WorldWideScience

Sample records for genesis

  1. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  2. On Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Althusser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On Genesis, written In 1966 is a short summary of Althusser’s earlytheory of encounter. In Althusser’s note we find description of structural causalityas opposed to teleological and mechanicist notions of historical determinations. Thetext has documentary value allowing the reader to look at problems presented insuch works as Reading Capital from the perspective proposed by Aalthusser in histexts devoted, among others, to aleatory conception of materialism and theory ofhistory.

  3. Generalized Galilean Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishi, Sakine

    2015-01-01

    The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by {\\alpha}) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as ...

  4. Genesis Sample Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Genesis mission, launched in August 2001, collected solar wind at Earth-Sun L1 location for 28 months, and returned to Earth September 2004 with collectors (very...

  5. Generalized galilean genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo 175-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-31

    The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by α) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as opposed to what happens in quasi-de Sitter inflation. We show that the spectral index of curvature perturbations is determined solely from the parameter α and does not depend on the other details of the model. In contrast to the original model, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is obtained for a specific choice of α.

  6. Genesis Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Skipworth, William C.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft launched on 8 August 2001 sampled solar wind environments at L1 from 2001 to 2004. After the Science Capsule door was opened, numerous foils and samples were exposed to the various solar wind environments during periods including slow solar wind from the streamer belts, fast solar wind flows from coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. The Survey and Examination of Eroded Returned Surfaces (SEERS) program led by NASA's Space Environments and Effects program had initiated access for the space materials community to the remaining Science Capsule hardware after the science samples had been removed for evaluation of materials exposure to the space environment. This presentation will describe the process used to generate a reference radiation Genesis Radiation Environment developed for the SEERS program for use by the materials science community in their analyses of the Genesis hardware.

  7. Porting GENESIS to SIMULINK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Campos, Francisco; Enderle, John D

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the porting of the general simulation system (GENESIS) to Matrix Language Laboratory language (MatLab) SIMULINK, based in the cable theory to simulate the behavior of neurons. A graphic programming approach serves as ideal platform for teaching physiological modeling and neuroengineering courses. The ultimate goal of this project is to integrate all of the chemical, electrical, material, mechanical and neural interactions into a single model that can be viewed seamlessly from a molecular model to the large scale model. Integration of all interactions is not possible with GENESIS, but can be accomplished with SIMULINK.

  8. Lean Management Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkes Aneta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean Management is a philosophy and management concept, based on reduction of the waste and resources used in the process of producing goods and providing services. Lean Management genesis dates back to scientific management in America (for example concepts of H. Ford and F.W. Taylor and quality management, including development of TQM concept. Japanese Toyota Production System has been inspired by chosen elements of these concepts, and then it evolved towards global concept called Toyota Way (which connects production rules with values and work attitude.

  9. Subluminal Galilean Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Creminelli, Paolo; Khoury, Justin; Nicolis, Alberto; Trincherini, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    We put forward an improved version of the Galilean Genesis model that addresses the problem of superluminality. We demote the full conformal group to Poincare symmetry plus dilations, supplemented with approximate galilean shift invariance in the UV and at small field values. In this way fluctuations around the NEC-violating cosmological background are made substantially subluminal, and superluminality cannot be reached by any small change of the solution, in contrast with the original model. Dilation invariance still protects the scale-invariance of correlation functions of a massless test scalar - which is the source of the observed cosmological fluctuations - but the explicit breaking of the conformal group can be potentially observed in higher-order correlators. We also highlight a subtlety in matching the NEC-violating phase with the standard cosmological evolution, and discuss the possible couplings of the Galileon to gravity.

  10. Translation as Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gilberthorpe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation of literature is generally understood as a copy of an original. As such, it finds itself compared negatively to the original; judged and found lacking either the style or meaning of the original text it was seeking to translate. However, this paper will explore the relationship between the text and its translation through the work of Jacques Derrida and his neologisms such as the supplement and différance in addition to the work of Walter Benjamin. Through understanding the translation as a supplement, this paper will explore whether the original text was complete in and of itself. Through this and Derrida’s understanding of the play of language, I argue that translation can be understood as the palingenesis of literature, as it is only through translation that literature is reborn and lives on. Moreover, this paper will conclude with an examination of Blanchot’s distinction between the Book and the book in order to argue that literature is in itself a form of translation. Thus, the relationship between translation and literature is one of a cycle of genesis and palingenesis, as translation finds itself at both the beginning and continual rebirth of literature. La traduzione letteraria viene generalmente intesa come la copia di un originale. In quanto tale essa viene considerata negativamente in rapporto a quest’ultimo, giudicata manchevole quanto a stile o contenuto rispetto al testo originale che cerca di tradurre. Questo articolo intende esaminare la relazione tra il testo e la sua traduzione attraverso l’opera di Jacques Derrida e i suoi neologismi, come supplemento e différance, e sulla scorta degli studi di Walter Benjamin. Considerando la traduzione come un supplemento, l’articolo indaga se l’originale sia completo in e di per se stesso. Attraverso questo concetto e la prospettiva di Derrida sul gioco del linguaggio, la tesi sostenuta è che la traduzione possa essere considerata come palingenesi della

  11. The Genesis of SESAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Ronald

    2008-04-01

    On March 23, 1935, a meeting of ``Southern Physicist" was held at the Candler Hotel in Decatur, Georgia. In addition to a scientific program the next day, consisting of the presentation of twenty-five papers (held in the Emory University's chemistry building), an address was given by Professor A. H. Compton on that Friday night during a banquet sponsored by the Georgia Academy of Science. However, the main goal of this meeting was to work out the details of a new organization, which was called the ``Southern Association of Physicists." My talk provides background on the genesis of this gathering and gives a brief summary of the new organization's subsequent activities, including its ``absorption" by the American Physical Society as its Southeastern Section, i.e., SESAPS. In particular, I discuss its management structure; its three awards for teaching, research, and leadership; and the planning process for its annual meeting. My general conclusion is that SESAPS has been very successful in promoting ``physics" in the southeastern states.

  12. 现代Genesis Coupe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    近日发布的现代后驱双座跑车Genesis Coupe来源于之前不久亮相的Genesis后驱高级轿车版本,这款现代GenesisCoupe的竞争车型包括英菲尼迪G37,宝马335i Coupe,福特野马GT,马自达RX-8,三菱Eclipse GT等但是,英菲尼迪G37应该是它最直接的竞争对手,新车在总体上保持了Genesis Coupe概念车的设计但量产车无疑更注重实用性。

  13. Reconstruction of the Genesis Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Qualls, Garry D.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the reconstruction analyses performed for the Genesis capsule entry is described. The results indicate that the actual entry prior to the drogue deployment failure was very close to the pre-entry predictions. The capsule landed 8.3 km south of the desired target at Utah Test and Training Range. Analysis on infrared video footage (obtained from the tracking stations) during the descent estimated the onset of the capsule tumble at Mach 0.9. Frequency analysis on the infrared video data indicates that the aerodynamics generated for the Genesis capsule reasonably predicted the drag and static stability. Observations of the heatshield support the pre-entry simulation estimates of a small hypersonic angles-of-attack, since there is very little, if any, charring of the shoulder region or the aftbody. Through this investigation, an overall assertion can be made that all the data gathered from the Genesis entry is consistent with flight performance that was close to the nominal preentry prediction. Consequently, the design principles and methodologies utilized for the flight dynamics, aerodynamics, and aerothermodynamics analyses have been corroborated.

  14. The Understanding of Abraham in Genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaoxi; Qu Caie

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of the book of Genesis and its message is essential to the study of the Bible from which we know how the world and human beings come into existence in the ancient Hebrews'eyes.The greater part of the book Genesis is about four men's stories─ Abraham,Issac,Jacob,and Joseph.In this paper,Abraham's remarkable personalities will be examined thoroughly through taking some stories which are mainly included in Genesis12-25.

  15. 76 FR 54454 - Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S... Genesis Solar, LLC, for construction and startup of the Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP), a 250... Statement for the Genesis Solar Energy Project, Riverside County, California (75 Federal Register...

  16. The Genesis of Feynman Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Wuthrich, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    In a detailed reconstruction of the genesis of Feynman diagrams the author reveals that their development was constantly driven by the attempt to resolve fundamental problems concerning the uninterpretable infinities that arose in quantum as well as classical theories of electrodynamic phenomena. Accordingly, as a comparison with the graphical representations that were in use before Feynman diagrams shows, the resulting theory of quantum electrodynamics, featuring Feynman diagrams, differed significantly from earlier versions of the theory in the way in which the relevant phenomena were concep

  17. Improving Student Persistence at the Genesis Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Nancy; Alsabek, Barbara Piccirilli

    2010-01-01

    The Genesis Center is a community-based adult education center located in Providence, Rhode Island. Founded in 1982 to assist immigrants and refugees from Southeast Asia in their transition to life in the United States, the Genesis Center now provides adult education, job training, and child care services to people who have immigrated from all…

  18. Plant cutin genesis: unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Eva; Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Heredia, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    The genesis of cutin, the main lipid polymer present in the biosphere, has remained elusive for many years. Recently, two main approaches have attempted to explain the process of cutin polymerization. One describes the existence of an acyltransferase cutin synthase enzyme that links activated monomers of cutin in the outer cell wall, while the other shows that plant cutin is the final result of an extracellular nonenzymatic self-assembly and polymerizing process of cutin monomers. In this opinion article, we explain both models and suggest that they could be pieces of a more complex biological scenario. We also highlight their different characteristics and current limitations, and suggest a potential synergism of both hypotheses.

  19. PROFESSIONALISM: GENESIS AND CATEGORICAL ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Олеговна Авдеева

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the theoretical-methodological analysis of the concept of «professional», describes the genesis and key aspects of its content and structure. In addition, this publication discusses some of the approaches to the definition of the studied concepts, including: system (professional it seems as multipart strictly organized education of consciousness and psyche of the individual; professional graphic (from a position of objective (professional description and subjective (mental graph the parties; integrative (as property, process, and status of the person; acmeological (as the dialectical the unity of the personality and activity components; in terms of motivation and operating parties and other Stresses the importance of personal (theoretical knowledge, professional qualities, value orientations, motivational orientation of others and specific features of labour employee (practical skills, professional experience and other, determining the effectiveness of its activities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-12

  20. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  1. Solar composition from the Genesis Discovery Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, D S; Team, Genesis Science

    2011-11-29

    Science results from the Genesis Mission illustrate the major advantages of sample return missions. (i) Important results not otherwise obtainable except by analysis in terrestrial laboratories: the isotopic compositions of O, N, and noble gases differ in the Sun from other inner solar system objects. The N isotopic composition is the same as that of Jupiter. Genesis has resolved discrepancies in the noble gas data from solar wind implanted in lunar soils. (ii) The most advanced analytical instruments have been applied to Genesis samples, including some developed specifically for the mission. (iii) The N isotope result has been replicated with four different instruments.

  2. Genesis / Juta Kivimäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimäe, Juta, 1952-

    2003-01-01

    Poola skulptori Magdalena Schmidt-G̤ra installatsioonid "Genesis I, II" rahvusraamatukogu fuajees ja peanäitusesaalis, kus oli samal ajal eksponeeritud eesti nahakunstnike Luule Maari ja Ruuda Maarandi köitenäitus

  3. Genesis / Juta Kivimäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimäe, Juta, 1952-

    2003-01-01

    Poola skulptori Magdalena Schmidt-G̤ra installatsioonid "Genesis I, II" rahvusraamatukogu fuajees ja peanäitusesaalis, kus oli samal ajal eksponeeritud eesti nahakunstnike Luule Maari ja Ruuda Maarandi köitenäitus

  4. Genesis nature of financial strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Pashchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the origin and history of the interpretation of the genesis of «strategy», «financial strategy», its elements and composite types. Scientists studied different views on the concept of strategy. Several specific positions founders of different approaches to define the strategy of schools operating strategies involved in the formulation and implementation of the concept of «strategy». Evaluation of different schools of strategies that deepened understanding of the industry and its strategy in the early stages of formation. Based on the works of various scholars studied by the author actually proposed interpretation of the concept strategy. The general industry and functional strategies which include the following strategies: innovation, resource, financial, production, marketing and human resources. Allocated financial strategy and its significant impact on other strategies. Author developed financial sector strategy and financial strategy of competitive enterprise. The importance of financial strategies under conditions of companies and the industry as a whole, as well as components of development of financial strategy. Deals with the factors that must be considered in the development and implementation of financial strategies. The systems analysis strategies and the impact on financial results, the estimation of their attractiveness and risk. Considered classification on the basis of financial strategies and sectoral orientation of the financial sector strategy based on company size, its form and noted the importance of this trait in systematizing strategies. The expediency of the financial strategy. Defined competitive advantage and efficiency of business and industry through the implementation of various financial strategies.

  5. Aspekte van versoening in die boek Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanie (S.D. Snyman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of reconciliation in the book of Genesis. This contribution investigates the notion of reconciliation in the book of Genesis. The problem addressed is how the phenomenon of reconciliation between human beings happens in spite of, or perhaps because of, alienation between people. Research on the topic highlights three episodes in the book, Abraham and Lot (Gn 13, Jacob and Esau (Gn 33, and Joseph and his brothers (Gn 37–50. This contribution adds a fourth episode of reconciliation that is between Jacob and Laban (Gn 31. In the end, a few conclusions are drawn and applied to current society.

  6. 33 CFR 147.825 - Chevron Genesis Spar safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chevron Genesis Spar safety zone... (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.825 Chevron Genesis Spar safety zone. (a) Description. The Chevron Genesis Spar, Green Canyon 205A (GC205A), is located at position 27°46′46.365″ N,...

  7. Generalized Galileons: instabilities of bouncing and Genesis cosmologies and modified Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Libanov, M; Rubakov, V

    2016-01-01

    We study spatially flat bouncing cosmologies and models with the early-time Genesis epoch in a popular class of generalized Galileon theories. We ask whether there exist solutions of these types which are free of gradient and ghost instabilities. We find that irrespectively of the forms of the Lagrangian functions, the bouncing models either are plagued with these instabilities or have singularities. The same result holds for the original Genesis model and its variants in which the scale factor tends to a constant as $t\\to -\\infty$. The result remains valid in theories with additional matter that obeys the Null Energy Condition and interacts with the Galileon only gravitationally. We propose a modified Genesis model which evades our no-go argument and give an explicit example of healthy cosmology that connects the modified Genesis epoch with kination (the epoch still driven by the Galileon field, which is a conventional massless scalar field at that stage).

  8. Generalized Galileons: instabilities of bouncing and Genesis cosmologies and modified Genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libanov, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutskii per. 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Mironov, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Rubakov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Physics Faculty,M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University,Vorobjevy Gory, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-18

    We study spatially flat bouncing cosmologies and models with the early-time Genesis epoch in a popular class of generalized Galileon theories. We ask whether there exist solutions of these types which are free of gradient and ghost instabilities. We find that irrespectively of the forms of the Lagrangian functions, the bouncing models either are plagued with these instabilities or have singularities. The same result holds for the original Genesis model and its variants in which the scale factor tends to a constant as t→−∞. The result remains valid in theories with additional matter that obeys the Null Energy Condition and interacts with the Galileon only gravitationally. We propose a modified Genesis model which evades our no-go argument and give an explicit example of healthy cosmology that connects the modified Genesis epoch with kination (the epoch still driven by the Galileon field, which is a conventional massless scalar field at that stage).

  9. Finding the Genesis for a Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroll, Joyce Armstrong

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a prewriting heuristics strategy that can help students find the genesis of their thesis. The 3 functions of the heuristic procedure are that it aids in retrieving relevant information stored in the mind; draws attention to important information that can be further researched or accessed; and prepares the mind for the…

  10. Finding the Genesis for a Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroll, Joyce Armstrong

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a prewriting heuristics strategy that can help students find the genesis of their thesis. The 3 functions of the heuristic procedure are that it aids in retrieving relevant information stored in the mind; draws attention to important information that can be further researched or accessed; and prepares the mind for the…

  11. Grants: Genesis of Some Funded Proposal Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazdar, John

    2011-01-01

    While "thinking outside the box" can be an over-used phase at times, in the world of grants it can provide the genesis of ideas. The "box" is the world of academia accepted by most educators, while "thinking outside" is the process that leads to grant ideas. In the grant world, "thinking outside the box" is a process of doing something that has…

  12. Genesis and intersubjectivity: levels of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2012-09-01

    I will make a brief comment on the thesis of José C. Loredo-Narciandi and José C. Sánchez-González (2012) "Neither Dichotomies Nor Dualism; Simply Genesis". Denying any reductionism and reification, they insists the importance of inseparable relation between subject and object, then discuss about genesis. I pointed out that their argument lacks an important element, i.e., mediator that differ from mere physical object. After discussing mediators nature, I discriminate the three level of interaction which mediated by mediator. The first is the pre-interaction level, the second is physical interaction level and the third is sign or language interaction level. The last argument of mine is about how we can solve the problem of reification and reductionism. In the argument it is pointed out that intersubjectivity is key concept for understanding and solving the problem appropriately.

  13. Genesis of the Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris Llewellyn

    2015-01-13

    This paper describes the scientific, technical and political genesis of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It begins with an outline of the early history of the LHC, from first thoughts and accelerator and detector developments that underwrote the project, through the first studies of the LHC and its scientific potential and the genesis of the experimental programme, to the presentation of the proposal to build the LHC to the CERN Council in December 1993. The events that led to the proposal to build the LHC in two stages, which was approved in December 1994, are then described. Next, the role of non-Member State contributions and of the agreement that CERN could take loans, which allowed single stage construction to be approved in December 1996, despite a cut in the Members' contributions, are explained. The paper concludes by identifying points of potential relevance for the approval of possible future large particle physics projects.

  14. Slip rate and tremor genesis in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wech, Aaron G.; Bartlow, Noel M.

    2014-01-01

    At many plate boundaries, conditions in the transition zone between seismogenic and stable slip produce slow earthquakes. In the Cascadia subduction zone, these events are consistently observed as slow, aseismic slip on the plate interface accompanied by persistent tectonic tremor. However, not all slow slip at other plate boundaries coincides spatially and temporally with tremor, leaving the physics of tremor genesis poorly understood. Here we analyze seismic, geodetic, and strainmeter data in Cascadia to observe for the first time a large, tremor-generating slow earthquake change from tremor-genic to silent and back again. The tremor falls silent at reduced slip speeds when the migrating slip front pauses as it loads the stronger adjacent fault segment to failure. The finding suggests that rheology and slip-speed-regulated stressing rate control tremor genesis, and the same section of fault can slip both with and without detectable tremor, limiting tremor's use as a proxy for slip.

  15. Ensemble Prediction of Tropical Cyclone Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-23

    absolute vorticity, PBL parameters, surface fluxes, and vertically integrated relative humidity in determining the TC genesis efficiency. For...mid-level vortex (SHAL_MID) and a shallow bottom vortex (SHAL_BTM), respectively, to identify the PBL effects and to better separate the mid-level...the column integrated (1000-200hPa) absolute vorticity, relative vorticity at top of the planetary boundary layer ( PBL ), and vertically integrated

  16. 使命——Hyundai Genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佳俊

    2008-01-01

    Genesis对于现代来说意义重大,从第一次尝试后驱平台到第一辆真正意义上的跑车,无论是Genesis还是Genesis Coupe的出现都似乎带着一种使命—将现代拉入高性能汽车制造领域。

  17. Cleaning Study of Genesis Sample 60487

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kim R.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind were stopped in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. Particles of Genesis wafers, brine from the Utah Testing Range and an organic film have deleterious effects on many of the high-resolution instruments that have been developed to analyze the implanted solar wind. We have conducted a correlative microscopic study of the efficacy of cleaning Genesis samples with megasonically activated ultrapure water and UV/ozone cleaning. Sample 60487, the study sample, is a piece of float-zone silicon from the B/C array approximately 4.995mm x 4.145 mm in size

  18. Genesis Solar Wind Samples: Update of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.; Allton, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind atoms for 28 months with a variety of collectors. The array wafer collector availability is displayed in the online catalog. The purpose of this report is to update the community on availability of array wafer samples and to preview other collectors which are in the process of being added to the online catalog. A total of fifteen pure materials were selected based on engineering and science requirements. Most of the materials were semiconductor wafers which were mounted on the arrays.

  19. ORE's GENeric Evaluation SYStem: GENESYS 1988-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Nancy; And Others

    GENESYS--GENeric Evaluation SYStem--is a method of streamlining data collection and evaluation through the use of computer technology. GENESYS has allowed the Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE) of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District to evaluate a multitude of contrasting programs with limited resources. By standardizing methods and…

  20. The genesis of collective health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2014-03-01

    During the 1970s in Brazil a social space directed towards health problems on the population level, called collective health, was created and institutionalised. To what extent did this Brazilian invention correspond to a specific socio-historical practice? The works published on this topic have considered social medicine as a homogeneous phenomenon without empirically studying the specificities of national experiences. To bridge this gap, a historical study on the genesis of collective health in Brazil was carried out based on Bourdieu's field theory. The interaction between the paths of the founders and the conditions of historical possibilities were researched through documentary and bibliographical sources, as well as through in-depth interviews of the founders. This social space originated from a meeting of agents with different social backgrounds but who interconnected, creating a structure that was independent of each agent considered individually. One of the components of this establishment was the joining of theoretical production and the implementation of health reforms that resulted in the organisation of a universal health system. This study attempts to show how the international political situation and the contradictions of the national crisis created a universe of possibilities, allowing for the genesis of this sui generis space in Brazil.

  1. Genesis Ultrapure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Stansbery, Eileen K.; Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    A device removes, with high precision, the majority of surface particle contamination greater than 1-micron-diameter in size from ultrapure semiconductor wafer materials containing implanted solar wind samples returned by NASA's Genesis mission. This cleaning device uses a 1.5-liter/minute flowing stream of heated ultrapure water (UPW) with 1- MHz oscillating megasonic pulse energy focused at 3 to 5 mm away from the wafer surface spinning at 1,000 to 10,000 RPM, depending on sample size. The surface particle contamination is removed by three processes: flowing UPW, megasonic cavitations, and centripetal force from the spinning wafer. The device can also dry the wafer fragment after UPW/megasonic cleaning by continuing to spin the wafer in the cleaning chamber, which is purged with flowing ultrapure nitrogen gas at 65 psi (.448 kPa). The cleaner also uses three types of vacuum chucks that can accommodate all Genesis-flown array fragments in any dimensional shape between 3 and 100 mm in diameter. A sample vacuum chuck, and the manufactured UPW/megasonic nozzle holder, replace the human deficiencies by maintaining a consistent distance between the nozzle and wafer surface as well as allowing for longer cleaning time. The 3- to 5-mm critical distance is important for the ability to remove particles by megasonic cavitations. The increased UPW sonication time and exposure to heated UPW improve the removal of 1- to 5-micron-sized particles.

  2. Genesis of cluster associations of enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulina Tetyana V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is the study of genesis of creation of cluster associations of enterprises. It considers genesis of cluster definitions. It shows and analyses components that define the “cluster” concept. Researchers from many countries offer a significant number of definitions of the “cluster” term specifically in the economic direction, but there is no single generally accepted definition as of today. This fact is the result of a significant diversity of cluster structures. The article conducts a comparative analysis of classifications of cluster associations of enterprises. It identifies advantages and shortcomings of the cluster approach both from the position of an enterprise and from the position of a regional economy administration. The article marks out specific features of the life cycle of cluster associations of enterprises, which consists of the preparatory stage and stage of commercialisation. Majority of studies consider the preparatory stage and the stage of commercialisation, which consists of the following stages: entering market with a common brand, growth, maturity and crisis – is, practically, not considered. Taking into account the fact that the main result of cluster activity is the synergetic effect from mutually beneficial co-operation and activity results facilitate ensuring competitiveness of cluster enterprises, regional and national economies, the author gives own definition of a cluster.

  3. Global energy network. ; Proposal of GENESIS project. Grobal energy network. ; GENESIS keikaku no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwano, Y. (Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1990-03-25

    This paper explains a global energy neywork in which solar cells producing electric power as the basic energy and superconducting cables are used. Photovoltatic power generating stations are dispersely equipped in many points on the earth and the network to connect all over the world is constructed by using superconducting cables to transmit energy from daytime area to nighttime area. The project to always use photovoltatic power is called the GENESIS. It is required to develop solar cells of much higher performance and lower cost and to develop high T {sub c} superconducting cables to realize this GENESIS project. Another important problem is to construct the global system. Since Japan depends 82% of the consuming energy on import and further, leads the world technically for the development of amorphous Si sollar cells, Japan should promote this project as the center of this system. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Cataloging Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, P.J.; Rodriguez, M.C.; Calaway, M.C.; Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Genesis solar wind array collectors were fractured upon landing hard in Utah in 2004. The fragments were retrieved from the damaged canister, imaged, repackaged and shipped to the Johnson Space Center curatorial facility [1]. As of January 2009, the collection consists of 3460 samples. Of these, 442 are comprised into "multiple" sample groupings, either affixed to adhesive paper (177) or collected in jars (17), culture trays (87), or sets of polystyrene vials (161). A focused characterization task was initiated in May 2008 to document the largest samples in the collection. The task consisted of two goals: to document sapphire based fragments greater than 2 cm in one dimension, and to document silicon based fragments greater than 1 cm in one direction.

  5. Right-handed sector lepto-genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigerio, M. [CEA Saclay, Service de Physique Theorique, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hambye, Th. [Madrid Universidad Autonoma, Instituto de F sica Te rica, Cantoblanco (Spain); Ma, E. [California Univ., Physics Dept., Riverside, California (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Instead of creating the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe by the decay of right-handed (RH) neutrinos to left-handed leptons, we propose to generate it dominantly by the decay of the RH neutrinos to RH leptons. This mechanism turns out to be successful in large regions of the parameter space. It may work, in particular, at a scale as low as a few TeV, with no need to invoke quasi-degenerate RH neutrino masses to resonantly enhance the asymmetry. Such a possibility can be probed experimentally by the observation at colliders of a singlet charged Higgs particle and of RH neutrinos. Other mechanisms which may lead to successful lepton-genesis from the RH lepton sector interactions are also briefly presented. The incorporation of these scenarios in left-right symmetric and unified models is discussed. (authors)

  6. Short-lived radioactivity and magma genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James; Condomines, Michel

    1992-09-01

    Short-lived decay products of uranium and thorium have half-lives and chemistries sensitive to the processes and time scales of magma genesis, including partial melting in the mantle and magmatic differentiation in the crust. Radioactive disequilibrium between U-238, Th-230, and Ra-226 is widespread in volcanic rocks. These disequilibria and the isotopic composition of thorium depend especially on the extent and rate of melting as well as the presence and composition of vapor during melting. The duration of mantle melting may be several hundred millennia, whereas ascent times are a few decades to thousands of years. Differentiation of most magmas commonly occurs within a few millennia, but felsic ones can be tens of millennia old upon eruption.

  7. GENESIS: GPS Environmental and Earth Science Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, George

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the GPS ENvironmental and Earth Science Information System (GENESIS). The objectives of GENESIS are outlined (1) Data Archiving, searching and distribution for science data products derived from Space borne TurboRogue Space Receivers for GPS science and other ground based GPS receivers, (2) Data browsing using integrated visualization tools, (3) Interactive web/java-based data search and retrieval, (4) Data subscription service, (5) Data migration from existing GPS archived data, (6) On-line help and documentation, and (7) participation in the WP-ESIP federation. The presentation reviews the products and services of Genesis, and the technology behind the system.

  8. 76 FR 73748 - Genesis Capital, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... COMMISSION Genesis Capital, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application November 21, 2011... approval. Applicants: Genesis Capital, LLC (``Genesis Capital'' or the ``Adviser'') and Northern Lights... Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090. Applicants: Genesis Capital, 7191...

  9. Genesis of early Cambrian phosphorite of Krol Belt, Lesser Himalaya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A.; Banerjee, D.M.

    for the modern Peru–Chile shelf–slope phosphorite is inadequate to explain the genesis of Cambrian phosphorite. Physicochemical characters of the Cambrian phosphorites demand a shallow marine phosphorous source. Based on the available early Cambrian oceanographic...

  10. Abstract: Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program: Genesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program: Genesis and Evolution ... a program to dramatically improve nursing and midwifery education and practice. ... academic institutions requires flexibility, respect, and thoughtful planning.

  11. [Papillomavirus in the genesis of oral leukoplakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichenko, I I; Rabinovich, O F; Ivina, A A; Rabinovich, I M; Togonidze, A A

    2014-01-01

    Immunohistochemical examination of the proliferative activity of cells was made investigating the expression of Ki-67 protein and the location of proteins associated with epithelial cell papillomavirus infection involving P16(INK4a) and HPV16 proteins in different cell areas of the intact mucosa, in leukoplakia with the signs of hyperplasia and dysplasia, and in squamous cell carcinoma. There was a positive correlation between the proliferative activity of cells in the parabasal cell areas and the expression of P16(INK4a) protein in oral leukoplakia with the signs of hyperplasia (r(s)=0.397; p=0.018). In oral leukoplakia with dysplastic changes, there was a positive correlation between the proliferation of cells in the parabasal and prickle cell layers and the location of HPV type 16 antigens (r(s)=0.515; p=0.041 and r(s)=0.651; p=0.006). Detection of papillomavirus infection in leukoplakia can solve not only the problems with its genesis, but this is also a morphological basis for the effective prevention and treatment of this common oral mucosal disease.

  12. [The genesis of crime according to dialectic criminology. II. Comments on the genesis of crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, R; Ferracuti, F

    1978-01-01

    Prof. Lyra discusses in this article the basic problem of criminological sciences, stating that its essential object of study is the determination of the genesis of crime. The Author states that, before defining the crime genesis, it is necessary to outline, through a synthesis of epistemological restructurization of criminology itself. This way, we can develop a conception of Dialectic Criminology, where the term "dialectic" does not necessarily coincide with a marxist posture, but it extends along much more complex and comprehensive parameters. Dialectic Criminology is defined, in Lyra's conception, as a Classified Criminology, synthetizing both the psychological approach (clinical criminology, or micro-criminology), and the sociological approach (sociological criminology or macro-criminology), according to an anthropological basic frame of reference, which constitutes the new and original prerequisite. To this aim, according to Prof. Lyra, it is necessary to overcome merely biological or psychological theories, and the new sociologisms, which cannot explain deviant behavior without falling into dogmatism or relativism. It is necessary to give back to criminology its original ethico-philosophical roots, and to place the problem of crime within a new "praxis" concept, which takes into account the authentic freedom of man, interracting with historical evolution. This way, through Dialectic Criminology, we can overcome the conception of crime and delinquency viewed as counterparts of the concept of Law.

  13. Reheating and Primordial Gravitational Waves in Generalized Galilean Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishi, Sakine

    2016-01-01

    Galilean genesis is an alternative to inflation, in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski with the stable violation of the null energy condition. In this paper, we discuss how the early universe is reheated through the gravitational particle production at the trasition from the genesis phase to the subsequent phase where the kinetic energy of the scalar field is dominant. We then study the consequences of gravitational reheating after Galilean genesis on the spectrum of primordial gravitational waves. The resultant spectrum is strongly blue, and at high frequencies $\\Omega_{\\rm gw}\\propto f^3$ in terms of the energy density per unit logarithmic frequency. Though this cannot be detected in existing detctors, the amplitude can be as large as $\\Omega_{\\rm gw}\\sim 10^{-12}$ at $f\\sim 100\\,$MHz, providing a future test of the genesis scenario. The analysis is performed within the framework of generalized Galilean genesis based on the Horndeski theory, which enables us to derive generic formulas.

  14. Genesis 3:15 in Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Krüger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genesis 3:15 is ’n crux interpretum met uiteenlopende verklarings. Hierdie artikel fokus op verklarings wat Suid-Afrikaanse Skrifverklaarders van die teks gee en plaas sodanige verklarings binne verskillende rasionaliteitsmodelle. Verklarings van die teks berus dikwels eerder op keuses vir ’n bepaalde verstaansmodel as op die noukeurige lees van die teks. Genesis 3:15 dui op sigself nie op Jesus Christus nie, maar binne ’n bepaalde rasionaliteitsmodel is dit geldig om die teks as moederbelofte (protevangelium te beskou.Genesis 3:15 in South African context. Genesis 3:15 is a crux interpretum that lends itself to diverse interpretations. The focus of this article is the interpretations of this text offered by South African scholars. The article views these interpretations against the background of various models of rationality. Interpretations of this text are more likely to be determined by the interpreter’s preferred model of understanding, than to be determined by a mere close reading of the text. Genesis 3:15 in itself does not point to Jesus Christ, but within a specifi model of rationality it is valid to regard the text as a foundational promise of salvation (protevangelium.

  15. Investigation of Backside Textures for Genesis Solar Wind Silicon Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. P.; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Genesis solar wind collectors were comprised of a suite of 15 types of ultrapure materials. The single crystal, pure silicon collectors were fabricated by two methods: float zone (FZ) and Czochralski (CZ). Because of slight differences in bulk purity and surface cleanliness among the fabrication processes and the specific vendor, it is desirable to know which variety of silicon and identity of vendor, so that appropriate reference materials can be used. The Czochralski method results in a bulk composition with slightly higher oxygen, for example. The CZ silicon array wafers that were Genesis-flown were purchased from MEMC Electronics. Most of the Genesis-flown FZ silicon was purchased from Unisil and cleaned by MEMC, although a few FZ wafers were acquired from International Wafer Service (IWS).

  16. Genesis 20: A literary template for the prophetic tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Branch

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A close examination of Genesis 20 shows that the concept of prophet, which is mentioned for the first time in this chapter, is emphasised in three ways. First, God actively creates a new office – that of prophet. Second, he specifically gives a job description – that of intercessor. Third, he squarely sets in place a model – one that all subsequent prophets, prophetesses, and prophesies in some way follow and build upon. Significantly, Genesis 20 gives no indication that Abraham sought the designation of prophet or knew in advance it was coming. Abraham’s new office emphasises God’s sovereignty. Starting with Genesis 20, God establishes a pattern of maintaining for Himself the right first to choose Israel’s prophets and later to choose its judges and kings. This article argues that Chapter 20 provides a ten-point foundation for the work of the prophet that the Hebrew Bible enlarges on in later books.

  17. Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A cultural critical reading. ... interpretation can arise from the analysis of Alcibiades's speech compared to M- and LXX-Genesis ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  18. Big Bounce Genesis and Possible Experimental Tests -- A Brief Review

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E; Vergados, J D

    2016-01-01

    We review the recent status of big bounce genesis as a new possibility of using dark matter particle's mass and interaction cross section to test the existence of a bounce universe at the early stage of evolution in our currently observed universe. To study the dark matter production and evolution inside the bounce universe, called big bounce genesis for short, we propose a model independent approach. We shall present the motivation for proposing big bounce as well the model independent predictions which can be tested by dark matter direct searches. A positive finding shall have profound impact on our understanding of the early universe physics.

  19. Asymmetric Dark Matter via Spontaneous Co-Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    March-Russell, John

    2011-01-01

    We investigate, in the context of asymmetric dark matter (DM), a new mechanism of spontaneous co-genesis of linked DM and baryon asymmetries, explaining the observed relation between the baryon and DM densities, Omega_DM/Omega_B ~ 5. The co-genesis mechanism requires a light scalar field, phi, with mass below 5 eV which couples derivatively to DM, much like a 'dark axion'. The field phi, and its coupling to DM, can itself provide a channel to annihilate away the residual symmetric DM component, leading to a highly predictive scenario.

  20. Big Bounce Genesis and Possible Experimental Tests: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeuk-Kwan Edna Cheung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent status of big bounce genesis as a new possibility of using dark matter particles’ mass and interaction cross-section to test the existence of a bounce universe at the early stage of evolution in our currently-observed universe. To study the dark matter production and evolution inside the bounce universe, called big bounce genesis for short, we propose a model independent approach. We shall present the motivation for proposing big bounce, as well as the model independent predictions, which can be tested by dark matter direct searches. A positive finding shall have profound impact on our understanding of the early universe physics.

  1. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: 60366 Sample Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize, localize, characterize and remove particle and thin film surface contamination, a small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques [1-5]. Here we present preliminary results for sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C).

  2. GENESIS: Agile Generation of Information Management Oriented Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Erasmo Gómez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The specification for an information system can be clear from the beginning: it must acquire, display, query and modify data, using a database. The main issue is to decide which information to manage. In the case originating this work, information was always evolving, even up to the end of the project. This implies the construction of a new system each time the information is redefined. This article presents Genesis, an agile development infrastructure, and proposes an approach for the immediate construction of required information systems. Experts describe their information needs and queries, and Genesis generates the corresponding application, with the appropriate graphical interfaces and database.La especificación de un sistema de información puede estar clara desde el principio: debe adquirir, desplegar, consultar y modificar datos, usando una base de datos. El asunto es decidir cuál información manejar. En el caso que origina este trabajo, la información evoluciona permanentemente, incluso hasta el final del proyecto. Esto implica la construcción de un nuevo sistema cada vez que se redefine la información. Este artículo presenta Genesis, una infraestructura ágil para la construcción inmediata del sistema de información que sea requerido. Los expertos describen su información y consultas. Genesis produce el software correspondiente, generando las interfaces gráficas y la base de datos apropiados.

  3. On the genesis of Post constraint in modern electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2004-01-01

    The genesis of the Post constraint is premised on two attributes of modern electromagnetism: (i) its microscopic nature, and (ii) the status of e and b as the primitive electromagnetic fields. This constraint can therefore not arise in EH--electromagnetism, wherein the primitive electromagnetic fields are the macroscopic fields E and H.

  4. Small Particulate Contamination Survey Of Genesis Flight Sample 61423

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Schmeling, M.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind stop in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. We continue to work with the community of scientists analyzing Genesis samples using our unique laboratory facilities -- and, where needed, our unique cleaning techniques -- to significantly enhance the science return from the Genesis mission. This work is motivated by the need to understand the submicron contamination on the collectors in the Genesis payload as recovered from the crash site in the Utah desert, and -- perhaps more importantly -- how to remove it. We continue to evaluate the effectiveness of the wet-chemical "cleaning" steps used by various investigators, to enable them to design improved methods of stripping spacecraft and terrestrial contamination from surfaces while still leaving the solar-wind signal intact.

  5. Influence of the soil genesis on physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschalko, Marian; Yilmaz, Işık; Fojtová, Lucie; Kubečka, Karel; Bouchal, Tomáš; Bednárik, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the influence of soil genesis on the physical-mechanical properties. The presented case study was conducted in the region of the Ostrava Basin where there is a varied genetic composition of the Quaternary geological structure on the underlying Neogeneous sediments which are sediments of analogous granulometry but different genesis. In this study, 7827 soil samples of an eolian, fluvial, glacial, and deluvial origin and their laboratory analyses results were used. The study identified different values in certain cases, mostly in coarser-grained foundation soils, such as sandy loam S4 (MS) and clayey sand F4 (CS). The soils of the fluvial origin manifest different values than other genetic types. Next, based on regression analyses, dependence was proved neither on the deposition depth (depth of samples) nor from the point of view of the individual foundation soil classes or the genetic types. The contribution of the paper is to point at the influence of genesis on the foundation soil properties so that engineering geologists and geotechnicians pay more attention to the genesis during engineering-geological and geotechnical investigations.

  6. Genesis 900有源超低音

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Genesis 900可以说是音响史上的第一款操作功能最为齐全的有源超低音产品,即便是目前最新型的Hi—End有源超低音,也未必能全面超越它。而且Genesis 900的售价也可以说是Genesis高端产品中最为合理的,如果有发烧友想以最少的代价享受等同于Genesis传奇的四件式音箱的震撼低音效果,拥有Genesis 900就是最好的途径!说它操作功能齐全一点也不假,Genesis 900有源超低音具备RCA、XLR与扬声器三种输入端子,并有一条控制线与顶部的遥控接收器连接。这个遥控装置与Genesis大音箱完全相同,可以调整相位(0-180度,

  7. Pristine Igneous Rocks and the Genesis of Early Planetary Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Our studies are highly interdisciplinary, but are focused on the processes and products of early planetary and asteroidal differentiation, especially the genesis of the ancient lunar crust. The compositional diversity that we explore is the residue of process diversity, which has strong relevance for comparative planetology.

  8. genesis 35:8 in the literary and theological context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “ordinary” wet nurse who, at her death, made the whole household of. Israel stand .... nurse in Genesis 24:59 who the history of interpretation unequivocally identifies .... deaths at that stage of his journey was an indication that the Jacob Cycle.

  9. Decontamination of Genesis Array Materials by UV Ozone Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Burnett, D. S.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Sestak, S.; Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    Shortly after the NASA Genesis Mission sample return capsule returned to earth on September 8, 2004, the science team discovered that all nine ultra-pure semiconductor materials were contaminated with a thin molecular organic film approximately 0 to 100 angstroms thick. The organic contaminate layer, possibly a silicone, situated on the surface of the materials is speculated to have formed by condensation of organic matter from spacecraft off-gassing at the Lagrange 1 halo orbit during times of solar exposure. While the valuable solar wind atoms are safely secured directly below this organic contamination and/or native oxide layer in approximately the first 1000 angstroms of the ultra-pure material substrate, some analytical techniques that precisely measure solar wind elemental abundances require the removal of this organic contaminate. In 2005, Genesis science team laboratories began to develop various methods for removing the organic thin film without removing the precious material substrate that contained the solar wind atoms. Stephen Sestak and colleagues at Open University first experimented with ultraviolet radiation ozone (UV/O3) cleaning of several non-flight and flown Genesis silicon wafer fragments under a pure flowing oxygen environment. The UV/O3 technique was able to successfully remove organic contamination without etching into the bulk material substrate. At NASA Johnson Space Center Genesis Curation Laboratory, we have installed an UV/O3 cleaning devise in an ambient air environment to further experimentally test the removal of the organic contamination on Genesis wafer materials. Preliminary results from XPS analysis show that the UV/O3 cleaning instrument is a good non-destructive method for removing carbon contamination from flown Genesis array samples. However, spectroscopic ellipsometry results show little change in the thickness of the surface film. All experiments to date have shown UV/O3 cleaning method to be the best non-destructive method

  10. Python as a federation tool for GENESIS 3.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cornelis

    Full Text Available The GENESIS simulation platform was one of the first broad-scale modeling systems in computational biology to encourage modelers to develop and share model features and components. Supported by a large developer community, it participated in innovative simulator technologies such as benchmarking, parallelization, and declarative model specification and was the first neural simulator to define bindings for the Python scripting language. An important feature of the latest version of GENESIS is that it decomposes into self-contained software components complying with the Computational Biology Initiative federated software architecture. This architecture allows separate scripting bindings to be defined for different necessary components of the simulator, e.g., the mathematical solvers and graphical user interface. Python is a scripting language that provides rich sets of freely available open source libraries. With clean dynamic object-oriented designs, they produce highly readable code and are widely employed in specialized areas of software component integration. We employ a simplified wrapper and interface generator to examine an application programming interface and make it available to a given scripting language. This allows independent software components to be 'glued' together and connected to external libraries and applications from user-defined Python or Perl scripts. We illustrate our approach with three examples of Python scripting. (1 Generate and run a simple single-compartment model neuron connected to a stand-alone mathematical solver. (2 Interface a mathematical solver with GENESIS 3.0 to explore a neuron morphology from either an interactive command-line or graphical user interface. (3 Apply scripting bindings to connect the GENESIS 3.0 simulator to external graphical libraries and an open source three dimensional content creation suite that supports visualization of models based on electron microscopy and their conversion to

  11. Python as a federation tool for GENESIS 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Hugo; Rodriguez, Armando L; Coop, Allan D; Bower, James M

    2012-01-01

    The GENESIS simulation platform was one of the first broad-scale modeling systems in computational biology to encourage modelers to develop and share model features and components. Supported by a large developer community, it participated in innovative simulator technologies such as benchmarking, parallelization, and declarative model specification and was the first neural simulator to define bindings for the Python scripting language. An important feature of the latest version of GENESIS is that it decomposes into self-contained software components complying with the Computational Biology Initiative federated software architecture. This architecture allows separate scripting bindings to be defined for different necessary components of the simulator, e.g., the mathematical solvers and graphical user interface. Python is a scripting language that provides rich sets of freely available open source libraries. With clean dynamic object-oriented designs, they produce highly readable code and are widely employed in specialized areas of software component integration. We employ a simplified wrapper and interface generator to examine an application programming interface and make it available to a given scripting language. This allows independent software components to be 'glued' together and connected to external libraries and applications from user-defined Python or Perl scripts. We illustrate our approach with three examples of Python scripting. (1) Generate and run a simple single-compartment model neuron connected to a stand-alone mathematical solver. (2) Interface a mathematical solver with GENESIS 3.0 to explore a neuron morphology from either an interactive command-line or graphical user interface. (3) Apply scripting bindings to connect the GENESIS 3.0 simulator to external graphical libraries and an open source three dimensional content creation suite that supports visualization of models based on electron microscopy and their conversion to computational models

  12. EVALUATION OF BROWN COAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AND SOURCES GENESIS PROGNOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents summarizing information about the solution of partial part of research problem of prognoses of deposited brown coal spontaneous combustion sources genesis as a part of project TA01020351 – program ALFA. We will gradually describe the results of long term measurements carried out on selected brown coal heaps realized from 2011 to 2013. The attention is devoted to characterization of key parameters. These parameters influence the genesis of combustion. The second problem is the comparison of results of thermal imaging with laboratory results of gas and coal samples sampled in situ, with the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, aeration, rainfall, atmospheric pressure changes etc., with influence of coal mass degradation, physical and chemical factors and another failure factors to brown coal spontaneous combustion processes.

  13. [Genesis study of omphacite at high pressure and high temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ben-Fu; Yi, Li; Wang, Duo-Jun; Xie, Chao; Tang, Xue-Wu; Liu, Lei; Cui, Yue-Ju

    2013-11-01

    The melting and recrystallizing experiments of alkali basalt powder and mixture of pure oxides mixed as stoichiometry were performed at 3 GPa and 1 200 degrees C. Electronic microprobe analysis and Raman spectra showed that the recrystallized products were omphacites, the FWHM (full width at half maximum) of the Raman peak was narrow and its shape was sharp, which is attributed to the stable Si-O tetrahedral structure and the high degree of order in omphacite. Based on the results of previous studies, the influencing factors of omphacite genesis and its primary magma were discussed. The results showed that the formation of omphacite could be affected by many factors, such as the composition of parent rocks, the concentration of fluid in the system and the conditions of pressure and temperature. This result could support some experimental evidences on the genesis studies of omphacite and eclogite.

  14. Nuts and Bolts - Techniques for Genesis Sample Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Patti J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    The Genesis curation staff at NASA Johnson Space Center provides samples and data for analysis to the scientific community, following allocation approval by the Genesis Oversight Committee, a sub-committee of CAPTEM (Curation Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials). We are often asked by investigators within the scientific community how we choose samples to best fit the requirements of the request. Here we will demonstrate our techniques for characterizing samples and satisfying allocation requests. Even with a systematic approach, every allocation is unique. We are also providing updated status of the cataloging and characterization of solar wind collectors as of January 2011. The collection consists of 3721 inventoried samples consisting of a single fragment, or multiple fragments containerized or pressed between post-it notes, jars or vials of various sizes.

  15. Genesis herschreven en geïnterpreteerd in het boek Jubileeën, nader toegelicht met een vergelijking van Genesis 17 en Jubileeën 15

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiten, Jacques T.A.G.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Jacques T.A.G.M. van Ruiten, “Genesis herschreven en geïnterpreteerd in het boek Jubileeën, nader toegelicht met een vergelijking van Genesis 17 en Jubileeën 15,” Nederlands theologisch tijdschrift 64 (2010): 32-50.

  16. Evolution of the marketing theory: genesis, conception, periodization

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Oklander; T.O. Oklander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article. The article deals with evolution of the marketing theory in it genesis context, modern conception, periodization. Mercantilism, classical and neoclassical political economy, marginalism, institutionalism are distinguished as scientific sources of marketing. One defines that modern marketing conception is a socially responsible marketing form, based on mass individualization, the highest customer value supply, consumer’s problems effective solving. The marketing theory...

  17. Magma genesis, plate tectonics, and chemical differentiation of the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Wyllie, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Magma genesis, migration, and eruption have played prominent roles in the chemical differentiation of the Earth. Plate tectonics has provided the framework of tectonic environments for different suites of igneous rocks and the dynamic mechanisms for moving masses of rock into melting regions. Petrology is rooted in geophysics. Petrological and geophysical processes are calibrated by the phase equilibria of the materials. The geochemistry of basalts and mantle xenoliths demonstrates that the m...

  18. Genesis Research与Morphosys扩展HuCAL抗体协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓燕(摘)

    2008-01-01

    Genesis Research与Morphosys扩展协议后,靶向FGFR5蛋白的抗体将继续作为其研究的焦点。Genesis将利用Morphosys分公司Serotec开发的人组织抗体库(HuCAL)继续开发成纤维细胞生长因子受体5(FGFR5)靶点。

  19. Evolution of the marketing theory: genesis, conception, periodization

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Oklander; T.O. Oklander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article. The article deals with evolution of the marketing theory in it genesis context, modern conception, periodization. Mercantilism, classical and neoclassical political economy, marginalism, institutionalism are distinguished as scientific sources of marketing. One defines that modern marketing conception is a socially responsible marketing form, based on mass individualization, the highest customer value supply, consumer’s problems effective solving. The marketing theory...

  20. Inflammation in the genesis and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Mads D M; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence and persistence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and the relative inefficacy of the currently available pharmacotherapy requires development of new treatment strategies. Recent findings have suggested a mechanistic link between inflammatory processes and the development of AF. Epidemiol...... be through anti-inflammatory activity. This article reviews what is known about inflammation in genesis and perpetuation of AF, the putative underlying mechanisms, and possible therapeutic implications for the inhibition of inflammation as an evolving treatment modality for AF....

  1. Online resources in mathematics: teachers' genesis of use

    CERN Document Server

    Bueno-Ravel, Laetitia

    2010-01-01

    The long-term objective of our research is to develop the instrumental approach for teachers. A first step, presented in this paper, is to observe stable behaviours of teachers using internet resources in mathematics. We retain the scenarios as indicators of the genesis processes. We propose a scenario taxonomy taken from categories elaborated by computer sciences specialists and complemented to take into account didactical aspects. The descriptions provided by teachers permitted to observe an evolution of their scenarios elaboration's practices.

  2. Genesis Silicon Carbide Concentrator Target 60003 Preliminary Ellipsometry Mapping Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis concentrator was custom designed to focus solar wind ions primarily for terrestrial isotopic analysis of O-17/O-16 and O-18/O-16 to +/-1%, N-15/N-14 to +/-1%, and secondarily to conduct elemental and isotopic analysis of Li, Be, and B. The circular 6.2 cm diameter concentrator target holder was comprised of four quadrants of highly pure semiconductor materials that included one amorphous diamond-like carbon, one C-13 diamond, and two silicon carbide (SiC). The amorphous diamond-like carbon quadrant was fractured upon impact at Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR), but the remaining three quadrants survived fully intact and all four quadrants hold an important collection of solar wind. The quadrants were removed from the target holder at NASA Johnso n Space Center Genesis Curation Laboratory in April 2005, and have been housed in stainless steel containers under continual nitrogen purge since time of disintegration. In preparation for allocation of a silicon carbide target for oxygen isotope analyses at UCLA, the two SiC targets were photographed for preliminary inspection of macro particle contamination from the hard non-nominal landing as well as characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry to evaluate thin film contamination. This report is focused on Genesis SiC target sample number 60003.

  3. Dividing the Concentrator Target From the Genesis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Burkett, P. J.; Clemett, S. J.; Gonzales, C. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Rodriquez, M. C.; See, T. H.; Sutter, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft, launched in 2001, traveled to a Lagrangian point between the Earth and Sun to collect particles from the solar wind and return them to Earth. However, during the return of the spacecraft in 2004, the parachute failed to open during descent, and the Genesis spacecraft crashed into the Utah desert. Many of the solar wind collectors were broken into smaller pieces, and the field team rapidly collected the capsule and collector pieces for later assessment. On each of the next few days, the team discovered that various collectors had survived intact, including three of four concentrator targets. Within a month, the team had imaged more than 10,000 fragments and packed them for transport to the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office within the ARES Directorate at JSC. Currently, the Genesis samples are curated along with the other extraterrestrial sample collections within ARES. Although they were broken and dirty, the Genesis solar wind collectors still offered the science community the opportunity to better understand our Sun and the solar system as a whole. One of the more highly prized concentrator collectors survived the crash almost completely intact. The Genesis Concentrator was designed to concentrate the solar wind by a factor of at least 20 so that solar oxygen and nitrogen isotopes could be measured. One of these materials was the Diamond-on-Silicon (DoS) concentrator target. Unfortunately, the DoS concentrator broke on impact. Nevertheless, the scientific value of the DoS concentrator target was high. The Genesis Allocation Committee received a request for approximately 1 cm(sup 2) of the DoS specimen taken near the focal point of the concentrator for the analysis of solar wind nitrogen isotopes. The largest fragment, Genesis sample 60000, was designated for this allocation and needed to be precisely cut. The requirement was to subdivide the designated sample in a manner that prevented contamination of the sample and minimized

  4. On the genesis of the uraniferous deposits I; Consideraciones sobre la genesis de los yacimientos uraniferos. I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingarro, E.

    1964-07-01

    The main problems of the genesis of uranium deposits as hydro thermals are objectively considered here under three aspects: uranium source transport and deposition. The transport of uranium can be effected under a tetravalent form, or as complex ions of hexavalent uranium: as uranyl ion (UO{sub 2}){sup 2}+ or under complex carbonic or sulfuric forms, such as UO{sub 2}(XO{sub n}){sub 2}{sup 2}- or UO{sub 2}(XO{sub n}){sub 3}{sup 4}-. These three ways of transport correspond to the three basic geochemical para genesis of uranium: uranium-titanium, uranium-cobalt, uranium. Deposition is currently made by reduction and in some way is no dependent of mineralogical association. (Author) 61 refs.

  5. Genesis Concentrator Target Particle Contamination Mapping and Material Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of surface particles were found to be Genesis science team as well as ultra-pure water megasonic cleaning by the JSC team [4]. Removal of organic contamination from target materials is also being investigated by the science team with the use of UV-ozone cleaning devices at JSC and Open University [5]. In preparation for solar wind oxygen analyses at UCLA and Open University [1, 2], surface particle contamination on three Genesis concentrator targets was closely examined to evaluate cleaning strategies. Two silicon carbide (Genesis sample # 60001 and 60003) and one chemical vapor deposited (CVD) 13C concentrator target (60002) were imaged and mosaic mapped with optical microscopes. The resulting full target mosaic images and particle feature maps were subsequently compared with non-flight, but flight-like, concentrator targets and sample return capsule (SRC) materials. Contamination found on the flown concentrator acceleration grid was further examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for particle identification was subsequently compared with the optical images from the flown targets. Figure 1 show that all three targets imaged in this report are fully intact and do not show any signs of material fractures. However, previous ellipsometry results and overview imaging of both flown SiC targets show a solar wind irradiation gradient from the center focal point to the outer edge [3]. In addition, due to the hard landing, each target has experienced varying degrees of impacts, scratches, and particle debris from the spacecraft and Utah impact site.

  6. Mare basalt genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, A. B.

    1985-11-01

    Various types of mare basalt data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare basalt source region and mare basalt genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare basalt units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.

  7. Hemodynamic factors in the genesis of diabetic microangiopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Viberti, G C; Keen, H

    1983-01-01

    There are many candidate mechanisms to explain the phenomenon of delayed microvascular disease in the diabetic. All may play some part in determining the genesis, the evolution or the ultimate degree and form of the angiopathy. General metabolic and humoral factors may provide the pathogenetic...... conditions for the evolution of microvascular disease. The hemodynamic changes and the vascular responses to them that we have described are, we suggest, very likely to be an important component of this sort. Unlike the later structural changes, these hemodynamic phenomena are to be found very early...

  8. Phenomenological Theory of Isotropic-Genesis Nematic Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Ye, Fangfu; Xing, Xiangjun; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2012-06-01

    We consider the impact of the elastomer network on the nematic structure and fluctuations in isotropic-genesis nematic elastomers, via a phenomenological model that underscores the role of network compliance. The model contains a network-mediated nonlocal interaction as well as a new kind of random field that reflects the memory of the nematic order present at network formation and also encodes local anisotropy due to localized nematogenic polymers. This model enables us to predict regimes of short-ranged oscillatory spatial correlations (thermal and glassy) in the nematic alignment.

  9. 步步紧逼—Concept Genesis Coupe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佳俊

    2008-01-01

    不知道从什么时候,现代进军高档车的步伐已经开始。2007年初,现代推出了一款高端概念车,如今这款非常接近量产车型的概念车还未实现量产计划,现代又在此基础上推出了另一款具有跑车风味的概念车Genesis Coupe。

  10. 76 FR 21403 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Genesis Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Genesis Project, Eureka County... available for public inspection at the BLM Elko District Office, 3900 E. Idaho Street, Elko, Nevada during...: Newmont Mining Corporation's Genesis- Bluestar mining operations area is located in northeastern Nevada...

  11. 75 FR 22838 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Genesis Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Genesis Project, Eureka County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of..., Nevada 89801 E-mail: Kirk_Laird@nv.blm.gov or eiscommentselko@nv.blm.gov . Copies of the Genesis Project... Office, 3900 East Idaho Street, Elko, Nevada 89801; or e-mail Kirk_Laird@nv.blm.gov ....

  12. 78 FR 60018 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GENESIS; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel GENESIS... of the vessel GENESIS is: INTENDED COMMERCIAL USE OF VESSEL: ``To charter in New York Harbor, as...

  13. GENESYS 1990-91: Selected Program Evaluations. Publication Number 90.39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David; Spano, Sedra G.

    GENESYS is a GENeric Evaluation SYStem for data collection and evaluation through computer technology. GENESYS gathers and reports the standard information (student characteristics, achievement, attendance, discipline, grades/credits, dropouts, and retainees) for specific groups of students. In the Austin (Texas) Independent School District's…

  14. The Genesis of Chua's Circuit:. Connecting Science, Art and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, Francesca; Bilotta, Eleonora; Laria, Giuseppe; Pantano, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    The Chua's circuit has provided science with a real scientific and technological advancement in the field of dynamical systems. But the origin of the Chua's circuit, which has resulted in major areas of study within Chaos Theory, with thousands of printed scientific articles, is not widely known. In this chapter, we trace the fundamental stages of the Genesis of the Chua's circuit. To make the story more appealing for the new generations, a 3D movie was made (issued on DVD, with this volume). Besides presenting the main characters from the history of such system, it also introduces Lorenz, Poincare, Julia and Cantor as the precursors of the studies on chaos, which discuss the need for a physical system that demonstrates chaos, a phenomenon not yet understood, in a numerical, physical and experimental way. The story, enriched by the conversations of the above mentioned characters, was staged exactly as it occurred, derived from Professor Chua's famous article of 1983, The Genesis of the Chua's circuit. And the story continues with the authors contribution in expanding Chaos Theory, with the discovery of almost one thousand attractors, which have provided new important elements for the advancement of science in the field of nonlinear chaotic systems.

  15. Nano-inclusions in diamond: Evidence of diamond genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, R.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Focused Ion Beam technology (FIB) for TEM sample preparation introduced approximately 15 years ago revolutionized the application of TEM in Geosciences. For the first time, FIB enabled cutting samples for TEM use from exactly the location we are interested in. Applied to diamond investigation, this technique revealed the presence of nanometre-sized inclusions in diamond that have been simply unknown before. Nanoinclusions in diamond from different location and origin such as diamonds from the Lower and Upper Mantle, metamorphic diamonds (Kazakhstan, Erzgebirge, Bohemia), diamonds from ophiolites (Tibet, Mongolia, Xinjiang, Ural Mountains), diamonds from igneous rocks (Hawaii, Kamchatka) and impact diamonds (Popigai Crater, Siberia) have been investigated during the last 15 years. The major conclusion of all these TEM studies is, that the nanoinclusions, their phases and phase composition together with the micro- and nanostructure evidence the origin of diamond and genesis of diamond. We can discriminate Five different mechanisms of diamond genesis in nature are observed: Diamond crystallized from a high-density fluid (Upper mantle and metamorphic diamond). Diamond crystallized from carbonatitic melt (Lower mantle diamond). Diamond precipitates from a metal alloy melt (Diamond from ophiolites). Diamond crystallized by gas phase condensation or chemical vapour condensation (CVD) (Lavas from Kamchatka, xenoliths in Hawaiian lavas). Direct transformation of graphite into diamond.

  16. Laser Subdivision of the Genesis Concentrator Target Sample 60000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Howard V., Jr.; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Clemett, S. J.; Gonzales, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; McNamara, K. M.; See, T. H.

    2013-01-01

    The Genesis Allocation Committee received a request for 1 square centimeter of the diamond-like-carbon (DLC) concentrator target for the analysis of solar wind nitrogen isotopes. The target consists of a single crystal float zone (FZ) silicon substrate having a thickness on the order of 550 micrometers with a 1.5-3.0 micrometer-thick coating of DLC on the exposed surface. The solar wind is implanted shallowly in the front side DLC. The original target was a circular quadrant with a radius of 3.1 cm; however, the piece did not survive intact when the spacecraft suffered an anomalous landing upon returning to Earth on September 8, 2004. An estimated 75% of the DLC target was recovered in at least 18 fragments. The largest fragment, Genesis sample 60000, has been designated for this allocation and is the first sample to be subdivided using our laser scribing system Laser subdivision has associated risks including thermal diffusion of the implant if heating occurs and unintended breakage during cleavage. A careful detailed study and considerable subdividing practice using non-flight FZ diamond on silicon, DOS, wafers has considerably reduced the risk of unplanned breakage during the cleaving process. In addition, backside scribing reduces the risk of possible thermal excursions affecting the implanted solar wind, implanted shallowly in the front side DLC.

  17. [Intervention of nicotinamide on skin melanin genesis after UVA exposed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patam, Muhammad; Jin, Xi-peng; Zhang, Yu-bin; Pan, Jian-ying; Shen, Guang-zu

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the interference effect of nicotinamide on UVA-induced melanin genesis and melanin transport in human skin melanocyte. The optimum UVA dose expected to cause cell proliferation: 0.2 J/cm(2), nicotinamide was added immediately after the 0.2 J/cm(2) UVA exposure and the melanin content, cell cycles, cell apoptosis and mRNA express level were measured respectively. Melanin content in melanocytes was increased significantly after exposed to 0.2 J/cm(2) UVA. Melanin content in melanocytes was decreased after treatment with 10.0 mmol/ml nicotinamide following UVA exposure, but the cell cycles and the cell apoptosis rate were not significantly altered. mRNA express levels of TYR, TRP-1 were modulated by nicotinamide. Nicotinamide has more effect on decreasing melanin genesis after UVA exposure, nicotinamide also plays a role in modulating the mRNA express of TYR, TRP-1 gene. It is possible to consider nicotinamide as an efficient and safe sun screen to provide a certain level of protection for UVA exposed skin.

  18. Examples of Optical Assessment of Surface Cleanliness of Genesis Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Allton, J. H.; Burkett, P. J.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Optical microscope assessment of Genesis solar wind collector surfaces is a coordinated part of the effort to obtain an assessed clean subset of flown wafer material for the scientific community. Microscopic survey is typically done at 50X magnification at selected approximately 1 square millimeter areas on the fragment surface. This survey is performed each time a principle investigator (PI) returns a sample to JSC for documentation as part of the established cleaning plan. The cleaning plan encompasses sample handling and analysis by Genesis science team members, and optical survey is done at each step in the process. Sample surface cleaning is performed at JSC (ultrapure water [1] and UV ozone cleaning [2]) and experimentally by other science team members (acid etch [3], acetate replica peels [4], CO2 snow [5], etc.). The documentation of each cleaning method can potentially be assessed with optical observation utilizing Image Pro Plus software [6]. Differences in particle counts can be studied and discussed within analysis groups. Approximately 25 samples have been identified as part of the cleaning matrix effort to date.

  19. 75 FR 69458 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Genesis Solar Energy Project and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Genesis Solar Energy... Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP). The GSEP is a concentrated solar electrical generating facility using...-mail: CAPSSolarNextEraFPL@blm.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Genesis Solar, LLC, a wholly...

  20. 75 FR 52966 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Genesis Solar, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Unit 2 (eastern) power block. The project would also include above-ground and subsurface fiber optic... of the GSEP project is to respond to Genesis Solar, LLC's application under Title V of FLPMA (43 U.S... Genesis Solar, LLC Genesis Solar Energy Project and Proposed California Desert Conservation Area...

  1. THE GENESIS OF NARNIA AND THE BIBLE. THE MAGICIAN’S NEPHEW AND THE BOOK OF GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Servin, S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to look into the creation process of Narnia, according to C. S. Lewis, and the creation of the world, according to the biblical narrative, in order to establish a parallel thread that links the two stories. There are numerous similarities and differences between the Narnia story, The Magician’s Nephew, and the Genesis narrative. This fact relates them in a unique and creative way. It is clear that Lewis drew on the Genesis narrative to craft his creation and establishment of Narnia, but the way in which he set the characters and events taking place in the beginnings of Narnia can be remarkable, due precisely, many times, to the contrasting ways in which he brings them together. It is from that background platform that this analysis is approached. Needless to say that the Narnia story is greatly enriched by the way Lewis drew his narrative from the Bible. The contrasts are rich and the minute contrastive or similar details bring a new freshness to the story. In determining similarities, parallelism is usually an interesting factor, but parallelisms made up of contrasting aspects is what makes The Magician’s Nephew story so new, unique, different, and interesting.

  2. Genesis, Retold: In Search of an Atlas of the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struck, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While, within the last decades, the atlas has lost its dominance as a medium of spatial representation to digital media, it has recently attracted a significant aesthetic interest. Artists and writers have created books that are explicitly or implicitly linked to the atlas, delving into its history, its epistemological preconditions, and its representational capacity. In this essay, I suggest a connection between this attraction to a supposedly outdated medium and the representational challenges raised by the model of the Anthropocene. A first example offers Sebastião Salgado’s Genesis (2013, a monumental collection of photographs that promises a journey “to the beginnings of our planet,” confronting the viewer with the dimension of geological time into which human agency has expanded. Due to the indexicality of photography, the Genesis-project has to approach deep time by movements within space, and thus it is not coincidental that the book that is credited as one of the most powerful representations of the Anthropocene resembles an atlas. In this resemblance, however, it also reproduces the abstract and generalized space of cartography. The atlas allows, as I try to demonstrate by a short view into its history, the representation of large dimensions through a negotiation of relations between part and whole, but in order to do so, it increases the distance between the observer and the observed. As an alternative model, I discuss Judith Schalansky’s Atlas of Remote Islands (2009, Engl. 2010. More aware of the problematic effects of media and modes of representation on the represented world, Schalansky’s atlas deconstructs the observer who looks at the territory from outside and above, and reinserts him or her into a landscape of multiple movements and connections. Exploring a multiplicity of cultural techniques and actors, human as well as non-human, involved in the production of the image of the globe, this atlas becomes a medium of

  3. Bases of the Mantle-Carbonatite Conception of Diamond Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Yuriy; Spivak, Anna; Kuzyura, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    In the mantle-carbonatite conception of diamond genesis, the results of physic-chemical experiments are coordinated with the data of analytic mineralogy of primary inclusions in natural diamonds. Generalization of the solutions of principal genetic problems constitutes the bases of the conception. The solutions are following: (1) it is grounded that diamond-parental melts of the upper mantle have peridotite/eclogite - carbonatite - carbon compositions, of the transition zone - (wadsleite↔ringwoodite) - majorite - stishovite - carbonatite - carbon compositions, and of the lower mantle - periclase/wustite - bridgmanite - Ca-perovskite -stishovite - carbonatite - carbon compositions; (2) a construction of generalized diagrams for the diamond-parental media, which reveal changeable compositions of the growth melts of diamonds and associated phases, their genetic relations to the mantle substance, and classification connections of the primary inclusions in natural diamonds; (3) experimental equilibrium phase diagrams of syngenesis of diamonds and primary inclusions, which characterize the nucleation and growth conditions of diamonds and a capture of paragenetic and xenogenetic minerals by the growing diamonds; (4) a determination of the phase diagrams of diamonds and inclusions syngenesis under the regime of fractional crystallization, which discover the regularities of ultrabasic-basic evolution and paragenesis transitions in the diamond-forming systems of the upper and lower mantle. The evidence of the physic-chemically united mode of diamond genesis at the mantle depths with different mineralogy is obtained. References. Litvin Yu.A. (2007). High-pressure mineralogy of diamond genesis. In: Advances in High-Pressure Mineralogy (edited by Eiji Ohtani), Geological Society of America Special paper 421, 83-103. Litvin Yu.A. (2012). Experimental study of physic-chemical conditions of natural diamond formation on an example of the eclogite

  4. On Gravitational Chirality as the Genesis of Astrophysical Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Robin W

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that single and double jets observed emanating from certain astrophysical objects may have a purely gravitational origin. We discuss new classes of plane-fronted and pulsed gravitational wave solutions to the equation for perturbations of Ricci-flat spacetimes around Minkowski metrics, as models for the genesis of such phenomena. These solutions are classified in terms of their chirality and generate a family of non-stationary spacetime metrics. Particular members of these families are used as backgrounds in analysing time-like solutions to the geodesic equation for test particles. They are found numerically to exhibit both single and double jet-like features with dimensionless aspect ratios suggesting that it may be profitable to include such backgrounds in simulations of astrophysical jet dynamics from rotating accretion discs involving electromagnetic fields.

  5. On gravitational chirality as the genesis of astrophysical jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, R. W.; Walton, T. J.

    2017-02-01

    It has been suggested that single and double jets observed emanating from certain astrophysical objects may have a purely gravitational origin. We discuss new classes of plane-fronted and pulsed gravitational wave solutions to the equation for perturbations of Ricci-flat spacetimes around Minkowski metrics, as models for the genesis of such phenomena. These solutions are classified in terms of their chirality and generate a family of non-stationary spacetime metrics. Particular members of these families are used as backgrounds in analysing time-like solutions to the geodesic equation for test particles. They are found numerically to exhibit both single and double jet-like features with dimensionless aspect ratios suggesting that it may be profitable to include such backgrounds in simulations of astrophysical jet dynamics from rotating accretion discs involving electromagnetic fields.

  6. The genesis of the quantum theory of the chemical bond

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, S

    2013-01-01

    An historical overview is given of the relevant steps that allowed the genesis of the quantum theory of the chemical bond, starting from the appearance of the new quantum mechanics and following later developments till approximately 1931. General ideas and some important details are discussed concerning molecular spectroscopy, as well as quantum computations for simple molecular systems performed within perturbative and variational approaches, for which the Born-Oppenheimer method provided a quantitative theory accounting for rotational, vibrational and electronic states. The novel concepts introduced by the Heitler-London theory, complemented by those underlying the method of the molecular orbitals, are critically analyzed along with some of their relevant applications. Further improvements in the understanding of the nature of the chemical bond are also considered, including the ideas of one-electron and three-electron bonds introduced by Pauling, as well as the generalizations of the Heitler-London theory ...

  7. Kuhn and the genesis of the "new historiography of science".

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, J C Pinto

    2012-03-01

    In this paper I identify a tension between the two sets of works by Kuhn regarding the genesis of the "new historiography of science". In the first, it could be said that the change from the traditional to the new historiography is strictly endogenous (referring to internal causes or reasons). In the second, the change is predominantly exogenous. To address this question, I draw on a text that is considered to be less important among Kuhn's works, but which, as shall be argued, allows some contact between Kuhn's two approaches via Koyré. I seek to point out and differentiate the roles of Koyré and Kuhn--from Kuhn's point of view--in the development of the historiography of science and, as a complement, present some reflections regarding the justification of the new historiography.

  8. Instrumental Genesis in GeoGebra Based Board Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten

    2013-01-01

    for teaching skills with GeoGebra, as well as an entrepreneurial attitude towards mathematics. Using the instrumental approach I discuss how open ended transdisciplinary design activities can support instrumental genesis, by considering the extent to which the pupils address mathematical knowledge......In this paper I address the use of digital tools (GeoGebra) in open ended design activities, with primary school children. I present results from the research and development project “Creative Digital Mathematics”, which aims to use the pupil’s development of mathematical board games as a vehicle...... in their work with GeoGebra and how they relate their work with GeoGebra and mathematics to fellow pupils and real life situations. The results show that pupils’ consider development of board games as meaningful mathematical activity, and that they develop skills with GeoGebra, furthermore the pupils considers...

  9. Soil genesis of mine spoil, Navajo Mine, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, B.A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Stutz, H.C. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Estrada, O.J. [BHP - Utah International Inc., Fruitland, NM (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Documenting mine spoil genesis has been limited in the Western States. Few areas have {open_quotes}before{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}after{close_quotes} type data and for some mines older reclamation areas are limited. Soil samples were collected from 8-11 year old reclaimed spoil as part of a rooting depth study completed in June 1987 at the Navajo Mine. Samples were collected in 25 cm increments to depths of at least 200 cm and most often to 350 cm at a total of fifteen different reclamation plots. The spoil was composed of various amounts of shale and sandstone. The sites represented different topographic positions (swale/backslope), reclamation ages (8 to 11 years), slopes (0-15%), and topdressing treatments (with and without).

  10. The genesis of vertisols with gilgai microtopography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitrov, N. B.

    2016-05-01

    Different hypotheses about the genesis of gilgai microtopography and corresponding soil complexes with clayey swelling soils are considered in this review. Their diversity is stipulated by specificities of the objects themselves and by the history of studies of the composition, properties, regimes, and landscape conditions of the areas with Vertisols in different countries. Most of the hypotheses about the genesis of Vertisols with the gilgai microtopography suggest that strong swelling-shrinking processes take place in these soils in the course of moistening-drying cycles; the origin of shear stress in the soils, its spatial patterns, and the particular ways of translocation of the soil material are discussed. At the early stage of Vertisol studies, a hypothesis about the leading role of the process of "self-swallowing" of the soils as a result of filling of open cracks with the material from the upper soil horizons was popular. However, numerous facts suggest that the intensity of this process is relatively low, so that it cannot play the major role in the gilgai formation and cyclic changes in the thickness and properties of the soil horizons in Vertisols. Another important mechanism is the uneven moistening and drying of the whole soil volume resulting in the irregular distribution of inner tensions in the soil with the development of shear stress and plastic deformation of the soil mass. The hypotheses suggested in the recent decades are based on the models of soil mechanics. A number of hypotheses consider possible alternation and duration of evolutionary stages of the development of Vertisols with the gilgai microtopography.

  11. CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AT THE CIRRHOSIS OF VARIOUS GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bilalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. To carry out a comparative description of the clinical and biochemical parameters at patients with cirrhosis of an alcoholic genesis (CP-HGA and cirrhosis of mixed etiologies — CP-HGM (HСV+ alcohol.Materials and methods. The study involved 62 patients with cirrhosis of different etiologies, who carries out clinical, immunogenetic and biochemical studies.Results. Patients with the 3d genotype and low viral load were registered with cirrhosis of mixed etiologies (HСV+ alcohol. At the cirrhosis Class B for Child-Pugh basic data biochemical parameters were similar in patients with CP-HGA and CP-HGM, but ALT and AST activity, which are significantly higher than observed in patients with CP-HGM. At dismissal, ALT and GGT activities were detected significantly higher in patients with CP-HGM than the CP-HGA. At the cirrhosis Class C for Child-Pugh the baseline, reflecting cholestasis — is total bilirubin, GGT and alkaline phosphatase and were detected significantly higher in the CP-HGA, than with CP-HGM significantly reduced, and thore is no differences between the groups to be discharged from the hospital, in addition to the activity of GGT, which it remained significantly higher in the CP-HGA, than with CP-HGM. Cytolytic activity of enzymes (ALT, AST during the entire period of the disease was observed significantly higher normal values and did not depend on the CP etiology.Conclusion decision. The maximum rate of change of the basic biochemical parameters is observed in patients with cirrhosis of mixed etiologies Class B for Child-Pugh and at the cirrhosis of an alcoholic genesis — in patients with cirrhosis Class C.

  12. A Region-Based GeneSIS Segmentation Algorithm for the Classification of Remotely Sensed Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios K. Mylonas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an object-based segmentation/classification scheme for remotely sensed images, based on a novel variant of the recently proposed Genetic Sequential Image Segmentation (GeneSIS algorithm. GeneSIS segments the image in an iterative manner, whereby at each iteration a single object is extracted via a genetic-based object extraction algorithm. Contrary to the previous pixel-based GeneSIS where the candidate objects to be extracted were evaluated through the fuzzy content of their included pixels, in the newly developed region-based GeneSIS algorithm, a watershed-driven fine segmentation map is initially obtained from the original image, which serves as the basis for the forthcoming GeneSIS segmentation. Furthermore, in order to enhance the spatial search capabilities, we introduce a more descriptive encoding scheme in the object extraction algorithm, where the structural search modules are represented by polygonal shapes. Our objectives in the new framework are posed as follows: enhance the flexibility of the algorithm in extracting more flexible object shapes, assure high level classification accuracies, and reduce the execution time of the segmentation, while at the same time preserving all the inherent attributes of the GeneSIS approach. Finally, exploiting the inherent attribute of GeneSIS to produce multiple segmentations, we also propose two segmentation fusion schemes that operate on the ensemble of segmentations generated by GeneSIS. Our approaches are tested on an urban and two agricultural images. The results show that region-based GeneSIS has considerably lower computational demands compared to the pixel-based one. Furthermore, the suggested methods achieve higher classification accuracies and good segmentation maps compared to a series of existing algorithms.

  13. La genesis de las parafilias sexuales y la homosexualidad egodistonica: el modelo de los Mecanismos Tensionales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jimenez Diaz, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    ...), el presente articulo trata de exponer una serie de fenomenos que pueden estar pasando desapercibidos a la hora de explicar la genesis y el mantenimiento de las parafilias sexuales y la homosexualidad egodistonica...

  14. 即将问世的新产品Genesis5喇叭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    这是一个音乐界的大消息,日前 Genesis老板之一的 PaulMcGowan 在音乐大展中表示,Genesis 未来的发展方向将会停止中低价位喇叭的生产,全力集中在 Hi-End 级的产品之上,而即将推出的Genesis 5喇叭,将会是Genesis 目前仍有生产的最低价的喇叭(暂时)。Genesis 5的定价据说将在一万三千美金左右,采用的单体全部由

  15. Sample Return Missions Where Contamination Issues are Critical: Genesis Mission Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Stansbery E. K.

    2011-01-01

    The Genesis Mission, sought the challenging analytical goals of accurately and precisely measuring the elemental and isotopic composition of the Sun to levels useful for planetary science, requiring sensitivities of ppm to ppt in the outer 100 nm of collector materials. Analytical capabilities were further challenged when the hard landing in 2004 broke open the canister containing the super-clean collectors. Genesis illustrates that returned samples allow flexibility and creativity to recover from setbacks.

  16. Genesis of avian influenza H9N2 in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganatham, Karthik; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Walker, David; Alam, SMRabiul; Hasan, MKamrul; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

    2014-12-01

    Avian influenza subtype H9N2 is endemic in many bird species in Asia and the Middle East and has contributed to the genesis of H5N1, H7N9 and H10N8, which are potential pandemic threats. H9N2 viruses that have spread to Bangladesh have acquired multiple gene segments from highly pathogenic (HP) H7N3 viruses that are presumably in Pakistan and currently cocirculate with HP H5N1. However, the source and geographic origin of these H9N2 viruses are not clear. We characterized the complete genetic sequences of 37 Bangladeshi H9N2 viruses isolated in 2011-2013 and investigated their inter- and intrasubtypic genetic diversities by tracing their genesis in relationship to other H9N2 viruses isolated from neighboring countries. H9N2 viruses in Bangladesh are homogenous with several mammalian host-specific markers and are a new H9N2 sublineage wherein the hemagglutinin (HA) gene is derived from an Iranian H9N2 lineage (Mideast_B Iran), the neuraminidase (NA) and polymerase basic 2 (PB2) genes are from Dubai H9N2 (Mideast_C Dubai), and the non-structural protein (NS), nucleoprotein (NP), matrix protein (MP), polymerase acidic (PA) and polymerase basic 1 (PB1) genes are from HP H7N3 originating from Pakistan. Different H9N2 genotypes that were replaced in 2006 and 2009 by other reassortants have been detected in Bangladesh. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses suggest that the current genotype descended from the prototypical H9N2 lineage (G1), which circulated in poultry in China during the late 1990s and came to Bangladesh via the poultry trade within the Middle East, and that this genotype subsequently reassorted with H7N3 and H9N2 lineages from Pakistan and spread throughout India. Thus, continual surveillance of Bangladeshi HP H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 is warranted to identify further evolution and adaptation to humans.

  17. The genesis of WiFi and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    In 1985 changes to US regulations caused a paradigm shift by permitting the use of radio spectrum for devices that did not need to have an end-user license. After a few years, products appeared on the market and a group developed a standard for broadband wireless communications among computers. The presentation will explain how the standard developed and was adopted by the Wi-Fi Alliance, as well as the global harmonization and expansion of the available radio spectrum to over half a GHz. The success of Wi-Fi and user innovation and initiatives makes it a vehicle to bring broadband internet to rural areas both in developing as well as in developed countries. Vic Hayes is a Senior Research Fellow at the Delft University of Technology and is writing a book titled "The genesis of Wi-Fi and the road toward global success". He holds a BSEE and joined NCR in the Netherlands in 1974. He co-established and chaired the IEEE 802.11 Standards Working Group for Wireless Local Area Networks and became known as the "Fathe...

  18. Joining hands across the seas: The genesis of IASAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B. Ludeman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will outline the journey, personal and organisational, taken by me with many friends of student affairs and services around the world to envision and then create a new global professional association – the International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS. It has been a rather long journey, one that was not without bumps and barriers. While it took over 20 years to get IASAS from the germ of an idea to its current successes, it has proven to be well worth the struggle. IASAS serves as a platform that promotes and allows discussion of issues and best practices in our field: higher education student affairs and services. No matter that there are great differences in delivery methods, breadth of service, views of the student, and sometimes conceptual underpinnings, when focusing on the student, all these differences are celebrated in the context of common values, and make for interesting discussions by practitioners coming from over 30 countries. I have been privileged to be at the centre of most of the efforts to form IASAS, a process not unlike the birthing and raising of a child (of which I have four. The reader will quicklysee the parallels that bring the disappointments on one hand that are easily overshadowed by the joys of seeing your child grow and develop into adolescents and, eventually, adults. So goes the following personal and reflexive account of the genesis of IASAS.

  19. Genesis of Sr Isotopes in Groundwater of Hebei Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the genesis of Sr isotopes in groundwater of Hebei plain, time-accumulative effect of 87Sr/86Sr ratio was studied. It is shown that 87Sr/86Sr ratio increases with the increasing age and depth of groundwater and has a positive correlation to 4Heexc and a negative correlation to δ18O and δD.The groundwater is divided into three groups to discuss the relation between 87Sr/86Sr ratio and Sr2+ content: ① moderate Sr2+ content and higher 87Sr/86Sr ratio (water Ⅰ); ② lower Sr2+ content and higher 87Sr/86Sr ratio (water Ⅱ); and ③ higher Sr2+ content and lower 87Sr/86Sr ratio (water Ⅲ), that is hot water. On the basis of integrated analysis, it was considered that ① the radiogenic Sr in the Quaternary groundwater (Q4-Q1) originates from weathering of silicate rich in Na and Rb, mainly from plagioclase; ② the radiogenic Sr of hot water in Huanghua port is attributed to carbonate dissolution, with lower 87Sr/86Sr ratio and higher Sr/Na ratio; ③ the recharge area is laterally recharged by the groundwater flowing through igneous and metamorphic rocks, with moderate 87Sr/86Sr ratio. However, the formation mechanism of Sr isotopes in Tertiary groundwater needs further studies.

  20. Developing ecospheres on transiently habitable planets: the genesis project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Claudius

    2016-10-01

    It is often presumed, that life evolves relatively fast on planets with clement conditions, at least in its basic forms, and that extended periods of habitability are subsequently needed for the evolution of higher life forms. Many planets are however expected to be only transiently habitable. On a large set of otherwise suitable planets life will therefore just not have the time to develop on its own to a complexity level as it did arise on earth with the cambrian explosion. The equivalent of a cambrian explosion may however have the chance to unfold on transiently habitable planets if it would be possible to fast forward evolution by 3-4 billion years (with respect to terrestrial timescales). We argue here, that this is indeed possible when seeding the candidate planet with the microbial lifeforms, bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes alike, characterizing earth before the cambrian explosion. An interstellar mission of this kind, denoted the `Genesis project', could be carried out by a relatively low-cost robotic microcraft equipped with a on-board gene laboratory for the in situ synthesis of the microbes.

  1. The genesis of craniofacial biology as a health science discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, G H; Sperber, S M

    2014-06-01

    The craniofacial complex encapsulates the brain and contains the organs for key functions of the body, including sight, hearing and balance, smell, taste, respiration and mastication. All these systems are intimately integrated within the head. The combination of these diverse systems into a new field was dictated by the dental profession's desire for a research branch of basic science devoted and attuned to its specific needs. The traditional subjects of genetics, embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, dental materials, odontology, molecular biology and palaeoanthropology pertaining to dentistry have been drawn together by many newly emerging technologies. These new technologies include gene sequencing, CAT scanning, MRI imaging, laser scanning, image analysis, ultrasonography, spectroscopy and visualosonics. A vibrant unitary discipline of investigation, craniofacial biology, has emerged that builds on the original concept of 'oral biology' that began in the 1960s. This paper reviews some of the developments that have led to the genesis of craniofacial biology as a fully-fledged health science discipline of significance in the advancement of clinical dental practice. Some of the key figures and milestones in craniofacial biology are identified.

  2. Marguerite Yourcenar's Prefaces: Genesis as Self-effacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Gaudin

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Most critics of Marguerite Yourcenar largely ignore the existence of the complex network of prefaces and postfaces which accompanies her fiction. On the basis of the success of her historical reconstitutions and of the classical perfection of her style they characterize her work either as the best illustration of a sexless literature or as a case of denial of femininity. But her prefaces cannot be read simply as an exposition of her thinking about history or as a linear history of her writing. While an authoritative voice exposes her method and asserts a will to aesthetic perfection, the writer as historical subject tends to efface this authority by insisting on the details and accidents that accompany every beginning and every genesis. The will to historical knowledge leads her to expose multiple lines of historicity which reveal, in the fragmented writing of the prefaces, the impossibility of maintaining the fiction of a unified subject, Her cogito could not be "I write, therefore I am." but "I write, therefore I am other."

  3. Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew CN CHEN

    2008-01-01

    In the past two decades, pain perception in the human brain has been studied with EEG/MEG brain topography and PET/ fMRI neuroimaging techniques. A host of cortical and subeortical loci can be activated by various nociceptive conditions. The activation in pain perception can be induced by physical (electrical, thermal, mechanical), chemical (capsacin, ascoric acid), psychological (anxiety, stress, nocebo) means, and pathological (e.g. migraine, neuropathic) diseases. This article deals mainly on the activation, but not modulation, of human pain in the brain. The brain areas identified are named pain representation, matrix, neuraxis, or signature. The sites are not uniformly isolated across various studies, but largely include a set of cores sites: thalamus and primary somatic area (SI), second somatic area (SII), insular cortex (IC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), cingnlate, and parietal cortices. Other areas less reported and considered important in pain perception include brainstem, hippocampus, amygdala and supplementary motor area (SMA). The issues of pain perception basically encompass both the site and the mode of brain function. Although the site issue is delineared to a large degree, the mode issue has been much less explored. From the temporal dynamics, IC can be considered as the initial stage in genesis of pain perception as conscious suffering, the unique aversion in the human brain.

  4. Research on genesis of adipocytic metaplasia in uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sośnik, Henryk; Jeleń, Michał; Kosiński, Mariusz; Sośnik, Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    The genesis of lipoleiomyoma has not been explained yet. Immunohistochemical examinations were performed on 17 lipoleiomyomas in women aged 43-82 (mean age: 51 ±9 years). Four types of myomas were distinguished: 1) pure leiomyoma, 2) fibroleiomyoma, 3) hyalinizing leiomyoma, 4) strongly hyalinized myoma, along with three degrees of progression of adipocytic metaplasia: 1) up to 25% of lipocytes, 2) up to 50% of lipocytes, and 3) over 50% of lipocytes in the analyzed sample, along with three degrees of progression of adipocytic metaplasia: 1) up to 25% of lipocytes, 2) up to 50% of lipocytes, and 3) over 50% of lipocytes in the analyzed sample. A positive correlation was found between the age of women and rate of development of metaplasia (r = 0.51, p = 0.035) as well as with activity of the estrogen receptor in the primary tumor (r = 0.53, p = 0.03). New mucous perivascular tissue was reported among 11.8% of patients and on this basis lipocytes were formed. The appearance of subendothelial granular cells of large blood vessels with a positive reaction for smooth muscle actin (SMA) and CD68 was reported in 17.7%. Results of immunohistochemical research seem to confirm that lipocytes de novo come from the primal pluripotent cells of the tumor stroma and not from the fatty degeneration of myocytes.

  5. Developing Ecospheres on Transiently Habitable Planets: The Genesis Project

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Claudius

    2016-01-01

    It is often presumed, that life evolves relatively fast on planets with clement conditions, at least in its basic forms, and that extended periods of habitability are subsequently needed for the evolution of higher life forms. Many planets are however expected to be only transiently habitable. On a large set of otherwise suitable planets life will therefore just not have the time to develop on its own to a complexity level as it did arise on earth with the cambrian explosion. The equivalent of a cambrian explosion may however have the chance to unfold on transiently habitable planets if it would be possible to fast forward evolution by 3-4 billion years (with respect to terrestrial timescales). We argue here, that this is indeed possible when seeding the candidate planet with the microbial lifeforms, bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes alike, characterizing earth before the cambrian explosion. An interstellar mission of this kind, denoted the `Genesis project', could be carried out by a relatively low-cost ro...

  6. GENESIS CONTRADICTIONS OF GENDER APPROACH IN EDUCATION OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. N. Dyuldina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to consider genesis contradictions of gender approach in modern education and training of children and possibilities of its application in an educational system during the newest period of the society development.Methods, results and scientific novelty. The retrospective analysis of the sources has shown that gender approach isn’t new and not studied: on the contrary, separate education and training of boys and girls in the past was a norm and a duty of parents and teachers. However, the reflection of social processes shows the demolition of traditional system of gender stratification; weakening of women’s and men’s polarization of social roles; change of cultural stereotypes of masculinity and femininity; objective changes in the matrimonial relations. Everything listed above brings into focus an investigative search of new approaches to gender education. The essence of the terms «gender», «gender approach» is specified. Despite very long history of gender education (which was cultivated since the most ancient eras of existence of a mankind, insufficient study of this problem is stated now. Special importance of gender aspect in family education is emphasized. The different points of view in understanding of gender approach in modern science are revealed; the main perspective directions of researches on this subject are noted.Practical significance. The materials of the present article can be used in teaching history of pedagogics, gender psychology and gender pedagogics.

  7. The reasons of the discretness of the genesis of civilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Brilo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of the problem of discontinuality of the genesis of civilization by examining the main reasons for such final are considered in the article. The author makes a conclusion about an insufficient level of development of this matter in the modern philosophical thought. The philosophical analysis of the known classifications of possible causes of death of civilizations within the history of modern philosophy is given. The attempt to classify all studied factors of discreteness to external and internal causes of the downfall of civilizations is made. External causes include natural factor, barbaric attacks and conflicts between civilizations. Internal group of causes of the discreteness of civilizations constitute economic factors, internal civilizational conflicts, social cleavages. This classification is rather conventional, because there are reasons for that is difficult to unambiguously attributed to external or internal components. The author concludes that the internal reasons make the moment of discreteness only possible, but already social nucleus – the community of civilization ­ embodies the potential scenario. The fact that each civilization relates differently to the solution of the same problems evidence in favor of of this. An important role of cultural and racial homogeneity of social core and peripherals is given in solving the problem of discreteness.

  8. Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C N Chen, Andrew

    2008-10-25

    In the past two decades, pain perception in the human brain has been studied with EEG/MEG brain topography and PET/fMRI neuroimaging techniques. A host of cortical and subcortical loci can be activated by various nociceptive conditions. The activation in pain perception can be induced by physical (electrical, thermal, mechanical), chemical (capsacin, ascoric acid), psychological (anxiety, stress, nocebo) means, and pathological (e.g. migraine, neuropathic) diseases. This article deals mainly on the activation, but not modulation, of human pain in the brain. The brain areas identified are named pain representation, matrix, neuraxis, or signature. The sites are not uniformly isolated across various studies, but largely include a set of cores sites: thalamus and primary somatic area (SI), second somatic area (SII), insular cortex (IC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), cingulate, and parietal cortices. Other areas less reported and considered important in pain perception include brainstem, hippocampus, amygdala and supplementary motor area (SMA). The issues of pain perception basically encompass both the site and the mode of brain function. Although the site issue is delineared to a large degree, the mode issue has been much less explored. From the temporal dynamics, IC can be considered as the initial stage in genesis of pain perception as conscious suffering, the unique aversion in the human brain.

  9. The NeQuick model genesis, uses and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro M. Radicella

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The genesis and evolution of the NeQuick model is reviewed from the initial ionospheric efforts made in the

    framework of the European COST actions on ionospheric issues to the last version of the model (NeQuick 2.

    Attention is given to the uses of the model particularly by the European satellite navigation and positioning systems

    EGNOS and GALILEO. Recent assessment studies on the performance of NeQuick 2 are also reviewed.


  10. Genesis of petroduric and petrocalcic horizons in Latinamerica volcanic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Introduction. In Latinamerica, from Mexico to Chile, there are indurated volcanic soils horizons, named 'tepetate' in Mexico or cangahua in the Andes Mountains. Apart from original volcanic tuffs, these horizons were produced by pedogenesis: either through a former weathering of volcanic ash layers into fragic and later to petrocalcic horizons; or after a former soil formation through a second process of transformation from clayey volcanic soils to silicified petroduric horizons. This oral presentation will briefly deal with the formation of petroduric horizons in Mexico and petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador. Petroduric horizon genesis in Mexico. A soil climato-toposequence, near to Veracruz (Rossignol & Quantin, 1997), shows downwards an evolution from a ferralic Nitisol to a petroduric Durisol. A Durisol profile comports these successive horizons: at the top A and Eg, then columnar Btg-sim, laminar Bt-sim , prismatic Bsim, plinthite Cg, over andesite lava flow. Among its main features are especially recorded: clay mineralogy, microscopy and HRTEM. These data show: an increase in cristobalite at the expenses of 0.7 nm halloysite in Egsiltans, laminar Bt-sim, around or inside the columns or prisms of Btg-sim and Bsimhorizons. HRTEM (Elsass & al 2000) on ultra thin sections reveals an 'epigenesis' of clay sheets by amorphous silica, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and microcrystalline cristobalite. From these data and some groundwater chemical analyses, a scenario of duripan formation from a past clayey Nitisol is inferred: clay eluviation-illuviation process? alternate redoximorphy? clay degradation, Al leaching and Si accumulation, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and cristobalite. Petrocalcic horizon genesis in Ecuador. A soil climato-toposequence on pyroclastic flows, near to Bolivar in Ecuador (Quantin & Zebrowski, 1997), shows downwards the evolution from fragic-eutric-vitric Cambisols to petrocalcic-vitric Phaeozems, at the piedmont under semi

  11. Radiographic evaluation of third molar genesis in Greek orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka G

    2013-09-01

    . Congenitally missing M3s in all subjects showed a significantly greater predilection for the maxilla over the mandible (19.6% and 15.5%, respectively (Wilcoxon signed-rank test Z = −2.404, p = 0.016. However, the distribution was found equal between the two sides of the jaws. The difference between the absent frequencies of M3s in the mandible and the maxilla was found statistically significant for the total sample (McNemar’s test, p < 0.001 and for males (p = 0.041 as well. Conclusion: The study data may provide a reference for the M3 genesis in Greeks. Keywords: dental genesis, maxilla, mandible

  12. The mechanism of BRCA1 participate sporadic breast carcinomas genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Min-jie; REN Jie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the BRCA1 participated mechanism of genesis and development of sporadic breast cancer through detect the statues of BRCA1 and analysis the relationship with the pathologic and clinic parameters. Methods BRCA1 statues were respectively analyzed in frozen samples or paraffine fixed sporadic breast carcinoma and benign breast tissues by three methods: protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC), the methylation of BRCA 1 promoter by methylation specific PCR (MSP), gene copy number by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results 14.2 % (29/204) cases were detected hypermethylation of BRCA1 promoter in sporadic breast cancer. BRCA1 mean copy number in sporadic breast cancer (1.70±0.14) less than those in benign tissues (2.03±0.08, P<0.05), and in sporadic breast cancer with hypermethylation of BRCA1 (1.62±0.09) significantly less than in those without hypermethylation (1.84±0.26, P<0.05). The loss copy related to the methylation of BRCA1 promoter. There were significant of 41.1% (88/214) cases no BRCA1 nuclei expression in sporadic breast cancers. Loss expression of BRCA1 had significant correlation with higher histological stages, axillary' s lymph nodal metastasis (P<0.01), lower expression of ERα, and overexpression of HER-2 protein( P<0.01). Conclusions There are BRCA 1 methylations, loss BRCA 1 gene copy and loss protein expression in the sporadic breast cancer, the three statues of BRCA1 is correlated to each other;and the loss expression of BRCA1 protein related to part of pathology and clinic parameters.

  13. Metalloproteinase inhibition prevents inhibitory synapse reorganization and seizure genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Emily; Everest, Michelle; Brown, Arthur; Poulter, Michael O

    2014-10-01

    The integrity and stability of interneurons in a cortical network are essential for proper network function. Loss of interneuron synaptic stability and precise organization can lead to disruptions in the excitation/inhibition balance, a characteristic of epilepsy. This study aimed to identify alterations to the GABAergic interneuron network in the piriform cortex (PC: a cortical area believed to be involved in the development of seizures) after kindling-induced seizures. Immunohistochemistry was used to mark perineuronal nets (PNNs: structures in the extracellular matrix that provide synaptic stability and restrict reorganization of inhibitory interneurons) and interneuron nerve terminals in control and kindled tissues. We found that PNNs were significantly decreased around parvalbumin-positive interneurons after the induction of experimental epilepsy. Additionally, we found layer-specific increases in GABA release sites originating from calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin interneurons, implying that there is a re-wiring of the interneuronal network. This increase in release sites was matched by an increase in GABAergic post-synaptic densities. We hypothesized that the breakdown of the PNN could be due to the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and that the prevention of PNN breakdown may reduce the rewiring of interneuronal circuits and suppress seizures. To test this hypothesis we employed doxycycline, a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor, to stabilize PNNs in kindled rats. We found that doxycycline prevented PNN breakdown, re-organization of the inhibitory innervation, and seizure genesis. Our observations indicate that PNN degradation may be necessary for the development of seizures by facilitating interneuron plasticity and increased GABAergic activity.

  14. The genesis solar-wind sample return mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    oxygen isotope heterogeneity, each theory predicting a different solar isotopic composition and each invoking a different early solar-system process to produce the heterogeneity. Other volatiles such as C, N, and H may also have experienced similar effects, but with only two isotopes it is often impossible to distinguish with these elements between mass-dependent fractionation and other effects such as mixing or mass-independent fractionation. Table 1 provides a summary of the major measurement objectives of the Genesis mission. Determining the solar oxygen isotopic composition is at the top of the list. Volatile element and isotope ratios constitute six of the top seven priorities. A number of disciplines stand to gain from information from the Genesis mission, as will be discussed later. Based on the Apollo solar-wind foil experiment, the Genesis mission was designed to capture solar wind over orders of magnitude longer duration and in a potentially much cleaner environment than the lunar surface.

  15. Relationship between the tropical cyclone genesis over the Northwest Pacific and the sea surface temperature anomalies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using the tropical cyclone (TC) data derived from the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and the sea surface temperature data derived from the Joint Environmental Data Analysis Center (JEDAC) at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography from January 1955 to December 2000, we analyzed the relationship between the TC genesis over the Northwest Pacific (NWP) and the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) over the Pacific basin. A long-term trend indicated that the highest frequency of monthly TC genesis appeared earlier and the annual genesis sum increased gradually during the last half century with some oscillations. No significant synchronous correlation was found between the NWP TC events and the SSTA over the Pacific basin, while the annual sum of TC genesis was closely related with the SSTA averaged from the first three months (January, February and March) of the year in the equatorial western and eastern Pacific and over mid-high latitudes of the North Pacific. The results implied that there are an interannual El Ni(n)o SSTA mode in the equatorial western and eastern Pacific and an interdecadal SSTA mode in the northern Pacific, which affected the TC genesis. A regression analysis between the first three-month SSTA and the annual TC sum based on two time scales was conducted. The correlation coefficient between simulated and observed TC sums reached a high value of 0.77.

  16. Sill genesis in the Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Onega Trough, Baltic shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshchuk, A. V.

    2011-07-01

    This study considers the role of sill genesis in the tectonic evolution of the Onega Trough during the Middle to Late Paleoproterozoic (Jatulian-Vepsian). The evolution of the Onega Trough is divided into three stages: pre-sill, or preparatory, subsynchronous, and post-sill. Sill magmatism manifested itself most completely at the subsynchronous stage of the evolution of the Onega Trough within the initial, principal, and final phases of sill genesis. Sill formation followed the stage of regional downwarping of the area reaching its maximum during the Early Ludicovian. Paragenesis of sills and high carbon shungite rocks was accompanied by the formation of peperites, while sills influenced the structure of the host rocks. A model reflecting the regular patterns of manifestations of sill genesis identified in the Onega Trough has been proposed.

  17. Scale-invariant perturbations from NEC violation: A new variant of Galilean Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishi, Sakine

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel branch of the Galilean Genesis scenario as an alternative to inflation, in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past with a gross violation of the null energy condition (NEC). This variant, described by several functions and parameters within the Horndeski scalar-tensor theory, shares the same background dynamics with the existing Genesis models, but the nature of primordial quantum fluctuations is quite distinct. In some cases, tensor perturbations grow on superhorizon scales. The tensor power spectrum can be red, blue, and scale invariant, depending on the model, while scalar perturbations are nearly scale invariant. This is in sharp contrast to typical NEC-violating cosmologies, in which a blue tensor tilt is generated. Though the primordial tensor and scalar spectra are both nearly scale invariant as in the inflationary scenario, the consistency relation in our variant of Galilean Genesis is non-standard.

  18. JPL Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knosp, Brian W.; Li, P. Peggy; Vu, Quoc A.; Turk, Francis J.; Shen, Tsae-Pyng J.; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.; Licata, Stephen J.; Poulsen, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations can play a very important role in airborne field campaigns, since they provide a comprehensive description of the environment that is essential for the experiment design, flight planning, and post-experiment scientific data analysis. In the past, it has been difficult to fully utilize data from multiple NASA satellites due to the large data volume, the complexity of accessing NASA s data in near-real-time (NRT), as well as the lack of software tools to interact with multi-sensor information. The JPL GRIP Portal is a Web portal that serves a comprehensive set of NRT observation data sets from NASA and NOAA satellites describing the atmospheric and oceanic environments related to the genesis and intensification of the tropical storms in the North Atlantic Ocean. Together with the model forecast data from four major global atmospheric models, this portal provides a useful tool for the scientists and forecasters in planning and monitoring the NASA GRIP field campaign during the 2010 Atlantic Ocean hurricane season. This portal uses the Google Earth plug-in to visualize various types of data sets, such as 2D maps, wind vectors, streamlines, 3D data sets presented at series of vertical cross-sections or pointwise vertical profiles, and hurricane best tracks and forecast tracks. Additionally, it allows users to overlap multiple data sets, change the opacity of each image layer, generate animations on the fly with selected data sets, and compare the observation data with the model forecast using two independent calendars. The portal also provides the capability to identify the geographic location of any point of interest. In addition to supporting the airborne mission planning, the NRT data and portal will serve as a very rich source of information during the post-field campaign analysis stage of the airborne experiment. By including a diverse set of satellite observations and model forecasts, it provides a good spatial and temporal context for the

  19. Genesis Contingency Planning and Mishap Recovery: The Sample Curation View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbery, E. K.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; McNamara, K. M.; Calaway, M.; Rodriques, M. C.

    2007-01-01

    Planning for sample preservation and curation was part of mission design from the beginning. One of the scientific objectives for Genesis included collecting samples of three regimes of the solar wind in addition to collecting bulk solar wind during the mission. Collectors were fabricated in different thicknesses for each regime of the solar wind and attached to separate frames exposed to the solar wind during specific periods of solar activity associated with each regime. The original plan to determine the solar regime sampled for specific collectors was to identify to which frame the collector was attached. However, the collectors were dislodged during the hard landing making identification by frame attachment impossible. Because regimes were also identified by thickness of the collector, the regime sampled is identified by measuring fragment thickness. A variety of collector materials and thin films applied to substrates were selected and qualified for flight. This diversity provided elemental measurement in more than one material, mitigating effects of diffusion rates and/or radiation damage. It also mitigated against different material and substrate strengths resulting in differing effects of the hard landing. For example, silicon crystal substrates broke into smaller fragments than sapphire-based substrates and diamond surfaces were more resilient to flying debris damage than gold. The primary responsibility of the curation team for recovery was process documentation. Contingency planning for the recovery phase expanded this responsibility to include not only equipment to document, but also gather, contain and identify samples from the landing area and the recovered spacecraft. The team developed contingency plans for various scenarios as part of mission planning that included topographic maps to aid in site recovery and identification of different modes of transport and purge capability depending on damage. A clean tent, set-up at Utah Test & Training Range

  20. Evolution of the marketing theory: genesis, conception, periodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Oklander

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article. The article deals with evolution of the marketing theory in it genesis context, modern conception, periodization. Mercantilism, classical and neoclassical political economy, marginalism, institutionalism are distinguished as scientific sources of marketing. One defines that modern marketing conception is a socially responsible marketing form, based on mass individualization, the highest customer value supply, consumer’s problems effective solving. The marketing theory periodization is suggested, which includes three stages: classical marketing conception forming stage, based on consumer orientation; social and ethic marketing conception forming stage; the social and ethic marketing conception forming stage, based on mass individualization, the highest customer value supply, consumer’s problems effective solving. The results of the analysis. Marketing theory, appeared at the industrial human’s development stage during buyer’s market formation and sales problem aggravation, is a regular result of the mercantilism development, classical and neoclassical political economy, marginalism, institutionalism. The modern marketing conception is social and responsible marketing conception, based on mass individualization, maximal consumer value supplies, consumer’s problems optimal solving. Periodization of the marketing theory has to be built on the following principle: “state of the marketing theory development – new marketing conception, which correspond the proper economy development”. Each marketing conception defines essence of the period, preconditions the scientific value of the derived methodological investigations and marketing activity efficiency from the viewpoint of the problem solving, which caused marketing appearing, – sales optimization. There are three stages in the marketing theory development: а stage of the classical marketing conception formation, based on consumer orientation (1900-1970

  1. 78 FR 49507 - Genesis Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Genesis Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Genesis Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  2. Decontaminating Solar Wind Samples with the Genesis Ultra-Pure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2009-01-01

    The Genesis sample return capsule, though broken during the landing impact, contained most of the shattered ultra-pure solar wind collectors comprised of silicon and other semiconductor wafers materials. Post-flight analysis revealed that all wafer fragments were littered with surface particle contamination from spacecraft debris as well as soil from the impact site. This particulate contamination interferes with some analyses of solar wind. In early 2005, the Genesis science team decided to investigate methods for removing the surface particle contamination prior to solar wind analysis.

  3. 新型单频连续可见光激光器Genesis MX SLM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相干

    2012-01-01

    美国相干(Coherent)公司引入单频版本的Genesis MX SLM激光器,扩展了其可见光连续激光器系列。新型Genesis MX SLM激光器可输出460nm、480nm、488nm、514nm、532nm、561nm、577nm等波长的激光,输出功率在500mW~1W之间。其在单纵模运行时线宽小于5GHz,

  4. Genesis of ion-adsorption type REE ores in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanematsu, K.; Yoshiaki, K.; Watanabe, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Ion-adsorption type REE deposits, which have been economically mined only in southern China, are predominant supply sources for HREE in the world. The ore bodies consist of weathered granites called ion-adsorption ores. The majority of REE (>50 %) are electrostatically adsorbed onto weathering products in the ores and they can be extracted by ion exchange using an electrolyte solution (e.g., ammonium sulfate solution). Recently the occurrences of ion-adsorption ores have been reported in Indochina, SE Asia. In this study, we discuss geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of parent granites and weathered granites in Thailand in order to reveal the genesis of ion-adsorption ores. Permo-Triassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene granite plutons are distributed from northern Thailand to western Indonesia through eastern Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia. They are mostly ilmenite-series calcalkaline biotite or hornblende-biotite granites. REE contents of the granites range from 60 to 600 ppm and they are relatively high in Peninsula Thailand. REE-bearing minerals consist mainly of apatite, zircon, allanite, titanite, monazite and xenotime. Some I-type granites contain REE fluorocarbonate (probably synchysite-(Ce)) in cavities and cracks in feldspars and it is the dominant source of REE for ion-adsorption ores because the fluorocarbonate is easily soluble during weathering. In contrast, insoluble monazite and xenotime are not preferable for ion-adsorption ores although they are common ore minerals of placer REE deposits. Weathered granites show REE contents ranging from 60 to 1100 ppm in Thailand because REE are relatively immobile compared with mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Ca). In the weathered granites, REE are contained in residual minerals and secondary minerals and are adsorbed onto the surface of weathering products. A weathering profile of granite with ion-adsorption type mineralization can be divided into upper and lower parts based on REE enrichment and Ce

  5. ECGSIM: an interactive tool for studying the genesis of QRST waveforms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, A. van; Oostendorp, T.F.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Discussion about the selection of diagnostic features of the ECG and their possible interpretation would benefit from a model of the genesis of these signals that has a sound basis in electrophysiology as well as in physics. Recent advances in computer technology have made it possible to

  6. Engendering Proof Attitudes: Can the Genesis of Mathematical Knowledge Teach Us Anything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that there is continued poverty in student understanding of proof. Reports on how proof attitudes could be inculcated in students by offering them a course design that is somewhat faithful to the historical genesis of modern mathematics. Contends that such a design can enable students to discover a sense of proof for themselves. (Contains…

  7. [Classification and variability of drug assessment reports on the GENESIS group (SEFH) webpage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Eslava, A; Puigventós Latorre, F; Santos-Ramos, B; Calderon Hernanz, B; Vilanova Boltó, M

    2011-01-01

    To analyse the assessment reports published on the GENESIS webpage (Group for Innovation, Assessment, Standardisation and Research in the Selection of Drugs) and assess the variability of the group's proposals to include drugs in the Formulary. We analysed reports published by hospitals on the GENESIS webpage between 2004 and 2007. Data were collected on drugs and indications, ATC group, open or restricted access publications, hospital, and publication date. We drafted a questionnaire that would measure to what extent to what extent the 9-section model recommended by GENESIS was included in each report. For drugs with two or more reports, we analysed whether the recommendation coincided and the possible cause in the event of conflict. We analysed 416 reports corresponding to 185 different drug indications. 93% included 6 or more of the recommended sections, a number which increased over time. The most frequently included sections were: approved indications (92%), mechanism of action (95%), and references (86%) (percentages from 2007). Sections which had an increasing but lower percentage were: differential characteristics (60%), literature search method (40%) and conclusions with a summary of efficacy, safety and cost data (52%). 73% of which had definite recommendations, which coincided for 42 out of the 67 drugs with more than one recommendation report. The work carried out by the GENESIS group has enabled Spanish hospitals to share their drug assessment reports and making them more complete, although there are still some aspects that can be improved. Copyright © 2010 SEFH. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Сomputer cytomorphometry of eosinophiles at eosinophilia of different genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. Bondar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal was to estimate geometrical and optical characteristics of normodense and hypodense eosinophiles at eosinophilias of parasitic and nonparasitic genesis in children and adults. the investigation has been conducted by means of methods of ELISA and computer cytomorphometry. Statistical processing of the received data has allowed to reveal morphofunctional changes in eosinophiles in case of toxocariasis

  9. NONINVASIVE NASAL MUCOSA EXPOSURE TO TREAT AND PREVENT RHINITIS AND RHINOSINUSITIS OF VARIOUS GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Radtsig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the nasal mucosa in health and in different abnormalities. It describes the possibilities of using drugs of different groups to relieve symptoms in nasal mucosal and paranasal sinus abnormalities of different genesis, as well as the preventive effect of some of these drugs.

  10. NONINVASIVE NASAL MUCOSA EXPOSURE TO TREAT AND PREVENT RHINITIS AND RHINOSINUSITIS OF VARIOUS GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Radtsig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the nasal mucosa in health and in different abnormalities. It describes the possibilities of using drugs of different groups to relieve symptoms in nasal mucosal and paranasal sinus abnormalities of different genesis, as well as the preventive effect of some of these drugs.

  11. Cellulose Acetate Replica Cleaning Study of Genesis Non-Flight Sample 3CZ00327

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Schmeling, M.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind were stopped in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. We are working interactively with the community of scientists analyzing Genesis samples, using our unique laboratory facilities -- and, where needed, our unique cleaning techniques -- to significantly enhance the science return from the Genesis mission. This work is motivated by the need to understand the submicron contamination on the collectors in the Genesis payload as recovered from the crash site in the Utah desert, and -- perhaps more importantly -- how to remove it. That is, we are evaluating the effectiveness of the wet-chemical "cleaning" steps used by various investigators, to enable them to design improved methods of stripping terrestrial contamination from surfaces while still leaving the solar-wind signal intact.

  12. Post-Disaster Image Processing for Damage Analysis Using GENESI-DR, WPS and Grid Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pappalardo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the two year Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations-Digital Repositories (GENESI-DR project was to build an open and seamless access service to Earth science digital repositories for European and world-wide science users. In order to showcase GENESI-DR, one of the developed technology demonstrators focused on fast search, discovery, and access to remotely sensed imagery in the context of post-disaster building damage assessment. This paper describes the scenario and implementation details of the technology demonstrator, which was developed to support post-disaster damage assessment analyst activities. Once a disaster alert has been issued, response time is critical to providing relevant damage information to analysts and/or stakeholders. The presented technology demonstrator validates the GENESI-DR project data search, discovery and security infrastructure and integrates the rapid urban area mapping and the near real-time orthorectification web processing services to support a post-disaster damage needs assessment analysis scenario. It also demonstrates how the GENESI-DR SOA can be linked to web processing services that access grid computing resources for fast image processing and use secure communication to ensure confidentiality of information.

  13. Landscape formation and soil genesis in volcanic parent materials in humid tropical lowlands of Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuyse, A.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of volcanism on landscape genesis, and formation of soils on volcanic parent material was studied in the Atlantic lowland of Costs Rica. This lowland is a subduction basin of tectonic origin, in which thick alluvial and marine sediments are accumulated. At its southwestern side it is b

  14. PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION OF JUSTICE IN CONTEXT OF PROBLEMS OF TECHNO-GENESIS (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Mushinskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  15. The Genesis II in primary total knee replacement: a systematic literature review of clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Mohit; Pascale, Walter; Sprague, Sheila; Pascale, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1996, the Genesis II Total Knee System has produced good clinical results in patients undergoing primary total knee replacement. A systematic review of the literature-the first of its kind for this device-was undertaken to collect data on the Genesis II in order to provide a better understanding of its medium- to long-term performance. Of 124 Genesis II-related studies published in the literature, 11 met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final analysis. The included studies had a mean follow-up length of 38.1 months. Data from 1201 knees were available for review. Patients were an average of 70.5 years of age and predominantly female (63%). Findings indicated that the revision rate with this implant is low with up to 11.9 years of follow-up, with 14 revisions in total. The survival rate ranged from 100% at 1 and 2 years to 96.0% at 11.9 years. The mean Knee Society knee score improved 51.0 points from preoperative to postoperative evaluation. In conclusion, the Genesis II exhibited good clinical performance with up to 11 years follow-up, with an encouraging rate of survival and improvement in function. Additional studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are needed to better understand the long-term performance of this implant.

  16. Bedform genesis and evolution in bedrock substrates: a new experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. R.; Yin, N.; Peakall, J.

    2014-12-01

    Most previous studies on the genesis and evolution of bedforms have focused on aggradational bedforms within cohesionless sediments, with very few investigations that concern either erosive bedform genesis and evolution or bedrock channel abrasion processes. The study presented here details experiments that involve the genesis and formation of erosional bedform features within natural (soft clay) cohesive sediment beds and analogue bedrock substrates by modelling clay under the effect of both open-channel plain water flows, and sediment-laden flows. A new approach without using plaster-of-Paris or real bedrock developed provides a feasible method to simulate the genesis and evolution of the erosional bedforms in cohesive sediment beds and sculpted forms in bedrock channels on relatively short time-scales in the laboratory by using a realistic substrate substitute.A series of flume experiments are presented herein where the undrained shear strength of two different kinds of substrate material is systematically varied under constant flow conditions. Experiments using plain water flow indicated that erosive bedforms in cohesive sediment substrate cannot be produced only under the effect of sediment-free flow. Particulate-laden flows do form erosional bedforms in both kinds of clay beds and the shear strength of the bed material plays a key role in determining the diversity of erosional features forming on such substrates. Optimisation of modelling clay beds has enabled us to successfully replicate a suite of bedrock bedforms, including potholes, flutes, longitudinal furrows, etc., that have clear equivalents to those observed in bedrock rivers and contributed to investigate the genesis and evolution process of them and explore the flow structures within and above them in experimental analogue bedrock substrate for the first time.

  17. Petrography, alteration and genesis of iron mineralization in Roshtkhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Biabangard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iron mineralization in Roshtkhar is located in 48 Km east of the city of Roshtkhar and south of the Khorasan Razavi province. It is geologically located in the north east of the Lut block and the Khaf-Bardeskan volcano-plutonic belt. The Khaf-Bardeskan belt is an important metallogenic province since it is a host of valuable ore deposits such as the Kuh-e-Zar Au-Spicularite, the Tanourcheh and the Khaf Iron ore deposits (Karimpour and Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, 2007. Iron and Copper mineralization in this belt are known as the hydrothermal, skarn and IOCG types (Karimpour and Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, 2007. IOCG deposits are a new type of magmatic to hydrothermal mineralization in the continental crust (Hitzman et al., 1992. Precambrian marble, Lower Paleozoic schist and metavolcanics are the oldest rocks of the area. The younger units are Oligocene conglomerate, shale and sandstone, Miocene marl and Quaternary deposits. Iron oxides and Cu sulfides are associated with igneous rocks. Fe and Cu mineralization in Roshtkhar has been subject of a few studies such as Yousefi Surani (2006. This study describes the petrography of the host rocks, ore paragenesis, alteration types, geochemistry, genesis and other features of the Fe and Cu mineralization in the Roshtkhar iron. Methods After detailed field studies and sampling, 30 thin sections and 20 polished sections that were prepared from host rocks and ores were studied by conventional petrographic and mineraloghraphic methods in the geology department of the University of Sistan and Baluchestan. 5 samples from the alteration zones were examined by XRD in the Yamagata University in Japan, and 8 samples from the less altered ones were analyzed by XRF and ICP-OES in the Kharazmi University and the Iranian mineral processing research center (IMPRC in Karaj, respectively. The XRF and ICP-OES data are presented in Table 1. Result and discussion The host rocks of the Roshtkhar Iron deposit are diorite

  18. Cleaning Genesis Mission Payload for Flight with Ultra-Pure Water and Assembly in ISO Class 4 Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.

    2012-01-01

    Genesis mission to capture and return to Earth solar wind samples had very stringent contamination control requirements in order to distinguish the solar atoms from terrestrial ones. Genesis mission goals were to measure solar composition for most of the periodic table, so great care was taken to avoid particulate contamination. Since the number 1 and 2 science goals were to determine the oxygen and nitrogen isotopic composition, organic contamination was minimized by tightly controlling offgassing. The total amount of solar material captured in two years is about 400 micrograms spread across one sq m. The contamination limit requirement for each of C, N, and O was <1015 atoms/sq cm. For carbon, this is equivalent to 10 ng/cm2. Extreme vigilance was used in pre-paring Genesis collectors and cleaning hardware for flight. Surface contamination on polished silicon wafers, measured in Genesis laboratory is approximately 10 ng/sq cm.

  19. Simulation and study of the behaviour of the transversalis fascia in protecting against the genesis of inguinal hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuny, G; Rodríguez-Navarro, J; Susín, A; López-Cano, M

    2009-10-16

    Simulating the muscular system has many applications in biomechanics, biomedicine and the study of movement in general. We are interested in studying the genesis of a very common pathology: human inguinal hernia. We study the effects that some biomechanical parameters have on the dynamic simulation of the region, and their involvement in the genesis of inguinal hernias. We use the finite element method (FEM) and current models for the muscular contraction to determine the deformed fascia transversalis for the estimation of the maximum strain. We analysed the effect of muscular tissue density, Young's modulus, Poisson's coefficient and calcium concentration in the genesis of human inguinal hernia. The results are the estimated maximum strain in our simulations, has a close correlation with experimental data and the accepted commonly models by the medical community. Our model is the first study of the effect of various biological parameters with repercussions on the genesis of the inguinal hernias.

  20. Neuroimaging of genesis and satiation of thirst and an interoceptor-driven theory of origins of primary consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Derek; Shade, Robert; Zamarippa, Frank; Egan, Gary; Blair-West, John; McKinley, Michael; Lancaster, Jack; Fox, Peter

    1999-01-01

    There are defined hypothalamic functions in the genesis of thirst, but little is known of the cortical processes subserving consciousness of thirst notwithstanding the medical disorders that occur in psychiatric illness, addiction, and the attested decline of thirst with aging. In 10 adult males, positron emission tomography scans were made (i) during genesis of moderate thirst by infusion of i.v. hypertonic saline 0.51 M, (ii) after irrigation of the mouth with water to remove the sensation ...

  1. Satisfaction assessment with malleable prosthetic implant of Spectra (AMS) and Genesis (Coloplast) models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabé, A R; Sarotto, N; Gutierrez, C; Bechara, A J

    2016-11-01

    The malleable prosthetic implant is widely accepted among patients and physicians owing to a lower degree of surgical complexity, its rare mechanic failures and lower cost. We have compared the degree of satisfaction with malleable prosthetic implant in 60 patients, 36 with Spectra (AMS) and 24 with Genesis (Coloplast). For assessment purposes, we implemented the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) satisfaction questionnaire adapted for penile prosthetic implants. The mean age and follow-up was 61.7 years (31-82) and 19.9 months (1-61), respectively. Mean EDITS scores did not indicate superiority of one implant over the other, overall satisfaction index being 77.1% and 75.6% for Genesis and Spectra prosthesis, respectively (P=0.4970). Our results revealed that these two models of malleable prostheses present a high level of satisfaction and confirm that the malleable prosthetic implant is an excellent option to treat patients with ED refractory to medical treatment.

  2. MECHANISM OF GENESIS OF NEOPLASIA AT DEFEAT OF CERVICAL EPITHELIUM BY HIGH-RISK HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ershov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The 1044 biopsies from HPV-positive cervical epithelia were tested by cytological, histological, immunomorphological methods and PCR. One of the mechanisms of genesis of cervical cancer is damage of mitotic apparatus owing to association E7 HPV with NuMA 1, leads to infringement of distribution of chromosomes and virus DNA between daughter cells, shown pathological mitosis and integration of virus DNA. Infringements of differentiation of cells at CIN testified to their delay in pre-mitotic phases of cellular cycle unlike SCC which cells, having finished mitosis, are capable to the differentiation, accompanied by infringement of intercellular adhesion and neoanginesis. Genesis koilocytes and the cells of leukoplakia it is caused by defeat HPV basal cells.

  3. Using Image Pro Plus Software to Develop Particle Mapping on Genesis Solar Wind Collector Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Allton, J. H.; Burkett, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The continued success of the Genesis mission science team in analyzing solar wind collector array samples is partially based on close collaboration of the JSC curation team with science team members who develop cleaning techniques and those who assess elemental cleanliness at the levels of detection. The goal of this collaboration is to develop a reservoir of solar wind collectors of known cleanliness to be available to investigators. The heart and driving force behind this effort is Genesis mission PI Don Burnett. While JSC contributes characterization, safe clean storage, and benign collector cleaning with ultrapure water (UPW) and UV ozone, Burnett has coordinated more exotic and rigorous cleaning which is contributed by science team members. He also coordinates cleanliness assessment requiring expertise and instruments not available in curation, such as XPS, TRXRF [1,2] and synchrotron TRXRF. JSC participates by optically documenting the particle distributions as cleaning steps progress. Thus, optical document supplements SEM imaging and analysis, and elemental assessment by TRXRF.

  4. GENESI-DR: Discovery, Access and on-Demand Processing in Federated Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Roberto; Pacini, Fabrizio; Parrini, Andrea; Santi, Eliana Li; Fusco, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) is a European Commission (EC)-funded project, kicked-off early 2008 lead by ESA; partners include Space Agencies (DLR, ASI, CNES), both space and no-space data providers such as ENEA (I), Infoterra (UK), K-SAT (N), NILU (N), JRC (EU) and industry as Elsag Datamat (I), CS (F) and TERRADUE (I). GENESI-DR intends to meet the challenge of facilitating "time to science" from different Earth Science disciplines in discovery, access and use (combining, integrating, processing, …) of historical and recent Earth-related data from space, airborne and in-situ sensors, which are archived in large distributed repositories. In fact, a common dedicated infrastructure such as the GENESI-DR one permits the Earth Science communities to derive objective information and to share knowledge in all environmental sensitive domains over a continuum of time and a variety of geographical scales so addressing urgent challenges such as Global Change. GENESI-DR federates data, information and knowledge for the management of our fragile planet in line with one of the major goals of the many international environmental programmes such as GMES, GEO/GEOSS. As of today, 12 different Digital Repositories hosting more than 60 heterogeneous dataset series are federated in GENESI-DR. Series include satellite data, in situ data, images acquired by airborne sensors, digital elevation models and model outputs. ESA has started providing access to: Category-1 data systematically available on Internet; level 3 data (e.g., GlobCover map, MERIS Global Vegetation Index); ASAR products available in ESA Virtual Archive and related to the Supersites initiatives. In all cases, existing data policies and security constraints are fully respected. GENESI-DR also gives access to Grid and Cloud computing resources allowing authorized users to run a number of different processing services on the available data. The GENESI

  5. Left atrial electrophysiologic feature specific for the genesis of complex fractionated atrial electrogram during atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshiyama, Tadashi; Yamabe, Hiroshige; Koyama, Junjiroh; Kanazawa, Hisanori; Ogawa, Hisao

    2016-05-01

    Complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) has been suggested to contribute to the maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, electrophysiologic characteristics of the left atrial myocardium responsible for genesis of CFAE have not been clarified. Non-contact mapping of the left atrium was performed at 37 AF onset episodes in 24 AF patients. Electrogram amplitude, width, and conduction velocity were measured during sinus rhythm, premature atrial contraction (PAC) with long- (L-PAC), short- (S-PAC) and very short-coupling intervals (VS-PAC). These parameters were compared between CFAE and non-CFAE regions. Unipolar electrogram amplitude was higher in CFAE than non-CFAE during sinus rhythm, L-, S- and VS-PAC (1.82 ± 0.73 vs. 1.13 ± 0.38, p genesis of CFAE.

  6. Comparative Design Studies for the BESSY FEL Program using the MEDUSA and GENESIS Simulation Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, H

    2005-01-01

    The BESSY FEL is based on a seeded cascade of High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) sections followed by an amplifier to produce coherent and stable short wavelength output. Here, we report on comparative design studies carried out using the MEDUSA [1], and GENESIS [2] simulation codes. These two codes have each been used to successfully predict a variety of FEL designs and have agreed well with a number of important experiments. In addition, they were included in a comparative study of FEL simulation [3] that reported substantial agreement between the codes for the specific configurations studied. However, these codes are based on different assumptions. GENESIS treats the particle dynamics using a wiggler-averaged orbit approximation, the transverse electromagnetic field is treated using a field solver, and harmonics are not included. MEDUSA does not use the wiggler-averaged orbit approximation to treat particle dynamics, the transverse fields are treated using a Gaussian modal superposition, and harmonics ar...

  7. Observed warming trend in sea surface temperature at tropical cyclone genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defforge, Cécile L.; Merlis, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) activity is influenced by environmental factors, and it is expected to respond to anthropogenic climate change. However, there is observational uncertainty in historical changes in TC activity, and attributing observed TC changes to anthropogenic forcing is challenging in the presence of internal climate variability. The sea surface temperature (SST) is a well-observed environmental factor that affects TC intensity and rainfall. Here we show that the SST at the time of TC genesis has a significant warming trend over the three decades of the satellite era. Though TCs are extreme events, the warming trend at TC genesis is comparable to the trend in SST during other tropical deep convection events and the trend in SST in the TC main development regions throughout the TC season. This newly documented, observed signature of climate change on TC activity is also present in high-resolution global atmospheric model simulations that explicitly simulate TCs.

  8. Types and Genesis of Manganese Oxide Ores in Guangxi,Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腾飞

    1999-01-01

    Systematic studies are diven to the genesis and spatial distribution of manganese oxide deposits in Guangxi,Southwest China.The deposits are classified as 3 types and 7 subtypes among which the karst depression type is regionally characteristic an of reat potential.A genetic model is presented for the mineralization on the basis of proto-rock,tectonic background,topographic features and climatic and hydrogeological conditions.

  9. Laghi di Monticchio (Southern Italy, Region Basilicata): genesis of sediments—a geochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Schettler; P. Albéric

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The sedimentation record of Lago Grande di Monticchio (LGM) is one of the most prominent paleoclimatic archives in the on-glaciated areas of Europe. However, the modern lake system has never been the subject of intense limnological studies. On the basis of hydrochemical water profiles, detailed investigations of sediment short cores and in situ pore water profiles from the littoral to the profundal zone, we elucidate spatial variations of sediment genesis within the la...

  10. Exodus: redirecting Genesis for solar wind observations 4-8 million km from Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, J.; Barraclough, B.; Gosling, J.; Reisenfeld, D.; Wiens, R.; Liewer, P.; Murphy, N.

    2003-04-01

    Genesis is an ongoing NASA Discovery mission designed to collect samples of the solar wind at L1 and return them to Earth for analysis. After the return capsule is dropped off in September, 2004, the spacecraft, with its in situ solar wind ion and electron spectrometers, is available to perform a new solar wind mission. Spacecraft capabilities, including ample remaining Dv, allow it to achieve and maintain a distant retrograde orbit, a heliocentric orbit in which the spacecraft spends a significant amount of time ˜0.025 AU upstream and downstream of Earth (˜2.5x the Earth-L1 distance). From this orbit Genesis observations may be used, together with those from available L1 spacecraft, to compare solar wind parameters across important spatial scales. The multi-point collaborative studies will uniquely allow us to understand the propagation and evolution of solar wind plasma, as well as the internal spatial structure of large solar wind transients, for spacecraft separation distances of 0.025 to 0.05 AU. Such separation distances are significantly greater than can be attained between any pair of current and proposed satellites in Earth or in L1 halo orbits. At the same time the separations will be small enough to allow confident tracking of particular solar wind structures between spacecraft. In addition to groundbreaking science, the Genesis spacecraft would be a pathfinder for potential future space weather sentinels. We present a proposal to redirect the Genesis spacecraft after its prime mission is complete, and create a new, inexpensive mission: EXODUS.

  11. Genesis mechanism of the Sinian-Cambrian reservoirs in the Anyue Gas Field, Sichuan Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Jingao; Yao Genshun; Yang Guang; Zhang Jianyong; Hao Yi; Wang Fang; Gu Mingfeng; Li Wenzheng

    2015-01-01

    The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm, the 4th and 2nd members of the Sinian Dengying Fm are the three major gas layers in the Anyue Gas Field of the Sichuan Basin. Their main characteristics and genesis mechanism were investigated, and the following three findings were obtained. First, according to sedimentary microfacies, lithology and porosity, the Longwangmiao Fm is identified as fractured-vuggy dolomite reservoir of grain shoal facies, the 4th member of the Dengying Fm as fractured-vuggy (c...

  12. The skills for genesis2000 reading 274D%浅谈Genesis读取274D格式技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忱; 李加余; 黄慧

    2014-01-01

    Genesis 2000是处理PCB线路图形达到现场生产能力并满足客户要求的一种高级计算机辅助制造软件,CAM制作料号前必须将客户提供之CAD/CAM档案转换成厂内可使用之文件格式。 Genesis 2000读取客户资料的正确性,直接会影响每款产品的正确性,文章主要探讨genesis2000读取274D格式技巧。%Genesis 2000 is an advanced computer-aided manufacturing software processing PCB line and graph to reach the production capacity and meet customer requirements. Before the materials process, CAD/CAMfiles must be provided and changed into a plant suitable format which can be used. The correctness of the Genesis 2000 reading customer data directly affects the accuracy of each product. So this paper mainly discusses genesis2000 reading skills of 274D.

  13. Genesis Solar Wind Interstream, Coronal Hole and Coronal Mass Ejection Samples: Update on Availability and Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2017-01-01

    Recent refinement of analysis of ACE/SWICS data (Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) and of onboard data for Genesis Discovery Mission of 3 regimes of solar wind at Earth-Sun L1 make it an appropriate time to update the availability and condition of Genesis samples specifically collected in these three regimes and currently curated at Johnson Space Center. ACE/SWICS spacecraft data indicate that solar wind flow types emanating from the interstream regions, from coronal holes and from coronal mass ejections are elementally and isotopically fractionated in different ways from the solar photosphere, and that correction of solar wind values to photosphere values is non-trivial. Returned Genesis solar wind samples captured very different kinds of information about these three regimes than spacecraft data. Samples were collected from 11/30/2001 to 4/1/2004 on the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Meshik, et al is an example of precision attainable. Earlier high precision laboratory analyses of noble gases collected in the interstream, coronal hole and coronal mass ejection regimes speak to degree of fractionation in solar wind formation and models that laboratory data support. The current availability and condition of samples captured on collector plates during interstream slow solar wind, coronal hole high speed solar wind and coronal mass ejections are de-scribed here for potential users of these samples.

  14. Molecular Contamination on Anodized Aluminum Components of the Genesis Science Canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, D. S.; McNamara, K. M.; Jurewicz, A.; Woolum, D.

    2005-01-01

    Inspection of the interior of the Genesis science canister after recovery in Utah, and subsequently at JSC, revealed a darkening on the aluminum canister shield and other canister components. There has been no such observation of film contamination on the collector surfaces, and preliminary spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements support the theory that the films observed on the anodized aluminum components do not appear on the collectors to any significant extent. The Genesis Science Team has made an effort to characterize the thickness and composition of the brown stain and to determine if it is associated with molecular outgassing.Detailed examination of the surfaces within the Genesis science canister reveals that the brown contamination is observed to varying degrees, but only on surfaces exposed in space to the Sun and solar wind hydrogen. In addition, the materials affected are primarily composed of anodized aluminum. A sharp line separating the sun and shaded portion of the thermal closeout panel is shown. This piece was removed from a location near the gold foil collector within the canister. Future plans include a reassembly of the canister components to look for large-scale patterns of contamination within the canister to aid in revealing the root cause.

  15. NR2A contributes to genesis and propagation of cortical spreading depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Du, Ruoxing; Li, Yi; Quinn, John P; Wang, Minyan

    2016-03-22

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a transient propagating excitation of synaptic activity followed by depression, which is implicated in migraine. Increasing evidence points to an essential role of NR2A-containing NMDA receptors in CSD propagation in vitro; however, whether these receptors mediate CSD genesis in vivo requires clarification and the role of NR2A on CSD propagation is still under debate. Using in vivo CSD in rats with electrophysiology and in vitro CSD in chick retina with intrinsic optical imaging, we addressed the role of NR2A in CSD. We demonstrated that NVP-AAM077, a potent antagonist for NR2A-containing receptors, perfused through microdialysis probes, markedly reduced cortex susceptibility to CSD, but also reduced magnitude of CSD genesis in rats. Additionally, NVP-AAM077 at 0.3 nmol perfused into the contralateral ventricle, considerably suppressed the magnitude of CSD propagation wave and propagation rate in rats. This reduction in CSD propagation was also observed with TCN-201, a negative allosteric modulator selective for NR2A, at 3 μM, in the chick retina. Our data provides strong evidence that NR2A subunit contributes to CSD genesis and propagation, suggesting drugs selectively antagonizing NR2A-containing receptors might constitute a highly specific strategy treating CSD associated migraine with a likely better safety profile.

  16. Genesis 3 - Plate forme pour la création musicale à l'aide des modèles physiques CORDIS-ANIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Castagné, Nicolas; Cadoz, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Session: " Plates-formes pour la diffusion et pour la création "; National audience; GENESIS3 est une toute nouvelle version de l'environnement GENESIS pour la création musicale à l'aide les modèles physiques masse-interaction CORDIS-ANIMA. Elle a été conçue avec un recul de plus de dix années sur l'ancienne version et ses utilisations. Nous profitons de la sortie de GENESIS3 pour présenter une analyse du " paradigme logiciel " porté par GENESIS, en particulier en ce qui concerne les fonction...

  17. A climatological model of North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Wotherspoon, Simon J.; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2016-12-01

    Extensive damage and loss of life can be caused by tropical cyclones (TCs) that make landfall. Modelling of TC landfall probability is beneficial to insurance/re-insurance companies, decision makers, government policy and planning, and residents in coastal areas. In this study, we develop a climatological model of tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall for North Indian Ocean (NIO) rim countries based on kernel density estimation, a generalised additive model (GAM) including an Euler integration step, and landfall detection using a country mask approach. Using a 35-year record (1979-2013) of tropical cyclone track observations from the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (part of the International Best Track Archive Climate Stewardship Version 6), the GAM is fitted to the observed cyclone track velocities as a smooth function of location in each season. The distribution of cyclone genesis points is approximated by kernel density estimation. The model simulated TCs are randomly selected from the fitted kernel (TC genesis), and the cyclone paths (TC tracks), represented by the GAM together with the application of stochastic innovations at each step, are simulated to generate a suite of NIO rim landfall statistics. Three hindcast validation methods are applied to evaluate the integrity of the model. First, leave-one-out cross validation is applied whereby the country of landfall is determined by the majority vote (considering the location by only highest percentage of landfall) from the simulated tracks. Second, the probability distribution of simulated landfall is evaluated against the observed landfall. Third, the distances between the point of observed landfall and simulated landfall are compared and quantified. Overall, the model shows very good cross-validated hindcast skill of modelled landfalling cyclones against observations in each of the NIO tropical cyclone seasons and for most NIO rim countries, with only a relatively small difference in the percentage of

  18. The role of microRNAs during the genesis of medulloblastomas induced by the hedgehog pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoju; Liu, Jun; Cheng, Steven Y

    2011-01-01

    Constitutive hedgehog (Hh) signaling is associated with the genesis of medulloblastomas (MB). The objective of this study is to identify special microRNAs (miRNAs) regulated by the Hh pathway, and to clarify the role of miRNAs during the genesis of MB induced by sustained Hh activation. In the primary screening, we used stem-loop RT-PCR to test the expression of 90 different miRNAs in the wildtype (WT) and Ptc-/- MEF cell lines. In the secondary screening, the miRNAs screened from the first screening were validated in the Sufu-/- MEF cell lines. We then verified the expression of miRNAs both in the normal cerebellar tissues and the MB induced by activated Hh pathway, and examined the expression of the other 21 miRNA members of the miR-154 cluster in the MB and normal cerebellum. In the first screening, 13 miRNAs showed significant differential expression in WT and Ptc-/- MEF cell lines, while 10 of them had significant difference in the Sufu-/- MEF cell line. Compared to the normal mouse cerebellum, only 2 miRNAs in 15 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the MB and normal cerebellar tissues. Among 21 members of the miR-154 cluster, 6 miRNAs were downregulated in the MB. Our study demonstrated that miR-154 may be regulated by the Hh pathway, and the activation of the Hh pathway led to the downregulation of the miR-154 cluster, resulting in the genesis of MB.

  19. The cytochrome P450 genesis locus: the origin and evolution of animal cytochrome P450s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David R; Goldstone, Jared V; Stegeman, John J

    2013-02-19

    The neighbourhoods of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in deuterostome genomes, as well as those of the cnidarians Nematostella vectensis and Acropora digitifera and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens were examined to find clues concerning the evolution of CYP genes in animals. CYP genes created by the 2R whole genome duplications in chordates have been identified. Both microsynteny and macrosynteny were used to identify genes that coexisted near CYP genes in the animal ancestor. We show that all 11 CYP clans began in a common gene environment. The evidence implies the existence of a single locus, which we term the 'cytochrome P450 genesis locus', where one progenitor CYP gene duplicated to create a tandem set of genes that were precursors of the 11 animal CYP clans: CYP Clans 2, 3, 4, 7, 19, 20, 26, 46, 51, 74 and mitochondrial. These early CYP genes existed side by side before the origin of cnidarians, possibly with a few additional genes interspersed. The Hox gene cluster, WNT genes, an NK gene cluster and at least one ARF gene were close neighbours to this original CYP locus. According to this evolutionary scenario, the CYP74 clan originated from animals and not from land plants nor from a common ancestor of plants and animals. The CYP7 and CYP19 families that are chordate-specific belong to CYP clans that seem to have originated in the CYP genesis locus as well, even though this requires many gene losses to explain their current distribution. The approach to uncovering the CYP genesis locus overcomes confounding effects because of gene conversion, sequence divergence, gene birth and death, and opens the way to understanding the biodiversity of CYP genes, families and subfamilies, which in animals has been obscured by more than 600 Myr of evolution.

  20. New model for the genesis and maturation of viroplasms induced by fijiviruses in insect vector cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qianzhuo; Zheng, Shenglan; Han, Qingmei; Chen, Hongyan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Qian; Wei, Taiyun

    2013-06-01

    Plant reoviruses are thought to replicate and assemble within cytoplasmic, nonmembranous structures called viroplasms. Here, we established continuous cell cultures of the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) to investigate the mechanisms for the genesis and maturation of the viroplasm induced by Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, during infection of its insect vector. Electron and confocal microscopy revealed that the viroplasm consisted of a granular region, where viral RNAs and nonstructural proteins P6 and P9-1 accumulated, and a filamentous region, where viral RNAs, progeny cores, viral particles, as well as nonstructural proteins P5 and P6 accumulated. Our results suggested that the filamentous viroplasm matrix was the site for the assembly of progeny virions. Because viral RNAs were produced by assembled core particles within the filamentous viroplasm matrix, we propose that these viral RNAs might be transported to the granular viroplasm matrix. P5 formed filamentous inclusions and P9-1 formed granular inclusions in the absence of viral infection, suggesting that the filamentous and granular viroplasm matrices were formed primarily by P5 and P9-1, respectively. P6 was apparently recruited in the whole viroplasm matrix by direct interaction with P9-1 and P5. Thus, the present results suggested that P5, P6, and P9-1 are collectively required for the genesis and maturation of the filamentous and granular viroplasm matrix induced by SRBSDV infection. Based on these results, we propose a new model to explain the genesis and maturation of the viroplasms induced by fijiviruses in insect vector cells.

  1. Cleaning Genesis Sample Return Canister for Flight: Lessons for Planetary Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Hittle, J. D.; Mickelson, E. T.; Stansbery, Eileen K.

    2016-01-01

    Sample return missions require chemical contamination to be minimized and potential sources of contamination to be documented and preserved for future use. Genesis focused on and successfully accomplished the following: - Early involvement provided input to mission design: a) cleanable materials and cleanable design; b) mission operation parameters to minimize contamination during flight. - Established contamination control authority at a high level and developed knowledge and respect for contamination control across all institutions at the working level. - Provided state-of-the-art spacecraft assembly cleanroom facilities for science canister assembly and function testing. Both particulate and airborne molecular contamination was minimized. - Using ultrapure water, cleaned spacecraft components to a very high level. Stainless steel components were cleaned to carbon monolayer levels (10 (sup 15) carbon atoms per square centimeter). - Established long-term curation facility Lessons learned and areas for improvement, include: - Bare aluminum is not a cleanable surface and should not be used for components requiring extreme levels of cleanliness. The problem is formation of oxides during rigorous cleaning. - Representative coupons of relevant spacecraft components (cut from the same block at the same time with identical surface finish and cleaning history) should be acquired, documented and preserved. Genesis experience suggests that creation of these coupons would be facilitated by specification on the engineering component drawings. - Component handling history is critical for interpretation of analytical results on returned samples. This set of relevant documents is not the same as typical documentation for one-way missions and does include data from several institutions, which need to be unified. Dedicated resources need to be provided for acquiring and archiving appropriate documents in one location with easy access for decades. - Dedicated, knowledgeable

  2. Clean Assembly of Genesis Collector Canister for Flight: Lessons for Planetary Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.; Allen, C. C.; Warren, J. L.; Schwartz, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of solar composition in the Genesis collectors requires not only high sensitivity but very low blanks; thus, very strict collector contamination minimization was required beginning with mission planning and continuing through hardware design, fabrication, assembly and testing. Genesis started with clean collectors and kept them clean inside of a canister. The mounting hardware and container for the clean collectors were designed to be cleanable, with access to all surfaces for cleaning. Major structural components were made of aluminum and cleaned with megasonically energized ultrapure water (UPW). The UPW purity was >18 M resistivity. Although aluminum is relatively difficult to clean, the Genesis protocol achieved level 25 and level 50 cleanliness on large structural parts; however, the experience suggests that surface treatments may be helpful on future missions. All cleaning was performed in an ISO Class 4 (Class 10) cleanroom immediately adjacent to an ISO Class 4 assembly room; thus, no plastic packaging was required for transport. Persons assembling the canister were totally enclosed in cleanroom suits with face shield and HEPA filter exhaust from suit. Interior canister materials, including fasteners, were installed, untouched by gloves, using tweezers and other stainless steel tools. Sealants/lubricants were not exposed inside the canister, but vented to the exterior and applied in extremely small amounts using special tools. The canister was closed in ISO Class 4, not to be opened until on station at Earth-Sun L1. Throughout the cleaning and assembly, coupons of reference materials that were cleaned at the same time as the flight hardware were archived for future reference and blanks. Likewise reference collectors were archived. Post-mission analysis of collectors has made use of these archived reference materials.

  3. IL-35 over-expression is associated with genesis of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yong-Gang; Zhai, Jing-Ming; Wang, Wei; Feng, Bing; Yao, Guo-Liang; An, Yan-Hui; Zeng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of interleukin (IL)-35 has been found in a variety of malignancies, but the expression status in gastric cancer has yet to be elucidated clearly. In the present study, positive expression of EBI3 and p35 was 63.3% and 70.0% of cases, respectively. EBI3 expression was strongly related with larger tumor size and invasion depth (PIL-35 might be involved in growth of gastric cancer. Interestingly, EBI3 and p35 expressions were positive correlated with Ki-67 expression. Moreover, EBI3 immunoreactivity was associated with Bcl-2 staining. Our data suggest IL-35 is correlated with genesis of gastric cancer by regulating growth and apoptosis.

  4. Evoluzionismo e gestaltismo. La psicologia della forma e il problema della genesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gardini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article carries out a critique of the abstract and disembodied character owned by the structures of the Psychology of Form. The Psychology of Form ignores and removes the genesis of forms, thus remaining trapped in the "dialectic of enlightenment" as described by Adorno and Horkheimer. Through the critical contribution of the works of Piaget and Eibl-Eibesfeldt, is brought to light that history of the relations between the individual and the environment which the Gestaltpsychologie finds only in his final static result.

  5. RESEARCH OF LEVEL OF SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION ON COAL HEAPS GENESIS DANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the summary of information about the spontaneous combustion of brown coal mass on coal heaps. It describes the procedure “The evaluation of the degree of the danger for the genesis of the spontaneous combustion of coal on coal heaps”. The evaluation includes analysis of important influencing factors. The conclusion of this article contains definite text of the proposition. It will be verified in the last year of the solution of this project TA01020351 – program ALFA.

  6. The 1981 eruptive fissure on Mt. Etna: considerations on its exploration and genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Leotta

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is targeted to an analysis of features common to various fissure caves on Mt. Etna, Sicily. The Authors report the preliminary results of the exploration carried out in the 1981 eruptive fissure, the technical problems met during the exploration, the flow trends and the different courses of the molten material inside the fissure, the particular morphologies. A genetic model is proposed, different from those characterising the lava tube cave genesis, and links are suggested between the various fissures and the main tectonic stress systems operating on Mt. Etna, as well as the morpho-structural conditions of the volcanic edifice of Mt. Etna.

  7. Recent Optical and SEM Characterization of Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator Diamond on Silicon Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Ross, D. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McNamara, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the 4 Genesis solar wind concentrator collectors was a silicon substrate coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in which to capture solar wind. This material was designed for analysis of solar nitrogen and noble gases [1, 2]. This particular collector fractured during landing, but about 80% of the surface was recovered, including a large piece which was subdivided in 2012 [3, 4, 5]. The optical and SEM imaging and analysis described below supports the subdivision and allocation of the diamond-on-silicon (DOS) concentrator collector.

  8. The role of stem cells and progenitors in the genesis of medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J

    2014-10-01

    Cancer results from dysregulation of growth and survival pathways in normal stem cells and progenitors. Identifying the cells from which a tumor arises can facilitate the development of animal models and point to novel targets for therapy. Medulloblastoma is an aggressive tumor of the cerebellum that occurs predominantly in children. Recent genomic studies suggest that medulloblastoma consists of 4 major subgroups, each with distinct mutations and signaling pathway deregulations, and each potentially arising from distinct populations of stem cells and progenitors. Here we review the major types of progenitor cells in the cerebellum and discuss their role in the genesis of medulloblastoma.

  9. Higher Magnification Imaging of the Polished Aluminum Collector Returned from the Genesis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Burkett, P. J.; Allton, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    The polished aluminum collector (previously referred to as the polished aluminum kidney) was intended for noble gas analysis for the Gene-sis mission. The aluminum collector, fabricated from alloy 6061T, was polished for flight with alumina, then diamond paste. Final cleaning was performed by soak-ing and rinsing with hexane, then isopropanol, and last-ly megasonically energized ultrapure water prior to installation. It was mounted inside the collector canister on the thermal shield at JSC in 2000. The polished aluminum collector was not surveyed microscopically prior to flight.

  10. Compositional variation and genesis of ferromanganese crusts of the Afanasiy-Nikitin Seamount, Equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajani, R.P.; Banakar, V.K.; Parthiban, G.; Mudholkar, A.V.; Chodankar, A.R.

    to show this initial fractionation of Fe and Mn from the ambient water because they are inti- mately intermixed. The dominant controls on the incorporation of various metals in the Fe{Mn crusts Composition and genesis of seamount Fe{Mn crusts from... by hydrogenetic pre- cipitation of Mn and Fe hydroxides (Bonatti et al 1972; Halbach et al 1983). The Co-enrichment in seamount Fe{Mn crusts is well known and has been documented from many seamounts of the Paci?c, where its content reaches up to 2% (Halbach...

  11. The Upper Ocean Thermal Structure and the Genesis Locations of Tropical Cyclones in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; Fung Chi-Hung; Lau Kai-Hon

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the upper ocean thermal structure and the genesis locations of tropical cyclones (TCs) in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated by using the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) best-track archives and high resolution (1/4 degree) temperature analyses of the world's oceans in this paper In the monthly mean genesis positions of TCs from 1945 to 2005 in the SCS, the mean sea surface temperature (SST) was 28.8℃ and the mean depth of 26℃ water was 53.1 m. From the monthly distribution maps of genesis positions of TCs, SST and the depth of 26℃ water in the SCS, we discovered that there existed regions with SST exceeding 26℃ and 26℃ water depth exceeding 50m where no tropical cyclones formed from 1945 to 2005 in the SCS, which suggests that there were other factors unfavorable for TC formation in these regions.

  12. ENSO Effect on East Asian Tropical Cyclone Landfall via Changes in Tracks and Genesis in a Statistical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Emmi; Hall, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements on a statistical tropical cyclone (TC) track model in the western North Pacific Ocean are described. The goal of the model is to study the effect of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on East Asian TC landfall. The model is based on the International Best-Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) database of TC observations for 1945-2007 and employs local regression of TC formation rates and track increments on the Nino-3.4 index and seasonally varying climate parameters. The main improvements are the inclusion of ENSO dependence in the track propagation and accounting for seasonality in both genesis and tracks. A comparison of simulations of the 1945-2007 period with observations concludes that the model updates improve the skill of this model in simulating TCs. Changes in TC genesis and tracks are analyzed separately and cumulatively in simulations of stationary extreme ENSO states. ENSO effects on regional (100-km scale) landfall are attributed to changes in genesis and tracks. The effect of ENSO on genesis is predominantly a shift in genesis location from the southeast in El Nino years to the northwest in La Nina years, resulting in higher landfall rates for the East Asian coast during La Nina. The effect of ENSO on track propagation varies seasonally and spatially. In the peak activity season (July-October), there are significant changes in mean tracks with ENSO. Landfall-rate changes from genesis- and track-ENSO effects in the Philippines cancel out, while coastal segments of Vietnam, China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan show enhanced La Nina-year increases.

  13. [The specific features of the vestibular function in the patients presenting with sensorineural hearing loss of vascular genesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, I M; Popadyuk, V I; Tuzhilina, K V

    2016-01-01

    The authors consider the specific features of the vestibular function in the patients with sensorineural hearing loss of vascular genesis. The study included 60 patients at the age from 28 to 75 years presenting with sensorineural impairment of hearing of vascular genesis. All of them were examined with the use of the extended otoneurological method. The data obtained were compared with the structural changes and hemodynamic characteristics of vertebral arteries (VA) and internal carotid arteries (ICA) and with the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain.

  14. Die teologies-polemiese gerigtheid van Genesis 1-3: implikasies vir die gereformeerde leer oor die erfsonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vorster

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The theological polemic purpose of Genesis 1-3: implications for the reformed doctrine on original sin This article focuses on the polemic nature of Genesis 1-3 and the implications thereof on the reformed doctrine regarding original sin. In the first place the views of the creation narratives as historical-literal and mythological material are discussed. Thereafter the article proposes that the creation narratives must be treated as theological material with a polemic and prophetic purpose. The implications of this for the reformed doctrine on original sin are subsequently discussed.

  15. Genesis of Hematopoietic Tissue and Its Relation with Hemocytes of Litopenaeus Vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Crustacea: Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Muhammad§, Zhi-Feng Zhang*, Ming-Yu Shao, Xiao-Li Shi and Muhammad Shafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Litopenaeus vannamei is a prime aquaculture species and has a worth market value all over the world. In this study, we investigated the genesis and morphology of hematopoietic tissue (HPT and types of hemocyte based on its morphology and cytochemical feature using histological and histochemical methods. The results revealed that HPT in L. vannamei is not visible histologically in mysis and early two post larvae (P1 & P2, and emerges in P3 which locates in epigastric region. The HPT showed a continuous propagation of cells in successive post larval stages. Four types of cells can be identified in the HPT from adult specimen and mitotic activity is visible in the HPT. The hemocytes have been differentiated into five types and some of these types are co-related with the HPT cells. The cytochemical studies suggested that type I and II cells of hemocytes are PAS positive while scanty presence of prophenoloxidase was observed in type I cells. Similarly the type I cells are Sudan Black B positive and rest of the cells showed weak activity against lipid detective stain. This is the first effort towards genesis of HPT and its relation with circulating hemocytes in L. vannamei.

  16. Enhanced Cleaning of Genesis Solar Wind Sample 61348 for Film Residue Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allums, K. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Allton, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The Genesis mission returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a nonnominal reentry. During the recovery of the collector materials from the capsule, many of the collector fragments were placed on the adhesive protion of post-it notes to prevent the fragments from moving during transport back to Johnson Space Center. This unknowingly provided an additional contaminate that would prove difficult to remove with the limited chemistries allowed in the Genesis Curation Laboratory. Generally when collector material samples are prepared for allocation to PIs, the samples are cleaned front side only with Ultra-Pure Water (UPW) via megasonic dispersion to the collector surface to remove crash debris and contamination. While this cleaning method works well on samples that were not placed on post-its during recovery, it has caused movement of the residue on the back of the sample to be deposited on the front in at least two examples. Therefore, samples placed on the adhesive portion on post-it note, require enhanced cleaning methods since post-it residue has proved resistant to UPW cleaning.

  17. Assortative sociality, limited dispersal, infectious disease and the genesis of the global pattern of religion diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Why are religions far more numerous in the tropics compared with the temperate areas? We propose, as an answer, that more religions have emerged and are maintained in the tropics because, through localized coevolutionary races with hosts, infectious diseases select for three anticontagion behaviours: in-group assortative sociality; out-group avoidance; and limited dispersal. These behaviours, in turn, create intergroup boundaries that effectively fractionate, isolate and diversify an original culture leading to the genesis of two or more groups from one. Religion is one aspect of a group's culture that undergoes this process. If this argument is correct then, across the globe, religion diversity should correlate positively with infectious disease diversity, reflecting an evolutionary history of antagonistic coevolution between parasites and hosts and subsequent religion genesis. We present evidence that supports this model: for a global sample of traditional societies, societal range size is reduced in areas with more pathogens compared with areas with few pathogens, and in contemporary countries religion diversity is positively related to two measures of parasite stress. PMID:18664438

  18. Advances in research of sulphide ore textures and their implications for ore genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Lianxing; ZHENG Yuanchuan; TANG Xiaoqian; WU Changzhi; HU Wenxuan

    2006-01-01

    Important advances in research of sulphide ore textures in recent years have deepened our understanding of ore genesis of related mineral deposits. Pressure solution of sulphide minerals has been suggested as a mechanism for remobilization of ore materials,whereas pressure solution of the gangues is believed to raise the grade of the primary ores. We have known that precipitation of base metal sulphides from fluids prefers crystal and crack surfaces of pyrite to form overgrowth. Therefore, pyrite-bearing embryo beds in a sedimentary sequence can be acted as effective crystal seed beds and are favorable for fluid overprinting to form huge statabound deposits. Texture studies of various sulphides can be used to interpret the entire history of sedimentation, diagenesis, deformation and metamorphism of the ores. The study of chalcopyrite disease in sphalerite has brought about the idea of zone refining, and given a new explanation to metal zonation in massive sulphide deposits. Ductile shearing of sulphide ores may form ore mylonites, which will become oreshoots enriched in Cu, Au and Ag during late-stage fluid overprinting. Despite that various modern analytical techniques are being rapidly developed, ore microscopy remains to be an unreplaceable tool for ore geologists. Combined with these modern techniques, this tool will help accelerate the development of theories on ore genesis.

  19. Catastrophic Impact of Silicon on Silicon: Unraveling the Genesis Impact Using Sample 61881

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Kim, H.; Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind were stopped in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. The current work is motivated by the need to understand the interaction of the Genesis payload with contamination during the crash in the Utah desert. Silicon contamination has been found to be notoriously difficult to remove from silicon samples despite multiple cleanings with multiple techniques. However, the question has been posed, "Does the silicon really need to be removed for large area analyses?." If the recalcitrant silicon contamination is all pure silicon from fractured collectors, only a very tiny fraction of that bulk material will contain solar wind, which could skew the analyses. This could be complicated if the silicon trapped other materials and/or gases as it impacted the surface.

  20. Genesis of amorphous calcium carbonate containing alveolar plates in the ciliate Coleps hirtus (Ciliophora, Prostomatea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Marin, Frédéric; Herbst, Frédéric; Plasseraud, Laurent; Schweikert, Michael; Baier, Johannes; Bill, Joachim; Brümmer, Franz

    2013-02-01

    In the protist world, the ciliate Coleps hirtus (phylum Ciliophora, class Prostomatea) synthesizes a peculiar biomineralized test made of alveolar plates, structures located within alveolar vesicles at the cell cortex. Alveolar plates are arranged by overlapping like an armor and they are thought to protect and/or stiffen the cell. Although their morphology is species-specific and of complex architecture, so far almost nothing is known about their genesis, their structure and their elemental and mineral composition. We investigated the genesis of new alveolar plates after cell division and examined cells and isolated alveolar plates by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR and X-ray diffraction. Our investigations revealed an organic mesh-like structure that guides the formation of new alveolar plates like a template and the role of vesicles transporting inorganic material. We further demonstrated that the inorganic part of the alveolar plates is composed out of amorphous calcium carbonate. For stabilization of the amorphous phase, the alveolar vesicles, the organic fraction and the element phosphorus may play a role.

  1. Axial level-dependent molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the genesis of the embryonic neural plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Hisato; Takada, Shinji; Takemoto, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    The transcription factor gene Sox2, centrally involved in neural primordial regulation, is activated by many enhancers. During the early stages of embryonic development, Sox2 is regulated by the enhancers N2 and N1 in the anterior neural plate (ANP) and posterior neural plate (PNP), respectively. This differential use of the enhancers reflects distinct regulatory mechanisms underlying the genesis of ANP and PNP. The ANP develops directly from the epiblast, triggered by nodal signal inhibition, and via the combined action of TFs SOX2, OTX2, POU3F1, and ZIC2, which promotes the the ANP development and inhibits other cell lineages. In contrast, the PNP is derived from neuromesodermal bipotential axial stem cells that develop into the neural plate when Sox2 is activated by the N1 enhancer, whereas they develop into the paraxial mesoderm when the N1 enhancer is repressed by the action of TBX6. The axial stem cells are maintained by the activity of WNT3a and T (Brachyury). However, at axial levels more anterior to the 8th somites (cervical levels), the development of both the neural plate and somite proceeds in the absence of WNT3a, T, or TBX6. These observations indicate that distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms determine neural plate genesis based on the axial level, and contradict the classical concept of the term "neural induction," which assumes a pan-neural plate mechanism.

  2. Impaired electro-genesis in skeletal muscle fibers of transgenic Alzheimer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamedyarov, Marat Alexandrovich; Volkov, Evgeniy Mikhailovich; Khaliullina, Dilyara Fanisovna; Grigoryev, Pavel Nikolaevich; Zefirov, Andrey Lvovich; Palotás, András

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory decline, but is often associated with non-cognitive symptoms, including muscular dysfunction. In the majority of cases these motor disturbances are seen when other neuro-degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease overlap dementia, however these can also be directly related to AD itself. Although the patho-mechanism remains largely unclear, β-amyloid peptide (βAP) is thought to be a key role-player in both the brain and periphery. Here we studied the electro-genesis of skeletal muscle fibers in a mouse transgenic AD model. Membrane potential was recorded by standard electro-physiological techniques. Compared to wild-type rodents, AD mice show severe disturbances in skeletal muscle electro-genesis manifested by significant depolarization of myo-fibers. These changes are not affected by short-term βAP treatment, the mark of a chronic degenerative process in the periphery directly related to AD whereby ion pumps on muscle membranes exhibit reduced activity. This phenomenon may explain ionic imbalance and cellular dysfunction both in the neuro-muscular system and in the brain. The observed motor disturbances might play a key role in impaired activities of daily living, and addressing the muscular patho-physiology could improve quality of life in AD.

  3. The Genesis of Romanian Football. Social Factors and Processes behind the Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER, László

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with those social and economic factors that contributed to the genesis of Romanian soccer at the turn of the previous century. The author argues that football was imported from abroad via peregrination and schools, but certain social processes, such as urbanization, capitalization and the appearance of massive working classes, are the reasons why this beautiful game became socially embedded in the local environments. The different circumstances in Banat and Transylvania and in the old Romanian Kingdom marked the social history and trajectory “travelled” by the ball. While in the western part of the country, football arrived in a fertile ground because of the already existing bourgeois sport associations and the rapidly emerging local working classes, the role of foreign companies and expats in implementing football was more significant in the southern regions. This difference in the genesis of the game produced two distinct styles of playing football. These two styles clearly reflect the historical and social background specific to the different regions.

  4. A mouse model for monitoring islet cell genesis and developing therapies for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Shimajiri

    2011-03-01

    Transient expression of the transcription factor neurogenin-3 marks progenitor cells in the pancreas as they differentiate into islet cells. We developed a transgenic mouse line in which the surrogate markers secreted alkaline phosphatase (SeAP and enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP can be used to monitor neurogenin-3 expression, and thus islet cell genesis. In transgenic embryos, cells expressing EGFP lined the pancreatic ducts. SeAP was readily detectable in embryos, in the media of cultured embryonic pancreases and in the serum of adult animals. Treatment with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, which blocks Notch signaling, enhanced SeAP secretion rates and increased the number of EGFP-expressing cells as assayed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS and immunohistochemistry in cultured pancreases from embryos at embryonic day 11.5, but not in pancreases harvested 1 day later. By contrast, treatment with growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11 reduced SeAP secretion rates. In adult mice, partial pancreatectomy decreased, whereas duct ligation increased, circulating SeAP levels. This model will be useful for studying signals involved in islet cell genesis in vivo and developing therapies that induce this process.

  5. Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) study to investigate the genesis of Mujil hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmania, Suryanto, Wiwit

    2017-07-01

    Gunung Mujil is an isolated hill located near Pondoworejo village, Kalibawang sub-district, Kulon Progo district, and Special Province of Yogyakarta. The hill is part of the eastern Kulon Progo mountain range extended relatively in the North-South direction. The lithology of the hill consists of andesite breccia and it's similar with the Old Andesite Formation that built the Kulon Progo Mountains. There are at least two hypothesis about the genesis and the formation mechanism of this hill, (1) it was formed by debris mass from Kulon Progo Mountains, and (2) ) it was formed by an intrusion. Our study intended to determine the subsurface resistivity below the hill and to relating those results to with the scenario of the genesis of the Mujil hill. We conducted Audio-magnetotellurics (AMT) measurements along two lines survey crossing the Mujil hill consisting of 20 measurements. Since the measurements are located near the villages, most of the data has a fair to bad quality and only one station yielded an excellent data. A 1D Forward modeling was then applied to find best-fit model of the AMT data. The results shows that the Mujil hill was built by debris mass of the Old Andesite Formation from Kulon Progo mountain which is represented by a lower resistivity value under the Mujil hill.

  6. EuroGEOSS/GENESIS ``e-Habitat'' AIP-3 Use Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, P.; Dubois, G.; Santoro, M.; Peedell, S.; de Longueville, B.; Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.

    2010-12-01

    Natural ecosystems are in rapid decline. Major habitats are disappearing at a speed never observed before. The current rate of species extinction is several orders of magnitude higher than the background rate from the fossil record. Protected Areas (PAs) and Protected Area Systems are designed to conserve natural and cultural resources, to maintain biodiversity (ecosystems, species, genes) and ecosystem services. The scientific challenge of understanding how environmental and climatological factors impact on ecosystems and habitats requires the use of information from different scientific domains. Thus, multidisciplinary interoperability is a crucial requirement for a framework aiming to support scientists. The Group on Earth Observations (or GEO) is coordinating international efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). This emerging public infrastructure is interconnecting a diverse and growing array of instruments and systems for monitoring and forecasting changes in the global environment. This “system of systems” supports multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary scientific researches. The presented GEOSS-based interoperability framework facilitates the discovery and exploitation of datasets and models from heterogeneous scientific domains and Information Technology services (data sources). The GEO Architecture and Data Committee (ADC) launched the Architecture Implementation Pilot (AIP) Initiative to develop and deploy new processes and infrastructure components for the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) and the broader GEOSS architecture. The current AIP Phase 3 (AIP-3) aims to increase GEOSS capacity to support several strategic Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) including: Disaster Management, Health/Air Quality, Biodiversity, Energy, Health/Disease and Water. As to Biodiversity, the EC-funded EuroGEOSS (http://www.eurogeoss.eu) and GENESIS (http://www.genesis-fp7.eu) projects have developed a use scenario called

  7. Clay alteration and gold deposition in the genesis and blue star deposits, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews-Armitage, S. P.; Romberger, S.B.; Whitney, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Genesis and Blue Star sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposits occur within the 40-mile-long Carlin trend and are located in Eureka County, Nevada. The deposits are hosted within the Devonian calcareous Popovich Formation, the siliciclastic Rodeo Creek unit and the siliciclastic Vinini Formation. The host rocks have undergone contact metamorphism, decalcification, silicification, argillization, and supergene oxidation. Detailed characterization of the alteration patterns, mineralogy, modes of occurrence, and associated geochemistry of clay minerals resulted in the following classifications: least altered rocks, found distal to the orebody, consisting of both metamorphosed and unmetamorphosed host rock that has not been completely decalcified; and altered rocks, found proximal to the orebody that have been decalcified. Altered rocks are classified further into the following groups based on clay mineral content: silicic, 1 to 10 percent clay; silicicargillic, 10 to 35 percent clay; and argillic, 35 to 80 percent clay. Clay species identified are 1M illite, 2M1 illite, kaolinite, halloysite, and dioctahedral smectite. An early hydrothermal event resulted in the precipitation of euhedral kaolinite and at least one generation of silica. This event occurred contemporaneously with decalcification which increased rock permeability and porosity. A second clay alteration event resulted in the precipitation of hydrothermal 1M illite which replaced hydrothermal kaolinite and is associated with gold deposition. Silver and silica deposition is also associated with this phase of hydrothermal alteration. Hydrothermal alteration was followed by supergene alteration which resulted in the formation of supergene kaolinite, halloysite, and smectite as well as the oxidation of iron-bearing minerals. Supergene clays are concentrated along faults, dike margins, and within rocks containing carbonate. Gold mineralization is not associated with supergene clay minerals within the Genesis and

  8. Cosmogonies and Culture: Teaching Genesis and the Popol Vuh in an Interdisciplinary Course at a Christian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mikeal C.; Cook, Garrett

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of teaching Genesis and the Popol Vuh, the Mayan creation account, in an interdisciplinary course at a church-related institution. The course is part of an alternative, interdisciplinary core curriculum typically taken by two hundred students a year at the university. A comparison of the Popol Vuh with Genesis…

  9. Cosmogonies and Culture: Teaching Genesis and the Popol Vuh in an Interdisciplinary Course at a Christian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Mikeal C.; Cook, Garrett

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of teaching Genesis and the Popol Vuh, the Mayan creation account, in an interdisciplinary course at a church-related institution. The course is part of an alternative, interdisciplinary core curriculum typically taken by two hundred students a year at the university. A comparison of the Popol Vuh with Genesis…

  10. As Time Passed by Came Sunset. Christen Købke’s 'View of Lake Sortedam', its Genesis and Colour Changes’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Vila Espuna, Anna; Wadum, Jørgen;

    2014-01-01

    -EDX. The genesis of the painting is described as well as the results of the pigment analyses showing colour changes in certain areas of the composition related to deterioration of the pigment Prussian blue. The admixture of the blue pigment with lead white as a determining factor in the fading is proposed...

  11. One potential superlarge Pb-Zn ore occurrence with Himalayan thermal brine genesis--Wuqia Region, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继顺; 高珍权; 邓功全; 李明; 刘全德

    2002-01-01

    The paper focuses on geological and geochemical evidence of thermal brine genesis of Pb-Zn deposits in Wuqia district, Xinjiang. The results suggest that the known Pb-Zn deposits, such as Wulagen, are thermal brine genesis, which is supported by the features of tectonic setting, magma and regional metamorphism, and the characteristics of trace element distribution in strata and redistribution in the ore-forming process, the REE patterns and their main parameters of main type ores, the composition features and the source indicators of Pb, S isotopes. Ore-forming conditions of superlarge Pb-Zn deposits studies show that there exists tectonic and sources setting of Jinding-type superlarge Pb-Zn deposits in this area. Five Pb-Zn ore belts and central uplift belts discovered lately have not only confirmed that the genesis of Wulagen Pb-Zn deposits is thermal genesis, but also further proved that there exists tectonic and source setting of Jinding-type superlarge Pb-Zn deposit in the study area. Mineral deposit model was described and prospecting potentiality of superlarge Pb-Zn deposit and their significance were discussed.

  12. Ice-Marginal Environments: Geomorphic and Structural Genesis of Marginal Moraines at Mýrdalsjökull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Schomacker, A.; Benediktsson, Ívar Örn

    2010-01-01

    dynamics and different sedimentary and topographic conditions of the forefields. It is intriguing that without having observed the active ice-marginal moraine genesis year by year, most of the resulting moraine ridges now found in the glacier forefield would have been misinterpreted. We review processes...

  13. Improvement of orthopedic dental treatment of patients suffering post-surgery defects of the maxilla of cancer genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Arutyunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comprehensive study identifying the key issuesand giving the mathematical, and clinical and microbiological substantiation of modern principles of providing orthopedic dental care to patients with acquired defects of the upper jaw of cancer genesis.

  14. Role of ocean in the genesis and annihilation of the core of the warm pool in the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Durand, F.

    The earlier hypothesis, stated in the ARMEX (Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment) Science Plan, that the ocean plays an important, but passive, role in the genesis of the core of warm pool in the southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) is examined in the light...

  15. Genesis of Yangla Banded Skarn-Hosted Copper Deposit in Tethys Orogenic Belt of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Yangla copper deposit is the largest banded skarn-hosted copper deposit found recently in the Tethys orogenic belt of Southwestern China. On the basis of the study of distribution, petrology and mineralogy as well as major element, REE and isotope geochemistry, the authors find that the banded skarn, which hosts the deposit, was precipitated from hydrothermal solutions in the form of exhalate sediment. Therefore, the banded skarn-hosted copper deposit is a Sedex-type deposit, with a series of stacked, conformable lenses underlain by at least one stringer zone. The deposit, intercalated at the contact of lower clastic rock and upper carbonate rock of Gajinxueshan Group, was formed in the Carboniferous ((296.1±7.0) Ma), contemporary to the host Gajinxueshan Group. The interpretation of the genesis of Yangla banded skarn-hosted copper deposit is of fundamental exploration significance for the discovery of Sedex-type copper deposit in the region.

  16. Genesis of Marine Carbonate Natural Gas in the Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qu; TENGER; MENG Qingqiang; QIN Jianzhong; JIANG Qigui; ZHENG Lunju

    2008-01-01

    Sichuan Basin is one of the structurally stable and gas-rich basins, being regarded as one of China's important natural gas industry bases. Puguang and Jiannan gas fields, located in the eastern Sichuan Basin are two large fields with gas derived from Permian and Lower Triassic marine carbonate. The genesis of marine carbonate natural gas was examined using carbon isotope composition and hydrocarbon components of natural gas samples from the eastern and western Sichuan Basin, and compared with that of acidolysis gas derived from marine source rock in the eastern Sichuan Basin. It is concluded that the natural gas in the marine carbonate reservoir originated from pyrolysis of the earlier crude oil and light-oil, and then mixed with kerogen pyrolysis gas of the Permian and Lower Silurian source rock.

  17. Between normal and pathological: Ludwik Fleck, Georges Canguilhem and the genesis of historical epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Lucio Leitão Condé

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to address, starting from some aspects of the thought of Ludwik Fleck and Georges Canguilhem, the genesis of historical epistemology in the history of science. Specifically, it seeks the contribution of the biological matrix, or the life sciences, presented by these authors, as a central framework in the constitution of historical epistemology. In other words, more than a search of similarities between Fleck and Canguilhem, the main goal is to show how, in formulating independently their ideas of history of science – especially the history of medicine – these authors contributed decisively to the basis of a historical epistemology that will be, throughout the twentieth century, a new thought style for understanding the history of science.

  18. Sun-genesis 21: Empowering the global village in the digital age and the solar century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamasaki, Les [Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Sun-Genesis 21 is a global economic development plan for creating an environmentally sustainable future in the developing world. Its premise is that the solution to the survival of civil stability and democracy in developing countries in the Information Age is to slow the migration of the rural poor into the urban centers as well as dispersing some of the residents of the already impacted cities into new agro-communities. This strategy envisions empowering the 25 million coffee farmers located in the poorest countries in the world to control their own economic destiny by marketing their products directly to the international marketplace over the World Wide Web (Coffee Belt Plan 2020). The plan also envisions creating a network of new agricultural communities called World Farm Solar Telecommunities that utilizes telecommunications and environmental technologies to disperse the impacted urban population. Proven profitable commodities such as industrial hemp, aloe vera, and aquacultural farming will be the economic foundation of these agro-communities. The goal is to empower rural agro-entrepreneurs to become an economic engine for job creation and be able to afford the Coffee Solar Televillages that include distant learning centers, telemedicine clinics, food processing centers, e-commerce centers, and solar crop-drying centers. The Genesis 21 program includes creative financing strategies to deal with these massive problems of poverty and hunger through the concept of trade, not aid, including the use of barter in a proposed Green Technology for Green Coffee program. [Spanish] Sun-Genesis 21 es un plan global de desarrollo economico para crear un futuro ambiental sustentable en el mundo en desarrollo. La premisa del plan es que la solucion para la supervivencia de la estabilidad civil y la democracia en paises en desarrollo dentro de la Era de la Informacion es desacelerar la migracion de la gente pobre de las areas rurales hacia los centros urbanos, asi como

  19. Scale genesis and gravitational wave in a classically scale invariant extension of the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Jisuke [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa University,Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    We assume that the origin of the electroweak (EW) scale is a gauge-invariant scalar-bilinear condensation in a strongly interacting non-abelian gauge sector, which is connected to the standard model via a Higgs portal coupling. The dynamical scale genesis appears as a phase transition at finite temperature, and it can produce a gravitational wave (GW) background in the early Universe. We find that the critical temperature of the scale phase transition lies above that of the EW phase transition and below few O(100) GeV and it is strongly first-order. We calculate the spectrum of the GW background and find the scale phase transition is strong enough that the GW background can be observed by DECIGO.

  20. Plan for Subdividing Genesis Mission Diamond-on-Silicon 60000 Solar Wind Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Patti J.; Allton, J. A.; Clemett, S. J.; Gonzales, C. P.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Rodriquez, M. C.; See, T. H.; Sutter, B.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Genesis solar wind sample return mission experienced an off nominal landing resulting in broken, albeit useful collectors. Sample 60000 from the collector is comprised of diamond-like-carbon film on a float zone (FZ) silicon wafer substrate Diamond-on-Silicon (DOS), and is highly prized for its higher concentration of solar wind (SW) atoms. A team of scientist at the Johnson Space Center was charged with determining the best, nondestructive and noncontaminating method to subdivide the specimen that would result in a 1 sq. cm subsample for allocation and analysis. Previous work included imaging of the SW side of 60000, identifying the crystallographic orientation of adjacent fragments, and devising an initial cutting plan.

  1. Occurrence and Geological Genesis of Pyrites in Late Paleozoic Coals in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大锰; 杨起; 等

    2000-01-01

    The occurrence and geological genesis of pyrites in Late Paleozoic colas of North china have been systematically studied in terms of coal petrology,coal chemistry,elemental geochemistry and sulfur isotope geochemistry.The results suggest that eight types of pyrite,i.e.,framboidal,automorphic graular,oolitic,massive,homogeneous spherical,allotriomorphic,nodular,joint-and fisure-filling pyrintes can be subdivided under the microscope,Four generations of pyrite are also reconized according to the shape,size,coexisting assemblage,spacial distribution relationship with macerals,the contents of sulfur and iron.atomic S/Fe ratios and associated elements in pryites.Sulfur in Late Palozoic colas of North China is of diverse source as evidenced by sulfur isotope variations in the pyrites.The δ34S values of pyrite generated at the early stage ted to be negative,and at the late stage,positive.

  2. Cleaning Genesis Solar Wind Collectors with Ultrapure Water: Residual Contaminant Particle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Wentworth, S. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Calaway, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Additional experience has been gained in removing contaminant particles from the surface of Genesis solar wind collectors fragments by using megasonically activated ultrapure water (UPW)[1]. The curatorial facility has cleaned six of the eight array collector material types to date: silicon (Si), sapphire (SAP), silicon-on-sapphire (SOS), diamond-like carbon-on-silicon (DOS), gold-on-sapphire (AuOS), and germanium (Ge). Here we make estimates of cleaning effectiveness using image analysis of particle size distributions and an SEM/EDS reconnaissance of particle chemistry on the surface of UPW-cleaned silicon fragments (Fig. 1). Other particle removal techniques are reported by [2] and initial assessment of molecular film removal is reported by [3].

  3. [Vibrational spectra of black species of hetian nephrite (tremolite jade) and its color genesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-dan; Shi, Guang-hai; Liu, Yan

    2012-03-01

    Black nephrite is a very uncommon jade type currently found only at Karakashi. In order to study the spectral characteristics and color-genetic mechanism of the black nephrite, samples collected from Karakashi were studied using EMPA, IR, Raman and XRD. The results are as follows: nephrite with different color has nearly the same major chemical compostions, while the black ones contain higher carbon; nephrite with different color has similar vibration spectrum, while the black ones show characteristic peak of graphite. It is speculated that the color of black nephrite is not only related with actinolite, but also related with the graphite inclusions. Obviously, Raman spectra is a very important nondestructive method to identify the color genesis and the origin of the black nephrite.

  4. [Endothelial genesis inhibitor-8t (EDI-8t) against tumor growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingwei; Du, Peng; Qian, Yue; Zhang, Qian; Feng, Baoshan; Ding, Hongzhen; Gan, Renbao; Zhang, Hui

    2010-12-01

    On the basis of the origin comparison of known endothelial genesis inhibitors, a 417-bp cDNA fragment was amplified from umbilical cord by RT-PCR and cloned into the expression vector pPIC9, followed by transformation into Pichia pastoris GS115. The resulted yeast was induced with methanol to express recombinant protein. The resulted protein was purified from culture broth and designated as EDI-8t. The in vitro study showed that EDI-8t, originated from collagen VIII, could specifically inhibit the growth and migration of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) stimulated by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The protein also exhibited the activity to cause cell apoptosis. In vivo EDI-8t showed the identical activity comparing with endostatin to inhibit the growth of liver tumor transplanted into nude mice. Interestingly, EDI-8t showed higher activity than endostatin to inhibit tumor growth in metastatic model of melanoma mice.

  5. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Implications for The Genesis of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsun Kao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the most common endocrine disorder affecting women ofreproductive age, is characterized by hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Women withPCOS have a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and endothelial dysfunction. Themechanisms underlying these risks are unclear. Human peripheral blood contains circulatingendothelial progenitor cells (EPCs derived from bone marrow that have the ability to proliferate anddifferentiate into mature endothelial cells, which may contribute to vessel homeostasis and repair.PCOS is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia, which may resultin EPC dysfunction. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms of EPC dysfunction inPCOS, which possibly result in a higher genesis of CVDs in PCOS-affected subjects.

  6. The genesis of victimization surveys and of the realist-constructionist divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castelbajac, Matthieu

    2017-09-12

    The invention of victimization surveys is often presented as a synthesis of the two theoretical attitudes that, supposedly, dominated the 1960s debate over official crime statistics: realism and social constructionism. This paper turns this genesis story on its head. Using original archives, I argue that victimization surveys responded to organizational opportunities in the field of applied research. It was only after the fact that two of their architects seized the debate on crime measurement to broadcast their invention. In so doing they strategically recast the terms of this debate into a binary division between two antithetical social ontologies. This case is used to discuss how social scientists come to reinterpret and misunderstand their history. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Scale genesis and gravitational wave in a classically scale invariant extension of the standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, Jisuke

    2016-01-01

    We assume that the origin of the electroweak (EW) scale is a gauge-invariant scalar-bilinear condensation in a strongly interacting non-abelian gauge sector, which is connected to the standard model via a Higgs portal coupling. The dynamical scale genesis appears as a phase transition at finite temperature, and it can produce a gravitational wave (GW) background in the early Universe. We find that the critical temperature of the scale phase transition lies above that of the EW phase transition and below few $O(100)$ GeV and it is strongly first-order. We calculate the spectrum of the GW background and find the scale phase transition is strong enough that the GW background can be observed by DECIGO.

  8. Late Quaternary fine silt deposits of Jammu, NW Himalaya: Genesis and climatic significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajinder K Ganjoo; Vinod Kumar

    2012-02-01

    The fine silt deposits of Jammu (J & K State, India) stretch all along the Siwalik foothills from Jammu to the Potwar Plateau in Pakistan. The post-Siwalik deposits, first discussed by de Terra and Paterson (1939), are attributed to wind action. The deposits termed as ‘Potwar loessic silt’ comprising sandy silt are essentially of late Quaternary age (75–18 ka) and are re-looked herein from the point of view of genesis and climatic significance. The sorting, skewness and kurtosis parameters of fine silts of Jammu suggest fluvial environment of the deposits wherein the water budget fluctuated. The weak pedogenesis of fine silts at certain intervals corroborate to periods of less or no sedimentation. The bivariant plot studies further suggest fluvial environment of deposition for the fine silt at Jammu, with regular fluctuations in the budget of river water that was perhaps in consonance with oscillations in the climate of the region.

  9. Dynamics and genesis of calcic accumulations in soils and sediments of the Argentinean Pampa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alsu Kuznetsova; Olga Khokhlova

    2015-01-01

    abstract Micromorphology of calcic accumulations (calcite, whewellite and gypsum) and geochemical indices were considered as indicators of genesis and evolution of pedogenic accumulations in soils and paleosediments of the Argentinean Pampa. Two groups of separate and independent calcic accumula-tions were studied using scanning electron microscopy:(i) in situ Argiudolls, reflecting the current soil formation; (ii) in the layers of calcrete (locally named tosca), reflecting the past environments and conditions of these layers sedimentation. New pedogenic gypsum accumulations in Argiudolls were described and possible ways of their formation were suggested. Combined analyses of morphology of carbonate accumulations and geochemical indices in different horizons of Argiudolls and layers of tosca showed that the tosca is paleopedocomplex with complicated formation history. Influence of current environment on tosca morphology is absent, so it is possible to use these pedofeatures for paleor-econstructions in further studying.

  10. Genesis of the city Šabac and origin of its name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Origin and meaning of the name of the city of Šabac was object of interest for many Serbian and foreign historical geographers, linguist geographers, anthropogeographers and others. Nevertheless, the meaning of this name has not been clearly researched till today. Some scientist believed that „Zaslon, the city on the river Sava, is Šabac in Greek“, some others believe that the name Šabac is in Serbian language. In this research paper authors deals with two hypotheses about the name. First hypothesis connects city name with the river Sava, and the second with name of god Sabacius (Sabazije, who was identified as Dionysus and Thracian god horse rider. However, these names are much older than material evidences about city genesis.

  11. A Glutamine-Rich Factor Affects Stem Cell Genesis in Leech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi A. Hohenstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leech embryogenesis is a model for investigating cellular and molecular processes of development. Due to the unusually large size of embryonic stem cells (teloblasts: 50–300 μm in the glossiphoniid leech, Theromyzon tessulatum, and the presence of identifiable stem cell precursors (proteloblasts, we previously isolated a group of genes upregulated upon stem cell birth. In the current study, we show that one of these genes, designated Theromyzon proliferation (Tpr, is required for normal stem cell genesis; specifically, transient Tpr knockdown experiments conducted with antisense oligonucleotides and monitored by semiquantitative RT-PCR, caused abnormal proteloblast proliferation leading to embryonic death, but did not overtly affect neuroectodermal or mesodermal stem cell development once these cells were born. Tpr encodes a large glutamine-rich (∼34% domain that shares compositional similarity with strong transcriptional enhancers many of which have been linked with trinucleotide repeat disorders (e.g., Huntington's.

  12. Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval. Genesis of Meaning in Sound and Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ystad, S.; Kronland-Martinet, R.; Jensen, K.

    2009-01-01

    . The field of computer music embraces a large number of research areas that span from information retrieval, programming, artificial intelligence to acous- tics, signal processing and sound modeling. In the last CMMR gatherings an increased emphasis was placed on the role of human interaction at all levels......- trieval, programming, acoustics, signal processing) and areas within the hu- manities (in particular perception, cognition, musicology, philosophy), and to globally address the notion of sound meaning and its implications in music, modeling and retrieval. As a step in this direction, NTSMB, the Network...... for their valuable paper reports and thank all the participants who made CMMR 2008 Genesis of Meaning in Sounds and Music a stimulating and unique event. Finally, we would like to thank Springer for accepting to publish the CMMR 2008 proceedings in their LNCS series. ...

  13. The Hot—Spring Genesis of the Shimen Realgar Deposit,Northwest Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景荣; 王蔚; 等

    1993-01-01

    The Shimen realgar deposit is characterized by the pipi-shaped orebody and the development of silica sinter and hydrothermal explosive breccia which are typical of hot spring activity.Very similar trace-element associations are noticed between the silica cap and the breccia and modern hot spring waters in the area.The chemistr of ore-forming solutions is also well comparable with that of modern hot spring.,The spring system that gave rise to the mineralization was charged by ground waters heated through thermal conducting systems in the deep crust and,to a lesser extent,by geothermal gradient.ΔD,δ18O,δ13CCH4andδ13CH4andδ13CCO2values and 40Ar/36Ar and 3He/4He ratios indicate that the spring system is of crustal derivation.The ore-forming metals were supplied by surrounding strata,particularly those underlying the ore deposits.The mechanim of ore deposition is thought to be hydrothermal explosion and accompanying boiling and abrupt changes in pH and Eh.Located in northwest Hunan,the Shimen realgar deposit is the leading arsenic producer in the country,However,regardless of its long mining history,the genesis of this deposit has long been a puzzle.It was considered to be postmagmatic epithermal in the leading arsenic producer in the puzzle.It Was considered to be postmagmatic epithermal in origin,but this is trongly challenged by filling(metasomatism)in karst environment proposed later by Zhou Zhiquan(1986)also encounters a number of difficulties.For example,why can the pipi-shaped orebody vertically extend up to several hundreds meters without any compatible development in the lateral dimension? A hot spring genesis is suggested in the present paper based on geological observations and laboratory studies conducted by the authors in recent years.

  14. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: Update on 60336 Sample Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Allums, K. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Burnett, D. S.; Allton, J. H.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Woolum, D.

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the scientific return of Genesis Solar Wind return mission it is necessary to characterize and remove a crash-derived particle and thin film surface contamination. A small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques. Here we present an update on the sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C). This sample has undergone multiple cleaning steps (see the table below): UPW spin wash, aggressive chemical cleanings (including aqua regia, hot xylene and RCA1), as well as optical and chemical (EDS, ToF-SIMS) imaging. Contamination appeared on the surface of 60336 after the initial 2007 UPW cleaning. Aqua regia and hot xylene treatment (8/13/2013) did little to remove contaminants. The sample was UPW cleaned for the third time and imaged (9/16/13). The UPW removed the dark stains that were visible on the sample. However, some features, like "the Flounder" (a large, 100 micron feature in Fig. 1b) appeared largely intact, resisting all previous cleaning efforts. These features were likely from mobilized adhesive, derived from the Post-It notes used to stabilize samples for transport from Utah after the hard landing. To remove this contamination, an RCA step 1 organic cleaning (RCA1) was employed. Although we are still uncertain on the nature of the Flounder and why it is resistant to UPW and aqua regia/hot xylene treatment, we have found RCA1 to be suitable for its removal. It is likely that the glue from sticky pads used during collector recovery may have been a source for resistant organic contamination [9]; however [8] shows that UPW reaction with crash-derived organic contamination does not make particle removal more difficult.

  15. Nurr1 regulates Top IIβ and functions in axon genesis of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Xin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NURR1 (also named as NR4A2 is a member of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family, which can bind to DNA and modulate expression of target genes. Previous studies have shown that NURR1 is essential for the nigral dopaminergic neuron phenotype and function maintenance, and the defects of the gene are possibly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD. Results In this study, we used new born Nurr1 knock-out mice combined with Affymetrix genechip technology and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify Nurr1 regulated genes, which led to the discovery of several transcripts differentially expressed in the nigro-striatal pathway of Nurr1 knock-out mice. We found that an axon genesis gene called Topoisomerase IIβ (Top IIβ was down-regulated in Nurr1 knock-out mice and we identified two functional NURR1 binding sites in the proximal Top IIβ promoter. While in Top IIβ null mice, we saw a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantial nigra and lack of neurites along the nigro-striatal pathway. Using specific TOP II antagonist ICRF-193 or Top IIβ siRNA in the primary cultures of ventral mesencephalic (VM neurons, we documented that suppression of TOP IIβ expression resulted in VM neurites shortening and growth cones collapsing. Furthermore, microinjection of ICRF-193 into the mouse medial forebrain bundle (MFB led to the loss of nigro-striatal projection. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest that Top IIβ might be a down-stream target of Nurr1, which might influence the processes of axon genesis in dopaminergic neurons via the regulation of TOP IIβ expression. The Nurr1-Top IIβ interaction may shed light on the pathologic role of Nurr1 defect in the nigro-striatal pathway deficiency associated with PD.

  16. The Relation Between Dry Vortex Merger and Tropical Cyclone Genesis over the Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shu-Hua; Liu, Yi-Chin

    2014-10-27

    A strong, convective African tropical disturbance has a greater chance to develop into a Tropical 23 Depression (TD) if it merges with a shallow, dry vortex (D-vortex) from the north of the African 24 easterly jet (AEJ) after leaving the western coast. Using 11-year reanalysis data we found that the 25 western tip of a vortex strip at northwestern Africa can serve as dry vortices for the D-vortex 26 merger if it shifts southward. Another source of D-vortices is the westward propagating lows 27 along the southern edge of the Saharan air. The D-vortex merger process occurred for 63.5% of 28 tropical cyclones (TCs) or developing systems over the main development region of the Atlantic 29 Ocean, while it occurred for 54% of non-developing systems. TC genesis could be largely 30 controlled by the large-scale environment, but the differences in characteristics of vortices 31 associated with the D-vortex merger between developing and non-developing systems could 32 potentially help determine their destinies; in general, developing systems were dominated by a 33 more intense and moist south vortex, while non-developing systems were dominated by a north 34 vortex which was more intense, drier, and larger in size. Analysis also shows that 74% of intense 35 developing systems were involved with the D-vortex merger process. More attention needs to be 36 paid to the D-vortex merger and the characteristics of those vortices as they can play significant 37 roles or have a strong indication in Atlantic TC genesis.

  17. SOME CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE ROLE OF COSMIC ENVIRONMENT IN SOIL GENESIS AND EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Munteanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present day concept of soil is strongly connected to the terrestrial environment. Among the cosmic factors of soil genesis the energy (as light and heat provided by the Sun is by far the most important. The other outer space possible agents e.g. meteorites, comets, cosmic radiation and cosmic dust, are usually neglected or scarcely mentioned. The advancing of cosmic exploration spurred soil scientists to extend their interest upon the extraterrestrial regoliths of Earth-like planets (Mars, Venus and Moon. The concept of “Universal soil” in whose genesis the biotic factor and water are not mandatory, has been recently advanced. The first papers about “lunar soils” are already quoted in soil science literature; some also speak about “Martian soil” or “Venusian soil”. Although these seem to be mere regoliths quite different from the “terrestrial soil” (by absence of life and water one believes that they may give information about impact upon lithological material of severe environment of these planets. This paper tries to outline the cosmic destiny of the soil, to enlarge its meaning and to reveal the hidden connections that the soil has with some planetary and cosmic parameters. In cosmic vision the “soil” – either “lunar”, “martian”, or “terrestrial” – can be viewed as the interface of energy and matter exchange between the land masses of these celestial body and their cosmic environment. The role of the solar activity, extragalactic events, distance from the Sun, obliquity (tilt of Earth’s rotation axis and Earth’s orbit circularity are analyzed in connection with Quaternary glaciations and their influences upon the development of terrestrial soils. The influence of Moon is emphasized as being very important in shaping the zonal geography of the terrestrial soils.

  18. Cracking the Code of Soil Genesis. The Early Role of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, D. G.; Dontsova, K.; Burghelea, C. I.; Maier, R. M.; Huxman, T. E.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Soil is terrestrial life support system. Its genesis involves tight interactions between biota and mineral surfaces that mobilize structural elements into biogeochemical cycles. Of all chemical elements rare earth elements (REE) are a group of 16 non-nutrient elements of unusual geochemical similarity and present in all components of the surface environment. While much is known about the role of major nutrients in soil development we lack vital understanding of how early biotic colonization affects more conservative elements such as REE. A highly controlled experiment was set up at University of Arizona's Biosphere-2 that tested the effect of 4 biological treatments, incorporating a combination of microbe, grass, mycorrhiza and uninoculated control on REE leaching and uptake in 4 bedrock substrates: basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist. Generally the response of REE to biota presence was synergistic. Variation in total bedrock chemistry could explain major trends in pore water REE. There was a fast transition from chemistry-dominated to a biota dominated environment in the first 3-4 months of inoculation/seeding which translated into increase in REE signal over time. Relative REE abundances in water were generally reflected in plant concentrations, particularly in root, implying that below ground biomass is the main sync of REE in the ecosystem. Mycorrhiza effect on REE uptake in plant organs was significant and increased with infection rates. Presence of different biota translated into subtle differences in REE release, reveling potential biosignatures of biolota-rock colonization. The results thus bring fundamental insight into early stages non-nutrient cycle and soil genesis.

  19. Genesis of hydromorphic Calcisols in wetlands of the northeast Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solleiro-Rebolledo, E.; Cabadas-Báez, H. V.; Pi, P. T.; González, A.; Fedick, S. L.; Chmilar, J. A.; Leonard, D.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical wetlands are fragile ecosystems controlled by hydrological factors. They are less studied than wetlands of the temperate and subtropical areas, and limited information is available about soil genesis in such systems. Here, we present a soil study of a wetland in the Yalahau region of the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, in order to assess the properties and understand the genesis of these hydromorphic soils. An east-west transect was established through the wetland to understand differences in soil processes between shallower deposits at the edge of the wetland and thicker deposits at the center of the wetland. Contrary to the central image of peaty and gleyic wetland soils, the dominant soil unit in the wetland examined in the current study is a Calcisol. According to their properties we assume that the Bk horizons of these soils are the product of neoformation, as they consist principally of micritic groundmass. Shells of terrestrial mollusks are also present, and constitute the coarser fractions. The micrite in these soils is proposed to have been synthesized through participation of algae when periodic flooding with waters from karstic geosystems, rich in dissolved carbonates (from limestone dissolution), affects the area. Algae develop intensely on the surface of the flood water, forming periphyton. The algae consume CO 2 dissolved in water through photosynthesis, thus displacing the bicarbonate (soluble)-carbonate (low solubility) equilibrium in favor of carbonate formation. Profiles near the edge of the open wetland show a carbonate-enriched horizon (Bk) overlaying the organic matter-enriched horizon (Ah). We conclude that alternation of horizons enriched with organic material and carbonates reflects the duration of floods: more prolonged flooding promotes algae productivity and carbonate precipitation, while organic matter accumulation is inhibited.

  20. Effects of the East Asian Summer Monsoon on Tropical Cyclone Genesis over the South China Sea on an Interdecadal Time Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; ZHOU Wen; LI Chongyin; WANG Dongxiao

    2012-01-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the South China Sea (SCS) during 1965-2004 was analyzed.The locations of TC genesis display evident seasonal changes,with the mean position of formation situated north of 15°N in summer (June-July-August) and south of 15°N in autumn (September-October November).The TC genesis in summer underwent dramatic interdecadal variations,with more and less TC frequency during 1965-1974/1995-2004 and 1979-1993,respectively.In contrast,a significant interannual variation of TC genesis with a period of ~4 years was observed in autumn.This study investigated the relationship of SCS TC genesis to the East Asian jet stream (EAJS) and the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) on an interdecadal time scale.Analysis and comparison of the impacts of the EAJS and the WNPSH on vertical wind shear changes indicate that changes in the WNPSH and EAJS intensity rather than EAJS meridional location are responsible for changes in TC genesis on an interdecadal time scale.Corresponding to a weaker EAJS,anomalous Rossby wave energy at upper levels displays equatorward propagation at midlatitudes and poleward propagation in the subtropics.This induces anomalous convergence and divergence of wave activity fluxes in East Asia around 30°N and the SCS,respectively.The anomalous divergence of wave activity fluxes reduces easterlies at upper levels over the SCS,which is favorable to TC genesis.

  1. Evapofacies del Salar Hombre Muerto, Puna argentina: distribucion y genesis Evapofacies associated with the Salar Hombre Muerto, Puna: Distribution and genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vinante

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se identifican, describen y se muestra la distribución areal de las facies y evapofacies asociadas al ambiente evaporítico del Salar Hombre Muerto, ubicado en el borde oriental de la Puna Austral, en una zona con una amplia difusión de yacimientos de boratos. El salar puede ser dividido en dos subcuencas, la occidental y la oriental, ambas separadas por el islote central de Farallón Catal. La subcuenca oriental es boratífera, con bajo contenido en cloruros, mientras que la subcuenca occidental presenta tanto en superficie como en profundidad potentes acumulaciones de halita (hasta 900 m y es prácticamente estéril en boratos. Se plantean varias hipótesis sobre la génesis de la evapofacies boratífera, representada mineralógicamente por el borato ulexita. Esta es la evapofacies de interés económico y que se explota en el salar, donde además se extraen salmueras de litio.This paper identifies, describes and shows the areal distribution of facies and evapofacies associated with Salar Hombre Muerto, located in the eastern border of the Southern Puna, in an area with a wide diffusion of borates. The salar can be divided in two sub-basins, the western and the eastern, both separate for the central island of Farallón Catal. The eastern sub-basin is boratiferous, with low chlorides contained, while the western one shows a thick halite accumulation (up to 900 m in surface and in depth and it is practically sterile in borates. Several hypothesis on the genesis of the boratiferous evapofacies, minerallogically represented by the borate ulexite, are proposed. This evapofacies is the economic interest mined area, where lithium brines are also extracted.

  2. Morphological changes associated with the genesis and development of an excitatory glutemergic synapse: An integrated framework model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran Nagarajan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genesis of an excitatory synapse has its inception when a dendritic filopodium makes a tactile contact with a presynaptic specialisation (bouton. The subsequent maturation of the synapse takes place via a series of interrelated biochemical and biophysical signalling pathways which controls the actin polymerisation in the presynaptic and the postsynaptic sites. Although individual models of many of these signalling transductions have been proposed, a holistic model integrating the various signalling pathways to the morphological plasticity associated with the genesis and development of synapses has not. In this poster an attempt has been made towards establishing a framework for an integrated model such as the one aforementioned, encompassing several signalling pathways which control the morphology and the efficacy of the synapse. Predominant pathways include those triggered by NMDA and AMPA receptors, Trkb-BDNF, Integrin and Epherin. Also, steps towards a model that elucidates the change in shape of the synapse carried out by zonal actin polymerisation (ZAP governed by the "wastage" of neurotransmitters during exo cum endocytosis processes and the assimilation of the postsynaptic density (PSD and cell adhesion molecules with emphasis on Neurexin-Neuriligin, have been explored. The cannabinoid receptors in the PAZ have extracellular lipophilic domains. Endocannabinoid receptors are triggered by the retrograde signalling cues which negatively affect the cAMP dependent mechanisms. Apart from this, autoreceptors also pilot a feedback mechanism via secondary messengers with Ca 2+ ion concentration and neurotransmitter concentration in the synaptic cleft as its stakeholders. Feedback signals of autoreceptors which functions in accordance to “Lock and Key Mechanism” plays a vital role in fine-tuning the plasticity of the synapse and in controlling the presynaptic release probability by invoking PKA dependent pathways. In a future continuation

  3. [Changes of micellarity and lithogenicity of bile under conditions of transcutaneous electrostimulation and enterosorption in patients with obturation jaundice of nontumoral genesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronov, O I; Prylutskyĭ, O I

    2010-05-01

    The conduction of pathogenetically substantiated treatment--enterosorption together with procedures of electrostimulation--in patients, suffering obturation jaundice of nontumoral genesis, secures favorable course of postoperative period, the hepatorenal insufficiency prophylaxis, and postcholecystectomy syndrome occurrence as well.

  4. Feasibility of Iodine and Bromine analysis in Genesis AloS collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Burnett, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Comparison of solar, meteoritic and terrestrial elemental abundances provides understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system. Yet, the majority of the solar abundances are based on meteoritic values [1-6]. As a continuation of our noble gas measurements of the Solar Wind (SW) [7] we attempted to evaluate the possibility of SW-iodine and SW-bromine analyses in the Genesis Solar Wind Aluminum on Sapphire collectors (AloS) using the conversions: 127I(n,γβ)128Xe, 79Br(n,γβ)80Kr and 81Br(n,γβ)82Kr. To estimate the extent of terrestrial halogen contamination in Genesis collectors, several flown fragments of AloS were submerged in methanol (for 1 hour and for 48 hours), rinsed, dried, sealed under vacuum in fused quartz ampoules and irradiated at the Missouri University Research Reactor receiving fluence ˜ 2E+19 thermal neutrons/cm2. Single step laser extraction using 1064 nm laser ablation of 0.7 cm2 area demonstrated clear signature of solar wind as indicated by 129Xe/132Xe = 1.045 ± 0.005, while 128Xe/132Xe = 1.01 ± 0.03 had a 12-fold excess compared to the solar value. Longer washing apparently reduces iodine contamination 4 times, implying that it is surface correlated. Krypton analysis showed 17% excess in 82Kr and 3-fold excess in 80Kr in agreement with their production ratio. A longer 48-hour washing reduced Br contamination 50 times. In order to better separate SW halogens from ubiquitous terrestrial contamination we employed a depth-profiling of AloS using 266 nm laser ablation. Laser beam power was increased in 12 consecutive steps using a combination of controlled defocusing and attenuation by a polarizing beamsplitter. Depth profile analysis revealed that terrestrial halogen contamination is present at the surface and at the interface between Al and sapphire substrate and is more pronounced for iodine, as indicated by 128Xe/132Xe ratio that is higher than atmospheric and solar wind values in all 12 rasters. While washing procedure

  5. Cryosols of the Northeast Siberian Lena River Delta and its hinterland - genesis and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian; Kutzbach, Lars; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2016-04-01

    The North-Siberian Lena River Delta (LRD) is the largest Arctic delta and an important interface between the Arctic Ocean in the North and the large Siberian land masses in the South. LRD consists not only of Holocene deltaic sediment deposits as a river terrace and the modern active floodplains but also of remnants of the former Pleistocene mainland including large islands of ice-complex sediments and the Arga-Muora-Sise Island, which is composed of pure sand sediments of still debated origin. The highly diverse landscape structure of LRD is reflected by a great variety of permafrost-affected soils (cryosols). This study aims at describing this great cryosol diversity and at analysing the dominant soil-forming processes in this comparatively scarcely studied soil region. The soil development in the investigated continuous permafrost region is limited by the short thawing period of around three months (June to September) and takes place in the shallow (below 1 m) seasonally thawed active layer. The geological parent material plays an important role for the development of soils in the LRD region. The distribution of the various soil types closely follows the pattern of the geomorphic units characterised by differing sedimentation conditions. The properties and genesis of the soils on the Holocene river terrace and the modern floodplains are strongly affected by the enormous amounts of fluvial sediments (about 12 x 106 tons per year) brought by the Lena River into its delta. The fluvial sedimentation together with the also pronounced aeolian sedimentation results in a fast vertical growth of soils. The upward rise of the soil surface leads to an upward movement of the permafrost table resulting in fast incorporation of soil material formed in the supra-permafrost zone into the permafrost. Due to the morphodynamics of ice-wedge polygons and resulting formation of patterned ground with elevated rims and depressed and water-saturated centres, the Holocene river terrace

  6. A 15N-poor isotopic composition for the solar system as shown by Genesis solar wind samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B; Chaussidon, M; Wiens, R C; Jurewicz, A J G; Burnett, D S

    2011-06-24

    The Genesis mission sampled solar wind ions to document the elemental and isotopic compositions of the Sun and, by inference, of the protosolar nebula. Nitrogen was a key target element because the extent and origin of its isotopic variations in solar system materials remain unknown. Isotopic analysis of a Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator target material shows that implanted solar wind nitrogen has a (15)N/(14)N ratio of 2.18 ± 0.02 × 10(-3) (that is, ≈40% poorer in (15)N relative to terrestrial atmosphere). The (15)N/(14)N ratio of the protosolar nebula was 2.27 ± 0.03 × 10(-3), which is the lowest (15)N/(14)N ratio known for solar system objects. This result demonstrates the extreme nitrogen isotopic heterogeneity of the nascent solar system and accounts for the (15)N-depleted components observed in solar system reservoirs.

  7. Genesis of Pre-Hurricane Felix (2007). Part 2; Warm Core Formation, Precipitation Evolution, and Predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, zhuo; Montgomery M. T.; Dunkerton, T. J.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part study examining the simulated formation of Atlantic Hurricane Felix (2007) in a cloud-representing framework. Here several open issues are addressed concerning the formation of the storm's warm core, the evolution and respective contribution of stratiform versus convective precipitation within the parent wave's pouch, and the sensitivity of the development pathway reported in Part I to different model physics options and initial conditions. All but one of the experiments include ice microphysics as represented by one of several parameterizations, and the partition of convective versus stratiform precipitation is accomplished using a standard numerical technique based on the high-resolution control experiment. The transition to a warm-core tropical cyclone from an initially cold-core, lower tropospheric wave disturbance is analyzed first. As part of this transformation process, it is shown that deep moist convection is sustained near the pouch center. Both convective and stratiform precipitation rates increase with time. While stratiform precipitation occupies a larger area even at the tropical storm stage, deep moist convection makes a comparable contribution to the total rain rate at the pregenesis stage, and a larger contribution than stratiform processes at the storm stage. The convergence profile averaged near the pouch center is found to become dominantly convective with increasing deep moist convective activity there. Low-level convergence forced by interior diabatic heating plays a key role in forming and intensifying the near-surface closed circulation, while the midlevel convergence associated with stratiform precipitation helps to increase the midlevel circulation and thereby contributes to the formation and upward extension of a tropospheric-deep cyclonic vortex. Sensitivity tests with different model physics options and initial conditions demonstrate a similar pregenesis evolution. These tests suggest that the genesis

  8. Antioxidative effects of proteoglycans of embryonic genesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahedian V

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vahid Vahedian,1 Yelena M Aghajanova,2 Gevorg A Kevorkian,3 Maxim A Simonyan31Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Endocrinology, Yerevan State Medical University after M Heratsi, Yerevan, Armenia, 3Buniatyan Institute of Biochemistry, National Academy of Science, Yerevan, ArmeniaIntroduction: It is well accepted that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of proteoglycans of embryonic genesis (PEG on concentrations and activity of prooxidative and antioxidative metalloproteins in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes in rats.Methods: Study groups were as follows: vehicle control group (Group 1, STZ-induced diabetes (55 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection [Group 2], STZ-induced diabetes with prophylactic injection of PEG (0.5 mg/kg intraperitonealy injected 1 week prior to STZ injection (Group 3. The following prooxidative metalloproteins were studied: levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase (Nox isoforms (extracellular Nox [eNox] in serum; erythrocyte membranes; and spleen cell membranes, nucleus and mitochondria, as well as serum levels of superoxide-producing lipoprotein (suprol; cytochrome (cyt b5 from cytosol of erythrocytes; and cyt c from spleen cell cytosol. The antioxidative metalloproteins, particularly superoxide dismutase and catalase from erythrocyte and from spleen cell cytosol were studied.Results: Results demonstrated the significant (P < 0.05 increase in the level and activity of NADPH-dependent, O2--producing eNox activity in Group 2 in comparison with the control Group and decrease of the ferrihemoglobin-reducing activities of these Nox, as well as a significant increase in O2--producing activity of suprol. In Group 2, there was a significant elevation of the level of cyt c, and decreased cyt b5 level, as well as inhibition of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity.Conclusion: The

  9. GENESIS SciFlo: Enabling Multi-Instrument Atmospheric Science Using Grid Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; Tang, B.; Manipon, G.; Yunck, T.; Fetzer, E.; Braverman, A.; Dobinson, E.

    2004-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of web services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations will include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-strato-sphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we are developing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable web services and executable operators into a distributed computing flow (operator tree). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out

  10. Study on the genesis of karstic collapse column and characteristics of high resolution seismic data in one coal field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shao-hong; LIN Chang-rong

    2008-01-01

    On the standpoint of the disaster prevention from water inrush,discussed the genesis and geologic condition of karstic collapse column in one coal field,analyzed the geophysical characteristics of karstic collapse column by using high resolution 3D seismic data.It shows the effective result of the technology of high resolution 3D seismic prospecting in the exploration of the karstic collapse column,and presents some prediction methods and prevention measures.

  11. DNA4.1-Listing of European EO data policy bodies of interest for GENESI-DR

    OpenAIRE

    Missling, Klaus-Dieter; Schreier, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    Aim of GENESI-DR is to achieve following objectives: - To provide a base for (establishing) a world-wide e-infrastructure for Earth Science with European leadership - To provide guaranteed, reliable, easy, effective, and operational access to a variety of data sources, and demonstrate how the same approach can be extended to provide access to all Earth Science data - To harmonise operations at key Earth Science data repositories limiting fragmentation of solutions - To...

  12. 环球仪器携Genesis GC-120Q进军日本市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2007年5月25日-继参加NEPCON中国后,环球仪器将携同Genesis GC-120Q平台前往日本,于5月30日至6月1日期间,参加在东京举行的JISSO PROTEC展会(展位号21-03),进军竞争激烈的日本市场。

  13. 78 FR 76609 - Genesis Solar, LLC; NRG Delta LLC; Mountain View Solar, LLC; Pheasant Run Wind, LLC; Pheasant Run...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [EG13-57-000; EG13-58-000; EG13-59-000; EG13-60-000; EG13-61-000; EG13- 62-000; EG13-63-000; EG13-64-000; FC13-13-000] Genesis Solar, LLC; NRG Delta LLC; Mountain View...

  14. Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

  15. Conceptual Tenets of the Theory of Hydration of Heterogeneous Surface with Polar Order of Disperse Ground Layers of Sedimentary Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara G. Makeeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the established regularity defines the basic tenets of the theory of hydration of heterogeneous surface with polar order of disperse ground layers of sedimentary genesis. It offers classification and formula for the associated water density, valid corrections for the associated water density, calculates the water film thickness in disperse ground, develops the reliable physicochemical model of the disperse ground, determines the range of applicability of the existing laboratory and field methods.

  16. Phase equilibria constraints on Archean crustal genesis from crystallization experiments on trondhjemite with water at 10-17 kbar

    OpenAIRE

    van der Laan, Sieger R.; Johnston, A. Dana; Wyllie, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The formation of continental crust during the Archean and early Proterozoic occurred through a different mechanisms than the currently active processes of calc-alkaline volcanism in orogenic regions. In view that most crustal growth models imply that by the end of the Archean a continental mass equivalent to 75% or more of the current crust had evolved, it seems highly relevant to study early crustal genesis.

  17. Development of Genesis Solar Wind Sample Cleanliness Assessment: Initial Report on Sample 60341 Optical Imagery and Elemental Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. P.; Goreva, Y. S.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, P. J.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005 the Genesis science team has experimented with techniques for removing the contaminant particles and films from the collection surface of the Genesis fragments. A subset of 40 samples have been designated as "cleaning matrix" samples. These are small samples to which various cleaning approaches are applied and then cleanliness is assessed optically, by TRXRF, SEM, ToF-SIMS, XPS, ellipsometry or other means [1-9]. Most of these sam-ples remain available for allocation, with cleanliness assessment data. This assessment allows evaluation of various cleaning techniques and handling or analytical effects. Cleaning techniques investigated by the Genesis community include acid/base etching, acetate replica peels, ion beam, and CO2 snow jet cleaning [10-16]. JSC provides surface cleaning using UV ozone exposure and ultra-pure water (UPW) [17-20]. The UPW rinse is commonly used to clean samples for handling debris between processing by different researchers. Optical microscopic images of the sample taken before and after UPW cleaning show what has been added or removed during the cleaning process.

  18. Paulus als Schriftuitlegger Paulus’ vertolking van Genesis 15:5b-6 in Romeinen 4:3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter K. Baaij

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul as expositor of Scripture. Paul’s interpretation of Genesis 15:5b-6 in Romans 4:3 The author of this article has since 1986 been working exclusively on the translation and exegesis of the Epistle to the Romans. In the course of this work, he discovered that Paul first carefully considered his text in Biblical Hebrew before writing it accurately in Greek. It then transpires that “the difficult Paul” proclaimed the gospel of the crowning of the Law (10:4 with great clarity. The real Paul is pre-eminently the expositor of Scripture. Provided we use the instruments provided to the reader by Paul, we shall thus not only understand the proclamation of Paul better but also Scripture itself.  In this article the author illustrates that Paul in Romans 4:3 accurately renders what is written in Genesis 15:5b and 6. Paul teaches us to understand the Hebrew text better by indicating where the emphasis lies in the Hebrew text and how we must interpret the Hebrew terms used. For this reason Paul’s interpretation of Genesis 15:5b and 6 in Romans 4:3 is of great importance in the continually more topical debate on how we must translate the Bible.

  19. Genesis of folia in a non-thermal epigenic cave (Matanzas, Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia Maria; De Waele, Jo; Melendres, Osmany Ceballo; Tisato, Nicola; Sauro, Francesco; Gonzales, Esteban Ruben Grau; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Torriani, Stefano; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Folia are an unusual speleothem type resembling inverted cups or bracket fungi. The mechanism of folia formation is not fully understood and is the subject of an ongoing debate. This study focuses on an occurrence of folia present in Santa Catalina Cave, a non-thermal epigenic cave located close to Matanzas (Cuba). The sedimentology, morphology, petrology, permeability and geochemistry of these folia have been studied to gain new insight on the processes leading to their development. It is concluded that folia in Santa Catalina Cave formed at the top of a fluctuating water body, through CO2-degassing or evaporation, which may have been enhanced by the proximity to cave entrances. Two observations strongly support our conclusions. (1) When compared to other subaqueous speleothems (e.g. cave clouds) present in the same rooms, folia occur exclusively within a limited vertical interval that likely represents an ancient water level. Folia occur together with calcite rafts and tower cones that developed, respectively, on top of and below the water level. This suggests that a fluctuating interface is required for folia formation. (2) The measured permeability of the folia is too high to trap gas bubbles. Thus, in contrast to what has been proposed in other studies, trapped bubbles of CO2 cannot be invoked as the key factor determining the genesis and morphology of folia in this subaqueous environment.

  20. Genesis of Hurricane Sandy (2012) Simulated with a Global Mesoscale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; DeMaria, Mark; Li, J.-L. F.; Cheung, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the formation predictability of Hurricane Sandy (2012) with a global mesoscale model. We first present five track and intensity forecasts of Sandy initialized at 00Z 22-26 October 2012, realistically producing its movement with a northwestward turn prior to its landfall. We then show that three experiments initialized at 00Z 16-18 October captured the genesis of Sandy with a lead time of up to 6 days and simulated reasonable evolution of Sandy's track and intensity in the next 2 day period of 18Z 21-23 October. Results suggest that the extended lead time of formation prediction is achieved by realistic simulations of multiscale processes, including (1) the interaction between an easterly wave and a low-level westerly wind belt (WWB) and (2) the appearance of the upper-level trough at 200 hPa to Sandy's northwest. The low-level WWB and upper-level trough are likely associated with a Madden-Julian Oscillation.

  1. Metallogenic epoch and genesis of the gold deposits in Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China: a regional review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liqiang; DENG Jun; GE Liangsheng; WANG Qingfei; ZHANG Jing; GAO Bangfei; JIANG Shaoqing; XU Hao

    2007-01-01

    Gold deposits are characterized by multi-sources, superimposition, large scale and temporal-spatial concentration in Jiaodong Peninsula, Eastern China. In this paper, we review the history and the development of the study on metallogenic chronology and genesis of gold deposits, summarize the main features of superimposed metallogenesis, provide evidence of the Mesozoic complex metallogenic system, and point out some problems for further research of Jiaodong gold deposit cluster from a regional view. Although gold deposits are different in genetic types, ore-forming materials and geological settings, our research indicates that the accumulation and emplacement of the ore-forming materials are temporally-spatially concentrated on a large scale, and the main metallogenic epoch of Jiaodong gold deposits was concentrated in Mesozoic. Metallogenic chronology and geological-geochemical data indicate that there are two periods of gold mineralizations occurred in 130-110 Ma and 90-80 Ma respectively in Jiaodong ore cluster. The gold deposit cluster results from the superimposition of the polygenetic mineralization, and further study is needed to investigate the formation and evolution of the Mesozoic complex metallogenic system.

  2. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  3. Genesis and Debelopment of Porosity in Carbonate Reservoirs—Fluid Inclusion Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃建雄; 曾允孚

    1996-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in minerals filled in pores of reservoir rocks can be used as a good indicator of pore genesis and development so as to shed light on oil generation,migration and accumulation.The relationship between pore evolution and oil generation has been established based on fluid inclusion studies on the Lower Ordovician carbonate reservoir strata in the Ordos Baisn,Northwest China.Seven stages of porosity development can be recogmized.i.e.,the penecontemporaneous,the early and middle-late diagenetic,the supergene,the early,middle and late re-burying stages.The dissolution pores an fissures formed in the supergene and middle-late reburying stage and the structural fractures formed in the late re-burying stage constitute the major traps of oil and gas.The major phase of oil migration and accumulation took place between Late Jurassic and Cretaceous,Corresponding to the middle and late re-burying stages.The generation and accumulation of oil can be closely related to Yenshanian tectonics.

  4. Genesis Solar Wind Science Canister Components Curated as Potential Solar Wind Collectors and Reference Contamination Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind for 27 months at Earth-Sun L1 on both passive and active collectors carried inside of a Science Canister, which was cleaned and assembled in an ISO Class 4 cleanroom prior to launch. The primary passive collectors, 271 individual hexagons and 30 half-hexagons of semiconductor materials, are described in. Since the hard landing reduced the 301 passive collectors to many thousand smaller fragments, characterization and posting in the online catalog remains a work in progress, with about 19% of the total area characterized to date. Other passive collectors, surfaces of opportunity, have been added to the online catalog. For species needing to be concentrated for precise measurement (e.g. oxygen and nitrogen isotopes) an energy-independent parabolic ion mirror focused ions onto a 6.2 cm diameter target. The target materials, as recovered after landing, are described in. The online catalog of these solar wind collectors, a work in progress, can be found at: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/gencatalog/index.cfm This paper describes the next step, the cataloging of pieces of the Science Canister, which were surfaces exposed to the solar wind or component materials adjacent to solar wind collectors which may have contributed contamination.

  5. A minimal model of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability: its genesis and predictability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Hsien-Wang [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Palisades, NY (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Through a box model of the subpolar North Atlantic, we examine the genesis and predictability of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV), posited as a linear perturbation sustained by the stochastic atmosphere. Postulating a density-dependent thermohaline circulation (THC), the latter would strongly differentiate the thermal and saline damping, and facilitate a negative feedback between the two fields. This negative feedback preferentially suppresses the low-frequency thermal variance to render a broad multidecadal peak bounded by the thermal and saline damping time. We offer this ''differential variance suppression'' as an alternative paradigm of the AMV in place of the ''damped oscillation'' - the latter generally not allowed by the deterministic dynamics and in any event bears no relation to the thermal peak. With the validated dynamics, we then assess the AMV predictability based on the relative entropy - a difference of the forecast and climatological probability distributions, which decays through both error growth and dynamical damping. Since the stochastic forcing is mainly in the surface heat flux, the thermal noise grows rapidly and together with its climatological variance limited by the THC-aided thermal damping, they strongly curtail the thermal predictability. The latter may be prolonged if the initial thermal and saline anomalies are of the same sign, but even rare events of less than 1% chance of occurrence yield a predictable time that is well short of a decade; we contend therefore that the AMV is in effect unpredictable. (orig.)

  6. ‘Protodesign’: The genesis of design, or a few things that changed the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Yu Bronzino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept ‘design’ that has recently become popular in everyday discourse and among social scientists has not received an unambiguous interpretation. The ambiguity of the concept is due primarily to the complexity of the interpretation of very diverse social practices, the history of which can be traced to the earliest cultural practices of the humankind. This gives the design a universal character and exceptional significance: through the prism of this concept, we can trace the evolution of human culture as a whole. Thus, the study of the concept ‘design’ in the article is based on this theoretical background and emphasizes its basic feature - projectivity genetically related to the project thinking as an essential attribute of human activity. The logic of the article corresponds to the sequence of the main historical stages of the project thinking formation marked by specific inventions. Such an approach allows us to trace the evolution of the design revealing its genesis in the connection with the key moments of the industrial development and scientific and technological revolution as well as the most important social events that contributed to the development of the modern society urban environment and predetermined its social structure.

  7. Iron disulfide minerals and the genesis of roll-type uranium deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the distribution of and textural relationships among pyrite and marcasite in host rocks for a number of roll-type sedimentary U deposits have enabled identification of several generations of FeS2 minerals. A critical factor influencing mineral formation is the complex relationship of pH and the S species that are precursors of FeS2 minerals. The presence or absence of intrinsic organic matter for bacterial sulphate reduction also plays a key role. In deposits lacking such organic matter, the pre-ore is often euhedral pyrite and the ore-stage is marcasite. In contrast, in deposits containing organic matter the pre-ore is pyrite occurring as framboids or as replacements of plant material, and the ore-stage is also pyrite. These contrasting FeS2 assemblages and their respective modes of origin are consistent with previously proposed biogenic and nonbiogenic theories of the genesis of roll-type U deposits. -J.E.S.

  8. An analytical perspective on the Fellowship Narrative of Genesis 18:1–15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Sang Keun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The narrative in Genesis 18:1–15 deals with God’s visit to Abraham at Mamre. The general tendency in the interpretation of this narrative is to focus on Abraham’s hospitality. It is usually interpreted as an example of his righteousness, in line with Hebrews 13:2, or with the test motive of the Greek myth of the birth of Orion. These interpretations, however, seem to be in conflict with the narrator’s own theological views.This study, therefore, attempts to explore the view point of the author of the Fellowship Narrative (Gn 18:1–15 within the context of the larger Abraham narrative (Gn 11:27–25:11. The method used for the investigation is mainly that of narrative criticism. Attention is paid to the narrator’s various literary skills: ‘linking structure with preceding episode’ (Gn 18:1a, the ‘sandwiched structure’ of the larger context (Gn 18:1–21:7, the unique plot sequence, as well as repeated clue words and phrases (such as ‘laugh’, ‘Sarah’ and ‘this time next year’. These literary aspects are used by the narrator to depict the faithfulness of the Lord who fulfils what he promised. The conclusion of this study overturns the traditional interpretations of the Fellowship Narrative.

  9. Proposing a two-level stochastic model for epileptic seizure genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegh, F; Sadri, S; Amirfattahi, R; Ansari-Asl, K

    2014-02-01

    By assuming the brain as a multi-stable system, different scenarios have been introduced for transition from normal to epileptic state. But, the path through which this transition occurs is under debate. In this paper a stochastic model for seizure genesis is presented that is consistent with all scenarios: a two-level spontaneous seizure generation model is proposed in which, in its first level the behavior of physiological parameters is modeled with a stochastic process. The focus is on some physiological parameters that are essential in simulating different activities of ElectroEncephaloGram (EEG), i.e., excitatory and inhibitory synaptic gains of neuronal populations. There are many depth-EEG models in which excitatory and inhibitory synaptic gains are the adjustable parameters. Using one of these models at the second level, our proposed seizure generator is complete. The suggested stochastic model of first level is a hidden Markov process whose transition matrices are obtained through analyzing the real parameter sequences of a seizure onset area. These real parameter sequences are estimated from real depth-EEG signals via applying a parameter identification algorithm. In this paper both short-term and long-term validations of the proposed model are done. The long-term synthetic depth-EEG signals simulated by this model can be taken as a suitable tool for comparing different seizure prediction algorithms.

  10. Ecosystem Composition Controls the Fate of Rare Earth Elements during Incipient Soil Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G.; Burghelea, Carmen I.; Dontsova, Katerina; Presler, Jennifer K.; Maier, Raina M.; Huxman, Travis; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Hunt, Edward A.; Amistadi, Mary K.; Gaddis, Emily E.; Palacios-Menendez, Maria A.; Vaquera-Ibarra, Maria O.; Chorover, Jon

    2017-02-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are increasingly important in a variety of science and economic fields, including (bio)geosciences, paleoecology, astrobiology, and mining. However, REE distribution in early rock-microbe-plant systems has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that REE mass-partitioning during incipient weathering of basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist depends on the activity of microbes, vascular plants (Buffalo grass), and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Pore-water element abundances revealed a rapid transition from abiotic to biotic signatures of weathering, the latter associated with smaller aqueous loss and larger plant uptake. Abiotic dissolution was 39% of total denudation in plant-microbes-mycorrhiza treatment. Microbes incremented denudation, particularly in rhyolite, and this resulted in decreased bioavailable solid pools in this rock. Total mobilization (aqueous + uptake) was ten times greater in planted compared to abiotic treatments, REE masses in plant generally exceeding those in water. Larger plants increased bioavailable solid pools, consistent with enhanced soil genesis. Mycorrhiza generally had a positive effect on total mobilization. The main mechanism behind incipient REE weathering was carbonation enhanced by biotic respiration, the denudation patterns being largely dictated by mineralogy. A consistent biotic signature was observed in La:phosphate and mobilization: solid pool ratios, and in the pattern of denudation and uptake.

  11. Edward A. Bouchet Award Talk: NSFD Schemes: Genesis, Methodology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Ronald

    2008-04-01

    Nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) schemes are based on a generalization of the usual discrete representations of first derivatives and the use of nonlocal discrete replacements for both linear and nonlinear functions of dependent variables. These numerical integration techniques for differential equations had their genesis in a 1989 publication.^1) In the past decade much progress has occurred on the general methodology of these techniques and the range of phenomena to which these schemes have been applied.^2) This talk will give a broad introduction to NSFD schemes and show that the principle of dynamic consistency (DC)^3) can be used to place great restrictions on the constructions of such discretizations for both ODE's and PDE's. The essential features of the NSFD methodology will be illustrated by means of several ``toy" models.^4) ^1)R. E. Mickens, Numerical Methods for PDE's, 5 (1989), 313--325. ^2)K. C. Patidar, Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 11 (2005), 735--758. ^3)R. E. Mickens, Journal of Difference Equations and Applications 11 (2005), 645--653. ^4)R. E. Mickens (editor), Advances in the Applications of Nonstandard Finite Difference Schemes. World Scientific, Singapore, 2006.

  12. Reservoir characteristics and genesis of high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs in Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on detailed studies, this paper proposes that in the Tarim Basin, hydrocarbon reservoirs widespread either in vertical sequences or in plane and high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs are developed all over the basin. However, obvious difference and heterogeneity exist among different kinds of reservoirs. The lithologic characteristics, reservoir space types and reservoir properties in various strata have been probed. The result indicates that although the Paleozoic carbonates have been deeply buried for a long period, high-quality reservoirs with the porosity of up to 5%-8% (12% as the maximum) and the permeability of 10×10?3-100×10?3 ?m2 (1000×10?3 ?m2 as the maximum) can be found in certain areas. These include the area with the development of reefs and carbonate beaches, the weathered-crust buried-hill belts that have undergone the long-term exposure, weathering and leaching, the area with the development of dolomitization, and those areas that have experienced the resolution of carbonic acid and organic acid generated by the maturity of the organic matter. Finally, the genesis of the high-porosity and high-permeability reservoirs in deep-buried conditions (with the depth more than 3500 m) have been investigated thoroughly.

  13. Entry, Descent, and Landing Operations Analysis for the Genesis Entry Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Lyons, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    On September 8, 2004, the Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth after spending 29 months about the sun-Earth libration point (L1) collecting solar wind particles. Four hours prior to Earth arrival, the sample return capsule containing the samples was released for entry and subsequent landing at the Utah Test and Training Range. This paper provides an overview of the entry, descent, and landing trajectory analysis that was performed during the mission operations phase leading up to final approach to Earth. The final orbit determination solution produced an inertial entry flight-path angle of -8.002 deg (which was the desired nominal value) with a 3-sigma error of +/-0.0274 deg (a third of the requirement). The operations effort accurately delivered the entry capsule to the desired landing site. The final landing location was 8.3 km from the target, and was well within the allowable landing area. Overall, the Earth approach operation procedures worked well and there were no issues (logistically or performance based) that arose. As a result, the process of targeting a capsule from deep space and accurately landing it on Earth was successfully demonstrated.

  14. A Place at the Table: LTD as a Mediator of Memory Genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Steven A; Wang, Yu Tian

    2016-08-01

    Resolving how our brains encode information requires an understanding of the cellular processes taking place during memory formation. Since the 1970s, considerable effort has focused on determining the properties and mechanisms underlying long-term potentiation (LTP) at glutamatergic synapses and how these processes influence initiation of new memories. However, accumulating evidence suggests that long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength, particularly at glutamatergic synapses, is a bona fide learning and memory mechanism in the mammalian brain. The known range of mechanisms capable of inducing LTD has been extended to those including NMDAR-independent forms, neuromodulator-dependent LTD, synaptic depression following stress, and non-synaptically induced forms. The examples of LTD observed at the hippocampal CA1 synapse to date demonstrate features consistent with LTP, including homo- and heterosynaptic expression, extended duration beyond induction (several hours to weeks), and association with encoding of distinct types of memories. Canonical mechanisms through which synapses undergo LTD include activation of phosphatases, initiation of protein synthesis, and dynamic regulation of presynaptic glutamate release and/or postsynaptic glutamate receptor endocytosis. Here, we will discuss the pre- and postsynaptic changes underlying LTD, recent advances in the identification and characterization of novel mechanisms underlying LTD, and how engagement of these processes constitutes a cellular analog for the genesis of specific types of memories.

  15. Characterization of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Microvesicle Genesis, Morphology and Pluripotent Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Ghoroghi, Shima; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Wu, Hao; Unachukwu, Uchenna John; Einbond, Linda Saxe; Guariglia, Sara; Peinado, Hector; Redenti, Stephen

    2016-01-22

    Microvesicles (MVs) are lipid bilayer-covered cell fragments that range in diameter from 30 nm-1 uM and are released from all cell types. An increasing number of studies reveal that MVs contain microRNA, mRNA and protein that can be detected in the extracellular space. In this study, we characterized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) MV genesis, content and fusion to retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in vitro. Nanoparticle tracking revealed that iPSCs released approximately 2200 MVs cell/hour in the first 12 hrs with an average diameter of 122 nm. Electron and light microscopic analysis of iPSCs showed MV release via lipid bilayer budding. The mRNA content of iPSC MVs was characterized and revealed the presence of the transcription factors Oct-3/4, Nanog, Klf4, and C-Myc. The protein content of iPSCs MVs, detected by immunogold electron microscopy, revealed the presence of the Oct-3/4 and Nanog. Isolated iPSC MVs were shown to fuse with RPCs in vitro at multiple points along the plasma membrane. These findings demonstrate that the mRNA and protein cargo in iPSC MVs have established roles in maintenance of pluripotency. Building on this work, iPSC derived MVs may be shown to be involved in maintaining cellular pluripotency and may have application in regenerative strategies for neural tissue.

  16. Novel predictors of soil genesis following natural weathering processes of bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Huang, Ling; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei

    2016-02-01

    Bauxite residue often has chemical and physical limitations to support plant growth, and improving its matrix properties is crucial to support sustainable vegetation in the long term. Spontaneous vegetation colonization on deposits in Central China, over a period of 20 years, has revealed that natural weathering processes may convert bauxite residue to a soil-like medium. Residue samples from different stacking ages were collected to determine the effect of natural processes on matrix properties over time. It was demonstrated that natural processes decreased pH (10.98 to 9.45), electrical conductivity (EC) (3.73 to 0.36 mS/cm), and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) (72.51 to 28.99 %), while increasing bulk density (1.91 to 1.39 g/cm(3)), improving the mean weight diameter (MWD) of water-stable aggregates (0.24 to 0.52 mm), and the proportion of >0.25-mm water-stable aggregates (19.91 to 50.73 %). The accumulation of organic carbon and the reduction of ESP and exchangeable Na had positive effects on soil aggregate formation, while exchangeable Ca and Mg were significantly beneficial to aggregation of water-stable aggregates. Climate, stacking time, and biological factors appear to improve the structure of bauxite residue. Our findings demonstrate soil genesis occurring following natural weathering processes of bauxite residues over time.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PEDAGOGICAL FORECASTING GENESIS IN RUSSIAN AND POLISH PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Fedorovna Matuszak (Prisyazhnaya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the genesis of pedagogical forecasting in Russia and Poland in the context of the development of general forecasting theory mainly with the emphasis on pedagogical education. The periods of forecasting theory development (implicit, explicit, institutional, global are presented. The content of each period viewing Russian and Polish education is described. In the implicit period the first attempts are made to predict educational issues. During the explicit period pedagogical forecasting obtains methodology of research. In the institutional period pedagogical forecasting from the sphere of state planning becomes the activity necessary for all the participants of teaching and learning. The global period envi-sages implementing pedagogical forecasting theory to fulfill the tasks of modern education, e.g. doing international projects. The tasks of pedagogical forecasting in the global world include further convergence of educational systems of various countries.The purpose is to determine and describe the henesis of pedagogical forecasting in Russia and Polish pedagogical education in the context of the development of general forecasting theory.Methodology. To identify the periods theoretical methods (historical and analytical me-thod, comparative analysis, theoretical and methodological analysis, synthesis, generalization are used.The results of the research include specifying the periods of pedagogical prognostication as well as the tasks of pedagogical forecasting in the global world in Russian and Polish Universities.Practical implications of the research are of interest to educators of all levels, especially the ones working in higher pedagogical education.

  18. Genesis and organic geochemical characteristics of the carbonaceous rock stratabound gold deposits, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The organic matter of three different chronological major carbonaceous rock gold-bearing formations of South China (Middle Proterozoic Shangqiaoshan group of northeastern Jiangxi, Lower Cambrian Shuikou group of northern Guangxi and Devonian Shetianqiao group of eastern Hunan) and related carbonaceous stratabound gold deposits such as Jinshan, Longshui and Shixia deposits, respectively, has been characterized by organic geochemical techniques. These organic geochemical results show that the average total organic carbon (TOC) content of the three chronological carbonaceous rock gold-bearing formations of South China ranges from 0.15% to 1.56%. The thermal maturity of the organic matter of host rocks in the three gold-bearing formations is high. The micro-component of the organic matter of the host rocks consists primarily of solid bitumen and graphite. The organic carbon and gold of the host rocks appear to syndeposit in situ during the formation of the gold-bearing formations. The organic carbon played a certain role in controlling the geochemical environment of the gold-bearing formations. The metallogenetic mechanism of the carbonaceous rock stratabound gold deposits of South China is closely associated in genesis with the sedimentation, diagenesis and thermal evolution history of the organic matter of host rocks in the gold-bearing formations.

  19. Magnetic mineralogy of the Hongqiling Cu-Ni sulphide deposit:Implications for ore genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pyrrhotite is one of the common ore minerals in Cu-Ni sulphide deposits, but only monoclinic pyrrhotite is ferromagnetic at room temperature. X-ray and EPA analyses reveal that most pyrrhotite forming sideronitic texture in the Hongqiling Cu-Ni sulphide deposit is monoclinic, but that in the massive ore is a mixture of monoclinic and hexagonal pyrrhotites. Differential thermal and magneticthermogravimetric analyses of massive ore indicate a magnetic transition and heat absorption at 323℃, suggesting that this temperature is the thermomagnetic and phase transition point of pyrrhotite. For massive pyrrhotite ores heated at 400℃ for 30 h and then quenched by cool water, the monoclinic pyrrhotite (mpo) transforms completely into the hexagonal pyrrhotite (hpo). However, all the pyrrhotites resulting from slow cooling of the sample in air are mpo. These results indicate that transformation between hpo and mpo depends upon the cooling rate. Therefore, massive ores in this deposit might have been formed via rapid cooling of ore melts. On the other hand, it is significant to study the effect of the ratio of the magnetite in total ores on the genesis of magmatic Cu-Ni suphide deposits.

  20. Epicardial adipose tissue: the accomplice implicated in the genesis and maintenance of atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Mingcheng; Chen Yangxin; Wang Jingfeng

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this review was to delineate our current knowledge of the close relationship between the abundance of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and the risk of all major cardiovascular disease,especially atrial fibrillation (AF).Data sources The data analyzed in this review were mainly from articles reported in PubMed published from 1972 to 2014.Study selection Original articles and critical reviews relevant to EAT and AF were selected.Results EAT,a particular form of metabolically active visceral fat deposited around the heart,is being regarded as an important independent predictor of cardio-metabolic diseases.EAT is composed of smaller adipocytes than other visceral fat depots and functioned like brown adipose tissue (BAT) to protect adjacent tissues.Improving the understanding of EAT in AF genesis and maintenance may contribute to prevent AF and reduce the complications associated with AF.Conclusion The findings suggest that EAT associates with AF severity and the recurrence of AF after catheter ablation even after adjustment forAF risk factors,but the precise mechanisms are not fully elucidated.

  1. Genesis of the "Critical-Acceleration of MOND" and Its Role in "Formation of Structures"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tank H. K.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As an attempt to explain the “flattening of galaxies rotation-curves”, Milgrom proposed a Modification of Newtonian Dynamics MOND, in which he needed a new constant of nature a 0 , termed as “critical-acceleration-of MOND”, in his best-fit empirical formula. But so far it has been an ad-hoc introduction of a new constant. Whereas this article pro- poses: (i a genesis of this constant; (ii explains its recurrences in various physical sit- uations; and (iii its role in determining the size and radii of various structures, like: the electron, the proton, the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies, the galactic-clusters and the whole universe. In this process we get a new interpretation of “the cosmological-red-shift”, that the linear part of the cosmological-red-shift may not be due to “metric-expansion-of-space”; and even the currently-believed “accelerated- expansion” may be slowing down with time.

  2. Genesis and Maintenance of Attentional Biases: The Role of the Locus Coeruleus-Noradrenaline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana R. Ehlers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally arousing events are typically better remembered than mundane ones, in part because emotionally relevant aspects of our environment are prioritized in attention. Such biased attentional tuning is itself the result of associative processes through which we learn affective and motivational relevance of cues. We propose that the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NA system plays an important role in the genesis of attentional biases through associative learning processes as well as their maintenance. We further propose that individual differences in and disruptions of the LC-NA system underlie the development of maladaptive biases linked to psychopathology. We provide support for the proposed role of the LC-NA system by first reviewing work on attentional biases in development and its link to psychopathology in relation to alterations and individual differences in NA availability. We focus on pharmacological manipulations to demonstrate the effect of a disrupted system as well as the ADRA2b polymorphism as a tool to investigate naturally occurring differences in NA availability. We next review associative learning processes that—modulated by the LC-NA system—result in such implicit attentional biases. Further, we demonstrate how NA may influence aversive and appetitive conditioning linked to anxiety disorders as well as addiction and depression.

  3. Vanadium-rich ruby and sapphire within Mogok Gemfield, Myanmar: implications for gem color and genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Khin; Sutherland, Lin; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Meffre, Sebastien; Thu, Kyaw

    2015-01-01

    Rubies and sapphires are of both scientific and commercial interest. These gemstones are corundum colored by transition elements within the alumina crystal lattice: Cr3+ yields red in ruby and Fe2+, Fe3+, and Ti4+ ionic interactions color sapphires. A minor ion, V3+ induces slate to purple colors and color change in some sapphires, but its role in coloring rubies remains enigmatic. Trace element and oxygen isotope composition provide genetic signatures for natural corundum and assist geographic typing. Here, we show that V can dominate chromophore contents in Mogok ruby suites. This raises implications for their color quality, enhancement treatments, geographic origin, exploration and exploitation and their comparison with rubies elsewhere. Precise LA-ICP-MS analysis of ruby and sapphire from Mogok placer and in situ deposits reveal that V can exceed 5,000 ppm, giving V/Cr, V/Fe and V/Ti ratios up to 26, 78, and 97 respectively. Such values significantly exceed those found elsewhere suggesting a localized geological control on V-rich ruby distribution. Our results demonstrate that detailed geochemical studies of ruby suites reveal that V is a potential ruby tracer, encourage comparisons of V/Cr-variation between ruby suites and widen the scope for geographic typing and genesis of ruby. This will allow more precise comparison of Asian and other ruby fields and assist confirmation of Mogok sources for rubies in historical and contemporary gems and jewelry.

  4. The Genesis of Myth in V. Solovyov’s Early Writings. Myth as Theogon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaganova Natal'ia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Vladimir Solovyov’s works myth is presented in two ways: as the authorial myth, which is a part of the future “universal religion”, and as an object of theoretical refl ection in the process of philosophical and religious research. In both cases myth is understood as an actual process of theogony, and so Solovyov’s “religious studies” turn out to be a part of his religious metaphysics. The philosopher marks three periods in mythological process: uranic – solar – phallic, and maintains such development to be a law. Solovyov’s theory of the origin of religion is based upon the idea of the essential analogy between cosmic and theogonic processes. These two processes are different ways in which the same conscious principle of the world manifests itself; in Solovyov’s religious doctrine this principle is described as the “universal soul” which strives for the divine unity. The theory of mythological process by Solovyov is compared with a similar conception of bishop Chrysanthus (Retivtsev, who also appeals to primeval monotheism as the basic form of religion. In contrast to Solovyov’s theory, Chrysanthus understands the genesis of the ancient religion as a development of tribal psychology, which is localized entirely in the consciousness of a collective religious subject.

  5. Effect of Perched Water Tables on Aluminosilicate Stability and Soil Genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mineral stability and solute activities of soil solution extracted from selected horizons of seven studied pedons of Alfisols in Kentucky, USA, and the relationship between distribution of iron-manganese concretions and the restrictive layers were investigated. The results showed that the genesis and development of these soils and mineral weathering trends were strongly influenced by the depth of bedrock and the presence of perched water tables at lithic (limestone) interfaces due to the dissolution and buffering effect of limestone bedrock. The extractable Mg/Ca ratio as depth function and soil depth above bedrock could be used as indices of weathering and degree of soil development. Maximum iron-manganese concretion accumulation was found to occur in the horizon overlying clay horizon (>40% clay) with a sharp increase in clay content (> 10%), which suggested that zones of Fe-Mn concretion accumulation in soils of the Inner Bluegrass Region appeared to be a sensitive genetic indicator of argillic horizons with restrictive permeability.

  6. Inconsistencies in coastal dune genesis and development in the western Mediterranean Cabopino Dune system, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Malvárez, Gonzalo; Jackson, Derek; Navas, Fatima

    2016-04-01

    It is generally agreed that a falling sea level regime is required in the long term to establish dunes as distinctive landform features along a coast. Sedimentary (supply) bodies from fluvial, glacial sources or marine platform processes also need to be in place. In most Atlantic-facing coastal dune systems the current morpho-sedimentary structures are usually associated with the period between 18K BP and present when both glacial and riverine sediments emplaced sediments within the active zone of present sea level to help form beaches and dunes. Mediterranean coastal dunes fronted by steep continental shelves, such as in the western Mediterranean coast of southern Spain are, however, not associated with glacial deposits and thus are only present in association with river mouths and/or coastal lagoons. Their development is attributed to very recent sediment supply, which, combined with other forcing factors such as wind and waves, several orders of magnitude below those of north Atlantic systems, explains their limited extent. Some coastal dune fields however, do not seem to respond to this general pattern because of their scale and, more importantly, their origin linked possibly to marine platform processes rather than riverine or lagoonal development. Here, we examine the Cabopino dune system in southern Spain offering a conceptual model of their genesis and development as an "Atlantic" dune system within a Mediterranean setting. This is demonstrated by their scale (the largest in the Spanish Mediterranean) and their morphodynamic link to nearshore and platform processes in the last 18,000 years.

  7. A key role for green rust in the Precambrian oceans and the genesis of iron formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, I.; Alesker, M.; Schuster, E. M.; Popovitz-Biro, R.; Feldman, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Iron formations deposited in marine settings during the Precambrian represent large sinks of iron and silica, and have been used to reconstruct environmental conditions at the time of their formation. However, the observed mineralogy in iron formations, which consists of iron oxides, silicates, carbonates and sulfides, is generally thought to have arisen from diagenesis of one or more mineral precursors. Ferric iron hydroxides and ferrous carbonates and silicates have been identified as prime candidates. Here we investigate the potential role of green rust, a ferrous-ferric hydroxy salt, in the genesis of iron formations. Our laboratory experiments show that green rust readily forms in early seawater-analogue solutions, as predicted by thermodynamic calculations, and that it ages into minerals observed in iron formations. Dynamic models of the iron cycle further indicate that green rust would have precipitated near the iron redoxcline, and it is expected that when the green rust sank it transformed into stable phases within the water column and sediments. We suggest, therefore, that the precipitation and transformation of green rust was a key process in the iron cycle, and that the interaction of green rust with various elements should be included in any consideration of Precambrian biogeochemical cycles.

  8. Research on Genesis of Pyrite near the Permian-Triassic Boundary in Meishan, Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yao-fa; TANG Yue-gang; CHOU Chen-lin

    2006-01-01

    The content and crystal forms of pyrite and sulfur isotope composition of pyrite sulfur as well as its vertical distribution near the Permian-Triassic (P/T) boundary in the Meishan section, Changxing county, Zhejiang province, China were studied using geological, petrological, mineralogical and geochemical methods (techniques). The result showed that the genesis of abundant pyrites in bed 24e2 at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation in the Meishan section may be related to volcanic activity. In bed 24e2 of the Meishan section, pyrite has its highest content of 1.84% and the sulfur isotope composition has the highest δ34S value at +2.2‰ which is very similar to that of the average value of volcanic gas. There are some volcanic products such as β-quartz, siliceous cylinders and siliceous spherules which coexisted with pyrites in beds 24e2 and 24f. It can be concluded that a large quantity of volcanic ash fell into the South China Sea and was incorporated into marine sediments during the formation of limestone at the uppermost part of the Changxing Formation. The volcanic eruption with massive amounts of H2S and SO2 gas at the end of the Permian period resulted in the enrichment of H2S in the South China Sea areas. The reaction of H2S with reactive iron minerals formed the mass of abundant pyrites.

  9. Reassessment of the Genesis of "Thaw Lakes" on the Arctic Coastal Plain in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Y.; Jorgenson, M. T.

    2004-12-01

    Oriented lakes and drained lake basins on the Arctic Coastal Plain in northern Alaska have been the subject of numerous studies for more than 50 years. From the beginning, the waterbodies have been described as "thaw lakes" and since then a thermokarst genesis for the lakes has been accepted without any quantitative analysis of the initial permafrost conditions and thaw-susceptibility of the upper permafrost. We initially sought to quantify ground ice changes in support of this concept through detailed permafrost and terrain studies in the northeastern NPRA, an area with thick deposits of loamy sand and abundant lakes. During 2001-2004 we conducted detailed terrain analyses that included field surveys, permafrost investigations, and photogrammetry. A terrain-unit approach was used to relate soil and ground ice properties to surficial deposits related to lake development. Cryogenic structures, ice volumes, and properties of upper permafrost were described from borehole cores taken from every stage of lake-basin development and in surrounding areas. Ground ice also was described and sampled at 20 exposures at lake and riverbanks. We classified stages of drained basin development and quantified their permafrost characteristics. The primary stage of lake development is usually described as degradation of ice-wedges at their intersections. A thaw bulb then develops under the deep water and the thaw lakes expand laterally through both mechanical and thermal erosion. Although we observed numerous ponds at ice-wedge crossings we did not observe later sequential stages of thaw lake development. Instead, we observed that initial shallow ponds were soon colonized by vegetation, which halted thermokarst. In addition, ice volumes and thaw settlement properties of soils were insufficient to allow thaw lake development. Under the standard concept of lake development, the formation of ice wedges raises the surface and allows the development of new thermokarst, and thus creates a

  10. The Genesis of tectonically and hydrothermally controlled industry mineral deposits: A geochemical and structural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfler, Anke; Prochaska, Walter; Henjes-Kunst, Friedhelm; Fritz, Harald

    2010-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the role of hydrothermal fluids in the formation of talc and magnesite deposits. These deposits occur in manifold geological and tectonical settings such as stockworks and veins within ultramafite hostrocks and monomineralic lenses within marine platform sediments. Along shear zones talc mineralizations may occur as a result of tectonical and hydrothermal activity. To understand the role of the fluids for the genesis of the mineralization, deposits in different geological and tectonical settings are investigated: Talc mineralization within in magnesite in low-grade palaeozoic nappe complexes (Gemerska Poloma, Slovakia): The magnesite body lies within the Gemer unit of the Inner Carpathians consisting of Middle Triassic metacarbonates and Upper Triassic pelagic limestones and radiolarites. The talc mineralization is bound to crosscutting veins. Two metamorphic events can be distinguished, one during Variscan orogeny and one related to the Alpine orogeny leading to the formation of talc along faults in an Mg carbonate body (Radvanec et al, 2004).The origin of the fluids as well as the tectonic events leading to the mineralization is still widely unknown. Talc mineralization in shearzones within Palaeozoic meta sedimentary rocks (Sa Matta, Sardinia): Variscan granitoids intruded Palaeozoic meta sedimentary rocks and were overprinted be NE striking tectonic structures that host talc mineralizations. The origin of Mg and fluids leading to the mineralization is still not answered satisfactorily (Grillo and Prochaska, 2007) and thus a tectonic model for the genesis of the talc deposit is missing. Talc mineralization within UHP pre-Alpine continental crust (Val Chisone, Italy): The talc deposit forms part of the Dora-Maira Massif. Geologicaly the massif derived from a Variscan basement that includes post-Variscan intrusions. The talc mineralization occurs as a sheetlike, conformable body. A possible tectonic emplacement of talc along shear

  11. Rare-element pegmatite-forming melt during Variscan orogeny: genesis, propagation and consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveaud, Sarah; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Millot, Romain

    2015-04-01

    The Variscan rare-element pegmatite fields mainly enriched in Li, Nb and Ta are subject to increasing mining exploration in the last few years. Indeed, Li from pegmatite deposits is recognised to be less sensitive to supply disruptions than Li from brine deposits. Thus, new metallogenic guides need to be defined in order to meet the growing demand for Li, Nb and Ta metals, and to ensure supply of strategic metals at the European scale. Three Variscan rare-element pegmatite fields have been selected to apply a multi-approach study in order to understand the genesis of pegmatite-forming melt, their propagation and their clustered consolidation at the crustal scale. The Monts d'Ambazac (French Massif Central), Barroso-Alvão (Portugal) and Forcarei-Lalin (Galicia, Spain) pegmatite fields present a similar age (~305-315 Ma), a similar geodynamical context (syn- to post-collisional) and same kind of mineralisations (LiCsTa type) but show distinct intensity of deformation affecting various country-rocks. Firstly, spatial statistical analyses have been developed to constrain the spatial distribution of the Monts d'Ambazac and the Barroso-Alvão pegmatite fields. Secondly, Li-isotopic analyses in micas have been used to investigate the role of δ7Li as geochemical tracer of LCT-pegmatites (from the less to the more evolved and lithium-rich pegmatite type). Finally, spatial and temporal relationships between pegmatites and hosting-rocks have been discriminated with structural field data mainly obtained on the Monts d'Ambazac and Forcarei-Lalin pegmatite fields. In addition, Li- isotopes results corroborate that Li-fractionation is neither affected by fractional crystallisation nor by crustal anatexis processes in a significant way. These δ7Li values (‰ ) being independent from the degree of magmatic fractionation (K/Rb ratio) and ranging from -3.5 to +3.5 ‰, tend to confirm that these pegmatite-forming melts evolve independently of each other. Our results demonstrate

  12. Genesis and characteristics of woodlot forms in the landscape of southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Fortuna-Antoszkiewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The paper is a synthesis of the research on the genesis and characteristics of woodlot forms in the traditional English landscape. Historically, their origin is related among other things to the British being inspired by the Arcadian myths popular in the 16th and 17th centuries, as a result of trips to places like Italy or the Far East, and a fascination with nature. At the same time the 16th century was characterized by a progressive and gradual deforestation of the landscape of the island. Therefore, during the 17th and 18th centuries a very particular cultural landscape of England developed, of which the specific pastoral physiognomy found some representation in the archetype of the 19th-century English park. This can be clearly stated on the example of woodlots, which very similar forms can be shown both in English agricultural landscape and in English parks. The aim of this research was to analyse forms and functions of selected examples of woodlots in southern England. Material and methods. The collection of field data took place in April 2015 during scientific workshops organized by the Polish Dendrology Society (PTD, devoted to woody plants of southern England (including Surrey and vicinity. As a result, the physiognomy of the complex system of woodlots was analysed in situ and a rich photo documentation was collected. Results and conclusions. It can be stated that the forms of woodlots occurring in the contempor­ary English landscape bear a strong resemblance to those presented in 19th-century landscape paintings. This is a phenomenon of effective protection of the physiognomy of the cultural landscape, which has survived virtually unchanged after more than two centuries. As a result, the authors characterized exceptional values of woodlots to traditional rural and parkland landscape in southern England as an example for development and protection of the cultural landscapes in Poland – both in the past and the present.

  13. Israel state implementation and the genesis of conflict Israeli/arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Kneip Zucchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to demonstrate mainly through historical analysis and international politics, the genesis of the conflict in the middle east between jews and arabs, is embedded within a global context and has its heart in imperialist interests and also the bipolarity emerged after world war ii world, and not in rivalry or hatred between secular people, although the ethnic/religious discourse has often succeeded mask the reality of this antagonism, originating in the twentieth century, which entered the xxi no prospect of resolution. history shows that, on the one hand, jews and arabs had some "conflicting interinsti'', especially at the dawn of islam, on the other hand, lived peacefully and productively for centuries, as the umayyad caliphate in spain and elsewhere. History shows that, on the one hand, Jews and Arabs had some "conflicting Interinsti'', especially at the dawn of Islam, on the other hand, lived peacefully and productively for centuries, as the Umayyad Caliphate in Spain and elsewhere. The proclamation of the State of Israel in 1948, although it had set up a compromise solution to the problem anti/Semitic in Europe, redound, however, and paradoxically, a new strangeness and new conflicts now between Jewish and Arab inhabitants of Palestine and throughout the Middle East. The European powers, in this context, flow into a contradiction that your in the same motion that reiterated their prejudices, transporting them to the Middle East and, worsening noticeably with the Cold War and the confrontation between the United States and Soviet Union, which will make region – rich in essential energy resources to the West – the scene of their confrontation, making worse a situation was already desperate in the extreme.

  14. Role of anxiety and depressive disorders in the genesis of psychosomatic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Shatenshtein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients and methods. The results of clinical and psychodiagnostic examination using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were analyzed in 210 therapeutic inpatients from 4 groups of psychosomatic diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertensive disease, duodenal ulcer disease, asthma, and bronchitis with an asthmatic component and 3 groups of diseases in whose genesis the psychosomatic mechanisms (pneumonia, gastritis, renal diseases played a lesser role. Healthy individuals (n=38 served as a control group. The correlation coefficients between the first scale reflecting the number of somatic complaints and the magnitude of their hypochondriacal fixation and the second one characterizing the degree of anxiety and depressive disorders were calculated within each disease group. Results. In psychosomatic diseases, the correlation coefficients between the first and second MMPI scales proved to be insignificant and substantially lower than those in the healthy individuals. This suggests that in such patients, a larger number of somatic complaints and their enhanced hypochondriacal fixation alleviate anxiety and depressive disorders, which may be regarded as an indication that there is psychosomatic defense that lessens anxiety due to a somatic disease. In somatic diseases that are not referring to as psychosomatic ones, the correlation coefficient between the first and second scales is highly significant and considerably higher than that in the healthy individuals and particularly higher than in the group of psychosomatic diseases. In the patients of these groups, an increase in anxiety and depression aggravates autonomic dysregulation reflecting in the larger number of hypochondriacal complaints. This direct relationship between autonomic functions and the level of anxiety and depression may be a risk factor for developing these disorders.

  15. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255

  16. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Garrido de Barros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989, based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields. A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers.

  17. Genesis of mammalian prions: from non-infectious amyloid fibrils to a transmissible prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natallia Makarava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The transmissible agent of prion disease consists of a prion protein in its abnormal, β-sheet rich state (PrP(Sc, which is capable of replicating itself according to the template-assisted mechanism. This mechanism postulates that the folding pattern of a newly recruited polypeptide chain accurately reproduces that of a PrP(Sc template. Here we report that authentic PrP(Sc and transmissible prion disease can be generated de novo in wild type animals by recombinant PrP (rPrP amyloid fibrils, which are structurally different from PrP(Sc and lack any detectable PrP(Sc particles. When induced by rPrP fibrils, a long silent stage that involved two serial passages preceded development of the clinical disease. Once emerged, the prion disease was characterized by unique clinical, neuropathological, and biochemical features. The long silent stage to the disease was accompanied by significant transformation in neuropathological properties and biochemical features of the proteinase K-resistant PrP material (PrPres before authentic PrP(Sc evolved. The current work illustrates that transmissible prion diseases can be induced by PrP structures different from that of authentic PrP(Sc and suggests that a new mechanism different from the classical templating exists. This new mechanism designated as "deformed templating" postulates that a change in the PrP folding pattern from the one present in rPrP fibrils to an alternative specific for PrP(Sc can occur. The current work provides important new insight into the mechanisms underlying genesis of the transmissible protein states and has numerous implications for understanding the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Genesis of textural contrasts in subsurface soil horizons in the Northern Pantanal-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ferreira do Nascimento

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal region can be characterized as a quaternary floodplain with predominant sedimentation in the form of alluvial fans. In the geomorphologic and sedimentary evolution, the avulsion process is inherent to this depositional system and its dynamics, together with surface water floods, influence soil sedimentation on this plain. The knowledge and differentiation of these two events can contribute to a better understanding of the variability of soil properties and distribution under the influence of these sedimentation processes. Therefore, this study investigated the genesis of soils in the Northern Pantanal with textural contrasts in deeper horizons and their relationship with the depositional system dynamics. We analyzed four soil profiles in the region of Barão de Melgaço, Mato Grosso State, Brazil (RPPN SESC Pantanal. Two profiles were sampled near the Rio Cuiabá (AP1 and AP4 and two near the Rio São Lourenço (AP10 and AP11. In AP11, the horizons contrast in particle size between the profile basis and the surface. In AP1, AP4 and AP10, the horizons overlaying the sand layer have similar particle size properties, mainly in terms of sand distribution. In the first case, floods (surface water seem to have originated the horizons and layers with contrasting texture. In the second case, avulsion is the most pronounced process. Therefore, the two modes can form soils with contrasting texture that are discriminable by soil morphology, based on the distinct features associated to the specific sedimentation processes.

  19. Genesis of Josephitism and functioning the opposition in “anti-Sergius” movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Pawełczyk-Dura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in the Russian Orthodox Church, connected with the Patriarch Tikhon’s death, initiated the deep divisions between hierarchs. Deputies of Tikhon, including dignity as a result of the nomination – which was a precedent in the canonical order of the Orthodox Church authorities – were not able to maintain the monolith community, destructed by internal divisions and persecuted by the communist state. Nomination of metropolitan of Nizhny Novogorod on the Guardian of the Patriarchal Throne and publication of The Letter (declaration of the deputy of the Guardian of the Patriarchal Throne Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky of Nizhny Novgorod and the Temporary Saint Synod about the attitude of Russian Orthodox Church to the state authorities underlined differences between the faithful and the clergy. On opposite sides were followers and opponents of the Sergius’ “political line”. Activity of the last ones, manifesting in not-exchanging name of Sergius during liturgy, in moments, when words of the prayer for the superior of the local Church are being said, took the non-institutional forms of movement, definite as not-recalling. This formation, which was essentially the conglomeration of different groups of the clergy and faithful, dominated Josephites – the strongest and most active adherents of the archbishop of Leningrad Joseph (Petrovykh. Genesis those movement as a kind of symbol of opposition to the policy of servility and compromises metropolitan Sergius has been the subject of analysis of this text.

  20. Genesis of zircon and its constraints on interpretation of U-Pb age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yuanbao; ZHENG Yongfei

    2004-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb dating is the most commonly used method for isotopic geochronology. However, it has been a difficult issue when relating zircon U-Pb ages to metamorphic conditions in complex metamorphic rocks. Much progress has been made in the past decade with respect to the genesis of zircon and its constraints on interpretation of U-Pb age. Three methods have been proposed to link zircon U-Ph age to metamorphic conditions: ( I ) internal structure; (ii)trace element feature; (iii) mineral inclusion composition.Magmatic zircon shows typical oscillatory zoning and/or sector zoning, whereas metamorphic zircon has internal structures such as no zoned, weakly zoned, cloudy zoned,sector zoned, planar zoned, and patched zoned ones. Zircons formed in different geological environments generally have characteristic internal structures. Magmatic zircons from different rock types have variable trace element abundances,with a general trend of increasing trace element abundances in zircons from ultramafic through mafic to granitic rocks.Zircons formed under different metamorphic conditions have different trace element characteristics that can be used to relate their formation to metamorphic conditions. It is an effective way to relate zircon growth to certain P-T conditions by studying the trace element partitioning between coexisting metamorphic zircon and garnet in high-grade metamorphic rocks containing both zircon and garnet. Primary mineral inclusions in zircon can also provide unambiguous constraints on its formation conditions. Therefore,interpretation of zircon U-Pb ages can be constrained by its internal structure, trace element composition, mineral inclusion and so on.

  1. Clinical study on role of life events in genesis of neurotic disorders and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Medhi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to know about the role of life events in genesis of neurotic disorders and depression in four groups of patients with dissociative disorder, somatisation disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, and depression. It was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India. Methods and materials: It was a case control study with 100 cases of neurotic disorders and depression (25 cases in each group attending indoor and outdoor, and diagnosed using research diagnostic criteria of the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10. The groups were compared with similar number of matched controls, in respect to number, scoring, and type of life events occurring within one year prior to the onset of illness using the Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES. Variables related to socio-demographic characteristics were also seen between cases and controls. Result and conclusion: Number of life events was significantly higher in depressive and generalized anxiety groups than control group. Total life events scores were significantly higher in depressive and generalized anxiety group than control group. Undesirable events were significantly higher in all groups. Personal events were significantly higher in depressives than control. Events related to interpersonal relation were significantly higher in depressive, dissociative, and GAD groups than control. Bereavement was closely associated with depression and GAD. Events related to health, finance, and education were higher in dissociative group than control. Events related to move were found significantly higher in GAD group than control. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Gap Junctions Contribute to Ictal/Interictal Genesis in Human Hypothalamic Hamartomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Gao, Ming; Rice, Stephen G; Tsang, Candy; Beggs, John; Turner, Dharshaun; Li, Guohui; Yang, Bo; Xia, Kunkun; Gao, Fenfei; Qiu, Shenfeng; Liu, Qiang; Kerrigan, John F

    2016-06-01

    Human hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is a rare subcortical lesion associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Cellular mechanisms responsible for epileptogenesis are unknown. We hypothesized that neuronal gap junctions contribute to epileptogenesis through synchronous activity within the neuron networks in HH tissue. We studied surgically resected HH tissue with Western-blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, biocytin microinjection of recorded HH neurons, and microelectrode patch clamp recordings with and without pharmacological blockade of gap junctions. Normal human hypothalamus tissue was used as a control. Western blots showed increased expression of both connexin-36 (Cx36) and connexin-43 (Cx43) in HH tissue compared with normal human mammillary body tissue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Cx36 and Cx43 are expressed in HH tissue, but Cx36 was mainly expressed within neuron clusters while Cx43 was mainly expressed outside of neuron clusters. Gap-junction profiles were observed between small HH neurons with electron microscopy. Biocytin injection into single recorded small HH neurons showed labeling of adjacent neurons, which was not observed in the presence of a neuronal gap-junction blocker, mefloquine. Microelectrode field recordings from freshly resected HH slices demonstrated spontaneous ictal/interictal-like discharges in most slices. Bath-application of gap-junction blockers significantly reduced ictal/interictal-like discharges in a concentration-dependent manner, while not affecting the action-potential firing of small gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons observed with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the same patient's HH tissue. These results suggest that neuronal gap junctions between small GABAergic HH neurons participate in the genesis of epileptic-like discharges. Blockade of gap junctions may be a new therapeutic strategy for controlling seizure activity in HH patients.

  3. Genesis mechanism of the Sinian-Cambrian reservoirs in the Anyue Gas Field, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jingao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm, the 4th and 2nd members of the Sinian Dengying Fm are the three major gas layers in the Anyue Gas Field of the Sichuan Basin. Their main characteristics and genesis mechanism were investigated, and the following three findings were obtained. First, according to sedimentary microfacies, lithology and porosity, the Longwangmiao Fm is identified as fractured-vuggy dolomite reservoir of grain shoal facies, the 4th member of the Dengying Fm as fractured-vuggy (cavernous dolomite reservoir of cyanobacteria mound beach facies, and the 2nd member of the Dengying Fm as fractured-vuggy dolomite reservoirs of cyanobacteria mound beach facies. Second, the Longwangmiao Fm is mainly grain dolomite, with dissolution pores and vugs as major reservoir space, at an average porosity of 4.24% and an average thickness of 36 m. The 4th member of the Dengying Fm made up of cyanobacteria dolomite has dissolution pores, vugs and caverns as major reservoir space with an average porosity of 3.22% and an average thickness of 70 m. The 2nd member of the Dengying Fm composed of cyanobacteria dolomite has fractures and vugs as major reservoir space with an average porosity of 3.34% and an average thickness of 80 m. Third, those reservoirs experienced multiple evolutionary stages including porosity development, hydrothermal mineral filling, asphalt filling etc. Penecontemporaneous dissolution and supergene karstification are the key factors controlling the formation of the reservoir space and the evolution models of the reservoirs were figured out.

  4. Solar and solar-wind composition results from the genesis mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Roger C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burnett, D. S. [Geological and Planetary Sciences, Pasadena, CA (United States); Hohenberg, C. M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Meshik, A. [Isotope Geology, Zurich (Switzerland); Heber, V. [Isotope Geology, Zurich (Switzerland); Grimberg, A. [Isotope Geology, Zurich (Switzerland); Wieler, R. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States); Reisenfeld, D. B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2007-02-20

    The Genesis mission returned samples of solar wind to Earth in September, 2004 for ground-based analyses of solar-wind composition, particularly for isotope ratios. Substrates, consisting mostly of high-purity semiconductor materials, were exposed to the solar wind at L1 from December 2001 to April 2004. In addition to a bulk sample of the solar wind, separate samples of coronal hole, interstream, and coronal mass ejection material were obtained. While many of the substrates were broken upon landing due to the failure to deploy the parachute, a number of results have been obtained, and most of the primary science objectives will likely be met. These include noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) isotope ratios in the bulk solar wind and in different solarwind regimes, and the nitrogen and oxygen isotope ( 18O/17O/16O) ratios to high precision. The greatest successes to date have been with the noble gases. Light noble gases from bulk solar wind and separate solar-wind regime samples have been analyzed to date. The regime compositions are so far ambiguous on the occurrence of the type of isotopic fractionation expected from Coulomb drag acceleration. Neon results from closed system stepped etching of bulk metallic glass have revealed the nature of isotopic fractionation as a function of depth, which in lunar samples have for years deceptively suggested the presence of a separate solar component. Isotope ratios of the heavy noble gases, nitrogen, and oxygen are still in the process of being measured.

  5. Localized permanent epidemics: the genesis of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdrager, J

    1995-03-01

    Localized permanent epidemics occur when, for an indefinite period of time, there is a temporary but continuous introduction of unprotected non-immunes into the same locality of a hyperendemic area. The main epidemiological factors involved in the genesis of localized permanent epidemics were encountered in Pailin (Cambodia) the epicenter of drug resistance in Southeast Asia: a very efficient vector, Anopheles dirus, exophilic and of limited distribution with, therefore, adjacent hyperendemic and non-endemic areas; a permanent pole of attraction in the hyperendemic area: Pailin's sapphires and rubies; a temporary but continuous influx of non-immunes into the pole of attraction: continuous influx of non-immunes into the Pailin gem mining area. In the gem-mining Pailin village drug pressure was considerable: mass drug administration, a medicated salt project and permanent self-medication with very high doses, much higher doses being required to cure non-immunes with heavy infections and severe clinical attacks in epidemic situations. It appears, therefore, that the emergence of chloroquine resistance in Southeast Asia was the consequence of the localized permanent epidemics in Païlin. High level resistance was the result of continuous and intensive serial passages of P. falciparum in the non-immune subjects, large numbers of parasites being exposed to a high level of drug pressure at each passage. Similar epidemiological conditions are encountered in some parts of South America where the exophilic vector is An. nuneztovari. In Colombia, whose eastern mountains bordering Venezuela yield the most highly prized emeralds in the world, chloroquine resistance was detected at about the same time as in Southeast Asia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Gap Junctions Contribute to Ictal/Interictal Genesis in Human Hypothalamic Hamartomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human hypothalamic hamartoma (HH is a rare subcortical lesion associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Cellular mechanisms responsible for epileptogenesis are unknown. We hypothesized that neuronal gap junctions contribute to epileptogenesis through synchronous activity within the neuron networks in HH tissue. We studied surgically resected HH tissue with Western-blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, biocytin microinjection of recorded HH neurons, and microelectrode patch clamp recordings with and without pharmacological blockade of gap junctions. Normal human hypothalamus tissue was used as a control. Western blots showed increased expression of both connexin-36 (Cx36 and connexin-43 (Cx43 in HH tissue compared with normal human mammillary body tissue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Cx36 and Cx43 are expressed in HH tissue, but Cx36 was mainly expressed within neuron clusters while Cx43 was mainly expressed outside of neuron clusters. Gap-junction profiles were observed between small HH neurons with electron microscopy. Biocytin injection into single recorded small HH neurons showed labeling of adjacent neurons, which was not observed in the presence of a neuronal gap-junction blocker, mefloquine. Microelectrode field recordings from freshly resected HH slices demonstrated spontaneous ictal/interictal-like discharges in most slices. Bath-application of gap-junction blockers significantly reduced ictal/interictal-like discharges in a concentration-dependent manner, while not affecting the action-potential firing of small gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons observed with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the same patient's HH tissue. These results suggest that neuronal gap junctions between small GABAergic HH neurons participate in the genesis of epileptic-like discharges. Blockade of gap junctions may be a new therapeutic strategy for controlling seizure activity in HH patients.

  7. I «cinque giganti» e la genesi del welfare state in Europa tra le due guerre / The Five “Giant Evils" and the Genesis of the Welfare State in Europe between the Two World Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rapini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The essay reconstructs the genesis of the welfare state during the early forties of the twentieth century. The welfare state is situated inside the European crisis caused by the Wall Street crash of 1929, by the fascisms and by the second world war. The essay focuses on the social policies of Fascism and Nazism, underlining their genetic connection with the war. The democracies decide to oppose the welfare state to warfare state of the fascisms to win not only the war, but, especially, to win the peace.

  8. Molecular landscape of arthrofibrosis: Microarray and bioinformatic analysis of the temporal expression of 380 genes during contracture genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrey, Mark E; Abdel, Matthew P; Riester, Scott M; Dudakovic, Amel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Morrey, Bernard F; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2017-04-30

    Inflammatory changes are suspected in the pathophysiology of arthrofibrosis formation and require early molecular examination. Here, we assessed the hypothesis that early inflammatory genes are related to arthrofibrosis by ascertaining gene expression during the early stages of contracture genesis in an animal model. Joint trauma was incited surgically in a cohort of rabbits (n=36) knees followed by immobilization in a model of contracture. Six groups of 6 rabbits were sacrificed at multiple time points (0, 6, 12, 24, 72h and 2weeks). Microarray expression and RT-qPCR profiling were performed to determine genes that are significantly up or downregulated. Bioinformatic analysis was carried out to understand which biological programs and functional groups of genes are modulated in arthrofibrosis. Gene expression profiling revealed a large number biologically relevant genes (>100) that are either upregulated or downregulated by at least a 1.5 fold (log2) during the first two weeks after joint injury during contracture development. Gene ontology analysis identified molecular pathways and programs that act during the course of fibrosis and joint contracture. Our main finding is that the development of contractures occur concomitant with modulation of genes mediating inflammatory responses, ECM remodeling and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The genesis of joint contracture reflects an imbalance between pro- and anti-fibrotic expression. Our study indicates that inflammatory genes may be involved in the process of contracture genesis and initiated at relatively early stages. Our findings also may inform clinical practice in the future by suggesting potential therapeutic targets in preventing the long-term development of arthrofibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. I «cinque giganti» e la genesi del welfare state in Europa tra le due guerre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rapini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay reconstructs the genesis of the welfare state during the early forties of the twentieth century. The welfare state is situated inside the European crisis caused by the Wall Street crash of 1929, by the fascisms and by the second world war. The essay focuses on the social policies of Fascism and Nazism, underlining their genetic connection with the war. The democracies decide to oppose the welfare state to warfare state of the fascisms to win not only the war, but, especially, to win the peace.

  10. ToF-SIMS Investigation of the Effectiveness of Acid-Cleaning procedures for Genesis Solar Wind Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Humanyun, M.; Burnett, D. S.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2014-01-01

    ToF-SIMS images of Genesis sample surfaces contain an incredible amount of important information, but they also show that the crash-derived surface contamination has many components, presenting a challenge to cleaning. Within the variability, we have shown that there are some samples which appear to be clean to begin with, e.g. 60471, and some are more contaminated. Samples 60493 and 60500 are a part of a focused study of the effectiveness of aqua regia and/or sulfuric acid cleaning of small flight Si implanted with Li-6 using ToF-SIMS.

  11. Genesis of Low-Resistivity Oil layers from Cretaceous System in Luxi Area and Its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国华

    2002-01-01

    Genesis of low-resistivity oil layers from cretaceous system in Luxi area was studied. The result shows that the resistivity of oil layers is lower than that of water layers from Tugulu Group(K1tg),Cretaceous in Luliang area,Zhungeer basin, resulting in a disaccordance with logging interpretation on oil layers,oil-water layers and water layers.The research on the petro-texture of reservoirs also shows that the watered clay pellicle (I/S, I, ch) is well developed in K1tg expands the section of conductive net and results in a low resistivity of oil layers.

  12. On the Genesis of Uranium Deposit 720 with Special Reference to the Double Solution—Mixing Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振球; 胡中林

    1991-01-01

    Presented in this paper is an approach to the analysis of "series-stage"division.The processes of hydrothermal evolution involved in ore deposition,the factors affecting the enrichment of uranium and the source of ore forming elements in uranium deposit 720 are also discussed .In addition,the ore-forming tem-perature and pressure as well as the pH,Eh and chemical composition of ore-forming medium are studied with reference to the fluid inclusion data available.A double solution-mixing model has been proposed to explain the genesis of the uranium deposit studied.

  13. Insert dissociation after fixed bearing PS constrained Genesis II total knee arthroplasty. A case series of nine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuijl, Timothy; Nijenhuis, Thijs A; Van Hellemondt, Gijs G; Goosen, Jon H M

    2015-12-01

    Dissociation of the polyethylene insert after fixed bearing posterior stabilized Genesis II total knee arthroplasty has been rarely described. We present a case series of nine patients with a dissociation of the insert within a period of two years after surgery. Revision surgery was performed in all patients. In this report we discuss clinical presentation, patient characteristics and possible etiologies for tibial insert dissociation seen in the presented cases. In conclusion, tibial insert dissociation does not lead to a uniform clinical presentation. Therefore, in this point of view regular physical examination and imaging after TKA regardless the presence of symptoms seems to be indicated.

  14. Interannual variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone and implications for tropical cyclone genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Emmanuel M. [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); UPMC, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Lengaigne, Matthieu [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India); Menkes, Christophe E. [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); Jourdain, Nicolas C. [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); Marchesiello, Patrick [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); CNES/CNRS/UPS/IRD, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale (LEGOS), Toulouse (France); Madec, Gurvan [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); National Oceanographic Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    The interannual variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and its influence on tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in the South Pacific are investigated using observations and ERA40 reanalysis over the 1979-2002 period. In austral summer, the SPCZ displays four typical structures at interannual timescales. The first three are characterized by a diagonal orientation of the SPCZ and account for 85% of the summer seasons. One is close to climatology and the other two exhibit a 3 northward or southward departure from the SPCZ climatological position. In contrast, the fourth one, that only encompasses three austral summer seasons (the extreme 1982/1983 and 1997/1998 El Nino events and the moderate 1991/1992 El Nino event), displays very peculiar behaviour where the SPCZ largely departs from its climatological position and is zonally oriented. Variability of the western/central Pacific equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) is shown to modulate moisture transport south of the equator, thereby strongly constraining the location of the SPCZ. The SPCZ location is also shown to strongly modulate the atmospheric circulation variability in the South Pacific with specific patterns for each class. However, independently of its wide year-to-year excursions, the SPCZ is always collocated with the zero relative vorticity at low levels while the maximum vorticity axis lies 6 to the south of the SPCZ position. This coherent atmospheric organisation in the SPCZ region is shown to constrain tropical cyclogenesis to occur preferentially within 10 south of the SPCZ location as this region combines all the large-scale atmospheric conditions that favour the breeding of TCs. This analysis also reveals that cyclogenesis in the central Pacific (in the vicinity of French Polynesia) only occurs when the SPCZ displays a zonal orientation while this observation was previously attributed to El Nino years in general. Different characteristics of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO

  15. The relativistic electro-vortical field—revisiting magneto-genesis and allied problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Swadesh M.

    2016-11-01

    Following the idea of MagnetoFluid unification [S. M. Mahajan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 035001 (2003)], a very general Electro-Vortical (EV) field is constructed to describe the dynamics of a perfect relativistic fluid. Structurally similar to the electromagnetic field Fμν , the Electro-Vortical field Mνμ unifies the macroscopic forces into a single grand force that is the weighted sum of the electromagnetic and the inertial/thermal forces. The new effective force may be viewed either as a vortico-thermal generalization of the electromagnetic force or as the electromagnetic generalization of the vortico-thermal forces that a fluid element experiences in course of its evolution. Two fundamental consequences follow from this grand unification: (1) emergences of a new helicity that is conserved for arbitrary thermodynamics and (2) the entire dynamics is formally expressible as an MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) like ideal Ohm's law in which the "electric" and "magnetic" components of the EV field replace the standard electric and magnetic fields. In the light of these more and more encompassing conserved helicities, the "scope and significance" of the classical problem of magneto-genesis (need for a seed field to get a dynamo started) is reexamined. It is shown that in models more advanced than MHD, looking for exotic seed-generation mechanisms (like the baroclinic thermodynamics) should not constitute a fundamental pursuit; the totally ideal dynamics is perfectly capable of generating and sustaining magnetic fields entirely within its own devices. For a specified thermodynamics, a variety of exact and semi exact self-consistent analytical solutions for equilibrium magnetic and flow fields are derived for a single species charged fluid. The scale lengths of the fields are determined by two natural scale lengths: the skin depth and the gradient length of the thermodynamic quantities. Generally, the skin depth, being the shorter (even much shorter) than the gradient length

  16. The giant Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit, China: Controversy and ore genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Rui Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bayan Obo ore deposit is the largest rare-earth element (REE resource, and the second largest niobium (Nb resource in the world. Due to the complicated element/mineral compositions and involving several geological events, the REE enrichment mechanism and genesis of this giant deposit still remains intense debated. The deposit is hosted in the massive dolomite, and nearly one hundred carbonatite dykes occur in the vicinity of the deposit. The carbonatite dykes can be divided into three types from early to late: dolomite, co-existing dolomite-calcite and calcite type, corresponding to different evolutionary stages of carbonatite magmatism based on the REE and trace element data. The latter always has higher REE content. The origin of the ore-hosting dolomite at Bayan Obo has been addressed in various models, ranging from a normal sedimentary carbonate rocks to volcano-sedimentary sequence, and a large carbonatitic intrusion. More geochemical evidences show that the coarse-grained dolomite represents a Mesoproterozoic carbonatite pluton and the fine-grained dolomite resulted from the extensive REE mineralization and modification of the coarse-grained variety. The ore bodies, distributed along an E–W striking belt, occur as large lenses and underwent more intense fluoritization and fenitization. The first episode mineralization is characterized by disseminated mineralization in the dolomite. The second or main-episode is banded and/or massive mineralization, cut by the third episode consisting of aegirine-rich veins. Various dating methods gave different mineralization ages at Bayan Obo, resulting in long and hot debates. Compilation of available data suggests that the mineralization is rather variable with two peaks at ∼1400 and 440 Ma. The early mineralization peak closes in time to the intrusion of the carbonatite dykes. A significant thermal event at ca. 440 Ma resulted in the formation of late-stage veins with coarse crystals of REE

  17. Numerical modeling and analysis of the effect of Greek complex topography on tornado genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Matsangouras

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tornadoes have been reported in Greece over the last decades in specific sub-geographical areas and have been associated with strong synoptic forcing. It is well known that meteorological conditions over Greece are affected at various scales by the significant variability of topography, the Ionian Sea at the west and the Aegean Sea at the east. However, there is still uncertainty regarding topography's importance on tornadic generation and development. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of topography in significant tornado genesis events that were triggered under strong synoptic scale forcing over Greece. Three tornado events that occurred over the last years in Thiva (Boeotia, 17 November 2007, Vrastema (Chalkidiki, 12 February 2010 and Vlychos (Lefkada, 20 September 2011 have been selected for numerical experiments. These events were associated with synoptic scale forcing, while their intensity was T4–T5 (Torro scale and caused significant damage. The simulations were performed using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF, initialized with ECMWF gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the meso scale. In the experiments the topography of the inner grid was modified by: (a 0% (actual topography and (b −100% (without topography. The aim was to determine whether the occurrence of tornadoes – mainly identified by various severe weather instability indices – could be indicated by modifying topography. The main utilized instability variables concerned the Bulk Richardson number shear (BRN, the energy helicity index (EHI, the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH and the maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE, for parcel with maximum theta-e. Additional a verification of model was conducted for every sensitivity experiment accompanied with analysis absolute vorticity budget

  18. Genesis and Classification of Soils from Subtropical Mountain Regions of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denilson Dortzbach

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soils formed in high mountainous regions in southern Brazil are characterized by great accumulation of organic matter (OM in the surface horizons and variation in the degree of development. We hypothesized that soil properties and genesis are influenced by the interaction of parent materials and climate factors, which differ depending on the location along the altitudinal gradient. The goal of this study was to characterize and classify the soil, evaluate soil distribution, and determine the interactive effects of soil-forming factors in the subtropical mountain regions in Santa Catarina state. Soil samples were collected in areas known for wine production, for a total of 38 modal profiles. Based on morphological, physical, and chemical properties, soils were evaluated for pedogenesis and classified according to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification, with equivalent classes in the World Reference Basis (WRB. The results indicated that pedogenesis was strongly influenced by the parent material, weather, and relief. In the areas where basic effusive rocks (basalt were observed, there was formation of extensive areas of clayey soils with reddish color and higher iron oxide contents. There was a predominance of Nitossolos Vermelhos and Háplicos (Nitisols, Latossolos Vermelhos (Ferralsols, and Cambissolos Háplicos (Cambisols, highlighting the pedogenetic processes of eluviation, illuviation of clay, and latosolization in conditions of year-long, large-volume, well-distributed rainfall and stability of land forms. In areas with acid effusive rocks (rhyodacites, medial or clayey soils were observed with lower iron oxide content, invariably acidic, and with low base content. For these soils, relief promoted substantial removal of material, resulting in intense rejuvenation, with a predominance of Cambissolos Háplicos (Cambisols and lesser occurrence of Nitossolos Brunos (Nitisols and Neossolos Litólicos (Leptosols. Soils formed from

  19. WATER RESOURCES IN THE ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS – GENESIS, TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. GÂȘTESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water resources in Romanian Carpathians-genesis, territorial distribution, management. Discussing water resources in Romania implies a twofold approach: water as a sine qua non of life itself and water as an important factor for the development of the contemporary society. Lying in a temperate zone, Romania’s water resources are rather modest compared with other countries in Europe. Inland rivers span 78,905 km (referred only to the 4,864 codified watercourses at an average density: 0.38 km/km2 and an annual volume: 40.6 billion m3, which means 1,765 m3/capita. To knowledge ground waters are put at 9.62 billion m3/year, of which 6 billion can be used in optimal technological and economic conditions. According to a recent UN statistical report, Romania lists at position 21 among the 34 European. Natural lakes are replenished from precipitation and springs water every year and the reserves are estimated at around 1 billion m3/year and are of local importance for water management schemes. The Black Sea (in the Romanian sector could become a major source if sea water desalting could be economical.The water resources of the drainage network were calculated on the basis of the mean liquid flow map (scale 1: 500,000 releves picture of river-water resources in the major relief units: the Carpathian, which occupies only 27.9% of the Romanian territory, 65.3% (26.48 billion mc from a total of 40.61 billion m3 of the water is formed and regenerated every year; the hill unit, which includes the Subcarpathians, the tablelands and the piedmont hills, and occupies 42.4% of Romania’s territory, only 28.0% of the water volume is formed (11.38 billion m3, of which 8.7% (3.51 billion m3 in the Subcarpathians and 19.4% (7.87 billion m3 in the other two units; the plain unit, which covers 29.7% of the country’s territory, the water volume formed there is small (6.7%

  20. Evaluating the Consequences of Edifice Instability-Related Processes in Hydrothermal Ore Genesis at Composite Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakacs, A.

    2009-05-01

    Composite volcanoes intrinsically evolve toward instability, which is resolved through sudden (e.g. flank/edifice failure) or gradual (e.g. volcano-basement interaction) processes. They commonly host hydrothermal systems and related ore deposits within their edifices and shallow basement. The nature and extent of the influence instability-related processes exert on these hydrothermal systems and ore genesis are as yet poorly understood. Short-term effects are basically related to sudden depressurization of the system. The key factors determining the response of the hydrothermal system are its depth and maturity, and amount of depressurization. Deep excavation will lead to evisceration of the edifice-hosted hydrothermal system, dispersion of its volatiles in the atmosphere and incorporation of solid-phase components in the resulting debris avalanche deposit (DAD). When mature, such a system may provide DAD-hosted ore deposits. The fate of the deeper, basement-hosted hydrothermal system depends on its maturity. The evolution of an immature system will be aborted as a consequence of premature depressurization-driven boiling, and no ore-grade mineralization forms. Mature systems, however, will benefit from pressure drop and induced boiling by massive deposition of pressure-sensitive ore minerals and formation of high-grade ore. Long-range effects of edifice-failure are related to increase of the meteoric input into the hydrothermal system due to the formation of a large depression and reorganization of the surface hydrologic regime. Shift from high-T vapor-dominated regime to low-T dilute hydrothermal regime is its expected outcome. The influence of gradual release of edifice instability by volcano spreading and related phenomena on the hydrothermal system has not been studied so far. Deformation induced in both edifice and basement would result in change of fluid pathways according to the shift of local stress regimes between compressional and tensional, in turn

  1. Composition and genesis of ferromanganese deposits from the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Chen, Zhong; González, Francisco Javier; Hein, James R.; Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Gang; Luo, Yun; Mo, Aibin; Tian, Yuhang; Wang, Shuhong

    2017-05-01

    , hydrogenetic growth of Fe-Mn nodules and crusts in the central basin may have been enhanced by volcanic processes. Our data provide new insights into the genesis and province characteristics of the Fe-Mn nodules and crusts of the northern SCS.

  2. Possible relationship between NAO and tropical cyclone genesis frequency in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined a strong positive correlation between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during June and the total tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency in the western North Pacific during July and August. To investigate a possible cause for this relation, the mean difference between highest positive NAO years and lowest negative NAO years was analyzed by dividing into when the El Niño and La Niña years were included and when the El Niño and La Niña years were not included. When the El Niño and La Niña years were included, for positive NAO years, the TCs mostly occurred in the northwestern region of tropical and subtropical western Pacific, and showed a pattern that migrate from the sea northeast of the Philippines, pass the East China Sea, and move toward the mid-latitudes of East Asia. In contrast, for negative NAO years, the TCs mostly occurred in the southeastern region of tropical and subtropical western Pacific, and showed a pattern that migrate westward from the sea southeast of the Philippines, pass the South China Sea, and move toward the southern coast of China and Indochinese peninsula. These two different TC migration patterns affect the recurving location of TC, and for positive NAO years, the recurving of TC was averagely found to take place in the further northeast. In addition, the migration patterns also affect the TC intensity, and the TCs of positive NAO years had stronger intensity than the TCs of negative NAO years as sufficient energy can be absorbed from the ocean while moving north in the mid-latitudes of East Asia. The TCs of negative NAO years showed weak intensity as they weaken or disappear shortly while landing on the southern coast of China and Indochinese peninsula. On the other hand, the above result of analysis is also similarly observed when the El Niño and La Niña years were not included.

  3. Varena suite in the crystalline crust of the Southern Lithuania: implication to the genesis and mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkliauskaite, Vaida; Motuza, Gediminas; Skipityte, Raminta

    2016-04-01

    Keywords: Lithuania, Proterozoic, Varena suite, rare earth elements, metasomatosis. Crystalline crust in Southern Lithuania is covered by 200-500 m thick sedimentary cover and is investigated by potential field mapping and drilling. It is composed by amphibolites (metabasalts), biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneisses (metapsammites and porphyry metadacite and metaandesite) of Orosirian period. Each lithology is predominant in alternating bands extended NNE-SSW. Supracrustals are metamorphosed on the level of amphibolite facies and migmatized. Intrusive rocks are represented by coeval rare bodies of gabbro, peridotite and widespread Calymmian granitic plutons. Varena suite comprises olivine, enstatite, diopside, olivine-magnetite, magnetite, apatite-bearing, and presumably also dolomite rocks. They form integrated bodies few sq. km large, concentrated in the ˜300 km2area extended in N-S direction.Bodies of particular rocks from Varena suite fixed in the boreholes are few tenths up to few hundred meters thick, except apatite-bearing rocks, forming decimeter up to meter scale lenses and veins. Rocks of Varena suite are affected by strong metasomatic alteration. Olivine is substituted by serpentine, and phlogopite, pyroxenes with amphibols (hornblende, actinolite, tremolite, rarely richterite). The country rocks (amphibolites, metaporphyres) also affected by alkaline (mainly sodic) metasomatosis manifested by formation of scapolite, albite, clynopyroxene (often sodic), phlogopite, carbonates. The mineralization of REE (up to 2759-3100 ppm of La and Ce respectively), Th, U, P hosted by monazite, apatite, allanite is spatially related to the Varena suite and some metasomatized supracrustals. The views on the genesis of Varena suite are contradicting. By various authors they are regarded as skarns, presuming metasomatic origin, as layered intrusions or products of alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism. In this presentation the genetic model is reviewed based on

  4. Evaluation of clinical efficacy of a combined analgetic drug "Fanigan" for symptomatic treatment of patients with pain syndrome of various genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamchur V.Y.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the efficacy of combined drug Fanigan (paracetamol 500 mg and diclofenac sodium 50 mg (production of "Kusum Pharm" (Ukraine or "Kusum Heltker PVT. LTD" (India in tablets for symptomatic treatment of patients with pain syndrome. A pronounced clinical efficiency of its application in patients with pain syndrome of various genesis in a daily dose from 2 to 3 tablets for 3 to 7 days was established. The obtained data on the clinical efficacy of the drug. Fanigan in the treatment of patients with pain syndrome of various genesis allow to recommend it for application in wide clinical practice.

  5. Programmatically Optimized SEM Image Acquisition for Measurement of Contamination on Molybdenum Coated Foils from the NASA Genesis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, A.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Genesis Mission flew high-purity collector materials on a satellite from 2001-2004 to collect a sample of the solar wind. Upon return to Earth, a spacecraft malfunction caused the onboard sample materials to be severely contaminated during the crash landing in the Utah desert. As part of an ongoing effort to decontaminate the collector materials, they are being scanned with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the amount of dirt and spacecraft debris contaminating the collectors. This effort is underway currently, but we have identified an opportunity to improve the quality of the SEM data collected. At present, many small images are acquired and stitched together to form larger images of Genesis collector pieces, which are then analyzed. The collectors are physically distorted, however, and the imaging method presently used doesn't allow imaging parameters to be adjusted between images to correct for this distortion. In order to improve the quality of the collected imaging, we are developing a program to acquire a focus map of each sample prior to image collection. The program then uses this data to adjust the position of the sample in the SEM to image all sections in focus and at a constant focal length. This is accomplished using the Python programming language, and the programmatic interface built into our Tescan VEGA Scanning Electron Microscope. Our approach, progress to date, and challenges are discussed.

  6. Detection of CD2 expression in chicken hematogenic embryo yolk sac lymphoid cells prior to thymus genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyu Zhou; Jigui Wang; Weiquan Liu; Rongxiu Liu; Yuehu Pei

    2008-01-01

    Lymphoid mononuclear cells from chick embryos at stage 16 were collected prior to fetal liver and thymus genesis to study the differentiation and function of the hematogenic yolk sac and to detect whether CD2 occurs on the surface of lymphoid mononuclear cells.The phenotype and functional activity of the cell surface protein E receptor and the ultrastructure of embryonic E+ cells were compared with those of mature T cells.Our results indicate 99.36% homology between the E receptors of embryonic lymphocytes and mature T cells.Other similarities,including molecular distribution,motivation,the ability to form an erythrocyte rosette,the structure of the receptor-ligand complex,and the conformation of the signal channel,were detected between embryonic lymphocytes and mature CD2-expressing T cells.These results indicate that CD2 is already expressed prior to fetal fiver and thymus genesis and that its expression is not dependent on the thymic microenvironment.

  7. A chick embryo with a yet unclassified type of cephalothoracopagus malformation and a hypothesis for explaining its genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, B; Geyer, S H; Weninger, W J

    2013-06-01

    Cephalothoracopagus embryos are conjoined twins, who share parts of their heads, necks and bodies. Our study aims at presenting a detailed morphological analysis of a cephalothoracopagus chick embryo of developmental stage 31. Because none of the existing theories can explain the genesis of the phenotype of this embryo, we also suggest a hypothesis, which explains it. Beside the cephalothoracopagus embryo, we investigated five control embryos. With the aid of the high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) technique, we created digital volume data and three-dimensional (3D) computer models of the organs and arteries of the embryos. We used the 3D models for topological analysis and for measuring the diameters of the great intrathoracic arteries. The malformed embryo showed two body backs, each containing a notochord, spinal cord and dorsal aorta. The body backs continued into separated lower bodies. The embryo had a single, four-chambered heart, single respiratory tract and single upper alimentary tract. The topology of the pharyngeal arch arteries was normal, and the diameters of these arteries were similar to that of the control embryos. We classified the embryo we investigated as a yet unknown malformation and suggest a hypothesis explaining its genesis.

  8. VARIATIONS IN SOLAR WIND FRACTIONATION AS SEEN BY ACE/SWICS AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR GENESIS MISSION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilleri, P.; Wiens, R. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos (NM) 87545 (United States); Reisenfeld, D. B. [University of Montana, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 32 Campus Drive, Missoula, Montana (United States); Zurbuchen, T. H.; Lepri, S. T.; Shearer, P.; Gilbert, J. A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Steiger, R. von, E-mail: paolo.pilleri@irap.omp.eu [International Space Science Institute, Hallerstrasse 6, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-10-10

    We use Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE)/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) elemental composition data to compare the variations in solar wind (SW) fractionation as measured by SWICS during the last solar maximum (1999–2001), the solar minimum (2006–2009), and the period in which the Genesis spacecraft was collecting SW (late 2001—early 2004). We differentiate our analysis in terms of SW regimes (i.e., originating from interstream or coronal hole flows, or coronal mass ejecta). Abundances are normalized to the low-first ionization potential (low-FIP) ion magnesium to uncover correlations that are not apparent when normalizing to high-FIP ions. We find that relative to magnesium, the other low-FIP elements are measurably fractionated, but the degree of fractionation does not vary significantly over the solar cycle. For the high-FIP ions, variation in fractionation over the solar cycle is significant: greatest for Ne/Mg and C/Mg, less so for O/Mg, and the least for He/Mg. When abundance ratios are examined as a function of SW speed, we find a strong correlation, with the remarkable observation that the degree of fractionation follows a mass-dependent trend. We discuss the implications for correcting the Genesis sample return results to photospheric abundances.

  9. The Characteristic and Genesis of Volcanic Ash Soil in the North Slope Toposequence of Kawi Mountain in Malang Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Putra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic ash soil in Kawi Mountain is composed by the amorphous materials consist of allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. Results of previous study showed that the phosphate retention in all soil profiles of northern slope toposequence of Kawimountain was less than 85%, yet the phosphate retention of volcanic ash soils is usually > 85 %. This raised a question that there is a different characteristics of soil in the northern slope tosequence of the Kawi Mountain compared to the other places. This research was conducted to study soil characteristics, mineral contents, and genesis processessoccuring in soil on the northern slope toposequence of Kawi Mountain. 5 pedons between high elevation and low elevation (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 to identified the soil characteristics. The Al, Fe, and Si extracted by acid oxalate, natrium pyrophosphate, and dithionite citrate to calculate the amorphous mineral content. The results show that. The results showed that there is a different in terms of the thickness of the A horizon, the C organic content and the soil acidity level that mainly found in P3 and P4 profiles. The most important soil genesis processess in the formation of the volcanic ash soils were likely clay illuviation (P5, melanization and braunification (P3, littering (P1 and the reduction of andic soil properties from the upper slope (P1 profile up to the lower slope (P5 profile.

  10. Antipsychotics promote GABAergic interneuron genesis in the adult rat brain: Role of heat-shock protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneta, Hiroo; Ukai, Wataru; Tsujino, Hanako; Furuse, Kengo; Kigawa, Yoshiyasu; Tayama, Masaya; Ishii, Takao; Hashimoto, Eri; Kawanishi, Chiaki

    2017-09-01

    Current antipsychotics reduce positive symptoms and reverse negative symptoms in conjunction with cognitive behavioral issues with the goal of restoring impaired occupational and social functioning. However, limited information is available on their influence on gliogenesis or their neurogenic properties in adult schizophrenia brains, particularly on GABAergic interneuron production. In the present study, we used young adult subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived progenitor cells expressing proteoglycan NG2 cultures to examine the oligodendrocyte and GABAergic interneuron genesis effects of several kinds of antipsychotics on changes in differentiation function induced by exposure to the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We herein demonstrated that antipsychotics promoted or restored changes in the oligodendrocyte/GABAergic interneuron differentiation functions of NG2(+) cells induced by the exposure to MK-801, which was considered to be one of the drug-induced schizophrenia model. We also demonstrated that antipsychotics restored heat-shock protein (HSP) production in NG2(+) cells with differentiation impairment. The antipsychotics olanzapine, aripiprazole, and blonanserin, but not haloperidol increased HSP90 levels, which were reduced by the exposure to MK-801. Our results showed that antipsychotics, particularly those recently synthesized, exerted similar GABAergic interneuron genesis effects on NG2(+) neuronal/glial progenitor cells in the adult rat brain by increasing cellular HSP production, and also suggest that HSP90 may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and is a key target for next drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Mineralogy and genesis of mixed-layer clay minerals in the Jiujiang net-like red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Hong, Han-Lie; Li, Rong-Biao; Han, Wen; Wu, Yu; Gao, Wen-Peng; Jia, Jin-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Mineralogy and genesis were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to understand the mineralogy and its genesis significance of mixed-layer clay minerals in Jiujiang red soil section. XRD and FTIR results show that the net-like red soil sediments are composed of illite, kaolinite, minor smectite and mixed-layer illite-smectite and minor mixed-layer kaolinite-smectite. HRTEM observation indicates that some smectite layers have transformed into kaolinite layers in net-like red soil. Mixed-layer illite-smectite is a transition phase of illite transforming into smectite, and mixed-layer kaolinite-smectite is a transitional product relative to kaolinite and smectite. The occurrence of two mixed-layer clay species suggests that the weathering sequence of clay minerals in net-like red soil traversed from illite to mixed-layer illite-smectite to smectite to mixed-layer kaolinite-smectite to kaolinite, which indicates that net-like red soil formed under a warm and humid climate with strengthening of weathering.

  12. The added value of biomarker analysis to the genesis of Plaggic Anthrosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; Jansen, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Coversands (chemical poor Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits) dominate the surface geology of an extensive area in northwestern Europe. Plaggic Anthrosols occur in cultural landscapes, developed on coversands. They are the characteristic soils that developed on ancient fertilized arable fields. Plaggic Anthrosols have a complex genesis. They are records of aspects environmental and agricultural history. In previous studies information of the soil records was unlocked by application of pollen analysis, 14C and OSL dating. In this study we applied biomarker analysis to unlock additional information about the applied organic sources in the production of plaggic manure. Radiocarbon dating suggested the start of sedentary agriculture (after a period, characterized by shifting cultivation and Celtic fields) between 3000 and 2000 BP. In previous studies is assumed that farmers applied organic sods, dug on forest soils and heath to produce organic stable manure to fertilize the fields. The mineral fraction of the sods was supposed to be responsible for the development of the plaggic horizon and the raise of the land surface. Optically stimulated Luminescence dating however suggested that plaggic deposition on the fields started relatively late, in the 18th century. The use of ectorganic matter from the forest soils must have been ended in the 10th-12th century, due to commercial forest clear cuttings as recorded in archived documents. These deforestations resulted in the first extension of sand drifting and famers had to protect the valuable heath against this ' environmental catastrophe' . The use of heath for sheep grazing and other purposes as honey production could continue till the 18th century, as recorded in archived documents. In the course of the 18th century, the population growth resulted in increasing demand for food. The deep stable economy was introduced and the booming demand for manure resulted in intensive sod digging on the heath. This caused heath

  13. Out-of-Sequence Thrust in the Higher Himalaya- a Review & Possible Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Koyi, H. A.; Talbot, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    OOST is more dominant with migmatites and leucogranites (Searle, 1999; Yin et al., 2006; Carosi et al., 2007; Grujic et al., 2002; Hollister and Grujic, 2006), but the footwall side does contain these rocks (Hodges et al., 1996; Chambers et al., 2008). The thickness of the OOST are 50 m (Carosi et al., 2007), >150 m (Yin et al., 2006), 3-6 km (Searle, 1999) and ~ 1.5 km (Vannay and Hodges, 1996). A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain the genesis of the OOST. These are (i) a disparity in erosion rates triggered mainly by a spatial variation in the intensity of rainfall (Wobus et al., 2005). (ii) The lower boundary of the channel flow extrusion defined the OOST (Hollister and Grujic, 2006). (iii) As a result of a heterogeneous velocity profile of channel flow extrusion across lithologic discontinuity (Carosi et al., 2007). The granitic melt at depth in some way led to this thrusting (Swapp and Hollister, 1991). Had channel flow been the extrusion mechanism of the Higher Himalaya, the genesis of the OOST might somehow be related to this extrusion. In this work, a channel flow box was prepared and polydimethylsiloxane was used as the model material. A channel flow was generated in the horizontal channel and was allowed to extrude through an inclined channel similar to the Higher Himalaya (Mukherjee, 2007). In different considerations, the walls of the Higher Himalaya are parallel and diverging-up. A late formed blind thrust plane forms at the corner joining the inclined and the horizontal wall and crops to the surface much later to the initiation of channel flow. On the basis of its late arrival to the surface than the channel flow and its relative position in the model Higher Himalaya, the thrust is comparable with the OOST. This means that (i) climatic factors nor lithologic discontinuity were a trigger to the OOST; and (ii) the OOST is a delayed product of channel flow that initiated at a sub-horizontal channel below the Tibetan plateau and extrude the

  14. Genesis Hypotheses Concerning Putative Rootless Cone Groups in Isidis Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithawala, T. M.; Ghent, R. R.

    2008-09-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Isidis Planitia is one of the many areas on Mars containing thumbprint terrain (TPT), a term coined to reflect the resemblance in Viking images to fingerprints. Other instances occur in Argyre, Hellas, Arcadia Planitia, and Utopia Planitia. The terrain is found where Greeley and Guest (1987) have defined the Hesperian Ridged Plains (Hvr) unit. However, landforms comprising the TPT in Isidis are markedly different in morphology from those in the northern plains. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic examination of the TPT in Isidis Planitia using high-resolution imagery, and to propose a hypothesis for its genesis. Northern Plains TPT Morphology: TPT landforms include branching troughs and medial ridges forming whorled lobes and mounds, most with basal scarps or terraces. TPT has been described as consisting of parallel, en echelon, or nested sets of regularly spaced curvilinear ridges or aligned hills [1]. The ridges were estimated to be 0.5-2.5 km wide and 1-40 km long, with a characteristic spacing of 2-6 km. Whorled lobes of TPT are 75-150 km wide, with heights ranging from 10-200 m. Previous work identified 22 areas of TPT, covering 3000- 420,000 km2 in the Northern Plains at elevations between 0 and -2 km. In Utopia, TPT includes branching troughs and medial ridges [5], and TPT is closely associated with troughs in at least 9 other Northern Plains areas [1]. Northern Plains TPT Origin: MOLA topography supports the hypothesis that TPT and associated trough systems in Utopia and Arcadia Planitae are glacial features [1,2,3]. Possible mechanisms include formation of ridges as moraines and troughs as eskers formed by wet-based continental glaciers. The absence of drumlin fields suggests that the glaciers responsible for forming the topography may have been cold-based and thus did not deform the substrate so as to form drumlins [4]. A puzzling characteristic of Mars alleged glacial landscapes is that they are morphologically

  15. Learning Mathematics in a CAS Environment: The Genesis of a Reflection about Instrumentation and the Dialectics between Technical and Conceptual Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigue, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Presents an anthropological approach used in French research and the theory of instrumentation developed in cognitive ergonomics. Shows how these frameworks allow an approach to the educational use of CAS technology, focusing on the unexpected complexity of instrumental genesis, mathematical needs of instrumentation, status of instrumented…

  16. Learning Mathematics in a CAS Environment: The Genesis of a Reflection about Instrumentation and the Dialectics between Technical and Conceptual Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigue, Michele

    2002-01-01

    Presents an anthropological approach used in French research and the theory of instrumentation developed in cognitive ergonomics. Shows how these frameworks allow an approach to the educational use of CAS technology, focusing on the unexpected complexity of instrumental genesis, mathematical needs of instrumentation, status of instrumented…

  17. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  18. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.I.F.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical and animal studies demonstrate the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neural development and neurodegeneration. This review will focus on involvement of LCPUFA from genesis to senescence. The LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are important

  19. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.I.F.; Kiliaan, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical and animal studies demonstrate the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neural development and neurodegeneration. This review will focus on involvement of LCPUFA from genesis to senescence. The LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are important c

  20. Natural versus anthropogenic genesis of mardels (closed depressions) on the Gutland plateau (Luxembourg : archaeometrical and palynological evidence of Roman clay excavation from mardels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, Jan; Braekmans, Dennis; Doorenbosch, Marieke; Kuijper, Wim; van der Plicht, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Mardels, small closed depressions, are distinctive landforms on the Luxembourger Gutland plateau. In the present landscape most mardels are shallow fens, filled with colluvial sediments. The genesis of mardels has been studied intensively, inside and outside Luxembourg. Some researchers suggested a

  1. Genesis Ⅱ与PFC两种假体全膝关节置换术后膝前痛的比较研究%Comparison of anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty using Genesis Ⅱ and PFC knee prostheses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟东; 严世贵; 吴立东; 吴浩波; 何荣新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore relationship between anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty and patella resurfacing and prosthesis design,and to evaluate which femoral prosthesis is more friendly with patella:Genesis Ⅱ or PFC knee prostheses.Methods Data of 145 patients (145 knees) who had undergone primary total knee arthroplasty for treating osteoarthritis were retrospectively analyzed.Posterior-cruciate-substituting total knee prostheses were used in all patients.Among 74 patients who had undergone patella resurfacing,Genesis Ⅱ knee prosthesis was used in 32 patients and PFC knee prosthesis in 42 patients.Among 71 patients who had not undergone patella resurfacing,Genesis Ⅱ knee prosthesis was used in 38 patients and PFC knee prosthesis in 33 patients.The Hospital for Special Surgery(HSS) score,patella score,patellar function score,range of motion of knee,anterior knee pain scale,and patient satisfaction were used to evaluate clinical outcomes.At the same time,the imaging results were evaluated by X-rays.Results 144 patients were successfully followed up for 21 to 43 months (average,33 months).There was no significant difference in incidence of anterior knee pain between the group with patella resurfacing and the group without patella resurfacing,while a significant difference was found between patients receiving Genesis Ⅱ knee prosthesis and those receiving PFC knee prosthesis.Four patients who had undergone total knee arthroplasty using PFC prosthesis underwent reoperation.There were no significant differences in postoperative HSS score,range of motion of knee and patient satisfaction between the Genesis Ⅱ group and the PFC group,while there were significant differences in patella score and patellar function score between them.Conclusion Postoperative anterior knee pain was related to the prosthesis design,rather than to the patella resurfacing.Genesis Ⅱ knee prosthesis was more friendly with patella than PFC knee prosthesis.%目的 探讨全膝关

  2. A comparative study on the genesis of North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone Madi (2013) and Atlantic Ocean tropical cyclone Florence (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasree, V. P. M.; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Bhate, Jyoti N.; Singh, Vikas; Umakanth, U.; Varma, T. Harish

    2016-12-01

    A modeling study has been carried out to understand the similarities and differences in the genesis sequence of a Bay of Bengal tropical cyclone Madi (6-13 December 2013) and the Atlantic Ocean tropical cyclone Florence (3-12 September 2006) on the applicability of hypotheses of the marsupial theory of tropical cyclogenesis. We examined the role of the protective pouch and warm core formation during their genesis and intensification phases. We have chosen tropical cyclone Madi and tropical cyclone Florence for our study specifically due to both of these tropical cyclones originated from westward moving parent disturbance embedded in the intertropical convergence zone. Also, the genesis and intensification of tropical cyclone Florence were accompanied by a series of Saharan dust outbreaks. Our results indicated that the dry air intrusion was not a dominant detrimental factor for the genesis of tropical cyclone Madi and showed rapid intensification within the pouch region. However, in the case of the tropical cyclone Florence, the delay in the intensification as a category 1 tropical cyclone from its tropical depression stage was due to entrainment of the dry air into the core of cyclonic vortex up to 700 hPa from above. The results from this study showed that the wave pouch played a most significant role in the vorticity upscale cascade (First hypothesis) and moisture aggregation (Second hypothesis) in pregenesis period of both the tropical cyclones. It also prevented the lateral dry air intrusion (Second hypothesis) from the Saharan Air Layer during the genesis phase of tropical cyclone Florence.

  3. ["Directed perception", "mood", "social reinforcement". Sketches towards the historical semantics of Ludwik Fleck's Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses three basic concepts of Ludwik Fleck's Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. It shows first that Fleck's notion of "directed perception" is closely linked to Jakob von Uexküll's writings on the "Umwelt" of animals and humans. The article then proposes to regard the epistemological debates surrounding parapsychology as an important testing ground for the Fleckian concept of „mood“ and his concomitant hypotheses about „the tenacity of systems of opinion and the harmony of illusions". It finally argues that Fleck's modification of Wilhelm Jerusalem's idea of the "social consolidation" of knowledge helps us to understand the indebtedness of Fleck towards early functionalist sociology as well as his strong belief in "specific historical laws governing the development of ideas"The historical semantics of Fleck's works hence proves that his insights are neither marginal nor revolutionary but rather deeply rooted within scientific traditions from the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  4. On the genesis of spike-wave oscillations in a mean-field model of human thalamic and corticothalamic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Serafim [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Terry, John R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.r.terry@lboro.ac.uk; Breakspear, Michael [Black Dog Institute, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); School of Psychiatry, UNSW, NSW 2030 (Australia)

    2006-07-10

    In this Letter, the genesis of spike-wave activity-a hallmark of many generalized epileptic seizures-is investigated in a reduced mean-field model of human neural activity. Drawing upon brain modelling and dynamical systems theory, we demonstrate that the thalamic circuitry of the system is crucial for the generation of these abnormal rhythms, observing that the combination of inhibition from reticular nuclei and excitation from the cortical signal, interplay to generate the spike-wave oscillation. The mechanism revealed provides an explanation of why approaches based on linear stability and Heaviside approximations to the activation function have failed to explain the phenomena of spike-wave behaviour in mean-field models. A mathematical understanding of this transition is a crucial step towards relating spiking network models and mean-field approaches to human brain modelling.

  5. Genesis of arsenic-rich groundwater and the search for alternative safe aquifers in the Gangetic Plain, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Shukla, R R

    2013-12-01

    Distribution and mobilization of groundwater arsenic from a 1580-km(2) area in the Gangetic Plain was studied. A two-tier aquifer system made up of Quaternary sand layers exists within 300 m below ground. Arsenic concentration exceeding >50 microg/L is confined within the active floodplain of the Ganga River, affecting the top aquitard and upper 5- to 20-m slice of the underlying shallow aquifer. The genesis of arsenic was investigated by principal component analyses involving total dissolved solids, Ca(+2), Mg(+2), Na(+), K(+), HCO3-, Cl(-1), SO4(-2), NO3-, Fetotal, and Astotal and analyzed for 57 groundwater samples, hydrochemical facies analyses, aquifer-aquitard configuration, and water-level behaviour. A 20- to 25-m thick deeper aquifer, appearing at 190 to 205 m below ground and separated from the shallow aquifer by a thick clay sequence, was low in arsenic load (aquifer can be used for community drinking in contaminated areas.

  6. Just emotions: Reading the Sarah and Hagar narrative (Genesis 16, 21 through the lens of human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Claassens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeked to read the interconnected narratives of Sarah and Hagar (Genesis 16, 21 in terms of the hermeneutical lens of human dignity. For the purpose of this article, recent studies on the performative nature of emotions, which considered the central role of emotions such as pain, disgust and hatred in shaping the lives of individuals as well as the ways in which people relate to one another, were helpful in contemplating the situations of dehumanisation faced by both Sarah and Hagar as well as the broader question regarding upholding human worth in a context of indignity. This article furthermore considered the role of emotions in a conversation on ethics and particularly the way in which the narrative offered a fruitful avenue for considering Israel�s relationship to their neighbours � a line of interpretation that holds potential for reflecting on complex interracial and interethnic relationships in today�s global context.

  7. Interleukin-1 in the genesis and progression of and risk for development of neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, W. Sue T.; Mrak, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1), a key molecule in systemic immune responses in health and disease, has analogous roles in the brain where it may contribute to neuronal degeneration. Numerous findings suggest that this is the case. For example, IL-1 overexpression in the brain of Alzheimer patients relates directly to the development and progression of the cardinal neuropathological changes of Alzheimer’s disease, i.e., the genesis and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and the formation and accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles in neurons, both of which contribute to neuronal dysfunction and demise. Several genetic studies show that inheritance of a specific IL-1A gene polymorphism increases risk for development of Alzheimer’s disease by as much as sixfold. Moreover, this increased risk is associated with earlier age of onset of the disease. Homozygosity for this polymorphism in combination with another in the IL-1B gene further increases risk. PMID:12149413

  8. Genesis and identity of «ACN de JP»’s foundational group (1904-1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sánchez Garrido

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to study the genesis of the historical «Asociación Católico-Nacional de Jóvenes Propagandistas» (later, «ACN de P» from its previous gestation and preparation in the congregation of «Luises» in Madrid, between 1904 and 1909. So the article focuses on its action throughout the organ of expression –Hojas Sueltas– and others public meetings. Likewise, this essay has brought to light the identity of all the members of the foundational group of the ACN de JP, because the complete names and biographic notes of these cofounder members was unknown. Finally, the text points out some considerations about the ideological identity of the group.

  9. GENESIS OF KHARKOV MUSIC CULTURE IN THE HIGHLIGHT OF THE CITY’S EDUCATION AND CONCERT LIFE FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kononova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the genesis of Kharkov musical culture from the late 18th to the first half of the 19th century, studying it in terms of two aspects, the formation of education and the emergence of the city’s concert life.The relevance of the research subject chosen by the author is determined by the wish to give the fullest description of the multi-layered process of formation of Kharkov musical culture which played one of the leading roles in the history of Ukrainian culture, and to acquaint the Western public with the most interesting facts of the formation and development of a reputable East-European centre. The main range of issues discussed in the article covers the period of the innitial foundation of artistic education, and its influence on the expansion and perception of music in different social circles, presenting the structures and forms of the nascent musical life of Kharkov. The section "Specific features of the Ukrainian system of education" brings out the facts which indicate the progressive tendencies in education, especially, on the territory of Sloboda Ukraine. The formation of artistic education in the religious schools of the city is covered in the section "Genesis of musical education in Kharkov". One of the most productive periods of the city’s cultivation of concert life associated with the functioning of the University is analyzed in the section "The impact of the University music activities on the city's concert going." The Conclusion emphasizes the interaction of traditional and nontraditional in the musical culture of Kharkov that was clearly manifested in the concert activities of the University, in particular, in popularization of oratorios. Furthermore, it discusses the factors which participated in the development in the field of compositional achievement as well as the performing arts and opened new perspectives in the dynamics of the artistic life of the Ukrainian city.

  10. Sex differences in cell genesis, hippocampal volume and behavioral outcomes in a rat model of neonatal HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Jaylyn; Hanscom, Marie; Shalon Edwards, N; McKenna, Mary C; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) of the brain in near-term and term infants is a leading cause of infant mortality and lifelong disability but current therapeutic approaches remain limited. Males consistently display greater vulnerability to the deleterious consequences of HI in both humans and animal models. Neurogenesis increases after neonatal HI and offers a potential therapeutic target for recovery. The steroid hormone estradiol has been extensively explored as a neuroprotectant in adult models of stroke but with mixed results. Less consideration has been afforded to this naturally occurring agent in the developing brain, which has unique challenges from the adult. Using a model of term HI in the rat we have explored the impact of this insult on cell genesis in the hippocampus of males and females and the ability of estradiol treatment immediately after insult to restore function. Both short-term (3 days) and long-term (7 days) post-injury were assessed and revealed that only females had markedly increased cell genesis on the short-term but both sexes were increased long-term. A battery of behavioral tests revealed motor impairment in males and compromised episodic memory while both sexes were modestly impaired in spatial memory. Juvenile social play was also depressed in both sexes after HI. Estradiol therapy improved behavioral performance in both sexes but did not reverse a deficit in hippocampal volume ipsilateral to the insult. Thus the effects of estradiol do not appear to be via cell death or proliferation but rather involve other components of neural functioning.

  11. NOK/STYK1 promotes the genesis and remodeling of blood and lymphatic vessels during tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Li, Tianqi; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the overexpression of NOK, also named STYK1, led to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here, we provide evidence that increased expression of NOK/STYK1 caused marked alterations in the overall and inner structures of tumors and substantially facilitates the genesis and remodeling of the blood and lymphatic vessels during tumor progression. In particular, NOK-expressed HeLa stable cells (HeLa-K) significantly enhanced tumor growth and metastasis in xenografted nude mice. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining demonstrated that the tumor tissues generated by HeLa-K cells were much more ichorous and had more interspaces than those generated by control HeLa cells (HeLa-C). The fluorescent areas stained with cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), a marker protein for blood vessels, appeared to be in different patterns. The total blood vessels, especially the ring patterns, within the tumors of the HeLa-K group were highly enriched compared with those in the HeLa-C group. NOK-HA was demonstrated to be well colocalized with CD31 in the wall of the tubular structures within tumor tissues. Interestingly, antibody staining of the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) further revealed the increase in ring (oratretic strip-like) lymphatic vessels in either the peritumoral or intratumoral areas in the HeLa-K group compared with the HeLa-C group. Consistently, the analysis of human cancerous tissue also showed that NOK was highly expressed in the walls of tubular structures. Thus, our results reveal a novel tumorigenic function of NOK to mediate the genesis and remodeling of blood and lymphatic vessels during tumor progression.

  12. The B cell antigen receptor and overexpression of MYC can cooperate in the genesis of B cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Refaeli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of circumstantial evidence from humans has implicated the B cell antigen receptor (BCR in the genesis of B cell lymphomas. We generated mouse models designed to test this possibility directly, and we found that both the constitutive and antigen-stimulated state of a clonal BCR affected the rate and outcome of lymphomagenesis initiated by the proto-oncogene MYC. The tumors that arose in the presence of constitutive BCR differed from those initiated by MYC alone and resembled chronic B cell lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma (B-CLL, whereas those that arose in response to antigen stimulation resembled large B-cell lymphomas, particularly Burkitt lymphoma (BL. We linked the genesis of the BL-like tumors to antigen stimulus in three ways. First, in reconstruction experiments, stimulation of B cells by an autoantigen in the presence of overexpressed MYC gave rise to BL-like tumors that were, in turn, dependent on both MYC and the antigen for survival and proliferation. Second, genetic disruption of the pathway that mediates signaling from the BCR promptly killed cells of the BL-like tumors as well as the tumors resembling B-CLL. And third, growth of the murine BL could be inhibited by any of three distinctive immunosuppressants, in accord with the dependence of the tumors on antigen-induced signaling. Together, our results provide direct evidence that antigenic stimulation can participate in lymphomagenesis, point to a potential role for the constitutive BCR as well, and sustain the view that the constitutive BCR gives rise to signals different from those elicited by antigen. The mouse models described here should be useful in exploring further the pathogenesis of lymphomas, and in preclinical testing of new therapeutics.

  13. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Sandra Garrido de; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-07-21

    To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu's genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. Analisar a gênese da política de controle da aids no Brasil. Estudo sócio-histórico (1981-1989), orientado pela sociologia genética de Bourdieu, por meio de análise documental, revisão bibliográfica e entrevistas em profundidade. Consistiu na articulação entre a análise das trajetórias de 33 agentes envolvidos na criação de um espaço social voltado para as questões relativas à aids e as condições históricas de possibilidade

  14. Genesis and Development of Soils along Different Geomorphic Surfaces in Kouh Birk Area, Mehrestan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akbar Bahoorzahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The optimum and sustainable use of soil is only possible with correct and complete understanding of its properties. The objectives of the present research were to study 1 genesis and development of soils related to different geomorphic surfaces in Kouh Birk Area (Mehrestan City, 2 Soil classification according to Soil Taxonomy (2014 and WRB (2014 systems, and 3 physicochemical properties, clay mineralogy and micromorphology of soils. Materials and Methods: Mean annual rainfall and soil temperature in the selected location are 153.46 mm and 19.6 oC, respectively. From geological point of view, the studied area is a part of west and south west zones and Flysch zone of east Iran. Soil temperature and moisture regimes of this part are thermic and aridic, respectively. Eight representative pedons on different surfaces including rock pediment, mantled pediment, Alluvial fan and Upper terraces were selected, sampled, and described. Routine physicochemical analyses, clay mineralogy, and micromorphological observations performed on soil samples. Soil reaction, texture, electrical conductivity, calcium carbonate, and gypsum were identified. Four samples including Bt horizon of pedon 1, Bk1 horizon of pedon 4, By2 horizon of pedon 5 and Bk1 horizon of pedon 7 were selected for clay mineralogy investigations. Four slides including Mg saturated, Mg saturated treated with ethylene glycol, K saturated, and K saturated heated up to 550 oC were analyzed. A Brucker X-Ray diffractometer at 40 kV and 30 mA was used for XRD analyses. Undisturbed soil samples from Bt horizon of pedon 1, Bk2 horizon of pedon 2, Btn horizon of pedon 3, By2 horizon of pedon 5, Bk1 horizon of pedon 7, and By1 horizon of pedon 8 were selected for micromorphological observations. A vestapol resin with stearic acid and cobalt as hardener was used for soil impregnation. Bk-Pol petrographic microscope was used for micromorphology investigations. Results and Discussion: Due to

  15. Mineralogy, chemistry of magnetite and genesis of Korkora-1 iron deposit, east of Takab, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2014-10-01

    , respectively. Therefore, it fits in the skarn ore deposit domain in Ni/(Cr + Mn versus Ti + V and Ca + Al + Mn versus Ti + V discrimination diagrams of iron ore deposits (Beaudoin et al., 2007. High Mn in the rock samples of Korkora-1 can be resulted from substitution of Fe+2 by Mn+2 in magnetite structure that can be a sign of hydrothermal skarn. Titanium, Mn, V and Zn show a positive correlation and Al, Cu, Mg, P, Si, Ca, Ni and Cr show a negative correlation with Fe. According to the chemistry of magnetite and plotting them on V2O5 versus TiO2 and V2O5 versus Cr2O3 diagrams, it can be recognized that the samples of Korkora-1 deposit resemble exoskarn magnetite of Goto deposit. The analysis of goethite of Korkora-1 show the amount of 2.5 to 4 wt % SiO2, 76 wt % Fe, and Ni (110 ppm without Ti and Cr in its structure. Mineralographical and geochemical evidence from ore, occurrence of iron in contact with carbonates and skarn mineralogy such as garnet, pyroxene, secondary calcite, epidote and chlorite suggest iron skarn genesis for Korkora-1 deposit. Fluids generated from intrusive bodies like diorite and quartz-diorite with variations in physicochemical conditions, produced skarn in contact with carbonates and volcanic rocks. The heat from intrusive bodies caused recrystallization of carbonates and formed marbles in the footwall of the deposit. Meteoric water has also less important contribution in the ore-forming fluids. Fluid inclusion studies show existing of two types of fluids, a low salinity (10 wt % NaCl equiv. and a medium salinity (25 to 30 wt % NaCl equiv. fluid. Mixing magmatic and meteoric waters makes decreasing in the temperatures and deposition of ore fluids. The Korkora-1 deposit formed in four stages: 1 intruding the intrusive bodies, 2 entering Fe and SiO2 into Qom carbonates and forming calc-silicates, 3 mixing magmatic and meteoric fluids, hydrolysis of calc-silicates, consuming H+, instability of Fe complexes and deposition of iron oxides, 4 retrograde

  16. Mechanistic, mathematical model to predict the dynamics of tissue genesis in bone defects via mechanical feedback and mediation of biochemical factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon R Moore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The link between mechanics and biology in the generation and the adaptation of bone has been well studied in context of skeletal development and fracture healing. Yet, the prediction of tissue genesis within - and the spatiotemporal healing of - postnatal defects, necessitates a quantitative evaluation of mechano-biological interactions using experimental and clinical parameters. To address this current gap in knowledge, this study aims to develop a mechanistic mathematical model of tissue genesis using bone morphogenetic protein (BMP to represent of a class of factors that may coordinate bone healing. Specifically, we developed a mechanistic, mathematical model to predict the dynamics of tissue genesis by periosteal progenitor cells within a long bone defect surrounded by periosteum and stabilized via an intramedullary nail. The emergent material properties and mechanical environment associated with nascent tissue genesis influence the strain stimulus sensed by progenitor cells within the periosteum. Using a mechanical finite element model, periosteal surface strains are predicted as a function of emergent, nascent tissue properties. Strains are then input to a mechanistic mathematical model, where mechanical regulation of BMP-2 production mediates rates of cellular proliferation, differentiation and tissue production, to predict healing outcomes. A parametric approach enables the spatial and temporal prediction of endochondral tissue regeneration, assessed as areas of cartilage and mineralized bone, as functions of radial distance from the periosteum and time. Comparing model results to histological outcomes from two previous studies of periosteum-mediated bone regeneration in a common ovine model, it was shown that mechanistic models incorporating mechanical feedback successfully predict patterns (spatial and trends (temporal of bone tissue regeneration. The novel model framework presented here integrates a mechanistic feedback system based

  17. Marguerite Duras/Claude Régy: L’Amante Anglaise, the genesis of a text, the gestation of a theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almuth Grésillon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the genesis of the first staging of Margerite Duras’s L’Amante Anglaise, by Claude Régy, a well succeeded genesis, carried out based on the interplay between dramaturgy and the stage. Without any satisfying answer, we are facing an important theoretical issue of genetic criticism applied to theatre: is the work a dramatic text or a spectacle? Depending on the stress on the first or on the second answer, the organizing axis of the genetic dossier can be the author’s writing and all stagings of L’Amante Anglaise,forming a theoretically unified set; or the director’s notes and all of his creations. This study explores a third possibility, stipulating the indispensable intersection between both hypotheses.

  18. GENESIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF A “NONPARTISAN” POLITICAL ACTOR: The Formation of the Jama’ah Islah Malaysia (JIM and its Roots in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lemiere

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the genesis and development of the Jama’ah Islah Malaysia (JIM, a modernist-reformist Islamist organisation that today has played a vital and visible role in the political landscape of Malaysian politics. Little is known about the early genesis of JIM, and how it began in the 1970s and 1980s as a student-based cadre organisation, created by Malaysian Muslim students studying abroad in Europe and North America. JIM’s roots therefore lie in the Islamic Representative Council (IRC that was a semi-underground student-cadre movement that was created outside Malaysia, and which aimed to bring about the Islamisation of Malaysian society through the process of social and political mobilisation. Working through the archives of JIM today and interviewing the foundermembers of JIM and the IRC, this paper is the first historical account of the formation and development of IRC and JIM to be published. 

  19. CHRONIC HEART FAILURE OF ISCHEMIC GENESIS AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE: POSSIBILITIES OF COMBINATION THERAPY INCLUDING NEBIVOLOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Fedotov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the features of chronic heart failure (CHF of ischemic genesis concurrent with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and to investigate the effect of the cardioselective β1-adrenoblocker (β1-AB nebivolol on the course of COPD and the parameters of the bronchopulmonary system in patients with CHF of ischemic genesis during treatment.Subjects and methods.The investigation enrolled 63 patients aged 40–70 years, including 43 patients with functional class (FC II–IV CHF with a Simpson left ventricular ejection fraction of  45 % concurrent with COPD (a study group and 20 patients with CHF and no bronchopulmonary pathology (a control group. The study group patients were randomly divided into 2 subgroups: 1 23 patients who received nebivolol in addition to background therapy; 2 20 patients in whom the therapy ruled out the use of β1-AB. The control patients were switched to nebivolol therapy. During 6-month follow-up, the authors made clinical examination, recorded the rate, duration, and severity of COPD exacerbations, performed a 6-minute walking test (6MWT, and used a clinical status scale modified by R. Cody, a dyspnea 0–10 category ratio (Borg scale, and a Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale (MRS scale. Besides, quality of life in patients was assessed using the specific Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. All the patients underwent echocardiography, bronchodilatation-induced external respiratory function test, peak flowmetry, and blood brain natriuretic peptide quantification. These studies were conducted at baseline and at 1 and 6 months of therapy.Results. During the investigation, the patients with CHF concurrent with COPD were found to have a high rate of hypertensive disease, prior myocardial infarctions, atrial fibrillations, and higher FC exertional angina. These patients also showed a delayed optimal result achievement during the combination therapy involving the use of β1-AB

  20. GENESIS, un environnement pour la création musicale à l'aide de modèles physiques particulaires

    OpenAIRE

    Castagné, Nicolas

    2002-01-01

    In the context of Computer Music, physical modeling is usually viewed as an approach to sound synthesis which offers particularly interesting sounds and dynamic behaviors. This is a reducing point of view, since the physical modeling allows also to work at the macro-structural level of the musical composition. Additionally, there is a lack of tools enabling musicians (composers) to embrace physical modeling (the design of their own models) as part of their to processes.GENESIS is an environme...

  1. 3D numerical modeling of mantle flow, crustal dynamics and magma genesis associated with slab roll-back and tearing: The eastern Mediterranean case

    OpenAIRE

    Menant, Armel; Sternai, Pietro; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gerya, Taras

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Interactions between subduction dynamics and magma genesis have been intensely investigated, resulting in several conceptual models derived from geological, geochemical and geophysical data. To provide physico-chemical constraints on these conceptual models, self-consistent numerical simulations containing testable thermo-mechanical parameters are required, especially considering the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction systems. Here, we use a 3D hig...

  2. Variations in large-scale tropical cyclone genesis factors over the western North Pacific in the PMIP3 last millennium simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Wei, Ting; Zhang, Zhongshi

    2017-02-01

    Investigation of past tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the Western North Pacific (WNP) is potentially helpful to enable better understanding of future TC behaviors. In this study, we examine variations in large-scale environmental factors important to TC genesis in the last millennium simulations from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (PMIP3). The results show that potential intensity, a theoretical prediction of the maximum TC intensity, is increased relative to the last millennium in the north part of the WNP in the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 950-1200 AD) while it is decreased in the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1600-1850 AD). Vertical wind shear that generally inhibits TC genesis is enhanced (reduced) to the south of 20°N and is reduced (enhanced) to the north in the MCA (LIA). Relative humidity (at 600 hPa) that measures the mid-tropospheric moisture content broadly shows an increase (decrease) in the MCA (LIA). A genesis potential index indicates that conditions are generally favorable (unfavorable) for TC formation in the WNP in the MCA (LIA), especially in the northern part. Taking changes in steering flows into account, there may be an increasing (decreasing) favorability for storm strikes in East Asia in the MCA (LIA). The estimated TC activity is consistent with the geological proxies in Japan, but contradicts with the typhoon records in southern China and Taiwan. This model-data discrepancy is attributed to the limitations in both simulations and reconstructions.

  3. The genesis of Typhoon Nuri as observed during the Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 (TCS08 field experiment – Part 2: Observations of the convective environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Smith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of thermodynamic data gathered from airborne dropwindsondes during the Tropical Cyclone Structure (2008 experiment are presented for the disturbance that became Typhoon Nuri. Although previous work has suggested that Nuri formed within the protective recirculating "pouch" region of a westward propagating wave-like disturbance and implicated rotating deep convective clouds in driving the inflow to spin up the tangential circulation of the system-scale flow, the nature of the thermodynamic environment that supported the genesis remains a topic of debate. During the genesis phase, vertical profiles of virtual potential temperature show little variability between soundings on a particular day and the system-average soundings likewise show a negligible change. There is a tendency also for the lower and middle troposphere to moisten. However, the data show that, on the scale of the recirculating region of the disturbance, there was no noticeable reduction of virtual temperature in the lower troposphere, but a small warming (less than 1 K in the upper troposphere. Vertical profiles of pseudo-equivalent potential temperature, θe, during the genesis show a modestly decreasing deficit of θe in the vertical between the surface and the height of minimum θe (between 3 and 4 km, from 17.5 K to 15.2 K. The findings reported here are consistent with those found for developing disturbances observed in the Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT experiment in 2010. Some implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Genesis of granulite in Himalayan lower crust: Evidence from experimental study at high temperature and high pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Here we present an insight into the genesis of Himalayan granulitic lower crust based on the experimental studies on the dehydration melting of natural biotiteplagioclase gneiss performed at the temperatures of 770-980℃ and the pressures of 1.0-1.4 GPa. The experiments produce peraluminous granitic melt and residual phase assemblage (Pl+Qz+Gat+Bio+Opx±Cpx+Ilm/Rut±Kfs). The residual mineral assemblage is similar to those of granulites observed at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxises, and the chemical compositions of characteristic minerals-garnet and pyroxene in the residual phase and the granulite are identical. Additionally, the modeled wave velocities of the residual phase assemblage are comparable well with those of the top part of lower crust beneath Himalayas.Hence, we suggest that (1) the top part of lower crust beneath Himalayas is probably made up of garnet-bearing intermediate granulite; (2) the formations of granulite and leucogranites in Himalayas are interrelated as the results of crustal anatexis; and (3) dehydration melting of biotite-plagioclase gneiss is an important process to form granulitic lower crust, to reconstitute and adjust the crustal texture. Moreover, experimental results can provide constraints on determining the P-T conditions of Himalayan crustal anatexis.

  5. Geochemical Characteristics, Genesis of Concealed Cu-rich Ore Body in the Jinchuan Deposit, Northwestern China, and Its Prospecting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yalin; TANG Zhongli; ZHANG Mingjie; TIAN Yulong; XIAO Lizhong

    2009-01-01

    The Jinchuan deposit is hosted by the olivine-rich ultramafic rock body, which is the third-largest magmatic sulfide Ni-Cu deposit in the world currently being exploited. Seeking new relaying resources in the deep and the border of the deposit becomes more and more important. The ore body, ore and geochemistry characteristics of the concealed Cu-rich ore body are researched. Through spatial analysis and comparison with the neighboring Ⅱ1 main ore body, the mineralization rule of the concealed Cu-rich ore body is summed up. It is also implied that Cu-rich magma may exist between Ni-rich magma and ore pulp during iiquation differentiation in deep-stage chambers, which derives from deep-mantle Hi-MgO basalt magma. It is concluded that the type of ore body has features of both magmatic liquation and late reconstruction action. It has experienced three stages: deep liquation and pulsatory injection of the Cu-and PPGE-rich magma, concentration of tectonic activation, and the later magma hydrothermai superimposition. In addition, the Pb and S isotopes indicate the magma of I6 concealed Cu-rich ore body originates predominantly from mantle; however, it is interfused by minute crust material. Finally, it is inferred that the genesis of the Cu-Ni sulfide deposit is complex and diverse, and the prospect of seeking new deep ore bodies within similar deposits is promising, especially Cu-rich ore bodies.

  6. Cadet Education in the Imperial Russia: Genesis, Dialectics and the Role in Social Structure of the Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Abramov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, using historic and sociological material, presents genesis, dialectics and the role of cadet education of the imperial Russia in the social structure of the society, its weak and strong aspects, determines major stratified features of its graduates. The author notes that the realization of the practice of professional socialization in cadet corps in certain historical period is determined by the social conditions and the factors of the development of the society, its structure and environment, reproducing the modal personality of the future officer. The professional environment of the cadet education in the imperial Russia is defined as closed, line, self-organizing system. Such environment provided the graduates with high social status and prestige in different fields, defined by generic characteristics (affiliation to nobility. Along with high educational and cultural level, modal personality of the graduate is characterized by aloofness from the juniors and subordinates, individualism and careerism, certain closedness towards one’s nation and other social groups.

  7. Temporalidade do trauma: gênese mais estrutura no pensamento freudiano Temporality of trauma: genesis plus structure in Freudian thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Celes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo interpreta a temporalização do tempo na psicanálise freudiana, detendo-se particularmente na análise da primeira teoria do trauma. Mostra a função temporalizadora da sexualidade determinada por seu caráter disjuntivo e expressa no termo posterioridade, no duplo sentido que adquire na obra freudiana: o progressivo e o regressivo. A simbolização implicada na teoria do trauma e o recalque são discriminados em suas relações com a temporalidade. O percurso enseja uma discussão do fundamento do pensamento freudiano entre gênese e estrutura, para concluir com uma avaliação da desconstrução da herança científica de Freud na psicanálise que se inicia.This article interprets the temporalization of time in Freudian psychoanalysis, particularly on the analysis of the first trauma theory. Sexuality is shown to have a temporalizing function determined by its separating character and expressed in the term deferred-action,both in the progressive and regressive sense used by Freud. The symbolization implicated in the trauma theory and the repression are discriminated in their relations to temporality. The basis of Freudian thinking between genesis and structure is discussed, concluding with an evaluation of the deconstruction of Freud’s scientific heritage in psychoanalysis as founded by him.

  8. A case of the evil eye in Genesis 16:4-5: A social-scientific perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharias Kotze

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature and function of Evil Eye Belief and Practice (EEBP in the world of the Old Testament has been understudied. The majority view has been that the belief was limited to the notion of largesse in this collection of literature. This article demonstrated that the idiom  םינעב  ללק in Genesis 16:4-5, routinely interpreted as a metaphor for scorn on the part of Hagar, could in fact be interpreted as a linguistic vehicle for the concept of the malevolent eye of Sarai. The author argued for an interpretation wherein Sarai, driven by envy, accused Hagar of casting the evil eye on her and used this alleged transgression as an excuse to abuse her slave. The evil eye in the Old Testament was not restricted to the idea of generosity, but was also closely associated with the concept of envy, as has been the case in the majority of ancient and modern cultures in which EEPB has featured. It further confirmed that the social function of the evil eye in the ancient world was not only constrained to the avoidance of envy-related violence but also served as an instrument of oppression in the hands of the rich and privileged. The key method utilised in this study was the social-scientific approach to the interpretation of biblical literature.

  9. On the role of buoyancy force in the ore genesis of SEDEX deposits: Example from Northern Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG JianWen; FENG ZuoHai; LUO XianRong; CHEN YuanRong

    2009-01-01

    Finite element modeling on a highly conceptualized 2-D model of fluid flow and heat transport is un-dertaken to simulate the paleo-hydrological system as if the Mount Ise deposits were being formed in the Mount Isa basin, Northern Australia, and to evaluate the potential of buoyancy force in driving ba-sin-scale fluid flow for the formation of sedimentary-exhalative (SEDEX) deposits. Our numerical case studies indicate that buoyancy-driven fluid flow is controlled mainly by the fault penetration depth and its spatial relation with the aquifer. Marine water recharges the basin via one fault and flows through the aquifer where it is heated from below. The heated metalliferous fluid discharges to the basin floor via the other fault. The venting fluid temperatures are computed to be in the range of 115 to 160℃, with fluid velocities of 2.6 to 4.1 m/year over a period of 1 Ma. These conditions are suitable for the formation of a Mount Isa-sized zinc deposit, provided a suitable chemical trap environment is present. Buoyancy force is therefore a viable driving mechanism for basin-scale ore-forming hydrothermal fluid migration, and it is strong enough to lead to the genesis of supergiant SEDEX deposits like the Mount Isa deposit, Northern Australia.

  10. Age and genesis of the Myanmar jadeite: Constraints from U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes of zircon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU ZhiLi; WU FuYuan; YANG ShuFeng; ZHU Min; SUN JinFeng; YANG Ping

    2009-01-01

    Myanmar jadeite (jadeitite) is well known for its economical value and distinctive tectonic locality within the collisional belt between India and Eurasian plates. However, it is less studied for its genesis and geodynamic implications due to precipitous topography, adverse weather and local military conflicts in the area. By means of combined ICP-MS and LA-MC-ICPMS techniques, we have carried out in-situ trace elements, U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes for zircon inclusions in a piece of jadeite gem sample. CL imaging suggests that the zircons are metasomatic in origin, and contain mineral inclusions of jadeite and omphacite. Seventy-five analyses on 16 grains of the zircons yield a U-Pb age of 158±2 Ma. The Myanmar zircons differ from other types in that they have no significant Eu anomalies despite high HREE concentrations. Measured 176Hf/177Hf ratios range from 0.282976 to 0.283122, with an average value of 0.283066±7;εHf(t) value of 13.8±0.3 (n=75). These results indicate that the Myanmar jadeite was formed in the Late Jurassic, probably by interaction of fluid released from subducted oceanic slab with mantle wedge. Therefore, its formation has no genetic relationship to the continental collision between Indian and Euroasian plates.

  11. Seasonal Environmental Characteristics for the Tropical Cyclone Genesis in the Indian Ocean during the CINDY2011/DYNAMO Field Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Tsuboi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the seasonal environmental characteristics for tropical cyclone genesis (TCG over the Indian Ocean during the Cooperative Indian Ocean Experiment on Intraseasonal Variability in the Year 2011 and the Dynamics of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO (CINDY2011/DYNAMO field experiment and compare them with long-term climatological features. It was found that the spatial pattern of an empirical environmental index for TCG over the tropical Indian Ocean in 2011 is very similar to the feature composited over the years with high activity of MJO. The analyses of the contributions from each environmental factor indicated that relative humidity, absolute vorticity, and vertical velocity contribute to generate positive influences on the conditions for TCG in 2011. The influences of La Niña appear only through a shear effect over the Indian Ocean in 2011. Under the influences of active MJO events during the CINDY2011/DYNAMO period, the environmental conditions for TCG over the Indian Ocean are determined more strongly by MJO than by La Niña, through modifications of some environmental properties favorable for TCG. The environmental characteristics during CINDY2011/DYNAMO seem to be quite typical of the MJO active years; in such a case, the influences of El Niño/La Niña would not appear in determining the environmental conditions for TCG over the Indian Ocean.

  12. Genesis types of the Neoproterozoic Molar tooth structures in the southeastern Jilin and eastern Liaoning provinces and its research significances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Molar tooth(briefly called MT) carbonate is one of the Proterozoic carbonates with enigmatic sedimentary structure. According to the morphology of MT,it can be divided into two main genesis-morphology types,i.e.,autochthonous and allochthonous,and each type can be further divided into a series of subtypes. The autochthonous MT can be divided into filamentous(MF1) ,ribbon,nodular and dotted type(MF4) ,in which the ribbon one can be subdivided into simple vertical(MF2) and complex ribbon(MF3) ,broken ribbon by storm in situ(MF5) and MT within nodular limestone(MF6) . Allochthonous MT includes conglomerate clasts and horizontal detritus. Studying on the links between MT and the host rocks on five stratigraphic sections in the southeastern Jilin and eastern Liaoning indicates that the morphology of MT is closely related to host rocks,and seven genetic types by relationships between MT and the host rocks with facies interpretations are classified and discussed in this paper. The sedimentary environments of MT formation will be diverse if their morphologies are different.

  13. Simulation Platform of Underwater Quadruped Walking Robot Based on MotionGenesis Kane 5 3 and Central Pattern Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Yang; XuYang Wang; Tong Ge; Chao Wu

    2014-01-01

    It will still in lack of a simulation platform used to learn the walking of underwater quadruped walking robot. In order to alleviate this shortage, a simulation platform for the underwater quadruped walking robot based on Kane dynamic model and CPG-based controller is constructed. The Kane dynamic model of the underwater quadruped walking robot is processed with a commercial package MotionGenesis Kane 5�3. The forces between the feet and ground are represented as a spring and damper. The relation between coefficients of spring and damper and stability of underwater quadruped walking robot in the stationary state is studied. The CPG-based controller consisted of Central Pattern Generator ( CPG) and PD controller is presented, which can be used to control walking of the underwater quadruped walking robot. The relation between CPG parameters and walking speed of underwater quadruped walking robot is investigated. The relation between coefficients of spring and damper and walking speed of underwater quadruped walking robot is studied. The results show that the simulation platform can imitate the stable walking of the underwater quadruped walking robot.

  14. Transverse, supraglacially derived crevasse infillings in a Pleistocene ice-sheet margin zone (eastern Poland): Genesis and sedimentary record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Anna; Terpiłowski, Sławomir

    2012-08-01

    The so-called 'crevasse infillings' in the marginal zone of the Saalian ice sheet in eastern Poland are atypical relief forms for lowlands glaciated in the Pleistocene. They are located on a high of the Cretaceous/Palaeogene substratum and form isolated ridges arranged in trains parallel to the former ice-sheet margin, i.e., transverse to the movement of the ice sheet. The sedimentary succession of the crevasse infillings consists mainly of undeformed glaciodeltaic deposits. We propose a model of the crevasse infilling development in three phases against the background of ice mass dynamics: 1) ice-sheet advance over a high of the substratum — compressive ice flow that bumped against the high's slope and enrichment of the ice with debris; 2) an overriding of the substratum high by ice masses — a tensional ice-flow regime resulted in significant crevassing; and 3) ice mass stagnation — low energy, supraglacial deltaic sedimentation in isolated ponds between disintegrated ice blocks under frozen bed conditions. Considering this genesis, we suggest classifying these forms as kames instead of crevasse infillings.

  15. Norbert Elias, maritime supremacy and the naval profession: on Elias' unpublished studies in the genesis of the naval profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelker, René

    2003-09-01

    In 1950 Norbert Elias published the first of three studies on 'The Genesis of the Naval Profession' in the British Journal of Sociology. At the time Elias was not the established scholar that he was to become in later days. In the 1950s his work on the 'Naval Profession' was not well received by the audience, even though all the major themes of the 'civilizing process' were interwoven in the article. The other two studies were never published in English journals (only one was published in a Dutch journal but received no international attention). A perusal of the Norbert Elias Archive in Marbach am Neckar in Germany--shows that the 'Naval Profession' project is larger than the intended three part series of articles for the BJS. From an outline to the project found in the archive it can be concluded that Elias intended to write a book with six to seven chapters. The key to the studies is a sketchy theory of institutions, which states that conflict promotes institutional development. Through the conflict between two occupational groups, sailors and soldiers, the naval officer becomes institutionalized as a new profession. During the period this process takes place England acquires maritime supremacy, secures the passages to the colonies and becomes an empire.

  16. Changes of Retina Are Not Involved in the Genesis of Visual Hallucinations in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kopal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include primarily visual hallucinations (VH. The aim of our study was to establish whether patients with PD and visual hallucinations (PDH+ have structural changes of retina detected by an optical coherence tomography (OCT in comparison with PD patients without visual hallucinations (PDH−. We examined 52 PD patients (18 with VH, 34 without VH and 15 age and sex matched healthy controls. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and macular thickness and volume were assessed by OCT. Functional impairment of retina was assessed using 2.5% contrast sensitivity test. For OCT outcomes we analyzed 15 PDH+ and 15 PDH− subjects matched for age, gender, and PD duration. For contrast sensitivity we analyzed 8 pairs of patients matched for age, gender, and visual acuity. There was no significant difference in RNFL thickness and macular thickness and macular volume between 15 PDH+ and 15 PDH− subjects, and also between a group of 44 PD patients (both PDH+ and PDH− and 15 age and gender matched healthy controls. No significant difference was found for 2.5% contrast sensitivity test values between PDH+ and PDH− subjects. Therefore we conclude that functional and structural changes in retina play no role in genesis of VH in PD.

  17. Radiation-induced cataract-genesis: pathophysiologic, radiobiological and clinical aspects; Catarate radio-induite: aspects physiopathologiques, radiobiologiques et cliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Touboul, E.; Meric, J.B. [Hopital Tenon, Service d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Rat, P.; Warnet, J.M. [Paris-5 Univ., Lab. de Toxicologie, UFR Pharmacie, Unite de Pharmacotoxicologie Cellulaire, Service Pharmacie, 75 (France)

    2001-08-01

    Cataract-genesis is a widely reported late effect of irradiated crystalline lens. In this review the authors discussed the different aspects of radiation cataract pathogenesis, and the different mechanisms involved in the lens opacification, particularly the epithelium modifications such as epithelial cell death. The authors also reported the influence of radiation exposure on cataract formation following total body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Moreover, the radiobiological parameters are not studied for the crystalline lens of human. We applied for the first time the linear quadratic (LQ) and biological effective dose (BED) concept to TBI data. The calculated value of {alpha}/{beta} of 1 Gy is in the range of the values reported for the other late responding tissues. The other risk factors for cataract development after TBI such as age, gender, central nervous system boost, long-term steroid therapy and heparin administration are discussed. In terms of cataract or sicca syndrome prevention, numerous compounds have been successfully tested in experimental models or used for the prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients treated for head and neck cancer. However, none of them has been clinically evaluated for ocular radiation late effects prevention. In this report the authors discussed some of the radioprotectors potentially interesting for radiation-induced cataract or sicca syndrome prevention. (author)

  18. The genesis of Typhoon Nuri as observed during the Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 (TCS-08 field experiment – Part 3: Dynamics of low-level spin-up during the genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lussier III

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft reconnaissance data collected during the Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 field campaign are used to examine further kinematical, dynamical and thermodynamical aspects of the genesis of Typhoon Nuri. Data from the first two missions into the pre-Nuri disturbance document the transition from a tropical wave to a tropical depression. Dropwindsonde-derived tangential wind profiles at several radii from the low-level circulation center indicate that the magnitude of low-level circulation increases and that the corresponding tangential velocity maximum moves inward from the first to second reconnaissance mission. To compliment these findings, a three-dimensional variational analysis incorporating both dropwindsonde and aircraft Doppler radar data is conducted. These data are used to perform circulation tendency calculations at multiple distances from the low-level circulation center. The results demonstrate a net spin-up of the system-scale circulation in the low-levels near the center and in the outer regions of the recirculating Kelvin cat's eye circulation. In these regions, the spin-up tendency due to the influx of cyclonic absolute vorticity exceeds the frictional spin-down tendency for both Nuri missions. The system-scale spin up is found to be accompanied by areas of low-level vorticity concentration through vortex-tube stretching associated with cumulus convection. The areal coverage and intensity of these high-vorticity regions increase between the first and second Nuri missions. The findings of this study are consistent in some respects to the Nuri observational analysis carried out by Raymond and Lopez (2011, but differ in their suggested key result and related scientific implication that the pre-Nuri disturbance was spinning down on the first day of observations. The findings herein strongly support a recent tropical cyclogenesis model positing that the Kelvin cat's eye circulation of the parent wave-like disturbance provides a

  19. Magma genesis of the acidic volcanism in the intra-arc rift zone of the Izu volcanic arc, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, S.; Tokuyama, H.; Ishii, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Izu volcanic arc extends over 550 km from the Izu Peninsula, Japan, to the Nishinoshima Trough or Sofugan tectonic line. It is the northernmost segment of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc system, which is located at the eastern side of the Philippine Sea Plate. The recent magmatism of the Izu arc is bimodal and characterized by basalt and rhyolite (e.g. Tamura and Tatsumi 2002). In the southern Izu arc, volcanic front from the Aogashima to the Torishima islands is characterized by submarine calderas and acidic volcanisms. The intra-arc rifting, characterized by back-arc depressions, small volcanic knolls and ridges, is active in this region. Volcanic rocks were obtained in 1995 during a research cruise of the R/V MOANA WAVE (Hawaii University, cruise MW9507). Geochemical variation of volcanic rocks and magma genesis was studied by Hochstaedter et al. (2000, 2001), Machida et al (2008), etc. These studies focused magma and mantle dynamics of basaltic volcanism in the wedge mantle. Acidic volcanic rocks were also dredged during the curies MW9507. However, studies of these acidic volcanics were rare. Herein, we present petrographical and chemical analyses of these acidic rocks, and compare these results with those of other acidic rocks in the Izu arc and lab experiments, and propose a model of magma genesis in a context of acidic volcanism. Dredge sites by the cruise MW9507 are 120, and about 50 sites are in the rift zone. Recovered rocks are dominated by the bimodal assemblage of basalt-basaltic andesite and dacite-rhyolite. The most abundant phase is olivine basalt, less than 50 wt% SiO2. Andesites are minor in volume and compositional gap from 56 to 65 wt% SiO2 exists. The across-arc variation of the HFSE contents and ratios, such as Zr/Y and Nb/Zr of rhyolites exhibit depleted in the volcanic front side and enriched in reararc side. This characteristic is similar to basaltic volcanism pointed out by Hochstaedter et al (2000). The petrographical features of rhyolites

  20. GENESIS SciFlo: Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid Using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Tang, B.; Mazzoni, D.; Fetzer, E.; Dobinson, E.; Yunck, T.

    2005-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling

  1. GENESIS SciFlo: Choreographing Interoperable Web Services on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi- instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data

  2. Study on the genesis of Yishui banded iron formation (BIF) in the North China Craton: geochemical characteristics and tectonic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, I.; Lee, I.; Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Yishui BIFs are located in the Taishan Group, Shandong province of Eastern Block of North China Craton. The iron ore samples were collected from the mine pits. Major elements were analyzed by X-ray Fluoresence Spectromemter (XRF). Trace elements and REY (REE + Y) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical analyses of iron ores and their wall rock (amphibolite) were conducted to trace the genesis of Yishui BIF. Iron ores of Yishui BIF are mainly composed of SiO2 and Fe2O3T (SiO2+ Fe2O3T= 85.8 to 98.8 wt%) and consistent with major mineral components which are quartz and iron oxide such as magnetite and hematite. Low contents of TiO2 (0.01 to 0.09 wt%) , Al2O3 (0.42 to 1.18 wt%) and HFSE indicate no or little effect of detrital contamination. Iron ores have positive La, Eu, Gd, Er and Y anomalies with enriched HREE in PAAS normalized REY graph. The REY patterns of iron ores were used as a fingerprint to trace the source of iron and silica. Distinctive positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*= 2.44-4.19), Y anomalies (Y/Y*=0.97 - 4.19), slightly negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*= 0.87-0.97) and enriched HREE ((La/Yb)SN= 0.17-0.32) indicate that mixture of seawater and high-temperature hydrothermal fluid (>250 ◦C). Depositional environment in North China Craton implies that Yishui BIFs were formed at Neoarchean and associated arc-related tectonic setting. All these data suggest that Yishui BIFs belong to typical Algoma-type BIF.

  3. Genesis Types and Diagenesis Compaction Mechanisms of Sandstone Rreservoirs in Dynamic Environments in Oil/Gas Basins in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou Jianfeng; Si Chunsong; Wang Xin

    2006-01-01

    The diversity of sandstone diagenesis mechanisms caused by the complex geological conditions of oil/gas basins in China could hardly be reasonably explained by the traditional concept of burial diagenesis. Three genesis types of thermal diagenesis, tectonic diagenesis and fluid diagenesis are presented on the basis of the dynamic environment of the oil/gas basins and the controlling factors and mechanisms of sandstone diagenesis. Thermal diagenesis of sandstone reservoirs is related not only to the effect of formation temperature on diagenesis, but also to the significant changes in diagenesis caused by geothermal gradients. The concept of thermal compaction is presented. Thermal compaction becomes weaker with increasing depth and becomes stronger at a higher geothermal gradient. At the same formation temperature, the sandstone porosity in the region with a lower geothermal gradient is e0.077+0.0042T times higher than that in the region with a higher geothermal gradient. Both sudden and gradual changes are observed in diagenetic evolution caused by structural deformation. Average sandstone compaction increased by 0.1051% for every 1.0MPa increase of lateral tectonic compressional stress, while late tectonic napping helped to preserve a higher porosity of underlying sandstone reservoir. Fluid diagenesis is a general phenomenon. The compaction caused by fluid properties is significant. The coarser the grain size, the stronger the fluid effect on compaction. The greater the burial depth, the weaker the fluid effect on compaction for the specific reservoir lithology and the greater the difference in the fluid effects on compaction between different grain sizes.

  4. Genesis Solar Wind Sample 61422: Experiment in Variation of Sequence of Cleaning Solvent for Removing Carbon-Bearing Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Allums, K. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    The recovered Genesis collector fragments are heavily contaminated with crash-derived particulate debris. However, megasonic treatment with ultra-pure-water (UPW; resistivity (is) greater than18 meg-ohm-cm) removes essentially all particulate contamination greater than 5 microns in size [e.g.1] and is thus of considerable importance. Optical imaging of Si sample 60336 revealed the presence of a large C-rich particle after UPW treatment that was not present prior to UPW. Such handling contamination is occasionally observed, but such contaminants are normally easily removed by UPW cleaning. The 60336 particle was exceptional in that, surprisingly, it was not removed by additional UPW or by hot xylene or by aqua regia treatment. It was eventually removed by treatment with NH3-H2O2. Our best interpretation of the origin of the 60336 particle was that it was adhesive from the Post-It notes used to stabilize samples for transport from Utah after the hard landing. It is possible that the insoluble nature of the 60336 particle comes from interaction of the Post-It adhesive with UPW. An occasional bit of Post-It adhesive is not a major concern, but C particulate contamination also occurs from the heat shield of the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) and this is mixed with inorganic contamination from the SRC and the Utah landing site. If UPW exposure also produced an insoluble residue from SRC C, this would be a major problem in chemical treatments to produce clean surfaces for analysis. This paper reports experiments to test whether particulate contamination was removed more easily if UPW treatment was not used.

  5. Genesis of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Deposits within Permian Carboniferous-Carbonate Rocks in Madina Regency, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti Hamonangan Harahap

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strong mineralized carbonate rock-bearing Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-(Au ores are well exposed on the Latong River area, Madina Regency, North Sumatra Province. The ore deposit is hosted within the carbonate rocks of the Permian to Carboniferous Tapanuli Group. It is mainly accumulated in hollows replacing limestone in the forms of lensoidal, colloform, veins, veinlets, cavity filling, breccia, and dissemination. The ores dominantly consist of galena (126 000 ppm Pb and sphalerite (2347 ppm Zn. The other minerals are silver, azurite, covellite, pyrite, marcasite, and chalcopyrite. This deposit was formed by at least three phases of mineralization, i.e. pyrite and then galena replaced pyrite, sphalerite replaced galena, and pyrite. The last phase is the deposition of chalcopyrite that replaced sphalerite. The Latong sulfide ore deposits posses Pb isotope ratio of 206Pb/204Pb = 19.16 - 20.72, 207Pb/204Pb = 16.16 - 17.29, and 208Pb/204Pb = 42.92 - 40.78. The characteristic feature of the deposit indicates that it is formed by a sedimentary process rather than an igneous activity in origin. This leads to an interpretation that the Latong deposit belongs to the Sedimentary Hosted Massive Sulfide (SHMS of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT. The presence of SHMS in the island arc such as Sumatra has become controversial. For a long time, ore deposits in the Indonesian Island Arc are always identical with the porphyry and hydrothermal processes related to arc magmatism. This paper is dealing with the geology of Latong and its base metal deposits. This work is also to interpret their genesis as well as general relationship to the regional geology and tectonic setting of Sumatra.

  6. The Genesis of the Urban Culture of the Steppe of the Volga Region and Sociocultural Development of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Dulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the genesis of socio-historical processes of urban culture of the steppe of the Volga region, is based on historical documents, materials of scientific expeditions conducted in the lower Volga region encyclopedic scientists from the second half of the XVIII century, and the results of archaeological research here settlement sites. Based on the fact that the whole history of mankind is the history of the reference person of its economy, the authors believe that the analysis of the spaces of the modern city must be waged simultaneously in multiple coordinate systems – involving knowledge of scientific disciplines such as history and archeology, sociology, Economics etc. Attention is focused on the events in the Volga steppes of socio-economic and cultural-historical transformation, reflected in the distinctive dynamics of sociocultural development of the medieval (Khazar, the Golden Horde, Russian and modern cities in the region. The authors come to the following conclusions: the city created (and covered by most throughout the centuries (and even millennia by many generations, carry a spatial-temporal characteristics and the variety of creative ideas that make them diverse, aesthetically balanced. The growth of these cities, like all living things, inevitably threatens the time, which naturally destroys some of their historical (and in fact – "root" part to "make room" for new construction. To the relentless dynamism of our era was not able to destroy formed for many generations the idea that is subordinated to the formation and development of each particular city, you should each time from a separate historical parts of the city (or temporal-spatial "fragments" to try to reproduce it in its entirety, as the unity and integrity, while maintaining its inherent identity.

  7. Genesis and characteristics of the soil in A-R stage in forest ecosystems of NP 'Tara'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of soil in A-R stage formed on limestone and serpentinite in forest ecosystems in NP 'Tara' were researched. Based on the specific effect of limestone on the soil genesis and evolution, two types of calcareous limestone bedrocks were distinguished: dense limestones, and soft, marly limestones. Three subtypes of black earth were studied on dense limestones. They are: organogenic, organo-mineral and brownised soils. One soil type was researched on soft, marly limestones: rendzina, the leached variety. One soil type was researched on serpentinites, within the A-R stage: humus-siliceous soil (ranker, subtype eutric ranker. This paper also presents the evaluation of ecological and productive characteristics of the study soils. If the soil is observed separately, regardless of the tree species growing on it, the soils in A-R stage in NP 'Tara' cannot be evaluated as highly productive. However, in all plant communities on the soils in A-R stage on limestone, the values of average volume, current volume increment, and basal area were high. The unfavourable physical characteristics of the soil in the area of NP 'Tara' are compensated by the effect of humid climate. On the study eutric humus siliceous soils in the area of NP 'Tara', in the natural and artificially established stands of Scots pine and Austrian pine, the ecological and productive value is conditioned by numerous factors and it is mainly limited by unfavourable physical characteristics. Regardless of the unfavourable ecological and productive characteristics of the soil, the natural and artificially established stands of Scots pine and Austrian pine are in the coeno-ecological optimum.

  8. Genesis of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Deposits within Permian Carboniferous-Carbonate Rocks in Madina Regency, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti Hamonangan Harahap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.167-184Strong mineralized carbonate rock-bearing Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-(Au ores are well exposed on the Latong River area, Madina Regency, North Sumatra Province. The ore deposit is hosted within the carbonate rocks of the Permian to Carboniferous Tapanuli Group. It is mainly accumulated in hollows replacing limestone in the forms of lensoidal, colloform, veins, veinlets, cavity filling, breccia, and dissemination. The ores dominantly consist of galena (126 000 ppm Pb and sphalerite (2347 ppm Zn. The other minerals are silver, azurite, covellite, pyrite, marcasite, and chalcopyrite. This deposit was formed by at least three phases of mineralization, i.e. pyrite and then galena replaced pyrite, sphalerite replaced galena, and pyrite. The last phase is the deposition of chalcopyrite that replaced sphalerite. The Latong sulfide ore deposits posses Pb isotope ratio of 206Pb/204Pb = 19.16 - 20.72, 207Pb/204Pb = 16.16 - 17.29, and 208Pb/204Pb = 42.92 - 40.78. The characteristic feature of the deposit indicates that it is formed by a sedimentary process rather than an igneous activity in origin. This leads to an interpretation that the Latong deposit belongs to the Sedimentary Hosted Massive Sulfide (SHMS of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT. The presence of SHMS in the island arc such as Sumatra has become controversial. For a long time, ore deposits in the Indonesian Island Arc are always identical with the porphyry and hydrothermal processes related to arc magmatism. This paper is dealing with the geology of Latong and its base metal deposits. This work is also to interpret their genesis as well as general relationship to the regional geology and tectonic setting of Sumatra.

  9. Caspase-1 is involved in the genesis of inflammatory hypernociception by contributing to peripheral IL-1β maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamboni Dario S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-1 is a cysteine protease responsible for the processing and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, which are closely related to the induction of inflammation. However, limited evidence addresses the participation of caspase-1 in inflammatory pain. Here, we investigated the role of caspase-1 in inflammatory hypernociception (a decrease in the nociceptive threshold using caspase-1 deficient mice (casp1-/-. Results Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. The production of cytokines, PGE2 and neutrophil migration were evaluated by ELISA, radioimmunoassay and myeloperoxidase activity, respectively. The interleukin (IL-1β and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 protein expression were evaluated by western blotting. The mechanical hypernociception induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenin, tumour necrosis factor (TNFα and CXCL1/KC was reduced in casp1-/- mice compared with WT mice. However, the hypernociception induced by IL-1β and PGE2 did not differ in WT and casp1-/- mice. Carrageenin-induced TNF-α and CXCL1/KC production and neutrophil recruitment in the paws of WT mice were not different from casp1-/- mice, while the maturation of IL-1β was reduced in casp1-/- mice. Furthermore, carrageenin induced an increase in the expression of COX-2 and PGE2 production in the paw of WT mice, but was reduced in casp1-/- mice. Conclusion These results suggest that caspase-1 plays a critical role in the cascade of events involved in the genesis of inflammatory hypernociception by promoting IL-1β maturation. Because caspase-1 is involved in the induction of COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, our data support the assertion that caspase-1 is a key target to control inflammatory pain.

  10. Mutation screening of MIR146A/B and BRCA1/2 3'-UTRs in the GENESIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Amandine I; Buisson, Monique; Damiola, Francesca; Tessereau, Chloé; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Sornin, Valérie; Dondon, Marie-Gabrielle; Eon-Marchais, Séverine; Caron, Olivier; Gautier-Villars, Marion; Coupier, Isabelle; Buecher, Bruno; Vennin, Philippe; Belotti, Muriel; Lortholary, Alain; Gesta, Paul; Dugast, Catherine; Noguès, Catherine; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Faivre, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Andrieu, Nadine; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mazoyer, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    Although a wide number of breast cancer susceptibility alleles associated with various levels of risk have been identified to date, about 50% of the heritability is still missing. Although the major BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are being extensively screened for truncating and missense variants in breast and/or ovarian cancer families, potential regulatory variants affecting their expression remain largely unexplored. In an attempt to identify such variants, we focused our attention on gene regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRs). We screened two genes, MIR146A and MIR146B, producing miR-146a and miR-146b-5p, respectively, that regulate BRCA1, and the 3'- untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the GENESIS French national case/control study (BRCA1- and BRCA2-negative breast cancer cases with at least one sister with breast cancer and matched controls). We identified one rare variant in MIR146A, four in MIR146B, five in BRCA1 3'-UTR and one in BRCA2 3'-UTR in 716 index cases and 619 controls. Among these 11 rare variants, 7 were identified each in 1 index case. None of the three relevant MIR146A/MIR146B variants affected the pre-miR sequences. The potential causality of the four relevant BRCA1/BRCA2 3'-UTRs variants was evaluated with luciferase reporter assays and co-segregation studies, as well as with bioinformatics analyses to predict miRs-binding sites, RNA secondary structures and RNA accessibility. This is the first study to report the screening of miR genes and of BRCA2 3'-UTR in a large series of familial breast cancer cases. None of the variant identified in this study gave convincing evidence of potential pathogenicity.

  11. Modulation of Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Genesis by Intraseasonal Oscillation of the ITCZ: A Statistical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xi; HUANG Ping; CHEN Guanghua; CHEN Wen

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates modulation of western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in relation to different phases of the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) of ITCZ convection during May to October in the period 1979-2008.The phases of the ITCZ ISO were determined based on 30-80-day filtered OLR anomalies averaged over the region (5°20°N,120° 150°E).The number of TCs during the active phases was nearly three times more than during the inactive phases.The active (inactive) phases of ISO were characterized by low-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomalies,higher (lower) midlevel relative humidity anomalies,and larger (smaller) vertical gradient anomalies of relative vorticity associated with enhanced (weakened) ITCZ convection anomalies.During the active phases,TCs tended to form in the center of the ITCZ region.Barotropic conversion from the low-level mean flow is suggested to be the major energy source for TC formation.The energy conversion mainly depended on the zonal and meridional gradients of the zonal flow during the active phases.However,barotropic conversion weakened greatly during the inactive phases.The relationship between the meridional gradient of absolute vorticity and low-level zonal flow indicates that the sign of the absolute vorticity gradient tends to be reversed during the two phases,whereas the same sign between zonal flow and the absolute vorticity gradient is more easily satisfied in the active phases.Thus,the barotropic instability of low-level zonal flow might be an important mechanism for TC formation over the WNP during the active phases of ISO.

  12. A Study of the Migration and Accumulation Efficiency and the Genesis of Hydrocarbon Natural Gas in the Xujiaweizi Fault Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jijun; LU Shuangfang; XUE Haitao; HUO Qiuli; XU Qingxia

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the migration and accumulation efficiency of hydrocarbon natural gas in the Xujiaweizi fault depression, and to provide new evidence for the classification of its genesis, a source rock pyrolysis experiment in a closed system was designed and carried out. Based on this, kinetic models for describing gas generation from organic matter and carbon isotope fractionation during this process were established, calibrated and then extrapolated to geologic conditions by combining the thermal history data of the Xushen-1 Well. The results indicate that the coal measures in the Xujiaweizi fault depression are typical "high-efficiency gas sources", the natural gas generated from them has a high migration and accumulation efficiency, and consequently a large-scale natural gas accumulation occurred in the area. The highly/over matured coal measures in the Xujiaweizi fault depression generate coaliferons gas with a high δ13C1 value (> -20‰) at the late stage, making the carbon isotope composition of organic alkane gases abnormally heavy. In addition, the mixing and dissipation through the caprock of natural gas can result in the negative carbon isotope sequence (δ13C1 >δ13C2 >δ13C3 >δ13C4) of organic alkane gases, and the dissipation can also lead to the abnormally heavy carbon isotope composition of organic alkane gases. As for the discovery of inorganic nonhydrocarbon gas reservoirs, it can only serve as an accessorial evidence rather than a direct evidence that the hydrocarbon gas is inorganic. As a result, it needs stronger evidence to classify the hydrocarbon natural gas in the Xujiaweizi fault depression as inorganic gas.

  13. A formational model for the polygonal terrains of Mars: Taking a crack at the genesis of the Martian polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, M. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    The mechanism for the genesis of the polygonal terrains in Acidalia and Utopia Planitia has long been sought: however, no completely satisfying model was put forth that characterizes the evolution of these complexly patterned terrains. The polygons are roughly hexagonal but some are not entirely enclosed by fractures. These polygonal features range in widths from approximately 5 to 20 km. Several origins were proposed that describe the polygon borders as desiccation cracks, columnar jointing in a cooled lava, or frost-wedge features. These tension-induced cracking hypotheses were addressed by Pechmann, who convincingly disputes these mechanisms of formation based on scale magnitude difficulties and morphology. Pechmann suggests instead that the cracks delineating the 5-20-km-wide polygons on the northern plains of Mars are graben resulting from deep-seated, uniform, horizontal tension. The difficulty with this hypothesis is that no analogous polygonal forms are known to have originated by tectonism on Earth. McGill and Hills propose that the polygonal terrains on Mars resulted from either rapid desiccation of sediments or cooling of volcanics coupled with differential compaction of the material over a buried irregular topographic surface. They suggest that fracturing was enhanced over the areas of positive relief and was suppressed above the topographic lows. McGill and Hills suggest that the spacing of the topographic highs primarily controls the size of the Martian polygons and the physics of the shrinkage process is a secondary concern. Ray et. al. conducted a terrestrial study of patterned ground in periglacial areas of the U.S. to determine the process responsible for polygonal ground formation. They developed a model for polygon formation in which convection of seasonal melt water above a permafrost layer, driven by an unstable density stratification, differentially melts the permafrost interface, causing it to become undulatory.

  14. Role of deep crustal fluids in the genesis of intraplate earthquakes in the Kachchh region, northwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Kumar, G.; Mahesh, P.; Nagar, Mehul; Mahender, E.; Kumar, Virendhar; Mohan, Kapil; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2017-05-01

    Fluids play a prominent role in the genesis of earthquakes, particularly in intraplate settings. In this study, we present evidence for a highly heterogeneous nature of electrical conductivity in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Kachchh rift basin of northwestern India, which is host to large, deadly intraplate earthquakes. We interpret our results of high conductive zones inferred from magnetotelluric and 3-D local earthquake tomography investigations in terms of a fluid reservoir in the upper mantle. The South Wagad Fault (SWF) imaged as a near-vertical north dipping low resistivity zone traversing the entire crust and an elongated south dipping conductor demarcating the North Wagad Fault (NWF) serve as conduits for fluid flow from the reservoir to the middle to lower crustal depths. Importantly, the epicentral zone of the 2001 main shock is characterized as a fluid saturated zone at the rooting of NWF onto the SWF.Plain Language SummaryFluids play a significant role in generation of earthquakes in intraplate and interplate settings. However, knowledge of the nature, origin, and localization of crustal fluids in stable continental interiors (intraplate) remains uncertain. The Kachchh rift basin of northwestern India is host to large, deadly intraplate earthquakes like those in 1819 (Mw7.8) and 2001 (Mw7.7). In the present study we carried out extensive geophysical investigations to understand the cause for seismic activity in the region. The study provides the evidence for the presence of fluids in the seismically active intraplate region of northwest India. This study demonstrates that the dynamics of mantle fluids controlled by geological faults could lead to large and moderate-sized earthquakes.

  15. Leptin attenuates BACE1 expression and amyloid-β genesis via the activation of SIRT1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwarha, Gurdeep; Raza, Shaneabbas; Meiers, Craig; Ghribi, Othman

    2014-09-01

    The aspartyl protease β-site AβPP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in Aβ production, a peptide at the nexus of neurodegenerative cascades in Alzheimer Disease (AD). The adipocytokine leptin has been demonstrated to reduce Aβ production and decrease BACE1 activity and expression levels. However, the signaling cascades involved in the leptin-induced mitigation in Aβ levels and BACE1 expression levels have not been elucidated. We have demonstrated that the transcription factor nuclear factor - kappa B (NF-κB) positively regulates BACE1 transcription. NF-κB activity is tightly regulated by the mammalian sirtuin SIRT1. Multiple studies have cogently evinced that leptin activates the metabolic master regulator SIRT1. In this study, we determined the extent to which SIRT1 expression and activity regulate the leptin-induced attenuation in BACE1 expression and Aβ levels in cultured human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. This study also elucidated and delineated the signal transduction pathways involved in the leptin induced mitigation in BACE1 expression. Our results demonstrate for the first time that leptin attenuates the activation and transcriptional activity of NF-κB by reducing the acetylation of the p65 subunit in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data shows that leptin reduces the NF-κB-mediated transcription of BACE1 and consequently reduces Amyloid-β genesis. Our study provides a valuable insight and a novel mechanism by which leptin reduces BACE1 expression and Amyloid-β production and may help design potential therapeutic interventions.

  16. Adam. Příběh prvního člověka v knize Genesis a v Koránu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlada Mikulicová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In both books Adam is presented as a prototypical man created from physical elements and endowed with divine inspiration that makes him capable of rational actions. While Genesis narrates the story of Adam from his creation to his death, stressing chronology and future development in history, the Qur’an’s rendering is fragmentary. Of vast underlying popular traditions on Adam and Eve, Genesis previews the history of God’s covenant and salvific action towards humankind while the Qur’an persists on the theme of human disobedience and God’s absolute governance. Despite common themes as the createdness of man, his superiority over the rest of the creation, the complementary nature of human being as man and woman, the loss of happiness through disobedience to God’s law, the two stories differ in interpretation. While the acceptance of evil into human heart is reflected as voluntary in Genesis, the Qur’an finds excuse in the revolt of Satan who is shown in a more active role than man. Eliminating the notions of man as the image of God, and the final abolishment of evil, the Qur’an uses Adam’s story to demonstrate the principal axioms of Islamic doctrine: God must be obeyed and Satan’s lures avoided else man will not attain the Garden; Adam is a prototypal prophet, informing of these truths. Adam and Eve, according to the narration of the Book of Genesis, represent human existence in the drama of knowing evil and distress, hiding from God, and hearing his promise of future salvation that begins to unroll in their progeny. V biblicke knize Genesis i v Koranu je Adam představen jako prototyp člověka stvořeneho z fyzickych prvků a „Božiho vdechnuti“ racionality. Biblicke vypravěni je chronologicky přiběh, Koran zmiňuje pouze některe časti sparsatim v deseti různych surach. Genesis jakožto prolog k biblickemu celku vybira tradični latky k dokumentaci Božich dějin spasy, zatimco Koran eliminuje všechno, co nesouvisi

  17. Bedform genesis in bedrock substrates: Insights into formative processes from a new experimental approach and the importance of suspension-dominated abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Daowei; Peakall, Jeff; Parsons, Dan; Chen, Zhongyuan; Averill, Heather Macdonald; Wignall, Paul; Best, Jim

    2016-02-01

    Bedrock channels are common in the natural environment, and bedrock channel erosion sets the pace of denudation in many river catchments. However, in comparison to the large number of studies concerning the formation of alluvial bedforms, relatively few investigations have concerned bedrock bedform genesis. Field-based analysis of sculptured forms within bedrock channels has been restricted notably by the slow rate of bedform development in such environments. Furthermore, only a limited number of flume-scale experiments have been conducted that attempt to simulate the genesis of sculpted bedforms in bedrock channels. This study demonstrates that optimisation of clay beds through analysis of clay strength enables the development of features analogous to bedrock river channel bedforms - even at a scale that is orders of magnitude smaller than some natural examples. Three sets of suspended sediment-laden experiments were carried out using hard, medium, and soft clay bed substrates. A suite of erosive bedforms (including potholes, flutes, and furrows) developed on all experimental beds. All observed erosional features have clear equivalents to those observed in natural bedrock rivers. Bed shear strength was found to be a significant factor for the genesis of different types of simulated bedrock bedforms in our experiments with other factors, such as flow velocity, bed slope, and flow depth held approximately constant. Importantly, in a subset of experiments performed with an absence of suspended sediment, fluid flow did not result in the erosion and development of bedforms in the clay bed. Hence, this work illustrates that abrasion by suspended sediments is the key process required for the formation of these simulated bedrock bedforms in our experiments, in the absence of bedload abrasion; other processes such as plucking, cavitation, and dissolution will have been negligible.

  18. ‘Het u net een seën?’: Vrede as oorvloeiseën as tema in Genesis 12–50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Krüger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ‘Have you but one blessing?’: Peace as overflow of blessings in Genesis 12–50. A theme often overlooked in the patriarchal history (Gn 12–50 is the blessings bestowed on individuals outside the covenantal lineage, for example Ishmael and Esau. This article considers how blessings, promised to the patriarchs, also brought peace and benefits to individuals who were assimilated into the covenant as well as to divarications of the covenantal lineage, and to individuals with whom the patriarchs interacted in civil society. Blessings, promised to Abraham’s descendants, had a spiralling effect and universal tendency.

  19. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) using REE geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Mir Ali Asghar; Zadeh, Ghader Hossein; Emami, Mohamad Hashem

    2013-06-01

    Rare earth elements in apatites of different ore types show characteristic patterns which are related to different modes of formation of the ores. Most of the apatite-bearing iron ores are associated with alkaline magmas with LREE/HREE fractionation varying from moderate to steep. Iron-apatite deposits in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) have a high concentration of REE (more than 1000 ppm up to 2.5%), and show a strong LREE/HREE ratio with a pronounced negative Eu anomaly. This REE pattern is typical of magmatic apatite and quiet distinct from sedimentary apatites (phosphorites) which have a low REE contents and Ce negative anomalies. On the other hand, they are comparable to the REE patterns of apatites in Kiruna-type iron ores in different parts of the world. The REE patterns of apatites, iron-apatite ores and iron ores are similar and only have different REE contents. This similarity indicates a genetic relation for these rocks. Most of the iron-apatite deposits in Central Iran have similar REE patterns too, which in turn show a genetic relation for all of these deposits. This similarity indicates a similar origin and processes in their genesis. There are some small intrusions around some of the iron-apatite deposits that are petrographically identified as syenite and gabbro. These intrusions also have REE patterns similar to that of iron-apatite ores. This demonstrates a genetic relation between these intrusions and iron-apatite ores. The REE patterns of apatites in different deposits of Posht-e-Badam Block iron-apatite ores show an affinity to alkaline to sub-alkaline magmas and rifting environment. The alkaline host rocks of Central Iran iron-apatite ores are clearly related to an extensional setting where rifting was important (SSE-NNW fault lines). A probable source for this large scale ore forming processes is relatively low partial melting of mantle rocks. The ores have originated by magmatic differentiation as a late phase in the volcanic cycle

  20. Genesis of Gabbronorites in Ophiolites%蛇绿岩中辉长苏长岩的成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传周

    2015-01-01

    在蛇绿岩的洋壳岩石和地幔岩石单元中通常可见少量的辉长苏长岩脉,其主要特征是含高钙长石以及斜方辉石作为主要的矿物相早先于斜长石结晶。已有的研究表明辉长苏长岩的母岩浆为相对于 MORB 更富水和高硅的钙碱性岩浆。尽管这种含水钙碱性岩浆的形成可能与俯冲过程有关,但是在现今大洋也发现有辉长苏长岩的存在,表明在洋中脊环境也存在有含水钙碱性岩浆的发育。通过对侵入到西藏普兰蛇绿岩地幔橄榄岩中的辉长苏长岩的研究,笔者提出它们可能是遭受海水蛇纹石化的大洋岩石圈地幔重熔而成,其形成过程可能与在洋中脊发育的拆离断层有关。%Gabbrronoritic dykes have been observed in both plutonic and mantle sections of global ophiolites.They are characterized by the occurrence of anorthitic plagioclase and the earlier crystallization of orthopyroxene relative to plagio-clase.Previous studies had suggested that they were derived from ‘calc-alkaline’basaltic melts,i.e.,with higher water and SiO 2 contents than MORB.Although formation of such calc-alkaline basalts had been related to subduction settings, the discovery of gabbronorites in modern oceans supports the existence of calc-alkaline basalts in the mid-ocean ridge set-ting.Mineralogical and petrological compositions of gabbronorites intruding into the mantle peridotites of the Purang ophio-lite (Tibet)had been studied.We proposed that they were formed via re-melting of oceanic mantle that were serpentinized by seawater.Genesis of gabbronorite in the mid-ocean ridge is probably related to the development of detachment fault.

  1. Partial crystallization of picritic melt and its applications for the genesis of high-Ti and low-Ti basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; WANG, C.; Jin, Z.; Jin, S.; Yan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemical and petrological studies have revealed the existence of high-Ti and low-Ti basalts in large igneous provinces (LIPs). However the originate of these high-Ti and low-Ti magmas are still under debate. Several different mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the high-Ti basalts are formed by the melting of mantle plume containing recycled oceanic crust (Spandler et al., 2008) while low-Ti basalts are formed by the melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle (Xiao et al., 2004); (2) both high-Ti and low-Ti basalts are from mantle plume source, but the production of high-Ti basalts are associated with the thick lithosphere while the low-Ti basalts are controlled by the thin lithosphere (Arndt et al., 1993); (3) they are derived from the different degrees of melting, with high-Ti basalts representing low degree of partial melting of mantle plume (Xu et al., 2004). The low Mg# (below 0.7) of high-Ti and low-Ti basalts provides that they are far away from direct melting of mantle peridotite. In addition, seismic data indicate unusually high seismic velocities bodies beneath the LIPs which explained by the fractionated cumulates from picritic magmas (Farnetani et al., 1996). Therefore, we believed that the crystallization differentiation process might play a more significant role in the genesis of high-Ti and low-Ti basalts.In order to investigate the generation of high-Ti and low-Ti basalts, a series of high pressure and high temperature partial crystallization experiments were performed at pressures of 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 GPa and a temperature range of 1200-1700℃. The starting material is picrate glass with relative high TiO2 (2.7 wt %), which is synthesized according to the chemical composition of primary magmas of Emeishan LIP (Xu et al., 2001). The experimental results show that: (1) At a given pressure, the TiO2 content is decreased with increasing melt fraction; (2) At a given melt fraction, the TiO2 content of melts is increased with increasing pressure. On

  2. Geochemical Charactristics and Genesis of Topaz—Bearing Porphyries in Yangbin Area of Taishun County,Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德滋; 刘昌实; 等

    1995-01-01

    The host rocks of the porphyry tin deposits in the Yangbin area are prince-pally topaz-bearing porphyry dikes about 2 km long and 2-20m wide.Three lithologic types are identified for the dikes:topaz-bearing potassium feldspar granitic porphyry,topaz-bearing monzonitic granitic porphyry and topaz-bearing quartz porphyry.The con-tent of topaz in the rocks ranges from 10 to 20 vol.%.Porphyritic texture is characteristic,with quartz,potassium feldspar and albite as main phenocryst minerals.The phenocryst occupies 10-20vol% of the rocks.The rock groundmass consists of subhedrak topaz,quartz and protolithionite.Topaz has a unit-cell parameter b=8.797(A)°,and F:OH=1.92:0.18, indicating a F-rich variety formed at high temperature .The topaz-bearing porphyries occurring in this area are strongly peraluminous (A/NKC=1.574-12.94),with high ra-tios of F/C1(146-303) and Rb/Sr(5-122).They are rich in incompatible elements (Sn,313×10-6-1042×10-6;W,6×10-6-218×10-6;Nb,27×10-6-54×10-6),but poor in compatible elements (Sr,10×10-6-28×10-6;Ba,58×10-6-73×10-6;V,3×10-6-10×10-6,Cl,150×10-6-226×10-6).The rocks are also characterized by high total REE amount (281.69×10-6-319.76×10-6);with strong Eu depletion (&Eu=0.01-0.03)and low ratio of LREE/HREE(0.78-0.84).In summary ,the authors propose propose an idea of S-type genesis for the topaz-bearing porphyries with tin mineralization,instead of I-type.

  3. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (central Iran) using REE geochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mir Ali Asghar Mokhtari; Ghader Hossein Zadeh; Mohamad Hashem Emami

    2013-06-01

    Rare earth elements in apatites of different ore types show characteristic patterns which are related to different modes of formation of the ores. Most of the apatite-bearing iron ores are associated with alkaline magmas with LREE/HREE fractionation varying from moderate to steep. Iron-apatite deposits in Posht-e-Badam Block (Central Iran) have a high concentration of REE (more than 1000 ppm up to 2.5%), and show a strong LREE/HREE ratio with a pronounced negative Eu anomaly. This REE pattern is typical of magmatic apatite and quiet distinct from sedimentary apatites (phosphorites) which have a low REE contents and Ce negative anomalies. On the other hand, they are comparable to the REE patterns of apatites in Kiruna-type iron ores in different parts of the world. The REE patterns of apatites, iron-apatite ores and iron ores are similar and only have different REE contents. This similarity indicates a genetic relation for these rocks. Most of the iron-apatite deposits in Central Iran have similar REE patterns too, which in turn show a genetic relation for all of these deposits. This similarity indicates a similar origin and processes in their genesis. There are some small intrusions around some of the iron-apatite deposits that are petrographically identified as syenite and gabbro. These intrusions also have REE patterns similar to that of iron-apatite ores. This demonstrates a genetic relation between these intrusions and iron-apatite ores. The REE patterns of apatites in different deposits of Posht-e-Badam Block iron-apatite ores show an affinity to alkaline to sub-alkaline magmas and rifting environment. The alkaline host rocks of Central Iran iron-apatite ores are clearly related to an extensional setting where rifting was important (SSE–NNW fault lines). A probable source for this large scale ore forming processes is relatively low partial melting of mantle rocks. The ores have originated by magmatic differentiation as a late phase in the volcanic cycle

  4. Experimental approbation of a new ultrosound contrast agent based on sulfur geksafluoride in diagnostics of focal liver lesions of inflammatory genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Fomina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. Experimental approbation of a new domestic ultrasound contrast agent (UCA based on sulfur hexafluoride in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions of inflammatory genesis.Materials and methods. The investigated ultrasound contrast agent (UCA was a heterogeneous gas-liquid system consisting of micro bubbles of a sparingly soluble gas of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 surrounded by a flexible mobile membrane of surfactants. Experimental work was carried out on rabbits. The study group included rabbits of males and females with focal liver lesion of inflammatory genesis (n = 12 weighing 1500- 1700 g. UCA was administered to animals in the ear vein. Focal lesions of the liver in animals were created in the experimental laboratory conditions. 14 days after the operation, all animals were subjected to ultrasound examination of the surgical intervention zones by using the Toshiba Aplio 400 scanners (Japan with a 3,5–8 MHz convection sensor. In a natural study, the size, structure and echogenicity of the focus were assessed, the degree of vascularization, the evenness and clarity of the contours were determined. When performing post contrast ultrasound, the time of the onset of contrast enhancement, the total duration of contrast, the changes in the contrast enhancement of the focus in different phases of the study were measured, the dimensions of the focus were measured, and the evenness and acuity of contours were measured. For histological examination, liver fragments and lungs were used. 

  5. 3D numerical modeling of mantle flow, crustal dynamics and magma genesis associated with slab roll-back and tearing: The eastern Mediterranean case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menant, Armel; Sternai, Pietro; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gerya, Taras

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between subduction dynamics and magma genesis have been intensely investigated, resulting in several conceptual models derived from geological, geochemical and geophysical data. To provide physico-chemical constraints on these conceptual models, self-consistent numerical simulations containing testable thermo-mechanical parameters are required, especially considering the three-dimensional (3D) natural complexity of subduction systems. Here, we use a 3D high-resolution petrological and thermo-mechanical numerical model to quantify the relative contribution of oceanic and continental subduction/collision, slab roll-back and tearing to magma genesis and transport processes. Our modeling results suggest that the space and time distribution and composition of magmas in the overriding plate is controlled by the 3D slab dynamics and related asthenospheric flow. Moreover, the decrease of the bulk lithospheric strength induced by mantle- and crust-derived magmas promotes the propagation of strike-slip and extensional fault zones through the overriding crust as response to slab roll-back and continental collision. Reduction of the lithosphere/asthenosphere rheological contrast by lithospheric weakening also favors the transmission of velocities from the flowing mantle to the crust. Similarities between our modeling results and the late Cenozoic tectonic and magmatic evolution across the eastern Mediterranean region suggest an efficient control of mantle flow on the magmatic activity in this region, which in turn promotes lithospheric deformation by mantle drag via melt-induced weakening effects.

  6. Middle Miocene reworked turbidites in the Baiyun Sag of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea margin: Processes, genesis, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chenglin; Wang, Yingmin; Zheng, Rongcai; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Li, Yun; Stow, Dorrik; Xu, Qiang; Brackenridge, Rachel E.

    2016-10-01

    Our understanding of reworked turbidites is still in its infancy, and their flow processes and genesis still remain understudied. Core data from the middle Miocene Zhujiang Formation in the Pearl River Mouth Basin allow us to differentiate reworked turbidites, yielding two main contributions. Firstly, reworked turbidites are distinguished from turbidites by the association of traction structures and tidal signatures, which occur in discrete units rather than forming a classic "Bouma Sequence" for turbidites. Sedimentological characteristics of reworked turbidites proposed here will help to obtain a robust set of diagnostic criteria for the recognition of deep-water non-turbidite deepwater units as reservoirs. Secondly, our results suggest that, in the down-slope direction, classic detritus carried in turbidity flows would synchronously be bidirectionally reworked by internal tides and waves, resulting in tidal signatures seen in the interpreted reworked turbidites. In the along-slope direction, upper parts of dilute turbidity currents would mix vertically with seawater, and muddy fines would be winnowed away by contour currents, whereas lower parts of dilute turbidity currents would probably drop their coarse particles, resulting in traction structures recognized in the documented reworked turbidites. Our work highlights the influence of bottom currents on the development and modification of turbidites and suggests that reworked turbidites were created by the combined action of down-slope transport and reworking and along-slope winnowing and sorting, helping to better understand flow processes and genesis of non-turbidite reservoirs with a great economic interest.

  7. Impact of atmospheric and oceanic conditions on the frequency and genesis location of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific in 2004 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pan; Zhu, Jiang; Zhong, Zhong; Qi, Linlin; Wang, Xiaodan

    2016-05-01

    This study examines the impact of atmospheric and oceanic conditions during May-August of 2004 and 2010 on the frequency and genesis location of tropical cyclones over the western North Pacific. Using the WRF model, four numerical experiments were carried out based on different atmospheric conditions and SST forcing. The numerical experiments indicated that changes in atmospheric and oceanic conditions greatly affect tropical cyclone activity, and the roles of atmospheric conditions are slightly greater than oceanic conditions. Specifically, the total number of tropical cyclones was found to be mostly affected by atmospheric conditions, while the distribution of tropical cyclone genesis locations was mainly related to oceanic conditions, especially the distribution of SST. In 2010, a warmer SST occurred west of 140°E, with a colder SST east of 140°E. On the one hand, the easterly flow was enhanced through the effect of the increase in the zonal SST gradient. The strengthened easterly flow led to an anomalous boundary layer divergence over the region to the east of 140°E, which suppressed the formation of tropical cyclones over this region. On the other hand, the colder SST over the region to the east of 140°E led to a colder low-level air temperature, which resulted in decreased CAPE and static instability energy. The decrease in thermodynamic energy restricted the generation of tropical cyclones over the same region.

  8. Petrography, Geochemistry and Proposed Genesis of Ordovician Oolitic Iron Formation Members of the Lashkarak Formation, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoore Maghsoudloo Mahalli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oolitic iron formations are sedimentary rocks with >5 vol.% oolites and >15 wt.% iron, corresponding to 21.4 wt.% Fe2O3 (Young, 1989; Petranek and Van Houten, 1997; Mucke and Farshad, 2005. In Iran, new iron oolite-bearing members have been identified in the Lashkarak Formation (lower-middle Ordovician in the Abarsej, Dehmola and Simehkuh sections, eastern Alborz (Ghobadi Pour et al., 2011. At present, the mineralogy and geochemistry of these members are not known. Consequently, research reported here was conducted to reveal the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of Ordovician oolitic iron formationmembers and to discuss their genesis and economic importance. Materials and Analyses Field geology and sampling was carried out to collect 25 samples from the ooliticiron formation members in the Abarsej, Dehmola and Simehkuh section in eastern Alborz. Samples were prepared for polished-thin sections (n=10, XRD analysis (n=15. Whole-rock chemical analysis (n=15 by XRF for major elements and by ICP-ES for trace elements was performed by laboratories at the SarCheshmeh copper mine complex, Kerman, Iran. One sample was analyzed by SEM at the Wales Museum, UK. Results Microscopic studies show that the oolitic iron formation members are hosted by carbonate argillite rocks. They are mainly composed of oolites rather than pisoliths (small bodies somewhat larger and more irregular than oolites, whereas oolites have mainly ellipsoidal forms and locally spherical shapes. Most (6 oolites show banding with a central core. Simple oolites without a core are scarce. Mineralogically, oolites are mainly chamositic and hematitic in composition; goethite, pyrite and glauconite occur in traces and siderite is absent. Quartz, calcite and zircon are accessory minerals which are present in the groundmass. Geochemically, TFeO % of the oolitic iron formation horizons ranges from 8 to 48 % with an average of 21%. The CaO content ranges from 2 to 37% and

  9. The study of major, trace and rare earth elements geochemistry in Shahrestanak Mn deposit, south of Qom: Implications for genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Shahrestanak Mn deposit is located in southern Qom province, 12 km southwest of the city of Kahak. Based on geological-structural divisions of Iran, the deposit belongs to central volcanic belt or Urumieh-Dokhtar zone. The Venarch deposit is one the most important known manganese deposits in Iran. The Sharestanak and Venarch deposits are spatially and temporally related to each other, and have similar geology, mineral texture and structure, host rocks, relationships with faults, and depositional environment. So, their magmatism and deposition conditions can be related to each other. Since no systematic study on the Shahrestanak deposit had been performed before discussing its geological and geochemical characteristics, here it is being attempted to study the geology, petrography, geochemistry of major, minor and trace elements, and Rare Earth Elements (REE of ore, to distinguish the depositional environments and genesis of this deposit and to compare REE of ore in this deposit with other deposits. Sampling and method of study Fourteen samples of manganese ore were selected for geochemical study and analyzing of major, minor, trace elements and REE by ICP-AES and ICP-MS and were sent to SGS Co., Toronto. Detection limits for major elements and trace elements are 0.01% and 0.05ppm, respectively. Result and discussion The deposit is characterized by various lithology and stratigraphy units, consist of: 1 Middle to -Upper Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks, 2 Oligocene lower red conglomerate and sandstone, 3 Oligo-Miocene limestone and marl (Qom Formation, and 4 Eocene and Lower Miocene basic to intermediate dykes. The most abundant minerals of the deposit are braunite, hausmannite, pyrolusite, and manganite. Evidences such as high Mn/Fe (11.33 and Si/Al (4.86 ratios, low contents of trace elements specially Co (11.40 ppm, Ni (24 ppm, Cu (81.85 ppm, and Ce, with high amounts of SiO2, Mn, Fe, Ba, Zn, As and Sr, all represent

  10. Emotional genesis of philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyugashev E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the specificity of philosophy is considered as a path to spiritual-practical mastering of the world. The spiritual-practical structure of philosophy includes philosophic practice and philosophic consciousness. The latter actualizes in the forms of philosophic thinking and sensory-emotional reflection of reality. Philosophical sensuality has a wide range of manifestations, but its specificity is defined by the emotion of wonder. Wonder is a primal, basic emotion. Fear, curiosity (interest, joy and a number of other emotions also belong to the category of basic emotions. In religious studies the ’theory of fear’ attributes the origin of religion to experience of fear. In psychology of emotion the curiosity is considered as a source of cognitive interest and scientific cognition. Appropriately, it may be possible to propose the ‘theory of curiosity’ and the ‘theory of wonder’ to explain the origin of science and philosophy. In the context of the theories the science and the religion differ in their emotional sources from the philosophy. The status of wonder as a basic emotion defines the emotional sovereignty of philosophy, its independence from other ways of spiritual-practical mastering of the world. Author demonstrates the incapacity of interpretations of doubt and suffering (despair as emotional origins of philosophy. Doubt as uncertainty is a derivative of faith and lacks the status of basic emotion. The suffering is an emotional tone of every sensation, a pair of the emotional tone of pleasure. It is impossible to consider the suffering as an origin of philosophy due to both the effect of twoness of pleasure and suffering and their status of emotional tones. In addition, suffering (despair is an affect, the repetition and accumulation of which conduces to the emotional discharge, an affective explosion. Therefore, they cannot be the sources of cognitive motion. The cognitive potential of wonder is defined by its character as positive emotion allowing for accumulation of ‘wonder points’. The wonder discovers cognitive dissonance and stimulates the cognition by means of expanding the subject field of philosophy and stating new questions.

  11. Genesis of spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Valery V

    2013-01-01

    Enigmatic spiral structure of many galaxies and its huge orbital momentum originated due to the capture of lightweight bare black hole by gravity of heavy primordial gas cloud at large impact parameter. The rotating of black hole caused the formation of accretion disc from the cloud and the transfer of orbital momentum to the disc, while during the fall to the center of mass, the spiral trace of black hole in the disc did create the spiral front line of sound waves in the gas, that further evolved into the stellar spiral arms. This mechanism opens the way to study features of spiral galaxy formation, say, an influence and a significance of dark matter in this process.

  12. 现代Genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    现代公司终于在北美车展期间推出了Genesis车型的量产版本,Genesis作为现代的高端车型,把竞争对手指向了奔驰E级、宝马5系和雷克萨斯GS等强手,早在2007年纽约车展上Genesis的概念车型即已亮相,而国内市场的首次露面则是在2007年的广州车展,并在车展上发布了“劳恩斯”的中文名称。新款Genesis会在2008年年中开始销售。

  13. Big Bounce Genesis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Changhong; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E

    2014-01-01

    We report on the possibility to use dark matter mass and its interaction cross section as a smoking gun signal of the existence of a big bounce at the early stage in the evolution of our currently observed universe. A model independent study of dark matter production in the contraction and expansion phases of the bounce universe reveals a new venue for achieving the observed relic abundance in which a significantly smaller amount of dark matter--compared to the standard cosmology--is produced and survives until today, diluted only by the cosmic expansion since the radiation dominated era. Once DM mass and its interaction strength with ordinary matter are determined by experiments, this alternative route becomes a signature of the bounce universe scenario.

  14. Genesis of social entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulothungan, Gladius

    – grants, donations and revenue streams generated by business activities and 4/ they seldom act alone but work within an organizational context. GK has done a number of English and Danish empirical case studies of different social enterprises and beginning the analyses of these.......The PhD thesis has a research subject and focus attempting to develop a sociological analysis of a form of social action in the shape of social entrepreneurship defined as a problem solving initiative. The thesis explores what kind of situations and circumstances – both external, in terms...... as social entrepreneurship - to social issues/problems. Social entrepreneurship has been conceptualized as innovative initiatives with a social mission to solve social problems. The research questions are: How does social entrepreneurship emerge? What are the triggers? – including a theoretical...

  15. The Genesis of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    2004-01-01

     This paper aims to offer a framework of interpreting the “evolution” of capitalism that is reaching every corner of the world and has achieved greater legitimacy than at any time in human history. It covers an interdisciplinary discussion on the development of market capitalism that has been...... characterized by a dual process: unanticipated origin (cultural and historical) and anticipated progress (political economy). The point of departure of this paper is that although the advancement of market capitalism is a process of societal development involving historical, cultural and religious causes...... (historical, divine, spiritual, miraculous), the establishment of capitalism is less the result of a force for cultural and economic dynamism than the realization of a political project. In other words, from being an enterprise within defined geographical boundaries to becoming a global project is first...

  16. Domes, Ash and Dust - Controls on soil genesis in a montane catchment of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, C.; Meding, S. M.; Vazquez, A.; Chorover, J.

    2012-12-01

    Soil genesis in volcanic terrain may be controlled by complex assemblages of parent materials and local topography. The objective of this work was to quantify topographic and parent material controls on soil and catchment evolution in a mixed conifer, montane catchment in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, as part of the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory. The field site is a 16 ha catchment at an elevation of 3,000 m, with a frigid soil temperature regime (0-8 *C), ustic soil moisture regime with bimodal precipitation of winter snowfall and convective summer rainfall (880 mm yr-1), and an overstory dominated by spruce and fir with dense grass cover in open areas. The catchment is located on the resurgent Redondo Dome that uplifted shortly after the last major eruption of the Valles Caldera 1.2 My ago. The dome includes a complex assemblage of pre-eruptive caldera materials and extant sedimentary rocks embedded within a welded, hydrothermally altered rhyolitic tuff. We sampled a transect of seven soil profiles spanning the dominant east-west aspect of the catchment across a catena with profiles located in summit, backslope, footslope, and toeslope positions. Soil morphology was described in the field and soil samples analyzed using a range of geochemical and mineralogical techniques including quantitative and qualitative x-ray diffraction of bulk samples and particle size fractions, elemental analysis by x-ray fluorescence, and laser particle size analysis. The data indicated strong landscape position control on soil drainage, grading from well-drained summits to poorly-drained toeslope positions based on the presence/absence of redoximorphic features. The drainage patterns were coupled with downslope thickening of dark, organic matter rich surface horizons, likely a function of both in situ organic matter production and downslope colluvial transport of carbon rich surface materials. Mineralogical and geochemical data indicated clear within profile lithologic

  17. Early warning of freshwater salinization due to upward brine displacement by species transport simulations combined with a hydrochemical genesis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Maria; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Shallow groundwater resources could be possibly affected by intruding brines, which are displaced along hydraulically conductive faults as result of subsurface activities like CO2 injection. To avoid salinization of potable freshwater aquifers an early detection of intruding saline water is necessary, especially in regions where an initial geogenic salinization already exists. Our study is based on work of Tillner et al. [1] and Langer et al. [2] who investigated the influence of permeable fault systems on brine displacement for the prospective storage site Beeskow-Birkholz in the Northeast German Basin. With a 3D regional scale model considering the deep groundwater system, they demonstrated that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinization of shallower aquifers strongly depends on the effective damage zone volume, the initial salinity distribution and overlying reservoirs [2], while permeability of fault zones does not influence salinization of shallower aquifers significantly [1]. Here we extracted a 2D cross section regarding the upper 220 m of the study area mainly represented by shallow freshwater aquifers, but also considering an initial geogenic salinization [3]. We took flow rates of the intruding brines from the previous studies [2] and implemented species transport simulations with the program code SHEMAT [4]. Results are investigated and interpreted with the hydrochemical genesis model GEBAH [5] which has been already applied as early warning of saltwater intrusions into freshwater aquifers and surface water [6]. GEBAH allows a categorization of groundwater by the ion ratios of the dissolved components and offers a first indicative determination for an existence and the intensity of saline water intrusion in shallow groundwater aquifer, independent of the concentration of the solution. With our model we investigated the migration of saline water through a

  18. Genesis of economic relevant fresh groundwater resources in Pleistocene/ Neogene aquifers in Nam Dinh (Red River Delta, Vietnam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F.; Ludwig, R. R.; Noell, U.; Hoang, H. V.; Pham, N. Q.; Larsen, F.; Lindenmaier, F.

    2012-04-01

    In the Southern Red River Delta (Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam), a local lens of low saline pore water of high quality has been identified in unconsolidated Pleistocene and Neogene aquifers, which are regionally known to contain brackish and saline pore waters. Since the 1990ies, ongoing overexploitation of the fresh groundwater results in decreasing GW heads up to 0.6 m/a and the development of a regional abstraction cone. The presented study focuses on distribution and genesis of fresh and saline pore waters and reflects the results in frame of the regional hydrogeological context. Observations of the geological structure and groundwater dynamics combined with hydrochemical and isotopic studies suggest adjacent Triassic hard rock aquifers as the major source for fresh Pleistocene and Neogene groundwater. Salinization status in the economically most relevant Pleistocene aquifer has been studied based on archive and new hydrochemical and geophysical data. Own hydrochemical field studies as well as laboratory measurements of the specific resistivity of dry sediment samples allow the translation of induction logging data from existing monitoring wells into vertical pore water salinity profiles. This approach suggests the regional occurrence of saline pore water in shallow Holocene sediments in the working area, as confirmed by pore water studies in Hoan et al. (2010). Interpretation of induction logging and stable isotope data suggest vertical diffusion of saline pore water in shallow Holocene sediments as a source for high saline pore water in deeper aquifers. Analytical diffusion modeling for a period of 3000 years confirms that vertical diffusion of Holocene paleo-sea water can explain saline pore water in Pleistocene and Neogene aquifers in a stagnant environment. The constant influx of fresh groundwater from adjacent Triassic hard rocks results in flushing of the primary Pleistocene and Neogene pore water and inhibits the infiltration of saline water from marine

  19. Nitrogen isotopes in the recent solar wind from the analysis of genesis targets: evidence for large scale isotope heterogeneity in the nascent solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marty, Bernard [INSU-CNRS; Zimmermann, Laurent [INSU-CNRS; Burnard, Peter G [INSU-CNRS; Burnett, Donald L [CALTECH; Heber, Veronika S [ETH ZURICH; Wieler, Rainer [ETH ZURICH; Bochsler, Peter [UNIV OV BERN

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen, the fifth most abundant element in the universe, displays the largest stable isotope variations in the solar system reservoirs after hydrogen. Yet the value of isotopic composition of solar nitrogen, presumably the best proxy of the protosolar nebula composition, is not known. Nitrogen isotopes trapped in Genesis spacecraft target material indicate a 40 % depletion of {sup 15}N in solar wind N relative to inner planets and meteorites, and define a composition for the present-day Sun undistinguishable from that of Jupiter's atmosphere. These results indicate that the isotopic composition of of nitrogen in the outer convective zone of the Sun (OCZ) has not changed through time, and is representative of the protosolar nebula. Large {sup 15}N enrichments during e.g., irradiation, or contributions from {sup 15}N-rich presolar components, are required to account for planetary values.

  20. Genesis of Ultra-High Pressure Garnet Pyroxenite in Orogenic Peridotites and its bearing on the Isotopic Chemical Heterogeneity in the Mantle Source of Oceanic Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; Bosch, Delphine; Hidas, Károly

    2017-04-01

    The genesis of ultra-high pressure (UHP) garnet pyroxenites in orogenic peridotite massifs and its implications on the formation of chemical heterogeneities in the mantle and on basalt petrogenesis are still not fully understood. Some UHP (diamond-bearing) garnet pyroxenites have isotopic, and major and trace element compositions similar to the recycled oceanic crustal component observed in oceanic basalts [1-6]. These pyroxenites hence provide an exceptional opportunity to investigate in situ the nature and scale of the Earth's mantle chemical heterogeneities. Here, we present an integrated geochemical study of UHP garnet pyroxenites from the Ronda (Betic Belt, S. Spain) and Beni Bousera (Rif Belt, N. Morocco) peridotite massifs. This investigation encompasses, in the same sample, bulk rock major and trace elements, as well as Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic analyses. According to their Al2O3 content, we classify UHP garnet pyroxenites into three groups that have distinct trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic signatures. Group A pyroxenites (Al2O3: 15 - 17.5 wt. %) are characterized by low initial 87Sr/86Sr, relatively high 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb and 176Hf/177Hf ratios, and highly variable 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios. Group B pyroxenites (Al2O3 intimately mixed with peridotites by mantle convection. The present study reveals, however, that besides this exotic component of ancient recycled oceanic crust, the genesis of these pyroxenites requires a previously unnoticed component of recycled lower continental crust akin to the lower crustal section of the lithosphere where these UHP garnet pyroxenites now reside in. The results of this study provide a new recipe for the marble cake hypothesis for the genesis of UHP garnet pyroxenites in orogenic peridotites. Furthermore, it establishes a connection between the genesis of UHP pyroxenites, the composition of the continental crust and the generation of Earth's mantle heterogeneities. References: [1] Pearson, D. G

  1. Discovery of Cu-Zn, Cu-Sn intermetallic minerals and its significance for genesis of the Mianning-Dechang REE Metallogenic Belt, Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yuling; HOU Zengqian; XU Jiuhua; YUAN Zhongxin; BAI Ge; LI Xiaoyu

    2006-01-01

    Mianning-Dechang Himalayan REE Metallogenetic Belt in Sichuan Province lies along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton. We have conducted detailed mineralogical studies on ore minerals collected from Maoniuping and Dalucao, the two largest deposits in the belt. With optical microscope, SEM/EDS, and EPMA, three rare intermetallic minerals, i.e., zinccopperite (Cu2Zn), Sn- bearing native copper, and Cu-bearing jupiter were found to occur in the main ore along with barite, fluorite, apatite, sulfide and bastnaesite. Since the conditions under which zinccopperite and Sn- bearing native copper formed are quite unique, finding of these minerals, for the first time in domestic REE deposits, has significant implications for the genesis of the ore deposits in which they occur. In comparison with Cu-Zn intermetallic minerals in other occurrences, we propose that the formation of this REE metallogenetic belt is associated with fast upwelling of the Himalayan magma from deep source.

  2. Genesis Analysis of High-Gamma Ray Sandstone Reservoir and Its Log Evaluation Techniques: A Case Study from the Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Junggar basin, northwest China, many high gamma-ray (GR sandstone reservoirs are found and routinely interpreted as mudstone non-reservoirs, with negative implications for the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. Then, the high GR sandstone reservoirs’ recognition principles, genesis, and log evaluation techniques are systematically studied. Studies show that the sandstone reservoirs with apparent shale content greater than 50% and GR value higher than 110API can be regarded as high GR sandstone reservoir. The high GR sandstone reservoir is mainly and directly caused by abnormally high uranium enrichment, but not the tuff, feldspar or clay mineral. Affected by formation’s high water sensitivity and poor borehole quality, the conventional logs can not recognize reservoir and evaluate the physical property of reservoirs. Then, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR logs is proposed and proved to be useful in reservoir recognition and physical property evaluation.

  3. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in genesis of severe shock%线粒体功能不全在重症休克发生中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴民; 赵克森

    2013-01-01

    The high mortality is a leading element of human health that follows severe shock even after blood transfusion and other anti - shock thERαpy. Therefore, to find out the mechanism of high mortality in severe shock is very critical. As a hotspot in recent years, mitochondrial function has important value in the genesis of many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and so on. Mitochondrial dysfunction often takes place in relation to the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore with in-tracellular low ATP content in severe shock. The consequence of intracellular low ATP content may lead to the dysfunction of various organs with difficult treatment of severe shock. Therefore, protection against mitochondrial damage is a novel approach for treatment of severe shock. This article summarizes the concept, pathogenesis, detection variables and treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction in severe shock.

  4. Validation and Verification of the Correct Operation of the Thermo Fisher Scientific’s Genesys 10S spectrometer used in ANC122 and NF-ANC122

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-19

    In December of 2015, the old qualified Prim UV-Vis instrument used in the ANC122 and NFANC122 procedures failed its monthly calibration check. Attempts to get the system to pass by cleaning flow cells, replacing the light bulb and realigning the light path failed to get sustained reproducible results from the system. As it could no longer pass QA/QC requirements the decision to take it out of service was made. To replace the system, a previously purchased Thermo Fisher Scientific UV-VIS spectrometer (model Genesys 10S; Serial #: 2L5R059137) was retrieved from storage. This report shows that the system is performing as required and meeting all QC requirements listed in ANC122 and NF-ANC122

  5. The Evolution of Multicomponent Systems at High Pressures: VI. The Thermodynamic Stability of the Hydrogen-Carbon System: The Genesis of Hydrocarbons and the Origin of Petroleum

    CERN Document Server

    Kenney, J F; Bendeliani, N A; Alekseev, V A; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Bendeliani, Nikolai A.; Alekseev, Vladimir A.

    2002-01-01

    The spontaneous genesis of hydrocarbons which comprise natural petroleum have been analyzed by chemical thermodynamic stability theory. The constraints imposed upon chemical evolution by the second law of thermodynamics are briefly reviewed; and the effective prohibition of transformation, in the regime of temperatures and pressures characteristic of the near-surface crust of the Earth, of biological molecules into hydrocarbon molecules heavier than methane is recognized. A general, first-principles equation of state has been developed by extending scaled particle theory (SPT) and by using the technique of the factored partition function of the Simplified Perturbed Hard Chain Theory (SPHCT). The chemical potentials, and the respective thermodynamic Affinity, have been calculated for typical components of the hydrogen-carbon (H-C) system over a range pressures between 1-100 kbar, and at temperatures consistent with those of the depths of the Earth at such pressures. The theoretical analyses establish that the ...

  6. On the Fractal Mechanism of Interrelation Between the Genesis, Size and Composition of Atmospheric Particulate Matters in Different Regions of the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Rusov, Vitaliy D; Jacimovic, Radojko R; Pavlovich, Vladimir N; Bondarchuk, Yuriy A; Vaschenko, Vladimir N; Zelentsova, Tatiana N; Beglaryan, Margarita E; Linnik, Elena P; Smolyar, Vladimir P; Kosenko, Sergey I; Gudyma, Alla A

    2011-01-01

    Experimental data from the National Air Surveillance Network of Japan from 1974 to 1996 and from independent measurements performed simultaneously in the regions of Ljubljana (Slovenia), Odessa (Ukraine) and the Ukrainian "Academician Vernadsky" Antarctic station (64{\\deg}15'W; 65{\\deg}15'S), where the air elemental composition was determined by the standard method of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) collection on nucleopore filters and subsequent neutron activation analysis, were analyzed. Comparative analysis of different pairs of atmospheric PM element concentration data sets, measured in different regions of the Earth, revealed a stable linear (on a logarithmic scale) correlation, showing a power law increase of every atmospheric PM element mass and simultaneously the cause of this increase - fractal nature of atmospheric PM genesis. Within the framework of multifractal geometry we show that the mass (volume) distribution of atmospheric PM elemental components is a log normal distribution, which on a l...

  7. Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Experiment 1: implementation strategy and mid-Pliocene global climatology using GENESIS v3.0 GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, S. J.; Deconto, R. M.; Pollard, D.

    2012-01-01

    The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (3.29 to 2.97 Ma BP) has been identified as an analogue for the future, with the potential to help understand climate processes in a warmer than modern world. Sets of climate proxies, combined to provide boundary conditions for Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations of the mid-Pliocene, form the basis for the international, data-driven Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). Here, we outline the strategy for implementing pre-industrial (modern) and mid-Pliocene forcings and boundary conditions into the GENESIS version 3 GCM, as part of PlioMIP. We describe the prescription of greenhouse gas concentrations and orbital parameters and the implementation of geographic boundary conditions such as land-ice-sea distribution, topography, sea surface temperatures, sea ice extent, vegetation, soils, and ice sheets. We further describe model-specific details including spin-up and integration times. In addition, the global climatology of the mid-Pliocene as simulated by the GENESIS v3 GCM is analyzed and compared to the pre-industrial control simulation. The simulated climate of the mid-Pliocene warm interval is found to differ considerably from pre-industrial. We identify model sensitivity to imposed forcings, and internal feedbacks that collectively affect both local and far-field responses. Our analysis points out the need to assess both the direct impacts of external forcings and the combined effects of indirect, internal feedbacks. This paper provides the basis for assessing model biases within the PlioMIP framework, and will be useful for comparisons with other studies of mid-Pliocene climates.

  8. Delayed onset of changes in soma action potential genesis in nociceptive A-beta DRG neurons in vivo in a rat model of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry James L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical data on osteoarthritis (OA suggest widespread changes in sensory function that vary during the progression of OA. In previous studies on a surgically-induced animal model of OA we have observed that changes in structure and gene expression follow a variable trajectory over the initial days and weeks. To investigate mechanisms underlying changes in sensory function in this model, the present electrophysiological study compared properties of primary sensory nociceptive neurons at one and two months after model induction with properties in naïve control animals. Pilot data indicated no difference in C- or Aδ-fiber associated neurons and therefore the focus is on Aβ-fiber nociceptive neurons. Results At one month after unilateral derangement of the knee by cutting the anterior cruciate ligament and removing the medial meniscus, the only changes observed in Aβ-fiber dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons were in nociceptor-like unresponsive neurons bearing a hump on the repolarization phase; these changes consisted of longer half width, reflecting slowed dynamics of AP genesis, a depolarized Vm and an increased AP amplitude. At two months, changes observed were in Aβ-fiber high threshold mechanoreceptors, which exhibited shorter AP duration at base and half width, shorter rise time and fall time, and faster maximum rising rate/maximum falling rate, reflecting accelerated dynamics of AP genesis. Conclusion These data indicate that Aβ nociceptive neurons undergo significant changes that vary in time and occur later than changes in structure and in nociceptive scores in this surgically induced OA model. Thus, if changes in Aβ-fiber nociceptive neurons in this model reflect a role in OA pain, they may relate to mechanisms underlying pain associated with advanced OA.

  9. Study of genesis in Qahr-Abad fluorite deposit using fluid inclusion, southeast of Saqqez, the Kurdistan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Barati

    2017-07-01

    . Discussion Thermometric investigations indicate that homogenization temperatures for primary and pseudo secondary fluid inclusions in all fluorite types range from 155 to 245°C with an average of 187°C. Gas phase changes to liquid phase in the homogenization processes. The degree of fillings in most inclusions are more than 90%. -23 to -18 °C with an average of -20.7°C. There are eutectic temperatures in the freezing method and calculated salinity is 30.8 wt% NaCl equivalents in terms of the H2O-CO2-NaCl system. The Bernoulli Effect has occurred in this resource (Barnes, 1998. Isothermal mixing, boiling, surface fluid dilution and depressurization are four processes that have effects on the mineralization in this resource (Wilkinson, 2001. Finally we think, Qahr -abad fluorite deposit has been prepared by hydrothermal to epithermal processes and fluids have basin origin (fossil waters (Tajoddyn, et al, 2010 and the orebody has precipitated from this fluid, when it was mixed with cold surface waters. References Barnes, H.L., 1998. Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits. John Wiley & Sons, Malaysia, 972 pp. Kholghi Khasraghi, M.H., 1999. Geological map of Irankhah. Scale 1:100,000. Geological Survey of Iran. Moslehi, M., 2013. The study of fluid inclusion and geochemistry of Qahr-Abad Soliman deposit in Kurdistan province. M.Sc. Thesis, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran, 142 pp. (in Persian with English abstract Tajoddyn, H., Rastad, A., Yaghobpour, A. and Mohajel, M., 2010. The genesis of Barica Gold massive sulfide deposit, east of Sardasht, NW of metamorphic Sanandaj –Sirjan zone base on structure, texture and micro thermometric studies. Journal of Economic Geology, 2(1: 97-118. (in Persian Talaii, B., 2010. The study of mineralogy and geochemistry of Qahr-Abad fluorite deposit, SE of Sagez city, Kurdistan province. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Uromieh, Uromieh, Iran, 119 pp. (in Persian with English abstract Wilkinson, J.J., 2001. Fluid inclusions in

  10. A New Model for the Genesis of Natural Gases--Multi-source Overlap, Multi-stage Continuity, Type Controlled by Main Source and Nomenclature by Main Stage (Ⅰ)--Multi-source Overlap and Type Controlled by Main Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永昌; 沈平

    1994-01-01

    Based on the geochemical studies of natural gases in the past ten years in China, the authors have proposed a new model for their genesis--multi-source overlap, multi-stage continuity, main source-controlling type and nomenclature by the main stage.Multi-source refers to a diversity of material sources involved in the formation of natural gases, including abiogenic and biogenic material sources. In regard to biogenic sources, either oil-generating or coal-generating organic matter would produce gaseous hydrocarbon reservoirs of commercial importance. Generally, natural gases originating from these sources can overlap to form gas reservoirs. Under specific circumstances mantle-source abiogenic gases could overlap biogenic gases to form gas reservoirs. In nature, natural gases predominated by gaseous hydrocarbons may be formed from a single end-member source. However, multi-source overlap is more typical of the genesis of natural gases.

  11. The influence of Ryukyu subduction on magma genesis in the Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone and Middle Okinawa Trough - Evidence from boron isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Ju-Lien; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Lung

    2016-09-01

    Boron (B) is an excellent geochemical tracer for investigating crustal recycling processes at convergent margins, due to its high fluid mobility under high P-T conditions, distinct elemental abundances and isotopic compositions in the mantle wedge and subducting slabs. The Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone (NTVZ), wherein the nature of magma genesis has long been a topic of debate, is located at the rear side of the Okinawa Trough (OT), an atypical back-arc rift in the Ryukyu subduction system. In this study, B and B isotopes (δ11B) were measured in 19 volcanic rocks collected from the NTVZ and the middle Okinawa Trough (MOT) to assess the influence of the Ryukyu subduction system on magma genesis. The B concentrations in the MOT and NTVZ volcanic rocks are 5.8 to 13.6 mg/L and 2.2 to 48.6 mg/L, respectively. The large B abundances variation in the NTVZ was caused mainly by variable degrees of partial melting. The Nb/B and δ11B in the MOT have small ranges of 0.5 to 0.6 and - 2.7‰ to 0.2‰, respectively, whereas they range widely from 0.4 to 2.5 and from - 8.6‰ to 2.4‰, respectively in the NTVZ. These Nb/B values suggest that the magma contains a smaller subduction component than that normally observed in arcs, although this component is still more substantial than in a typical back-arc setting. The δ11B results indicate insignificant influence of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate at 2.6 Ma, but it becomes more substantial later in the NTVZ. The mixing proportions of sediment derived fluids in onshore volcanoes in the NTVZ imply a rather heterogeneous mantle wedge near the plate boundary, most likely due to either a heterogeneous source of slab derived fluids or more complicated mantle flow. A substantial B flux from the subducting slab in the incipient back-arc rifting in the MOT and NTVZ may reflect characteristics of a cold, steep and fast subducting slab, which may be capable of carrying volatiles efficiently into greater depth in subduction zones. The

  12. Genesis Model of Laozishan Geothermal Field, Subei Basin%苏北盆地老子山地热田成因模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨峰田; 庞忠和; 王彩会; 段忠丰; 罗璐; 李义曼

    2012-01-01

    老子山地热田是苏北盆地的典型地热田之一,阐明其成因模式对于该地热田的进一步开发和热水资源的可持续利用具有一定的指导意义.基于大地热流测试和水文地球化学方法对其进行了系统研究.结果表明:该区大地热流背景值为63.9 mW/m2,地热水与浅层地下水和地表水之间在水化学和同位素组成上存在明显差异.经分析,该地热系统属于中低温对流型.其补给区位于距地热田南部约60 km处的盱眙-张八岭一带的丘陵地区,热储温度为73~120℃,循环深度为2 350~4 200m,循环周期约为7 800 a,热水在区内NNE—SSW向与NW—SE向断裂的交汇处上涌,形成地热田.%Laozishan is a typical geothermal field in Subei Basin. We conducted a systematic study to explore into the genesis mechanism through heat flow measurement and hydrogeochemical investigation, for the purpose of further exploration and sustainable use of the geothermal resources. Results show that the background heat flow is 63. 9 mW/m2, and the hydrochemical and isotopic compositions of the thermal water are different from those of the shallow groundwater and surface water. Based on these data, the genesis model of the geothermal field has been postulated to be a low-medium temperature geothermal system of convective type. The recharge area is located in the Zhangbaling to the Xuyi mountain chain with a distance of about 60 km to the south of the geothermal field. The reservoir temperature of the geothermal field has been estimated to be 73 - 120 ℃ , with a water circulation depth of 2350-4200 m. The water age is about 7800 a. The thermal water flows upward in Laozishan area in the intersection zones of the faults striking NNE - SSW and NW - SE.

  13. Mineralization characteristics and genesis of Chaganregegou copper mine%查干热各沟铜矿成矿特征及成因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学俊; 路耀祖; 马青莲; 雷延军

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the genesis of mining areas, we studied the mineralization geological background,litho-geochemistry and the ore body characteristics,ore character,ore-bearing hori-zon,spatial distribution of copper ore body. Copper is distributed mainly along intermediate -acid intrusive rocks in contact with the inner and outer zone of Variscan,and occurs in ultrabasic rocks, volcanic rocks and late siliceous veins in the fault zone. The ore body is mainly controlled by Mae-rzheng group slate containing phyllite and spilite,intrusive rocks and surrounding rock contact zone and fault structure. Genesis of the ore body is magma liquation injection type and volcanic sedimenta-ry-hydrothermal superimposed transformation type. According to the analysis of ore -controlling factors and prospecting indicators,The copper mine area has potential exploration.%为探讨查干热各沟铜矿矿区的矿床成因,预测找矿前景,通过对矿区成矿地质背景、地球化学特征及铜矿体的矿体特征、矿石特征、赋矿层位、空间展布等方面的研究,认为该区铜矿体主要沿华力西期中酸性侵入岩的内外接触带分布,赋存于超基性岩体、火山岩及断层破碎带内的后期硅质脉体中,受超基性岩体、火山岩及断层破碎带控制,超基性岩体中主要形成岩浆熔离贯入型铜矿,细碧岩及附近断层破碎带内主要形成火山沉积-热液叠加改造型铜矿,其成因类型有岩浆熔离贯入型和火山沉积-热液叠加改造型。根据矿床的控矿因素、找矿标志的分析,该矿区具一定的找矿潜力。

  14. Genesis of andesitic boninitic magmas at mid-ocean ridges by melting of hydrated peridotites: Geochemical evidence from DSDP Site 334 gabbronorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnotte, Philippe; Ceuleneer, Georges; Benoit, Mathieu

    2005-08-01

    The gabbronoritic cumulates drilled at DSDP Site 334 (Mid-Atlantic Ridge off the FAMOUS area) are neither crystallization products of the associated basalts, nor from any MORB composition documented along ocean ridges. Their parent melts are richer in SiO 2 than MORB at a given MgO content, as attested by the crystallization sequence starting with an olivine + calcic and sub-calcic pyroxene assemblages. These melts are issued from a source highly depleted in incompatible elements, likely residual peridotite left after MORB extraction. To understand the role of water in the genesis of these lithologies whose occurrence in a mid-ocean ridge setting is rather puzzling, we performed a geochemical study on clinopyroxene separates following an analytical protocol able to remove the effects of water rock interactions post-dating their crystallization. Accordingly, the measured isotopic signatures can be used to trace magma sources. We find that Site 334 clinopyroxenes depart from the global mantle correlation: normal MORB values for the 143Nd / 144Nd ratio (0.51307-0.51315) are associated to highly radiogenic 87Sr / 86Sr (0.7034-0.7067) ratios. This indicates that the parent melts of Site 334 cumulates are issued from a MORB source but that seawater contamination occurred at some stage of their genesis. The extent of contamination, traced by the Sr isotopic signature, is variable within all cumulates but more developed for gabbronorites sensus stricto, suggesting that seawater introduction was a continuous process during all the magmatic evolution of the system, from partial melting to fractional crystallization. Simple masse balance calculations are consistent with a contaminating agent having the characters of a highly hydrated (possibly water saturated) silica-rich melt depleted in almost all incompatible major, minor and trace elements relative to MORB. Mixing in various proportions of contaminated melts similar to the parent melts of Site 334 cumulates with MORB can

  15. Experimental rage: the development of medical ethics and the genesis of scientific facts. Ludwik Fleck: an answer to the crisis of modern medicine in interwar Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonah, Christian

    2002-08-01

    In 1930, the large-scale introduction of the BCG vaccination in the city of Lübeck in northern Germany led to a major scandal that focused public attention on medical experimentation with human beings as well as reviving criticism of the medical profession that had been voiced before. The trial following the catastrophe raised the first clearly identifiable public discussions on medical ethics in Europe, and led to the establishment of the first regulations for medical research on human beings in the western hemisphere; the German 'Richtlinien' of 1931. In 1935, Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961) published a now classic monograph entitled Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact. The central hypothesis of this article is that, when Fleck published his book four years after the Lübeck trial, he was proposing answers to questions raised, at least partially, by the Lübeck case, although he never explicitly mentions it. Most interestingly, Fleck proposed a different approach to the fundamental dilemma of modern experimental medicine, the potential opposition between an individual's well-being, and the production and application of scientific knowledge in medicine. Where the standard answer to these questions has, since the 1930s, become moral reasoning and ethical regulation, known today as bioethics, Fleck portrays a different approach that could be characterized as the attempt to foster a deeper and more democratic understanding of science through an examination of its intimate functioning.

  16. Evolution of the H9N2 influenza genotype that facilitated the genesis of the novel H7N9 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Juan; Wang, Shuoguo; Yin, Yanbo; Zhang, Guozhong; Carter, Robert A; Wang, Jinliang; Xu, Guanlong; Sun, Honglei; Wang, Min; Wen, Chu; Wei, Yandi; Wang, Dongdong; Zhu, Baoli; Lemmon, Gordon; Jiao, Yuannian; Duan, Susu; Wang, Qian; Du, Qian; Sun, Meng; Bao, Jinnan; Sun, Yipeng; Zhao, Jixun; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Gang; Liu, Jinhua; Webster, Robert G

    2015-01-13

    The emergence of human infection with a novel H7N9 influenza virus in China raises a pandemic concern. Chicken H9N2 viruses provided all six of the novel reassortant's internal genes. However, it is not fully understood how the prevalence and evolution of these H9N2 chicken viruses facilitated the genesis of the novel H7N9 viruses. Here we show that over more than 10 y of cocirculation of multiple H9N2 genotypes, a genotype (G57) emerged that had changed antigenicity and improved adaptability in chickens. It became predominant in vaccinated farm chickens in China, caused widespread outbreaks in 2010-2013 before the H7N9 viruses emerged in humans, and finally provided all of their internal genes to the novel H7N9 viruses. The prevalence and variation of H9N2 influenza virus in farmed poultry could provide an important early warning of the emergence of novel reassortants with pandemic potential.

  17. Natural versus anthropogenic genesis of mardels (closed depressions) on the Gutland plateau (Luxembourg); archaeometrical and palynological evidence of Roman clay excavation from mardels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; Braekmans, Dennis; Doorenbosch, Marieke; Kuijper, Wim; van der Plicht, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Mardels, small closed depressions, are distinctive landforms on the Luxembourger Gutland plateau. In the present landscape most mardels are shallow fens, filled with colluvial sediments. The genesis of mardels has been studied intensively, inside and outside Luxembourg. Some researchers suggested a natural development and consider mardels as subsidence basins due to subsurface solution of gypsum veins, other researchers suggested cultural causes and consider mardels as prehistorical quarries. In the Gutland, mardels occur on various substrates. Mardels on the Strassen marls (li3) are abandoned quarries, related to clay excavation in Roman Time. Mardels on the Luxembourger sandstone (li2) are sinkholes, related to joint patterns in the sandstone formation. Mardels on the Keuper marls (km1,3) are originally subsidence basins, related to subsurface dissolutions of gypsum lenses and veins, filled with colluvial clay. The results of pollen analysis and archaeometrical tests demonstrate Roman extraction of clay for the production of ancient ceramics. So, the natural depressions have been enlarged to the present mardels. After excavation, the sedimentation of colluvium restarted in the abandoned quarries.

  18. Genesis of Shengdequan geothermic resources in Jilin City%浅析吉林市圣德泉地热资源成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永城; 张璐; 杨益国

    2012-01-01

    吉林圣德泉生态园观光旅游区地处伊—舒地堑盆地中部,开发利用第三系砂岩-砂砾岩中的地下热水资源。该地区地热成因属于断裂构造和盆地增温复合型。目前大部分开采的地热田埋藏深度为950~2 000 m,储热层厚度200~300 m,日开采量200~300 m3,水温59~62℃,属于低温地下热水。%Jilin Shengdequan ecological park tourism zone is located in the middle part of Yitong-Shulan graben basin,developed and utilized underground hot-water resources of the Tertiary system sandstone gravel rock.The geothermic genesis in the region belongs to compound type of the fracture structure and basin warming.Most of the burial depth of current productive geothermal field is 950-2 000 m,the heat-storage reservoir depth 200 -300 m,daily yield 200 - 300 m3,water temperature 59~62℃,which belongs to low temperature geothermal hot water.

  19. Using the GENESYS model quantifying the effect of cropping systems on gene escape from GM rape varieties to evaluate and design cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colbach Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene flow in rapeseed is a process taking place both in space and over the years and cannot be studied exclusively by field trials. Consequently, the GENESYS model was developed to quantify the effects of cropping systems on transgene escape from rapeseed crops to rapeseed volunteers in neighbour plots and in the subsequent crops. In the present work, this model was used to evaluate the risk of rape harvest contamination by extraneous genes in various farming systems in case of co-existing GM, conventional and organic crops. When 50 % of the rape varieties in the region were transgenic, the rate of GM seeds in non-GM crop harvests on farms with large fields was lower than the 0.9 % purity threshold proposed by the EC for rape crop production (food and feed harvests, but on farms with smaller fields, the threshold was exceeded. Harvest impurity increased in organic farms, mainly because of their small field size. The model was then used to evaluate the consequences of changes in farming practices and to identify those changes reducing harvest contamination. The effects of these changes depended on the field pattern and farming system. The most efficient practices in limiting harvest impurity comprised improved set-aside management by sowing a cover crop in spring on all set-aside fields in the region, permanently banning rape crops and set-aside around seed production fields and (for non-GM farmers clustering farm fields to reduce gene inflow from neighbour fields.

  20. Golden age of RyR and GABA-R diamide and isoxazoline insecticides: common genesis, serendipity, surprises, selectivity, and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E

    2015-04-20

    The serendipitous observation of the insecticidal activity of a candidate herbicide was the first in a series of surprises that changed the course of insecticide research and opened the "Golden Age of Diamide and Isoxazoline Insecticides" which have a common genesis. Two novel modes of action were discovered, one involving the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor of the chloride channel and the other the ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the calcium-activated calcium channel. These are old insecticide targets, but physiological assays and radioligand binding studies reveal that the new diamides and isoxazolines act at previously unrecognized sites without cross-resistance to other chemotypes and more important differing between insects and mammals resulting in selective toxicity and mechanistically based safety. The phthalic diamide flubendiamide and anthranilic diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole act at an allosteric site of the RyR to activate calcium release in insects but not mammals. They are the most important insecticide introductions of the past decade. Isoxazoline and meta-diamide insecticides and their previously unrecognized GABA-R target are more recent discoveries. Isoxazolines are currently important in flea and tick control in dogs and cats, and meta-diamides show promise for pest management and crop protection. These 21st century RyR and GABA-R diamides and isoxazolines were serendipitous discoveries and developments showing the importance of mechanism studies in maintaining the arsenal of safe and effective insecticides.

  1. Variations in solar wind fractionation as seen by ACE/SWICS over a solar cycle and the implications for Genesis Mission results

    CERN Document Server

    Pilleri, P; Zurbuchen, T H; Lepri, S T; Shearer, P; Gilbert, J A; von Steiger, R; Wiens, R C

    2015-01-01

    We use ACE/SWICS elemental composition data to compare the variations in solar wind fractionation as measured by SWICS during the last solar maximum (1999-2001), the solar minimum (2006-2009) and the period in which the Genesis spacecraft was collecting solar wind (late 2001 - early 2004). We differentiate our analysis in terms of solar wind regimes (i.e. originating from interstream or coronal hole flows, or coronal mass ejecta). Abundances are normalized to the low-FIP ion magnesium to uncover correlations that are not apparent when normalizing to high-FIP ions. We find that relative to magnesium, the other low-FIP elements are measurably fractionated, but the degree of fractionation does not vary significantly over the solar cycle. For the high-FIP ions, variation in fractionation over the solar cycle is significant: greatest for Ne/Mg and C/Mg, less so for O/Mg, and the least for He/Mg. When abundance ratios are examined as a function of solar wind speed, we find a strong correlation, with the remarkable ...

  2. Genesis of the low-permeability reservoir bed of upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in Xinchang gas field,western Sichuan Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhangyou; Zhang Xiaoyu; Wu Shenghe; Zhao Yan

    2008-01-01

    The genesis of a reservoir is a result of the combined action of deposition,diagenesis,tectonic reworking,and interaction of rock and fluid and the evolutionary environment.We discuss the genetic and evolution mechanism of a low-permeability reservoir bed of the Xujiahe Formation in the western Sichuan Depression on the basis of the study of diagenesis,diagenetic reservoir facies and the diagenetic evolution sequence.The research indicated that this reservoir bed can be divided into five types of diagenetic reservoir facies,namely strong dissolution,chlorite-lined intergranular pores,compaction and pressure solution,carbonate cementation and secondary quartz increase.There are,however,just two diagenetic reservoir facies which provide low-permeability reservoir beds,namely strong dissolution and chlorite-lined intergranular pores.We also analyzed their diagenetic evolution sequences and the origin of the low-permeability reservoir bed.Besides,it was also indicated that the composition and structure of sandstones,types of sedimentary microfacies,diagenesis history as well as the tectonic reworking in later periods are the main factors controlling the formation of the low-permeability reservoir bed.The above mentioned factors establish the foundation for the forecasting the distribution of high quality reservoir beds.

  3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from genesis to senescence: the influence of LCPUFA on neural development, aging, and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Carola I F; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    Many clinical and animal studies demonstrate the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in neural development and neurodegeneration. This review will focus on involvement of LCPUFA from genesis to senescence. The LCPUFA docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are important components of neuronal membranes, while eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid also affect cardiovascular health and inflammation. In neural development, LCPUFA deficiency can lead to severe disorders like schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Perinatal LCPUFA supplementation demonstrated beneficial effects in neural development in humans and rodents resulting in improved cognition and sensorimotor integration. In normal aging, the effect of LCPUFA on prevention of cognitive impairment will be discussed. LCPUFA are important for neuronal membrane integrity and function, and also contribute in prevention of brain hypoperfusion. Cerebral perfusion can be compromised as result of obesity, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus type 2. Last, we will focus on the role of LCPUFA in most common neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These disorders are characterized by impaired cognition and connectivity and both clinical and animal supplementation studies have shown the potential of LCPUFA to decrease neurodegeneration and inflammation. This review shows that LCPUFA are essential throughout life.

  4. Contribution of spontaneous L-type Ca2+ channel activation to the genesis of Ca2+ sparks in resting cardiac myocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guangqin; FU Yu; YANG Dongmei; HAO Xuemei; BAI Shuhua; TANG Yiqun; Edward G LAKATTA; WU Caihong; CHENG Heping

    2004-01-01

    Ca2+ sparks are the elementary events of intracellular Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac myocytes. In order to investigate whether spontaneous L-type Ca2+ channel activation contributes to the genesis of spontaneous Ca2+ sparks, we used confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluo-4 to visualize local Ca2+ sparks in intact rat ventricular myocytes. In the presence of 0.2 mmol/L CdCl2 which inhibits spontaneous L-type Ca2+ channel activation, the rate of occurrence of spontaneous Ca2+ sparks was halved from 4.20 to 2.04 events/(100 μm·s), with temporal and spatial properties of individual Ca2+ sparks unchanged. Analysis of the Cd2+-sensitive spark production revealed an open probability of ~10-5 for L-type channels at the rest membrane potentials (-80 mV). Thus, infrequent and stochastic openings of sarcolemmal L-type Ca2+ channels in resting heart cells contribute significantly to the production of spontaneous Ca2+ sparks.

  5. Coupled heat and fluid flow modeling of the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Alaska: Implications for the genesis of the Red Dog Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garven, G.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Bradley, D.A.; Young, L.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Red Dog deposit is a giant 175 Mton (16% Zn, 5% Pb), shale-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district situated in the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Western Brooks Range, Alaska. These SEDEX-type ores are thought to have formed in calcareous turbidites and black mudstone at elevated sub-seafloor temperatures (120-150??C) within a hydrogeologic framework of submarine convection that was structurally organized by large normal faults. The theory for modeling brine migration and heat transport in the Kuna Basin is discussed with application to evaluating flow patterns and heat transport in faulted rift basins and the effects of buoyancy-driven free convection on reactive flow and ore genesis. Finite element simulations show that hydrothermal fluid was discharged into the Red Dog subbasin during a period of basin-wide crustal heat flow of 150-160 mW/m2. Basinal brines circulated to depths as great as 1-3 km along multiple normal faults flowed laterally through thick clastic aquifers acquiring metals and heat, and then rapidly ascended a single discharge fault zone at rates ??? 5 m/year to mix with seafloor sulfur and precipitate massive sulfide ores. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genesis Model of the Tangquan Geothermal Field in Hebei Province%河北遵化汤泉地热田成因模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李攻科; 王卫星; 杨峰田; 李宏; 沈键; 董路阳

    2015-01-01

    河北遵化汤泉地热资源丰富,阐明其成因模式对于该地热田的进一步开发和热水资源的可持续利用具有一定的指导意义。基于地温测量和水文地球化学分析等方法对其进行了系统研究,结果表明该地热田属中低温对流型地热系统。地热田在其以北的山区接受大气降水补给,补给高程下限约为935 m。地热流体在深循环过程中于正常的大地热流背景下被围岩逐渐加热,热储温度约为130℃,循环深度约为4800 m。在汤泉福泉宫至疗养院一带,构造切割花岗岩体,使得深部地热流体沿破碎带上涌,混合并加热赋存于蓄水构造中的片麻岩裂隙水,形成汤泉地区的地热异常。%Tangquan is located in the northwest of Zunhua city,Hebei Province.The region is of hilly land-scape ,and rich in geothermal resources.It is of great importance to elucidate the genesis mechanism of the geo-thermal field for sustainable development of the geothermal resources.In this paper,we conducted a systematic study to explore into the genesis mechanism through well temperature logging and hydrogeochemical investiga-tion.Results show that the geothermal field belongs to a low to medium temperature geothermal system of con-vective type.The geothermal fluid origins from the rainfall recharged in the mountainous area located to the north of geothermal field,with a recharge elevation of more than 935 m.The geothermal fluid is gradually heat-ed by the surrounding rock under a normal heat flow background during a deep cycling of ca.4,800 m,with a reservoir temperature of ca. 1 30 ℃.In the zone of Fuquan palace to sanatorium in Tangquan area where several faults cut through the monzonitic granite body,the geothermal fluid up flow along the faults and mix with the fis-sure water stored in the gneisses,forming the Tangquan geothermal field.

  7. Role of mineralogy and particle-size distribution on patterned ground genesis in no-permafrost soils. Majella massif (Italy) and English Lake District (United Kingdom)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioci, C.; Basili, M.; Cocco, S.; Agnelli, A.; Warburton, J.; Corti, G.

    2009-04-01

    Patterned ground soils form by self-organization thanks to soil heaving caused by seasonal variation of ice table, but also in no-permafrost affected soils thanks to diurnal or seasonal freeze/thaw cycles. The genesis of the superficial soil pattern is thought to be due to cryo-selection of the skeletal particles, which is induced by freezing/thawing cycles of the water present in the saturated active soil layer. Other conditions required for the formation of a patterned ground are: moderate to null slope, scarce vegetation and the presence of a sufficient amount of fine materials (fines). If all this attains, the stones are easily pushed out the freezing area, so producing sorted features where skeleton and fines are rather segregated. Patterned ground soils were described in a wide range of no-permafrost affected environments. Here, we report on the role of soil mineralogy and particle-size distribution in the genesis of patterned ground in two sites where permafrost is some meters deep (Majella massif, Central Italy) or absent (English Lake District, North West England). Majella massif (Monte Amaro, 2793 m a.s.l.) is at 42° North of latitude and is mainly composed by limestone, while English Lake District (Scafell Pike, 978 m a.s.l.) is at 54° North of latitude and is mainly composed by laminated mudstone and siltstone. Patterned ground soils described on the Majella massif are smaller than those at English Lake: the sorted circles of Majella massif have a diameter of about 5-7 cm while those of the English Lake have a diameter of about 15-20 cm. In each site several soil profiles were dug till about 1 m of depth, described and sampled according to the recognized horizons. All the soils are well drained thanks to high skeleton content (60 to 80%), which is also responsible of preventing soil saturation. The results of mineralogical and particles-size analysis show that the formation of a saturated active layer is possible thanks to the formation of an

  8. Assimilating MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Observations to Assess the Impact of Saharan Mineral Dust on the Genesis and Evolution of Hurricane Ernesto (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, K. S.; Chen, S. H.; Liu, Z.; Lin, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dust can impact the atmosphere in two primary ways: (1) by directly absorbing, scattering, and emitting short and longwave radiation (radiative effects), and (2) by acting as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, indirectly affecting cloud optical and physical properties as well as precipitation processes (microphysical effects). During boreal summer, mineral dust plumes from North Africa are advected well into the tropical North Atlantic and can regularly be found in close proximity to tropical cyclones (TCs) or their seed disturbances, particularly in the Atlantic Main Development Region, potentially affecting their development and evolution. Many studies indicate that dust radiative effects within African dust plumes alter vertical and horizontal temperature gradients in such a way that may increase mid-level wind shear and static stability in the tropical Atlantic, possibly altering TC development and/or track. The effects of dust microphysics on TCs, on the other hand, are less certain but an increasing body of research suggests that they depend on TC strength, environmental conditions, and how close dust aerosols are to the storm center. Hurricane Ernesto (2006), whose precursor African Easterly Wave disturbance traveled across the Atlantic in close association with a large, persistent dust plume, is one such storm whose development may have been greatly influenced by dust physical processes. The storm developed only after the eventual dissipation of the plume in the eastern Caribbean. In this study, we examine the impact of mineral dust on the genesis and evolution of Hurricane Ernesto with a series of numerical experiments using a modified, dust-capable version of the WRF model and analyses created by assimilating meteorological and MODIS AOD observations within the GSI 3DVAR software framework. The impacts of MODIS AOD assimilation on the simulated dust distribution and forecasts of Ernesto's development are highlighted.

  9. The hierarchical model of stem cell genesis explains the man mouse paradox, Peto's paradox, the red cell paradox and Wright's enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James A

    2014-12-01

    The central dogma of carcinogenesis is that deleterious mutations accumulate in regularly cycling stem cells and eventually one of the cells will acquire a specific set of mutations which leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation. Each mutation is rare and the specific set is extremely rare so that even though there are millions of stem cells in a small area of mucosa the specific set of mutations to initiate the process of malignancy will only arise in one stem cell at most; hence neoplasia is clonal. But this model predicts that men, who are 1000 times larger than mice and live 30 times as long, should have a vastly increased risk of cancer compared with mice, but they don't (man-mouse paradox). The model also predicts that the prevalence of cancer in men should rise as power function of age and mutagen dose, the former is correct but not the latter (Peto's paradox). Furthermore there are more mitotic divisions in red cell precursors than in all other stem cells combined and yet erythroleukaemia is rare (red cell paradox). The central dogma is also challenged by Wright's enigma; the observation that some gastro-intestinal neoplasms are polyclonal in origin. The problem with the central dogma is the concept of a regularly cycling stem cell. In fact it is possible to produce all the cells that arise in a human lifetime with fewer than 60 rounds of DNA replication separating the zygote from mature differentiated cells in extreme old age. This hierarchical model of stem cell genesis leads to a very low prevalence of cancer, unless the orderly progression of the hierarchy is disturbed by inflammation, ulceration or trauma. This model explains the paradoxes and Wright's enigma. It is suggested that the number of cell divisions that separate the zygote from stem cells is a key variable in carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of mantle-derived magma in genesis of early Yanshanian granites in the Nanling Range, South China: in situ zircon Hf-O isotopic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of petrographic observations and isotopic data suggest that magma mixing is common in genesis of many granite plutons, it is still controversial whether the mantle-derived magmas were involved in granites. We carried out in this study a systematic analysis of in situ zircon Hf-O isotopes for three early Yanshanian intrusions dated at ca. 160 Ma from the Nanling Range of Southeast China. The Qinghu monzonite has very homogeneous zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions, εHf(t) =11.6±0.3 and δ18O=5.4‰±0.3‰. In combination with whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data, the parental magma of the Qinghu monzonite were likely derived from the partial melting of recently-metasomatized, phlogopite-bearing lithospheric mantle without appreciable crustal contamination. The Lisong and Fogang granites and the mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) within the Lisong granites have a wide range of zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions, with Hf and O isotopes being negatively correlated within each pluton. The Lisong MMEs were crystallized from a mantle-derived magma, similar to the parental magma of the Qinghu monzonite, with small amount of crustal assimilation. The Lisong and Fogang granites were formed by reworking of meta-sedimentary materials by mantle-derived magmas and mixing of the mantle-and sediment-derived melts to varying degrees. It is thus concluded that these two Yanshanian granites in the Nanling Range were formed associated with growth and differentiation of continental crust.

  11. Erosion and assimilation of substrate by Martian low-viscosity lava flows: implications for sulphur degassing and the genesis of orthomagmatic Ni-Cu±(PGE) sulphide mineralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratoux, D.; Baumgartner, R. J.; Gaillard, F.; Fiorentini, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Archean and Proterozoic komatiites and ferropicrites are mantle plume-related, low-viscosity, high-temperature, mafic to ultramafic lava flows. They are hosts to Ni-Cu±(PGE) sulphide mineralisation, which generally formed due to the segregation of sulphides following thermo-mechanical erosion and assimilation of sulphur-rich crustal rocks. We numerically simulated erosion and assimilation during the turbulent emplacement of iron-rich Martian lavas displaying chemical and rheological analogies with terrestrial mafic to ultramafic lavas, on a variety of basaltic and sedimentary sulphate-rich substratum. With the adoption of the lava flow and erosion model of Williams et al. (JGR, 1998), thermodynamic simulations were implemented to (semi-) quantify the potential changes in melt parameter (i.e., chemistry, temperature, and oxygen fugacity) that dictate the sulphur capacity of silicate melts. Modelling was also performed to assess the role of volatile degassing (Gaillard et al., SSR, 2013) on the sulphur inventory of Martian lavas. Our modelling show that lavas emplacing over basaltic crust are governed by low cooling rates, as well as low erosion and assimilation capacities, thus resulting in calculated near-cotectic proportions of sulphides segregating relatively late upon lava emplacement (usually > 100 km flow distance). The rapid assimilation of highly erodible and sulphate-rich Martian regolith may trigger sulphide supersaturation and batch segregation of sulphides well above cotectic proportions relatively early during the establishment of magmatic flow (<100 km flow distance). However, the assimilation of sulphate, which serves as a strongly oxidising agent, could result in dramatic sulphur loss due to increased volatile degassing rates. This process may limit or even counteract the overall positive effect of sulphate assimilation on achieving sulphide supersaturation, sulphide segregation and the genesis of Ni-Cu±(PGE) sulphide mineralisation.

  12. The genesis of Jan Steens painting “As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe” from the Gemäldegalerie Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, A.; Kleinert, K.; Laurenze-Landsberg, C.; Reimelt, M.; Schröder-Smeibidl, B.

    2011-09-01

    In collaboration with the research reactor of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, the Gemäldegalerie Berlin is the only institute worldwide, which systematically employs the method of Neutron-Activation-Autoradiography to analyze paintings and painting techniques. To date more than 70 paintings were investigated with this effective, non-destructive, and exceptional method. It allows the visualization of structures and layers beneath the top surface and, in addition, enables the identification of elements contained in the pigments. The instrument B8 at the research reactor BER II is dedicated to this research. Jan Steen is one of the prolific artists from the 17th century. Like other artists from that time he produced several versions of one specific topic during life-time. The topic "As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe" was painted by Jan Steen in 13 versions. The painting from the Gemäldegalerie is an exception in this series as it differs in style and content from the other oeuvres. The question arises: why did the artist deviate from his usual scheme? The possible answer is provided by X-ray images and neutron autoradiographs made of the painting, allowing insight into hidden paint layers and, therefore, in the genesis of the painting. Jan Steen did not simply change the composition of the room and the figures. He originally intended an altogether different topic. Assumedly it was supposed to be a so-called merry company, located in a generous, stately room. Many pieces of this sophisticated ambiance have been eliminated from the version visible today; others were modified and integrated into the composition of the new painting. Thus, Jan Steen commenced the topic "As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe" from a different context.

  13. Pretreatment of BAPTA-AM suppresses the genesis of repetitive endocardial focal discharges and pacing-induced ventricular arrhythmia during global ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsu-Juey; Lin, Shien-Fong; Hsieh, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Tung-Chao; Lin, Jiunn-Cherng; Ting, Chih-Tai

    2011-10-01

    In isolated rabbit hearts, repetitive endocardial focal discharges (REFDs) were consistently observed during ventricular fibrillation (VF) with prolonged (>5 minutes) global ischemia (GI). We hypothesized that BAPTA-AM, a calcium chelator, can suppress these REFDs. Using a two-camera optical mapping system, we simultaneously mapped endocardial (left ventricle, LV) and epicardial (both ventricles) activations during ventricular arrhythmia with GI. In 5 hearts (protocol I), we infused Tyrode's solution (no BAPTA-AM) for ≥30 minutes before the onset of no-flow GI. In 7 additional hearts (protocol II), BAPTA-AM (20 μmol/L) was infused for ≥30 minutes before the initiation of GI. In protocol I, sustained VF (>30 seconds) was successfully induced in all 5 hearts with prolonged GI. REFDs were present in >85 % of recording time. In protocol II, however, ventricular arrhythmia was not inducible and REFDs were not observed after 5-minute GI in 5 hearts. Effects of BAPTA-AM on intracellular calcium (Ca(i) ) at the LV endocardium were also evaluated in 5 hearts (protocol III) using dual Ca(i) /membrane potential mapping. GI, both without and with BAPTA-AM pretreatment, caused a decrease of Ca(i) amplitude during S(1) pacing. However, this effect was more pronounced in the hearts with BAPTA-AM pretreatment (P AM pretreatment, caused broadening of Ca(i) transient. In contrast, GI, with BAPTA-AM pretreatment, caused narrowing of Ca(i) transient. BAPTA-AM pretreatment attenuates Ca(i) transient, suppressing the genesis of REFDs and pacing-induced ventricular arrhythmia during GI. These findings support the notion that Ca(i) dynamics is important in the maintenance of REFDs.  © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Petrography and geochemistry of the primary ore zone of the Kenticha rare metal granite-pegmatite field, Adola Belt, Southern Ethiopia: Implications for ore genesis and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedyasin, Mohammed Seid; Desta, Zerihun; Getaneh, Worash

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the genesis and tectonic setting of the Kenticha rare metal granite-pegmatite deposit using petrography and whole-rock geochemical analysis. The samples were analysed for major elements, and trace and rare earth elements by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, respectively. The Kenticha rare metal granite-pegmatite deposit is controlled by the N-S deep-seated normal fault that allow the emplacement of the granite-pegmatite in the study area. Six main mineral assemblages have been identified: (a) alaskitic granite (quartz + microcline + albite with subordinate muscovite), (b) aplitic layer (quartz + albite), (c) muscovite-quartz-microcline-albite pegmatite, (d) spodumene-microcline-albite pegmatite, partly albitized or greisenized, (e) microcline-albite-green and pink spodumene pegmatite with quartz-microcline block, which is partly albitized and greisenized, and (f) quartz core. This mineralogical zonation is also accompanied by variation in Ta ore concentration and trace and rare earth elements content. The Kenticha granite-pegmatite is strongly differentiated with high SiO2 (72-84 wt %) and enriched with Rb (∼689 ppm), Be (∼196 ppm), Nb (∼129 ppm), Ta (∼92 ppm) and Cs (∼150 ppm) and depleted in Ba and Sr. The rare earth element (REE) patterns of the primary ore zone (below 60 m depth) shows moderate enrichment in light REE ((La/Yb)N = ∼8, and LREE/HREE = ∼9.96) and negative Eu-anomaly (Eu/Eu* = ∼0.4). The whole-rock geochemical data display the Within Plate Granite (WPG) and syn-Collisional Granite (syn-COLG) suites and interpret as its formation is crustal related melting. The mineralogical assemblage, tectonic setting and geochemical signatures implies that the Kenticha rare metal bearing granite pegmatite is formed by partial melting of metasedimentary rocks during post-Gondwana assembly and further tantalite enrichment through later hydrothermal-metasomatic processes.

  15. Genesis and open-system evolution of Quaternary magmas beneath southeastern margin of Tibet: Constraints from Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haibo; Ma, Mingjia; Fan, Qicheng; Xu, Bei; Li, Shuang-Qing; Zhao, Yongwei; King, David T.

    2017-02-01

    Post-collisional volcanic rocks on the Tibetan Plateau and its margins contain valuable information about the geodynamic processes associated with this Cenozoic continent-continent collision. The Quaternary Tengchong volcanic field at the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau formed high-potassium calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. Herein, we present comprehensive Nd-Sr-Pb-Hf isotopic and elemental data for trachybasalts, basaltic trachyandesites, and trachyandesites from four Quaternary Tengchong volcanoes (Maanshan, Dayingshan, Heikongshan, and Laoguipo) in order to understand their magma genesis and evolution as well as tectonic significance. Good correlations between SiO2 content and the ratios 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, and 177Hf/176Hf for these Quaternary volcanics strongly suggest that the combined assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC) was an important process in the origin of basaltic trachyandesites and trachyandesites. High Y and Yb contents and low Sr/Y ratios of these basaltic trachyandesites and trachyandesites are uncharacteristic of adakites that formed by partial melting of eclogitic lower crust or partial melting of basaltic oceanic crust with eclogite as a restite. A combined assimilation-fractional crystallization model is proposed for these basaltic trachyandesites and trachyandesites. Nd-Sr-Pb-Hf isotopes for the uncontaminated Tengchong magma (trachybasalts with SiO2 5.5% wt.%) reflect a heterogeneous enriched mantle source. High Th/U, Th/Ta, and Rb/Nb ratios and Nd-Sr-Pb-Hf isotope characteristics of the uncontaminated magmas suggest that the enriched mantle beneath Tengchong formed as a result of subduction of clay-rich sediments, which probably came from the Indian continental plate. Partial melting of the enriched mantle was generated by deep continental subduction coupled with recent regional extension in the Tengchong area.

  16. 北京西山昌平组下部角砾碳酸盐岩类型及成因%THE CLASSIFICATION AND GENESIS OF BRECCIA CARBONATE ROCK IN LOWER PART OF CHANGPING FORMATION OF XISHAN, BEIJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨舒然; 廖志坚

    2011-01-01

    The genesis of breccia carbonate rocks in lower part of Changping Formation can be divided into 2 types, which are separately 1. the weathering sedentary breccia; 2. the gravity flow breccia. The genetic mecha- nism is the gentle slope gravity flow in transition from platform to slope.%昌平组下部角砾状碳酸盐岩有两类成因,分别为风化残积角砾岩和重力流角砾岩,其成因机制为由台地向斜坡过渡的缓坡重力流形成。

  17. 从《圣经·创世纪》看文学人类学的必要性和可能性%Study on the Necessity and Probability of Literary Anthropology from Genesis oBible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙仙艳

    2012-01-01

    Literary anthropology, given different perspectives, is subdivided into literary anthropology and anthropology of literature. With the focus on literary anthropology and Genesis oBible as a case study, a research is carried out on the necessity and probability of literary anthropology.%文学人类学由于切入视角不同,可以分为文学人类学和文学的人类学两个平行的分支,从文学人类学出发,以《圣经·创世纪》为个案探讨文学人类学的必要性和可能性。

  18. Genesis of ilmenite-series I-type granitoids at the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit, western Junggar, NW-China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; Hollings, Pete; Jin, LuYing

    2016-03-01

    The Baogutu porphyry Cu deposit is a typical reduced porphyry Cu deposit, likely related to ilmenite-series I-type granitoids. However, the nature of the granitoids (ilmenite-series or magnetite-series) and the genesis of the Baogutu deposit are still under debate. In order to resolve these issues, whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf-O isotopic compositions were carried out. Three different intrusive phases are recognized within the deposit, from oldest to youngest, they are diorite with trace gabbro, diorite-granodiorite porphyry, and hornblende diorite porphyry, all of which were emplaced in the Late Carboniferous (320-306 Ma) and show a metaluminous, calc-alkaline I-type granitoid character with typical supra-subduction zone geochemical affinities. The intrusions are characterized by widespread primary pyrrhotite without anhydrite and hematite, dominant ilmenite over magnetite, low whole rock magnetic susceptibility (< 1 × 10- 4 emu g- 1 oe- 1 or < 3 × 10- 3 SI unit) and low whole rock Fe2O3/FeO ratios (< 0.4), indicating that the granitoids are ilmenite- rather than magnetite-series I-type granitoids. Whole rock Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions show limited variation but slightly enriched characteristics with (87Sr/86Sr)i values of 0.70357-0.70404, εNd (t) of + 6.3 to + 7.8, 206Pb/204Pb of 18.20-19.54 and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.97-39.55. Zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions show εHf (t) values of + 10.7 to + 15.8 and δ18O of 5.3-7.4‰. Zircon and apatite saturation thermometries yield temperatures of 720 to 920 °C with relatively higher temperatures for the porphyries than for the diorite. Limited variations in Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopic compositions and extremely young whole rock T2DM (Nd) (430 to 570 Ma) and zircon TDMC (Hf) (310 to 640 Ma) do not indicate significant crustal contamination during magma ascent or emplacement. Rather the Baogutu ilmenite-series I-type granitoids were probably formed by

  19. Petrological and geochemical features of the early Paleozoic granitic gneisses and iron ores in the Tianhu iron deposit, Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiahao; Mao, Jingwen; Yang, Fuquan; Chai, Fengmei; Shen, Ping

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports whole-rock geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data for ore-hosted granitic gneisses, mineral compositions of oxides, and sulfur isotopic data for sulfides in iron ores from the Tianhu deposit, central part of the Eastern Tianshan. Our results can provide crucial constraints on the genesis of granitic gneisses and early Paleozoic tectonic setting of the Eastern Tianshan. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating on magmatic zircons yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 463 to 438 Ma, interpreted as the crystallization ages of the granitic protoliths and the formation ages of the Tianhu Group. Zircon U-Pb age of ore-hosted granitic gneiss (ca. 459 Ma) can provide reliable constrains on upper limit for iron mineralization age in the Tianhu deposit. Geochemical characteristics suggest that the protoliths of the Tianhu granitic gneisses are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline granitic rocks, exhibiting typical subduction-related features such as strong enrichment in LREE and LILE and depletion in HFSE. Zircon Hf isotopic compositions show a positive trend from 463 to 438 Ma, indicating that 460 Ma magmas came from both ancient and juvenile sources, whereas 438 Ma magmas involved more juvenile material. Some early Paleozoic granitoids were recently identified in the Eastern Tianshan with the ages between ca. 475 and ca. 425 Ma. The formation of these early Paleozoic granitoids was in response to subduction processes, suggesting that subduction of Junggar Ocean probably began in the Early Ordovician and lasted until Late Silurian. Pyrite and pyrrhotite in iron ores have δ34SCDT values from + 4.6 to + 15.7‰, which are consistent with the marine source, but inconsistent with the magmatic source or those involved evaporites in skarn iron deposit. Geological, geochemical, and isotopic data suggest that the Tianhu iron ores were formed by volcano-sedimentary processes in a subduction environment during the early Paleozoic time, and Tianhu is a

  20. Genesis and Eruptive Dynamics of the Garnet-Bearing Rhyolites from the Ramadas Volcanic Centre (Altiplano-Puna Plateau, Central Andes, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Astis, G.; Baez, W.; Bardelli, L.; Becchio, R.; Giordano, G.; Lucci, F.; Rossetti, F.; Viramonte, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Ramadas volcanic centre (6.6 Ma) is a monogenetic calderic depression, now largely obliterated, almost coeval with the Late Miocene outbreak of highly explosive silicic activity in the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Ramadas erupted a rather complex suite of garnet-bearing, rhyolitic pyroclastic rocks, dominated by a >35 km3 fall deposit and preceded by the emplacement of a lag breccia containing abundant metasedimentary lithics and garnet-tourmaline leucogranites. During the waning stage of the eruption, small volume phreatomagmatic deposits formed a small tuff-ring, followed by a lava coulée emplacement. Volcanological data together with textural features of typical tube pumice evidence a volatiles-rich, plinian eruption. Petrographic and textural studies on juveniles confirm the presence of euhedral garnet as dominant phase and identify micrometric metaigneous fragments (Qtz+Bt+Kfs+Mt+Tur). BSE imaging and microprobe analyses on glasses, garnets and accessory mineral phases (zircon and monazite) provide further data to understand the genesis and eruptive conditions of these atypical rhyolites, geochemically different from those outcropping in the same region. Garnets display a homogeneous, unzoned almandine-spessartine composition (Alm72-71Sps24-23Pyr0-1Grs4-3) and are contained in a glassy rhyolitic magma with peraluminous character, HREE depleted and relative LREE enriched. It's known that primary igneous garnets are rare and can only develop under restricted conditions. Additionally, the presence of Zr and Mnz is associated with both magmatic and high-T metamorphic processes. Although more data need to be collected, our study and preliminary modelling point to the occurrence of thermal metamorphism shifting to partial melting of Fe-MnO-rich metapelitic rocks (or even re-melting of older acid volcanics), with final extraction of volatiles-rich rhyolitic melts, able to produce a plinian eruption. Here, Alm-Sps garnet could represent the peritectic product of the

  1. Multi-approach study (preliminary essays) to understand the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions related to the genesis of exotic Cu-deposits, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Mort, A.; Riquelme, R.; Cabezas, A.; Muñoz, S.; Pizarro, H.

    2013-12-01

    unanswered as to whether Cu-exotic ores are formed throughout a geologic particular period (tectonic or climatic) or they are only dependent on specific geomorphologic conditions that can be determined from detailed sedimentary studies. This preliminary study has yielded a promising approach that can be used to precisely define the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions throughout the Late Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Atacama Desert. This knowledge is necessary to accurately answer the previous questions concerning the genesis of Cu-exotic ores.

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF THE FLOW INTENSITY OF FREE-RADICAL PROCESSES IN HEPATOPANCREAS TISSUES OF AND SKELETAL MUSCLES OF AGE-2 CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO OF DIFFERENT GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Osoba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform determination of the content of individual lipid peroxidation products in hepatopancreas tissues and skeletal muscle of carp of different genesis. Methods. Determination of free radical products of lipid peroxidation in hepatopancreas tissues of and skeletal muscle of carp was performed by spectrophotometric analysis. In particular, the content of malondialdehyde was determined by reaction with thiobarbituric acid, which at high a temperature in acidic medium proceeds with the formation of colored trimethine complex. The intensity of the formation of lipid hydroperoxides was determined after precipitation of proteins by a solution of trichloroacetic acid and lipid extraction by ethanol with following interaction of the studied extracts of ammonium thiocyanate. To determine the content of diene conjugates in tissues, we used a method, which is based on the formation of conjugated double bonds accompanied by the appearance of a new absorption maximum in the spectrum range of λmax = 233 nm. The results. As a result of the studies it was found that the content of malondialdehyde in skeletal muscle of two-year scaly and framed carp of Nesvich zonal type is likely lower in comparison with that of skeletal muscle of Amur wild carp and the carp hybrid grows relatively group - hybrid carp .It was marked the growth in the content of diene conjugates in skeletal muscle of Lyubin Nesvich scaly carp compared to framed ones.It was shown the tissue specificity savings to individual products of lipid peroxidation in experimental groups of fish. The scientific novelty. For the first time, a comparative analysis of the contents of individual products of free radical oxidation in tissues of age-2 scaly carp and framed Nesvich zonal and Lyubin interbreed type with groups such as the Amur wild carp and carp hybrid has been perfomed. Factors providing such intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in tissues of the studied age-2 groups of fish

  3. Organic Gases in Fluid Inclusions of Ore Minerals and Their Constraints on Ore Genesis: A Case Study of the Changkeng Au-Ag Deposit, Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The newly discovered Changkeng Au-Ag deposit is a new type of sediment-hosted precious metal deposit. Most of the previous researchers believed that the deposit was formed by meteoric water convection. By using a high vacuum quadrupole gas mass spectrometric system, nine light hydrocarbons have been recognized in the fluid inclusions in ore minerals collected from the Changkeng deposit. The hydrocarbons are composed mainly of saturated alkanes C1-4 and unsaturated alkenes C2-4 and aromatic hydrocarbons, in which the alkanes are predominant, while the contents of alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons are very low. The Σalka/Σalke ratio of most samples is higher than 100, suggesting that those hydrocarbons are mainly generated by pyrolysis of kerogens in sedimentary rocks caused by water-rock interactions at medium-low temperatures, and the metallogenic processes might have not been affected by magmatic activity. A thermodynamic calculation shows that the light hydrocarbons have reached chemical equilibrium at temperatures higher than 200?C, and they may have been generated in the deep part of sedimentary basins (e.g., the Sanzhou basin) and then be transported by ore-forming fluids to a shallow position of the basin via a long distance. Most of the organic gases are generated by pyrolysis of the type II kerogens (kukersite) in sedimentary host rocks, only a few by microorganism activity. The compositions and various parameters of light hydrocarbons in gold ores are quite similar to those in silver ores, suggesting that the gold and silver ores may have similar metallogenic processes. Based on the compositions of organic gases in fluid inclusions, the authors infer that the Changkeng deposit may be of a tectonic setting of continental rift. The results of this study support from one aspect the authors' opinion that the Changkeng deposit is not formed by meteoric water convection, and that its genesis has a close relationship with the evolution of the Sanzhou basin, so

  4. The multistage genesis of the giant Dongshengmiao Zn-Pb-Cu deposit in western Inner Mongolia, China:Syngenetic stratabound mineralization and metamorphic remobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richen Zhong; Wenbo Li

    2016-01-01

    The genesis of the giant Dongshengmiao in the northern margin of the North China Block has been debated since its discovery in the 1950s, because it shows geological and geochemical characteristics with both syngenetic and epigenetic signatures. It has geological settings and sulfur and lead isotopic com-positions that are similar with typical SEDEX (sedimentary exhalative) deposit, while the Zn-Pb-Cu mineralization was controlled by shear deformation and metamorphism, showing similarities with orogenic-type deposits. In this contribution, both the syngenetic and epigenetic features of the Dong-shengmiao are envisaged, and accounted for in the context of a genetic model with two metallogenic periods. Massive pyrite at the Dongshengmiao was mostly recrystallized during metamorphism, but fine-grained texture was locally preserved, indicating its syngenetic origin. On the contrary, all the Zn-Pb-Cu ores observed in this study show characteristics of epigenetic hydrothermal mineralization that controlled by metamorphism and accompanying shear deformation. The sulfur and lead isotopic com-positions of sphalerite and galena indicate that they were in situ remobilized from a syngenetic strata-bound source, and the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios of ore-fluid indicate that the large-scale remobilization was assisted by metamorphic fluid. The thermodynamic modeling indicates that the ore-fluid during remobilization has a great potential of transporting Cu. This may account for the abnormally enriched Cu in the remobilized SEDEX deposit. The metamorphic fluid might strip Cu from the fluid source during devolatilization, and overprint it on the Zn-Pb orebodies during remobilization. A secondary flow-through modeling reveals that Zn- and Cu-sulfides would be preferentially redistributed in Fe-rich car-bonates during remobilization, as a result of fluid-rock interaction. Conclusively, a multistage genetic model is proposed. During the development of the Proterozoic rift

  5. Development and characterization of a hydrogen peroxide-resistant cholangiocyte cell line: A novel model of oxidative stress-related cholangiocarcinoma genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanan, Raynoo [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Techasen, Anchalee [Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Hou, Bo [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Jamnongkan, Wassana; Armartmuntree, Napat [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Yongvanit, Puangrat, E-mail: puangrat@kku.ac.th [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Murata, Mariko, E-mail: mmurata@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    Oxidative stress is a cause of inflammation–related diseases, including cancers. Cholangiocarcinoma is a liver cancer with bile duct epithelial cell phenotypes. Our previous studies in animal and human models indicated that oxidative stress is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma development. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) can generate hydroxyl radicals, which damage lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, leading to cell death. However, some cells can survive by adapting to oxidative stress conditions, and selective clonal expansion of these resistant cells would be involved in oxidative stress-related carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to establish H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cell line from an immortal cholangiocyte cell line (MMNK1) by chronic treatment with low-concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (25 μM). After 72 days of induction, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cell lines (ox-MMNK1-L) were obtained. The ox-MMNK1-L cell line showed H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant properties, increasing the expression of the anti-oxidant genes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and superoxide dismutase-3 (SOD3) and the enzyme activities of CAT and intracellular SODs. Furthermore, the resistant cells showed increased expression levels of an epigenetics-related gene, DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1), when compared to the parental cells. Interestingly, the ox-MMNK1-L cell line had a significantly higher cell proliferation rate than the MMNK1 normal cell line. Moreover, ox-MMNK1-L cells showed pseudopodia formation and the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion (multi-layers) under additional oxidative stress (100 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). These findings suggest that H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cells can be used as a model of oxidative stress-related cholangiocarcinoma genesis through molecular changes such as alteration of gene expression and epigenetic changes. - Highlights: • An H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant ox-MMNK1-L cells was established from

  6. Mineralogical and microfabric characteristics of magnetite in the Wuyang Precambrian BIFs, southern North China Craton: Implications for genesis and depositional processes of the associated BIFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongzhong; Zhai, Mingguo; Zhang, Lianchang; Yang, Zhijun; Kapsiotis, Argyrios; Zhou, Yongzhang; He, Junguo; Wang, Changle; Liang, Jin

    2014-11-01

    denotes that both BIF sub-types are sedimentary-metamorphic origin, whereas the deposition of PMB was also affected by volcanic activities. Overall data indicate that the differences in the depositional environment of each BIF sub-type are due to the involvement of volcanic eruption processes in the genesis of the PMB. Thus, this paper indicated that the QMB was deposited by chemical deposition at the long-term interval of volcanic eruptions, and the PMB were the product of chemical deposition affected by the volcanic eruption.

  7. Bimodal magmatism during the Diego Hernández Formation, Tenerife, Canary Islands: genesis and eruption-triggering of phonolitic magmas during ongoing mafic volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, P. H.; Wolff, J. A.; Edgar, C. J.; Cas, R.; Martí, J.

    2008-12-01

    -type phonolites. The intrusion of basaltic dikes and sills in the shallow crust lead to the genesis of DHF I phonolite magmas via whole-scale melting of preexisting altered syenitic rocks. Some of this mantle-derived mafic magma did reach the surface having undergone crystal fractionation, and in many cases there is geochemical, or more rarely petrographic, evidence that phonolitic magma contaminated aliquots of basaltic magma. [1] Edgar et al., 2007. JVGR 118, 99-130.

  8. Genesis of enterprise financial security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydenko N. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the scientific approaches to the definition of «financial security of entities», advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are highlighted. The own definition of financial security of entities is given. The composition of elements of enterprise financial security and principles of its provision are defined. Тhe role of individual elements of financial security to ensure high efficiency operation and development of enterprises is significant and has a direct impact on their solvency, liquidity and profitability.

  9. Modelling the Genesis and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    Over the last three decades, EU regulation of the internal market has become highly pervasive, affecting practically all the domains of European citizens’ lives. Many studies have focused on understanding the process and causes of regulatory reform. However, these have typically been small...... different sectors, and analyse the dynamics of regulatory reform in the EU. Using time series analysis of count data, we find evidence that the number of winning coalitions in the Council and the size of EU membership have a significant impact on regulatory reform in the EU. However, the political (left...

  10. Towards Genesis or the Grave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling

    The paper outlines a theoretical framework for understanding reform-related opportunism in connection with current local government mergers in Denmark. The chain of reasoning is based on a local government version of the political business cycle. Where this model predicts cyclical financial patte...... and group level). This is achieved with the aid of insights from collective action theory....

  11. Towards Genesis or the Grave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling

    -beens can lead to decidedly myopic and short-sighted behavior in spite of its longer-term consequences. So much for actor incentives! On the institutional side, the incumbent government has, in contrast to its forty-year-old likewise bourgeois predecessor, been all too aware of these ‘perverse' incentives......' financial dispositions as liquidity, near-liquid assets (sales of buildings, land and so forth), expenditures on buildings and probably also operations, borrowing, public utilities and expenditures on personnel....

  12. The genesis and the challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cohen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for international standards to protect andassist internally displaced persons arose directlyfrom the explosion of civil wars in the last decade ofthe 20th century that left tens of millions uprootedwithin the borders of their own countries.

  13. Towards Genesis or the Grave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling

    The paper outlines a theoretical framework for understanding reform-related opportunism in connection with current local government mergers in Denmark. The chain of reasoning is based on a local government version of the political business cycle. Where this model predicts cyclical financial patte...... and group level). This is achieved with the aid of insights from collective action theory.......The paper outlines a theoretical framework for understanding reform-related opportunism in connection with current local government mergers in Denmark. The chain of reasoning is based on a local government version of the political business cycle. Where this model predicts cyclical financial...... patterns on reversible financial expenditures within each election period, the developed argument on local government mergers posits a pattern on non-reversible expenditures in the immediate years preceding them. The paper utilizes a theory-testing design with explanatory factors on two levels (individual...

  14. Communication Laboratories: Genesis, Assessment, Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kathleen; Shockley-Zalabak, Pamela; Hackman, Michael Z.

    2000-01-01

    Claims the quality of educational preparation in basic communication skills is insufficient for students to compete in the new millennium. Discusses the communication laboratory as one educational strategy for addressing the issue of communication competency. Describes the rationale for creating a communication laboratory, curricula and…

  15. Genesis of a Pythagorean Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    A purely scientific approach to the problem of cosmogenesis ultimately requires derivation of the visible order from the totality of chaos, thus turning into the problem of chaosogenesis. The hypothesis of chaosogenesis is discussed and refuted on the scientific grounds of mathematical elegance, wide range, and high precision of fundamental laws of nature. Thus, the problem of cosmogenesis is proven to be unsolvable within the bounds of science. Scientific confirmation for the Platonic world of elegant mathematical forms structuring the physical world is stressed, and some consequences are pointed out. A two-way relation between Pythagoreanism and fundamental science is discussed.

  16. Genesis: The Brynmor Jones Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Norman

    2005-01-01

    An account of the impetus given by the Brynmor Jones report ("Audio visual aids in Higher Education", 1965) to the development of educational technology in Britain. The author, who was closely involved in the developments, discusses the influence of the audio-visual movement in the United States and the emergence of a national organisation (NCET)…

  17. [Connective tissue and prolapse genesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremollieres, F

    2010-06-01

    The pathophysiology of pelvic floor disorders still remains not well understood. Increasing age as well as vaginal multiparity are the main commonly accepted factors. The hypothesis of a defect of connective tissues of the pelvic floor with aging due to collagen deficiency and/or elastic fiber degradation is often highlighted. The issue of a potential protective role of HRT is also discussed although the recent results from the WHI would suggest a negative impact of HRT on urinary incontinence, especially when HRT is initiated in elderly women, far from the menopause. Nevertheless, environmental factors cannot explain the full pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and the contribution of genetic factors to the development of pelvic floor disorders is widely recognized. Support for a genetic influence on POP derives from reports suggesting that heritability is a strong contributing factor and a familial history of POP is considered as a classical risk factor. However, the characterization of the underlying molecular mechanisms remains limited, since POP may be considered the end result of a multifactorial process leading to destruction of vaginal wall connective tissue. Experimental studies in mice with null mutations in the genes encoding different putative factors involved in elastic fibers remodeling and homeostasis are crucial in the understanding of the pathogenesis of POP. Mice with null mutation in the gene encoding lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) or fibulin-5, demonstrate signs of elastinopathy including the development of a POP in the postpartum. Likewise, homeobox genes such as HOXA11, which are essential in the embryonic development of the urogenital tract might also be involved in the pathogenesis of POP. The better understanding of the underlying determinants of pelvic floor disorders with a special focus on genetic factors may offer new therapeutic strategies, in addition to or replacement of surgical procedures.

  18. The genesis of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, John; Renn, Jürgen; Sauer, Tilman; Stachel, John

    2007-01-01

    This four-volume work represents the most comprehensive documentation and study of the creation of general relativity; one of the fundamental physical theories of the 20th century. It comprises key sources from Einstein and others who from the late 19th to the early 20th century contributed to this monumental development. Some of these sources are presented here in translation for the first time. Einstein’s famous Zurich notebook, which documents the pivotal steps toward general relativity, is reproduced here for the first time and transcribed in its entirety. The volumes offer detailed commentaries and analyses of these sources that are based on a close reading of these documents supplemented by interpretations by the leading historians of relativity. All in all, the facets of this work, based on more than a decade of research, combine to constitute one of the most in-depth studies of a scientific revolution ever written.

  19. DISCUSSION ON THE GRANITIC MIAROLITIC CAVES AND GENESIS OF NATURAL-MORTARS IN THE MOUNT LAOSHAN, CHINA%崂山花岗岩晶洞与天然石臼成因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋召军; 刘锡清; 顾兆峰; 李海锋; 胡克; 周金

    2012-01-01

    近年来,一种基岩表面石臼状微地貌(天然石臼)引起了学术界的关注,由此中国东部第四纪冰川问题再度掀起争论.关于天然石臼成因大体有:壶穴说、冰臼说、风蚀穴说、风化坑说,等等.显然,在不同情况下,其成因可能是不同的.笔者对青岛崂山考察发现,这里的晶洞花岗岩本来原生洞穴(晶洞或气泡洞)非常发育,它们对天然石臼的形成存在重要影响.不但几厘米的晶洞可以经过风化作用拓展成相当大的石臼,甚至一些较大的晶洞(气泡洞)与石臼在形态、尺度和分布上比较接近.因此推断,崂山的天然石臼是岩石原生洞穴沿节理和裂隙崩塌破坏后,暴露出来经风化作用改造而成,甚至有的石臼基本是晶洞破坏后的直接产物,而非所谓的“冰臼”.%In recent years,a mortar micro-landform( natural-mortar) on the bedrock surface has been reported frequently in the eastern part of China as tourist geology is developing. However, the genesis of Quaternary glaciation in East China has been debated for years. Different researchers used different names to explain the genesis of natural-mortar,such as "pothole" ,"glacial pothole" ,"deflation pit" ."weathering pit" and so on. Actually,the genesis of natural-mortar in different locations, different landforms and different rocks are different. The authors have carried out detailed field investigations of the Mount Laoshan, Qingdao, which is composed of Late Mesozoic miarolitic granites with its prominent peak height 1133 meters above sea level and is located on the shore of the Yellow Sea, China. We found a large amount of primary caves( miarolitic cave or bubble-like cave) in miarolitic granites of the Mount Laoshan, which show a significant impact on the genesis of natural-mortar, and examined the features of the mortar pits and measured the morphological parameters as well. This paper discusses the relationship between the granitic miarolitic caves

  20. Coexistence of halloysite and kaolinite: a study on the genesis of kaolin clays of Campo Alegre Basin, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa T.G. de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin at Campo Alegre Basin, Santa Catarina State, Brazil was formed from alteration of volcanic acid rocks. Halloysite clays dominate the clay fraction of the matrix of the kaolin body, whereas a poorly crystalline kaolinite is abundant in veins. Some primary blocky structures have high amounts of illite, in one mine, but in general, only low contents of illite-smectite, illite, chlorite-vermiculite, vermiculite and quartz were identified in the clay fraction of the samples. Toward the top of the mines, hematite and lepidocrocite appear in horizontal red and ochre colored levels and the amount of kaolinite increases compared to halloysite. The vertical zoning of alteration levels, the changes in mineralogy, the positive correlation between depth and Cation Exchange Capacity of the clays, the preservation of different types of rock textures in the kaolin bodies, the dominant tube morphology of the halloysite clays indicate a supergene genesis for the deposits. Criteria to distinguish between supergene and hypogene kaolin are discussed. Transmission Electron Microscopy of the cross sections of halloysite tubes showed polygonal forms that are ascribed to be transitional between kaolinite and halloysite. It is proposed that some of the kaolinite of these deposits be inherited from the dehydration of halloysite tubes.O caolim da Bacia de Campo Alegre, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, formou-se da alteração de rochas vulcânicas ácidas. A haloisita predomina na fração argila da matriz do corpo de caolim, enquanto a caolinita, de baixa cristalinidade, é abundante nos veios. Algumas estruturas em blocos, primários, têm altos teores de ilita em uma mina, mas no geral, somente foram identificadas, na fração argila das amostras, baixas quantidades de ilita-esmectita, ilita, clorita-vermiculita, vermiculita e quartzo. Em direção ao topo das minas aparecem hematita e lepidocrocita em níveis vermelhos e ocres e as quantidades de caolinita

  1. 中国气田天然气中汞的成因模式%Genesis of Mercury in Natural Gas of Chinese Gas Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑; 韩中喜; 严启团; 王淑英; 葛守国; 王春怡

    2012-01-01

    Since the structural background of gas bearing basins in China is very complex and natural gas types are various,mercury as a kind of heavy metal element has different contents in natural gases.In order to clarify the distribution of mercury content in natural gas and its genesis,we collected and measure the mercury content in natural gas from about 500 industrial gas wells of eight basins.The results show that the mercury contents are different in different gas bearing basins,different structural belts of the same basin,as well as different production formation depth and different gas types.High mercury content in China is mainly distributed in the active structural background,such as rift basins and foreland basin.The data of mercury content in the CO2 enriched gas fields of Songliao basin suggests that the mercury in natural gas would be impossible to be sourced from mantle.Based on measuring the mercury content in coal and gas generation from coal,we consider that coal would have the ability to supply enough mercury for forming high mercury content in natural gas.High mercury contents in natural gas are controlled by mercury enriched source rock,sufficient heating force and necessary conservation temperature.According to mercury′s physical,chemical properties as well as depositional environment,burial and evolution process of coal,the accumulation of mercury in natural gas can be divided into five stages like as transportation,sedimentation,burial,release,and conservation.%汞是天然气中一种常见的有害元素,中国含气盆地构造背景复杂,天然气类型多样,不同气田汞含量差异很大。为搞清中国气田汞含量分布特征及天然气中汞的成因模式,对中国陆上八大含气盆地近500多口气井开展了汞含量检测和分析。研究表明天然气汞含量差异很大,不仅表现在不同含气盆地之间和同一含气盆地的不同构造部位之间,而且表现在不同产气层埋

  2. O papel dos hormônios leptina e grelina na gênese da obesidade The role of leptin and ghrelin on the genesis of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Eduarda Machado Romero

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência da obesidade está aumentando e estudos prospectivos mostram que, em 2025, o Brasil será o quinto país do mundo a apresentar problemas de obesidade em sua população. A etiologia da obesidade não é de fácil identificação, uma vez que a mesma é caracterizada como uma doença multifatorial, ou seja, diversos fatores estão envolvidos em sua gênese, incluindo fatores genéticos, psicológicos, metabólicos e ambientais. Pesquisas recentes na área de metabolismo mostram que o adipócito é capaz de sintetizar várias substâncias e, diferentemente do que se supunha anteriormente, o tecido adiposo não é apenas um sítio de armazenamento de triglicérides, é hoje considerado um órgão endócrino. Dentre as diversas substâncias sintetizadas pelo adipócito, destacam-se a adiponectina, a angiotensina e a leptina. A leptina é um petídeo que desempenha importante papel na regulação da ingestão alimentar e no gasto energético, gerando um aumento na queima de energia e diminuindo a ingestão alimentar. Além dos avanços no estudo da célula adiposa, um novo hormôrnio relacionado ao metabolismo foi descoberto recentemente, a grelina. A grelina é um peptídeo produzido nas células do estômago, e está diretamente envolvida na regulação do balanço energético a curto prazo. Assim, este artigo abordará o papel da leptina e da grelina no controle do peso corporal e as limitações que ainda existem para tratar a obesidade em humanos.The prevalence of obesity is rising around the world and prospective studies show that in 2025, Brazil will be the fifth country in the world to have obesity problems. Multifactorial factors are involved in the genesis of obesity including genetic, psychological, metabolic and environmental factors. Recently, adipocytes have been considered an endocrine tissue capable of producing several substances, including adiponectin, angiotensin and leptin. Leptin is the main peptide produced by

  3. The Role of Philippine Sea Plate to the Genesis of Quaternary Magmas of Northern Kyushu Island, Japan, Inferred from Along-Arc Geochemical Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, J.; Ujike, O.; Miyoshi, M.; Takemura, K.

    2013-12-01

    Quaternary volcanoes on Kyushu Island comprise volcanoes Himeshima, Futagoyama, Yufu-Tsurumi, Kuju, Aso, Kirishima and Sakurajima from north to south alongstrike the volcanic front. Adakitic lavas are observed from Yufu-Tsurumi and Kuju volcanoes in northern Kyushu (Kita et al., 2001; Sugimoto et al., 2007), whereas no Quaternary adakites were observed at Aso (e.g., Hunter, 1998) and the volcanoes south of Aso along the entire Ryukyu arc. Sugimoto et al. (2007) suggested that the trace element and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of adakitic magmas from Yufu-Tsurumi volcano indicate derivation of the magmas by partial melting of the subducting PSP. In contrast, Zellmer et al. (2012) suggested that these adakites may have formed by fractional crystallization of mantle-derived mafic magmas within the garnet stability field in the crust. The Honshu-Kyushu arc transition is a particular favorable setting to address these controversial models for the origin of the adakitic lavas, because of the potential relationship between the PSP materials and the alongstrike variation of the lava chemistry. The Palau-Kyushu ridge divides the oceanic crust of the PSP into northeastern and southwestern segments with ages of 26-15 (Shikoku Basin) and 60-40 Ma (West Philippine Basin), respectively (Mahony et al., 2011). Although there are no clear plate images beneath northern Kyushu, the northern extension of the Palau-Kyushu ridge potentially corresponds to the boundary between the SW Japan and Ryukyu arcs. If adakite genesis was related to the subducted slab rather than the overlying crust, then the spatial distribution of Quaternary adakites should correlate with the age of the subducted PSP. In order to test such correlation and elucidate the petrogenesis of the northern Kyushu adakites, we compiled major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios from volcanoes along the arc front that includes the transition from adakitic to non-adakitic arc volcanism. Comprehensive

  4. Multi-parameter comprehensive identification of the genesis of Lower Paleozoic dolomite in Tarim Basin, China%多参数综合识别塔里木盆地下古生界白云岩成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑剑锋; 沈安江; 刘永福; 陈永权

    2012-01-01

    Massive dolomites are widely distributed in Lower Palaeozoic of Tarim Basin, northwest China. The genesis of these dolomites can be attributed to four dolomitization models, I. E. , sabkha model, seepage-reflux model, burial model and hydrothermaf model. The sabkha dolomites occurred in an evaporitic intertidal-supertidal environment and featured the deposits of gypsum-bearing dolomicrites. The seepage-reflux dolomites occurred in an evaporite platform ( lagoon) environment and featured crystal powder dolomites with the original rock structure. The burial dolomites were developed in multi-stage burial environment, characterized by the fine-medium crystalline dolomites. The hydrothermal dolomites featured medium-coarse crystalline dolomites, which were associated with hydrothermal minerals. The dolomites that differed in the genesis were developed in various diagenetic environments and stages, showing different characteristics in terms of petrography, geochemistry and geophysical response. This study summarized the multi-parameter identification of four genesis models of Lower Palaeozoic dolomite in Tarim Basin based on the detailed study of massive cores, thin sections and geochemical data of major elements, carbon and oxygen isotopes, strontium I-sotopes and rare earth elements, in combination with comprehensive analysis of well logging, seismic response characteristics, paleogeography, paleoclimate and tectonic setting, etc. This methodology overcomes the multiple solutions of dolomite genesis by comprehensive analysis.%塔里木盆地下古生界广泛发育白云岩,其成因主要可以用萨布哈白云石化、渗透回流白云石化、埋藏白云石化和热液白云石化4种模式来解释.萨布哈白云岩发育于潮间—潮上坪蒸发环境,以含膏泥晶白云岩为特征;渗透回流白云岩发育于蒸发台地(或潟湖)环境,以保留原岩结构的粉晶白云岩为特征;埋藏白云岩发育于埋藏环境的各个阶段,以细—

  5. Narrative omission The Analects of Confucius and Genesis in the mirror of omission%叙述的缺位——由“省略之镜”看《创世纪》与《论语》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华飞

    2011-01-01

    《论语》与《创世纪》,同样关乎伦理道义。然就其文本层面及其所指示的意义而言,两者有何同异?本文试以细读之法,由叙事缺位的角度入手分析《论语》与《创世纪》的异同。%The Analects of Confucius and Genesis both concern ethics and morality.While,if the two are considered as only canonical texts,are there any correspondances and differences between them? It tries to analyse the points above through close reading of the texts,which begins from the angle of narrative omission.

  6. THE TYPES,FEATURES AND GENESIS OF ENCLAVES IN GRANITOIDS IN THE JUNCTION OF GUANGDONG AND GUANGXI%两广交界地区花岗岩中包体的类型、特征与成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞保成

    2001-01-01

    Based on the study of petrography and mineralogy, the enclaves in granitoids are parametamorphites of amphibolite facies and granulite facies, and the types of enclave rocks include hyperthene-granulite, geneiss, granulite and enclaves riched mica. The forming temperatures and pressures of amphibolite facies and granulite facies enclave rocks are 633℃, 460 MPa~550 MPa and 781~883℃, 530 MPa~710 MPa, respectively. The enclaves are remnants of rocks which partially melted to form granitoid magma. The genesis of enclave rocks of amphibolite facies and granulite facies in Darongshan and Shiwandashan regions is reginal dynamothermal metamorphism. In contrast, the genesis of enclave rocks of granulite facies in Yunkai region is thermal dome metamorphism.%据包体岩相学及矿物学研究,包体岩石为角闪岩相到麻粒岩相的副变质岩,岩石类型有麻粒岩、变粒岩、片麻岩和富云包体。角闪岩相包体形成的温度为633℃,压力为460 MPa~550 MPa;麻粒岩包体形成的温度为781℃~883℃,压力为530 MPa~710 MPa。包体为部分熔融形成寄主花岗岩岩浆的源区岩石残余。其中大容山—十万大山地区角闪岩相—麻粒岩相包体岩石为区域动热变质成因;云开大山地区麻粒岩包体岩石为热穹隆变质成因。

  7. Metallogenic Conditions and Genesis of the Shangjiaoshan Gold Deposit in Du'an, Debao County, Guangxi%广西德保县都安三角山金矿的成矿条件及成因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周方; 陈业余

    2011-01-01

    三角山金矿主要产于早泥盆系塘丁组的碎屑岩和泥质粉砂岩中,矿体严格受地层层位、断裂及褶皱等构造控制,矿石类型以泥质矿石为主,硅质矿石次之的氧化矿石.围岩成分主要为泥岩,泥质粉砂岩及硅质岩;围岩蚀变有硅化、褐铁矿化及粘土化.经过野外地质勘查,并结合前人资料对其成因进行分析,认为该区具有良好的金矿成矿地质条件,三角山金矿为微细浸染型金矿床,属于大气降水渗滤成因的中低温热液矿床.%The Sanjiaoshan gold deposit occurs mainly in the clasolite and pelitic siltstone in Tangding group in lower Devonian system which strictly controlled by strata, faults and folds. The types of ore are mainly argillaceous, and silica oxidized ores in less. The host rocks are pelite argillaceous siltite and sillcalite. The alterations of the host rock include silicification, limonitization and argillation. With field reconnaissance geological survey, this paper figures out good mineralization for gold mine in this area, and analyses the genesis of this gold deposit based on the information from former researchers, and suggests that this deposit belongs to Carlin type gold deposit, that's a minute dissemination medium-low hydrothermal deposit with atmospheric water filtering genesis.

  8. Gênese do movimento estudantil na Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade Federal da Bahia (1947-1959 Genesis del movimiento estudantil en la Escuela de Enfermeria, Universidad Federal de Bahia (1947-1959 Genesis of student organization in the Nursing School of University Federal of Bahia, Brazil (1947-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cidia Daniela de Oliveira Pires

    2008-09-01

    limitada a los intereses de la dirección.The study focus the genesis of the student organization at a Nursing School since 1947 until 1959. The objectives are: to describe the social and political context; to describe the emergency of student's fights; to identify the profile of the participants of the political organization and to analyze the participation of the students in those fights. The data were collected from the documents of the Nursing Directory, newspapers and interviews done with oral history technique. The information collected revels that the Nursing Directory shares the same proposals of the Nursing School direction, who was interested in the divulgation of the new course. In the other hand, students organizations at the same University and in others regions of Brazil fight by public schools and the political autonomy of the Country.

  9. Biomarcadores asociados a riesgo de síndrome metabólico: estudio en personal médico y administrativo de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud UNAB - GENESIS II; --Associated biomarkers with metabolic syndrome risk: A study among medical and administrative staff of the UNAB Health Science Faculty - GENESIS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Cecilia Serrano Díaz, MD, MSc

    2011-01-01

    preventive measures to decrease the occurrence or severity of their consequences. Objectives: To establish the prevalence of MS and to determine the behavior of traditional and no traditional cardiovascular risk factors of men and women from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methodology: GENESIS is a prospective cohort study in 2005 and 2010 assessment. For the second phase, all participants completed a semistructured questionnaire, received clinical evaluation forblood pressure and anthropometric parameters and peripheral blood sampling for measurement of fasting glucose, cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, CRP, IL-6, Apo AI and Apo B. Results: 66 employees were evaluated for second phase. The prevalence of MS was 18.2%. Among them, the male population had the highest values of waist circumference, glucose, triglycerides, Apo B and Apo B/Apo AI, compared with women. In Follow-up study, 44 people were assessed on two occasions (2005 and 2010; female population showed a significant increase in waist circumference, cholesterol, HDL and blood glucose levels, and decrease in CRP compared with men. Conclusion: Therecognition of traditional and non-conventional risk factors, andthe differences between genders would help to optimize cardiovascular risk stratification and therefore better prevention of CVD in the future.

  10. 青海德尔尼铜矿床成因最新研究进展%New Progress on the Ore-Genesis of the De'erni Copper Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董富权; 钱壮志; 王建中; 仲佳鑫; 孙涛; 徐刚; 段俊

    2012-01-01

    德尔尼铜矿床位于青海省玛沁县积石山中段德尔尼山南坡,是一个以铜为主,钴、锌等多元素可以综合利用的大型矿床.矿床成因存在较大分歧,因此,笔者运用宏观观察、矿相学研究及电子探针测试分析相结合的方法,重点对该矿床金属矿物矿相学、矿石矿物组合及矿床成因进行了系统研究,首次在德尔尼铜矿床中发现重晶石和石膏.石英-碳酸盐-重晶石-石膏为海底热液矿床的典型低温矿物组合.通过构造成矿环境、成矿物质来源研究,结合草莓状结构、矿体顶部的硅质岩、重晶石和石膏的发现等,种种迹象表明该矿床为海底热液喷流沉积矿床.%De' erni copper deposit, located in the southern slope of De' erni, in the middle of Jishi Mountain, Maqin country, Qinghai Province, is a comprehensive utilization deposit which is dominated by copper. Because there are considerable differences in its ore-genesis, we have studied its ore-genesis by macro-observation, mineralogical studies and electron probe analysis in detail. This is the first time that barite and gypsum were discovered. Quartz-carbonate-barite-gypsum is not only a low-temperature mineral assemblage but also is a typical mineral composition of submarine hydrothermal deposit. By mineral environment of structure, material source, strawberry-like structure, siliceous rocks lying at the top of the orebodies, the discovery of barite and gypsum, we suggest that De'erni copper deposit is hydrothermal ex-halative-sedimentary deposit in seafloor.

  11. Geological Features and Genesis of the Nanmiaogou Glauberite Deposit in Mingshan, Sichuan%四川名山县南庙沟钙芒硝矿地质特征及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉红; 周勇

    2015-01-01

    Glauberite deposit in Mingshan, Sichuan is Late Cretaceous continental lacustrine sulfate deposit. The Nanmiaogou glauberite deposit lies in the east limb of the Mingshan syncline. The orebodies are controlled by the Guankou Formation. This paper makes an approach to geological features, ore genesis and ore criteria of the deposit.%四川省名山地区钙芒硝矿成矿类型属晚白垩世内陆湖相—咸湖相硫酸盐沉积型,南庙沟钙芒硝矿位于川西台陷雅安穹褶束之名山向斜缓展起伏的东翼,矿体严格受白垩系上统灌口组上段地层控制.本文对南庙沟钙芒硝矿矿床成因进行了详细的分析,并总结了成矿规律和找矿标志,对本区芒硝矿的资源勘查具有重要的指导意义.

  12. 从低品位、高铁含量铀矿石中提取“111”产品%Extracted from Low Grade and High Iron Content in Uranium Deposit Genesis "111"Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中东

    2014-01-01

    In this paper , with a low grade , high iron content uranium ore genesis , the low efficiency of uranium extraction by conventional acid leaching process , the cost is high , and can't production of qualified products of the ore .Through many times test research, results, solved the technical problems to produce qualified products "111".For our country the devel-opment and utilization of low grade of medium and small uranium deposit , remnant ore recovery , has provided the technical support and successful experience .%对以低品位、高铁含量铀矿石中,用常规酸浸工艺提取铀效率低、成本高,且无法生产合格产品的矿石。经多次试验研究,成功解决了该项技术难题,生产出合格的“111”产品。为我国开发利用低品位的中、小型铀矿床,进行残矿回收,提供了技术保障和成功经验。

  13. Geological characteristics and genesis of iron ores of Zhaoanzhuang Formation in Wuyang iron ore field of Henan%河南省舞阳铁矿田赵案庄组铁矿地质特征及成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立新; 李怀乾; 贾兴杰; 王伟中; 王夏

    2014-01-01

    赵案庄矿区是舞阳矿田三大矿区之一,20世纪50~70年代该矿区在500m 以浅共提交资源储量1.3亿吨。通过近期的普查工作探获资源储量5000t。笔者根据以往的地质资料、结合本次的普查结果,对矿体基本地质特征进行了总结、对成因特点进行了分析、为下步的详查工作提供参考。%Zhaoanzhuang iron mining area is one of the three primary mining areas of Wuyang iron ore field. From 1950s to 1970s this mining area has proven reserves of 130 million tons above depth of 500m.A recent reconnaissance survey has verified reserves of 5000 tons.Based on historical geological data and findings of the recent reconnaissance survey,the author analyzes basic geological characteristics of ore-bodies and its genesis and provides references for the following detailed survey works.

  14. 湖南临湘贺畈沟灾害性泥石流成因分析和启示%Genesis analysis and enlightenment of catastrophic debris flow in Hefangou Gully of Linxiang, Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢阳; 陈宁生; 吕立群; 黄祺; 李俊

    2013-01-01

    In order to find out the genesis of the extraordinary debris flow disaster which took place in Hefangou gully of Hunan Province, where is a wet area of low seismic intensity, on June 10th in 2011, the drought grade of Hefangou Basin before the dis-aster was determined and the effect of lasting drought on the physical and mechanical characters of the granite residual soil was analyzed on the basis of field investigation and laboratory test. Besides, the rainfall quantity and time required to saturate the granite residual soil was calculated. Then the genesis of the debris flow was obtained: the vertical layered characteristic of the granite residual soil determined that the soil can easily start from the surface with high content of fine particles;early long dura-tion drought cracked the soil structure and speeded up the soil weathering along the part with high content of fine particles near ground surface, which increased the permeability of the soil;later heavy rainfall of short duration caused the rainwater to infiltrate along the cracks on the soil surface with fine soil particles moving, enriched and then formed the impermeable layer of soil, the strength of the soil decreased;with the continued heavy rainfall, the pore water pressure above the impermeable layer in the up-per soil soared to some extent, the soil failed and was liquefied to form the debris flow.%2011年6月10日,属湿润、低地震烈度区的湖南临湘贺畈沟暴发了历史罕见的特大泥石流灾害。为探明此次泥石流灾害的成因,在现场勘查工作的基础上,结合室内试验,划分了泥石流发生前贺畈沟流域的干旱等级,分析了长历时干旱对沟内花岗岩残积土物理力学性质的影响,计算了花岗岩残积土饱和所需的降雨量和时间,得出了此次泥石流灾害的成因:源区花岗岩残积土的垂直分层特征,决定了土体极易从细颗粒含量高的表层起动;前期长历时干旱导致土体表

  15. The Study on Ovule Genesis and Development of Female Gametophyte of Carica papaya L.%番木瓜胚珠发生与雌配子体形成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万涛; 肖德兴; 田双; 潘平香

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to illuminate ovule genesis and development of female gametophyte of Carica papaya L., find out genetic background of Carica papaya L. and supply relative information for seed production. Parafin section and hematoxylin dyeing were used in the experiment. Experiment materials were made into permanent microscopic mount whose thickness was 10-12 μm. Finally, Nikon photomicroscope was used to photograph. The results found that the ovule was anatropous, bitegminous and crassinucellate, not forming micropyle. The single archesporial originated from cuticle of the nucellus. The megaspore tetrad arranged linearly. The megaspore near chalaza was the functioning megaspore. The development of embryo sac was the polygomum type. In the 8-nucleate embryo sac, 3 karyon near chalaza formed antipodal cells ahead of other karyon. Finally the female gametophyte consisted of one oocyte and one central cell. Before the oocyte was fertilized the two pole nucleus of central cell had comulated into a secondary karyon and the other cells disappeared. The study indicated that ovule genesis and development of female gametophyte of Carica papaya L. were in accord with universal law of angiosperm. However, there was some difference from other pursuer' s study. Complex genetic background of Carica papaya L. perhaps caused distinct difference of experiment material which leaded to different results.%本研究力求探明番木瓜胚珠发生与雌配子体形成的过程,为进一步了解其遗传背景和指导今后种子生产提供有关资料.实验采用石蜡制片法将材料制成永久制片,切片厚度10~12 μm,铁矶苏木精整染,Nikon摄影显微镜观察拍照.结果发现番木瓜胚珠倒生,双层珠被,不形成珠孔,厚珠心;单孢原细胞起源于珠心表皮细胞下,大孢子四分体呈直线形排列,合点端的大孢子为功能大孢子;胚囊发育类型为蓼型;八核胚囊中合点端有3个核优先形成反

  16. O trabalho da enfermeira no Peru: gênese e constituição social El trabajo de la enfermera en Perú: génesis y constitucion social Nurses work in Peru: genesis and social formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Cerna Barba

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se do resgate histórico da gênese e constituição social do trabalho da enfermeira no Peru, buscando compreendê-lo de acordo com a situação social da mulher no contexto de uma sociedade androcêntrica organizada sob o modo de produção capitalista. Assim, constituída por influência da Escola Nightingale, a enfermagem peruana caracterizou-se por reproduzir funções sociais historicamente femininas, com um saber/fazer subordinado ao saber médico, predominantemente androcêntrico enquanto ideologia.El articulo hace un rescate histórico de la génesis y constitución social del trabajo de la enfermera en Perú, buscando comprenderlo de acuerdo a la situación social de la mujer en el contexto de la sociedad androcéntrica peruana, notablemente organizada bajo el modo capitalista de producción. Así, constituido por influencia de la escuela nightingeliana, el ejercicio de la enfermería peruana es caracterizado por la reproducción de las funciones sociales históricamente femeninas, bajo un saber subalterno a la práctica y al conocimiento médico, también antrocéntrico en cuanto ideología.The study aimed at reviewing the history of the genesis and social formation of nurses work in Peru in order to understand it according to women's social situation in the context of a masculine society organized under capitalism. Thus, nursing formation was influenced by the Nightingale School and the exercise of the Peruvian nurses was characterized by the reproduction of social functions that are historically feminine, with a knowledge and practice subordinated to medical knowledge, that is mainly directed by a masculine ideology.

  17. P2X7 receptors in the genesis and development of breast cancer%P2X7受体与乳腺癌的发生和发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭超; 韩莉

    2012-01-01

    P2X7 receptors,belonging to purinergic P2 receptor family,are ATP-gated cation channels,which can choose the bivalent cations freely.P2X7 receptors join in cell signal conduction and the excretion of the cytokines and other physical functions.In recent years,researchers have discovered P2X7 receptors mediate the cells to live and grow by increasing oxidation and phosphorylation and intracellular ATP reserve.In breast cancer,the P2X7 receptors express abnormally,and can activate the MAPK lied in cytoplasm.The phosphorylated MAPK enter the nucleus and activates a series of protein kinases,and then affects the genesis and development of breast cancer.%P2X7受体是腺甘三磷酸(ATP)门控的离子通道,对二价阳离子有较强的选择性,属于嘌呤能P2受体家族.P2X7受体参与细胞信号传导、细胞因子的分泌等多种生理功能.近几年研究发现P2X7受体通过增加氧化、磷酸化及细胞内ATP的储备,介导细胞的存活与生长.在乳腺癌中P2X7受体表达异常,活化的P2X7受体激活位于细胞质内的丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(MAPK),后者受到刺激后磷酸化进入核内,引起细胞内一系列蛋白激酶的活化,进而影响乳腺癌的发生发展.

  18. S- and Sr-isotopic compositions in barite-silica chimney from the Franklin Seamount, Woodlark Basin, Papua New Guinea: constraints on genesis and temporal variability of hydrothermal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Durbar; Banerjee, Ranadip; Balakrishnan, S.; Paropkari, Anil L.; Mukhopadhyay, Subir

    2016-08-01

    Isotopic ratios of strontium and sulfur in six layers across a horizontal section of a hydrothermal barite-silica chimney from Franklin Seamount of western Woodlark Basin have been investigated. Sr-isotopic ratios in barite samples (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70478-0.70493) are less radiogenic than seawater (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70917) indicating that substantial leaching of sub-seafloor magma was involved in the genesis of hydrothermal fluid. The SO2 of magma likely contributed a considerable amount of lighter S-isotope in fluid and responsible for the formation of barite, which is isotopically lighter (δ34S = 19.4-20.5 ‰) than modern seawater (δ34S ~ 21 ‰). The systematic changes in isotopic compositions across the chimney wall suggest temporal changes in the mode of mineral formation during the growth of the chimney. Enrichment of heavy S- and Sr-isotopes (δ34S = 20.58 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70493) in the outermost periphery of the chimney indicates that, at the initial stage of chimney development, there was a significant contribution of seawater sulfate during barite mineralization. Thereafter, thickening of chimney wall occurred due to precipitation of fluid carrying more magmatic components relative to seawater. This led to a gradual enrichment of lighter isotopes (δ34S = 20.42-19.48 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70491-0.704787) toward the inner portion of the chimney wall. In contrast, the innermost layer surrounding the fluid conduit is characterized by heavier and more radiogenic isotopes (δ34S = 20.3 ‰; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7049). This suggests there was increasing influence of percolating seawater on the mineral paragenesis at the waning phase of the chimney development.

  19. 软骨细胞发生和分化基因与大鼠肝再生的相关性%Relevance of Rat Liver Regeneration with the Genes of Chondrocyte Genesis and Differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利峰; 李鹏鸽; 徐存拴

    2007-01-01

    肝脏由多种细胞构成,肝再生与细胞分化密切相关,细胞分化受基因转录水平调控.为在基因转录水平了解软骨细胞的发生和分化相关基因在大鼠肝再生中作用,通过搜集网站资料和查阅相关论文等方法获得参与软骨细胞发生和分化的基因,用Rat Genome 230 2.0芯片检测它们在大鼠肝再生(liver regeneration,LR)中表达情况,用比较真、假手术中基因表达差异确定肝再生相关基因.初步证实上述基因中23个基因与肝再生相关.肝再生启动(PH后0.5~4 h)、G0/G1过渡(PH后4~6 h)、细胞增殖(PH后6~66 h)、细胞分化和组织结构功能重建(PH后72~168 h)等四个阶段起始表达的基因数为15、4、8和0;基因的总表达次数为15、10、22和17.表明相关基因主要在肝再生启动阶段起始表达,在不同阶段发挥作用.它们共表达上调100次、下调77次,分为17种表达方式,表明肝再生中软骨细胞发生和分化相关基因活动多样和复杂.根据本文研究结果推测,上述基因不仅调节软骨细胞发生和分化,而且参与肝再生的生理生化活动.%Liver contains many cell types. Liver regeneration is closely related to cell differentiation, which is regulated by some genes. To investigate the actions of the genes participating in chondrocyte genesis and differentiation on rat liver regeneration at transcriptional level, the aforementioned genes were screened out via collecting database data and retrieving the related thesis. The Rat Genome 230 2.0 array was applied to the measurement of expression changes of them in rat regenerating liver. The liver regeneration-associated genes were determined by comparing differences in gene expression between partial hepatectomy (PH) and sham operation (SO). It was 23 among the above genes that were related to liver regeneration. In initiation phase of liver regeneration (0.5~4 h after PH), G0/G1 (4~6 h after PH), cell proliferation (6~66 h

  20. Experimental Study on the Genesis of Low Resistivity Oil Reservoirs in Putaohua Formation of Southern Golong Area%古龙南地区葡萄花油层低阻成因实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋延杰; 陈东霞; 闫伟林; 唐晓敏; 钟淑敏; 章华兵

    2011-01-01

    Since low resistivity oil reservoirs and high resistivity water reservoirs are present in Putaohua formation of southern Golong area, oil-water formation recognition is difficult. To solve the problem, the genesis of low resistivity oil reservoirs is made clear first. Therefore, typical low resistivity oil reservoir and conventional oil reservoir core samples are taken, and Petrophysical analysis, Particle size analysis, Mercury-injection, NMR and X-diffraction experiments are done for them. The difference in lithology, petrophysics, pore structure, clay minerals, formation water salinity etc. between low resistivity oil reservoirs and conventional oil reservoirs is found out by comparison. It pointed ont low resistivity of oil zones in Putaohua formation of southern Golong area is mainly caused by there factors: fine-grained lithology, high shale content; high clay-excess conductivity; more microscopic cappillary pore, high irreducible water saturation. The result will provide theoretical basis for identification and interpretation of low resistivity oil reservoirs in Putaohua formation of southern Golong area.%针对古龙南地区葡萄花油层存在低阻油层和高阻水层致使该区油水层识别难度较大的问题,选取典型的低阻油层和常规油层岩心样品,对岩样进行物性分析、粒度分析以及压汞、核磁共振、X-衍射等实验.采用对比方法,找出古龙南地区葡萄花油层低阻油层和常规油层在岩性、物性、孔隙结构、黏土矿物以及地层水矿化度等特征上差别.从而得出引起古龙南地区葡萄花油层低电阻率的因素主要有三种:①岩性细,含泥重;②黏土附加导电性强;③微孔隙发育、束缚水饱和度高.为古龙南地区葡萄花低阻油层的识别与解释提供了理论基础.