, further refinements of how the mineral-resource information is provided to the cellular automaton will probably improve our model.

  13. Acquisition of Genetic Aberrations by Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) during Inflammation-Associated Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takai, Atsushi; Marusawa, Hiroyuki, E-mail: maru@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Chiba, Tsutomu [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2011-06-22

    Genetic abnormalities such as nucleotide alterations and chromosomal disorders that accumulate in various tumor-related genes have an important role in cancer development. The precise mechanism of the acquisition of genetic aberrations, however, remains unclear. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a nucleotide editing enzyme, is essential for the diversification of antibody production. AID is expressed only in activated B lymphocytes under physiologic conditions and induces somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in immunoglobulin genes. Inflammation leads to aberrant AID expression in various gastrointestinal organs and increased AID expression contributes to cancer development by inducing genetic alterations in epithelial cells. Studies of how AID induces genetic disorders are expected to elucidate the mechanism of inflammation-associated carcinogenesis.

  14. Visual Interaction Activated from Figures′ Background Exchange in Graphics Design%论平面设计中图底互换形式诱发的视觉互动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢筱冬

    2012-01-01

    It analyzed the visual perception and its conversion of figures′ background exchange forms from Gestalt psychology′s perspective.It summarizes the two main forms of figures′ background exchange.Combined with some examples of graphic designs,it discussed the figures′ background relationships which could activate viewers′ visual interaction.It put forward the idea that in graphics design,artists should put the creativity in the first place,and the visual psychology rules should be the basis for artists while creating a unique and thought-provoking figure′s background exchange form.By this,it could activate viewers′ visual interaction and induce the viewers to interpret the art works actively,so as to achieve the best state of visual information conveying process.%从格式塔心理学的角度分析了图底互换形式的视知觉感知和转换,归纳了图底互换的2种主要构成形式,并结合平面设计中的一些实例,探讨了能较好诱发观者视觉互动的图底关系。提出在平面设计中,艺术家应以创意为先导、以视觉心理规律为依据,有目的、有意识地创造出独特又耐人寻味的图底互换形式,以此引发观者视觉上的互动,诱导观者积极主动地释读作品,从而达到视觉信息传达过程的最佳状态。

  15. Genetic analysis of lipolytic activities in Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, Benedikt; Angelov, Angel; Li, Haijuan; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2014-12-10

    The extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 displays lipolytic activity for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study we performed a mutational in vivo analysis of esterases and lipases that confer growth on tributyrin. We interrupted 10 ORFs suspected to encode lipolytic enzymes. Two chromosomal loci were identified that resulted in reduced hydrolysis capabilities against tributyrin and various para-nitrophenyl acyl esters. By implementation of a convenient new one-step method which abstains from the use of selectable markers, a mutant strain with multiple scar-less deletions was constructed by sequentially deleting ORFs TT_C1787, TT_C0340, TT_C0341 and TT_C0904. The quadruple deletion mutant of T. thermophilus exhibited significantly lower lipolytic activity (approximately 25% residual activity compared to wild type strain) over a broad range of fatty acyl esters and had lost the ability to grow on agar plates containing tributyrin as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, we were able to determine the impact of each gene disruption on the lipolytic activity profile in this model organism and show that the esterase activity in T. thermophilus HB27 is due to a concerted action of several hydrolases having different substrate preferences and activities. The esterase-less T. thermophilus multi-deletion mutant from this study can be used as a screening and expression host for esterase genes from thermophiles or metagenomes.

  16. Application of Genetic Programming in Predicting Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lin CAO; Huan Ying LI

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we calculated 37 structural descriptors of 174 organic compounds. The154 molecules were used to derive quantitative structure-infinite dilution activity coefficientrelationship by genetic programming, the other 20 compounds were used to test the model. Theresult showed that molecular partition property and three-dimensional structural descriptors havesignificant influence on the infinite dilution activity coefficients.

  17. Graphics-System Color-Code Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulppo, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit originally developed for a flight simulator interfaces a computer graphics system with color monitor. Subsystem is intended for particular display computer (AGT-130, ADAGE Graphics Terminal) and specific color monitor (beam penetration tube--Penetron). Store-and-transmit channel is one of five in graphics/color-monitor interface. Adding 5-bit color code to existing graphics programs requires minimal programing effort.

  18. Antinomies of Semiotics in Graphic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkerson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The following paper assesses the roles played by semiotics in graphic design and in graphic design education, which both reflects and shapes practice. It identifies a series of factors; graphic design education methods and culture; semiotic theories themselves and their application to graphic design; the two wings of Peircian semiotics and…

  19. Vocational Teaching Cube System of Engineering Graphics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangDaofu; LiuShenli

    2003-01-01

    Based on long-time research on vocational teaching cube theory in graphics education and analyzing on the intellectual structure in the process of reading engineering drawing, the graphics intellectual three-dimensional model, which is made up of 100 cubes, is founded and tested in higher vocational graphics education. This system serves as a good guidance to the graphics teaching.

  20. Cartooning History: Canada's Stories in Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alyson E.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, historical events, issues, and characters have been portrayed in an increasing number of non-fiction graphic texts. Similar to comics and graphic novels, graphic texts are defined as fully developed, non-fiction narratives told through panels of sequential art. Such non-fiction graphic texts are being used to teach history in…

  1. Antinomies of Semiotics in Graphic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storkerson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The following paper assesses the roles played by semiotics in graphic design and in graphic design education, which both reflects and shapes practice. It identifies a series of factors; graphic design education methods and culture; semiotic theories themselves and their application to graphic design; the two wings of Peircian semiotics and…

  2. Comprehending, Composing, and Celebrating Graphic Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of graphic poetry in classrooms is encouraged as a way to engage students and motivate them to read and write poetry. This article discusses how graphic poetry can help students with their comprehension of poetry while tapping into popular culture. It is organized around three main sections--reading graphic poetry, writing graphic poetry,…

  3. Cartooning History: Canada's Stories in Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alyson E.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, historical events, issues, and characters have been portrayed in an increasing number of non-fiction graphic texts. Similar to comics and graphic novels, graphic texts are defined as fully developed, non-fiction narratives told through panels of sequential art. Such non-fiction graphic texts are being used to teach history in…

  4. Graphic Design Career Guide 2. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, James

    The graphic design field is diverse and includes many areas of specialization. This guide introduces students to career opportunities in graphic design. The guide is organized in four parts. "Part One: Careers in Graphic Design" identifies and discusses the various segments of the graphic design industry, including: Advertising, Audio-Visual, Book…

  5. Graphics editors in CPDev environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Jamro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available According to IEC 61131-3 norm, controllers and distributed control systems can be programmed in textual and graphical languages. In many scenarios using a graphical language is preferred by the user, because diagrams can be more legible and easier to understand or modify also by people who do not have strong programming skills. What is more, they can be attached to the documentation to present a part of a system implementation. CPDev is an engineering environment that makes possible to program PLCs, PACs, softPLCs and distributed control systems with the usage of languages defined in IEC 61131-3 norm. In earlier versions, it supported only textual languages - ST and IL. Currently, graphics editors for FBD, LD and SFC languages are also available, so users can choose a suitable language depending on their skills and a specificity of a program that they have to prepare. The article presents implementation of the graphics editors, made by the author, which support creating program organization units in all graphical languages defined in IEC 61131-3 norm. They are equipped with a set of basic and complex functionalities to provide an easy and intuitive way of creating programs, function blocks and functions with visual programming. In the article the project structure and some important mechanisms are described. They include e.g. automatic connections finding (with A* algorithm, translation to ST code, conversion to and from XML format and an execution mode supporting multiple data sources and breakpoints.

  6. Configurable software for satellite graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartzman, P D

    1977-12-01

    An important goal in interactive computer graphics is to provide users with both quick system responses for basic graphics functions and enough computing power for complex calculations. One solution is to have a distributed graphics system in which a minicomputer and a powerful large computer share the work. The most versatile type of distributed system is an intelligent satellite system in which the minicomputer is programmable by the application user and can do most of the work while the large remote machine is used for difficult computations. At New York University, the hardware was configured from available equipment. The level of system intelligence resulted almost completely from software development. Unlike previous work with intelligent satellites, the resulting system had system control centered in the satellite. It also had the ability to reconfigure software during realtime operation. The design of the system was done at a very high level using set theoretic language. The specification clearly illustrated processor boundaries and interfaces. The high-level specification also produced a compact, machine-independent virtual graphics data structure for picture representation. The software was written in a systems implementation language; thus, only one set of programs was needed for both machines. A user can program both machines in a single language. Tests of the system with an application program indicate that is has very high potential. A major result of this work is the demonstration that a gigantic investment in new hardware is not necessary for computing facilities interested in graphics.

  7. Genetic Diversity in Introduced Golden Mussel Populations Corresponds to Vector Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabooli, Sara; Zhan, Aibin; Sardiña, Paula; Paolucci, Esteban; Sylvester, Francisco; Perepelizin, Pablo V.; Briski, Elizabeta; Cristescu, Melania E.; MacIsaac, Hugh J.

    2013-01-01

    We explored possible links between vector activity and genetic diversity in introduced populations of Limnoperna fortunei by characterizing the genetic structure in native and introduced ranges in Asia and South America. We surveyed 24 populations: ten in Asia and 14 in South America using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, as well as eight polymorphic microsatellite markers. We performed population genetics and phylogenetic analyses to investigate population genetic structure across native and introduced regions. Introduced populations in Asia exhibit higher genetic diversity (HE = 0.667–0.746) than those in South America (HE = 0.519–0.575), suggesting higher introduction effort for the former populations. We observed pronounced geographical structuring in introduced regions, as indicated by both mitochondrial and nuclear markers based on multiple genetic analyses including pairwise ФST, FST, Bayesian clustering method, and three-dimensional factorial correspondence analyses. Pairwise FST values within both Asia (FST = 0.017–0.126, P = 0.000–0.009) and South America (FST = 0.004–0.107, P = 0.000–0.721) were lower than those between continents (FST = 0.180–0.319, P = 0.000). Fine-scale genetic structuring was also apparent among introduced populations in both Asia and South America, suggesting either multiple introductions of distinct propagules or strong post-introduction selection and demographic stochasticity. Higher genetic diversity in Asia as compared to South America is likely due to more frequent propagule transfers associated with higher shipping activities between source and donor regions within Asia. This study suggests that the intensity of human-mediated introduction vectors influences patterns of genetic diversity in non-indigenous species. PMID:23533614

  8. Genetic diversity in introduced golden mussel populations corresponds to vector activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ghabooli

    Full Text Available We explored possible links between vector activity and genetic diversity in introduced populations of Limnoperna fortunei by characterizing the genetic structure in native and introduced ranges in Asia and South America. We surveyed 24 populations: ten in Asia and 14 in South America using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene, as well as eight polymorphic microsatellite markers. We performed population genetics and phylogenetic analyses to investigate population genetic structure across native and introduced regions. Introduced populations in Asia exhibit higher genetic diversity (H(E = 0.667-0.746 than those in South America (H(E =  0.519-0.575, suggesting higher introduction effort for the former populations. We observed pronounced geographical structuring in introduced regions, as indicated by both mitochondrial and nuclear markers based on multiple genetic analyses including pairwise Ф(ST, F(ST, bayesian clustering method, and three-dimensional factorial correspondence analyses. Pairwise F(ST values within both Asia (F(ST = 0.017-0.126, P = 0.000-0.009 and South America (F(ST =0.004-0.107, P = 0.000-0.721 were lower than those between continents (F(ST = 0.180-0.319, P = 0.000. Fine-scale genetic structuring was also apparent among introduced populations in both Asia and South America, suggesting either multiple introductions of distinct propagules or strong post-introduction selection and demographic stochasticity. Higher genetic diversity in Asia as compared to South America is likely due to more frequent propagule transfers associated with higher shipping activities between source and donor regions within Asia. This study suggests that the intensity of human-mediated introduction vectors influences patterns of genetic diversity in non-indigenous species.

  9. Genetic analysis of beta1 integrin "activation motifs" in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czuchra, Aleksandra; Meyer, Hannelore; Legate, Kyle R

    2006-01-01

    tails, leading to tail separation and integrin activation. We analyzed mice in which we mutated the tyrosines of the beta1 tail and the membrane-proximal aspartic acid required for the salt bridge. Tyrosine-to-alanine substitutions abolished beta1 integrin functions and led to a beta1 integrin......-null phenotype in vivo. Surprisingly, neither the substitution of the tyrosines with phenylalanine nor the aspartic acid with alanine resulted in an obvious defect. These data suggest that the NPXY motifs of the beta1 integrin tail are essential for beta1 integrin function, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation......Akey feature of integrins is their ability to regulate the affinity for ligands, a process termed integrin activation. The final step in integrin activation is talin binding to the NPXY motif of the integrin beta cytoplasmic domains. Talin binding disrupts the salt bridge between the alpha/beta...

  10. Fractal geometry and computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Sakas, Georgios; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto; Englert, Gabriele

    1992-01-01

    Fractal geometry has become popular in the last 15 years, its applications can be found in technology, science, or even arts. Fractal methods and formalism are seen today as a general, abstract, but nevertheless practical instrument for the description of nature in a wide sense. But it was Computer Graphics which made possible the increasing popularity of fractals several years ago, and long after their mathematical formulation. The two disciplines are tightly linked. The book contains the scientificcontributions presented in an international workshop in the "Computer Graphics Center" in Darmstadt, Germany. The target of the workshop was to present the wide spectrum of interrelationships and interactions between Fractal Geometry and Computer Graphics. The topics vary from fundamentals and new theoretical results to various applications and systems development. All contributions are original, unpublished papers.The presentations have been discussed in two working groups; the discussion results, together with a...

  11. Relativistic Hydrodynamics on Graphic Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhard, Jochen; Bleicher, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We show how to accelerate relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using graphic cards (graphic processing units, GPUs). These improvements are of highest relevance e.g. to the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC where (ideal and dissipative) relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm (SHASTA), which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.

  12. Classroom Activities to Engage Students and Promote Critical Thinking about Genetic Regulation of Bacterial Quorum Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Aebli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We developed an interactive activity to mimic bacterial quorum sensing, and a classroom worksheet to promote critical thinking about genetic regulation of the lux operon. The interactive quorum sensing activity engages students and provides a direct visualization of how population density functions to influence light production in bacteria. The worksheet activity consists of practice problems that require students to apply basic knowledge of the lux operon in order to make predictions about genetic complementation experiments, and students must evaluate how genetic mutations in the lux operon affect gene expression and overall phenotype. The worksheet promotes critical thinking and problem solving skills, and emphasizes the roles of diffusible signaling molecules, regulatory proteins, and structural proteins in quorum sensing.

  13. Genetic counseling, activism and 'genotype-first' diagnosis of developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a sociological examination of the role of genetic counselors as advocates, not only for patients and their families, but also for genetic conditions themselves. In becoming activists for new disorders, genetic counselors are helping to create new categories that will shape expectations and treatment regimens for both existing patients and those who are yet to be diagnosed. By virtue of their expertise and their position at the intersection of several key professions and constituencies, genetic counselors are likely to play a central role in the way the genetic testing technologies, and especially 'genotype-first' diagnosis, impacts the way we understand and categorize developmental difference. I outline some of the promises and dangers that this kind of activism holds for people with developmental disabilities, and particularly the challenge presented by systemic ascertainment bias in the face of genotype-phenotype uncertainty. I argue that new testing techniques like microarray analysis that do not need to be targeted on the basis of clinical presentation throw these challenges into sharp relief, and that the genetic counseling community should consider how to marry advocacy for new genetic conditions with an emphasis on the indeterminate developmental potential of every child.

  14. Graphic Journeys: Graphic Novels' Representations of Immigrant Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how immigrant experiences are represented in the narratives of three graphic novels published in the last decade: Tan's (2007) "The Arrival," Kiyama's (1931/1999) "The Four Immigrants Manga: A Japanese Experience in San Francisco, 1904-1924," and Yang's (2006) "American Born Chinese." Through a theoretical lens informed by…

  15. Graphic Journeys: Graphic Novels' Representations of Immigrant Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how immigrant experiences are represented in the narratives of three graphic novels published in the last decade: Tan's (2007) "The Arrival," Kiyama's (1931/1999) "The Four Immigrants Manga: A Japanese Experience in San Francisco, 1904-1924," and Yang's (2006) "American Born Chinese." Through a theoretical lens informed by…

  16. STORYBOARD DALAM PEMBUATAN MOTION GRAPHIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrya Mahardhika

    2013-09-01

    screenplay, character, environment design and storyboards. The storyboard will be determined through camera angles, blocking, sets, and many supporting roles involved in a scene. Storyboard is also useful as a production reference in recording or taping each scene in sequence or as an efficient priority. The example used is an ad creation using motion graphic animation storyboard which has an important role as a blueprint for every scene and giving instructions to make the transition movement, layout, blocking, and defining camera movement that everything should be done periodically in animation production. Planning before making the animation or motion graphic will make the job more organized, presentable, and more efficient in the process.

  17. Heritability of brain activity related to response inhibition: A longitudinal genetic study in adolescent twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P; Golosheykin, Simon; Grant, Julia D; Heath, Andrew C

    2017-05-01

    The ability to inhibit prepotent but context- or goal-inappropriate responses is essential for adaptive self-regulation of behavior. Deficits in response inhibition, a key component of impulsivity, have been implicated as a core dysfunction in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as ADHD and addictions. Identification of genetically transmitted variation in the neural underpinnings of response inhibition can help to elucidate etiological pathways to these disorders and establish the links between genes, brain, and behavior. However, little is known about genetic influences on the neural mechanisms of response inhibition during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by weak self-regulation of behavior. Here we investigated heritability of ERPs elicited in a Go/No-Go task in a large sample of adolescent twins assessed longitudinally at ages 12, 14, and 16. Genetic analyses showed significant heritability of inhibition-related frontal N2 and P3 components at all three ages, with 50 to 60% of inter-individual variability being attributable to genetic factors. These genetic influences included both common genetic factors active at different ages and novel genetic influences emerging during development. Finally, individual differences in the rate of developmental changes from age 12 to age 16 were significantly influenced by genetic factors. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for genetic influences on neural correlates of response inhibition during adolescence and suggests that ERPs elicited in the Go/No-Go task can serve as intermediate neurophysiological phenotypes (endophenotypes) for the study of disinhibition and impulse control disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic Algorithm-Based Design of the Active Damping for an LCL-Filter Three-Phase Active Rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liserre, Marco; Aquila, Antonio Dell; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    of this filter is easily done, for a wide range of sampling frequencies, with the use of genetic algorithms. This method is used only for the optimum choice of the parameters in the filter, and an on-line implementation is not needed. Thus the resulting active damping solution does not need new sensors...

  19. A Global Genomic Screening Strategy Reveals Genetic and Chemical Activators ofPeroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARalpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive survey of chemical, diet and genetic perturbations that activate PPARalpha in the mouse liver has not been carried out but would be useful to identify the factors that may contribute to PPARalpha-dependent liver tumors. A gene signature dependent on PPARalpha ac...

  20. Real-time volume graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Klaus; Kniss, Joe; Rezk-Salama, Christof; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Based on course notes of SIGGRAPH course teaching techniques for real-time rendering of volumetric data and effects; covers both applications in scientific visualization and real-time rendering. Starts with the basics (texture-based ray casting) and then improves and expands the algorithms incrementally. Book includes source code, algorithms, diagrams, and rendered graphics.

  1. Graphic Novels in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Today many authors and artists adapt works of classic literature into a medium more "user friendly" to the increasingly visual student population. Stefan Petrucha and Kody Chamberlain's version of "Beowulf" is one example. The graphic novel captures the entire epic in arresting images and contrasts the darkness of the setting and characters with…

  2. Fluid simulation for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Bridson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Animating fluids like water, smoke, and fire using physics-based simulation is increasingly important in visual effects, in particular in movies, like The Day After Tomorrow, and in computer games. This book provides a practical introduction to fluid simulation for graphics. The focus is on animating fully three-dimensional incompressible flow, from understanding the math and the algorithms to the actual implementation.

  3. A Poetics of Graphic Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Proposes that the work of the French feminist writers Helene Cixous and Luce Irigaray could serve as the basis for devising a more imaginative form of critical writing that might help to draw the history and practice of graphic design into a closer and more purposeful relation. (SR)

  4. Recorded Music and Graphic Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterer, Irv

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of art as an element of music-recording packaging. Describes a project in which students design a jacket for either cassette or CD using a combination of computerized and traditional rendering techniques. Reports that students have been inspired to look into careers in graphic design. (DSK)

  5. Graphic Arts/Offset Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoisington, James; Metcalf, Joseph

    This revised curriculum for graphic arts is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary students with entry-level skills and an understanding of current printing technology. It contains lesson plans based on entry-level competencies for offset lithography as identified by educators and industry representatives. The guide is divided into 15…

  6. GRAPHIC INTERFACES FOR ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion PANA,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Using effective the method of calculating Fitness for Service requires the achievement of graphical interfaces. This paper presents an example of such interfaces, made with Visual Basic program and used in the evaluation of pipelines in a research contract [4

  7. Mixed scale joint graphical lasso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pircalabelu, E.; Claeskens, G.; Waldorp, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a method for estimating brain networks from fMRI datasets that have not all been measured using the same set of brain regions. Some of the coarse scale regions have been split in smaller subregions. The proposed penalized estimation procedure selects undirected graphical models wit

  8. Graphic Design in Educational Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Beverley

    To help educational television (ETV) practitioners achieve maximum clarity, economy and purposiveness, the range of techniques of television graphics is explained. Closed-circuit and broadcast ETV are compared. The design process is discussed in terms of aspect ratio, line structure, cut off, screen size, tone scales, studio apparatus, and…

  9. Storyboard dalam Pembuatan Motion Graphic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrya Mahardhika

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Motion graphics is one category in the animation that makes animation with lots of design elements in each component. Motion graphics needs long process including preproduction, production, and postproduction. Preproduction has an important role so that the next stage may provide guidance or instructions for the production process or the animation process. Preproduction includes research, making the story, script, screenplay, character, environment design and storyboards. The storyboard will be determined through camera angles, blocking, sets, and many supporting roles involved in a scene. Storyboard is also useful as a production reference in recording or taping each scene in sequence or as an efficient priority. The example used is an ad creation using motion graphic animation storyboard which has an important role as a blueprint for every scene and giving instructions to make the transition movement, layout, blocking, and defining camera movement that everything should be done periodically in animation production. Planning before making the animation or motion graphic will make the job more organized, presentable, and more efficient in the process.  

  10. Identification of a genetic cluster influencing memory performance and hippocampal activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2006-03-14

    Experimental work in animals has shown that memory formation depends on a cascade of molecular events. Here we show that variability of human memory performance is related to variability in genes encoding proteins of this signaling cascade, including the NMDA and metabotrobic glutamate receptors, adenylyl cyclase, CAMKII, PKA, and PKC. The individual profile of genetic variability in these signaling molecules correlated significantly with episodic memory performance (P < 0.00001). Moreover, functional MRI during memory formation revealed that this genetic profile correlated with activations in memory-related brain regions, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus. The present study indicates that genetic variability in the human homologues of memory-related signaling molecules contributes to interindividual differences in human memory performance and memory-related brain activations.

  11. Genetically enhancing mitochondrial antioxidant activity improves muscle function in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umanskaya, Alisa; Santulli, Gaetano; Xie, Wenjun; Andersson, Daniel C; Reiken, Steven R; Marks, Andrew R

    2014-10-21

    Age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity that affects up to half the population aged 80 or greater. Here we tested the effects of increased mitochondrial antioxidant activity on age-dependent skeletal muscle dysfunction using transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of the human catalase gene to mitochondria (MCat mice). Aged MCat mice exhibited improved voluntary exercise, increased skeletal muscle specific force and tetanic Ca(2+) transients, decreased intracellular Ca(2+) leak and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) load compared with age-matched wild type (WT) littermates. Furthermore, ryanodine receptor 1 (the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release channel required for skeletal muscle contraction; RyR1) from aged MCat mice was less oxidized, depleted of the channel stabilizing subunit, calstabin1, and displayed increased single channel open probability (Po). Overall, these data indicate a direct role for mitochondrial free radicals in promoting the pathological intracellular Ca(2+) leak that underlies age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle function. This study harbors implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, including mitochondria-targeted antioxidants for treatment of mitochondrial myopathies and other healthspan-limiting disorders.

  12. Genetic background affects human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianshu Bai

    Full Text Available The human glial fibrillary acidic protein (hGFAP promoter has been used to generate numerous transgenic mouse lines, which has facilitated the analysis of astrocyte function in health and disease. Here, we evaluated the expression levels of various hGFAP transgenes at different ages in the two most commonly used inbred mouse strains, FVB/N (FVB and C57BL/6N (B6N. In general, transgenic mice maintained on the B6N background displayed weaker transgene expression compared with transgenic FVB mice. Higher level of transgene expression in B6N mice could be regained by crossbreeding to FVB wild type mice. However, the endogenous murine GFAP expression was equivalent in both strains. In addition, we found that endogenous GFAP expression was increased in transgenic mice in comparison to wild type mice. The activities of the hGFAP transgenes were not age-dependently regulated. Our data highlight the importance of proper expression analysis when non-homologous recombination transgenesis is used.

  13. DGLa:A Distributed Graphics Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志庚; 胡冰峰; 等

    1994-01-01

    A distributed graphics programming language called DGLa is presented,which facilitates the development of distributed graphics application.Facilities for distributed programming and graphics support are included in it,It not only supports synchronous and asynchronous communication but also provides programmer with multiple control mechanism for process communication.The graphics support of DGLa is powerful,for both sequential graphics library and parallel graphics library are provided.The design consideration and implementation experience are discussed in detail in this paper.Application examples are also given.

  14. Teaching graphics in technical communication classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    Graphic aids convey and clarify information more efficiently and accurately than words alone therefore, most technical writing includes the use of graphics. Ways of accumulating and presenting graphics illustrations on a shoestring budget are suggested. These include collecting graphics from companies, annual reports and laminating them for workshop use or putting them on a flip chart for classroom presentation, creating overhead transparencies to demonstrate different levels of effectiveness of graphic aids, and bringing in grahic artists for question/answer periods or in class workshops. Also included are an extensive handout as an introduction to graphics, sample assignments, and a selected and annotated bibliography.

  15. Genetically lowered microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity and tobacco-related cancer in 47,000 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Julie; Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Two functional polymorphisms of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) gene (EPHX1), Tyr113His (rs1051740) and His139Arg (rs2234922), have variably been found to influence susceptibility to various cancer forms. We tested whether genetically lowered mEH activity affects risk of developing cancer...

  16. eNOS Activation by HDL Is Impaired in Genetic CETP Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomaraschi, Monica; Ossoli, Alice; Pozzi, Silvia; Nilsson, Peter; Cefalu, Angelo B.; Averna, Maurizio; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Veglia, Fabrizio; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the CETP gene resulting in defective CETP activity have been shown to cause remarkable elevations of plasma HDL-C levels, with the accumulation in plasma of large, buoyant HDL particles enriched in apolipoprotein E. Genetic CETP deficiency thus represents a unique tool to evaluate how s

  17. Evaluation of the genetic effects of the in vitro antimicrobial activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the genetic effects of the in vitro antimicrobial activities of Rhazya stricta leaf extract using molecular techniques and scanning electron microscope. ... bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) with the aqueous leaves extract of R. stricta ... of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of the genomic DNA extracted from the ...

  18. eNOS Activation by HDL Is Impaired in Genetic CETP Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomaraschi, Monica; Ossoli, Alice; Pozzi, Silvia; Nilsson, Peter; Cefalu, Angelo B.; Averna, Maurizio; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Veglia, Fabrizio; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the CETP gene resulting in defective CETP activity have been shown to cause remarkable elevations of plasma HDL-C levels, with the accumulation in plasma of large, buoyant HDL particles enriched in apolipoprotein E. Genetic CETP deficiency thus represents a unique tool to evaluate how

  19. Reverse-engineering graphical innovation: an introduction to graphical regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Arsenault

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological innovation in the video games industry is a rich area of research that has barely been explored as of yet. Gamers are always clamoring for novelty and a remedy to the oft-decried “sequelitis” that “plagues” the industry, while game publishers and platform holders secretly plan a next-gen platform to capture the ever-shifting market. In this light, the importance of graphics cannot be understated, as it is usually taken for granted in game historiography that “[g]ame graphics were, and to a large extent still are, the main criteria by which advancing video game technology is benchmarked” (Wolf, 2003, p.53.

  20. Physical activity attenuates genetic effects on BMI: Results from a study of Chinese adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biqi; Gao, Wenjing; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Jiang, Guohong; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Binyou; Cao, Weihua; Li, Liming

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the gene-environment interaction of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) using the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). A total of 19,308 same-sex adult twins from CNTR were included in the analysis. Twin zygosity was determined by self-reported questionnaire. Height and weight were measured using self-reported questionnaire. The vigorous physical activity was defined as greater or equal to five times a week of at least 30 min moderate- or high-intensity physical activity. A twin structural equation model was used to analyze the gene-environment interaction of vigorous exercise with BMI among 13,506 monozygotic twins and 5,802 dizygotic twins. A structural equation model adjusting for age and sex found vigorous exercise significantly moderated the additive genetic effects (P genetic contributions to BMI were significantly lower for people who adopted a physically active lifestyle [h(2) = 40%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 35%-46%] than those who were relative sedentary (h(2) = 59%, 95% CI: 52%-66%). The observed gene-physical activity interaction was more pronounced in men than women. Our results suggested that adopting a physically active lifestyle may help to reduce the genetic influence on BMI among the Chinese population. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  1. Functional information technology in geometry-graphic training of engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina D. Stolbova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, information technology fundamentally changed the design activity and made significant adjustments to the development of design documentation. Electronic drawings and 3d-models appeared instead of paper drawings and the traditional form of the design documentation. Geometric modeling of 3d-technology has replaced the graphic design technology. Standards on the electronic models are introduced. Electronic prototypes and 3d-printing contribute to the spread of rapid prototyping technologies.In these conditions, the task to find the new learning technology, corresponding to the level of development of information technologies and meeting the requirements of modern design and manufacturing technologies, comes to the fore. The purpose of this paper — the analysis of the information technology capabilities in the formation of geometrical-graphic competences, happening in the base of graphic training of students of technical university. Traditionally, basic graphic training of students in the junior university courses consisted in consecutive studying of the descriptive geometry, engineering and computer graphics. Today, the use of integrative approach is relevant, but the role of computer graphics varies considerably. It is not only an object of study, but also a learning tool, the core base of graphic training of students. Computer graphics is an efficient mechanism for the development of students’ spatial thinking. The role of instrumental training of students to the wide use of CAD-systems increases in the solution of educational problems and in the implementation of project tasks, which corresponds to the modern requirements of the professional work of the designer-constructor.In this paper, the following methods are used: system analysis, synthesis, simulation.General geometric-graphic training model of students of innovation orientation, based on the use of a wide range of computer technology is developed. The

  2. Metabolic activity and genetic diversity of microbial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of halophyton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárány, Agnes; Szili-Kovács, Tibor; Krett, Gergely; Füzy, Anna; Márialigeti, Károly; Borsodi, Andrea K

    2014-09-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to compare the community level physiological profile (CLPP) and genetic diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities of four plant species growing nearby Kiskunság soda ponds, namely Böddi-szék, Kelemen-szék and Zab-szék. CLPP was assessed by MicroResp method using 15 different substrates while Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to analyse genetic diversity of bacterial communities. The soil physical and chemical properties were quite different at the three sampling sites. Multivariate statistics (PCA and UPGMA) revealed that Zab-szék samples could be separated according to their genetic profile from the two others which might be attributed to the geographical location and perhaps the differences in soil physical properties. Böddi-szék samples could be separated from the two others considering the metabolic activity which could be explained by their high salt and low humus contents. The number of bands in DGGE gels was related to the metabolic activity, and positively correlated with soil humus content, but negatively with soil salt content. The main finding was that geographical location, soil physical and chemical properties and the type of vegetation were all important factors influencing the metabolic activity and genetic diversity of rhizosphere microbial communities.

  3. GnuForPlot Graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-04

    Gnuforplot Graphics is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two and three dimensional plots of data on a personal computer. The program uses calls to the open source code Gnuplot to generate the plots. Two Fortran90 programs have been written to use the Gnuplot graphics capabilities. The first program, named Plotsetup.f90 reads data from output files created by either the Stadium or LeachXS/Orchestra modeling codes and saves the data in arrays for plotting. This program then calls Gnuforplot which takes the data array along with user specified parameters to set plot specifications and issues Gnuplot commands that generate the screen plots. The user can view the plots and optionally save copies in jpeg format.

  4. Graphical Multiprocessing Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seager, M.K.; Campbell, S.; Sikora, S.; Strout, R.; Zosel, M.

    1988-03-01

    The design and debugging of parallel programs is a difficult task due to the complex synchronization and data scoping issues involed. to aid the programmer in paralle code dvelopment we have developed two methodologies for the graphical display of execution of parallel codes. The Graphical Multiprocessing Analysis Tools (GMAT) consist of stategraph, which represents an inheritance tree of task states, and timeline, which represens task as flowing sequence of events. Information about the code can be displayed as the application runs (dynamic mode) or played back with time under user control (static mode). This document discusses the design and user interface issues involved in developing the parallel application display GMAT family. Also, we present an introductory user's guide for both tools. 4 figs.

  5. Approximating Graphic TSP by Matchings

    CERN Document Server

    Mömke, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We present a framework for approximating the metric TSP based on a novel use of matchings. Traditionally, matchings have been used to add edges in order to make a given graph Eulerian, whereas our approach also allows for the removal of certain edges leading to a decreased cost. For the TSP on graphic metrics (graph-TSP), the approach yields a 1.461-approximation algorithm with respect to the Held-Karp lower bound. For graph-TSP restricted to a class of graphs that contains degree three bounded and claw-free graphs, we show that the integrality gap of the Held-Karp relaxation matches the conjectured ratio 4/3. The framework allows for generalizations in a natural way and also leads to a 1.586-approximation algorithm for the traveling salesman path problem on graphic metrics where the start and end vertices are prespecified.

  6. Image reproduction with interactive graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, J. D.; Council, H. W.; Edwards, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Software application or development in optical image digital data processing requires a fast, good quality, yet inexpensive hard copy of processed images. To achieve this, a Cambo camera with an f 2.8/150-mm Xenotar lens in a Copal shutter having a Graflok back for 4 x 5 Polaroid type 57 pack-film has been interfaced to an existing Adage, AGT-30/Electro-Mechanical Research, EMR 6050 graphic computer system. Time-lapse photography in conjunction with a log to linear voltage transformation has resulted in an interactive system capable of producing a hard copy in 54 sec. The interactive aspect of the system lies in a Tektronix 4002 graphic computer terminal and its associated hard copy unit.

  7. Intuitive Music and Graphic Notation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    Describes subjects existing at Aalborg University since the middle eighties. "Intuitive Music" trains free improvisation through exercises including group-dynamic exercises, awareness exercises and parameter exercises. Students also create open compositions. "Graphic notation"concerns aural scores....... Students' works are quoted. The writer discusses the theoretical context and advocates for giving more attention to music as the medium in which music therapy takes place, referring to language theory and Jakobson. NB: the description of the two subjects are, at the present moment (2011) no longer up...... to date. Intuitive music stresses less making compositions and more using the main instrument intuitively. Graphic notation has been integrated into a larger subject (also taught by the present author) which also comprises other methods of description and interpretation of music....

  8. Language teaching and graphic colonial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Yaneth Chaparro Cardozo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a reflection of the colonial baroque ornamentation from education and graphic blocks; analyzing aspects such as creating maps of the Basilica Church Cathedral Santiago de Tunja. This research tests the interpretation of the drawing and construction of ornamental figures of the native nature of the region in the colonies of the city of Tunja, Boyacá churches. This study of the visual reconstruction of the routes that make a group of children on the reinterpretation of the design in the construction of maps of colonial baroque in the creation and graphic composition. Given the importance of aesthetics in the visual language manuals maples ornaments of the cathedral with a look from the pedagogy and education in studies of iconography Erwin Panofsky in understanding the phenomenon of space. 

  9. Data structures, computer graphics, and pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Klinger, A; Kunii, T L

    1977-01-01

    Data Structures, Computer Graphics, and Pattern Recognition focuses on the computer graphics and pattern recognition applications of data structures methodology.This book presents design related principles and research aspects of the computer graphics, system design, data management, and pattern recognition tasks. The topics include the data structure design, concise structuring of geometric data for computer aided design, and data structures for pattern recognition algorithms. The survey of data structures for computer graphics systems, application of relational data structures in computer gr

  10. Graphic filter library implemented in CUDA language

    OpenAIRE

    Peroutková, Hedvika

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the problem of reducing computation time of raster image processing by parallel computing on graphics processing unit. Raster image processing thereby refers to the application of graphic filters, which can be applied in sequence with different settings. This thesis evaluates the suitability of using parallelization on graphic card for raster image adjustments based on multicriterial choice. Filters are implemented for graphics processing unit in CUDA language. Opacity ...

  11. General data base driven graphic animation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Most attempts at the graphic animation of data involve rather large and expensive development of problem-specific systems. This paper discusses a general graphics animation system designed to be a tool for the development of a wide variety of animated simulations. By incorporating device-independent graphics procedures and using relational database storage of graphics and control information, considerable flexibility in the design and development of animated displays is achieved. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Towards art content in original graphic arts

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Graphic art defines numerous graphic art techniques; from classical original graphic art techniques to the new media techniques. The new media reproduction and communication capacity influences contemporary art works in such way that more attention is on non-artistic content, while artistic content with its visual efficiency becomes less important. Reproductibility is one of the non-artistic contents which plays a key role in original graphic arts, where it is a means of making o...

  13. Graphical Models for Bandit Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Kareem; Syed, Umar

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a rich class of graphical models for multi-armed bandit problems that permit both the state or context space and the action space to be very large, yet succinctly specify the payoffs for any context-action pair. Our main result is an algorithm for such models whose regret is bounded by the number of parameters and whose running time depends only on the treewidth of the graph substructure induced by the action space.

  14. Molecular genetic analysis of activation-tagged transcription factors thought to be involved in photomorphogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, Michael M.

    2011-06-23

    This is a final report for Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER15927 entitled “Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-Tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis”. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob1-D mutant, we hypothesized that OBP3 is a transcription factor involved in both phytochrome and cryptochrome-mediated signal transduction. In addition, we hypothesized that OBP3 is involved in auxin signaling and root development. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob2-D mutant, we also hypothesized that a related gene, LEP, is involved in hormone signaling and seedling development.

  15. Differential trypanocidal activity of novel macrolide antibiotics; correlation to genetic lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Aquilino

    Full Text Available Here we report the systematic study of the anti-trypanocidal activity of some new products derived from S. diastatus on 14 different T. cruzi strains spanning the six genetic lineages of T. cruzi. As the traditional growth inhibition curves giving similar IC(50 showed great differences on antibiotic and lineage tested, we decided to preserve the wealth of information derived from each inhibition curve and used an algorithm related to potency of the drugs, combined in a matrix data set used to generate a cluster tree. The cluster thus generated based just on drug susceptibility data closely resembles the phylogenies of the lineages derived from genetic data and provides a novel approach to correlate genetic data with phenotypes related to pathogenesis of Chagas disease. Furthermore we provide clues on the drugs mechanism of action.

  16. Quantitative estimation of activity and quality for collections of functional genetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalik, Vivek K; Guimaraes, Joao C; Cambray, Guillaume; Mai, Quynh-Anh; Christoffersen, Marc Juul; Martin, Lance; Yu, Ayumi; Lam, Colin; Rodriguez, Cesar; Bennett, Gaymon; Keasling, Jay D; Endy, Drew; Arkin, Adam P

    2013-04-01

    The practice of engineering biology now depends on the ad hoc reuse of genetic elements whose precise activities vary across changing contexts. Methods are lacking for researchers to affordably coordinate the quantification and analysis of part performance across varied environments, as needed to identify, evaluate and improve problematic part types. We developed an easy-to-use analysis of variance (ANOVA) framework for quantifying the performance of genetic elements. For proof of concept, we assembled and analyzed combinations of prokaryotic transcription and translation initiation elements in Escherichia coli. We determined how estimation of part activity relates to the number of unique element combinations tested, and we show how to estimate expected ensemble-wide part activity from just one or two measurements. We propose a new statistic, biomolecular part 'quality', for tracking quantitative variation in part performance across changing contexts.

  17. Graphical Language for Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonso, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A graphical language for processing data allows processing elements to be connected with virtual wires that represent data flows between processing modules. The processing of complex data, such as lidar data, requires many different algorithms to be applied. The purpose of this innovation is to automate the processing of complex data, such as LIDAR, without the need for complex scripting and programming languages. The system consists of a set of user-interface components that allow the user to drag and drop various algorithmic and processing components onto a process graph. By working graphically, the user can completely visualize the process flow and create complex diagrams. This innovation supports the nesting of graphs, such that a graph can be included in another graph as a single step for processing. In addition to the user interface components, the system includes a set of .NET classes that represent the graph internally. These classes provide the internal system representation of the graphical user interface. The system includes a graph execution component that reads the internal representation of the graph (as described above) and executes that graph. The execution of the graph follows the interpreted model of execution in that each node is traversed and executed from the original internal representation. In addition, there are components that allow external code elements, such as algorithms, to be easily integrated into the system, thus making the system infinitely expandable.

  18. Graphical Classification of Entangled Qutrits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Honda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A multipartite quantum state is entangled if it is not separable. Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in many applications of quantum information theory, such as quantum teleportation. Stochastic local quantum operations and classical communication (SLOCC cannot essentially change quantum entanglement without destroying it. Therefore, entanglement can be classified by dividing quantum states into equivalence classes, where two states are equivalent if each can be converted into the other by SLOCC. Properties of this classification, especially in the case of non two-dimensional quantum systems, have not been well studied. Graphical representation is sometimes used to clarify the nature and structural features of entangled states. SLOCC equivalence of quantum bits (qubits has been described graphically via a connection between tripartite entangled qubit states and commutative Frobenius algebras (CFAs in monoidal categories. In this paper, we extend this method to qutrits, i.e., systems that have three basis states. We examine the correspondence between CFAs and tripartite entangled qutrits. Using the symmetry property, which is required by the definition of a CFA, we find that there are only three equivalence classes that correspond to CFAs. We represent qutrits graphically, using the connection to CFAs. We derive equations that characterize the three equivalence classes. Moreover, we show that any qutrit can be represented as a composite of three graphs that correspond to the three classes.

  19. Lean mainstream schemes for Stata 8 graphics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Svend

    2003-01-01

    The new Stata 8 graphics are powerful and flexible. Now, a few months after the first release, the graphics still have some shortcomings—both in design and in the manual documenting the program—but progress is being made. The graph layout used throughout the Graphics Reference Manual has led some...

  20. Minard's Graphic of Napoleon in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of Charles Minard's graphic of Napoleon's 1812 Russian Campaign as an instructional tool in history classes. Maintains that the graphic, created in 1861, can be analyzed by students to determine six historical and geographical factors involved in Napoleon's defeat. Includes a copy of Minard's graphic. (CFR)

  1. Graphic Novels in Your School Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Many educators now agree that graphic novels inform as well as entertain, and to dismiss the educational potential of the graphic novel is to throw away a golden opportunity to reach out to young readers. This dynamic book takes a look at the term "graphic novel," how the format has become entwined in our culture, and the ways in which graphic…

  2. Graphic Novels in Your School Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Many educators now agree that graphic novels inform as well as entertain, and to dismiss the educational potential of the graphic novel is to throw away a golden opportunity to reach out to young readers. This dynamic book takes a look at the term "graphic novel," how the format has become entwined in our culture, and the ways in which graphic…

  3. Grid OCL : A Graphical Object Connecting Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, I. J.; Schutz, B. F.

    In this paper, we present an overview of the Grid OCL graphical object connecting language. Grid OCL is an extension of Grid, introduced last year, that allows users to interactively build complex data processing systems by selecting a set of desired tools and connecting them together graphically. Algorithms written in this way can now also be run outside the graphical environment.

  4. Narrative Problems of Graphic Design History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Victor

    1994-01-01

    Discusses three major accounts (by Philip Meggs, Enric Satue and Richard Hollis) of graphic design history. Notes that these texts address the history of graphic design, but each raises questions about what material to include, as well as how graphic design is both related to and distinct from other visual practices such as typography, art…

  5. Creating Graphics Files for SGML Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunemann, Rhonda S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that, when creating graphics files for documents in a Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) environment, technical writers should consider the differences between bitmapped and vector file formats; be familiar with available file formats; determine which graphics format best meets the needs; and incorporate the graphic into the SGML…

  6. A handbook of statistical graphics using SAS ODS

    CERN Document Server

    Der, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Graphics: Good Graphics, Bad Graphics, Catastrophic Graphics and Statistical GraphicsThe Challenger DisasterGraphical DisplaysA Little History and Some Early Graphical DisplaysGraphical DeceptionAn Introduction to ODS GraphicsGenerating ODS GraphsODS DestinationsStatistical Graphics ProceduresODS Graphs from Statistical ProceduresControlling ODS GraphicsControlling Labelling in GraphsODS Graphics EditorGraphs for Displaying the Characteristics of Univariate Data: Horse Racing, Mortality Rates, Forearm Lengths, Survival Times and Geyser EruptionsIntroductionPie Chart, Bar Cha

  7. Measuring Cognitive Load in Test Items: Static Graphics versus Animated Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, M.; Kabakçi Yurdakul, I.; Inan Dönmez, F.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of multimedia learning studies focus on the use of graphics in learning process but very few of them examine the role of graphics in testing students' knowledge. This study investigates the use of static graphics versus animated graphics in a computer-based English achievement test from a cognitive load theory perspective. Three…

  8. Graphic Presentation: An Empirical Examination of the Graphic Novel Approach to Communicate Business Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jeremy C.; Randolph-Seng, Brandon; McKenny, Aaron F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphic novels have been increasingly incorporated into business communication forums. Despite potential benefits, little research has examined the merits of the graphic novel approach. In response, we engage in a two-study approach. Study 1 explores the potential of graphic novels to affect learning outcomes and finds that the graphic novel was…

  9. Graphic Presentation: An Empirical Examination of the Graphic Novel Approach to Communicate Business Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jeremy C.; Randolph-Seng, Brandon; McKenny, Aaron F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphic novels have been increasingly incorporated into business communication forums. Despite potential benefits, little research has examined the merits of the graphic novel approach. In response, we engage in a two-study approach. Study 1 explores the potential of graphic novels to affect learning outcomes and finds that the graphic novel was…

  10. Alterations in cerebellar glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in a genetic model of torsion dystonia (rat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmans, G A; Beales, M; Lorden, J F; Gordon, J H

    1984-07-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity was studied in specific brain regions of a newly identified genetic (rat) model of human torsion dystonia. GAD activity was found to be significantly increased in the deep cerebellar nuclei of dystonic rats at 16, 20, and 24 days of age. GAD activity in the other regions examined (vermis, cerebellar hemispheres, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus) did not differ from that of age-matched normal littermate controls. Diazepam treatment significantly reduced the frequency of dystonic movements in the mutant.

  11. Does self-construal predict activity in the social brain network? A genetic moderation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Han, Shihui

    2014-01-01

    Neural activity in the social brain network varies across individuals with different cultural traits and different genetic polymorphisms. It remains unknown whether a specific genetic polymorphism may influence the association between cultural traits and neural activity in the social brain network. We tested whether the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) affects the association between self-construals and neural activity involved in reflection of personal attributes of oneself and a significant other (i.e., mother). Using functional MRI, we scanned Chinese adults with short/short (s/s) or long/long (l/l) variants of the 5-HTTLPR during reflection of personal attributes of oneself and one’s mother. We found that, while s/s and l/l genotype groups did not differ significantly in self-construals measured by the Self-Construal Scale, the relationship between self-construal scores and neural responses to reflection of oneself and mother was significantly different between the two genotype groups. Specifically, l/l but not s/s genotype group showed significant association between self-construal scores and activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle frontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, insula and hippocampus during reflection on mental attributes of oneself and mother. Our findings suggest that a specific genetic polymorphism may interact with a cultural trait to shape the neural substrates underlying social cognition. PMID:24009354

  12. Genetic risk and longitudinal disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus using targeted maximum likelihood estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrancesco, M A; Balzer, L; Taylor, K E; Trupin, L; Nititham, J; Seldin, M F; Singer, A W; Criswell, L A; Barcellos, L F

    2016-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with genetic and environmental risk factors. However, the extent to which genetic risk is causally associated with disease activity is unknown. We utilized longitudinal-targeted maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the causal association between a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising 41 established SLE variants and clinically important disease activity as measured by the validated Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) in a multiethnic cohort of 942 individuals with SLE. We did not find evidence of a clinically important SLAQ score difference (>4.0) for individuals with a high GRS compared with those with a low GRS across nine time points after controlling for sex, ancestry, renal status, dialysis, disease duration, treatment, depression, smoking and education, as well as time-dependent confounding of missing visits. Individual single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses revealed that 12 of the 41 variants were significantly associated with clinically relevant changes in SLAQ scores across time points eight and nine after controlling for multiple testing. Results based on sophisticated causal modeling of longitudinal data in a large patient cohort suggest that individual SLE risk variants may influence disease activity over time. Our findings also emphasize a role for other biological or environmental factors.

  13. Some Thoughts on Contemporary Graphic Print

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Skiba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The production requirements of original graphic works of art have changed since 1980. The development of digital printing using lightfast colors now rivals traditional techniques such as wood cut, screen print, lithography, etching etc. Today, with respect to artistic legitimacy, original graphics using traditional printing techniques compete with original graphics produced by digital printing techniques on the art market. What criteria distinguish traditional printing techniques from those of digital printing in the production and acquisition of original graphics? What consequences is the serious artist faced with when deciding to implement digital print production? How does digital print change original graphic acquisition decisions?

  14. A Multi-Agent Mah Jong Playing System: Towards Real-Time Recognition of Graphic Units in Graphic Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Achten

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In architectural design, sketching is an important means to explore the first conceptual developments in the design process. It is necessary to understand the conventions of depiction and encoding in sketches and drawings if we want to support the architect in the sketching activity. The theory of graphic units provides a comprehensive list of conventions of depiction and encoding that are widely used among architects. These graphic units form useful building blocks to understand design drawings. We investigate whether it is possible to build a system that can recognize graphic units. The technology we are looking at is multi-agent systems. It was chosen for the following reasons: agents can specialize in graphic units, a multi-agent system can deal with ambiguity through negotiation and conflict resolution, and multi-agent systems function in dynamically changing environments. Currently there is no general approach or technology available for multi-agent systems. Therefore, in our research we first set out to make such a multi-agent system. In order to keep the complexity low, we first aim to make a system that can do something simple: playing Mah Jong solitary. The Mah Jong solitary system shares the following important features with a multi-agent system that can recognize graphic units: (1 specialized agents for moves; (2 negotiation between agents to establish the best move; (3 a dynamically changing environment; and (4 search activity for more advanced strategies. The paper presents the theoretical basis of graphic units and multi-agents systems, followed by a description of the multi-agent framework and its implementation. A number of systems that can play Mah Jong at various degrees of competence and accordingly degrees of complexity of multi-agent system, are distinguished. Finally, the paper demonstrates how the findings are informative for a system that can recognize graphic units.

  15. Genetic influences on mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Petersen, Inge; Thiel, Steffen;

    2007-01-01

    The lectin pathway of the complement system is activated when Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in complex with MASP-2 binds microorganisms. Polymorphisms in both genes are responsible for low serum levels, which associate with increased risk of infection and autoimmune disease. The present study...... of additive genetic factors, shared environmental factors, and non-shared environmental factors. The genetic correlation, i.e., common genetic factors affecting MBL and MASP-2 activity was estimated to r(g) = 0.34 [0.25;0.42]. The data indicate a strong genetic influence for the serum levels of MBL...

  16. Waking up Streptomyces secondary metabolism by constitutive expression of activators or genetic disruption of repressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigle, Bertrand; Corre, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Streptomycete bacteria are renowned as a prolific source of natural products with diverse biological activities. Production of these metabolites is often subject to transcriptional regulation: the biosynthetic genes remain silent until the required environmental and/or physiological signals occur. Consequently, in the laboratory environment, many gene clusters that direct the biosynthesis of natural products with clinical potential are not expressed or at very low level preventing the production/detection of the associated metabolite. Genetic engineering of streptomycetes can unleash the production of many new natural products. This chapter describes the overexpression of pathway-specific activators, the genetic disruption of pathway-specific repressors, and the main strategy used to identify and characterize new natural products from these engineered Streptomyces strains.

  17. Genetic studies of two inherited human phenotypes : Hearing loss and monoamine oxidase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Balciuniene, Jorune

    2001-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the identification of genetic factors underlying two inherited human phenotypes: hearing loss and monoamine oxidase activity. Non-syndromic hearing loss segregating in a Swedish family was tested for linkage to 13 previously reported candidate loci for hearing disabilities. Linkage was found to two loci: DFNA12 (llq22-q24) and DFNA2 (lp32). A detailed analysis of the phenotypes and haplotypes shared by the affected individuals supported the hypothesis of digenic inheri...

  18. Genetic variability and nitrogenase activity of cyanobacterial communities associated with tropical seagrass meadows (western Indian Ocean)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamisi, Mariam

    2010-01-01

    Tropical seagrass ecosystems are highly productive and important for sustaining marine life and associated coastal societies. In this study, the diversity and role of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria associated with five common seagrass genera in coastal regions of the western Indian Ocean (WIO; Tanzania) were examined, as well as the impact of anthropogenic activities. Cyanobacteria were characterized morphologically and genetically (16S rRNA and nifH gene phylogeny), as were diel variations in...

  19. Wang Tiles in Computer Graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Lagae, Ares

    2009-01-01

    Many complex signals in computer graphics, such as point distributions and textures, cannot be efficiently synthesized and stored. This book presents tile-based methods based on Wang tiles and corner tiles to solve both these problems. Instead of synthesizing a complex signal when needed, the signal is synthesized beforehand over a small set of Wang tiles or corner tiles. Arbitrary large amounts of that signal can then efficiently be generated when needed by generating a stochastic tiling, and storing only a small set of tiles reduces storage requirements. A tile-based method for generating a

  20. CELLULAR AUTOMATA AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şen ÇAKIR

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular Automata (CA are simple mathematical systems which provide models for a variety of physical processes. They show how minute changes and simple rules lead to enormous changes in the behaviour of a system. They can also be used as computer graphics tools to produce a rich reservoir of interesting figures. In recent years, CA have attracked the attention of many scientists. Today, CA are used in many fields from ecology to image processing. In this paper, it is shown that a large number of complex and interesting patterns can be created with relatively simple CA rules.

  1. Evaluating a genetically encoded optical sensor of neural activity using electrophysiology in intact adult fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Laurent

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded optical indicators hold the promise of enabling non-invasive monitoring of activity in identified neurons in behaving organisms. However, the interpretation of images of brain activity produced using such sensors is not straightforward. Several recent studies of sensory coding used G-CaMP 1.3-a calcium sensor-as an indicator of neural activity; some of these studies characterized the imaged neurons as having narrow tuning curves, a conclusion not always supported by parallel electrophysiological studies. To better understand the possible cause of these conflicting results, we performed simultaneous in vivo 2-photon imaging and electrophysiological recording of G-CaMP 1.3 expressing neurons in the antennal lobe (AL of intact fruitflies. We find that G-CaMP has a relatively high threshold, that its signal often fails to capture spiking response kinetics, and that it can miss even high instantaneous rates of activity if those are not sustained. While G-CaMP can be misleading, it is clearly useful for the identification of promising neural targets: when electrical activity is well above the sensor's detection threshold, its signal is fairly well correlated with mean firing rate and G-CaMP does not appear to alter significantly the responses of neurons that express it. The methods we present should enable any genetically encoded sensor, activator, or silencer to be evaluated in an intact neural circuit in vivo in Drosophila.

  2. Leukocyte glucocerebrosidase and β-hexosaminidase activity in sporadic and genetic Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beomseok; Song, Junghan; Lee, Woong-Woo; Park, Hyeyoung; Shin, Chae-Won

    2016-02-01

    Recent reports have shown that the activities of lysosomal enzymes are altered in the CNS of sporadic PD (sPD) without GBA mutations. We hypothesized that the activities of lysosomal enzymes are altered in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of patients with sPD and other genetic parkinsonism. Glucocerebrosidase and β-hexosaminidase activities in PBLs were measured in 36 patients with sPD, 5 PD patients with PARK2 mutations, 10 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 17 with parkinsonism, and 20 healthy controls. The glucocerebrosidase and β-hexosaminidase activities were not different in patients with sPD, PD with PARK2 mutations, and SCA17 with parkinsonism from those of the controls. In the patients with sPD, the activity of GCase was positively correlated with disease duration. The glucocerebrosidase and β-hexosaminidase activities in PBLs cannot be used as a biomarker in sPD and other genetic parkinsonism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular and genetic properties of tumors associated with local immune cytolytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Michael S.; Shukla, Sachet A.; Wu, Catherine J.; Getz, Gad; Hacohen, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Summary How the genomic landscape of a tumor shapes and is shaped by anti-tumor immunity has not been systematically explored. Using large-scale genomic datasets of solid tissue tumor biopsies, we quantified the cytolytic activity of the local immune infiltrate and identified associated properties across 18 tumor types. The number of predicted MHC Class I-associated neoantigens was correlated with cytolytic activity and was lower than expected in colorectal and other tumors, suggesting immune-mediated elimination. We identified recurrently mutated genes that showed positive association with cytolytic activity, including beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), HLA-A, -B and -C and Caspase 8 (CASP8), highlighting loss of antigen presentation and blockade of extrinsic apoptosis as key strategies of resistance to cytolytic activity. Genetic amplifications were also associated with high cytolytic activity, including immunosuppressive factors such as PDL1/2 and ALOX12B/15B. Our genetic findings thus provide evidence for immunoediting in tumors and uncover mechanisms of tumor-intrinsic resistance to cytolytic activity. PMID:25594174

  4. Short communication: Effect of genetic type on antioxidant activity of Caciocavallo cheese during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant activity of Caciocavallo cheese made from the milk of 2 breeds, Italian Brown and Italian Holstein, and ripened for 1, 30, 60, 90, and 150 d. The antioxidant activity of cheese was measured using the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and thiol assays. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. Italian Brown cheese had higher antioxidant activity than Italian Holstein cheese, and antioxidant activity increased during ripening of both cheeses types. Moreover, antioxidant activity varied during ripening depending on the rate of formation of soluble peptides. To date, few studies have evaluated the effect of genetic type on antioxidant capacity of the pasta filata cheeses; thus, this study forms the basis of new knowledge that could lead to the production of a pasta filata cheese with specific nutraceutical characteristics.

  5. Identifying predictors of activity based anorexia susceptibility in diverse genetic rodent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneda Pjetri

    Full Text Available Animal studies are very useful in detection of early disease indicators and in unravelling the pathophysiological processes underlying core psychiatric disorder phenotypes. Early indicators are critical for preventive and efficient treatment of progressive psychiatric disorders like anorexia nervosa. Comparable to physical hyperactivity observed in anorexia nervosa patients, in the activity-based anorexia rodent model, mice and rats express paradoxical high voluntary wheel running activity levels when food restricted. Eleven inbred mouse strains and outbred Wistar WU rats were exposed to the activity-based anorexia model in search of identifying susceptibility predictors. Body weight, food intake and wheel running activity levels of each individual mouse and rat were measured. Mouse strains and rats with high wheel running activity levels during food restriction exhibited accelerated body weight loss. Linear mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed that baseline wheel running activity levels preceding the scheduled food restriction phase strongly predicted activity-based anorexia susceptibility (mice: Beta  =  -0.0158 (±0.003 SE, P<0.0001; rats: Beta  =  -0.0242 (±0.004 SE, P<0.0001 compared to other baseline parameters. These results suggest that physical activity levels play an important role in activity-based anorexia susceptibility in different rodent species with genetically diverse background. These findings support previous retrospective studies on physical activity levels in anorexia nervosa patients and indicate that pre-morbid physical activity levels could reflect an early indicator for disease severity.

  6. Causal discovery in an adult ADHD data set suggests indirect link between DAT1 genetic variants and striatal brain activation during reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Elena; Hoogman, Martine; Groot, Perry; Claassen, Tom; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara; Heskes, Tom

    2015-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable disorder affecting both children and adults. One of the candidate genes for ADHD is DAT1, encoding the dopamine transporter. In an attempt to clarify its mode of action, we assessed brain activity during the reward anticipation phase of the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task in a functional MRI paradigm in 87 adult participants with ADHD and 77 controls (average age 36.5 years). The MID task activates the ventral striatum, where DAT1 is most highly expressed. A previous analysis based on standard statistical techniques did not show any significant dependencies between a variant in the DAT1 gene and brain activation [Hoogman et al. (2013); Neuropsychopharm 23:469-478]. Here, we used an alternative method for analyzing the data, that is, causal modeling. The Bayesian Constraint-based Causal Discovery (BCCD) algorithm [Claassen and Heskes (2012); Proceedings of the 28th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence] is able to find direct and indirect dependencies between variables, determines the strength of the dependencies, and provides a graphical visualization to interpret the results. Through BCCD one gets an opportunity to consider several variables together and to infer causal relations between them. Application of the BCCD algorithm confirmed that there is no evidence of a direct link between DAT1 genetic variability and brain activation, but suggested an indirect link mediated through inattention symptoms and diagnostic status of ADHD. Our finding of an indirect link of DAT1 with striatal activity during reward anticipation might explain existing discrepancies in the current literature. Further experiments should confirm this hypothesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Computer graphics techniques and computer-generated movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Robert E.; Blinn, James F.

    1988-04-01

    The JPL Computer Graphics Laboratory (CGL) has been using advanced computer graphics for more than ten years to simulate space missions and related activities. Applications have ranged from basic computer graphics used interactively to allow engineers to study problems, to sophisticated color graphics used to simulate missions and produce realistic animations and stills for use by NASA and the scientific press. In addition, the CGL did the computer animation for ``Cosmos'', a series of general science programs done for Public Television in the United States by Carl Sagan and shown world-wide. The CGL recently completed the computer animation for ``The Mechanical Universe'', a series of fifty-two half-hour elementary physics lectures, led by Professor David Goodstein of the California Institute of Technology, and now being shown on Public Television in the US. For this series, the CGL produced more than seven hours of computer animation, averaging approximately eight minutes and thirty seconds of computer animation per half-hour program. Our aim at the JPL Computer Graphics Laboratory (CGL) is the realistic depiction of physical phenomena, that is, we deal primarily in ``science education'' rather than in scientific research. Of course, our attempts to render physical events realistically often require the development of new capabilities through research or technology advances, but those advances are not our primary goal.

  8. Engineering graphic modelling a workbook for design engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tjalve, E; Frackmann Schmidt, F

    2013-01-01

    Engineering Graphic Modelling: A Practical Guide to Drawing and Design covers how engineering drawing relates to the design activity. The book describes modeled properties, such as the function, structure, form, material, dimension, and surface, as well as the coordinates, symbols, and types of projection of the drawing code. The text provides drawing techniques, such as freehand sketching, bold freehand drawing, drawing with a straightedge, a draughting machine or a plotter, and use of templates, and then describes the types of drawing. Graphic designers, design engineers, mechanical engine

  9. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations.

  10. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter L Erdős

    Full Text Available In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007, for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011 and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013. Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes, and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS for counting of all realizations.

  11. Activation of complement by an IgG molecule without a genetic hinge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, O H; Michaelsen, T E; Sandin, R; Sandlie, I

    1993-06-17

    The hinge region links the two Fab arms to the Fc portion of the IgG molecule. It mediates flexibility to the molecule and serves as a connecting structure between the two heavy chains. In addition it provides space between the Fab and Fc parts. All three properties have been proposed to be important for the ability of IgG to initiate complement activation leading to complement-mediated cell lysis (CML). Here we report the construction of a hinge-deleted mouse-human chimaeric IgG3 molecule with specificity for the hapten NIP (3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-nitrophenacetyl), HM-1. HM-1 lacks the genetic hinge, but has an introduced cysteine between Ala 231 (EU numbering) and Pro 232 in the lower hinge encoded by the CH2 exon. The introduced cysteine forms a disulphide bond between the two heavy chains of the molecule. In CML, HM-1 shows a greater activity than IgG3 wild type. This is the first time an IgG molecule without a genetic hinge has been found to be active in CML. We conclude that the hinge functioning as a spacer is not a prerequisite for complement activation. Rather, its major role seems to be to connect the heavy chains to each other in the amino-terminal part of CH2. Because HM-1 is expected to have low Fab-Fc flexibility, this molecular feature is probably of no importance for complement activation.

  12. Helping Students Test Programs That Have Graphical User Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Thornton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Within computer science education, many educators are incorporating software testing activities into regular programming assignments. Tools like JUnit and its relatives make software testing tasks much easier, bringing them into the realm of even introductory students. At the same time, many introductory programming courses are now including graphical interfaces as part of student assignments to improve student interest and engagement. Unfortunately, writing software tests for programs that have significant graphical user interfaces is beyond the skills of typical students (and many educators. This paper presents initial work at combining educationally oriented and open-source tools to create an infrastructure for writing tests for Java programs that have graphical user interfaces. Critically, these tools are intended to be appropriate for introductory (CS1/CS2 student use, and to dovetail with current teaching approaches that incorporate software testing in programming assignments. We also include in our findings our proposed approach to evaluating our techniques.

  13. Impaired activity-dependent neural circuit assembly and refinement in autism spectrum disorder genetic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Andrew Doll

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Early-use activity during circuit-specific critical periods refines brain circuitry by the coupled processes of eliminating inappropriate synapses and strengthening maintained synapses. We theorize these activity-dependent developmental processes are specifically impaired in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. ASD genetic models in both mouse and Drosophila have pioneered our insights into normal activity-dependent neural circuit assembly and consolidation, and how these developmental mechanisms go awry in specific genetic conditions. The monogenic Fragile X syndrome (FXS, a common cause of heritable ASD and intellectual disability, has been particularly well linked to defects in activity-dependent critical period processes. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP is positively activity-regulated in expression and function, in turn regulates excitability and activity in a negative feedback loop, and appears to be required for the activity-dependent remodeling of synaptic connectivity during early-use critical periods. The Drosophila FXS model has been shown to functionally conserve the roles of human FMRP in synaptogenesis, and has been centrally important in generating our current mechanistic understanding of the FXS disease state. Recent advances in Drosophila optogenetics, transgenic calcium reporters, highly-targeted transgenic drivers for individually-identified neurons, and a vastly improved connectome of the brain are now being combined to provide unparalleled opportunities to both manipulate and monitor activity-dependent processes during critical period brain development in defined neural circuits. The field is now poised to exploit this new Drosophila transgenic toolbox for the systematic dissection of activity-dependent mechanisms in normal versus ASD brain development, particularly utilizing the well-established Drosophila FXS disease model.

  14. Effect of the electronic and physicochemical parameters on the carcinogenesis activity of some sulfa drugs using QSAR analysis based on genetic-MLR and genetic-PLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Omar; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Jaber, Amal; Garduno-Juarez, R; Miri, Ramin

    2007-05-01

    A quantitative structure activity relationship study has been applied to a data set of 18 sulfa drugs with carcinogenesis activity. Semi-empirical quantum chemical calculation (AM1 method) was used to find the optimum 3D geometry of the studied molecules. Two types of molecular descriptors including chemical and electronic was used to derive a quantitative relation between the carcinogenesis activity and structural properties. Two multi-parametric equations with good statistical qualities were obtained using genetic algorithms multiple linear regression (GA-MLR) methods. In addition, genetic algorithm-partial least squares (GA-PLS) regression was used to model the structure-activity relationships, more accurately. The results confirmed the superiority of the results obtained by GA-PLS relative to GA-MLR. The significant effect of the HOMO energy on the carcinogenic activity was explained in the context of the shape of this orbital.

  15. Genetically encoded optical sensors for monitoring of intracellular chloride and chloride-selective channel activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bregestovski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review briefly discusses the main approaches for monitoring chloride (Cl−, the most abundant physiological anion. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular Cl− ([Cl−]i is a challenging task owing to two main difficulties: (i the low transmembrane ratio for Cl−, approximately 10:1; and (ii the small driving force for Cl−, as the Cl− reversal potential (ECl is usually close to the resting potential of the cells. Thus, for reliable monitoring of intracellular Cl−, one has to use highly sensitive probes. From several methods for intracellular Cl− analysis, genetically encoded chloride indicators represent the most promising tools. Recent achievements in the development of genetically encoded chloride probes are based on the fact that yellow fluorescent protein (YFP exhibits Cl−-sensitivity. YFP-based probes have been successfully used for quantitative analysis of Cl− transport in different cells and for high-throughput screening of modulators of Cl−-selective channels. Development of a ratiometric genetically encoded probe, Clomeleon, has provided a tool for noninvasive estimation of intracellular Cl− concentrations. While the sensitivity of this protein to Cl− is low (EC50 about 160 mM, it has been successfully used for monitoring intracellular Cl− in different cell types. Recently a CFP–YFP-based probe with a relatively high sensitivity to Cl− (EC50 about 30 mM has been developed. This construct, termed Cl-Sensor, allows ratiometric monitoring using the fluorescence excitation ratio. Of particular interest are genetically encoded probes for monitoring of ion channel distribution and activity. A new molecular probe has been constructed by introducing into the cytoplasmic domain of the Cl−-selective glycine receptor (GlyR channel the CFP–YFP-based Cl-Sensor. This construct, termed BioSensor-GlyR, has been successfully expressed in cell lines. The new genetically encoded chloride probes offer means of screening

  16. Antimicrobial activity and genetic profile of Enteroccoci isolated from hoopoes uropygial gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Valdivia, Eva; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Méndez, María; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M; Soler, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic microorganisms may be directly transferred from parents to offspring or acquired from a particular environment that animals may be able to select. If benefits for hosts vary among microbial strains, natural selection may favour hosts holding the most beneficial one. Enterococci symbionts living in the hoopoe (Upupa epops) uropygial gland are able to synthesise bacteriocins (antimicrobial peptides that inhibit the growth of competitor bacteria). We explored variability in genetic profile (through RAPD-PCR analyses) and antimicrobial properties (by performing antagonistic tests against ten bacterial indicator strains) of the different isolates obtained from the uropygial glands of hoopoe females and nestlings. We found that the genetic profile of bacterial isolates was related to antimicrobial activity, as well as to individual host identity and the nest from which samples were obtained. This association suggest that variation in the inhibitory capacity of Enterococci symbionts should be under selection.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity and Genetic Profile of Enteroccoci Isolated from Hoopoes Uropygial Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Valdivia, Eva; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel; Martín-Platero, Antonio M.; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Méndez, María; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M.; Soler, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic microorganisms may be directly transferred from parents to offspring or acquired from a particular environment that animals may be able to select. If benefits for hosts vary among microbial strains, natural selection may favour hosts holding the most beneficial one. Enterococci symbionts living in the hoopoe (Upupa epops) uropygial gland are able to synthesise bacteriocins (antimicrobial peptides that inhibit the growth of competitor bacteria). We explored variability in genetic profile (through RAPD-PCR analyses) and antimicrobial properties (by performing antagonistic tests against ten bacterial indicator strains) of the different isolates obtained from the uropygial glands of hoopoe females and nestlings. We found that the genetic profile of bacterial isolates was related to antimicrobial activity, as well as to individual host identity and the nest from which samples were obtained. This association suggest that variation in the inhibitory capacity of Enterococci symbionts should be under selection. PMID:22911858

  18. Antimicrobial activity and genetic profile of Enteroccoci isolated from hoopoes uropygial gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ruiz-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Symbiotic microorganisms may be directly transferred from parents to offspring or acquired from a particular environment that animals may be able to select. If benefits for hosts vary among microbial strains, natural selection may favour hosts holding the most beneficial one. Enterococci symbionts living in the hoopoe (Upupa epops uropygial gland are able to synthesise bacteriocins (antimicrobial peptides that inhibit the growth of competitor bacteria. We explored variability in genetic profile (through RAPD-PCR analyses and antimicrobial properties (by performing antagonistic tests against ten bacterial indicator strains of the different isolates obtained from the uropygial glands of hoopoe females and nestlings. We found that the genetic profile of bacterial isolates was related to antimicrobial activity, as well as to individual host identity and the nest from which samples were obtained. This association suggest that variation in the inhibitory capacity of Enterococci symbionts should be under selection.

  19. Lipschitz Parametrization of Probabilistic Graphical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Honorio, Jean

    2012-01-01

    We show that the log-likelihood of several probabilistic graphical models is Lipschitz continuous with respect to the lp-norm of the parameters. We discuss several implications of Lipschitz parametrization. We present an upper bound of the Kullback-Leibler divergence that allows understanding methods that penalize the lp-norm of differences of parameters as the minimization of that upper bound. The expected log-likelihood is lower bounded by the negative lp-norm, which allows understanding the generalization ability of probabilistic models. The exponential of the negative lp-norm is involved in the lower bound of the Bayes error rate, which shows that it is reasonable to use parameters as features in algorithms that rely on metric spaces (e.g. classification, dimensionality reduction, clustering). Our results do not rely on specific algorithms for learning the structure or parameters. We show preliminary results for activity recognition and temporal segmentation.

  20. 创意思维与图形设计%Creative Thinking and Graphic Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛饶民

    2004-01-01

    In commercial activities, graphic design needs to be effective in its visual language in order to accurately communicate its message to consumers. To achieve this, designers need creative thinking, among which diffusible thinking and retrorse thinking are of the first importance. This article analyzes the various factors and methods needed to be considered during the creative graphic design.

  1. Using Interactive Graphics to Teach Multivariate Data Analysis to Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Mora, Pedro M.; Ledesma, Ruben D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of interactive graphics to teach multivariate data analysis to Psychology students. Three techniques are explored through separate activities: parallel coordinates/boxplots; principal components/exploratory factor analysis; and cluster analysis. With interactive graphics, students may perform important parts of the…

  2. Using Interactive Graphics to Teach Multivariate Data Analysis to Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Mora, Pedro M.; Ledesma, Ruben D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of interactive graphics to teach multivariate data analysis to Psychology students. Three techniques are explored through separate activities: parallel coordinates/boxplots; principal components/exploratory factor analysis; and cluster analysis. With interactive graphics, students may perform important parts of the…

  3. Genetic and logic networks with the signal-inhibitor-activator structure are dynamically robust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fangting; TAN Ning

    2006-01-01

    The proteins, DNA and RNA interaction networks govern various biological functions in living cells, these networks should be dynamically robust in the intracellular and environmental fluctuations. Here, we use Boolean network to study the robust structure of both genetic and logic networks. First, SOS network in bacteria E. coli, which regulates cell survival and repair after DNA damage, is shown to be dynamically robust. Comparing with cell cycle network in budding yeast and flagella network in E. coli, we find the signal-inhibitor-activator (SIA) structure in transcription regulatory networks. Second, under the dynamical rule that inhibition is much stronger than activation, we have searched 3-node non-self-loop logical networks that are dynamically robust, and that if the attractive basin of a final attractor is as large as seven, and the final attractor has only one active node, then the active node acts as inhibitor, and the SIA and signal-inhibitor (SI) structures are fundamental architectures of robust networks. SIA and SI networks with dynamic robustness against environment uncertainties may be selected and maintained over the course of evolution, rather than blind trial-error testing and be ing an accidental consequence of particular evolutionary history. SIA network can perform a more complex process than SI network, andSIA might be used to design robust artificial genetic network. Our results provide dynamical support for why the inhibitors and SIA/SI structures are frequently employed in cellular regulatory networks.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT APPLICATION OF GRAPHICAL CALCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Alina Angelica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Some typical engineering problems can be solved using graphical methods in an integrated way for knowledge of design, mathematics, mechanics and physics. This paper presents some graphical methods which improve student’s performances on streigth of intuitive interpretation, visualization and understanding solutions of engineering problems. The increased use of graphical methods adds another layer of interpretation to a given task requiring the coordination of different knowledge, in order to produce a correct solution and to improve the product design.

  5. GRADE: a graphical programming environment for multicomputers

    OpenAIRE

    Kacsuk, P; G. Dózsa; T. Fadfyas; R. Lovas

    2012-01-01

    To provide high-level graphical support for developing message passing programs, an integrated programming environment (GRADE) is being developed. GRADE currently provides tools to construct, execute, debug, monitor and visualize message passing based parallel programs. GRADE offers the programmer an integrated graphical user interface during the whole life-cycle of program development and provides high-level graphical programming abstraction mechanisms to construct parallel applications. The...

  6. Guidebook to R graphics using Microsoft Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Takezawa, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Introduces the graphical capabilities of R to readers new to the software Due to its flexibility and availability, R has become the computing software of choice for statistical computing and generating graphics across various fields of research. Guidebook to R Graphics Using Microsoft® Windows offers a unique presentation of R, guiding new users through its many benefits, including the creation of high-quality graphics. Beginning with getting the program up and running, this book takes readers step by step through the process of creating histograms, boxplots, strip charts, time series gra

  7. Application of genetic algorithm - multiple linear regressions to predict the activity of RSK inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avval Zhila Mohajeri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with developing a linear quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR model for predicting the RSK inhibition activity of some new compounds. A dataset consisting of 62 pyrazino [1,2-α] indole, diazepino [1,2-α] indole, and imidazole derivatives with known inhibitory activities was used. Multiple linear regressions (MLR technique combined with the stepwise (SW and the genetic algorithm (GA methods as variable selection tools was employed. For more checking stability, robustness and predictability of the proposed models, internal and external validation techniques were used. Comparison of the results obtained, indicate that the GA-MLR model is superior to the SW-MLR model and that it isapplicable for designing novel RSK inhibitors.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyoung Doo; Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Jung, Hye Seung; Cho, Young Min; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Young Joo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Kyong Soo

    2004-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors regulating the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Three different PPARs, PPAR-alpha, -gamma, and -delta, have been characterized, and they are distinguished from each other by tissue distribution and cell activation. All PPARs are, to different extents, activated by fatty acids and derivatives. Recently, it has been shown that PPAR-delta serves as a widespread regulator of fat burning, suggesting that it might be a potential target in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In an effort to identify polymorphic markers in potential candidate genes for type 2 diabetes, we have sequenced PPAR-delta, including -1,500 bp of the 5' flanking region. Nine polymorphisms were identified in PPAR-delta: four in the intron, one in the 5' untranslated region (UTR), and four in the 3' UTR. Among identified polymorphisms, five common sites, including c.-13454G>T, c.-87T>C, c.2022+12G>A, c.2629T>C, and c.2806C>G, were genotyped in subjects with type 2 diabetes and normal control subjects (n = 702). The genetic associations with the risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic phenotype were analyzed. No significant associations with the risk of type 2 diabetes were detected. However, several positive associations of PPAR-delta polymorphisms with fasting plasma glucose and BMI were detected in nondiabetic control subjects. The genetic information about PPAR-delta from this study would be useful for further genetic study of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases.

  9. The genetic basis of mast cell activation disease - looking through a glass darkly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molderings, Gerhard J

    2015-02-01

    Within the last decade, and in particular since 2012, research has greatly extended our understanding of the molecular basis of systemic mast cell activation disease (MCAD). Initial studies demonstrated that somatic mutations in the tyrosine kinase KIT led to the establishment of a clonal mast cell population. Recent studies, in particular those involving next generation sequencing analyses of advanced systemic mastocytosis, have revealed mutations in additional genes. The respective genes encode proteins for various signaling pathways, epigenetic regulators, the RNA splicing machinery, and transcription factors. Although almost all of the detected mutations are somatic in nature, transgenerational transmission of MCAD appears to be quite common. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying genetic predestination, e.g. germline mutations and the contribution of epigenetic processes, still await identification. The aim of the present review is to present and discuss available genetic findings, and to outline the relationship between adult-onset systemic MCAD and childhood-onset mastocytosis, often termed cutaneous mastocytosis, on the basis of current genetic data. Finally, the implications of increased knowledge of the molecular basis of MCAD in terms of diagnostics and therapy are discussed.

  10. StrigoQuant: A genetically encoded biosensor for quantifying strigolactone activity and specificity

    KAUST Repository

    Samodelov, S. L.

    2016-11-05

    Strigolactones are key regulators of plant development and interaction with symbiotic fungi; however, quantitative tools for strigolactone signaling analysis are lacking. We introduce a genetically encoded hormone biosensor used to analyze strigolactone-mediated processes, including the study of the components involved in the hormone perception/signaling complex and the structural specificity and sensitivity of natural and synthetic strigolactones in Arabidopsis, providing quantitative insights into the stereoselectivity of strigolactone perception. Given the high specificity, sensitivity, dynamic range of activity, modular construction, ease of implementation, and wide applicability, the biosensor StrigoQuant will be useful in unraveling multiple levels of strigolactone metabolic and signaling networks.

  11. Graphic design as urban design: towards a theory for analysing graphic objects in urban environments.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a model for analysing the graphic object as urban object, by considering atypical fields of discourse that contribute to the formation of the object domain. The question: what is graphic design as urban design? directs the research through an epistemological design study comprising: an interrogation of graphic design studio practice and the articulation of graphic design research questions; a review and subsequent development of research strategy, design and method toward...

  12. THE USING OF GRAPHICAL EDITOR IN THE ENGINEERING GRAPHICS AND THE COURSE DESIGNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPYUK L. V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The problems of learning students of the engineering and computer graphics of the course on the base of computer-aided design (CAD were described in the article. The examples of training tasks for acquiring knowledge of work in the environment of graphical editor of AutoCAD were shown. These examples are needed to perform drawings on The Engineering Graphics, and also for a graphic part of Course Projects for students of mechanical specialties.

  13. Exploring the Effects of Active Learning on High School Students' Outcomes and Teachers' Perceptions of Biotechnology and Genetics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Ashley L.; Knobloch, Neil A.; Orvis, Kathryn S.

    2015-01-01

    Active learning can engage high school students to learn science, yet there is limited understanding if active learning can help students learn challenging science concepts such as genetics and biotechnology. This quasi-experimental study explored the effects of active learning compared to passive learning regarding high school students'…

  14. Physiology of immunity in the water flea Daphnia magna: environmental and genetic aspects of phenoloxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucklow, Patrick T; Ebert, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the ecological correlates of immunocompetence in Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera), we tested for variation in immune function in relation to feeding conditions, host conditions, and host genotype. We investigated both phenotypic (environmental dependent and condition dependent) as well as genotypic aspects of the prophenoloxidase activating system (Pro-POAS), which has been described as a key factor in invertebrate immunity. Daphnia magna is an ideal study system to disentangle phenotypic and genetic variation because females can reproduce clonally. Well-fed Daphnia showed higher phenoloxidase (PO) activity than Daphnia kept at a low food level. Wounding provoked a higher level of PO activity, indicating that the Pro-POAS was condition dependent. Further, we found clonal variation in PO activity among four clones of D. magna isolated from four different populations. The same four clones were tested for their resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa. High resistance corresponded to high PO activity. Our results suggest adaptive variation in PO activity and suggest that its expression is costly. These costs may influence the evolution of the PO activity level and the maintenance of its genotypic variation.

  15. Genetic characterization of physical activity behaviours in university students enrolled in kinesiology degree programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many, Gina M; Kendrick, Zachary; Deschamps, Chelsea L; Sprouse, Courtney; Tosi, Laura L; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Barfield, Whitney; Hoffman, Eric P; Houmard, Joseph A; Pescatello, Linda S; Vogel, Hans J; Shearer, Jane; Hittel, Dustin S

    2017-03-01

    Studies of physical activity behaviours have increasingly shown the importance of heritable factors such as genetic variation. Nonsynonymous polymorphisms of alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3) and the β-adrenergic receptors 1 and 3 (ADRB1 and ADRB3) have been previously associated with exercise capacity and cardiometabolic health. We thus hypothesized that these polymorphisms are also related to physical activity behaviours in young adults. To test this hypothesis we examined relationships between ACTN3 (R577X), ARDB1 (Arg389Gly), ADRB3 (Trp64Arg), and physical activity behaviours in university students. We stratified for student enrollment in kinesiology degree programs compared with nonmajors as we previously found this to be a predictor of physical activity. We did not identify novel associations between physical activity and ACTN3. However, the minor alleles of ADRB1 and ADRB3 were significantly underrepresented in kinesiology students compared with nonmajors. Furthermore, carriers of the ADRB1 minor allele reported reduced participation in moderate physical activity and increased afternoon fatigue compared with ancestral allele homozygotes. Together, these findings suggest that the heritability of physical activity behaviours in young adults may be linked to nonsynonymous polymorphisms within β-adrenergic receptors.

  16. Physical activity reduces hippocampal atrophy in elders at genetic risk for Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carson eSmith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the impact of physical activity (PA on longitudinal change in hippocampal volume in cognitively intact older adults at varying genetic risk for the sporadic form of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Hippocampal volume was measured from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans administered at baseline and at an 18-month follow-up in 97 healthy, cognitively intact older adults. Participants were classified as High or Low PA based on a self-report questionnaire of frequency and intensity of exercise. Risk status was defined by the presence or absence of the apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 (APOE-ε4 allele. Four subgroups were studied: Low Risk/High PA (n = 24, Low Risk/Low PA (n = 34, High Risk/High PA (n = 22, and High Risk/Low PA (n = 17. Over the 18 month follow-up interval, hippocampal volume decreased by 3% in the High Risk/Low PA group, but remained stable in the three remaining groups. No main effects or interactions between genetic risk and PA were observed in control brain regions, including the caudate, amygdala, thalamus, precentral gyrus, caudal middle frontal gyrus, cortical white matter, and total grey matter. These findings suggest that PA may help to preserve hippocampal volume in individuals at increased genetic risk for AD. The protective effects of PA on hippocampal atrophy were not observed in individuals at low risk for AD. These data suggest that individuals at genetic risk for AD should be targeted for increased levels of PA as a means of reducing atrophy in a brain region critical for the formation of episodic memories.

  17. Genetics of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in a Ghanaian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marquitta J; Kodaman, Nuri M; Harder, Reed H; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Vaughan, Douglas E; Brown, Nancy J; Moore, Jason H; Williams, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), a major modulator of the fibrinolytic system, is an important factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) susceptibility and severity. PAI-1 is highly heritable, but the few genes associated with it explain only a small portion of its variation. Studies of PAI-1 typically employ linear regression to estimate the effects of genetic variants on PAI-1 levels, but PAI-1 is not normally distributed, even after transformation. Therefore, alternative statistical methods may provide greater power to identify important genetic variants. Additionally, most genetic studies of PAI-1 have been performed on populations of European descent, limiting the generalizability of their results. We analyzed >30,000 variants for association with PAI-1 in a Ghanaian population, using median regression, a non-parametric alternative to linear regression. Three variants associated with median PAI-1, the most significant of which was in the gene arylsulfatase B (ARSB) (p = 1.09 x 10(-7)). We also analyzed the upper quartile of PAI-1, the most clinically relevant part of the distribution, and found 19 SNPs significantly associated in this quartile. Of note an association was found in period circadian clock 3 (PER3). Our results reveal novel associations with median and elevated PAI-1 in an understudied population. The lack of overlap between the two analyses indicates that the genetic effects on PAI-1 are not uniform across its distribution. They also provide evidence of the generalizability of the circadian pathway's effect on PAI-1, as a recent meta-analysis performed in Caucasian populations identified another circadian clock gene (ARNTL).

  18. Genetics implicate common mechanisms in autism and schizophrenia: synaptic activity and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Zhengwei; Fan, Conghai; Zhang, Dongli; Chen, Jiao

    2017-08-01

    The diagnosis of debilitating psychiatric disorders like autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCHZ) is on the rise. These are severe conditions that lead to social isolation and require lifelong professional care. Improved diagnosis of ASD and SCHZ provides early access to medication and therapy, but the reality is that the mechanisms and the cellular pathology underlying these conditions are mostly unknown at this time. Although both ASD and SCHZ have strong inherited components, genetic risk seems to be distributed in hundreds of variants, each conferring low risk. The poor understanding of the genetics of ASD and SCHZ is a significant hurdle to developing effective treatments for these costly conditions. The recent implementation of next-generation sequencing technologies and the creation of large consortia have started to reveal the genetic bases of ASD and SCHZ. Alterations in gene expression regulation, synaptic architecture and activity and immunity seem to be the main cellular mechanisms contributing to both ASD and SCHZ, a surprising overlap given the distinct phenotypes and onset of these conditions. These diverse pathways seem to converge in aberrant synaptic plasticity and remodelling, which leads to altered connectivity between relevant brain regions. Continuous efforts to understand the genetic basis of ASD and SCHZ will soon lead to significant progress in the mechanistic understanding of these prominent psychiatric disorders and enable the development of disease-modifying therapies for these devastating conditions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Genetic model for the chronic activation of skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase leads to glycogen accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Laura; Richardson, Christine; Hirshman, Michael F; Brozinick, Joseph; Fiering, Steven; Kemp, Bruce E; Goodyear, Laurie J; Witters, Lee A

    2007-03-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important metabolic sensor/effector that coordinates many of the changes in mammalian tissues during variations in energy availability. We have sought to create an in vivo genetic model of chronic AMPK activation, selecting murine skeletal muscle as a representative tissue where AMPK plays important roles. Muscle-selective expression of a mutant noncatalytic gamma1 subunit (R70Qgamma) of AMPK activates AMPK and increases muscle glycogen content. The increase in glycogen content requires the presence of the endogenous AMPK catalytic alpha-subunit, since the offspring of cross-breeding of these mice with mice expressing a dominant negative AMPKalpha subunit have normal glycogen content. In R70Qgamma1-expressing mice, there is a small, but significant, increase in muscle glycogen synthase (GSY) activity associated with an increase in the muscle expression of the liver isoform GSY2. The increase in glycogen content is accompanied, as might be expected, by an increase in exercise capacity. Transgene expression of this mutant AMPKgamma1 subunit may provide a useful model for the chronic activation of AMPK in other tissues to clarify its multiple roles in the regulation of metabolism and other physiological processes.

  20. Revitalizing Tier 2 Intervention with Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore the practice of incorporating graphic novels in a Tier 2 Response To Intervention (RTI) program for five elementary-aged struggling readers in an urban school. Using a formative experiment framework, the study found that graphic novels provided a vehicle for the application of word recognition and fluency strategies learned in…

  1. Graphic Organizers: Outlets for Your Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1998-01-01

    Graphs, bars, charts, and diagrams have been used by designers, writers, and scientists to communicate. Now, research suggests that graphic organizers benefit teaching and learning. This article describes graphic organizers: sequential, conceptual, hierarchical, cyclical, Venn, fishbone or Ishikawa, squeeze and stretch, why-why, t-chart, KWL…

  2. Exploring Literary Devices in Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallacqua, Ashley K.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of graphic novels with young readers. During the 2009-2010 school year, while working with four fifth-grade students, the author examined the question "In what ways do readers engage while reading a graphic novel?" The fifth graders took part in book discussions and one-on-one interviews after reading two…

  3. A study of perceptions of graphical passwords

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vorster, JS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the graphical password schema, the key-space can be even bigger than alpha-numeric passwords. However, in conventional passwords, users will re-use letters within a password. This study investigates graphical passwords for symbol...

  4. Graphical modelling software in R - status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus; Højsgaard, Søren; Lauritzen, Steffen L.

    Graphical models in their modern form have been around for nearly a quarter of a century.  Various computer programs for inference in graphical models have been developed over that period. Some examples of free software programs are BUGS (Thomas 1994), CoCo (Badsberg2001), Digram (Klein, Keiding...

  5. Graphic Design in Libraries: A Conceptual Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Providing successful library services requires efficient and effective communication with users; therefore, it is important that content creators who develop visual materials understand key components of design and, specifically, develop a holistic graphic design process. Graphic design, as a form of visual communication, is the process of…

  6. Standards of Multimedia Graphic Design in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldalalah, Osamah Ahmad; Ababneh, Ziad Waleed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine Standards of Multimedia Graphic Design in Education through the analysis of the theoretical basis and previous studies related to this subject. This study has identified the list of standards of Multimedia, Graphic Design, each of which has a set indicator through which the quality of Multimedia can be evaluated in…

  7. Introduction to Graphics Programming in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    Writing graphics applications in Java using Swing can be quite a daunting experience which requires understanding of some large libraries, and fairly advanced aspects of Java. In these notes we will show that by using a small subset of the Swing package we can write a write range of graphics...

  8. Graphic Design in Libraries: A Conceptual Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Providing successful library services requires efficient and effective communication with users; therefore, it is important that content creators who develop visual materials understand key components of design and, specifically, develop a holistic graphic design process. Graphic design, as a form of visual communication, is the process of…

  9. Graphic Organizers: Outlets for Your Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1998-01-01

    Graphs, bars, charts, and diagrams have been used by designers, writers, and scientists to communicate. Now, research suggests that graphic organizers benefit teaching and learning. This article describes graphic organizers: sequential, conceptual, hierarchical, cyclical, Venn, fishbone or Ishikawa, squeeze and stretch, why-why, t-chart, KWL…

  10. Teaching Media Literacy with Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnin, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Background: A current problem in media literacy studies is whether or not to categorize graphic novels as media literacy texts. Thus, this article begins with a review of current media literacy research and its emphasis on defining media literacy texts as texts that rely on both print literacies and image literacies. Because graphic novels rely on…

  11. Computer Graphics in ChE Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reklaitis, G. V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines current uses and future possibilities of computer graphics in chemical engineering, discussing equipment needs, maintenance/manpower costs, and plan to implement computer graphics into existing programs. The plan involves matching fund equipment grants, grants for development of computer assisted instructional (CAI) software, chemical…

  12. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  13. Graphical Models and Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

    This paper synthesizes ideas from the fields of graphical modeling and education testing, particularly item response theory (IRT) applied to computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Graphical modeling can offer IRT a language for describing multifaceted skills and knowledge, and disentangling evidence from complex performances. IRT-CAT can offer…

  14. Getting Graphic at the School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Kat

    2003-01-01

    Provides information for school libraries interested in acquiring graphic novels. Discusses theft prevention; processing and cataloging; maintaining the collection; what to choose, with two Web sites for more information on graphic novels for libraries; collection development decisions; and Japanese comics called Manga. Includes an annotated list…

  15. Performing Remarkable Feats with Presentation Graphics Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1994-01-01

    Describes easy-to-use, easy-to-learn dedicated graphics packages for developing slide presentations shown directly from computers. A general description of the features of five packages and suggestions for software selection are provided. A sidebar provides graphics tips, such as the use of color, typefaces, and formatting, for developing…

  16. Determining Normal-Distribution Tolerance Bounds Graphically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical method requires calculations and table lookup. Distribution established from only three points: mean upper and lower confidence bounds and lower confidence bound of standard deviation. Method requires only few calculations with simple equations. Graphical procedure establishes best-fit line for measured data and bounds for selected confidence level and any distribution percentile.

  17. Q-Technique and Graphics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Roger R.

    Because Q-technique is as appropriate for use with visual and design items as for use with words, it is not stymied by the topics one is likely to encounter in graphics research. In particular Q-technique is suitable for studying the so-called "congeniality" of typography, for various copytesting usages, and for multivariate graphics research. The…

  18. Using Typography Grid in Graphic Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张悦霞

    2007-01-01

    Typography grid is one of the important tools in the process of graphic design. Thought studying the history and principles of typography grid, we can know and master the methods of design and improve understanding of the aesthetics rules of graphic design.

  19. Q-Technique and Graphics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Roger R.

    Because Q-technique is as appropriate for use with visual and design items as for use with words, it is not stymied by the topics one is likely to encounter in graphics research. In particular Q-technique is suitable for studying the so-called "congeniality" of typography, for various copytesting usages, and for multivariate graphics research. The…

  20. A Sporting Look at Computer Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Merry B.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests having students design a football field (looking at it from above) as the final project of a unit on computer graphics. Includes listings for 13 short Applesoft programs (involving LO- and HI-RES graphics) which students can use in making the field. Advanced students can use the animation techniques. (JN)

  1. Mastering probabilistic graphical models using Python

    CERN Document Server

    Ankan, Ankur

    2015-01-01

    If you are a researcher or a machine learning enthusiast, or are working in the data science field and have a basic idea of Bayesian learning or probabilistic graphical models, this book will help you to understand the details of graphical models and use them in your data science problems.

  2. Computer Graphics in ChE Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reklaitis, G. V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines current uses and future possibilities of computer graphics in chemical engineering, discussing equipment needs, maintenance/manpower costs, and plan to implement computer graphics into existing programs. The plan involves matching fund equipment grants, grants for development of computer assisted instructional (CAI) software, chemical…

  3. Genetic analysis of a transcriptional activation pathway by using hepatoma cell variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, G A; Fournier, R E

    1994-01-01

    A hierarchy of liver-enriched transcription factors plays an important role in activating expression of many hepatic genes. In particular, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4) is a major activator of the gene encoding HNF-1, and HNF-1 itself activates expression of more than 20 liver genes. To dissect this activation pathway genetically, we prepared somatic cell variants that were deficient in expression of the liver-specific alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) gene, which requires both HNF-1 and HNF-4 for high-level gene activity. This was accomplished in two steps. First, hepatoma transfectants that stably expressed two selectable markers under alpha 1AT promoter control were prepared; second, variant sublines that could no longer express either transgene were isolated by direct selection. In this report, we demonstrate that the variants contain defects in the HNF-4/HNF-1 activation pathway. These defects functioned in trans, as expression of many liver genes was affected, but the variant phenotypes were recessive to wild type in somatic cell hybrids. Three different variant classes could be discriminated by their phenotypic responses to ectopic expression of either HNF-4 or HNF-1. Two variant clones appeared specifically deficient in HNF-4 expression, as transfection with an HNF-4 expression cassette fully restored their hepatic phenotypes. Another line activated HNF-1 in response to forced HNF-4 expression, but activation of downstream genes failed to occur. One clone was unresponsive to either HNF-1 or HNF-4. Using the variants, we demonstrate further that the chromosomal genes encoding alpha 1AT, aldolase B, and alpha-fibrinogen display strict requirements for HNF-1 activation in vivo, while other liver genes were unaffected by the presence or absence of HNF-1 or HNF-4. We also provide evidence for the existence of an autoregulatory loop in which HNF-1 regulates its own expression through activation of HNF-4. Images PMID:7935424

  4. Optimal Parameter Exploration for Online Change-Point Detection in Activity Monitoring Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Khan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, smart phones with inbuilt sensors have become popular devices to facilitate activity recognition. The sensors capture a large amount of data, containing meaningful events, in a short period of time. The change points in this data are used to specify transitions to distinct events and can be used in various scenarios such as identifying change in a patient’s vital signs in the medical domain or requesting activity labels for generating real-world labeled activity datasets. Our work focuses on change-point detection to identify a transition from one activity to another. Within this paper, we extend our previous work on multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA algorithm by using a genetic algorithm (GA to identify the optimal set of parameters for online change-point detection. The proposed technique finds the maximum accuracy and F_measure by optimizing the different parameters of the MEWMA, which subsequently identifies the exact location of the change point from an existing activity to a new one. Optimal parameter selection facilitates an algorithm to detect accurate change points and minimize false alarms. Results have been evaluated based on two real datasets of accelerometer data collected from a set of different activities from two users, with a high degree of accuracy from 99.4% to 99.8% and F_measure of up to 66.7%.

  5. Genetics and Other Risk Factors for Past Concussions in Active-Duty Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah; Gardner, Andrew J; Panenka, William J; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L

    2017-02-15

    Risk factors for concussion in active-duty military service members are poorly understood. The present study examined the association between self-reported concussion history and genetics (apolipoprotein E [APOE], brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], and D2 dopamine receptor genes [DRD2]), trait personality measures (impulsive-sensation seeking and trait aggression-hostility), and current alcohol use. The sample included 458 soldiers who were preparing to deploy for Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. For those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype, 57.9% (11/19) had a history of one or more prior concussions, compared with 35.6% (154/432) of those with other BDNF genotypes (p = 0.049, odds ratio [OR] = 2.48). APOE and DRD2 genotypes were not associated with risk for past concussions. Those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype also reported greater aggression and hostility personality characteristics. When combined in a predictive model, prior military deployments, being male, and having the BDNF Met/Met genotype were independently associated with increased lifetime history of concussions in active-duty soldiers. Replication in larger independent samples is necessary to have more confidence in both the positive and negative genetic associations reported in this study.

  6. Hook Students with the Super Bowl and a Protein Modeling Activity to Teach Genetic Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann H. Williams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Biology concepts such as molecular genetics and inheritance patterns to students in K-12 and college is challenging.  The created Super Bowl Activity uses kinesthetic and visual models and a "hook" to engage students in the material.  Through guided inquiry and modeling, this lesson reviews concepts of DNA, mutations, genotype/phenotype, transcription, translation, homozygous/heterozygous, and inheritance patterns while entertaining the students with a story of a football player with sickle cell trait who couldn’t play in the Super Bowl.  The students create a mutated and normal folded hemoglobin protein model based on amino acid chemical character and use them to simulate Mendelian genetics, inheritance patters, and heterozygous advantage.  This lesson can be used by teachers and professors teaching middle/high school Biology courses as well as Undergraduate Introductory and non-major Biology courses.  This teaching model was created to address content areas where students perform poorly on standardized Biology exams and was presented at a series of professional development workshops for secondary and undergraduate Biology teachers.  One Biology instructor utilized it successfully in her Biology course as a review for end of course exams and felt the students were very engaged in the activity and material.

  7. Genetic Science Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mouse Party on Learn.Genetics.utah.edu Students doing the Tree of Genetic Traits activity Learn.Genetics is one of the most widely used science education websites in the world The Community Genetics ...

  8. Genetic Screening for Bacterial Mutants in Liquid Growth Media By Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuaita, Basel H.; Withey, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens have defined in vitro virulence inducing conditions in liquid media which lead to production of virulence factors important during an infection. Identifying mutants that no longer respond to virulence inducing conditions will increase our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis. However, traditional genetic screens require growth on solid media. Bacteria in a single colony are in every phase of the growth curve, which complicates the analysis and make screens for growth phase-specific mutants problematic. Here, we utilize fluorescence-activated cell sorting in conjunction with random transposon mutagenesis to isolate bacteria grown in liquid media that are defective in virulence activation. This method permits analysis of an entire bacterial population in real time and selection of individual bacterial mutants with the desired gene expression profile at any time point after induction. We have used this method to identify Vibrio cholerae mutants defective in virulence induction. PMID:21094189

  9. Workflow modeling in the graphic arts and printing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2003-12-01

    The last few years, a lot of effort has been spent on the standardization of the workflow in the graphic arts and printing industry. The main reasons for this standardization are two-fold: first of all, the need to represent all aspects of products, processes and resources in a uniform, digital framework and, secondly, the need to have different systems communicate with each other without having to implement dedicated drivers or protocols. Since many years, a number of organizations in the IT sector have been quite busy developing models and languages on the topic of workflow modeling. In addition to the more formal methods (such as, e.g., extended finite state machines, Petri Nets, Markov Chains etc.) introduced a number of decades ago, more pragmatic methods have been proposed quite recently. We hereby think in particular of the activities of the Workflow Management Coalition that resulted in an XML based Process Definition Language. Although one might be tempted to use the already established standards in the graphic environment, one should be well aware of the complexity and uniqueness of the graphic arts workflow. In this paper, we will show that it is quite hard though not impossible to model the graphic arts workflow using the already established workflow systems. After a brief summary of the graphic arts workflow requirements, we will show why the traditional models are less suitable to use. It will turn out that one of the main reasons for the incompatibility is that the graphic arts workflow is primarily resource driven; this means that the activation of processes depends on the status of different incoming resources. The fact that processes can start running with a partial availability of the input resources is a further complication that asks for additional knowledge on process level. In the second part of this paper, we will discuss in more detail the different software components that are available in any graphic enterprise. In the last part, we will

  10. Biological activity of a genetically modified BMP-2 variant with inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübler Alexander C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of the binding epitopes of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 lead to a modified interaction with the ectodomains of BMP receptors. In the present study the biological effect of a BMP-2 double mutant with antagonistic activity was evaluated in vivo. Methods Equine-derived collagenous carriers were loaded with recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2 in a well-known dose to provide an osteoinductive stimulus. The study was performed in a split animal design: carriers only coupled with rhBMP-2 (control were implanted into prepared cavities of lower limb muscle of rats, specimens coupled with rhBMP-2 as well as BMP-2 double mutant were placed into the opposite limb in the same way. After 28 days the carriers were explanted, measured radiographically and characterized histologically. Results As expected, the BMP-2 loaded implants showed a typical heterotopic bone formation. The specimens coupled with both proteins showed a significant decreased bone formation in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The antagonistic effect of a specific BMP-2 double mutant could be demonstrated in vivo. The dose dependent influence on heterotopic bone formation by preventing rhBMP-2 induced osteoinduction suggests a competitive receptor antagonism.

  11. Physical activity, smoking, and genetic predisposition to obesity in people from Pakistan: the PROMIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shafqat; Zhao, Wei; Renström, Frida; Rasheed, Asif; Samuel, Maria; Zaidi, Mozzam; Shah, Nabi; Mallick, Nadeem Hayyat; Zaman, Khan Shah; Ishaq, Mohammad; Rasheed, Syed Zahed; Memon, Fazal-ur-Rheman; Hanif, Bashir; Lakhani, Muhammad Shakir; Ahmed, Faisal; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Frossard, Philippe; Franks, Paul W; Saleheen, Danish

    2015-12-18

    Multiple genetic variants have been reliably associated with obesity-related traits in Europeans, but little is known about their associations and interactions with lifestyle factors in South Asians. In 16,157 Pakistani adults (8232 controls; 7925 diagnosed with myocardial infarction [MI]) enrolled in the PROMIS Study, we tested whether: a) BMI-associated loci, individually or in aggregate (as a genetic risk score--GRS), are associated with BMI; b) physical activity and smoking modify the association of these loci with BMI. Analyses were adjusted for age, age(2), sex, MI (yes/no), and population substructure. Of 95 SNPs studied here, 73 showed directionally consistent effects on BMI as reported in Europeans. Each additional BMI-raising allele of the GRS was associated with 0.04 (SE = 0.01) kg/m(2) higher BMI (P = 4.5 × 10(-14)). We observed nominal evidence of interactions of CLIP1 rs11583200 (P(interaction) = 0.014), CADM2 rs13078960 (P(interaction) = 0.037) and GALNT10 rs7715256 (P(interaction) = 0.048) with physical activity, and PTBP2 rs11165643 (P(interaction) = 0.045), HIP1 rs1167827 (P(interaction) = 0.015), C6orf106 rs205262 (P(interaction) = 0.032) and GRID1 rs7899106 (P(interaction) = 0.043) with smoking on BMI. Most BMI-associated loci have directionally consistent effects on BMI in Pakistanis and Europeans. There were suggestive interactions of established BMI-related SNPs with smoking or physical activity.

  12. Genetic background specific hypoxia resistance in rat is correlated with balanced activation of a cross-chromosomal genetic network centering on physiological homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eMao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic background of an individual can drastically influence an organism’s response upon environmental stress and pathological stimulus. Previous studies in inbred rats showed that compared to Brown Norway (BN, Dahl salt-sensitive (SS rat exerts strong hypoxia susceptibility. However, despite extensive narrow-down approaches via the chromosome substitution methodology, this genome-based physiological predisposition could not be traced back to distinct quantitative trait loci. Upon the completion and public data availability of PhysGen SS-BN consomic rat platform, I employed systems biology approach attempting to further our understanding of the molecular basis of genetic background effect in light of hypoxia response. I analyzed the physiological screening data of 22 consomic rat strains under normoxia and two-weeks of hypoxia, and cross-compared them to the parental strains. The analyses showed that SS-9BN and SS-18BN represent the most hypoxia resistant CS strains with phenotype similar to BN, whereas SS-6BN and SS-YBN segregated to the direction of SS. A meta-analysis on the transcriptomic profiles of these consomic rat strains under hypoxia treatment showed that although polymorphisms on the substituted BN chromosomes could be directly involved in hypoxia resistance, this seems to be embedded in a more complex trans-chromosomal genetic regulatory network. Via information theory based modeling approach, this hypoxia-relevant core genetic network was reverse-engineered. Network analyses showed that the protective effects of BN chromosome 9 and 18 were reflected by a balanced activation of this core network centering on physiological homeostasis. Presumably, it is the system robustness constituted on such differential network activation that acts as hypoxia response modifier. Understanding of the intrinsic link between the individual genetic background and the network robustness will set a basis in the current scientific efforts toward

  13. Genetic Background Specific Hypoxia Resistance in Rat is Correlated with Balanced Activation of a Cross-Chromosomal Genetic Network Centering on Physiological Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Genetic background of an individual can drastically influence an organism's response upon environmental stress and pathological stimulus. Previous studies in inbred rats showed that compared to Brown Norway (BN), Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat exerts strong hypoxia susceptibility. However, despite extensive narrow-down approaches via the chromosome substitution methodology, this genome-based physiological predisposition could not be traced back to distinct quantitative trait loci. Upon the completion and public data availability of PhysGen SS-BN consomic (CS) rat platform, I employed systems biology approach attempting to further our understanding of the molecular basis of genetic background effect in light of hypoxia response. I analyzed the physiological screening data of 22 CS rat strains under normoxia and 2-weeks of hypoxia, and cross-compared them to the parental strains. The analyses showed that SS-9(BN) and SS-18(BN) represent the most hypoxia-resistant CS strains with phenotype similar to BN, whereas SS-6(BN) and SS-Y(BN) segregated to the direction of SS. A meta-analysis on the transcriptomic profiles of these CS rat strains under hypoxia treatment showed that although polymorphisms on the substituted BN chromosomes could be directly involved in hypoxia resistance, this seems to be embedded in a more complex trans-chromosomal genetic regulatory network. Via information theory based modeling approach, this hypoxia relevant core genetic network was reverse engineered. Network analyses showed that the protective effects of BN chromosome 9 and 18 were reflected by a balanced activation of this core network centering on physiological homeostasis. Presumably, it is the system robustness constituted on such differential network activation that acts as hypoxia response modifier. Understanding of the intrinsic link between the individual genetic background and the network robustness will set a basis in the current scientific efforts toward personalized medicine.

  14. Mining protein kinases regulation using graphical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfeng; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2011-03-01

    Abnormal kinase activity is a frequent cause of diseases, which makes kinases a promising pharmacological target. Thus, it is critical to identify the characteristics of protein kinases regulation by studying the activation and inhibition of kinase subunits in response to varied stimuli. Bayesian network (BN) is a formalism for probabilistic reasoning that has been widely used for learning dependency models. However, for high-dimensional discrete random vectors the set of plausible models becomes large and a full comparison of all the posterior probabilities related to the competing models becomes infeasible. A solution to this problem is based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This paper proposes a BN-based framework to discover the dependency correlations of kinase regulation. Our approach is to apply the MCMC method to generate a sequence of samples from a probability distribution, by which to approximate the distribution. The frequent connections (edges) are identified from the obtained sampling graphical models. Our results point to a number of novel candidate regulation patterns that are interesting in biology and include inferred associations that were unknown.

  15. Optimal Allocation of Wind Turbines in Active Distribution Networks by Using Multi-Period Optimal Power Flow and Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, P.; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    a hybrid optimization method that aims of maximizing the Net Present Value related to the Investment made by Wind Turbines developers in an active distribution network. The proposed network combines a Genetic Algorithm with a multi-period optimal power flow. The method, integrating active management...

  16. Optimal Allocation of Wind Turbines in Active Distribution Networks by Using Multi-Period Optimal Power Flow and Genetic Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, P.; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    a hybrid optimization method that aims of maximizing the Net Present Value related to the Investment made by Wind Turbines developers in an active distribution network. The proposed network combines a Genetic Algorithm with a multi-period optimal power flow. The method, integrating active management...

  17. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Graphics Processing Board (GPB) Radiation Test Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, George A.; Steele, Glen F.

    2013-01-01

    Large round trip communications latency for deep space missions will require more onboard computational capabilities to enable the space vehicle to undertake many tasks that have traditionally been ground-based, mission control responsibilities. As a result, visual display graphics will be required to provide simpler vehicle situational awareness through graphical representations, as well as provide capabilities never before done in a space mission, such as augmented reality for in-flight maintenance or Telepresence activities. These capabilities will require graphics processors and associated support electronic components for high computational graphics processing. In an effort to understand the performance of commercial graphics card electronics operating in the expected radiation environment, a preliminary test was performed on five commercial offthe- shelf (COTS) graphics cards. This paper discusses the preliminary evaluation test results of five COTS graphics processing cards tested to the International Space Station (ISS) low earth orbit radiation environment. Three of the five graphics cards were tested to a total dose of 6000 rads (Si). The test articles, test configuration, preliminary results, and recommendations are discussed.

  18. GASAKe: forecasting landslide activations by a genetic-algorithms based hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, O. G.; Gariano, S. L.; Iaquinta, P.; Iovine, G. G. R.

    2015-02-01

    GASAKe is a new hydrological model aimed at forecasting the triggering of landslides. The model is based on genetic-algorithms and allows to obtaining thresholds of landslide activation from the set of historical occurrences and from the rainfall series. GASAKe can be applied to either single landslides or set of similar slope movements in a homogeneous environment. Calibration of the model is based on genetic-algorithms, and provides for families of optimal, discretized solutions (kernels) that maximize the fitness function. Starting from these latter, the corresponding mobility functions (i.e. the predictive tools) can be obtained through convolution with the rain series. The base time of the kernel is related to the magnitude of the considered slope movement, as well as to hydro-geological complexity of the site. Generally, smaller values are expected for shallow slope instabilities with respect to large-scale phenomena. Once validated, the model can be applied to estimate the timing of future landslide activations in the same study area, by employing recorded or forecasted rainfall series. Example of application of GASAKe to a medium-scale slope movement (the Uncino landslide at San Fili, in Calabria, Southern Italy) and to a set of shallow landslides (in the Sorrento Peninsula, Campania, Southern Italy) are discussed. In both cases, a successful calibration of the model has been achieved, despite unavoidable uncertainties concerning the dates of landslide occurrence. In particular, for the Sorrento Peninsula case, a fitness of 0.81 has been obtained by calibrating the model against 10 dates of landslide activation; in the Uncino case, a fitness of 1 (i.e. neither missing nor false alarms) has been achieved against 5 activations. As for temporal validation, the experiments performed by considering the extra dates of landslide activation have also proved satisfactory. In view of early-warning applications for civil protection purposes, the capability of the

  19. Characterizing C6+P2-graphic Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Li-li

    2014-01-01

    For a given graph H, a graphic sequence π = (d1, d2, · · · , dn) is said to be potentially H-graphic if π has a realization containing H as a subgraph. In this paper, we characterize the potentially C6 +P2-graphic sequences where C6 +P2 denotes the graph obtained from C6 by adding two adjacent edges to the three pairwise nonadjacent vertices of C6. Moreover, we use the characterization to determine the value ofσ(C6+P2, n).

  20. Real-time graphics rendering engine

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Hujun

    2011-01-01

    ""Real-Time Graphics Rendering Engine"" reveals the software architecture of the modern real-time 3D graphics rendering engine and the relevant technologies based on the authors' experience developing this high-performance, real-time system. The relevant knowledge about real-time graphics rendering such as the rendering pipeline, the visual appearance and shading and lighting models are also introduced. This book is intended to offer well-founded guidance for researchers and developers who are interested in building their own rendering engines. Hujun Bao is a professor at the State Key Lab of

  1. Joint Identification of Genetic Variants for Physical Activity in Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayoun Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited research on genome-wide association with physical activity (PA. This study ascertained genetic associations between PA and 344,893 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers in 8842 Korean samples. PA data were obtained from a validated questionnaire that included information on PA intensity and duration. Metabolic equivalent of tasks were calculated to estimate the total daily PA level for each individual. In addition to single- and multiple-SNP association tests, a pathway enrichment analysis was performed to identify the biological significance of SNP markers. Although no significant SNP was found at genome-wide significance level via single-SNP association tests, 59 genetic variants mapped to 76 genes were identified via a multiple SNP approach using a bootstrap selection stability measure. Pathway analysis for these 59 variants showed that maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY was enriched. Joint identification of SNPs could enable the identification of multiple SNPs with good predictive power for PA and a pathway enriched for PA.

  2. Genetics of seed flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maina Antoine Nassourou; Yanou Nicolas Njintang; Richard Marcel Nguimbou; Joseph Martin Bell

    2016-01-01

    Information about the type of gene action governing the inheritance of cowpea seed flavonoid content and antioxidant activity is prerequisite for starting an effective breeding program for developing improved varieties. For this purpose, half-diallel crosses among seven diverse parents were made. The homozygous parents and 21 F1 hybrids were evaluated at Maroua in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Cameroon using a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Flour samples produced from decorticated seeds were used for biochemical analysis. Analysis of variance showed significant differences (P<0.001) among genotypes for the studied traits with ranges of 363.6–453.9 mg rutin equivalent per 100 g dry weight (DW) for total flavonoids, 13.38–30.73 mg ascorbic acid equivalent per 1 g DW for ferric iron reducing activity, 70.98–266.93 mg trolox equivalent per 100 g DW for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, and 90.93–370.62 mg trolox equivalent per 100 g DW for 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging activity. Both additive and non-additive gene effects were significant in the genetic control of these traits, but dominance variance was greater than additive variance. The traits were mainly controlled by overdominance model suggesting a selection in the delayed generations. Broad-and narrow-sense heritability estimates varied from 0.90 to 0.99 and from 0.12 to 0.45, respectively. The variances due to both general and specific combining ability were highly significant for all studied traits. Recessive alleles had positive effects on DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities, whereas dominant alleles had positive effects on flavonoid content and ferric iron reducing activity. These results could help cowpea breeders to improve the antioxidant potential of cowpea seeds by appropriate selection.

  3. Occurrence and Genetic Diversity of Bacillus anthracis Strains Isolated in an Active Wool-Cleaning Factory▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattiau, Pierre; Klee, Silke R.; Fretin, David; Van Hessche, Mieke; Ménart, Marie; Franz, Tatjana; Chasseur, Camille; Butaye, Patrick; Imberechts, Hein

    2008-01-01

    Culturable microorganisms from various samples taken at an active factory performing wool and goat hair cleaning were isolated and analyzed. Bacillus anthracis was found in air filter dust, wastewater, and goat hairs, where it accounted for approximately 1% of the total counts of viable bacteria. Consistent with the countries of origin of the processed material (South Caucasian and Middle Eastern), all B. anthracis isolates belonged to the same phylogenetic cluster, as determined by variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing at eight loci. Within this cluster, five closely related VNTR subtypes could be identified, of which two were previously unreported. Additional diversity was observed when more sensitive genetic markers were assayed, demonstrating the multifocal nature of goat hair contamination. Goat hair originating from areas where anthrax is endemic remains a material with high biological risk for modern woolworkers. PMID:18487406

  4. Optimisation of an Active Suspension Force Controllerusing Genetic Algorithm for Random Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Hada

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel control scheme for the active suspension in a 4-DOFs  half-car model is presented.A force cancellation control scheme is used to isolate the sprung and the unsprung masses.Skyhook damper and virtual damper concepts are employed to stabilise the sprung and unsprungmasses respectively. Road-following springs are applied for the sprung mass to follow the trendof the road surface condition and to maintain the suspension stroke within a reasonable range.For efficiency, genetic algorithm is employed to search for the parameters like damping ratio andspring constant to achieve an optimum trade off among ride comfort, handling quality, andsuspension stroke simultaneously for random input. Computer simulations are performed usingMATLAB software to verify the proposed control scheme and effectiveness of the appliedgenetic algorithm.

  5. Partial least squares modeling and genetic algorithm optimization in quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, K; Funatsu, K

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies based on chemometric techniques are reviewed. Partial least squares (PLS) is introduced as a novel robust method to replace classical methods such as multiple linear regression (MLR). Advantages of PLS compared to MLR are illustrated with typical applications. Genetic algorithm (GA) is a novel optimization technique which can be used as a search engine in variable selection. A novel hybrid approach comprising GA and PLS for variable selection developed in our group (GAPLS) is described. The more advanced method for comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) modeling called GA-based region selection (GARGS) is described as well. Applications of GAPLS and GARGS to QSAR and 3D-QSAR problems are shown with some representative examples. GA can be hybridized with nonlinear modeling methods such as artificial neural networks (ANN) for providing useful tools in chemometric and QSAR.

  6. p53 activated by AND gate genetic circuit under radiation and hypoxia for targeted cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Miao; Li, Rong; He, Rong; Wang, Xingyong; Yi, Qijian; Wang, Weidong

    2015-09-01

    Radio-activated gene therapy has been developed as a novel therapeutic strategy against cancer; however, expression of therapeutic gene in peritumoral tissues will result in unacceptable toxicity to normal cells. To restrict gene expression in targeted tumor mass, we used hypoxia and radiation tolerance features of tumor cells to develop a synthetic AND gate genetic circuit through connecting radiation sensitivity promoter cArG6 , heat shock response elements SNF1, HSF1 and HSE4 with retroviral vector plxsn. Their construction and dynamic activity process were identified through downstream enhanced green fluorescent protein and wtp53 expression in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells and in a nude mice model. The result showed that AND gate genetic circuit could be activated by lower required radiation dose (6 Gy) and after activated, AND gate could induce significant apoptosis effects and growth inhibition of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The radiation- and hypoxia-activated AND gate genetic circuit, which could lead to more powerful target tumoricidal activity represented a promising strategy for both targeted and effective gene therapy of human lung adenocarcinoma and low dose activation character of the AND gate genetic circuit implied that this model could be further exploited to decrease side-effects of clinical radiation therapy.

  7. PLM-COMPETENCE FORMATION USING COMPUTATIONAL-GRAPHICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Zelentsov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of a new kind of learning activity “Computational - graphical practice” is presented. This practice aimed at consolidating the knowledge and skills acquired by students in the study of the basic engineering disciplines and bridge the gap in the training of students in the field of PLM-technology. The goals, objectives, program practices and competencies, which should have a student after passing the training practice, are listed 

  8. Functional information technology in geometry-graphic training of engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Irina D. Stolbova; Evgeniya P. Aleksandrova; Konstantin G. Nosov

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, information technology fundamentally changed the design activity and made significant adjustments to the development of design documentation. Electronic drawings and 3d-models appeared instead of paper drawings and the traditional form of the design documentation. Geometric modeling of 3d-technology has replaced the graphic design technology. Standards on the electronic models are introduced. Electronic prototypes and 3d-printing contribute to the spread of rapid prototypi...

  9. Group Design Problems in Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes group design techniques used within the engineering design graphics sequence at Western Washington University. Engineering and design philosophies such as concurrent engineering place an emphasis on group collaboration for the solving of design problems. (Author/DDR)

  10. Group Design Problems in Engineering Design Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes group design techniques used within the engineering design graphics sequence at Western Washington University. Engineering and design philosophies such as concurrent engineering place an emphasis on group collaboration for the solving of design problems. (Author/DDR)

  11. Realtime multi-plot graphics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipkowski, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The increased complexity of test operations and customer requirements at Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility (NTF) surpassed the capabilities of the initial realtime graphics system. The analysis of existing hardware and software and the enhancements made to develop a new realtime graphics system are described. The result of this effort is a cost effective system, based on hardware already in place, that support high speed, high resolution, generation and display of multiple realtime plots. The enhanced graphics system (EGS) meets the current and foreseeable future realtime graphics requirements of the NTF. While this system was developed to support wind tunnel operations, the overall design and capability of the system is applicable to other realtime data acquisition systems that have realtime plot requirements.

  12. Learning Undirected Graphical Models with Structure Penalty

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Shilin

    2011-01-01

    In undirected graphical models, learning the graph structure and learning the functions that relate the predictive variables (features) to the responses given the structure are two topics that have been widely investigated in machine learning and statistics. Learning graphical models in two stages will have problems because graph structure may change after considering the features. The main contribution of this paper is the proposed method that learns the graph structure and functions on the graph at the same time. General graphical models with binary outcomes conditioned on predictive variables are proved to be equivalent to multivariate Bernoulli model. The reparameterization of the potential functions in graphical model by conditional log odds ratios in multivariate Bernoulli model offers advantage in the representation of the conditional independence structure in the model. Additionally, we impose a structure penalty on groups of conditional log odds ratios to learn the graph structure. These groups of fu...

  13. Heuristic attacks against graphical password generators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Peach, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors explore heuristic attacks against graphical password generators. A new trend is emerging to use user clickable pictures to generate passwords. This technique of authentication can be successfully used for - for example...

  14. Genetic diversity of b-glucuronidase activity among 14 strains of the dominant human gut anaerobe Ruminococcus gnavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Beaud

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity in the gut increases the enterohepatic circulation of toxic compounds and plays a major role in the etiology of colon cancer. Previously, we had found that the gus gene, which codes for beta-glucuronidase in a dominant anaerobic species of the gut microbiota, Ruminococcus gnavus strain E1, is transcribed as part of an operon that includes three ORFs that code for beta-glucoside permeases of the phosphotransferase systems. This genetic organization had never been described. We have now compared beta-glucuronidase activity and the genetic environment of the gus gene in 14 strains of Ruminococcus gnavus.We found that five out of the seven glucuronidase-positive R. gnavus strains possessed another glucuronidase gene different from the gusA operon of R. gnavus E1. This dominant commensal intestinal species appears to have a high degree of genetic diversity in the genes that control beta-glucuronidase activity.

  15. Recombinase-Dependent Mouse Lines for Chemogenetic Activation of Genetically Defined Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale R. Sciolino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemogenetic technologies, including the mutated human Gq-coupled M3 muscarinic receptor (hM3Dq, have greatly facilitated our ability to directly link changes in cellular activity to altered physiology and behavior. Here, we extend the hM3Dq toolkit with recombinase-responsive mouse lines that permit hM3Dq expression in virtually any cell type. These alleles encode a fusion protein designed to increase effective expression levels by concentrating hM3Dq to the cell body and dendrites. To illustrate their broad utility, we targeted three different genetically defined cell populations: noradrenergic neurons of the compact, bilateral locus coeruleus and two dispersed populations, Camk2a+ neurons and GFAP+ glia. In all three populations, we observed reproducible expression and confirmed that activation of hM3Dq is sufficient to dose-dependently evoke phenotypic changes, without extreme phenotypes associated with hM3Dq overexpression. These alleles offer the ability to non-invasively control activity of diverse cell types to uncover their function and dysfunction at any developmental stage.

  16. Genetic diversity and some aspects of antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Dornellas, Wesley Dos Santos; Perin, Luana Martins; Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, n = 57) were previously obtained from raw goat milk, identified as Lactococcus spp. (n = 24) and Enterococcus spp. (n = 33), and characterized as bacteriocinogenic. Fingerprinting by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) demonstrated high genetic diversity, and 30 strains were selected and exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against 46 target strains (LAB, spoilage, and foodborne pathogens). Six strains (Lactococcus lactis: GLc03 and GLc05; and Enterococcus durans: GEn09, GEn12, GEn14, and GEn17) were selected to characterize their bacteriocinogenic features, using Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 as the target. The six strains produced bacteriocins at higher titer when incubated in MRS at 37 °C up to 12 h, when compared to growth at 25 and 30 °C. The produced bacteriocins kept their antimicrobial activity after exposure to 100 °C for 2 h and 121 °C for 20 min; the antimicrobial activity was also observed after treatment at pH 2.0 to 10.0, except for GLc03. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced approximately two logs after treatment with cell-free supernatants from the selected strains. These data show that goat milk can contain a diverse microbiota able to inhibit L. monocytogenes, a common pathogen found in dairy products, and can be potentially employed in biopreservation of food produced under different processing conditions.

  17. Enhancing graphical literacy skills in the high school science classroom via authentic, intensive data collection and graphical representation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeri, Anthony

    This research project was developed to provide extensive practice and exposure to data collection and data representation in a high school science classroom. The student population engaged in this study included 40 high school sophomores enrolled in two microbiology classes. Laboratory investigations and activities were deliberately designed to include quantitative data collection that necessitated organization and graphical representation. These activities were embedded into the curriculum and conducted in conjunction with the normal and expected course content, rather than as a separate entity. It was expected that routine practice with graph construction and interpretation would result in improved competency when graphing data and proficiency in analyzing graphs. To objectively test the effectiveness in achieving this goal, a pre-test and post-test that included graph construction, interpretation, interpolation, extrapolation, and analysis was administered. Based on the results of a paired T-Test, graphical literacy was significantly enhanced by extensive practice and exposure to data representation.

  18. Survival and catabolic activity of natural and genetically engineered bacteria in a laboratory-scale activated-sludge unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, N.C.; Fry, J.C.; Weightman, A.J. (Univ. of Wales College of Cardiff (Wales))

    1991-02-01

    The survival of selected naturally occurring and genetically engineered bacteria in a fully functional laboratory-scale activated-sludge unit (ASU) was investigated. The effect of the presence of 3-chlorobenzoate (3CB) on the survival of Pseudomonas putida UWC1, with or without a chimeric plasmid, pD10, which encodes 3CB catabolism, was determined. P. putida UWC1(pD10) did not enhance 3CB breakdown in the ASU, even following inoculation at a high concentration (3 x 10(8) CFU/ml). The emergence of a natural, 3CB-degrading population appeared to have a detrimental effect on the survival of strain UWC1 in the ASU. The fate of two 3CB-utilizing bacteria, derived from activated-sludge microflora, was studied in experiments in which these strains were inoculated into the ASU. Both strains, AS2, an unmanipulated natural isolate which flocculated readily in liquid media, and P. putida ASR2.8, a transconjugant containing the recombinant plasmid pD10, survived for long periods in the ASU and enhanced 3CB breakdown at 15 degrees C. The results reported in this paper illustrate the importance of choosing strains which are well adapted to environmental conditions if the use of microbial inoculants for the breakdown of target pollutants is to be successful.

  19. Alarm annunciation in a graphical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.G.

    1994-08-01

    Well-designed graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows{trademark} or UNIX{trademark} -- based X-Windows, provide a capability for enhanced display of security alarm information. Conversely, a poorly designed interface can quickly overwhelm an operator. This paper describes types of graphical information that can be displayed and offers guidance on how to best display that information. Limits are proposed for the complexity of the user interface, and guidelines are suggested for the display of maps and sensors.

  20. History And Importance Of Graphic Design

    OpenAIRE

    Lyallya, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about history and importance of graphic design in different periods, from ancient times until today. The features inherent in different countries are considered. The techniques, basic methods for creating projects and computer software that designers have used are mentioned. In order to understand the importance of graphic design in our lives, it is considered from the side of ordinary people, how it manifests itself in daily lives and how it affects business. The thesis provid...

  1. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR activation and FXR genetic variation in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian M Nijmeijer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that activation of the bile salt nuclear receptor Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR protects against intestinal inflammation in mice. Reciprocally, these inflammatory mediators may decrease FXR activation. We investigated whether FXR activation is repressed in the ileum and colon of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients in remission. Additionally, we evaluated whether genetic variation in FXR is associated with IBD. METHODS: mRNA expression of FXR and FXR target gene SHP was determined in ileal and colonic biopsies of patients with Crohn's colitis (n = 15 and ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 12, all in clinical remission, and healthy controls (n = 17. Seven common tagging SNPs and two functional SNPs in FXR were genotyped in 2355 Dutch IBD patients (1162 Crohn's disease (CD and 1193 UC and in 853 healthy controls. RESULTS: mRNA expression of SHP in the ileum is reduced in patients with Crohn's colitis but not in patients with UC compared to controls. mRNA expression of villus marker Villin was correlated with FXR and SHP in healthy controls, a correlation that was weaker in UC patients and absent in CD patients. None of the SNPs was associated with IBD, UC or CD, nor with clinical subgroups of CD. CONCLUSIONS: FXR activation in the ileum is decreased in patients with Crohn's colitis. This may be secondary to altered enterohepatic circulation of bile salts or transrepression by inflammatory signals but does not seem to be caused by the studied SNPs in FXR. Increasing FXR activity by synthetic FXR agonists may have benefit in CD patients.

  2. Seasonal activity, vector relationships and genetic analysis of mosquito-borne Stratford virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Cheryl S.; Webb, Cameron E.; Haniotis, John; Clancy, John; Doggett, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    There are many gaps to be filled in our understanding of mosquito-borne viruses, their relationships with vectors and reservoir hosts, and the environmental drivers of seasonal activity. Stratford virus (STRV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus and has been isolated from mosquitoes and infected humans in Australia but little is known of its vector and reservoir host associations. A total of 43 isolates of STRV from mosquitoes collected in New South Wales between 1995 and 2013 was examined to determine the genetic diversity between virus isolates and their relationship with mosquito species. The virus was isolated from six mosquito species; Aedes aculeatus, Aedes alternans, Aedes notoscriptus, Aedes procax, Aedes vigilax, and Anopheles annulipes. While there were distinct differences in temporal and spatial activity of STRV, with peaks of activity in 2006, 2010 and 2013, a sequence homology of 95.9%–98.4% was found between isolates and the 1961 STRV prototype with 96.2%–100% identified among isolates. Temporal differences but no apparent nucleotide divergence by mosquito species or geographic location was evident. The result suggests the virus is geographically widespread in NSW (albeit only from coastal regions) and increased local STRV activity is likely to be driven by reservoir host factors and local environmental conditions influencing vector abundance. While STRV may not currently be associated with major outbreaks of human disease, with the potential for urbanisation and climate change to increase mosquito-borne disease risks, and the possibility of genomic changes which could produce pathogenic strains, understanding the drivers of STRV activity may assist the development of strategic response to public health risks posed by zoonotic flaviviruses in Australia. PMID:28253306

  3. A Linux Workstation for High Performance Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Robert; Westall, James

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of this effort was to provide a low-cost method of obtaining high-performance 3-D graphics using an industry standard library (OpenGL) on PC class computers. Previously, users interested in doing substantial visualization or graphical manipulation were constrained to using specialized, custom hardware most often found in computers from Silicon Graphics (SGI). We provided an alternative to expensive SGI hardware by taking advantage of third-party, 3-D graphics accelerators that have now become available at very affordable prices. To make use of this hardware our goal was to provide a free, redistributable, and fully-compatible OpenGL work-alike library so that existing bodies of code could simply be recompiled. for PC class machines running a free version of Unix. This should allow substantial cost savings while greatly expanding the population of people with access to a serious graphics development and viewing environment. This should offer a means for NASA to provide a spectrum of graphics performance to its scientists, supplying high-end specialized SGI hardware for high-performance visualization while fulfilling the requirements of medium and lower performance applications with generic, off-the-shelf components and still maintaining compatibility between the two.

  4. Perception of tactile graphics: embossings versus cutouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Amy; Hopkins, Rose; Jin, David; Yazzolino, Lindsay; Verma, Svena; Merabet, Lotfi; Phillips, Flip; Sinha, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical information, such as illustrations, graphs, and diagrams, are an essential complement to text for conveying knowledge about the world. Although graphics can be communicated well via the visual modality, conveying this information via touch has proven to be challenging. The lack of easily comprehensible tactile graphics poses a problem for the blind. In this paper, we advance a hypothesis for the limited effectiveness of tactile graphics. The hypothesis contends that conventional graphics that rely upon embossings on two-dimensional surfaces do not allow the deployment of tactile exploratory procedures that are crucial for assessing global shape. Besides potentially accounting for some of the shortcomings of current approaches, this hypothesis also serves a prescriptive purpose by suggesting a different strategy for conveying graphical information via touch, one based on cutouts. We describe experiments demonstrating the greater effectiveness of this approach for conveying shape and identity information. These results hold the potential for creating more comprehensible tactile drawings for the visually impaired while also providing insights into shape estimation processes in the tactile modality.

  5. Picturing Illness: History, Poetics, and Graphic Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavi Ravi Kasthuri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comics have often been treated as a juvenile and sub-literary art form; however, taking cues from the new-found cultural acceptance of comics, particularly with the publication of Art Spiegelman’s Maus (1986, Chris Ware’s Jimmy Corrigan: The Smartest Kid on Earth (2000, and Alison Bechdel’s Fun Home: A Family Tragedy (2006, there have emerged, over the past decade, a new breed of comics dealing with the patient/caregivers’ experiences, perspectives and identities. Christened as graphic medicine, these illness narratives use comics as a medium to address wide ranging disease/illness related issues. The present review examines the following issues: What is graphic medicine? Is there a tangible relationship between underground comics and graphic medicine? If so, can we regard underground comics as historical precedent to graphic medicine? What are the uses of comics in medicine? Broadly put, drawing examples from various graphic medical narratives, the paper seeks to trace the history and poetics of graphic medicine.

  6. Acquisition of graphic communication by a young girl without comprehension of spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tetzchner, S; Øvreeide, K D; Jørgensen, K K; Ormhaug, B M; Oxholm, B; Warme, R

    To describe a graphic-mode communication intervention involving a girl with intellectual impairment and autism who did not develop comprehension of spoken language. The aim was to teach graphic-mode vocabulary that reflected her interests, preferences, and the activities and routines of her daily life, by providing sufficient cues to the meanings of the graphic representations so that she would not need to comprehend spoken instructions. An individual case study design was selected, including the use of written records, participant observation, and registration of the girl's graphic vocabulary and use of graphic signs and other communicative expressions. While the girl's comprehension (and hence use) of spoken language remained lacking over a 3-year period, she acquired an active use of over 80 photographs and pictograms. The girl was able to cope better with the cognitive and attentional requirements of graphic communication than those of spoken language and manual signs, which had been focused in earlier interventions. Her achievements demonstrate that it is possible for communication-impaired children to learn to use an augmentative and alternative communication system without speech comprehension, provided the intervention utilizes functional strategies and non-language cues to the meaning of the graphic representations that are taught.

  7. Graphic Notation in Music Therapy: A Discussion of What to Notate in Graphic Notation and How

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    This article presents graphic notations of music and related forms of communication in music therapy contexts, created by different authors and practitioners. Their purposes, objects of description, and the elements of graphic language are reflected upon in a comparative discussion. From...... are also important concerns. Among the authors discussed, there is a large variety both in goals and methods. Keywords are proposed to circumscribe moments of possible interest connected to graphic notations. I suggest that the discipline of graphic notation can be useful for the grounding of music therapy...... presentation and research in empirical, clinical musical reality, and welcome further discussion and explorative work....

  8. Genetic factors affecting gene transcription and catalytic activity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanqing; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Gamazon, Eric R; Mirkov, Snezana; Chen, Peixian; Wu, Kehua; Sun, Chang; Cox, Nancy J; Cook, Edwin; Das, Soma; Ratain, Mark J

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to discover cis- and trans-acting factors significantly affecting mRNA expression and catalytic activity of human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Transcription levels of five major hepatic UGT1A (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6 and UGT1A9) and five UGT2B (UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17) genes were quantified in human liver tissue samples (n = 125) using real-time PCR. Glucuronidation activities of 14 substrates were measured in 47 livers. We genotyped 167 tagSNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in UGT1A (n = 43) and UGT2B (n = 124), as well as the known functional UGT1A1*28 and UGT2B17 CNV (copy number variation) polymorphisms. Transcription levels of 15 transcription factors (TFs) known to regulate these UGTs were quantified. We found that UGT expression and activity were highly variable among the livers (median and range of coefficient of variations: 135%, 74-217% and 52%, 39-105%, respectively). CAR, PXR and ESR1 were found to be the most important trans-regulators of UGT transcription (median and range of correlation coefficients: 46%, 6-58%; 47%, 9-58%; and 52%, 24-75%, respectively). Hepatic UGT activities were mainly determined by UGT gene transcription levels. Twenty-one polymorphisms were significantly (FDR-adjusted P transcription and testosterone glucuronidation rate, in addition to that attributable to the UGT2B17 CNV. Our study discovered novel pharmacogenetic markers and provided detailed insight into the genetic network regulating hepatic UGTs.

  9. Beyond genetic factors in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: protein glycation and the loss of fibrinogen's chaperone activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo da Costa

    Full Text Available Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP is a systemic conformational disease characterized by extracellular amyloid fibril formation from plasma transthyretin (TTR. This is a crippling, fatal disease for which liver transplantation is the only effective therapy. More than 80 TTR point mutations are associated with amyloidotic diseases and the most widely accepted disease model relates TTR tetramer instability with TTR point mutations. However, this model fails to explain two observations. First, native TTR also forms amyloid in systemic senile amyloidosis, a geriatric disease. Second, age at disease onset varies by decades for patients bearing the same mutation and some mutation carrier individuals are asymptomatic throughout their lives. Hence, mutations only accelerate the process and non-genetic factors must play a key role in the molecular mechanisms of disease. One of these factors is protein glycation, previously associated with conformational diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. The glycation hypothesis in FAP is supported by our previous discovery of methylglyoxal-derived glycation of amyloid fibrils in FAP patients. Here we show that plasma proteins are differentially glycated by methylglyoxal in FAP patients and that fibrinogen is the main glycation target. Moreover, we also found that fibrinogen interacts with TTR in plasma. Fibrinogen has chaperone activity which is compromised upon glycation by methylglyoxal. Hence, we propose that methylglyoxal glycation hampers the chaperone activity of fibrinogen, rendering TTR more prone to aggregation, amyloid formation and ultimately, disease.

  10. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in macrofungi from Galicia (NW Spain): Influence of environmental and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M A; Alonso, J; Melgar, M J

    2015-05-01

    Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) is an artificial radionuclide that can be captured from the soil through the mycelium of fungi. However, in Spain there are few data on its presence in edible mushrooms. (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined using 54 samples of wild and cultivated mushrooms and 18 samples of soil, all of them collected in Galicia (NW Spain) during 2010. Samples were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentration of (137)Cs in wild mushrooms was 249.2Bqkg(-1) dry weight (dw) and about 24.9Bqkg(-1) fresh weight (fw). Genetic factors (species) influenced the uptake of (137)Cs, highlighting Hydnum repandum as the greatest accumulator of all wild species (1016.4Bqkg(-1) dw), while cultivated species showed much lower levels (1.6Bqkg(-1) fw). Accumulation was also favored by fungal mycorrhizal ecology, whose mycelium was distributed in contaminated soil horizons. The mean levels detected in soils were 14Bqkg(-1) fw. Although some species behaved as bioexclusors of radiocaesium, the transfer factors (TF) suggest that mushrooms preferentially bioaccumulate (137)Cs. No sample reached the limit of 600Bqkg(-1) fw (about 6000Bqkg(-1) dw) indicated in the European legislation. In conclusion, the consumption of mushrooms harvested from the investigated areas poses no toxicological risk to human health due to radiocaesium.

  11. QSAR modeling of antimalarial activity of urea derivatives using genetic algorithm–multiple linear regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Beheshti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR was performed to analyze antimalarial activities of 68 urea derivatives using multiple linear regressions (MLR. QSAR analyses were performed on the available 68 IC50 oral data based on theoretical molecular descriptors. A suitable set of molecular descriptors were calculated to represent the molecular structures of compounds, such as constitutional, topological, geometrical, electrostatic and quantum-chemical descriptors. The important descriptors were selected with the aid of the genetic algorithm (GA method. The obtained model was validated using leave-one-out (LOO cross-validation; external test set and Y-randomization test. The root mean square errors (RMSE of the training set, and the test set for GA–MLR model were calculated to be 0.314 and 0.486, the square of correlation coefficients (R2 were obtained 0.801 and 0.803, respectively. Results showed that the predictive ability of the model was satisfactory, and it can be used for designing similar group of antimalarial compounds.

  12. Isolation, Characterization, and Genetic Diversity of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on Various Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA ELIZABETH WATURANGI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ice nucleation active (INA bacteria is a group of bacteria with the ability to catalyze the ice formation at temperature above -10 oC and causing frost injury in plants. Since, most of the literature on INA bacteria were from subtropical area, studies of INA bacteria from tropical area are needed. We sampled eight fruits and 36 leaves of 21 plant species, and then identified through biochemical and genetic analysis. INA bacteria were characterized for INA protein classification, pH stability, and optimization of heat endurance. We discovered 15 INA bacteria from seven plants species. Most of bacteria are oxidase and H2S negative, catalase and citrate positive, gram negative, and cocoid formed. These INA bacteria were classified in to three classes based on their freezing temperature. Most of the isolates were active in heat and pH stability assay. Some isolates were analysed for 16S rRNA gene. We observed that isolates from Morinda citrifolia shared 97% similiarity with Pseudomonas sp. Isolate from Piper betle shared 93% similarity with P. pseudoalcaligenes. Isolate from Carica papaya shared 94% similarity with Pseudomonas sp. While isolate from Fragaria vesca shared 90% similarity with Sphingomonas sp.

  13. Dynamic Resource Access Using Graphical Game in Asymmetric Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the resource utilization in asymmetric wireless networks, a novel dynamic resource access algorithm was presented. As the asymmetry of information and the locality of users' actions in distributed wireless networks, the resource access problem was expressed as a simple graphical game model. Let the graphic topology indicate the internal game structure of the realistic environment. Then the Nash equilibrium was got by minimizing the individual regret instead of the system regret. The proposed algorithm realized efficient resource access through exchanging the active information and regret in the competitive community. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the algorithm can converge to a suitable pure strategy Nash equilibrium point quickly with less amount of calculation, avoids conflict effectively, and improves the system capacity and power utilization especially in the condition of insufficient resources

  14. Visualisation for Stochastic Process Algebras: The Graphic Truth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Michael James Andrew; Gilmore, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    a natural interface for labelling states in the model, which integrates with our interface for specifying and model checking properties in the Continuous Stochastic Logic (CSL). We describe recent improvements to the tool in terms of usability and exploiting the visualisation framework, and discuss some......There have historically been two approaches to performance modelling. On the one hand, textual language-based formalisms such as stochastic process algebras allow compositional modelling that is portable and easy to manage. In contrast, graphical formalisms such as stochastic Petri nets...... and stochastic activity networks provide an automaton-based view of the model, which may be easier to visualise, at the expense of portability. In this paper, we argue that we can achieve the benefits of both approaches by generating a graphical view of a stochastic process algebra model, which is synchronised...

  15. GASAKe: forecasting landslide activations by a genetic-algorithms-based hydrological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, O. G.; Gariano, S. L.; Iaquinta, P.; Iovine, G. G. R.

    2015-07-01

    GASAKe is a new hydrological model aimed at forecasting the triggering of landslides. The model is based on genetic algorithms and allows one to obtain thresholds for the prediction of slope failures using dates of landslide activations and rainfall series. It can be applied to either single landslides or a set of similar slope movements in a homogeneous environment. Calibration of the model provides families of optimal, discretized solutions (kernels) that maximize the fitness function. Starting from the kernels, the corresponding mobility functions (i.e., the predictive tools) can be obtained through convolution with the rain series. The base time of the kernel is related to the magnitude of the considered slope movement, as well as to the hydro-geological complexity of the site. Generally, shorter base times are expected for shallow slope instabilities compared to larger-scale phenomena. Once validated, the model can be applied to estimate the timing of future landslide activations in the same study area, by employing measured or forecasted rainfall series. Examples of application of GASAKe to a medium-size slope movement (the Uncino landslide at San Fili, in Calabria, southern Italy) and to a set of shallow landslides (in the Sorrento Peninsula, Campania, southern Italy) are discussed. In both cases, a successful calibration of the model has been achieved, despite unavoidable uncertainties concerning the dates of occurrence of the slope movements. In particular, for the Sorrento Peninsula case, a fitness of 0.81 has been obtained by calibrating the model against 10 dates of landslide activation; in the Uncino case, a fitness of 1 (i.e., neither missing nor false alarms) has been achieved using five activations. As for temporal validation, the experiments performed by considering further dates of activation have also proved satisfactory. In view of early-warning applications for civil protection, the capability of the model to simulate the occurrences of the

  16. Molecular genetics of blood-fleshed peach reveals activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by NAC transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Wang, Huiliang; Gu, Chao; Dare, Andrew P; Espley, Richard V; He, Huaping; Allan, Andrew C; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanin pigmentation is an important consumer trait in peach (Prunus persica). In this study, the genetic basis of the blood-flesh trait was investigated using the cultivar Dahongpao, which shows high levels of cyanidin-3-glucoside in the mesocarp. Elevation of anthocyanin levels in the flesh was correlated with the expression of an R2R3 MYB transcription factor, PpMYB10.1. However, PpMYB10.1 did not co-segregate with the blood-flesh trait. The blood-flesh trait was mapped to a 200-kb interval on peach linkage group (LG) 5. Within this interval, a gene encoding a NAC domain transcription factor (TF) was found to be highly up-regulated in blood-fleshed peaches when compared with non-red-fleshed peaches. This NAC TF, designated blood (BL), acts as a heterodimer with PpNAC1 which shows high levels of expression in fruit at late developmental stages. We show that the heterodimer of BL and PpNAC1 can activate the transcription of PpMYB10.1, resulting in anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco. Furthermore, silencing the BL gene reduces anthocyanin pigmentation in blood-fleshed peaches. The transactivation activity of the BL-PpNAC1 heterodimer is repressed by a SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like TF, PpSPL1. Low levels of PpMYB10.1 expression in fruit at early developmental stages is probably attributable to lower levels of expression of PpNAC1 plus the presence of high levels of repressors such as PpSPL1. We present a mechanism whereby BL is the key gene for the blood-flesh trait in peach via its activation of PpMYB10.1 in maturing fruit. Partner TFs such as basic helix-loop-helix proteins and NAC1 are required, as is the removal of transcriptional repressors.

  17. Imaging activity in astrocytes and neurons with genetically encoded calcium indicators following in utero electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael eGee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex interactions between networks of astrocytes and neurons are beginning to be appreciated, but remain poorly understood. Transgenic mice expressing fluorescent protein reporters of cellular activity, such as the GCaMP family of genetically encoded calcium indicators, have been used to explore network behavior. However, in some cases, it may be desirable to use long-established rat models that closely mimic particular aspects of human conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and the development of epilepsy following status epilepticus. Methods for expressing reporter proteins in the rat brain are relatively limited. Transgenic rat technologies exist but are fairly immature. Viral-mediated expression is robust but unstable, requires invasive injections, and only works well for fairly small genes (< 5 kb. In utero electroporation offers a valuable alternative. IUE is a proven method for transfecting populations of astrocytes and neurons in the rat brain without the strict limitations on transgene size. We built a toolset of IUE plasmids carrying GCaMP variants 3, 6s or 6f driven by CAG and targeted to the cytosol or the plasma membrane. Because low baseline fluorescence of GCaMP can hinder identification of transfected cells, we included the option of co-expressing a cytosolic tdTomato protein. A binary system consisting of a plasmid carrying a piggyBac inverted terminal repeat-flanked CAG-GCaMP-IRES-tdTomato cassette and a separate plasmid encoding for expression of piggyBac transposase was employed to stably express GCaMP and tdTomato. The plasmids were co-electroporated on embryonic days 13.5-14.5 and astrocytic and neuronal activity was subsequently imaged in acute or cultured brain slices prepared from the cortex or hippocampus. Large spontaneous transients were detected in slices obtained from rats of varying ages up to 127 days. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of this toolset for interrogating astrocytic and neuronal

  18. Missouri Industrial and Educational Graphic Arts Survey. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keseman, Charles E.

    The Missouri Industrial and Educational Graphic Arts (MIEGA) survey was done to determine the current status and trends of the graphic arts industry and graphic arts education in Missouri for use as the basis for the later development of secondary school graphic arts state curriculum guides. Data were collected through two status surveys in…

  19. Engineering Design Graphics: Into the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, La Verne Abe; Meyers, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Graphical plans for construction of machinery and architecture have evolved over the last 6,000 years beginning from hieroglyphics to drawings on printable media, from the "Golden Age" of engineering graphics to the innovation of computer graphics and prototyping. The evolution of engineering design graphics as a profession has also evolved. Years…

  20. Engineering Design Graphics: Into the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, La Verne Abe; Meyers, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Graphical plans for construction of machinery and architecture have evolved over the last 6,000 years beginning from hieroglyphics to drawings on printable media, from the "Golden Age" of engineering graphics to the innovation of computer graphics and prototyping. The evolution of engineering design graphics as a profession has also evolved. Years…

  1. Numerical Integration with Graphical Processing Unit for QKD Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    existing and proposed Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) systems. This research investigates using graphical processing unit ( GPU ) technology to more...Time Pad GPU graphical processing unit API application programming interface CUDA Compute Unified Device Architecture SIMD single-instruction-stream...and can be passed by value or reference [2]. 2.3 Graphical Processing Units Programming with graphical processing unit ( GPU ) requires a different

  2. 12th International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications aims at becoming a major point of contact between researchers, engineers and practitioners in Computer Graphics. The conference will be structured along five main tracks, covering different aspects related to Computer Graphics, from Modelling to Rendering, including Animation, Interactive Environments and Social Agents In Computer Graphics.

  3. IMPACT OF GENETIC STRAIN ON BODY FAT LOSS, FOOD CONSUMPTION, METABOLISM, VENTILATION, AND MOTOR ACTIVITY IN FREE RUNNING FEMALE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiologic data associated with different strains of common laboratory rat strains.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , and A. Johnstone. Impact of Genetic Strain on Body Fat Loss, Food Consumption, Metabolism, Ventilation, and Motor Activity in Free Running Female Rats. PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 153: 56-63, (2016).

  4. Genetic variation and activity of the renin-angiotensin system and severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U.; Dhamrait, S.S.; Sethi, A.A.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The deletion-allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and elevated ACE activity are associated with increased risk of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. We explored whether genetic and phenotypic variations in other components of the renin-angiotensin system...

  5. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and physical activity: a study of nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L.M. Forjaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP and physical activity (PA levels are inversely associated. Since genetic factors account for the observed variation in each of these traits, it is possible that part of their association may be related to common genetic and/or environmental influences. Thus, this study was designed to estimate the genetic and environmental correlations of BP and PA phenotypes in nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil. Families including 236 offspring (6 to 24 years and their 82 fathers and 122 mothers (24 to 65 years were evaluated. BP was measured, and total PA (TPA was assessed by an interview (commuting, occupational, leisure time, and school time PA. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate maximal heritability (h², and genetic and environmental correlations. Heritability was significant for all phenotypes (systolic BP: h² = 0.37 ± 0.10, P < 0.05; diastolic BP: h² = 0.39 ± 0.09, P < 0.05; TPA: h² = 0.24 ± 0.09, P < 0.05. Significant genetic (r g and environmental (r e correlations were detected between systolic and diastolic BP (r g = 0.67 ± 0.12 and r e = 0.48 ± 0.08, P < 0.05. Genetic correlations between BP and TPA were not significant, while a tendency to an environmental cross-trait correlation was found between diastolic BP and TPA (r e = -0.18 ± 0.09, P = 0.057. In conclusion, BP and PA are under genetic influences. Systolic and diastolic BP share common genes and environmental influences. Diastolic BP and TPA are probably under similar environmental influences.

  6. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and physical activity: a study of nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forjaz, C.L.M.; Bartholomeu, T. [Laboratório de Hemodinâmica da Atividade Motora (LAHAM), Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rezende, J.A.S. [Escola Superior de Educação Física de Muzambinho, Muzambinho, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, J.A.; Basso, L.; Tani, G. [Laboratório de Comportamento Motor (LACOM), Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Prista, A. [Faculdade de Educação Física e Desporto, Universidade Pedagógica, Maputo (Mozambique); Maia, J.A.R. [CIFI2D, Laboratório de Cineantropometria e Gabinete de Estatística Aplicada, Faculdade de Desporto, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-09-07

    Blood pressure (BP) and physical activity (PA) levels are inversely associated. Since genetic factors account for the observed variation in each of these traits, it is possible that part of their association may be related to common genetic and/or environmental influences. Thus, this study was designed to estimate the genetic and environmental correlations of BP and PA phenotypes in nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil. Families including 236 offspring (6 to 24 years) and their 82 fathers and 122 mothers (24 to 65 years) were evaluated. BP was measured, and total PA (TPA) was assessed by an interview (commuting, occupational, leisure time, and school time PA). Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate maximal heritability (h{sup 2}), and genetic and environmental correlations. Heritability was significant for all phenotypes (systolic BP: h{sup 2} = 0.37 ± 0.10, P < 0.05; diastolic BP: h{sup 2} = 0.39 ± 0.09, P < 0.05; TPA: h{sup 2} = 0.24 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). Significant genetic (r{sub g}) and environmental (r{sub e}) correlations were detected between systolic and diastolic BP (r{sub g} = 0.67 ± 0.12 and r{sub e} = 0.48 ± 0.08, P < 0.05). Genetic correlations between BP and TPA were not significant, while a tendency to an environmental cross-trait correlation was found between diastolic BP and TPA (r{sub e} = -0.18 ± 0.09, P = 0.057). In conclusion, BP and PA are under genetic influences. Systolic and diastolic BP share common genes and environmental influences. Diastolic BP and TPA are probably under similar environmental influences.

  7. Genetic correlation between the pre-adult developmental period and locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K H; Teramura, K; Muraoka, S; Okada, Y; Miyatake, T

    2013-04-01

    Biological clocks regulate various behavioural and physiological traits; slower circadian clocks are expected to slow down the development, suggesting a potential genetic correlation between the developmental period and circadian rhythm. However, a correlation between natural genetic variations in the developmental period and circadian rhythm has only been found in Bactrocera cucurbitae. The number of genetic factors that contribute to this genetic correlation is largely unclear. In this study, to examine whether natural genetic variations in the developmental period and circadian rhythm are correlated in Drosophila melanogaster, we performed an artificial disruptive selection on the developmental periods using wild-type strains and evaluated the circadian rhythms of the selected lines. To investigate whether multiple genetic factors mediate the genetic correlation, we reanalyzed previously published genome-wide deficiency screening data based on DrosDel isogenic deficiency strains and evaluated the effect of 438 genomic deficiencies on the developmental periods. We then randomly selected 32 genomic deficiencies with significant effects on the developmental periods and tested their effects on circadian rhythms. As a result, we found a significant response to selection for longer developmental periods and their correlated effects on circadian rhythms of the selected lines. We also found that 18 genomic regions had significant effects on the developmental periods and circadian rhythms, indicating their potential for mediating the genetic correlation between the developmental period and circadian rhythm. The novel findings of our study might lead to a better understanding of how this correlation is regulated genetically in broader taxonomic groups.

  8. The effects of repeated exposure to graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Bos, Colin

    2015-03-01

    Experimental studies on the effects of graphic fear appeals on cigarette packages typically expose smokers in a single session to a fear appeal, although in practice the exposure is always repeated. The present study applied an improved study design with repeated exposure to fear appeals on cigarette packages. In this field-experiment, 118 smokers were assigned to 1 of 2 conditions with either graphic fear appeals or textual warnings on their cigarette packages. During 3 weeks, fear and disgust were assessed 6 times. The intention to quit smoking after 3 weeks and quitting activity during the 3 weeks were the dependent measures. The effects of 3 pretest individual difference moderators were tested: disengagement beliefs, number of cigarettes smoked a day, and readiness to quit. Three weeks of exposure to the graphic fear appeals led to a stronger intention to quit, but only when smokers scored low on disengagement beliefs, or were heavier smokers. In addition, smokers low in disengagement more often reported to have cut down on smoking in the graphic condition. There were no indications of habituation of fear and disgust over the 3 weeks. The effects of graphic fear appeals depended on smokers' characteristics: The moderators may explain the mixed findings in the literature. The lack of habituation may be caused by the renewal of the graphics every few days. The used field-experimental design with natural repeated exposure to graphics is promising.

  9. Exploring spatial data representation with dynamic graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Jason A.

    1997-05-01

    Dynamic mapping capabilities are providing enormous potential for visualizing spatial data. Dynamic maps which exhibit observer-related behaviour are particularly appropriate for exploratory analysis, where multiple, short-term, slightly different, views of a data set, each produced with a specific task or question in mind, are an essential part of the analytical process. This paper and the associated coloured and dynamic illustrations take advantage of World Wide Web (WWW) delivery and the digital medium by using interactive graphics to introduce an approach to dynamic cartography based upon the Tcl/Tk graphical user interface (GUI) builder. Generic ways of programming observer-related behaviour, such as brushing, dynamic re-expression, and dynamic comparison, are outlined and demonstrated to show that specialist dynamic views can be developed rapidly in an open, flexible, and high-level graphic environment. Such an approach provides opportunities to reinforce traditional cartographic and statistical representations of spatial data with dynamic graphics and transient symbolism which give supplementary information about a symbol or statistic on demand. A series of examples from recent work which uses the approach demonstrates ways in which dynamic graphics can be effective in complementing methods of measurement and mapping which are well established in geographic enquiry.

  10. A Framework for Mathematics Graphical Tasks: The Influence of the Graphic Element on Student Sense Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Diezmann, Carmel M.; Logan, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Graphical tasks have become a prominent aspect of mathematics assessment. From a conceptual stance, the purpose of this study was to better understand the composition of graphical tasks commonly used to assess students' mathematics understandings. Through an iterative design, the investigation described the sense making of 11-12-year-olds as they…

  11. Genetics Reasoning with Multiple External Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2003-02-01

    This paper explores a case study of a class of Year 10 students (n=24) whose learning of genetics involved activities of BioLogica, a computer program that features multiple external representations (MERs). MERs can be verbal/textual, visual-graphical, or in other formats. Researchers claim that the functions of MERs in supporting student learning are to complement information or processes, to constrain the interpretation of abstract concepts, and to construct new viable conceptions. Over decades, research has shown that genetics remains linguistically and conceptually difficult for high school students. This case study using data from multiple sources enabled students'' development of genetics reasoning to be interpreted from an epistemological perspective. Pretest-posttest comparison after six weeks showed that most of the students (n=20) had improved their genetics reasoning but only for easier reasoning types. Findings indicated that the MERs in BioLogica contributed to students'' development of genetics reasoning by engendering their motivation and interest but only when students were mindful in their learning. Based on triangulation of data from multiple sources, MERs in BioLogica appeared to support learning largely by constraining students'' interpretation of phenomena of genetics.

  12. New Perspective on Visual Communication Design Education: An Empirical Study of Applying Narrative Theory to Graphic Design Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Tzu-Fan

    2017-01-01

    Visual communication design (VCD) is a form of nonverbal communication. The application of relevant linguistic or semiotic theories to VCD education renders graphic design an innovative and scientific discipline. In this study, actual teaching activities were examined to verify the feasibility of applying narrative theory to graphic design…

  13. Making and using shaders in modern computer graphics

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In the area of consumer computer graphic was a major turning point in the development of graphics and it's rendering, when new graphic cards with programmable pipeline emerged. What and how something will be done in a single stage of programmable pipeline is provided with a small program called shader. The aim of the thesis is to present the basics of modern computer graphics and use of shaders in computer graphics. We start by presenting the theoretical basis of shaders and comparing program...

  14. A genetic screen reveals a periplasmic copper chaperone required for nitrite reductase activity in pathogenic Neisseria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Freda E-C; Djoko, Karrera Y; Bent, Stephen J; Day, Christopher J; McEwan, Alastair G; Jennings, Michael P

    2015-09-01

    Under conditions of low oxygen availability, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are able to respire via a partial denitrification pathway in which nitrite is converted to nitrous oxide. In this process, nitrite reductase (AniA), a copper (Cu)-containing protein converts nitrite to NO, and this product is converted to nitrous oxide by nitric oxide reductase (NorB). NorB also confers protection against toxic NO, and so we devised a conditional lethal screen, using a norB mutant, to identify mutants that were resistant to nitrite-dependent killing. After random-deletion mutagenesis of N. meningitidis, this genetic screen identified a gene encoding a Cu chaperone that is essential for AniA function, AccA. Purified AccA binds one Cu (I) ion and also possesses a second binding site for Cu (II). This novel periplasmic Cu chaperone (AccA) appears to be essential for provision of Cu ions to AniA of pathogenic Neisseria to generate an active nitrite reductase. Apart from the Neisseria genus, AccA is distributed across a wide range of environmental Proteobacteria species. © FASEB.

  15. Imidacloprid induces changes in the structure, genetic diversity and catabolic activity of soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cycoń, Mariusz; Markowicz, Anna; Borymski, Sławomir; Wójcik, Marcin; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2013-12-15

    This is the first report describing the effect of imidacloprid applied at field rate (FR, 1 mg/kg of soil) and 10 times the FR (10*FR, 10 mg/kg of soil) on the structural, genetic and physiological diversity of soil bacterial community as determined by the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and the community level physiological profile (CLPP) approaches. PLFA profiles showed that imidacloprid significantly shifted the microbial community structure and decreased the biomass of the total, bacterial and fungal PLFAs, however, this effect was transient at the FR dosage. The alterations in DGGE patterns caused by imidacloprid application, confirmed considerable changes in the overall richness and diversity of dominant bacteria. Although, as a result of imidacloprid application, the metabolic activity of microbial communities was generally lower, the richness and functional biodiversity of the soil microbial community were not negatively affected. In general, the analysis of the variance indicated that the measured parameters were significantly affected by treatment and the incubation time, however, the incubation time effect explained most of the observed variance. Imidacloprid degradation and the appearance of some new bands in DGGE profiles suggest the evolution of bacteria capable of degrading imidacloprid among indigenous microflora.

  16. Genetic engineering activates biosynthesis of aromatic fumaric acid amides in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Daniel; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Lackner, Gerald; Scharf, Daniel H; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Brakhage, Axel A; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2015-03-01

    The Aspergillus fumigatus nonribosomal peptide synthetase FtpA is among the few of this species whose natural product has remained unknown. Both FtpA adenylation domains were characterized in vitro. Fumaric acid was identified as preferred substrate of the first and both l-tyrosine and l-phenylalanine as preferred substrates of the second adenylation domain. Genetically engineered A. fumigatus strains expressed either ftpA or the regulator gene ftpR, encoded in the same cluster of genes, under the control of the doxycycline-inducible tetracycline-induced transcriptional activation (tet-on) cassette. These strains produced fumaryl-l-tyrosine and fumaryl-l-phenylalanine which were identified by liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Modeling of the first adenylation domain in silico provided insight into the structural requirements to bind fumaric acid as peptide synthetase substrate. This work adds aromatic fumaric acid amides to the secondary metabolome of the important human pathogen A. fumigatus which was previously not known as a producer of these compounds.

  17. Genetic polymorphisms and antiviral activity in the bovine MX1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Y; Yamada, K; Ueda, J; Onogi, A; Ables, G P; Nishibori, M; Hata, H; Takada, A; Sawai, K; Tanabe, Y; Morita, M; Daikohara, M; Watanabe, T

    2004-06-01

    Bovine MX1 cDNAs consisting of 2280 bp from 11 animals of five breeds and from a cultured cell line were sequenced and compared with previously reported data. Ten nucleotide substitutions were synonymous mutations, and a single nucleotide substitution at 458 resulted in an amino acid exchange of Ile (ATT) and Met (ATG). A 13-bp deletion-insertion mutation was also found in the 3'-UTR. Based on the nucleotide substitutions found in this study, bovine MX1 cDNA was classified into 11 genotypes. A phylogenetic tree of the 11 genotypes suggested that the genotypes observed in Brahman were a great genetic distance from other genotypes. An 18-bp deletion-insertion variation at position 171 was found to be the result of alternative splicing. The 18-bp deletion-insertion is located at the boundary between exon 3 and intron 3. Permanently transfected 3T3 cell lines expressing bovine MX1 mRNA were established to analyse the antiviral potential against VSVDeltaG*-G infection. Transfected cell clones expressing bovine MX1 mRNA showed a significantly smaller number of cells infected with VSVDeltaG*-G compared with the control cells. These results indicate that the bovine MX1 protein has potent antiviral activity.

  18. A Genetic Variant (COMT) Coding Dopaminergic Activity Predicts Personality Traits in Healthy Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyuk, Eszter; Duchek, Janet; Head, Denise; Szekely, Anna; Goate, Alison M; Balota, David A

    2015-08-01

    Association studies between the NEO five factor personality inventory and COMT rs4680 have focused on young adults and the results have been inconsistent. However, personality and cortical changes with age may put older adults in a more sensitive range for detecting a relationship. The present study examined associations of COMT rs4680 and personality in older adults. Genetic association analyses were carried out between the NEO and the targeted COMT rs4680 in a large, well-characterized sample of healthy, cognitively normal older adults (N = 616, mean age = 69.26 years). Three significant associations were found: participants with GG genotype showed lower mean scores on Neuroticism (p = 0.039) and higher scores on Agreeableness (p = 0.020) and Conscientiousness (p = 0.006) than participants with AA or AG genotypes. These results suggest that older adults with higher COMT enzymatic activity (GG), therefore lower dopamine level, have lower Neuroticism scores, and higher Agreeableness and Conscientiousness scores. This is consistent with a recent model of phasic and tonic dopamine release suggesting that even though GG genotype is associated with lower tonic dopamine release, the phasic release of dopamine might be optimal for a more adaptive personality profile.

  19. Genetic variation in hyaluronan metabolism loci is associated with plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanktree, Matthew B; Johansen, Christopher T; Anand, Sonia S; Davis, A Darlene; Miller, Ruby; Yusuf, Salim; Hegele, Robert A

    2010-09-23

    Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. PAI-1 is the primary inhibitor of fibrinolysis within both the circulation and the arterial wall, playing roles in both atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To define the heritable component, subjects within the population-based SHARE (Study of Health Assessment and Risk in Ethnic groups) and SHARE-AP (Study of Health Assessment and Risk Evaluation in Aboriginal Peoples) studies, composed of Canadians of South Asian (n = 298), Chinese (n = 284), European (n = 227), and Aboriginal (n = 284) descent, were genotyped using the gene-centric Illumina HumanCVD BeadChip. After imputation, more than 150,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in more than 2000 loci were tested for association with plasma PAI-1 concentration. Marginal association was observed with the PAI-1 locus itself (SERPINE1; P HABP2, HSPA1A, HYAL1, MBTPS1, TARP) were associated with PAI-1 concentration at a P HABP2) and hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL1), play key roles in hyaluronan metabolism, providing genetic evidence to link these pathways.

  20. ScripTree: scripting phylogenetic graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevenet, François; Croce, Olivier; Hebrard, Maxime; Christen, Richard; Berry, Vincent

    2010-04-15

    There is a large amount of tools for interactive display of phylogenetic trees. However, there is a shortage of tools for the automation of tree rendering. Scripting phylogenetic graphics would enable the saving of graphical analyses involving numerous and complex tree handling operations and would allow the automation of repetitive tasks. ScripTree is a tool intended to fill this gap. It is an interpreter to be used in batch mode. Phylogenetic graphics instructions, related to tree rendering as well as tree annotation, are stored in a text file and processed in a sequential way. ScripTree can be used online or downloaded at www.scriptree.org, under the GPL license. ScripTree, written in Tcl/Tk, is a cross-platform application available for Windows and Unix-like systems including OS X. It can be used either as a stand-alone package or included in a bioinformatic pipeline and linked to a HTTP server.

  1. Practical Implementation of a Graphics Turing Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Mathias; Johansen, Stine Schmieg; Thomsen, Dennis Lundgaard

    2012-01-01

    We present a practical implementation of a variation of the Turing Test for realistic computer graphics. The test determines whether virtual representations of objects appear as real as genuine objects. Two experiments were conducted wherein a real object and a similar virtual object is presented...... graphics. Based on the results from these experiments, future versions of the Graphics Turing Test could ease the restrictions currently necessary in order to test object telepresence under more general conditions. Furthermore, the test could be used to determine the minimum requirements to achieve object...... to test subjects under specific restrictions. A criterion for passing the test is presented based on the probability for the subjects to be unable to recognise a computer generated object as virtual. The experiments show that the specific setup can be used to determine the quality of virtual reality...

  2. Advertising Graphic Design: theoretical and methodological foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Antonovych, Y.; Pryshchenko, S.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the authors theoretical and methodological foundations to the forming of an actual educational discipline «Ad Graphic Design» as integration of graphic design, advertising and marketing. Basic components of the professionalism of a designer in advertising have been selected taking into account the requirements of modern market: graphic design-foundation, sociological and marketing components. В статье рассмотрены разработанные авторами теоретико-методологические осно...

  3. Design considerations for parallel graphics libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Applications which run on parallel supercomputers are often characterized by massive datasets. Converting these vast collections of numbers to visual form has proven to be a powerful aid to comprehension. For a variety of reasons, it may be desirable to provide this visual feedback at runtime. One way to accomplish this is to exploit the available parallelism to perform graphics operations in place. In order to do this, we need appropriate parallel rendering algorithms and library interfaces. This paper provides a tutorial introduction to some of the issues which arise in designing parallel graphics libraries and their underlying rendering algorithms. The focus is on polygon rendering for distributed memory message-passing systems. We illustrate our discussion with examples from PGL, a parallel graphics library which has been developed on the Intel family of parallel systems.

  4. Graphic medicine: comics as medical narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ian C M

    2012-06-01

    Among the growing number of works of graphic fiction, a number of titles dealing directly with the patient experience of illness or caring for others with an illness are to be found. Thanks in part to the Medical Humanities movement, many medical schools now encourage the reading of classic literature to gain insight into the human condition. Until recently, the medium of comics (the term is used in the plural to refer to both the physical objects and the attendant philosophy and practice surrounding them) has received little attention from healthcare scholars, even though some authors argue that graphic fiction is, in fact, a form of literature. This paper suggests that it is time that the medium was examined by healthcare professionals and studies some acclaimed comic works. Drawing on the principles of narrative medicine, this paper will ask whether comics and graphic novels could be used as a resource for health professionals, patients and carers.

  5. Animated GIFs as vernacular graphic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Ödül Akyapi

    2016-01-01

    Online television audiences create a variety of digital content on the internet. Fans of television production design produce and share such content to express themselves and engage with the objects of their interest. These digital expressions, which exist in the form of graphics, text, videos...... and often a mix of some of these modes, seem to enable participatory conversations by the audience communities that continue over a period of time. One example of such multimodal digital content is the graphic format called the animated GIF (graphics interchange format). This article focuses on content...... creation by online audiences who use the blogging service Tumblr and analyses the animated GIF – a web image format that is able to display a succession of frames – from a multimodal and social semiotic viewpoint. The author analyzes animated GIFs as digital content, and frames digital content creation...

  6. Dynamic Load Balancing using Graphics Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mohan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To get maximum performance on the many-core graphics processors, it is important to have an even balance of the workload so that all processing units contribute equally to the task at hand. This can be hard to achieve when the cost of a task is not known beforehand and when new sub-tasks are created dynamically during execution. Both the dynamic load balancing methods using Static task assignment and work stealing using deques are compared to see which one is more suited to the highly parallel world of graphics processors. They have been evaluated on the task of simulating a computer move against the human move, in the famous four in a row game. The experiments showed that synchronization can be very expensive, and those new methods which use graphics processor features wisely might be required.

  7. Item Screening in Graphical Loglinear Rasch Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Svend; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    the initial item analysis may disclose a great deal of spurious and misleading evidence of DIF and local dependence that has to disposed of during the modelling procedure. Like graphical models, graphical loglinear Rasch models possess Markov properties that are useful during the statistical analysis......In behavioural sciences, local dependence and DIF are common, and purification procedures that eliminate items with these weaknesses often result in short scales with poor reliability. Graphical loglinear Rasch models (Kreiner & Christensen, in Statistical Methods for Quality of Life Studies, ed....... by M. Mesbah, F.C. Cole & M.T. Lee, Kluwer Academic, pp. 187–203, 2002) where uniform DIF and uniform local dependence are permitted solve this dilemma by modelling the local dependence and DIF. Identifying loglinear Rasch models by a stepwise model search is often very time consuming, since...

  8. Enhancements to IRAF/STSDAS graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, J. D.; Levay, Z. G.

    1992-01-01

    The IRAF graphics kernel, psikern, is a true encapsulated PostScript implementation, an improvement over the former SGI-based PostScript output available from IRAF. The psikern kernel implements many more capabilities of gio/gki such as cell arrays (grayscale images), color, filled area patterns and true PostScript fonts. Several of the general-purpose graphics tasks in STSDAS such as igi, sgraph, skymap, and wcslab have been modified to use these capabilities explicitly. Other graphics tasks not enhanced explicitly can also make use of new capabilities such as PostScript font support. We present an overview of psikern and several examples of output created by the enhanced STSDAS tasks.

  9. Data Sorting Using Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Mišić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphics processing units (GPUs have been increasingly used for general-purpose computation in recent years. The GPU accelerated applications are found in both scientific and commercial domains. Sorting is considered as one of the very important operations in many applications, so its efficient implementation is essential for the overall application performance. This paper represents an effort to analyze and evaluate the implementations of the representative sorting algorithms on the graphics processing units. Three sorting algorithms (Quicksort, Merge sort, and Radix sort were evaluated on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA platform that is used to execute applications on NVIDIA graphics processing units. Algorithms were tested and evaluated using an automated test environment with input datasets of different characteristics. Finally, the results of this analysis are briefly discussed.

  10. Graphical Model Theory for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William B.

    2002-12-08

    Information processing in sensor networks, with many small processors, demands a theory of computation that allows the minimization of processing effort, and the distribution of this effort throughout the network. Graphical model theory provides a probabilistic theory of computation that explicitly addresses complexity and decentralization for optimizing network computation. The junction tree algorithm, for decentralized inference on graphical probability models, can be instantiated in a variety of applications useful for wireless sensor networks, including: sensor validation and fusion; data compression and channel coding; expert systems, with decentralized data structures, and efficient local queries; pattern classification, and machine learning. Graphical models for these applications are sketched, and a model of dynamic sensor validation and fusion is presented in more depth, to illustrate the junction tree algorithm.

  11. Graphic representations: keys to disclose the codex of nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramelo, Liliana; Gonçalves, Norberto; Pereira, Mário; Soares, Armando; Naia, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Undergraduate and university level students present some difficulties to understand and interpret many of the geosciences concepts, in particular those represented by vector and scalar fields. Our experience reveals that these difficulties are associated with a lack in the development of their abstraction and mental picturing abilities. On the other hand, these students have easy access to communication and information technology software which can be used to built graphic representations of experimental data, time series and vector and scalar fields. This transformation allows an easiest extraction, interpretation and summary of the most important characteristics in the data. There is already commercial and open source software with graphical tools that can be used for this purpose but commercial software packs with user friendly interfaces but their price is not negligible. Open source software can circumvent this difficulty even if, in general, their graphical user interface hasn't reached the desirable level of the commercial ones. We will show a simple procedure to generate an image from the data that characterizes the generation of the suitable images illustrating the key concepts in study, using a freeware code, exactly as it is presented to the students in our open teaching sessions to the general student community. Our experience demonstrated that the students are very enthusiastic using this approach. Furthermore, the use of this software can easily be adopted by teachers and students of secondary schools as part of curricular activities.

  12. Using the Eastern Hellbender Salamander in a High School Genetics & Ecological Conservation Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Sarah; McMillan, Amy; Lange, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article contains an original 5E lesson plan developed from conservation genetics research on the giant North American hellbender salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis. The lesson plan provides background information on the hellbender, reviews basic genetics, and exposes students to the scientific process that is used during…

  13. Differences in Genetic Background Between Active Smokers, Passive Smokers, and Non-Smokers With Crohn's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Frans; Nolte, Ilja M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Dijkstra, Gerard; Weersma, Rinse K.

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking behavior and genetic variations are important factors for the development of Crohn's disease (CD), but studies investigating the interaction between smoking and genetic background are scarce. We studied allelic associations of 19 confirmed variants located in 14 CD-associated

  14. Probabilistic graphical model representation in phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhna, Sebastian; Heath, Tracy A; Boussau, Bastien; Landis, Michael J; Ronquist, Fredrik; Huelsenbeck, John P

    2014-09-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid expansion of the model space explored in statistical phylogenetics, emphasizing the need for new approaches to statistical model representation and software development. Clear communication and representation of the chosen model is crucial for: (i) reproducibility of an analysis, (ii) model development, and (iii) software design. Moreover, a unified, clear and understandable framework for model representation lowers the barrier for beginners and nonspecialists to grasp complex phylogenetic models, including their assumptions and parameter/variable dependencies. Graphical modeling is a unifying framework that has gained in popularity in the statistical literature in recent years. The core idea is to break complex models into conditionally independent distributions. The strength lies in the comprehensibility, flexibility, and adaptability of this formalism, and the large body of computational work based on it. Graphical models are well-suited to teach statistical models, to facilitate communication among phylogeneticists and in the development of generic software for simulation and statistical inference. Here, we provide an introduction to graphical models for phylogeneticists and extend the standard graphical model representation to the realm of phylogenetics. We introduce a new graphical model component, tree plates, to capture the changing structure of the subgraph corresponding to a phylogenetic tree. We describe a range of phylogenetic models using the graphical model framework and introduce modules to simplify the representation of standard components in large and complex models. Phylogenetic model graphs can be readily used in simulation, maximum likelihood inference, and Bayesian inference using, for example, Metropolis-Hastings or Gibbs sampling of the posterior distribution.

  15. Genetically encoded calcium indicators for multi-color neural activity imaging and combination with optogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper eAkerboom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs are powerful tools for systems neuroscience. Here we describe red, single-wavelength GECIs, RCaMPs, engineered from circular permutation of the thermostable red fluorescent protein mRuby. High-resolution crystal structures of mRuby, the red sensor RCaMP, and the recently published red GECI R-GECO1 give insight into the chromophore environments of the Ca2+-bound state of the sensors and the engineered protein domain interfaces of the different indicators. We characterized the biophysical properties and performance of RCaMP sensors in vitro and in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila larvae, and larval zebrafish. Further, we demonstrate 2-color calcium imaging both within the same cell (registering mitochondrial and somatic [Ca2+] and between two populations of cells: neurons and astrocytes. Finally, we perform integrated optogenetics experiments, wherein neural activation via channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 or a red-shifted variant, and activity imaging via RCaMP or GCaMP, are conducted simultaneously, with the ChR2/RCaMP pair providing independently addressable spectral channels. Using this paradigm, we measure calcium responses of naturalistic and ChR2-evoked muscle contractions in vivo in crawling C. elegans. We systematically compare the RCaMP sensors to R-GECO1, in terms of action potential-evoked fluorescence increases in neurons, photobleaching, and photoswitching. R-GECO1 displays higher Ca2+ affinity and larger dynamic range than RCaMP, but exhibits significant photoactivation with blue and green light, suggesting that integrated channelrhodopsin-based optogenetics using R-GECO1 may be subject to artifact. Finally, we create and test blue, cyan and yellow variants engineered from GCaMP by rational design. This engineered set of chromatic variants facilitates new experiments in functional imaging and optogenetics.

  16. Genetic variants of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ are associated with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Christie; Chang, Shen-Chih; Mu, Lina; Zhao, Jinkou; Rao, Jian-Yu; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are implicated in pathogenesis of insulin resistance and cancers of the digestive system. We investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PPAR δ and γ with gastric cancer and explored interactions with risk factors of gastric cancer. We conducted our analysis in a case-control study of 196 gastric cancer patients and 397 controls residing in the Taixing region of Jiangsu, China. Six SNPs in the PPARδ (rs2076167, rs3734254) and PPARγ genes (rs10865710, rs1801282, rs3856806, rs13306747) were genotyped. We employed logistic regression to evaluate the association between each genotype and gastric cancer and tested for gene-environment interaction with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, smoking status, and meat and salt intake. We found that the G/G variant rs2076167, in tight linkage disequilibrium with rs3734254 (R (2) = 0.97), was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in a recessive model (OR 2.20, 95 % CI 1.12, 4.32). The association between G/G variant of rs2016167 and gastric cancer was particularly strong among those with higher salt intake (OR 5.11, 95 % CI 1.11, 23.5), but did not vary by H. pylori infection or smoking status. We found that genetic variants of PPARδ were associated with gastric cancer. If the association is confirmed in larger studies, it may implicate a role for PPARδ activators, such as insulin-sensitizing agents, in prevention of gastric cancer.

  17. Testing the Role of p21-Activated Kinases in Schwannoma Formation Using a Novel Genetically Engineered Murine Model that Closely Phenocopies Human NF2 Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Kinases in Schwannoma Formation Using a Novel Genetically Engineered Murine Model that Closely Phenocopies Human NF2 Disease The views, opinions and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Testing the Role of p21-Activated Kinases in Schwannoma Formation Using a Novel Genetically Engineered Murine Model that Closely...1.20 calendar Testing the Role of p21 Activated Kinases in Schwannoma Formation Using a Novel Genetically Engineered Murine Model that Closely

  18. Object-oriented graphics programming in C++

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Roger T

    2014-01-01

    Object-Oriented Graphics Programming in C++ provides programmers with the information needed to produce realistic pictures on a PC monitor screen.The book is comprised of 20 chapters that discuss the aspects of graphics programming in C++. The book starts with a short introduction discussing the purpose of the book. It also includes the basic concepts of programming in C++ and the basic hardware requirement. Subsequent chapters cover related topics in C++ programming such as the various display modes; displaying TGA files, and the vector class. The text also tackles subjects on the processing

  19. Imagined Spaces: Motion Graphics in Performance Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter I introduce the first steps in my work with adjoining and developing concepts relevant to the study and practical design of motion graphics in spatial experience design; performance, event and exhibition design. Based on a presentation of a practical case where motion graphics...... through theories drawn from two different fields. The first is from the field of direct visual perception as explored and described by the American psychologist J. J. Gibson. I supplement this angle by introducing relevant new media theories extracted from writings from L. Manovich. I also briefly...

  20. Graphical Model Debugger Framework for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Kebin; Guo, Yu; Angelov, Christo K.

    2010-01-01

    Model Driven Software Development has offered a faster way to design and implement embedded real-time software by moving the design to a model level, and by transforming models to code. However, the testing of embedded systems has remained at the code level. This paper presents a Graphical Model...... Debugger Framework, providing an auxiliary avenue of analysis of system models at runtime by executing generated code and updating models synchronously, which allows embedded developers to focus on the model level. With the model debugger, embedded developers can graphically test their design model...

  1. Graphicality transitions in scale-free networks

    CERN Document Server

    Del Genio, Charo I; Bassler, Kevin E

    2011-01-01

    We study the graphicality of power-law distributed degree sequences, showing that the fraction of graphical sequences undergoes two sharp transitions at the values 0 and 2 of the power-law exponent. We characterize these transitions as first-order, and provide an analytic explanation of their nature. Further numerical calculations, based on extreme value arguments, verify this treatment, and introduce a method to determine transition points for any given degree distribution. Our results reveal a fundamental reason why scale-free networks with no constraints on minimum and maximum degree must be sparse for positive power-law exponents, and dense otherwise.

  2. Building probabilistic graphical models with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Karkera, Kiran R

    2014-01-01

    This is a short, practical guide that allows data scientists to understand the concepts of Graphical models and enables them to try them out using small Python code snippets, without being too mathematically complicated. If you are a data scientist who knows about machine learning and want to enhance your knowledge of graphical models, such as Bayes network, in order to use them to solve real-world problems using Python libraries, this book is for you. This book is intended for those who have some Python and machine learning experience, or are exploring the machine learning field.

  3. Ring-tool profiling - graphical method in CATIA based on Generating trajectories theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumuşanu, G.; Teodor, V.; Oancea, N.

    2016-11-01

    Machining of threads having high dimensions and multiple starts by turning is a challenging problem. An alternative possibility is to machine them by milling. The most productive milling solution is when using tools with inner active surface, namely ring tools. In the case of threads with multiple starts, the reciprocal enwrapped profile of the ring tool is considerably different to the shape of the thread axial (normal) section. In this paper, we suggest a methodology to profile the generator ring tool, based on a complementary theorem from enwrapped surfaces field. At the same time, a graphical algorithm aiming to find the ring tool profile, developed in CATIA graphical environment has been applied in the concrete case of a trapezoidal thread. The graphical profiling solution is presented in comparison to an analytical solution, in order to test the results precision. The graphical profiling method proves to be rigorous, easy to apply and highly intuitive.

  4. Comparative study of genetic activity of chlorambucil's active metabolite steroidal esters: The role of steroidal skeleton on aneugenic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efthimiou, M.; Ouranou, D.; Stephanou, G. [Division of Genetics, Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Patras, Rion, 26 500 Patras (Greece); Demopoulos, N.A., E-mail: ndemop@biology.upatras.gr [Division of Genetics, Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Patras, Rion, 26 500 Patras (Greece); Nikolaropoulos, S.S. [Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, 26 500 Patras (Greece); Alevizos, Ph. [Department of Mathematics, University of Patras, 26 500 Patras (Greece)

    2010-07-07

    p-N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)aminophenylacetic acid (PHE), a nitrogen mustard analogue and chlorambucil's active metabolite used as chemotherapeutic agent, has been shown that, in addition to its clastogenic activity, induces chromosome delay. In the present study an efford has been made (a) to investigate if the steroidal analogues of PHE (EA-92, EA-97, AK-333, AK-409 and AK-433) exert the same genetic activity as the parent compound, (b) to further analyze the aneugenic activity of nitrogen mustard analogues, (c) to investigate the mechanism by which they exert aneugenic potential and (d) to correlate the genetic activity with chemical structure. For this purpose the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus (CBMN) assay was conducted in human lymphocytes in vitro and the micronucleus (MN) frequency was determined to investigate their genetic activity. The mechanism of micronucleation was determined in combination with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using pancentromeric DNA probe. Since one of the mechanisms that chemicals cause aneuploidy is through alterations in the mitotic spindle, we also investigated the effect of the above compounds on the integrity and morphology of the mitotic spindle using double immunofluorescence of {beta}- and {gamma}-tubulin in C{sub 2}C{sub 12} mouse cell line. We found that PHE and its steroidal analogues, EA-92, EA-97, AK-333, AK-409 and AK-433, affect cell proliferation in human lymphocytes and C{sub 2}C{sub 12} mouse cells. All studied compounds are capable of inducing chromosome breakage events, as indicated by the enhanced C{sup -}MN frequencies. The less lipophilic compounds are the most genetically active molecules. PHE and only two of the studied analogues, AK-409 and AK-433, the most hydrophilic ones, showed aneugenic potential, by increasing the frequencies of MN containing a whole chromosome. The aneugenic potential of the above referred analogues is associated with amplification of centrosome number, since they caused

  5. Exploring Identity and Multiliteracies through Graphic Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alyson E.

    2015-01-01

    In a first-year, university-level communication course that examined issues of race, ethnicity, postcolonialism, diaspora, and coming-of-age using different points of view and modes of communication, students created graphic novel-style auto-ethnographies to reflect on their experiences with diaspora and identity creation. The assignment was an…

  6. Human response times in a graphic environment

    CERN Document Server

    Yule, A

    1972-01-01

    A summary of the results obtained from measuring the response times of the users of an interactive graphics system available on the CERN central computers is presented. These results are then used to find an optimum time to wait before rolling the user's program to disc.

  7. A Graphical CAL Program for Fourier Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program, making use of interactive computer graphics, has been developed to help students become fluent in the mathematical procedures needed to understand concepts of addition of waves. Background theory, use of the program, and technical and educational features of the program (written in Fortran) are discussed. (Author/JN)

  8. A graphics primer for English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillhart, L. V.; Debs, M. B.

    1981-01-01

    Skills necessary for teaching graphics are addressed. A simple, step by step method of teaching students how to draw different types of graphs is presented. Each step is illustrated by a drawing. Some audience analysis for the determination of appropriateness of the use of different types of graphs is included.

  9. The pattern-richness of graphical passwords

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vorster, JS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional (text-based) passwords have shown patterns such as variations on the username, or known passwords such as ”password”, ”admin” or ”12345”. Patterns may similarly be detected in the use of Graphical passwords (GPs). The most significant...

  10. Graphic Resources in the Spanish Art Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Alicia Garcia; Coso, Teresa

    The interest in graphic information has increased explosively and is explored through various communication networks like the Internet and the audiovisual media. Art libraries, museums, cultural centers, and art foundations manage and store a lot of images in several departments and in print and digital formats. This paper discusses the cataloging…

  11. Disjoint forms in graphical user interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Achten, P.M.; Plasmeijer, M.J.; Loidl, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    Forms are parts of a graphical user interface (GUI) that show a set of values and allow the user to update them. The declarative form construction library FunctionalForms is extended with disjoint form combinators to capture some common patterns in which the form structure expresses a choice. We dem

  12. On Repairing Generated Behaviors for Graphical Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corradini, Andrea; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our work on the creation of artificial intelligence (AI) behaviors for graphical interactive characters by novice users. We refer to novice users as any persons who do not have any particular skills, training and experience in both programming and design. The focus...

  13. Graphical Method for Determining Projectile Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. C.; Baker, J. C.; Franzel, L.; McMahon, D.; Songer, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a nontrigonometric graphical method for predicting the trajectory of a projectile when the angle and initial velocity are known. Students enrolled in a general education conceptual physics course typically have weak backgrounds in trigonometry, making inaccessible the standard analytical calculation of projectile range. Furthermore,…

  14. Interactive Learning for Graphic Design Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sauman; Ramirez, German Mauricio Mejia

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest problems for students majoring in pre-graphic design is students' inability to apply their knowledge to different design solutions. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of interactive learning modules in facilitating knowledge acquisition during the learning process and to create interactive learning modules…

  15. A Codesign Case Study in Computer Graphics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brage, Jens P.; Madsen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a codesign case study where a computer graphics application is examined with the intention to speed up its execution. The application is specified as a C program, and is characterized by the lack of a simple compute-intensive kernel. The hardware/software partitioning is based...

  16. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  17. Codesign Analysis of a Computer Graphics Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Brage, Jens P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a codesign case study where a computer graphics application is examined with the intention to speed up its execution. The application is specified as a C program, and is characterized by the lack of a simple compute-intensive kernel. The hardware/software partitioning is based...

  18. Application of ggplot2 to Pharmacometric Graphics

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Visualization is a powerful mechanism for extracting information from data. ggplot2 is a contributed visualization package in the R programming language, which creates publication-quality statistical graphics in an efficient, elegant, and systematic manner. This article summarizes key features of the package with examples from pharmacometrics and pointers to available resources for learning ggplot2.

  19. Graphical Method for Determining Projectile Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. C.; Baker, J. C.; Franzel, L.; McMahon, D.; Songer, D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a nontrigonometric graphical method for predicting the trajectory of a projectile when the angle and initial velocity are known. Students enrolled in a general education conceptual physics course typically have weak backgrounds in trigonometry, making inaccessible the standard analytical calculation of projectile range. Furthermore,…

  20. Textbook Graphics and Maps: Keys to Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Gerald A.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how social studies pupils can use an awareness of textbook design to become better students. Suggestions include reproducing the collage on an American history textbook as a large poster for classroom use and directing students to design a graphic unit opener in the same style as the ones in their textbooks. (DB)

  1. Graphical route information on variable message signs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkim, T.P.; Mede, P.H.J. van der; Janssen, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on experiments in the Netherlands on the use of graphical route information panels (GRIP) as part of variable message systems (VMS) providing information to drivers. GRIP appear to be as safe as regular VMS. Digestion of the information presented is initially quicker for regular VMS, but mot

  2. Graphics processing unit-assisted lossless decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughry, Thomas A.

    2016-04-12

    Systems and methods for decompressing compressed data that has been compressed by way of a lossless compression algorithm are described herein. In a general embodiment, a graphics processing unit (GPU) is programmed to receive compressed data packets and decompress such packets in parallel. The compressed data packets are compressed representations of an image, and the lossless compression algorithm is a Rice compression algorithm.

  3. Bringing Graphic Novels into a School's Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Katherine T.; Manning, M. Lee

    2004-01-01

    Many young adults enjoy graphic novels because the genre differs so dramatically from the books that educators traditionally have encouraged adolescents to read. Growing up with television and video games, contemporary young adults look for print media that contain the same visual impact and pared-down writing style and contribute to their…

  4. Fast Sparse Level Sets on Graphics Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Laan, Wladimir J. van der; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The level-set method is one of the most popular techniques for capturing and tracking deformable interfaces. Although level sets have demonstrated great potential in visualization and computer graphics applications, such as surface editing and physically based modeling, their use for interactive sim

  5. Graphics processing unit-assisted lossless decompression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughry, Thomas A.

    2016-04-12

    Systems and methods for decompressing compressed data that has been compressed by way of a lossless compression algorithm are described herein. In a general embodiment, a graphics processing unit (GPU) is programmed to receive compressed data packets and decompress such packets in parallel. The compressed data packets are compressed representations of an image, and the lossless compression algorithm is a Rice compression algorithm.

  6. Graphic method for analyzing common path interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1998-01-01

    Common path interferometers are widely used for visualizing phase disturbances and fluid flows. They are attractive because of the inherent simplicity and robustness in the setup. A graphic method will be presented for analyzing and optimizing filter parameters in common path interferometers....

  7. [Graphic recording of the maxillary ostium permeability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosique, M; Pastor, A; Hellín, D; García-Ortega, F P

    1993-01-01

    Currently we practise salpingography for evaluating Eustachian tube permeability. In a similar mode, we describe a technique of graphic search, with impedianciometry, of patency in the osteomeatal complex, after puncture and placing Foley's catheter in the maxillary sinus. In several cases without opening, we make topical treatment though catheter. For this technique, we propose the term of infundibulography.

  8. Graphic Communications. Progress Record, Theory Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    Intended to reduce unnecessary paper work on the part of the shop instructor in a graphic communications course, this job assignment book offers a simplified method of keeping student records up-to-date. It first provides a record/form with areas for student name, tool check number, locker number, textbook number, and grades; broad course…

  9. Dynamic Stall Analysis Utilizing Interactive Computer Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Blade-Vortex Interaction (BV[) studies. solkes the two-dimen i,)nal, unsteady, compressible Euler and Napier -Stokes equations in strong conservation...requirements, interactive computer graphics workstations have been evolved to complement the super -computer. Workstation capabilities, in terms of

  10. Harvesting graphics power for MD simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meel, J.A.; Arnold, A.; Frenkel, D.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.; Belleman, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss an implementation of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a graphic processing unit (GPU) in the NVIDIA CUDA language. We tested our code on a modern GPU, the NVIDIA GeForce 8800 GTX. Results for two MD algorithms suitable for short-ranged and long-ranged interactions, and a congruentia

  11. Graphic Novels in Libraries: An Expert's Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Katy

    2004-01-01

    Barbara Gordon a librarian and computer expert from Gotham city is a genius level intellect and photographic memory expert at research and analysis. According to her, graphic novels and comics are wildly appealing to readers of all ages and intensely popular with adolescents.

  12. Applications of Computer Graphics in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Various applications of interactive computer graphics to the following areas of science and engineering were described: design and analysis of structures, configuration geometry, animation, flutter analysis, design and manufacturing, aircraft design and integration, wind tunnel data analysis, architecture and construction, flight simulation, hydrodynamics, curve and surface fitting, gas turbine engine design, analysis, and manufacturing, packaging of printed circuit boards, spacecraft design.

  13. Multiple Learning Strategies Project. Graphics. EMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Alan; And Others

    This instructional package, designed for educable mentally impaired students, focuses on the vocational area of graphics. Contained in this document are nine learning modules organized into a finishing and bindery unit. Maintenance of a Challenge power cutter, operation of a hand electric stapler, and packaging with kraft paper are examples of…

  14. Circuit II--A Conversational Graphical Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Ronald A.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of Circuit II, an interactive system that provides users with a graphical representation of an electronic circuit within which questions may be posed and manipulated, and discusses how mouse selections have analogous roles to certain natural language features, such as anaphora, deixis, and ellipsis. (13 references) (EA)

  15. Interactive Learning for Graphic Design Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sauman; Ramirez, German Mauricio Mejia

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest problems for students majoring in pre-graphic design is students' inability to apply their knowledge to different design solutions. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of interactive learning modules in facilitating knowledge acquisition during the learning process and to create interactive learning modules…

  16. A characterization for a graphic sequence to be potentially C_r-graphic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Let r 3, n r and π = (d1, d2, . . . , dn) be a graphic sequence. If there exists a simple graph G on n vertices having degree sequence π such that G contains Cr (a cycle of length r) as a subgraph, then π is said to be potentially Cr-graphic. Li and Yin (2004) posed the following problem: characterize π = (d1, d2, . . . , dn) such that π is potentially Cr-graphic for r 3 and n r. Rao and Rao (1972) and Kundu (1973) answered this problem for the case of n = r. In this paper, this problem is solved completely.

  17. Physical activity, smoking, and genetic predisposition to obesity in people from Pakistan: the PROMIS study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad, Shafqat; Zhao, Wei; Renström, Frida; Rasheed, Asif; Samuel, Maria; Zaidi, Mozzam; Shah, Nabi; Mallick, Nadeem Hayyat; Zaman, Khan Shah; Ishaq, Mohammad; Rasheed, Syed Zahed; Memon, Fazal-ur-Rheman; Hanif, Bashir; Lakhani, Muhammad Shakir; Ahmed, Faisal; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Frossard, Philippe; Franks, Paul W; Saleheen, Danish

    2015-01-01

    Multiple genetic variants have been reliably associated with obesity-related traits in Europeans, but little is known about their associations and interactions with lifestyle factors in South Asians...

  18. Risk Management Collaboration through Sharing Interactive Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, Aidan; Dykes, Jason; Wood, Jo; Foote, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Risk management involves the cooperation of scientists, underwriters and actuaries all of whom analyse data to support decision-making. Results are often disseminated through static documents with graphics that convey the message the analyst wishes to communicate. Interactive graphics are increasingly popular means of communicating the results of data analyses because they enable other parties to explore and visually analyse some of the data themselves prior to and during discussion. Discussion around interactive graphics can occur synchronously in face-to-face meetings or with video-conferencing and screen sharing or they can occur asynchronously through web-sites such as ManyEyes, web-based fora, blogs, wikis and email. A limitation of approaches that do not involve screen sharing is the difficulty in sharing the results of insights from interacting with the graphic. Static images accompanied can be shared but these themselves cannot be interacted, producing a discussion bottleneck (Baker, 2008). We address this limitation by allowing the state and configuration of graphics to be shared (rather than static images) so that a user can reproduce someone else's graphic, interact with it and then share the results of this accompanied with some commentary. HiVE (Slingsby et al, 2009) is a compact and intuitive text-based language that has been designed for this purpose. We will describe the vizTweets project (a 9-month project funded by JISC) in which we are applying these principles to insurance risk management in the context of the Willis Research Network, the world's largest collaboration between the insurance industry and the academia). The project aims to extend HiVE to meet the needs of the sector, design, implement free-available web services and tools and to provide case studies. We will present a case study that demonstrate the potential of this approach for collaboration within the Willis Research Network. Baker, D. Towards Transparency in Visualisation Based

  19. Visualization of glutamine transporter activities in living cells using genetically encoded glutamine sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Gruenwald

    Full Text Available Glutamine plays a central role in the metabolism of critical biological molecules such as amino acids, proteins, neurotransmitters, and glutathione. Since glutamine metabolism is regulated through multiple enzymes and transporters, the cellular glutamine concentration is expected to be temporally dynamic. Moreover, differentiation in glutamine metabolism between cell types in the same tissue (e.g. neuronal and glial cells is often crucial for the proper function of the tissue as a whole, yet assessing cell-type specific activities of transporters and enzymes in such heterogenic tissue by physical fractionation is extremely challenging. Therefore, a method of reporting glutamine dynamics at the cellular level is highly desirable. Genetically encoded sensors can be targeted to a specific cell type, hence addressing this knowledge gap. Here we report the development of Föster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET glutamine sensors based on improved cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins, monomeric Teal Fluorescent Protein (mTFP1 and venus. These sensors were found to be specific to glutamine, and stable to pH-changes within a physiological range. Using cos7 cells expressing the human glutamine transporter ASCT2 as a model, we demonstrate that the properties of the glutamine transporter can easily be analyzed with these sensors. The range of glutamine concentration change in a given cell can also be estimated using sensors with different affinities. Moreover, the mTFP1-venus FRET pair can be duplexed with another FRET pair, mAmetrine and tdTomato, opening up the possibility for real-time imaging of another molecule. These novel glutamine sensors will be useful tools to analyze specificities of glutamine metabolism at the single-cell level.

  20. Ensuring the principle of visibility when examining graphic disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tel’noy Viktor Ivanovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the importance of the use of didactic principle of visualization in the study of graphic disciplines for more effective organization of educational process, improvement of forms, methods and means of education. The authors analyze different approaches to the classification of means of visualization in modern pedagogy. The proposed classification of clarity with regard to graphic disciplines can be used not so much for their classification, as for the full and effective use of their capabilities in the learning process. The article demonstrates structural links between the stages of clarity, use of funds, ways and rules of their use, leading to successful achievement of the goals for the revitalization of the educational process and enhancing cognitive interest of students. Practical recommendations for the integrated use of means of presentation in the classes on descriptive geometry, engineering graphics and computer graphics are given. Special attention in the learning process is paid to the role of the teacher. In addition to his or her professional knowledge, a teacher should possess oratory skills, to competently combine the rhetoric and psychological techniques to use interactive and effective active forms of training, including workshops, to engage students in the learning process, to monitor feedback from the students’ audience. When conducting different kinds of practice, teachers should know the advantages and disadvantages, strengths and weaknesses, timely application of every means of presentation for greater impact and effect in the educational process. The effectiveness of using the selected visualization tools is largely determined by the methods and techniques of their use in the classroom. It is important to consider the following factors: location, convenient for review, and approach; the accessibility; the expert support of a demonstration by the review; the duration of the demonstration; training students

  1. Graphical user interface prototyping for distributed requirements engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Scheibmayr, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Finding and understanding the right requirements is essential for every software project. This book deals with the challenge to improve requirements engineering in distributed software projects. The use of graphical user interface (GUI) prototypes can help stakeholders in such projects to elicit and specify high quality requirements. The research objective of this study is to develop a method and a software artifact to support the activities in the early requirements engineering phase in order to overcome some of the difficulties and improve the quality of the requirements, which should eventu

  2. Sheltering behavior and locomotor activity in 11 genetically diverse common inbred mouse strains using home-cage monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Loos

    Full Text Available Functional genetic analyses in mice rely on efficient and in-depth characterization of the behavioral spectrum. Automated home-cage observation can provide a systematic and efficient screening method to detect unexplored, novel behavioral phenotypes. Here, we analyzed high-throughput automated home-cage data using existing and novel concepts, to detect a plethora of genetic differences in spontaneous behavior in a panel of commonly used inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, DBA/2J, NOD/LtJ, FVB/NJ, WSB/EiJ, PWK/PhJ and CAST/EiJ. Continuous video-tracking observations of sheltering behavior and locomotor activity were segmented into distinguishable behavioral elements, and studied at different time scales, yielding a set of 115 behavioral parameters of which 105 showed highly significant strain differences. This set of 115 parameters was highly dimensional; principal component analysis identified 26 orthogonal components with eigenvalues above one. Especially novel parameters of sheltering behavior and parameters describing aspects of motion of the mouse in the home-cage showed high genetic effect sizes. Multi-day habituation curves and patterns of behavior surrounding dark/light phase transitions showed striking strain differences, albeit with lower genetic effect sizes. This spontaneous home-cage behavior study demonstrates high dimensionality, with a strong genetic contribution to specific sets of behavioral measures. Importantly, spontaneous home-cage behavior analysis detects genetic effects that cannot be studied in conventional behavioral tests, showing that the inclusion of a few days of undisturbed, labor extensive home-cage assessment may greatly aid gene function analyses and drug target discovery.

  3. Graphic Notation in Music Therapy: A Discussion of What to Notate in Graphic Notation and How

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Bergstrøm-Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents graphic notations of music and related forms of communication in music therapy contexts, created by different authors and practitioners. Their purposes, objects of description, and the elements of graphic language are reflected upon in a comparative discussion. From that it becomes clear that the aspect of overview is a fundamental one, facilitating perception of complex data. This also makes possible to memorise complex data, extending the natural limits of human memory. Discovering hidden aspects in the clinical data, as well as sharing and communicating these aspects are also important concerns. Among the authors discussed, there is a large variety both in goals and methods. Keywords are proposed to circumscribe moments of possible interest connected to graphic notations. I suggest that the discipline of graphic notation can be useful for the grounding of music therapy presentation and research in empirical, clinical-musical reality, and welcome further discussion and explorative work.

  4. Graphic Notation in Music Therapy: A Discussion of What to Notate in Graphic Notation and How

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    This article presents graphic notations of music and related forms of communication in music therapy contexts, created by different authors and practitioners. Their purposes, objects of description, and the elements of graphic language are reflected upon in a comparative discussion. From...... that it becomes clear that the aspect of overview is a fundamental one, facilitating perception of complex data. This also makes possible to memorise complex data, extending the natural limits of human memory. Discovering hidden aspects in the clinical data, as well as sharing and communicating these aspects...... are also important concerns. Among the authors discussed, there is a large variety both in goals and methods. Keywords are proposed to circumscribe moments of possible interest connected to graphic notations. I suggest that the discipline of graphic notation can be useful for the grounding of music therapy...

  5. Vestigialization of an allosteric switch: genetic and structural mechanisms for the evolution of constitutive activity in a steroid hormone receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie T Bridgham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important goal in molecular evolution is to understand the genetic and physical mechanisms by which protein functions evolve and, in turn, to characterize how a protein's physical architecture influences its evolution. Here we dissect the mechanisms for an evolutionary shift in function in the mollusk ortholog of the steroid hormone receptors (SRs, a family of biologically essential transcription factors. In vertebrates, the activity of SRs allosterically depends on binding a hormonal ligand; in mollusks, however, the SR ortholog (called ER, because of high sequence similarity to vertebrate estrogen receptors activates transcription in the absence of ligand and does not respond to steroid hormones. To understand how this shift in regulation evolved, we combined evolutionary, structural, and functional analyses. We first determined the X-ray crystal structure of the ER of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (CgER, and found that its ligand pocket is filled with bulky residues that prevent ligand occupancy. To understand the genetic basis for the evolution of mollusk ERs' unique functions, we resurrected an ancient SR progenitor and characterized the effect of historical amino acid replacements on its functions. We found that reintroducing just two ancient replacements from the lineage leading to mollusk ERs recapitulates the evolution of full constitutive activity and the loss of ligand activation. These substitutions stabilize interactions among key helices, causing the allosteric switch to become "stuck" in the active conformation and making activation independent of ligand binding. Subsequent changes filled the ligand pocket without further affecting activity; by degrading the allosteric switch, these substitutions vestigialized elements of the protein's architecture required for ligand regulation and made reversal to the ancestral function more complex. These findings show how the physical architecture of allostery enabled a few large

  6. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Is Not Essential for Viability of Human Cells with Genetically Lowered APC/C Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, Thomas; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Narita, Takeo;

    2016-01-01

    -conjugating enzymes-UBE2C and UBE2S. We show that APC/C activity in human cells is tuned by the combinatorial use of three E2s, namely UBE2C, UBE2S, and UBE2D. Genetic deletion of UBE2C and UBE2S, individually or in combination, leads to discriminative reduction in APC/C function and sensitizes cells to UBE2D......The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which inhibits the APC/C, are essential determinants of mitotic timing and faithful division of genetic material. Activation of the APC/C is known to depend on two APC/C-interacting E2 ubiquitin...... depletion. Reduction of APC/C activity results in loss of switch-like metaphase-to-anaphase transition and, strikingly, renders cells insensitive to chemical inhibition of MPS1 and genetic ablation of MAD2, both of which are essential for the SAC. These results provide insights into the regulation of APC...

  7. Engineering Graphics Education: Webcomics as a Tool to Improve Weaker Students’ Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Metraglia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In engineering colleges, first-year students come from different kinds of high school and have different technical backgrounds. In engineering graphics courses, the weaker students are the ones entering with a lower technical background. Such students are less motivated and have generally difficulties in keeping high their attention level during the lessons. In this study, the use of a webcomics structured in graphic novels was experimented as a motivational support in an engineering graphics course. Sixty nine students of a class taught by using webcomics as support and 47 students of a class taught traditionally were classified according to the kind of their high school of provenience: technical; scientific; non-technical and non-scientific. The findings showed that in the class where webcomics were used, students from non-technical and non-scientific high school scored a higher level of attention compared to others. The teacher who used the webcomics commented it an effective tool to encourage and stimulate weaker learners to actively participate to the lessons and the majority of students agreed such tool was stimulating. At the same time, some students considered the webcomics representation of engineering graphics topics as too far from the reality. It is concluded that the use of webcomics structured in graphic novels is a proficient way to better motivate weaker students to arouse and keep their attention at a high level during engineering graphics lessons.

  8. VFR Class B Graphics - Aeronautical Information Services Digital Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — These graphics are designed to increase safety and aid pilots in gaining situational awareness within existing and redesigned Class B areas. The graphic provides an...

  9. Graphical passwords: a qualitative study of password patterns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vorster, J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available focus on a quantitative analysis of graphical passwords. During this study users from commercial companies were asked to enter graphical passwords. These passwords were then analysed and patterns identified. Users were also asked what there password...

  10. Publishing on the WWW. Part 6 - Simple graphic manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, V

    2001-01-01

    Modern graphic manipulation software is quick and simple to use, and allows medical quality graphics to be produced for online publication. This article demonstrates, step by step, how submitted images are processed by the journal in preparation for publication.

  11. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods in directed graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Malene

    Directed graphical models present data possessing a complex dependence structure, and MCMC methods are computer-intensive simulation techniques to approximate high-dimensional intractable integrals, which emerge in such models with incomplete data. MCMC computations in directed graphical models...

  12. Characterization of the Active Microbiotas Associated with Honey Bees Reveals Healthier and Broader Communities when Colonies are Genetically Diverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Heather R.; Rios, Daniela; Walker-Sperling, Victoria E.; Roeselers, Guus; Newton, Irene L. G.

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses of honey bee colonies have led to increased interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important pollinators. A critical function that bacteria perform for their honey bee hosts, but one that is poorly understood, is the transformation of worker-collected pollen into bee bread, a nutritious food product that can be stored for long periods in colonies. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to comprehensively characterize in genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies the active bacterial communities that are found on honey bees, in their digestive tracts, and in bee bread. This method provided insights that have not been revealed by past studies into the content and benefits of honey bee-associated microbial communities. Colony microbiotas differed substantially between sampling environments and were dominated by several anaerobic bacterial genera never before associated with honey bees, but renowned for their use by humans to ferment food. Colonies with genetically diverse populations of workers, a result of the highly promiscuous mating behavior of queens, benefited from greater microbial diversity, reduced pathogen loads, and increased abundance of putatively helpful bacteria, particularly species from the potentially probiotic genus Bifidobacterium. Across all colonies, Bifidobacterium activity was negatively correlated with the activity of genera that include pathogenic microbes; this relationship suggests a possible target for understanding whether microbes provide protective benefits to honey bees. Within-colony diversity shapes microbiotas associated with honey bees in ways that may have important repercussions for colony function and health. Our findings illuminate the importance of honey bee-bacteria symbioses and examine their intersection with nutrition, pathogen load, and genetic diversity, factors that are considered key to understanding honey bee decline. PMID:22427917

  13. Characterization of the active microbiotas associated with honey bees reveals healthier and broader communities when colonies are genetically diverse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R Mattila

    Full Text Available Recent losses of honey bee colonies have led to increased interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important pollinators. A critical function that bacteria perform for their honey bee hosts, but one that is poorly understood, is the transformation of worker-collected pollen into bee bread, a nutritious food product that can be stored for long periods in colonies. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to comprehensively characterize in genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies the active bacterial communities that are found on honey bees, in their digestive tracts, and in bee bread. This method provided insights that have not been revealed by past studies into the content and benefits of honey bee-associated microbial communities. Colony microbiotas differed substantially between sampling environments and were dominated by several anaerobic bacterial genera never before associated with honey bees, but renowned for their use by humans to ferment food. Colonies with genetically diverse populations of workers, a result of the highly promiscuous mating behavior of queens, benefited from greater microbial diversity, reduced pathogen loads, and increased abundance of putatively helpful bacteria, particularly species from the potentially probiotic genus Bifidobacterium. Across all colonies, Bifidobacterium activity was negatively correlated with the activity of genera that include pathogenic microbes; this relationship suggests a possible target for understanding whether microbes provide protective benefits to honey bees. Within-colony diversity shapes microbiotas associated with honey bees in ways that may have important repercussions for colony function and health. Our findings illuminate the importance of honey bee-bacteria symbioses and examine their intersection with nutrition, pathogen load, and genetic diversity, factors that are considered key to understanding honey bee decline.

  14. Characterization of the active microbiotas associated with honey bees reveals healthier and broader communities when colonies are genetically diverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Heather R; Rios, Daniela; Walker-Sperling, Victoria E; Roeselers, Guus; Newton, Irene L G

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses of honey bee colonies have led to increased interest in the microbial communities that are associated with these important pollinators. A critical function that bacteria perform for their honey bee hosts, but one that is poorly understood, is the transformation of worker-collected pollen into bee bread, a nutritious food product that can be stored for long periods in colonies. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to comprehensively characterize in genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies the active bacterial communities that are found on honey bees, in their digestive tracts, and in bee bread. This method provided insights that have not been revealed by past studies into the content and benefits of honey bee-associated microbial communities. Colony microbiotas differed substantially between sampling environments and were dominated by several anaerobic bacterial genera never before associated with honey bees, but renowned for their use by humans to ferment food. Colonies with genetically diverse populations of workers, a result of the highly promiscuous mating behavior of queens, benefited from greater microbial diversity, reduced pathogen loads, and increased abundance of putatively helpful bacteria, particularly species from the potentially probiotic genus Bifidobacterium. Across all colonies, Bifidobacterium activity was negatively correlated with the activity of genera that include pathogenic microbes; this relationship suggests a possible target for understanding whether microbes provide protective benefits to honey bees. Within-colony diversity shapes microbiotas associated with honey bees in ways that may have important repercussions for colony function and health. Our findings illuminate the importance of honey bee-bacteria symbioses and examine their intersection with nutrition, pathogen load, and genetic diversity, factors that are considered key to understanding honey bee decline.

  15. Graphical Models for Optimal Power Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Dvijotham, Krishnamurthy; Chertkov, Michael; Misra, Sidhant; Vuffray, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Optimal power flow (OPF) is the central optimization problem in electric power grids. Although solved routinely in the course of power grid operations, it is known to be strongly NP-hard in general, and weakly NP-hard over tree networks. In this paper, we formulate the optimal power flow problem over tree networks as an inference problem over a tree-structured graphical model where the nodal variables are low-dimensional vectors. We adapt the standard dynamic programming algorithm for inference over a tree-structured graphical model to the OPF problem. Combining this with an interval discretization of the nodal variables, we develop an approximation algorithm for the OPF problem. Further, we use techniques from constraint programming (CP) to perform interval computations and adaptive bound propagation to obtain practically efficient algorithms. Compared to previous algorithms that solve OPF with optimality guarantees using convex relaxations, our approach is able to work for arbitrary distribution networks an...

  16. Word-Sized Graphics for Scientific Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Fabian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-02-24

    Generating visualizations at the size of a word creates dense information representations often called sparklines. The integration of word-sized graphics into text could avoid additional cognitive load caused by splitting the readers' attention between figures and text. In scientific publications, these graphics make statements easier to understand and verify because additional quantitative information is available where needed. In this work, we perform a literature review to find out how researchers have already applied such word-sized representations. Illustrating the versatility of the approach, we leverage these representations for reporting empirical and bibliographic data in three application examples. For interactive Web-based publications, we explore levels of interactivity and discuss interaction patterns to link visualization and text. We finally call the visualization community to be a pioneer in exploring new visualization-enriched and interactive publication formats.

  17. Interactive commputer graphics: the arms race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafemeister, D. W.

    1983-10-01

    By using interactive computer graphics (ICG) it is possible to discuss the numerical aspects of some arms race issues with more specificity and in a visual way. The number of variables involved in these issues can be quite large; computers operated in the interactive, graphical mode, can allow exploration of the variables, leading to a greater understanding of the issues. This paper will examine some examples of interactive computer grahics: (1) the relationship between silo hardening and the accuracy, yield, and reliability of ICBMs; (2) target vulnerability (Minuteman, Dense Pack); (3) counterforce vs. countervalue weapons; (4) civil defense; (5) gravitational bias error; (6) MIRV; (7) national vulnerability to a preemptive first strike; (8) radioactive fallout; (9) digital image processing with charge-coupled devices.

  18. Graphics performance in rich Internet applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoetzlein, Rama C

    2012-01-01

    Rendering performance for rich Internet applications (RIAs) has recently focused on the debate between using Flash and HTML5 for streaming video and gaming on mobile devices. A key area not widely explored, however, is the scalability of raw bitmap graphics performance for RIAs. Does Flash render animated sprites faster than HTML5? How much faster is WebGL than Flash? Answers to these questions are essential for developing large-scale data visualizations, online games, and truly dynamic websites. A new test methodology analyzes graphics performance across RIA frameworks and browsers, revealing specific performance outliers in existing frameworks. The results point toward a future in which all online experiences might be GPU accelerated.

  19. HMI conventions for process control graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ruud N

    2012-01-01

    Process operators supervise and control complex processes. To enable the operator to do an adequate job, instrumentation and process control engineers need to address several related topics, such as console design, information design, navigation, and alarm management. In process control upgrade projects, usually a 1:1 conversion of existing graphics is proposed. This paper suggests another approach, efficiently leading to a reduced number of new powerful process graphics, supported by a permanent process overview displays. In addition a road map for structuring content (process information) and conventions for the presentation of objects, symbols, and so on, has been developed. The impact of the human factors engineering approach on process control upgrade projects is illustrated by several cases.

  20. Graphical Model Debugger Framework for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Kebin

    2010-01-01

    Debugger Framework, providing an auxiliary avenue of analysis of system models at runtime by executing generated code and updating models synchronously, which allows embedded developers to focus on the model level. With the model debugger, embedded developers can graphically test their design model......Model Driven Software Development has offered a faster way to design and implement embedded real-time software by moving the design to a model level, and by transforming models to code. However, the testing of embedded systems has remained at the code level. This paper presents a Graphical Model...... and check the running status of the system, which offers a debugging capability on a higher level of abstraction. The framework intends to contribute a tool to the Eclipse society, especially suitable for model-driven development of embedded systems....

  1. Graphical model construction based on evolutionary algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youlong YANG; Yan WU; Sanyang LIU

    2006-01-01

    Using Bayesian networks to model promising solutions from the current population of the evolutionary algorithms can ensure efficiency and intelligence search for the optimum. However, to construct a Bayesian network that fits a given dataset is a NP-hard problem, and it also needs consuming mass computational resources. This paper develops a methodology for constructing a graphical model based on Bayesian Dirichlet metric. Our approach is derived from a set of propositions and theorems by researching the local metric relationship of networks matching dataset. This paper presents the algorithm to construct a tree model from a set of potential solutions using above approach. This method is important not only for evolutionary algorithms based on graphical models, but also for machine learning and data mining.The experimental results show that the exact theoretical results and the approximations match very well.

  2. Automatic Palette Identification of Colored Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Vinciane

    The median-shift, a new clustering algorithm, is proposed to automatically identify the palette of colored graphics, a pre-requisite for graphics vectorization. The median-shift is an iterative process which shifts each data point to the "median" point of its neighborhood defined thanks to a distance measure and a maximum radius, the only parameter of the method. The process is viewed as a graph transformation which converges to a set of clusters made of one or several connected vertices. As the palette identification depends on color perception, the clustering is performed in the L*a*b* feature space. As pixels located on edges are made of mixed colors not expected to be part of the palette, they are removed from the initial data set by an automatic pre-processing. Results are shown on scanned maps and on the Macbeth color chart and compared to well established methods.

  3. Achromatic hues matching in graphic printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinia Ira Glogar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Some problems in process of dark achromatic hues reproduction and matching in graphic industry, where requests on colour matching are very high, are discussed. When achromatic hues is concerned, in terms of high requests on colour parameter matching, right on time production, quick response and high quality standards requests, the production and moreover the reproduction is subject to many variables and represent the manufacturing process of high complexity. The aim is to achieve a graphic reproduction with defined colour parameters and remission characteristics as close as possible to a standard. In this paper, black and grey hues characterized with average lightness value L*≤ 20, were analysed. Subjective as well as objective colour evaluation have been performed and results of colour differences obtained by two colour difference formulae, CIELAB and CMC(l:c have been compared.

  4. Rendering Falling Leaves on Graphics Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Balsa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount of detail to be represented. Moreover, the interactions between the objects (grass, leaves and external forces such as wind are complex to model. In this paper we concentrate in the rendering of falling leaves at low cost. We present a technique that exploits graphics hardware in order to render thousands of leaves with different falling paths in real time and low memory requirements.

  5. Factorial graphical lasso for dynamic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wit, E C

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic networks models describe a growing number of important scientific processes, from cell biology and epidemiology to sociology and finance. There are many aspects of dynamical networks that require statistical considerations. In this paper we focus on determining network structure. Estimating dynamic networks is a difficult task since the number of components involved in the system is very large. As a result, the number of parameters to be estimated is bigger than the number of observations. However, a characteristic of many networks is that they are sparse. For example, the molecular structure of genes make interactions with other components a highly-structured and therefore sparse process. Penalized Gaussian graphical models have been used to estimate sparse networks. However, the literature has focussed on static networks, which lack specific temporal constraints. We propose a structured Gaussian dynamical graphical model, where structures can consist of specific time dynamics, known presence or abse...

  6. Selecting personnel to work on the interactive graphics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1979-11-30

    The paper established criteria for the selection of personnel to work on the interactive graphics system and mentions some of human behavioral patterns that are created by the implementation of graphic systems. Some of the social and educational problems associated with the interactive graphics system will be discussed. The project also provided for collecting objective data which would be useful in assessing the benefits of interactive graphics systems.

  7. Graphic Simulation of a Jackson Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Z which are algebraic combinations of other point estimates. For example, the quantity W1 is estimated using the quotient L1’/R. If at the point in...will run on IBM Compatible machines. C. TIE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE JACKQUE is written in IBM Advanced Basic ( BASICA ). This language is provided with PC... BASICA has been loaded from DOS, and if the machine is coniigur d with a color, graphics adapter. * Printing the title screen. o Loading user defined

  8. Practical Implementation of a Graphics Turing Test

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Mathias; Johansen, Stine Schmieg; Thomsen, Dennis Lundgaard; Kraus, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present a practical implementation of a variation of the Turing Test for realistic computer graphics. The test determines whether virtual representations of objects appear as real as genuine objects. Two experiments were conducted wherein a real object and a similar virtual object is presented to test subjects under specific restrictions. A criterion for passing the test is presented based on the probability for the subjects to be unable to recognise a computer generated object as virtual....

  9. Impressive: printmaking, letterpress and graphic design

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Philippa

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the challenge of hands-on tweaks and unpredictable results as well as the tactile qualities of different inks, papers, and binding techniques, today’s creatives are rediscovering old-fashioned printing methods and crafts. Impressive is a topical exploration of the interplay between current trends in graphic design and traditional handiwork such as letterpress printing, hand-cut linotype, chiselled woodblocks, and embossing. In addition to a rich selection of invitations, business ...

  10. A graphical approach to analogue behavioural modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Vincent; Nussbaum, Pascal; Amann, Hans-Peter; Astier, Luc; Pellandini, Fausto

    2007-01-01

    In order to master the growing complexity of analogue electronic systems, modelling and simulation of analogue hardware at various levels is absolutely necessary. This paper presents an original modelling method based on the graphical description of analogue electronic functional blocks. This method is intended to be automated and integrated into a design framework: specialists create behavioural models of existing functional blocks, that can then be used through high-level selection and spec...

  11. Impressive: printmaking, letterpress and graphic design

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Philippa

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the challenge of hands-on tweaks and unpredictable results as well as the tactile qualities of different inks, papers, and binding techniques, today’s creatives are rediscovering old-fashioned printing methods and crafts. Impressive is a topical exploration of the interplay between current trends in graphic design and traditional handiwork such as letterpress printing, hand-cut linotype, chiselled woodblocks, and embossing. In addition to a rich selection of invitations, business ...

  12. Application of ggplot2 to Pharmacometric Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K; Murphy, D

    2013-01-01

    Visualization is a powerful mechanism for extracting information from data. ggplot2 is a contributed visualization package in the R programming language, which creates publication-quality statistical graphics in an efficient, elegant, and systematic manner. This article summarizes key features of the package with examples from pharmacometrics and pointers to available resources for learning ggplot2.CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology (2013) 2, e79; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.56; advance online publication 16 October 2013.

  13. Graphics and statistics for cardiology: survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Susanne; McKnight, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Reports of data in the medical literature frequently lack information needed to assess the validity and generalisability of study results. Some recommendations and standards for reporting have been developed over the last two decades, but few are available specifically for survival data. We provide recommendations for tabular and graphical representations of survival data. We argue that data and analytic software should be made available to promote reproducible research.

  14. Planar graphical models which are easy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chernyak, Vladimir [WAYNE STATE UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rich family of binary variables statistical mechanics models on planar graphs which are equivalent to Gaussian Grassmann Graphical models (free fermions). Calculation of partition function (weighted counting) in the models is easy (of polynomial complexity) as reduced to evaluation of determinants of matrixes linear in the number of variables. In particular, this family of models covers Holographic Algorithms of Valiant and extends on the Gauge Transformations discussed in our previous works.

  15. Graphics-Based Parallel Programming Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    AD-A254 406 (9 FINAL REPORT DLECTF ’AUG 13 1992 Graphics-Based Parallel Programming Tools .p Janice E. Cuny, Principal Investigator Department of...suggest parallel (either because we use a parallel graph rewriting mechanism or because we apply our results to parallel programming ), we interpret it to...was to provide support for the ex- plicit representation of graphs for use within a parallel programming environ- ment. In our environment, we view a

  16. Image segmentation with a unified graphical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Ji, Qiang

    2010-08-01

    We propose a unified graphical model that can represent both the causal and noncausal relationships among random variables and apply it to the image segmentation problem. Specifically, we first propose to employ Conditional Random Field (CRF) to model the spatial relationships among image superpixel regions and their measurements. We then introduce a multilayer Bayesian Network (BN) to model the causal dependencies that naturally exist among different image entities, including image regions, edges, and vertices. The CRF model and the BN model are then systematically and seamlessly combined through the theories of Factor Graph to form a unified probabilistic graphical model that captures the complex relationships among different image entities. Using the unified graphical model, image segmentation can be performed through a principled probabilistic inference. Experimental results on the Weizmann horse data set, on the VOC2006 cow data set, and on the MSRC2 multiclass data set demonstrate that our approach achieves favorable results compared to state-of-the-art approaches as well as those that use either the BN model or CRF model alone.

  17. Cockpit weather graphics using mobile satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Shashi

    Many new companies are pushing state-of-the-art technology to bring a revolution in the cockpits of General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The vision, according to Dr. Bruce Holmes - the Assistant Director for Aeronautics at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center, is to provide such an advanced flight control system that the motor and cognitive skills you use to drive a car would be very similar to the ones you would use to fly an airplane. We at ViGYAN, Inc., are currently developing a system called the Pilot Weather Advisor (PWxA), which would be a part of such an advanced technology flight management system. The PWxA provides graphical depictions of weather information in the cockpit of aircraft in near real-time, through the use of broadcast satellite communications. The purpose of this system is to improve the safety and utility of GA aircraft operations. Considerable effort is being extended for research in the design of graphical weather systems, notably the works of Scanlon and Dash. The concept of providing pilots with graphical depictions of weather conditions, overlaid on geographical and navigational maps, is extremely powerful.

  18. Genetically Programming Interfaces between Active Materials, Conductive Pathway and Current Collector in Li Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    assembled into coin cell with metallic lithium as counter electrode. Electrochemical characterization was conducted by galvanostatically cycling the half...encodes either A1, A2, S7, T7 or H7. These DNAs were then introduced into bacteria cells for amplification. Genetic sequencing performed on the

  19. Shared Genetic Influences on ADHD Symptoms and Very Low-Frequency EEG Activity: A Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, Charlotte; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Greven, Corina U.; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex aetiology. The identification of candidate intermediate phenotypes that are both heritable and genetically linked to ADHD may facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes and elucidate aetiological pathways.…

  20. DNA Mapping Made Simple: An Intellectual Activity about the Genetic Modification of Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Miguel; Arrabaca, Joao; Chagas, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Since the discovery of the DNA double helix (in 1953 by Watson and Crick), technologies have been developed that allow scientists to manipulate the genome of bacteria to produce human hormones, as well as the genome of crop plants to achieve high yield and enhanced flavor. The universality of the genetic code has allowed DNA isolated from a…

  1. Genetically reduced soluble epoxide hydrolase activity and risk of stroke and other cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Julie; Dahl, Morten; Grande, Peer;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The development of stroke has been linked to lowered levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the cerebral microvasculature. These substances are metabolized by the enzyme-soluble epoxide hydrolase encoded by the EPHX2 gene. We tested whether genetically reduced soluble...

  2. Graphics processing unit-accelerated quantitative trait Loci detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Guillaume; Filangi, Olivier; Elsen, Jean-Michel; Lavenier, Dominique; Le Roy, Pascale

    2013-09-01

    Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) using genetic marker information is a time-consuming analysis that has interested the mapping community in recent decades. The increasing amount of genetic marker data allows one to consider ever more precise QTL analyses while increasing the demand for computation. Part of the difficulty of detecting QTLs resides in finding appropriate critical values or threshold values, above which a QTL effect is considered significant. Different approaches exist to determine these thresholds, using either empirical methods or algebraic approximations. In this article, we present a new implementation of existing software, QTLMap, which takes advantage of the data parallel nature of the problem by offsetting heavy computations to a graphics processing unit (GPU). Developments on the GPU were implemented using Cuda technology. This new implementation performs up to 75 times faster than the previous multicore implementation, while maintaining the same results and level of precision (Double Precision) and computing both QTL values and thresholds. This speedup allows one to perform more complex analyses, such as linkage disequilibrium linkage analyses (LDLA) and multiQTL analyses, in a reasonable time frame.

  3. The Image of Daniel: An Ancient Graphic Organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Loretta F.

    2008-01-01

    Teachers who use graphic organizers find that students' memory of important material is strengthened. Graphic organizers also lend themselves to the presentation of material in an interdisciplinary fashion. An example of a successful graphic organizer from religion and ancient history is the image of Nebuchadnezzar's dream that was interpreted by…

  4. Graphics Tablet Technology in Second Year Thermal Engineering Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Antonio; Cejudo, José Manuel; Domínguez, Fernando; Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Graphics tablet technology is well known in markets such as manufacturing, graphics arts and design but it has not yet found widespread acceptance for university teaching. A graphics tablet is an affordable teaching tool that combines the best features from traditional and new media. It allows developing a progressive, interactive lecture (as a…

  5. 37 CFR 202.10 - Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pictorial, graphic, and... Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works. (a) In order to be acceptable as a pictorial, graphic, or... utility or design patent will not affect the registrability of a claim in an original work of pictorial...

  6. Librarians and Graphic Design: Preparation, Roles, and Desired Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Diana K.

    2015-01-01

    Librarians often become de facto graphic designers for their libraries, taking responsibility for designing signage, handouts, brochures, web pages, and many other promotional, instructional, and wayfinding documents. However, the majority of librarians with graphic design responsibilities are not trained as graphic designers. This exploratory…

  7. Designer: A Knowledge-Based Graphic Design Assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Louis

    This report describes Designer, an interactive tool for assisting with the design of two-dimensional graphic interfaces for instructional systems. The system, which consists of a color graphics interface to a mathematical simulation, provides enhancements to the Graphics Editor component of Steamer (a computer-based training system designed to aid…

  8. An Improved Graphic Representation for Structured Program Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周启海

    1991-01-01

    In this paper,an improved graphic representation for Structured Program Design--N-S-Z (Nassi-Shneiderman-Zhou Diagram) is proposed.It not only preserves the advantages of the conventional graphic and non-graphic representations,but also adds some new features which will enhance the representative power of the original diagram.

  9. Librarians and Graphic Design: Preparation, Roles, and Desired Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Diana K.

    2015-01-01

    Librarians often become de facto graphic designers for their libraries, taking responsibility for designing signage, handouts, brochures, web pages, and many other promotional, instructional, and wayfinding documents. However, the majority of librarians with graphic design responsibilities are not trained as graphic designers. This exploratory…

  10. Images of Struggle: Teaching Human Rights with Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carano, Kenneth T.; Clabough, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore how graphic novels can be used in the middle and high school social studies classroom to teach human rights. The article begins with a rationale on the benefits of using graphic novels. It next focuses on four graphic novels related to human rights issues: "Maus I: A Survivor's Tale: My Father Bleeds" (Speigelman…

  11. Graphic Novels in Community and Junior College Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Although the growth in popularity of graphic novels among readers of all ages and the expansion of graphic novels in both public and academic libraries has been well defined in library literature, the inclusion of graphic novels in community and junior college libraries has received little attention. The purpose of this article is to begin the…

  12. Old Media, New Media: The Graphic Novel as Bildungsroman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gretchen; Crenshaw, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Graphic novels are "hot." They show up everywhere from book stores to TV shows. Educators, too, are discovering the possibilities for graphic novels across the curriculum. Among the possibilities, educators can explore the graphic novel as a bildungsroman, a coming of age story--an old genre in the literary canon appearing in a new medium. The…

  13. Exploring Graphic Novels for Elementary Science and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, Suzanne; Cooper, Sandi; Schwarz, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    Prompted by the recent surge in the popularity and utilization of graphic novels in the elementary classroom as well as trends toward the publication of content-focused graphic novels, the research described in this study was designed to explore educators' perspectives toward the medium as well as the issue of quality in graphic novels with…

  14. Self-Authored Graphic Design: A Strategy for Integrative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Steven; De Almeida, Cristina Melibeu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to introduce the concepts of self-authorship in graphic design education as part of an integrative pedagogy. The enhanced potential of harnessing graphic design's dual modalities--the integrative processes inherent in design thinking and doing, and the ability of graphic design to engage other disciplines by giving…

  15. The Image of Daniel: An Ancient Graphic Organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Loretta F.

    2008-01-01

    Teachers who use graphic organizers find that students' memory of important material is strengthened. Graphic organizers also lend themselves to the presentation of material in an interdisciplinary fashion. An example of a successful graphic organizer from religion and ancient history is the image of Nebuchadnezzar's dream that was interpreted by…

  16. Training Students' Innovatory Thinking Ability in Graphic Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Baoling; Luo Qingsheng

    2001-01-01

    Graphic education should have full scope for developing and training students abilities of image thinking and innovatorythinking, and should integrate pedagogy with scientism, and should combine imparting knowledge with training capacity. This paper unites graphics science, engineering science with creative education, and introduce the graphic education methods and results based on training students abilities of thinking innovation and improving students qualities of engineering innovation.

  17. Regulatory genomic regions active in immune cell types explain a large proportion of the genetic risk of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, Ramyiadarsini I; Disanto, Giulio; Berlanga-Taylor, Antonio J; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; Handunnetthi, Lahiru

    2014-04-01

    There is little understanding of how genetic variants discovered in recent genome-wide association studies are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to investigate which chromatin states and cell types explain genetic risk in MS. We used genotype data from 1854 MS patients and 5164 controls produced by the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium and Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. We estimated the proportion of phenotypic variance between cases and controls explained by cell-specific chromatin state and DNase I hypersensitivity sites (DHSs) using the Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis software. A large proportion of variance was explained by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in strong enhancer (SE) elements of immortalized B lymphocytes (5.39%). Three independent SNPs located within SE showed suggestive evidence of association with MS: rs12928822 (odds ratio (OR)=0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.73-0.89, P=2.48E-05), rs727263 (OR=0.75, 95% CI=0.66-0.85, P=3.26E-06) and rs4674923 (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.79-0.92, P=1.63E-05). Genetic variants located within DHSs of CD19+ B cells explained the greatest proportion of variance. Genetic variants influencing the risk of MS are located within regulatory elements active in immune cells. This study also identifies a number of immune cell types likely to be involved in the causal cascade and that carry important implications for future studies of therapeutic design.

  18. Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm Optimisation Approach for the Geometrical Design of an Active Noise Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jafferi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the geometrical design of active noise control (ANC in free- field propagation medium. The development and performance assessment uses genetic optimisation techniques to arrange system components so as to satisfy several performance requirements, such as physical extent of cancellation, controller design restriction and system stability. The ANC system design can be effectively addressed if it is considered as multi – objective optimisation problems. The multi-objective genetic algorithms (MOGAs are well suited to the design of an ANC system and the approach used for it is based on a multi - objective method, with which the physical extent of cancellation and relative stability assessment are dealt with simultaneously.

  19. Genetic evidence of an accessory activity required specifically for cubilin brush-border expression and intrinsic factor-cobalamin absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Kozyraki, R; Newman, T C; Fyfe, J C

    1999-11-15

    Cubilin is a high molecular weight multiligand receptor that mediates intestinal absorption of intrinsic factor-cobalamin and selective protein reabsorption in renal tubules. The genetic basis of selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption with proteinuria was investigated in a canine model closely resembling human Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome caused by cubilin mutations. Canine CUBN cDNA was cloned and sequenced, showing high identity with human and rat CUBN cDNAs. An intragenic CUBN marker was identified in the canine family and used to test the hypothesis of genetic linkage of the disease and CUBN loci. Linkage was rejected, indicating that the canine disorder resembling Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome is caused by defect of a gene product other than cubilin. These results imply that there may be locus heterogeneity among human kindreds with selective intestinal cobalamin malabsorption and proteinuria and that normal brush-border expression of cubilin requires the activity of an accessory protein.

  20. Genetic feedback regulation of frontal cortical neuronal ensembles through activity-dependent Arc expression and dopaminergic input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Mastwal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mental functions involve coordinated activities of specific neuronal ensembles that are embedded in complex brain circuits. Aberrant neuronal ensemble dynamics is thought to form the neurobiological basis of mental disorders. A major challenge in mental health research is to identify these cellular ensembles and determine what molecular mechanisms constrain their emergence and consolidation during development and learning. Here, we provide a perspective based on recent studies that use activity-dependent gene Arc/Arg3.1 as a cellular marker to identify neuronal ensembles and a molecular probe to modulate circuit functions. These studies have demonstrated that the transcription of Arc is activated in selective groups of frontal cortical neurons in response to specific behavioral tasks. Arc expression regulates the persistent firing of individual neurons and predicts the consolidation of neuronal ensembles during repeated learning. Therefore, the Arc pathway represents a prototypical example of activity-dependent genetic feedback regulation of neuronal ensembles. The activation of this pathway in the frontal cortex starts during early postnatal development and requires dopaminergic input. Conversely, genetic disruption of Arc leads to a hypoactive mesofrontal dopamine circuit and its related cognitive deficit. This mutual interaction suggests an auto-regulatory mechanism to amplify the impact of neuromodulators and activity-regulated genes during postnatal development. Such a mechanism may contribute to the association of mutations in dopamine and Arc pathways with neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. As the mesofrontal dopamine circuit shows extensive activity-dependent developmental plasticity, activity-guided modulation of dopaminergic projections or Arc ensembles during development may help to repair circuit deficits related to neuropsychiatric disorders.